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Sample records for compounds ddts pcbs

  1. Organochlorine contaminants (PCBs, DDTs, HCB

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    Georgieva Stanislava

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of organochlorine compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB and hexachlorobutadiene (HBDE were determined in three fish species: goby (Neogobius melanostomus, golden grey mullet (Mugil auratus and silverside (Atherina boyeri. Samples were collected from the Lake Varna and the Lake Beloslav in 2014. The edible fish tissues were analyzed in order to investigate the presence of pollutants in species from the lakes near Varna City, Bulgaria and compared the results to the levels in other aquatic ecosystems. The fifteen congeners of PCBs, HCB, HCBD, DDT and its two main metabolites DDE and DDD were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. The OCPs levels in the wild fish were found in the order DDTs > PCBs. The other contaminants HCB and HCBD were not detected or were below the analytical detection limit. Among the pesticides, essentially only the metabolites p, p’- DDE and p, p’- DDD were found.

  2. Organochlorine contaminants (PCBs, DDTs, HCB

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    Georgieva Stanislava; Stancheva Mona; Makedonski Lubomir

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorobutadiene (HBDE) were determined in three fish species: goby (Neogobius melanostomus), golden grey mullet (Mugil auratus) and silverside (Atherina boyeri). Samples were collected from the Lake Varna and the Lake Beloslav in 2014. The edible fish tissues were analyzed in order to investigate the presence of pollutants in species from the lakes near...

  3. Evaluation of Organochlorine Compounds (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs) in Two Raptor Species Inhabiting a Mediterranean Island in Spain (8 pp).

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    Merino, Rubén; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep; Olie, Kees

    2007-01-01

    -: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1065/espr2006.01.015 Species that are at high levels of the food web have often been used as bioindicators to evaluate the presence of persistent contaminants in ecosystems. Most of these species are long-lived, so pollutant burdens may be integrated in some complex way over time. This makes them particularly sensitive to deleterious effects of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Birds have been suggested as useful organisms for monitoring pollutant levels. Traditionally such studies have been carried out with raptors such as osprey (Pandion haliaetus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), bald eagle (Haliaetus leucocephalus), etc. In this paper we present the results of a monitoring study conducted on two raptor species, osprey (Pandion haliaetus) and red kite (Milvus milvus), inhabiting a Mediterranean island (Menorca, Spain). These two species have different feeding habits; ospreys prey on fish and red kites feed on terrestrial species. This study constitutes a good opportunity to investigate if differences in feeding habits (aquatic vs. terrestrial) influences the contaminants pattern in two species inhabiting the same area. The study was conducted in a non-destructive way, using only failed eggs, to avoid the damage of the population stability. Eggs were collected during the period 1994-2000. The contaminants examined were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs, including DDT and its main metabolite, DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including ortho PCBs (PCBs with at least one Chlorine atom in the ortho position): #28, 52, 95, 101, 123+149, 118, 114, 153, 132+105, 138, 167, 156, 157, 180, 170, 189, 194; and non ortho PCBs (PCBs with no Chlorine atom in the ortho position): #77, 126, 169 and all the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) with Chlorine atoms at the 2,3,7 and 8 position (2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs). The analysis of organochlorine compounds was performed

  4. Potential use of Vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in Peregrine falcon exposed to organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs)

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    Jimenez, B. [CSIC, Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Madrid (Spain); Mori, G.; Concejero, M.A.; Casini, S.; Fossi, M.C. [Siena Univ. (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Many different classes of environmental contaminants such as industrial chemicals (e.g. alkylphenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, PAHs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans), ''can cause adverse effects in the reproductive functions of intact organisms or their progenies, consequent to changes in endocrine functions'' showing a so-called Endocrine disruptor activity. Avian raptor species, such as peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) for their peculiar position in the food web are potentially at risk in relation to the accumulation of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and toxic metals. Recent studies carried out with Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Spain reveal a contamination with organochlorine compounds (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs) which could be responsible of the decrease of successful pairs observed during the last ten years. Thus there is a need to develop sensitive diagnostic monitoring tools for the evaluation of toxicological risk and potential effects on the reproductive function and population dynamic of avian top predator species. Two markers for the detection of EDs effects in oviparous vertebrates are induction of Vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona Radiata Proteins (ZR). Vtg, a complex phospholipoglycoprotein, is the major egg-yolk protein precursor and is normally synthesized by females in response to estradiol. ZR together with Zona Pellucida (ZP) constitutes in birds part of the eggshell. These proteins (Vtg, ZR and ZP) are normally synthesised in the liver as a response to an estrogen signal given by Estradiol. Males and sexually undifferentiated specimens also have the Vtg and ZR genes but do not express them unless exposed to estrogenic compounds. The main aim of this preliminary study was to develop methods for the detection of Vtg and ZR in plasma obtained from peregrine falcon as a specific biomarker for the evaluation of the effects of EDCs.

  5. Biomonitoring of organochlorine compounds (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs) near a municipal solid waste incinerator using black kites (Milvus migrans) as sentinel organism

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    Jimenez, B.; Merino, R. [CSIC, Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Madrid (Spain); Olie, K. [Univ. of Amterdam (Netherlands); Blanco, G.; Frias, O. [CSIC, IREC, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    Wildlife has received much attention during last decades as an indicator of ecosystems health. Kubiak at al. (1989) showed that there are significant effect on reproductive success due to organochlorines, not only in hatching success, but also in chick health. Due to the widespread distribution of these xenoestrogens, there is a need for screening and risk evaluation of these endocrine disrupters in living organisms from the global point of view of ecosystems health. Aspects of the life history of the black kites (Milvus migrans) make them a useful species for contaminants monitoring. They are long-lived birds, adapt well to human areas and many feeds at dumps, garbage tips, etc. where a wide range of contaminants can be found3. Effects of chlorinated pollutants have not been widely studied in this species. In 2001, a monitoring program was initiated in order to evaluate the health of a population of black kites nesting in the Regional Park of the Southeastern of Madrid (RPSM), Spain. This study is part of a larger research investigation of the influence of a Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) on the kites'surroundings. Since Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI) are suspected to produce some highly toxic POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) as well as other short of toxic chemicals (e.g. PCBs and heavy metals) this study was initiated with the aim of investigating the potential toxicity of these compounds on the kites population. The purpose of this study was to conduct the evaluation in a non-destructive way. Since eggs are known to reflect the accumulation of lipophilic contaminants in birds, the study was based on the use of unhatched eggs obtained from black kites.

  6. Persistent organic pollutants (PCBs and DDTs) in small size specimens of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) from the Mediterranean Sea (Ionian Sea).

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    Storelli, M M; Casalino, E; Barone, G; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2008-05-01

    The concentration levels and pattern distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (DDTs), were investigated in liver of small size specimens of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) from Mediterranean Sea (Ionian Sea). PCB concentrations (average: 526 ng g(-1) lipid wt) were comparable with DDT levels (average: 435 ng g(-1) lipid wt). The specific analysis of PCB congeners revealed a profile dominated by hexa-, penta- and heptachlorinated congeners, while among DDTs, the compounds with the higher concentration was p,p'-DDE, constituting 91.9% of the total DDT. The total 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent (TEQs) of coplanar PCBs, including mono- and non-ortho congeners, was 0.55 pg g(-1) wet weight with. The congeners with highest TEQs values were non-ortho congeners followed by mono-ortho ones.

  7. DDTs, PCBs and PBDEs contamination in Africa, Latin America and South-southeast Asia—a review

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    Peter Mochungong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Levels of polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its degradation products (DDTs in the environment (ambient air, soil and aquatic mammals and in humans from the developing regions (Africa, Latin America, and South-southeast Asia are reviewed. Higher DDTs levels in certain parts of the developing regions due to agricultural applications and disease control measures are evident. The data however do not indicate higher levels of PCBs and PBDEs in the developing regions compared to developed countries. We also compared globally the levels of these chemicals in human milk sampled since year 2000. Human milk data again showed higher DDTs levels in the developing regions. For PBDEs, though current levels in human milk from the developing regions do not exceed levels found in the developed countries, data suggest the levels of PBDEs in the developing regions may be on the rise.

  8. Concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and TCDD equivalents in cyprinids of the Middle Po River, Italy.

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    Viganò, L; Arillo, A; Aurigi, S; Corsi, I; Focardi, S

    2000-02-01

    The concentrations of non-ortho-, mono-ortho-, di-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs (pp'-DDT and pp'-DDE) were measured in fish and bed sediments of the Po River. Three species of cyprinids, nase (Chondrostoma söetta), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), and barbel (Barbus plebejus), were captured in the major Italian river, upstream and downstream from the confluence of the Lambro River. The two carnivorous species, chub and barbel, were found to be the most contaminated, showing muscle tissue concentrations up to eightfold higher than the corresponding upstream fish. DDT concentrations were parallel to PCB changes although at lower values. Despite the increased contamination caused by the input from the Lambro tributary, when fish PCB loads are converted to 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents using piscine toxic equivalency factors (TEFs), no specific hazard can be associated to the limited toxic potentials of PCBs. Although these results seem to minimise the risk for the fish community of the Po River, the presence of other organochlorines and halogenated hydrocarbons is very probable in the downstream area, and a more exhaustive hazard assessment, based on further studies, should be undertaken.

  9. Determination of PCBs and DDTs in small size chameleon eggs (Chamaeleo chamaeleon), using a miniaturised sample preparation method followed by GC-micro-ECD

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    Gomara, B.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Ramos, J.J.; Ramos, L. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain). Inst. of Organic Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    Organochlorine compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl ethanes (DDTs) are well known as toxic and persistent contaminants that accumulate in the trophic levels of food chains, apparently associated with the habitat and dietary habits. In recent years there has been an increasing concern for these chemicals mainly due to their estrogenic properties. In many oviparous species, PCB pollution can produce severe impacts on eggs leading to embryo death or abnormal embryonic development. It is reported that pollutants can severely affect reptiles and could be contributing to their global decline (1,2).

  10. Evaluation of toxic metal (Hg, Cd, Pb), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), and pesticide (DDTs) levels in aromatic herbs collected in selected areas of Southern Italy.

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    Storelli, Maria Maddalena

    2014-01-01

    This study provides, for the first time, data regarding levels of toxic metals (Hg, Cd, and Pb) and organochlorine compounds (PCBs and DDTs) in various aromatic herbs as rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), laurel (Laurus nobilis), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and spearmint (Mentha viridis) collected in some towns of the Southern Italy with different anthropogenic and population pressure. Metal and organochlorine compound concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and gas-chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS), respectively. Pb emerged as the most abundant element, followed by Cd and Hg, while between organochlorine compounds, PCB concentrations were higher than those of DDTs. The pollutant concentrations were found to vary depending on the different herbs. The highest Pb levels were observed in rosemary (1.66 μg g(-1) dry weight) and sage (1.41 μg g(-1) dry weight), this latter showing also the highest Cd concentrations (0.75 μg g(-1) dry weight). For PCBs, the major concentrations were found in rosemary (2.75 ng g(-1) dry weight) and oregano (2.39 ng g(-1) dry weight). The principal component analysis applied in order to evaluate possible similarities and/or differences in the contamination levels among sampling sites indicated differences area-specific contamination.

  11. Organochlorine concentrations (PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB and MIREX) in delphinids stranded at the northeastern Brazil.

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    Santos-Neto, Elitieri B; Azevedo-Silva, Claudio Eduardo; Bisi, Tatiana L; Santos, Jessica; Meirelles, Ana Carolina O; Carvalho, Vitor L; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Guimarães, José Eugênio; Lailson-Brito, José

    2014-02-15

    Organochlorine compounds are highly persistent in the environment, causing bioaccumulation and biomagnification through the marine food chain. To verify the bioaccumulation pattern of DDT and its metabolites, as well as PCBs, Mirex, HCHs and HCB, samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue from 25 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis), two Fraser's dolphins (Lagenodelphis hosei), two spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris), one spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis), and one striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) were analyzed. The collected specimens were found stranded in northeastern Brazil between 2005 and 2011. The concentrations were reported in μg·g(-1) lip, varying from 0.02 to 17.3 for ΣPCB, from 0.003 to 5.19 for ΣDDT, from 0.005 to 0.16 for ΣHCH, from 0.002 to 0.16 for HCB, and from 0.02 to 2.38 for Mirex. The PCBs dominated the bioaccumulation pattern for both the Guiana and spinner dolphins; for the other species, DDT was the major compound. A discriminant function analysis revealed the differences in the organochlorine accumulation patterns between the Guiana dolphin (S. guianensis) and the continental shelf/oceanic dolphins (S. frontalis and S. longirostris). The results also show that the concentrations of organochlorine compounds found in the delphinids in northeastern Brazil were lower than the delphinids found in other regions of Brazil, as well as other locations worldwide with intense agroindustrial development and/or a larger population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. International Pellet Watch: global monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in coastal waters. 1. Initial phase data on PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs.

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    Ogata, Yuko; Takada, Hideshige; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Hirai, Hisashi; Iwasa, Satoru; Endo, Satoshi; Mato, Yukie; Saha, Mahua; Okuda, Keiji; Nakashima, Arisa; Murakami, Michio; Zurcher, Nico; Booyatumanondo, Ruchaya; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Dung, Le Quang; Gordon, Miriam; Miguez, Carlos; Suzuki, Satoru; Moore, Charles; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; Weerts, Steven; McClurg, Tim; Burres, Erick; Smith, Wally; Van Velkenburg, Michael; Lang, Judith Selby; Lang, Richard C; Laursen, Duane; Danner, Brenda; Stewardson, Nickol; Thompson, Richard C

    2009-10-01

    Samples of polyethylene pellets were collected at 30 beaches from 17 countries and analyzed for organochlorine compounds. PCB concentrations in the pellets were highest on US coasts, followed by western Europe and Japan, and were lower in tropical Asia, southern Africa and Australia. This spatial pattern reflected regional differences in the usage of PCBs and was positively correlated with data from Mussel Watch, another monitoring approach. DDTs showed high concentrations on the US west coast and in Vietnam. In Vietnam, DDT was predominant over its metabolites (DDE and DDD), suggesting the principal source may be current usage of the pesticide for malaria control. High concentrations of pesticide HCHs were detected in the pellets from southern Africa, suggesting current usage of the pesticides in southern Africa. This study demonstrates the utility and feasibility of the International Pellet Watch approach to monitor POPs at a global scale.

  13. WHO/UNEP global surveys of PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs in human milk and benefit-risk evaluation of breastfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08660466X; Kypke, Karin; Kotz, Alexander; Tritscher, Angelika; Lee, Seoung Yong; Magulova, Katarina; Fiedler, Heidelore; Malisch, Rainer

    Since 1987, the World Health Organization (WHO) carried out global surveys on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk. This study presents a review of the three most recent surveys from 2000 to 2010,

  14. Spatial Distributions of DDTs in the Water Masses of the Arctic Ocean.

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    Carrizo, Daniel; Sobek, Anna; Salvadó, Joan A; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2017-07-18

    There is a scarcity of data on the amount and distribution of the organochlorine pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in intermediate and deep ocean water masses. Here, the distribution and inventories of DDTs in water of the Arctic shelf seas and the interior basin are presented. The occurrence of ∑ 6 DDT (0.10-66 pg L -1 ) in the surface water was dominated by 4,4'-DDE. In the Central Arctic Ocean increasing concentrations of DDE with depth were observed in the Makarov and Amundsen basins. The increasing concentrations down to 2500 m depth is in accordance with previous findings for PCBs and PBDEs. Similar concentrations of DDT and DDEs were found in the surface water, while the relative contribution of DDEs increased with depth, demonstrating a transformation over time and depth. Higher concentrations of DDTs were found in the European part of the Arctic Ocean; these distributions likely reflect a combination of different usage patterns, transport, and fate of these compounds. For instance, the elevated concentrations of DDTs in the Barents and Atlantic sectors of the Arctic Ocean indicate the northbound Atlantic current as a significant conveyor of DDTs. This study contributes to the very rare data on OCPs in the vast deep-water compartments and combined with surface water distribution across the Arctic Ocean helps to improve our understanding of the large-scale fate of DDTs in the Arctic.

  15. Blood concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in an avian predator endemic to southern Africa: Associations with habitat, electrical transformers and diet.

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    Garcia-Heras, Marie-Sophie; Arroyo, Beatriz; Simmons, Robert E; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael; Mougeot, Francois

    2018-01-01

    Persistent pollutants such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) have been highlighted as a cause of population decline in avian predators. Understanding patterns of OCs contamination can be crucial for the conservation of affected species, yet little is known on these threats to African raptors. Here we report on OC concentrations in an endangered predator endemic to southern Africa, the Black Harrier Circus maurus. Blood samples were collected in 2012-2014 from wild nestlings (n = 90) and adults (n = 23) in south-western South Africa, where agriculture and urbanization have developed rapidly since the 1950s. Polychlorinated biphenyl (ΣPCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ΣDDT, for p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE) were detected in 79% and 84% of sampled individuals, respectively, with varying concentrations among demographic groups: nestlings had significantly higher ΣPCB and p,p'-DDT concentrations than adults, while adults had higher levels of p,p'-DDE than nestlings. Levels of ΣPCB significantly increased with an index of electric transformer density, a measure of the number and power of electric transformers around active nests. We propose this index as a useful tool for assessing ΣPCB exposure risk in other wildlife. Levels of p,p'-DDE significantly increased with the proportion of wetlands within the breeding territory, and also with the proportion of bird biomass in the diet. No association was found between OC levels and the protected area status of nesting sites. Physiological effects of contaminants were also manifest in increased white blood cell counts with higher p,p'-DDT levels. Heterophil to lymphocyte ratio increased with higher ΣPCB levels, suggesting increased physiological stress and reduced immunity in contaminated individuals. Our results suggest that OCs are still a current cause of concern for endangered Black Harriers, as well as other sympatric predators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a bioindicator of organochlorine compound contamination in terrestrial ecosystems of West Pomerania Province, NW Poland.

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    Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Marciniak, Andrzej; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Drozd, Radosław; Ligocki, Marek; Prokulewicz, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the presence and determine the residue levels of DDT, lindane, endrin and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the liver of wild boars from the area of West Pomerania, NW Poland; to determine the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) as a biomarker of biological response and to assess the toxicological risk for consumers of the wild boar offal. The presence of pesticide residues and PCBs was found in all examined liver samples. The highest concentration was observed for endrin, and then, the descending order was PCBs >DDTs >lindane >dl-PCBs. The mean hepatic concentrations of endrin, PCBs, DDTs and lindane were 117.28, 78.59, 67.95 and 7.24 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Among the dioxin-like PCB congeners, 118 and 156 were dominant in liver samples. The mean toxic equivalent (TEQ) level calculated for dl-PCBs was 2.10 ± 1.11 pg WHO-PCB-TEQ/g. There was a statistically significant (p < 0.05) negative correlation between the concentration of lindane, DDTs and PCBs (as a sum of indicator congeners) in the liver and in the activity of GST. However, GST activities showed no significant correlation with any of the dl-PCBs. In five boar liver samples, the levels of certain organochlorine compounds exceeded the maximum residue levels (MRLs). In one sample, the MRLs were exceeded simultaneously for PCBs, endrin and DDTs and in another one-for endrin and DDTs. In the remaining three samples, only PCB levels were exceeded.

  17. Probabilistic Ecological Risk Assessment of OCPs, PCBs, and DLCs in the Haihe River, China

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    Bin Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Haihe River is the most seriously polluted river among the seven largest rivers in China. Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs, and PCBs (noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in the Haihe River, Tianjin were determined using a gas chromatograph – electron capture detector (GC-ECD. Dioxin-like compounds (DLCs were determined using Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (CALUX bioassay. HCH and DDT levels were, respectively, 0.06–6.07 μg/L and ND (not detected to 1.21 μg/L; PCB levels ranged from 0.12 to 5.29 μg/L; and the total DLCs in sediment were 4.78–343 pg TEQ (toxic equivalency/g. Aquatic ecological risk assessment was performed using the joint probability curve method and the Monte Carlo-based HQ (hazard quotient distribution method. The combined risks of similar chemicals and the total risk of dissimilar categories of chemicals were assessed based on the principles of joint toxicity. Due to the adjacent industrial activities, the risk levels of PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs were relatively high. The risk order was as follows: PCBs > DDTs ≈ HCHs > DLCs. The risk of HCHs approximated that of DDTs, which is different from the fact that risk of HCHs is usually much lower in the other Chinese rivers. The total risk caused by these pollutants was very high. Due to their high persistence and potential source from land, the high risks of such pollutants are likely to last for a long period of time.

  18. Passive air sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers across Asia.

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    Jaward, Foday M; Zhang, Gan; Nam, Jae Jak; Sweetman, Andrew J; Obbard, Jeffrey P; Kobara, Yuso; Jones, Kevin C

    2005-11-15

    Asia is of global importance economically, yet data on ambient persistent organic pollutant levels are still sparse for the region, despite international efforts under the Stockholm Convention to identify and reduce emissions. A large-scale passive air sampling survey was therefore conducted in Asia, specifically in China, Japan, South Korea, and Singapore. Polyurethane foam disks were deployed simultaneously at 77 sites, between Sept 21 and Nov 16, 2004, and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine compounds (hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), chlordane), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The meteorological conditions prevailing in the region at this time facilitated the assessment of local/regional differences in atmospheric emissions, because large-scale advection effects due to monsoons or dust storms did not occur. Air concentrations estimated assuming an average sampler uptake rate of 3.5 m3/day ranged as follows (pg m(-3)): PCBs, 5-340; HCB, 10-460; DDTs, 0.4-1800; chlordanes, 1-660; PBDEs, < 0.13-340. South Korea and Singapore generally had regionally low concentrations. Elevated concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and HCB occurred at sites in China, higher than reported in a similar recent sampling campaign in Europe. Chlordane was highest in samples from Japan (which also had elevated levels of PCBs and DDTs) and was also elevated in some Chinese locations. PBDE levels were generally low in the region.

  19. Organohalogen compounds in human breast milk from mothers living in Payatas and Malate, the Philippines: Levels, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk

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    Malarvannan, Govindan; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Isobe, Tomohiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577, Ehime Prefecture (Japan); Prudente, Maricar [Science Education Department, De La Salle University, Manila (Philippines); Subramanian, Annamalai [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577, Ehime Prefecture (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke, E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.j [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577, Ehime Prefecture (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Human breast milk samples (n = 33) from primipara and multipara mothers from Payatas a waste dump site, and Malate a reference site in the Phillipines were collected in 2004 and analyzed for eight organohalogen compounds, viz., PCBs, DDTs, CHLs, HCHs, HCB, TCPMe, PBDEs and HBCDs. DDTs and PCBs were predominant in all the samples. Overall mean concentrations of PBDEs found in our study were higher (7.5 ng/g lipid wt.) than those reported for Japan and many other Asian countries. Primipara mothers had significantly higher levels of DDTs, CHLs and HCHs than multipara mothers, but not PBDEs and HBCDs. A few individuals accumulated CHLs close to or even higher than the tolerable daily intake guidelines proposed by Health Canada. - First comprehensive study on organohalogen contaminants in human breast milk from the Philippines.

  20. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in air of southern Mexico (2002-2004)

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    Alegria, Henry A.; Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador; Bouchot, Gerardo Gold; Moreno, Victor Ceja; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    Air samples were collected in southern Mexico in 2002-2004 to determine the extent of contamination with organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The ΣDDTs ranged from 239 to 2360 pg m -3. Other prominent OC pesticides were endosulfans, toxaphene and lindane. Pesticides detected in lower concentrations include chlordanes, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Proportions of DDT compounds suggested fresh use of DDT in some locations and a mix of fresh and aged residues at others. Ratios of trans-chlordane/ cis-chlordane were consistent with fresh chlordane usage or emission of residues from former termiticide applications. The ΣPCBs was relatively low at all sites. Concentrations of OC pesticides measured with passive samplers agreed well with those measured using high-volume samplers. Air back trajectory analysis suggests a complex pattern of regional atmospheric transport.

  1. Monitoring of brominated flame retardants, dioxins, PCBs and other organohalogen compounds in fish from The Netherlands

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    Leeuwen, S. van; Boer, J. de [Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research (Netherlands); Traag, W. [State Institute for Quality Control of Agricultural Products (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    A new monitoring program on organic contaminants in fish from the Netherlands has begun in 2003. The aim of this program is to determine the levels and temporal trends of contamination for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe) and -methanol (TCPM) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) in fish that is regularly consumed by the Dutch population. Earlier studies indicated that these contaminants are present in fish but no comprehensive dataset was available for evaluation of possible risks for consumers. The results of the first year are shown in this paper.

  2. Comparative toxicity of PCBs and related compounds in various species of animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, E.E.

    1985-05-01

    There are several basic principles that apply to the clinicopathologic syndrome produced by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). They are as follows: the degree of halogenation and position of the halogen atoms determine the potency of PCB, PBB, CDD, CDF and CN; in a given species of animals, the clinicopathologic syndrome induced by PCB is comparable to that induced by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDD), chlorinated dibenzofurans (CDF), and chlorinated naphthalenes (CN) when an equitoxic dose is achieved; the clinicopathologic syndrome is different in each species of animals; different species of animals vary in their susceptibility to intoxication; intoxication is more readily effected in young animals than in adults; at lethal doses the time between exposure and death is prolonged (> 2 weeks).

  3. Relations between land use and organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and semi-volatile organic compounds in streambed sediment and fish on the island of Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasher, A M D; Wolff, R H

    2004-04-01

    Bed-sediment and/or fish samples were collected from 27 sites around the island of Oahu (representing urban, agricultural, mixed, and forested land use) to determine the occurrence and distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Of the 28 organochlorine compounds analyzed in the fish, 14 were detected during this study. Nineteen of the 31 organochlorine compounds and 40 of the 65 SVOCs were detected in the sediment. Urban sites had the highest number of detections and tended to have the highest concentrations of pesticides. Chlordane compounds were the most frequently detected constituents at urban sites, followed by dieldrin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and DDT compounds. PAHs were the most frequently detected constituents in watersheds with mixed (urban and agricultural) land use. The only pesticides detected at agricultural sites were DDT and its degradation products, DDD and DDE. No pesticides or PCBs were detected at the forested sites, but a few ubiquitous SVOCs were found in sediments at some forested sites. In general, concentrations of the most frequently detected pesticides were higher in fish than in sediment. Following a trend that has been observed elsewhere in the nation, concentrations of most organochlorine pesticides and PCBs are decreasing in Hawaii.

  4. Enhanced photo-activated luminescence for screening polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and other related chlorinated compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1994-06-07

    The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorinated compounds in a sample is determined by treating the sample with a photo-activator and then exposing the treated sample to a UV light source. The UV light produces a photo-product complex, which is subsequently excited with UV light to cause luminescence of the complex. The luminescence is detected and characteristics of the luminescence spectra are used to determine the presence of chlorinated compounds and also the quantity of the chlorine in the compounds. 14 figs.

  5. Diurnal Variations of Air-Soil Exchange of Semivolatile Organic Compounds (PAHs, PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs) in a Central European Receptor Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrendele, Céline; Audy, Ondřej; Hofman, Jakub; Kučerik, Jiři; Kukučka, Petr; Mulder, Marie D; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Šáňka, Milan; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Lammel, Gerhard

    2016-04-19

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in air and soil, their fugacities, and the experimental soil-air partitioning coefficient (KSA) were determined at two background sites in the Gt. Hungarian Plain in August 2013. The concentrations of the semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) in the soil were not correlated with the organic carbon content but with two indirect parameters of mineralization and aromaticity, suggesting that soil organic matter quality is an important parameter affecting the sorption of SOCs onto soils. Predictions based on the assumption that absorption is the dominant process were in good agreement with the measurements for PAHs, OCPs, and the low chlorinated PCBs. In general, soils were found to be a source of PAHs, high chlorinated PCBs, the majority of OCPs and PBDEs, and a sink for the low chlorinated PCBs and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane. Diurnal variations in the direction of the soil-air exchange were found for two compounds (i.e., pentachlorobenzene and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane), with volatilization during the day and deposition in the night. The concentrations of most SOCs in the near-ground atmosphere were dominated by revolatilization from the soil.

  6. Two trace analytical methods for determination of hydroxylated PCBs and other halogenated phenolic compounds in eggs from Norwegian birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Urs; Herzke, Dorte; Sandanger, Torkjel M

    2004-01-15

    Two new trace analytical methods are presented for identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in complex biological matrixes such as bird of prey eggs. One method is based on derivatization with methyl chloroformate prior to GC/high-resolution MS (HRMS) analysis in electron impact ionization mode. Alternatively, the underivatized phenolic analytes were separated and detected by HPLC coupled to time-of-flight MS (TOF-MS) in the negative ion electrospray ionization mode. For both methods, the egg samples were homogenized and dried with acidified sodium sulfate, cold column-extracted, and cleaned up by gel permeation chromatography and subsequently a Florisil column. Recovery rates for pentachlorophenol (PCP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and selected hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs) from spiked hen's eggs (spiking level 1 ng/g of wet weight (ww)) were in the range of 56-98% for the HPLC/MS method and 57-108% for GC/MS including derivatization. Typical detection limits of the HPLC/TOF-MS method were 5 pg/g ww (1-2 pg injected) for HO-PCBs and PCP and 20 pg/g ww (3 pg injected) for TBBPA. The GC/HRMS method achieved detection limits of approximately 1 pg/g ww in predatory bird eggs for all analytes (0.2 pg injected for derivatized TBBPA and 0.05 pg injected for derivatized HO-PCBs and PCP). Eight eggs from four different Norwegian predatory bird species were analyzed. The concentrations determined with the two different quantification methods corresponded well with each other. PCP and TBBPA were found in all samples at concentrations up to 1350 and 13 pg/g ww, respectively (GC/HRMS values). A total of 55 penta- to nonachloro-HO-PCB congeners were detected in the eight eggs, 10 of those could be structurally identified. The maximum HO-PCB congener concentration was found for 4-HO-CB 187 in a peregrine falcon egg with estimated 388 pg/g ww. Another peregrine falcon egg was highest contaminated with sum HO-PCBs (estimated 2.1 ng/g ww). This level was 1.2 per

  7. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernandez, C M; Mesa-Albernas, M; Tolosa, I

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of various organochlorinated compounds, e.g. PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs, were investigated in sediments of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba. Among the target organochlorine compounds measured, ΣDDT isomers were the predominant contaminant with concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 1.27 ng g(-1)dry wt. Lindane was present at very low concentrations in the range n.d. to 0.05 ng g(-1), while PCBs and other organochlorine pesticide residues, such as HCB, Heptaclor, Aldrin and Mirex were lower than detection limits (∼0.010 ng g(-1)). According to established sediment quality guidelines, the OCPs concentrations encountered in the surface sediments are probably not having an adverse effect on sediment dwelling organisms. Compared to concentrations reported in coastal environments from other parts of the world, PCBs and OCs concentrations in surface sediments of Batabanó Gulf were low and similar to the reported for remote and pristine environments. These results contribute to the sparse regional database for organochlorinated compounds in the Caribbean marine environment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Significance of antifouling paint flakes to the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in estuarine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2016-01-01

    Recently published literature indicated that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-containing antifouling paint flakes were heterogeneously distributed within estuarine sediments. However, the significance of antifouling paint flakes in the fate and transport of DDT compounds and other organic pollutants in estuarine sediment is yet to be adequately addressed. To fill this knowledge gap, estuarine sediment and paint flakes from cabin and boat surfaces were collected from a fishery base in Guangdong Province of South China and analyzed for DDT compounds. Coarse fractioned samples collected from the vicinity of boat maintenance facilities contained appreciable amounts of colorful particles, which were identified as paint flakes by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The highest concentrations of DDXs (sum of DDTs and its metabolites) occurred in the heavy-density (>1.7 g cm −3 ) fraction of coarse-size (200–2000 μm) sediments from near the boat maintenance facilities, suggesting the importance of paint flakes in the distribution pattern of “hot spots” in estuarine sediment. Moreover, the desorption rates of DDT compounds from paint flakes and the heavy-density fraction of coarse-size sediment were both extremely slow. Apparently, unevenly distributed paint flakes in sediment can artificially inflate the sorption capacity of heavy-density sediment for DDT compounds, and therefore can substantially change the environmental fate and behavior of hydrophobic organic chemicals in estuarine sediment. Finally, commonly used source diagnostic indices of DDT compounds were mostly grain-size and density dependent in sediment, as a result of the occurrence of paint flakes, which may strongly compromise the outcome of any source diagnostics efforts. - Highlights: • Concentrations of DDTs were elevated in coarse and high-density fractions. • The desorption rates of DDTs from coarse and high-density fraction were extreme slow. • DDTs-containing antifouling

  9. Hydrocarbons, PCBs and DDT in the NW Mediterranean deep-sea fish Mora moro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Montserrat; Porte, Cinta; Albaigés, Joan

    2001-02-01

    Data on aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in the deep-sea fish Mora moro are reported in relation to the animal's weight/size and tissues (muscle, liver, digestive tube and gills). Fish samples were collected in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) at an approximate depth of 1000 m. The concentrations of these organic pollutants followed the trend musclelipid content of the organs. No clear bioaccumulation dependence on fish weight/size was observed for gills, digestive tube and liver when the fat contents of these tissues were taken into account. However, the concentrations in muscle decreased with size, possibly implying a simple dilution effect by the increase of body weight. Hydrocarbons, and particularly PAHs, were strongly depleted in all tissues with respect to organochlorinated compounds if compared with the amounts present in bottom waters and sediment. Smaller specimens displayed for most pollutants qualitatively different patterns than larger fish, which could be attributed to their particular habitat/diet. The aliphatic hydrocarbon profiles suggested that Mora moro was exposed to a more predominant intake of biogenic rather than petrogenic hydrocarbons. The entrance and storage organs exhibited characteristic PAH and PCB distributions, reflecting different bioaccumulation and metabolic pathways. Compared with the profiles currently found in surface fish species, a relatively higher contribution of heavier components, namely hepta- and octochlorinated PCBs, and 4-6-ringed PAHs, was found in the deep-sea fish.

  10. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): IV. Hair versus soil analysis in exposure and risk assessment of organochlorine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Have, Helga; Scheirs, Jan; Covaci, Adrian; Brink, Nico W. van den; Verhagen, Ron; Coen, Wim de

    2007-01-01

    Few ecotoxicological studies on mammals use non-destructive methodologies, despite the growing ethical concern over the use of destructive sampling methods. In the present study we assessed exposure of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), by investigating concentrations of these compounds in soils and hedgehog hair from seven study sites around the urban area of Antwerp, Belgium. No relationships were observed between organochlorine compound concentrations in soils and hair from the different study areas. Furthermore, the individual variation of contamination levels in hair within study sites was high, especially for HCHs and HCB, and hair and soil had different relative profiles for PCBs, DDTs and HCHs. Our results show that concentrations of organochlorine compounds in soils alone are not predictive of the risk of these pollutants to hedgehogs and that tissue analyses are preferred to soil analyses in exposure and risk assessment studies. - Hair is better than soil for exposure and risk assessment of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in hedgehogs

  11. Polyhalogenated compounds (PCBs, chlordanes, HCB and BFRs) in four polar bears (Ursus maritimus) that swam malnourished from East Greenland to Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Walter; Gall, Vanessa; Skírnisson, Karl

    2015-11-15

    Levels of organohalogen compounds (PCBs, chlordane, PBB 153, PBDEs, HCB) were determined in adipose tissue, liver, kidney and muscle of four polar bears which swam and/or drifted to Iceland in extremely malnourished condition. Since the colonization in the 9th century polar bears have been repeatedly observed in Iceland. However, in recent years three of the animals have clearly left their natural habitat in poor condition in May or June, i.e. at the end of the major feeding season. The fourth bear is believed to have drifted with melting ice to North-Eastern Iceland in mid-winter. The concentrations of the POPs were within the range or higher than the typical concentrations measured in polar bears from the East Greenland population. In addition to the targeted compounds, we tentatively detected Dechlorane 602 and its potential hydrodechlorinated Cl11-metabolite in all samples. Moreover, a polychlorinated compound which partly co-eluted with PCB 209 was detected in all liver samples but not in adipose tissue, kidney or muscle. The mass spectrum of the potential metabolite did not allow determining its structure. Polar bears are good swimmers and can reach Iceland from the ice edge of East Greenland within a few days. Potential reasons for the swims are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of tritium-labeled PCBs for investigation of PCBs biodegradation by soil bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Takhtobiri, K.S.; Yadgarov, H.T.; Zinovev, P. V.; Abdukarimov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The method for tritium labelling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was developed. The strains of soil bacteria - destructors of chloro organic compounds was studied with the help of test-system based on the using of tritium-labeled PCBs. The strains of bacteria were grown on the agar synthetic medium and then were introduced into the synthetic medium containing tritium-labeled mixture of PCBs (commercial mark - SOVOL) as alone source of carbon. The samples were analysed after one and two months period of incubation. PCBs were extracted by hexane from fraction of bacteria and fraction of cultural medium and radioactivity was measured. The samples were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) with following radioautography. Additionally samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. It was found that all selected strains survived in the medium with PCBs as alone source of carbon and bacteria accumulated PCBs from cultural medium. Accumulation of PCBs by strains of bacteria was different. The TLC analysis detected additional compounds labeled by tritium, that prove the degradation of PCBs in presence of bacteria. The gas chromatography analysis of cultural medium and bacteria detected redistribution in the system and qualitative changes of PCBs in bacteria. The strains of bacteria also were grown in model condition on the soil with tritium labeled PCBs. We found that some strains effectively destroy PCBs with decreasing level of tritium label in the soil. The using of tritium labeled PCBs' allows to introduce precise quantitative characteristics for study of accumulation and biodegradation PCBs by soil bacteria strains. Developed test-system is very useful tool for selection of new strains of soil bacteria - destructors of PCBs

  13. Distribution and ecological risk of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface sediments from the Bizerte lagoon, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoumi, Badreddine; LeMenach, Karyn; Dévier, Marie-Hélène; El megdiche, Yassine; Hammami, Bechir; Ben Ameur, Walid; Ben Hassine, Sihem; Cachot, Jérôme; Budzinski, Hélène; Driss, Mohamed Ridha

    2014-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in 18 surface sediment samples collected from Bizerte lagoon, Tunisia. The total concentrations of ten PCBs (∑PCBs) and of four OCPs (∑OCPs) in the sediments from this area ranged from 0.8 to 14.6 ng g(-1) dw (average value, 3.9 ng g(-1) dw) and from 1.1 to 14.0 ng g(-1) dw (average value, 3.3 ng g(-1) dw), respectively. Among the OCPs, the range of concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were 0.3-11.5 ng g(-1) dw (1.9 ng g(-1) dw) and 0.6-2.5 ng g(-1) dw (1.4 ng g(-1) dw), respectively. Compositional analyses of the POPs indicated that PCB 153, 138 and 180 were the predominant congeners accounting for 60 % of the total PCBs. In addition, p,p'-DDT was found to be the dominant DDTs, demonstrating recent inputs in the environment. Compared with some other regions of the world, the Bizerte lagoon exhibited low levels of PCBs and moderate levels of HCB and DDTs. The high ratios ΣPCBs/ΣDDTs indicated predominant industrial versus agricultural activities in this area. According to the established guidelines for sediment quality, the risk of adverse biological effects from such levels of OCPs and PCBs, as recorded at most of the study sites, was insignificant. However, the higher concentrations in stations S1 and S3 could cause biological damage.

  14. Influence of diet in the accumulation of organochlorine compounds in herons breeding in remote riverine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carola

    2016-02-01

    The composition of organochlorine compounds (OCs), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), has been analyzed in eggs from cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) and little egret (Egretta garzetta), two species of herons (family Ardeidae), nesting at the same remote riverine environment (Aiguabarreig, Ebro River). These two species were selected to evaluate the importance of diet in the accumulation of OCs. Cattle egret essentially feeds on dry grassy habitats and follow cattle or other large animals whereas little egret feeds on fish, amphibians and crustaceans captured in shallow waters. The δ(15)N and δ(13)C isotopic composition of the sampled eggs was studied and the results were consistent with these species feeding habits. In both species, the compounds accumulated the most were the less volatile and more lipophilic, e.g. PCB congeners of higher chlorination, DDT and metabolites. The distinct foraging species preferences were reflected in significant higher concentrations in little egret than cattle egret of all pollutant groups analysed. These differences were statistically significant for DDTs and PCBs (p < 0.015 and p < 0.047, respectively), e.g. the p,p'-DDE and PCB concentrations were 6 and 4.5 times higher, respectively, in the former than the latter. This strong contrast indicates that in remote environments aquatic riverine ecosystems are more efficient OC reservoirs than the terrestrial ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The first countrywide monitoring of selected POPs: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the atmosphere of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt-Karakus, Perihan Binnur; Ugranli-Cicek, Tugba; Sofuoglu, Sait C.; Celik, Halil; Gungormus, Elif; Gedik, Kadir; Sofuoglu, Aysun; Okten, Hatice Eser; Birgul, Askın; Alegria, Henry; Jones, Kevin C.

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric levels of 43 PCBs, 22 OCPs, and 14 PBDEs were determined in 16 cities at urban and rural sites by passive sampling to generate the first large-scale nationwide dataset of POP residues in Turkey's atmosphere. Sampling campaign was performed from May 2014 to April 2015 with three-month sampling periods at locations on east-west and north-south transects through the country to investigate seasonal and spatial variations, including long range atmospheric transport (LRAT). Factor analysis was conducted to infer on the potential sources. Overall average Σ43PCBs concentration was 108 ± 132 pg/m3. PCB-118 (26.3 ± 44.6 pg/m3) was the top congener, and penta-CBs had the highest contribution with 54.3%. ΣDDTs had the highest annual mean concentration with 134 ± 296 pg/m3 among the OCP groups among which the highest concentration compound was p'p-DDE (97.6 ± 236 pg/m3). Overall average concentration of Σ14PBDEs was 191 ± 329 pg/m3 with the highest contribution from BDE-190 (42%). Comparison of OCPs and PCBs concentrations detected at temperatures which were above and below annual average temperature indicated higher concentrations in the warmer periods, hence significance of secondary emissions for several OCPs and Σ43PCBs, as well as inference as LRAT from secondary emissions. The first nationwide POPs database constructed in this study, point to current use, local secondary emissions, and LRAT for different individual compounds, and indicate the need for regular monitoring.

  16. PCBs in various Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterize primary and secondary sources of PCBs in school buildings Characterize levels of PCBs in air, dust, soil and on surfaces; investigate relationships between sources and environmental levels Apply an exposure model for estimating children’s exposures to PCBs in schools...

  17. Measurement and estimated health risks of semivolatile organic compounds (PCBs, PAHs, pesticides, and phthalates) in ambient air at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Blanton, M.L.; Lefkovitz, L.F.; Gilfoil, T.J.

    1997-09-01

    Air samples for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, phthalate plasticizers, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected at three Hanford Site locations (300-Area South Gate, southeast of 200-East Area, and a background location near Rattlesnake Springs). Samples were collected using high-volume air samplers equipped with a glass fiber filter and polyurethane foam plug sampling train. Target compounds were extracted from the sampling trains and analyzed using capillary gas chromatography with either electron capture detection or mass selective detection. Twenty of the 28 PCB congeners analyzed were found above the detection limits, with 8 of the congeners accounting for over 80% of the average PCB concentrations. The average sum of all individual PCB congeners ranged from 500-740 pg/m{sup 3}, with little apparent difference between the sampling locations. Twenty of the 25 pesticides analyzed were found above the detection limits, with endosulfan I, endosulfan II, and methoxychlor having the highest average concentrations. With the exception of the endosulfans, all other average pesticide concentrations were below 100 pg/m{sup 3}. There was little apparent difference between the air concentrations of pesticides measured at each location. Sixteen of the 18 PAHs analyzed were found above the detection limit. Phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, fluorene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, and naphthalene were the only PAHs with average concentrations above 100 pg/m{sup 3}. Overall, the 300 Area had higher average PAH concentrations compared to the 200-East Area and the background location at Rattlesnake Springs; however, the air concentrations at the 300-Area also are influenced by sources on the Hanford Site and from nearby communities.

  18. Organohalogen compounds in deep-sea fishes from the western North Pacific, off-Tohoku, Japan: Contamination status and bioaccumulation profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Shin; Oshihoi, Tomoko; Ramu, Karri; Isobe, Tomohiko; Ohmori, Koji; Kubodera, Tsunemi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-01-01

    Twelve species of deep-sea fishes collected in 2005 from the western North Pacific, off-Tohoku, Japan were analyzed for organohalogen compounds. Among the compounds analyzed, concentrations of DDTs and PCBs (up to 23,000 and 12,400 ng/g lipid wt, respectively) were the highest. The present study is the foremost to report the occurrence of brominated flame retardants such as PBDEs and HBCDs in deep-sea organisms from the North Pacific region. Significant positive correlations found between δ 15 N ( per mille ) and PCBs, DDTs and PBDEs suggest the high biomagnification potential of these contaminants in food web. The large variation in δ 13 C ( per mille ) values observed between the species indicate multiple sources of carbon in the food web and specific accumulation of hydrophobic organohalogen compounds in benthic dwelling carnivore species like snubnosed eel. The results obtained in this study highlight the usefulness of deep-sea fishes as sentinel species to monitor the deep-sea environment.

  19. Some OH-PCBs are more potent inhibitors of aromataseactivity and (anti-) glucocorticoids than non-dioxin like (NDL)-PCBs and MeSO2-PCBs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Daamen, F.; Helsdingen, J.R.; Berg, van den M.; Duursen, van M.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional risk assessment of potential endocrine-disruptive pollutants, including PCBs, focus mainly on the effects of parent compounds. Still, biotransformation results in systemic exposure to PCBs and their bioactive metabolites. In the present paper, the effects of twenty ultra-pure

  20. Organochlorine compounds in Purple Heron eggs (Ardea purpurea) nesting in sites located around a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluís; Sanpera, Carola; Ruiz, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Eggs of Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) were collected from three sampled sites inside the Ebro River basin in years 2006 and 2007. These sites were located besides (Flix), upstream (Aiguabarreig) and downstream (Delta) a chlor-alkali plant. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorostyrenes (PCSs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analysed to assess what are the accumulation patterns of these compounds in aquatic migratory birds breeding in the area of influence of the emissions from this industrial installation. Comparison of the egg concentrations between the three sites show higher concentrations of compounds manufactured in the past in the factory (PCBs, p,p'-DDT) or by-products of OC synthesis (HCB, PeCB and PCSs) in Flix than in Aiguabarreig reflecting a clear influence from the emissions of the chlor-alkali plant. The eggs collected in the Ebro Delta showed higher concentrations of total DDTs (mainly p,p'-DDE) than in the reference site (Aiguabarreig) which could reflect past applications of this insecticide in the area for agriculture. In contrast, HCHs were found in higher concentrations in the Delta and Aiguabarreig than in the Flix Reservoir. These compounds have been used as insecticides in agriculture and were not manufactured in the chlor-alkali plant. The present results show that despite Purple Herons are migratory birds, the food web transfer of OCs during the breeding season is sufficient for the accumulation of these compounds in the eggs, leading to statistically significant concentration differences between sites. These differences are consistent with the emissions of these pollutants from industrial or agricultural sources to the aquatic environments. Some of the p,p'-DDE concentrations observed in the area nearby the chlor-alkali plant are above the threshold effects for reproductive impairment. Copyright © 2015

  1. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, D.; Watanabe, M.; Subraminian, A.N.; Tanabe, S. [Ehime Univ. (Japan); Tanaka, H. [National Research Inst. of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea (Japan); Fillmann, G. [Fundacao Univ. Federal do Rio Grande (Brazil); Lam, P.K.S.; Zheng, G.J. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Muchtar, M.; Razak, H. [Indonesian Inst. of Sciences (Indonesia); Prudente, M. [De La Salle Univ. (Philippines); Chung, K. [Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Worldwide contamination by dioxins and related compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzop- dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been of great concern due to their persistency in the environment, highly bioaccumulative nature and adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Several studies on air samples and marine organisms from open seas suggested a long range transport of these compounds through atomosphere. Although several investigators have monitored dioxins pollution in localized areas, information on the global distribution of dioxins which can explain their atomospheric transport, behavior and fate are still limited. Skipjack tuna is primarily distributed from offshore waters to open seas in tropical and temperate regions almost all over the world such as the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans6. This species is an important commercial fish and its ecology and biology has been well studied. Moreover, suitability of skipjack tuna for global monitoring of organic pollutants (DDTs, HCHs PBDEs, organotins, etc.) has been established in our previous report, indicating that migration pattern, growth stage and sex of these animals have no or little effect on the variations of POPs residue levels in their bodies. Hence this species reflected POPs pollution levels in seawater when and where they were collected, caused by the rapid equilibrium partitioning between seawater and body lipid. These facts made skipjack tuna a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the contamination status of dioxins and related compounds. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins (PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs) in offshore waters and open seas, and to understand the transport and behaviour of these chemicals using skipjack tuna as bioindicator.

  2. Levels of persistent organic pollutants and residual pattern of DDTs in small cetaceans from the coast of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogui, G T; Santos, M C O; Bertozzi, C P; Montone, R C

    2010-10-01

    The State of São Paulo is the most developed area in Brazil and was impacted by persistent organic pollutants for several decades. This study investigated organochlorines in five species of small cetaceans (Pontoporia blainvillei, Stenella frontalis, Sotalia guianensis, Tursiops truncatus and Steno bredanensis) found dead along the coast of São Paulo between 1997 and 2003. DDTs (15.9 μg g(-1) lipid; mean for all pooled individuals) and PCBs (8.08 μg g(-1)) exhibited the highest concentrations in the animals, reflecting large amounts formerly used in Brazil. Lower levels of mirex (0.149 μg g(-1)), HCB (0.051 μg g(-1)), CHLs (0.008 μg g(-1)) and HCHs (0.007 μg g(-1)) were detected in all species. Residual pattern of DDTs in dolphins suggests that o,p'-DDT is more recalcitrant than p,p'-DDT in the body of the animals and/or the environment. In contrast to p,p'-DDT, residues of o,p'-DDT seem to be preferentially converted into o,p'-DDD rather than o,p'-DDE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Significance of antifouling paint flakes to the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in estuarine sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-03-01

    Recently published literature indicated that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-containing antifouling paint flakes were heterogeneously distributed within estuarine sediments. However, the significance of antifouling paint flakes in the fate and transport of DDT compounds and other organic pollutants in estuarine sediment is yet to be adequately addressed. To fill this knowledge gap, estuarine sediment and paint flakes from cabin and boat surfaces were collected from a fishery base in Guangdong Province of South China and analyzed for DDT compounds. Coarse fractioned samples collected from the vicinity of boat maintenance facilities contained appreciable amounts of colorful particles, which were identified as paint flakes by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The highest concentrations of DDXs (sum of DDTs and its metabolites) occurred in the heavy-density (>1.7 g cm(-3)) fraction of coarse-size (200-2000 μm) sediments from near the boat maintenance facilities, suggesting the importance of paint flakes in the distribution pattern of "hot spots" in estuarine sediment. Moreover, the desorption rates of DDT compounds from paint flakes and the heavy-density fraction of coarse-size sediment were both extremely slow. Apparently, unevenly distributed paint flakes in sediment can artificially inflate the sorption capacity of heavy-density sediment for DDT compounds, and therefore can substantially change the environmental fate and behavior of hydrophobic organic chemicals in estuarine sediment. Finally, commonly used source diagnostic indices of DDT compounds were mostly grain-size and density dependent in sediment, as a result of the occurrence of paint flakes, which may strongly compromise the outcome of any source diagnostics efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The phytoremediation potential of bioenergy crop Ricinus communis for DDTs and cadmium co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huagang; Yu, Ning; Wang, Lijun; Gupta, D K; He, Zhenli; Wang, Kai; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Yan, Xingchu; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2011-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) or its metabolite residues are frequently detected in agricultural soils and food, posing a threat to human health. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of 23 genotypes of Ricinus communis in mobilizing and uptake of Cd and DDTs (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE) in the co-contaminated soil. The plant genotypes varied largely in the uptake and accumulation of DDTs and Cd, with mean concentrations of 0.37, 0.43 and 70.51 for DDTs, and 1.22, 2.27 and 37.63 mg kg(-1) dw for Cd in leaf, stem and root, respectively. The total uptake of DDTs and Cd varied from 83.1 to 267.8 and 66.0 to 155.1 μg per pot, respectively. These results indicate that R. communis has great potential for removing DDTs and Cd from contaminated soils attributed to its fast growth, high biomass, strong absorption and accumulation for both DDTs and Cd. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of DDT, DDE, and PCBs on mitochondrial respiration. [Cockroaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, H.M.; Cutkomp, L.K.

    1982-11-01

    Data dealing with the action of DDT, its metabolite DDE and other related chlorinated compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are presented in this study. Results show that both DDT and DDE effectively reduce oxidative phosphorylation as determined from cockroach muscle mitochondria. DDT is more effective as was also determined for inhibition of oligomycin-sensitive Mg/sup 2 +/ATPase. The PCBs tested were uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. (JMT)

  6. Contamination of Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs in Sediments Collected from the East Coast of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakkapan Potipat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticides (OCs and PCBs concentration were analyzed in sediments from east coast of Thailand. The samples were collected in April 2013 and were analyzed by GC/ECD. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations were detected in sediments in the range of 1.06-3.71 ng/g calculated on dry weight basis. T-DDTs concentrations were the highest in OCs group compared to other groups in most of the samples. PCBs concentrations were detected in sediments in the range of 0.04-3.03 ng/g calculated on dry weight basis. This study suggests that there is no correlation between the results of different stations but proximity to the sources of contamination may be the most important determining factor for the dominance of these contaminants. Probably this contamination seems to be localized due to the presence of urban runoff, municipal sewage, industrial waste, outflow from agricultural area and chemical spill.

  7. Particle deposition fluxes of BDE-209, PAHs, DDTs and chlordane in the Pearl River Delta, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Gan; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2010-01-01

    Year-round bulk air deposition samples were collected at 15 sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) on a bimonthly basis from Dec 2003 to Nov 2004, and the particle-phase deposition of BDE-209, PAHs, DDTs and chlordane was measured. The annual deposition fluxes of BDE-209, total PAHs (15 compounds), total DDT (sum of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, and o,p'-DDT ), and chlordane (sum of trans-chlordane and cis-chlordane) varied from 32.6 to 1970 μg m -2 yr -1 , 22 to 290 μg m -2 yr -1 , 0.8 to 11 μg m -2 yr -1 , and 0.25 to 1.9 μg m -2 yr -1 , respectively. Spatial variations were higher in the centre of the PRD and lower at the coastal sites for all compounds. The seasonal variations of deposition were found to be compound-dependent, influenced by a number of factors, such as the timing of source input, temperature, and precipitation etc. In particular, source input time affected the deposition fluxes of BDE-209 and high-weight PAHs, while temperature-dependent gas-particle partitioning was a key factor for DDT and light-weight PAH deposition. During the whole sampling period, the atmospheric deposition of BDE-209, ΣPAHs, ΣDDTs, and chlordane onto Hong Kong reached about 93, 86, 2.1 and 2.1 kg yr -1 , respectively, and onto the PRD reached about 13,400, 2950, 82, and 63 kg yr -1 . By comparing the calculated total air deposition with the burden in the soils, the half residual time of BDE-209 in soils was estimated to be 3 years.

  8. Biological data on PCBs in animals other than man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1972-01-01

    SUMMARY: Polychlorinated biphenyls have become ubiquitous in the world ecosystem in quantities similar to those of DDE. Experimental studies have shown that PCBs have a toxicity to mallards, pheasants, bobwhite quail, coturnix quail, red-winged blackbirds, starlings, cowbirds, and grackles that is of the same order as the toxicity of DDE to these species. Overt signs of poisoning also are similar to those caused by compounds of the DDT group. Toxic effects of DDE and Aroclor 1254 to coturnix chicks were additive, but not synergistic. PCBs containing higher percentages of chlorine are more toxic to birds than those containing lower percentages. PCBs of foreign manufacture contained contaminants to an extent that greatly increased their toxicity. Residues of PCBs in the brains of birds killed by these compounds measure in the hundreds of parts per million. PCBs may have contributed to mortality of some birds in the field. Toxicity to insects of PCBs of different degrees of chlorination is the reverse of the pattern in birds: the lower chlorinations are more toxic to insects. PCBs enhanced the toxicity of dieldrin and DDT to insects. Shrimp are very sensitive to PCBs and most will die as a result of 20-day exposure to a concentration of 5 ppb. PCBs also inhibit shell growth of oysters. Crabs are less sensitive; all accumulate residues to many times the concentrations in the water, and a test with crabs showed that they lost the residues very slowly. Growth of certain species of marine diatoms was experimentally inhibited by PCBs, but algae were not affected. The small marine crustacean, Gammarus, is sensitive to PCBs in concentrations of thousandths to tenths of a part per billion. Exposure to 5 ppb of Aroclor 1254 caused mortality of two species of fish in 14-45 days. Onset of death was delayed and was accompanied by fungus-like lesions. Rainbow trout were quickly killed by terphenyls at 10 ppb under normal oxygen conditions and at 2 ppb with reduced oxygen

  9. Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were examined as a function of depth in killer whale (Orcinus orca) blubber samples. Lipid-normalized concentrations of PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and ...

  10. Recent decline of DDTs among several organochlorine pesticides in background air in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takazawa, Yoshikatsu; Takasuga, Takumi; Doi, Kenji; Saito, Mick; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes (CHLs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in air-mass outflows from East Asia were recorded monthly from April 2009 to March 2014 at Cape Hedo in Japan. These organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were collected by a high volume air sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter, a polyurethane foam plug, and activated carbon fiber and analyzed by using a gas chromatograph-high resolution mass spectrometer. The overall (and geometric mean ± SD) concentration over the period was 4.9-43 pg m(-3) (15 ± 7.8 pg m(-3)) in HCHs (sum of α-/β-/γ-/δ-HCH), 1.5-83 pg m(-3) (8.8 ± 11 pg m(-3)) in CHLs (sum of cis-/trans-chlordane, cis-/trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane), and 0.71-16 pg m(-3) (2.5 ± 2.0 pg m(-3)) in DDTs (sum of o,p'-/p,p'-DDD, o,p'-/p,p'-DDE, and o,p'-/p,p'-DDT). Clear seasonal changes, i.e. higher in summer and lower in winter, were observed in HCHs and CHLs, suggesting the dominant effect of temperature-dependence, secondary sources in these OCPs. DDT concentration as well as the ratio of (o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDT) to total DDTs, on the other hand, showed clear a declining trend during the five year sampling period, suggesting the decrease of input of newly produced DDTs in the regional environment by reflecting recent activities in the East Asian region to eliminate production and use of DDTs under the Stockholm Convention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Organochlorine Pesticides And Pcbs In Human Breast Milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and Fifty (150) samples of human breast milk (colostrums) collected from donors patronizing a postnatal center in Nigeria were analyzed for the levels of lindane, total DDT and total PCBs residues. Donors were stratified with respect to factors that may affect accumulation of these compounds such as age, ...

  12. RADIATION DEGRADATION OF PCBS IN SEDIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Darážová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls are toxic compounds which have accumulated in river sediments in Eastern Slovakia. Bioaccumulation could cause even cancer. Radiation degradation with electrons is new and perspective method to dechlorinate PCBs in sediment matrix. We tested the influence of two difference chemical pretreatments and electron irradiation on PCB contaminated sediments.

  13. Determinação de ΣDDT e PCBs na água do mar através de pré-concentração em resinas poliméricas Determination of ΣDDT and PCBs in the seawater by pre-concentration method in polymerical resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Roland Weber

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available A pre-concenvration method for extracting organochlorines from seawater was employed to analyse ΣDDTs and PCBs. The sampling device and the conditions for optimal adsortion performance are described. Recovery tests with spiked solutions were made before applying the method on real samples. Working up of the samples prior to gas chromatographic analysis, precautions and advantages of the procedure are also discussed. The application of the method for seawater, containing very low levels of organochlorines, is shown by data from equatorial surface waters. The average level for ΣDDT and PCBs was 0.21 ng/l and 0.37 ng/l. The overall precision of the method is about ± 15% with a lower limit of detection of 0.1 ng/l-1 for PCBs and 0.05 ng/l-1 for ZDDT.

  14. PCB's take a stroll Los PCBs salen de paseo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Olea Serrano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to bioaccumulable organochlorine compounds is a reality, not only because of the known presence in tissues of the residue of historic contaminants such as DDT and other pesticides, but also because of the risk of current exposure to compounds still in use, such as lindane, endosulphan and polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs, among others. The case of the PCBs is of particular importance. Although their production was prohibited due to their hazardous nature, persistence and environmental toxicity, a large number of equipments that contain considerable volumes of PCBs continue functioning. These equipments will reach the residual stage in the next few years, if not already, so that their correct disposal is necessary to avoid their release into the environment. A National Plan for the decontamination and elimination of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs, polychloroterphenyls (PCTs and the equipments that contain them was launched in Spain in 2001. This plan must be implemented taking full account of the possible effects of PBCs on the environment and human health and with the knowledge of those responsible for public health.La exposición humana a compuestos organoclorados bioacumulables es un problema de interés sanitario no sólo por el conocimiento de la presencia en tejidos del residuo de contaminantes históricos como DDT y otros pesticidas, sino por el riesgo de exposición actual a compuestos aún en uso como el lindano, el endosulfán y los bifenilos policlorados (PCBs, entre otros. Destaca el caso particular de los PCBs, sustancias cuya producción fue prohibida debido a su peligrosidad, persistencia y toxicidad ambiental. A pesar de esta prohibición siguen funcionando una gran cantidad de aparatos que contienen volúmenes considerables de PCBs. Estos aparatos llegarán en los próximos años, si no lo han hecho ya, a la fase de residuos, por lo que es necesario asegurar su correcta eliminación para evitar su liberación al medio

  15. Los PCBs salen de paseo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Castillo Rodríguez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La exposición humana a compuestos organoclorados bioacumulables es un problema de interés sanitario no sólo por el conocimiento de la presencia en tejidos del residuo de contaminantes históricos como DDT y otros pesticidas, sino por el riesgo de exposición actual a compuestos aún en uso como el lindano, el endosulfán y los bifenilos policlorados (PCBs, entre otros. Destaca el caso particular de los PCBs, sustancias cuya producción fue prohibida debido a su peligrosidad, persistencia y toxicidad ambiental. A pesar de esta prohibición siguen funcionando una gran cantidad de aparatos que contienen volúmenes considerables de PCBs. Estos aparatos llegarán en los próximos años, si no lo han hecho ya, a la fase de residuos, por lo que es necesario asegurar su correcta eliminación para evitar su liberación al medio ambiente. El Plan Nacional para la descontaminación y eliminación de policlorobifenilos (PCBs, policloroterfenilos (PCTs y aparatos que los contengan, puesto en marcha en España en el año 2001, debe llevarse a cabo teniendo en cuenta los posibles efectos que los PCBs pueden provocar en el medio ambiente y en la salud humana y con el conocimiento de los responsables en salud pública.

  16. PCBs and OCPs in human milk in Eastern Siberia, Russia: Levels, temporal trends and infant exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamontova, Elena A; Tarasova, Eugenia N; Mamontov, Alexander A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate the spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and its metabolites, α- and γ-isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in 155 samples of human milk (HM) from Eastern Siberia (six towns and seven villages in Irkutsk Region, one village of the Republic of Buryatia and one town in Zabaikal'sk Region, Russia), and to examine the dietary and social factors influencing the human exposure to the organochlorines. The median and range of the concentration of six indicator PCBs in HM in 14 localities in Eastern Siberia (114 (19-655) ng g -1 lipids respectively) are similar to levels in the majority of European countries. However, in one village, Onguren, the median and range of levels of six indicator PCBs (1390 (300-3725) ng g -1 lipids) were comparable to levels measured in highly contaminated populations. The Lake Baikal seals are highly exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and could be a potential source of PCB and DDT exposure in the Onguren cohort via the consumption of the Lake Baikal seal tissue. The location of food production in areas exposed to the emissions of local POP sources can also significantly influence POP levels in HM samples from industrialized areas. Estimated daily intakes (EDI) of HCH and HCB for infants are considerably lower or close to acceptable daily intake (ADI). The EDI of total DDTs and total PCBs are higher than ADI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enantioselective gas chromatographic separation of methylsulfonyl PCBs in seal blubber, pelican muscle and human adipose tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasek, L.; Rosmus, J. [Veterinary Institute Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Chemistry; Hajslova, J. [Institute of Chemical Technology (Czech Republic). Dept. of Food Chemistry and Analysis; Huehnerfuss, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie

    2004-09-15

    Methyl sulfone derivatives are known to represent primary metabolic products of PCBs (MeSO2- CB) and DDE (MeSO2-DDE). These metabolites are formed via mercapturic acid pathway and belong to persistent, lipophilic compounds which accumulate in the adipose, lung, liver and kidney tissues of mammals exposed to PCBs. In 1976 Jenssen and Jansson reported the identification of PCB methyl sulfones as metabolites of PCBs in Baltic grey seal blubber. Methyl sulfones are moderately polar compounds that are only slightly less hydrophobic than the parent PCBs, and their partition coefficients fulfill the requirements for bioaccumulation. The highest concentrations have been found in kidney and lung tissues of seals, otters, beluga whales, polar bears, fishes and in human tissues. In the present investigation two samples of seal blubber, two pelican muscles and eleven human adipose tissue samples were analysed with regard to their concentrations of PCB parent compounds as well as to the respective chiral methylsulfonyl metabolites.

  18. O legado das bifenilas policloradas (PCBs The legacy of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Pires Penteado

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a class of 209 chemical compounds with the molecular formula C12H10-nCl n, where 1 <= n <= 10. They were commercially produced as complex mixtures for various uses, being employed principally as dielectric fluids in capacitors and transformers. They are not easily degraded due their chemical and physical stability and tend to bioaccumulate in the organisms. After the discovery of their xenobiotic activity, restrictions were imposed for their use, as well as for their discards. Nowadays the development of recovery processes for contaminated environment urges to be done due to the extension of reached areas.

  19. Surveillance of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food commercialized in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontcuberta, M; Arqués, J F; Villalbí, J R; Martínez, M; Serrahima, E; Centrich, F; Ábalos, M; Abad, E; Duran, J; Casas, C

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the potential use of seven congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs-7) as indicator compounds for the presence of dioxins and PCBs in food samples, as part of the routine surveillance programme of a public health agency. Samples of 24 foodstuffs with high fat content were collected (ten fresh fish, six dairy products, five meat and three eggs). Duplicate analyses were performed. A research laboratory tested samples for seven polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), ten dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and twelve dioxin-like PCBs, with limits of detection in the range of ng kg(-1) (ppt). The public health services official control laboratory tested samples for PCBs-7, with a limit of quantification of 5 µg kg(-1) (ppb). The research laboratory detected the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in all samples; fish samples had the highest levels (0.04-10.3 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)). The public health service official control laboratory detected PCBs-7 only in five samples, which were all fish. Comparing the results in the two laboratories there seems to be an association between the detection of PCB-7 and the presence of higher levels of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs. The use of PCB-7 as an indicator compound may be a practical surveillance strategy for those foodstuffs with higher concentrations of dioxin-like congeners.

  20. Intervention to reduce PCBs: learnings from a controlled study of Anniston residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandacek, Ronald J

    2016-02-01

    Nonabsorbable dietary lipid reduces the absorption of dietary PCBs and increases the excretion of previously absorbed stored PCBs. Absorption of all PCB congeners will presumably be interrupted by nonabsorbable lipid; however excretion will be enhanced only for PCBs that have not been metabolized and also for their lipophilic metabolites. Our study with the nonabsorbable lipid, olestra, in a controlled trial in Anniston residents with elevated PCB levels demonstrated that it is possible to enhance removal of PCBs from the body in the clinically meaningful time frame of 1 year. The rate of disappearance of PCBs in participants who ate 15 g/day of olestra was significantly faster than the rate determined during the 5 years prior to intervention. The rate of disappearance was not changed from the pretrial rate in participants who ingested vegetable oil. Consideration of the role of body weight and fat is an important factor in the design of intervention trials of this kind, and the results of this trial suggest that the level of body fat in individuals will influence the rate of removal from the body. Previously reported data from animals and from a case report indicate that weight loss combined with nonabsorbable dietary lipid will maximize removal of PCBs and presumably other stored organochlorine compounds. The design of future intervention trials should include a focus on body fat levels and changes. Future trials should also include the testing of dietary compounds other than olestra that have affinity for PCBs, such as plant-derived polyphenols.

  1. Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) in human hair and serum in rural and urban areas in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chun-Tao; Yan, Xiao; Wang, Mei-Huan; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Ke-Hui; Guo, Mi-Na; Zheng, Jing; Chen, She-Jun

    2017-05-01

    Human hair has been employed as a biomarker for exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), but information on the source of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in hair is limited. The present study investigated the contamination of DDTs in human hair from a rural area and an urban area of South China and compared with those in human serum and indoor dust. The concentrations of ∑DDTs ranged from 2.30 to 489ng/g, with a median of 21.8ng/g in human hair. The ∑DDT concentrations (median=40.8ng/g) in female hair were significantly higher than those in male hair (median=20.6ng/g). There were significantly positive correlations between the concentrations of DDTs and ages in both the female and male hair, but the age-dependence for DDTs in serum was less significant. The profile of DDT analogues in female hair, differing from that in the male hair, was more similar to that in the indoor dust, suggesting a more important role of exogenous exposure in female hair. We estimated that exogenous source is responsible for approximately 11% and 20% of the burden of DDTs in the male and female hair, respectively. Adjusted multiple linear regression model showed significantly positive association between the p,p'-DDE concentrations in the paired hair and serum samples, indicating that endogenous origins are the primary sources of DDTs in the hair of the residents in the study areas. Our findings demonstrated that human hair is a reliable biomarker for body burden of DDTs and can be used in epidemiology research and retrospective assessment of DDT exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Residues, spatial distribution and risk assessment of DDTs and HCHs in agricultural soil and crops from the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Gong, Ping; Yao, Tandong

    2016-04-01

    Due to its high elevation and cold temperature, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is regarded as the "Third Pole". Different from other polar regions, which are truly remote, the TP has a small population and a few agricultural activities. In this study, agricultural soil and crop samples (including highland barley and rape) were collected in the main farmland of the TP to obtain the contamination levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in the Tibetan agricultural system as well as the relevant human exposure risks. The average concentrations of DDTs and HCHs in the agricultural soil, highland barley and rape were 1.36, 0.661, 1.03 ng/g dw and 0.349, 0.0364, 0.0225 ng/g dw, respectively. In the agricultural soil, DDTs and HCHs metabolism (DDE, DDD and β-HCH) were abundant, which indicated a "historical" source, whereas crops contained a similar composition ((DDE + DDD)/DDT, α/β-HCH and α/γ-HCH) to that of wild plants, suggesting that the DDTs and HCHs in crops are likely from long range atmospheric transport. The human health risks via non-dietary and dietary to DDTs and HCHs in the farmland were assessed. All of the hazard index (HI) values of DDTs and HCHs for non-carcinogenic risks were Tibetan residents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PCBs Contamination among Distribution Transformers in the Kathmandu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruska Kattel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Transformer is the crucial part in any electrical system, however there are many risks associated with its use. Thus this study was focused on assessing the status of PCBs contamination and distribution of transformers in Distribution Centre-North of the Kathmandu valley along with PCBs contamination in them. Each transformer within the study area was closely observed to obtain information about all transformers. The dielectric oil samples from the transformers were collected, safely stored and analyzed in Test Kits (L2000DX Chloride Analyzer System, recommended by UNEP. Among 111 samples of transformer oil analyzed, 4 transformers were found PCBs contaminated and they were manufactured before 1990s. The total amount of PCBs contaminated transformer oil in these transformers was 479.6 Kg. Seven transformers were found leaking, four transformers located at residential area were found emitting a low frequency tonal noise, two transformers were located within school compound, nine transformers were located near water body and around 1.44 square meters of soil surface was found contaminated by transformer oil. Though there is no way to eliminate all the risk and consequences of operating oil filled transformers, scientific distribution and proper handling could be the reasonable approaches to reduce the risks.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12175International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, Page: 16-29

  4. PCBS AND TIGHT JUNCTION EXPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Eum, Sung Yong; András, Ibolya E.; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners exhibit a broad range of adverse biological effects including neurotoxicity. The mechanisms by which PCBs cause neurotoxic effects are still not completely understood. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physical and metabolic barrier separating brain microenvironment from the peripheral circulation and is mainly composed of endothelial cells connected by tight junctions. We examined the effects of several highly-chlorinated PCB congeners on expression ...

  5. Current status, between-year comparisons and maternal transfer of organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from Bjørnøya, Svalbard (Norway)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytingsvik, J., E-mail: jenny.bytingsvik@akvaplan.niva.no [Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); Frantzen, M. [Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); Götsch, A.; Heimstad, E.S. [NILU (Norwegian Institute for Air Research), The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); Christensen, G. [Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); Evenset, A. [Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Pb 6050 Langnes, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2015-07-15

    High levels of organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) have been found in Arctic char from Lake Ellasjøen at Bjørnøya (Svalbard, Norway) compared to char from other arctic lakes. The first aim of the study was to investigate the OHC status, contaminant profile, and partitioning of OHCs between muscle and ovary tissue in spawning female char from the high-polluted Lake Ellasjøen and the low-polluted Lake Laksvatn. The second aim was to investigate if OHC levels in muscle tissue have changed over time. Between-lake comparisons show that the muscle levels (lipid weight) of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordanes (∑ CHLs), mirex, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (∑ DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (∑ PCBs) were up to 36 times higher in char from Ellasjøen than in Laksvatn, and confirm that the char from Ellasjøen are still heavily exposed compared to char from neighboring lake. A higher proportion of persistent OHCs were found in Ellasjøen compared to Laksvatn, while the proportion of the less persistent OHCs was highest in Laksvatn. A between-year comparison of OHC levels (i.e., HCB, DDTs, PCBs) in female and male char shows higher levels of HCB in female char from Ellasjøen in 2009/2012 compared to in 1999/2001. No other between-year differences in OHC levels were found. Due to small study groups, findings associated with between-year differences in OHC levels should be interpreted with caution. OHCs accumulate in the lipid rich ovaries of spawning females, resulting in up to six times higher levels of OHCs in ovaries compared to in muscle (wet weight). The toxic equivalent (TEQ)-value for the dioxin-like PCBs (PCB-105 and -118) in ovaries of the Ellasjøen char exceeded levels associated with increased egg mortality in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Hence, we suggest that future studies should focus on the reproductive health and performance abilities of the high-exposed population of char inhabiting Lake Ellasjøen. - Highlights: • Examine levels

  6. [Residues and health risk assessment of HCHs, DDTs and heavy metals in water and Tilapias from fish ponds of Guangdong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen-Ping; Zhu, Xin-Ping; Zheng, Guang-Ming; Ma, Li-Sha

    2014-12-01

    Concentrations of copper, lead, cadmium, arsenic, hexachlorcyclohexane (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) in the water and the fish samples collected separately from fish pond, markets and supermarkets in four cities of Guangdong Province were measured by using GC-ECD, flame atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Health risk assessments associated with Cu, Pd, Cd, As, HCHs and DDTs were conducted based on the model of health risk assessment recommended by the US EPA. The results showed that the concentration ranges of Cu, Pd, Cd, As, HCHs and DDTs in water samples were nd-0.101 mg x L(-1), nd-0.097 mg x L(-1), nd-0.003 27 mg x L(-1), 0.0121-0.08127 mg x L(-1), 2.63-37.18 ng x L(-1) and 2.05-12.21 ng x L(-1), respectively. The health risk assessment indicates that the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of Cu, Pd, Cd, HCHs and DDTs in Tilapias both lower than the highest acceptable level of risk set by ICRP, but As cancer risk value slightly exceeded the upper limit of the acceptable risk levels in city population.

  7. Inputs of antifouling paint-derived dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) to a typical mariculture zone (South China): Potential impact on aquafarming environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Huanyun; Shen Rulang; Liang Yan; Cheng, Hefa; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2011-01-01

    Existing evidence indicated that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-containing antifouling paints were an important source of DDT residues to mariculture zones. However, the magnitude of the impact on aquafarming environment has remained largely unknown. In the present study, the concentrations of DDT and its metabolites (designated as DDXs) were determined in harbor sediment and antifouling paint samples collected from a typical mariculture zone in South China. Compositional and concentration correlation analyses implicated the DDT-containing antifouling paints for fishing boat maintenance as an important source of DDT in the mariculture zone. The annual emission of DDXs to the study region was estimated at 0.58 tons/yr. Furthermore, a comparison of the expected DDT loadings in pelagic fish and field measurements indicated that fish feed especially trash fish was a major source of DDTs in the fish body. Nevertheless, the use of DDT-containing antifouling paints should be limited to prevent further deterioration in aquafarming environment. - Highlights: → Use of antifouling paints in boat maintenance was deemed a main source of DDTs. → The majority of antifouling paint-derived DDTs was sequestered in sediment. → Fish feed has remained the main input source of DDTs in fish body. - The potential impact from the use of DDT-containing antifouling paints on aquafarming environment is examined.

  8. Biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and bioformation of hydroxylated PCBs in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, Andrea H.; Wong, Charles S.; Chow, Elaine A.; Brown, Scott B.; Solomon, Keith R.; Fisk, Aaron T.

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) are a class of organic contaminants that have been found recently in the plasma of Great Lakes fish, the source of which is either bioformation from PCBs or accumulation from the environment. To address the potential for fish to biotransform PCBs and bioform OH-PCBs juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; ∼80 g) were exposed to dietary concentrations of an environmentally relevant mixture of PCBs. Eight OH-PCBs were found in the plasma of rainbow trout after 30 days of exposure to the PCBs, the relative pattern of which was similar to those observed in wild lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario. Hydroxylated-PCBs were not found (detection limit 0.02 pg/g) in the food or control (not PCB-exposed) fish. A curvilinear log t 1/2 -log K ow relationship for recalcitrant PCBs was found, similar to previously reported relationships, although t 1/2 values were longer and shorter than studies using smaller fish or cooler temperatures, respectively. A number of PCB congeners fell below the log t 1/2 -log K ow relationship providing the first estimates of non-chiral PCB biotransformation rates in fish. Enantioselective degradation of the chiral congeners PCBs 91 and 136, also indicated biotransformation. Biotransformation of PCBs was structure-dependent with greater biotransformation of PCBs with vicinal hydrogen atoms in the meta/para positions, suggesting CYP 2B-like biotransformation. Other chiral congeners with a meta/para substitution pattern showed no enantioselective degradation but were biotransformed based on the log t 1/2 -log K ow relationship. The results of this study demonstrate that laboratory held rainbow trout can biotransform a number of PCB congeners and that bioformation is likely an important source of OH-PCBs in wild salmonids of the Great Lakes

  9. Distribution, sources, and air-soil exchange of OCPs, PCBs and PAHs in urban soils of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Balram; Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Mengke; Wang, Chuanfei; Gao, Shaopeng

    2018-02-20

    Due to the high temperature and extensive use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), tropical cities could act as secondary sources of these pollutants and therefore received global concern. As compared with other tropical cities, studies on the air-soil exchange of OCPs, PCBs and PAHs in tropical Nepali cities remained limited. In the present study, 39 soil samples from Kathmandu (capital of Nepal) and 21 soil samples from Pokhara (second largest city in Nepal) were collected The soil concentrations of the sum of endosulfans (α- and β-endosulfans) ranged from 0.01 to 16.4 ng/g dw. Meanwhile, ∑dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) ranged from 0.01 to 6.5 ng/g dw; ∑6PCBs from 0.01 to 9.7 ng/g dw; and ∑15PAHs from 17.1 to 6219 ng/g dw. High concentrations of OCPs were found in the soil of commercial land, while, high soil PAH concentrations were found on tourist/religious and commercial land. Combined the published air concentrations, and the soil data of this study, the directions and fluxes of air-soil exchange were estimated using a fugacity model. It is clear that Nepal is a country contributing prominently to secondary emissions of endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and low molecular weight (LMW) PCBs and PAHs. The flux for all the pollutants in Kathmandu, with ∑endosulfans up to 3553; HCB up to 5263; and ∑LMW-PAHs up to 24378 ng m -2  h -1 , were higher than those in Pokhara. These high flux values indicated the high strength of Nepali soils to act as a source. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of residual exposure to PCBs in metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostinelli, Jacopo; Catalani, Simona; Gaia, Alice; De Palma, Giuseppe; Apostoli, Pietro

    2017-06-28

    To evaluate the occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 56 workers employed in 6 electric arc furnace steelmaking plants and 2 secondary aluminum smelting plants located in the highly industrialized area of Brescia, Northern Italy. Thirty-four PCB congeners were found in both environmental and biological samples from workers engaged in scrap yards, electric arc furnaces, casting and maintenance departments. The highest airborne PCB levels were found in the aluminum plant, even 100 times those detected in the steelwork plants. Dioxin-like PCB congeners (DL-PCBs) were poorly represented in all biological samples, whereas non Dioxin-Like PCB congeners (noDL-PCBs), in particular environmentally widespread congeners (PCB 153, 138, 180), could be detected in almost all samples. The mean total PCB serum level was 3.9 ng/ml, with a range of 1.3-10.3 ng/ml, while the geometric mean for airborne PCBs levels was 9305 pg/m3, with a range of 1138-217806 pg/m3. Despite the higher PCB values recorded in some metallurgical plant workplaces, we failed to find any significant difference between serum concentrations in workers from steel or aluminum production, even in consideration of different tasks or different job seniority, while positive association was found only according to the age of the workers. A possible explanation may be identified in the effectiveness of the individual and collective preventive measures adopted in the workplace. Assessment of the occupational exposure to such compounds, in consideration of the recent classifications as carcinogenic to humans, should be encouraged.

  11. Assessment of exposure and transfer of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and PCBs. Literature review; Expositionsbetrachtung und Beurteilung des Transfers von Dioxinen, dioxinaehnlichen PCB und PCB. Literaturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennecke, Dieter [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany); Duering, Rolf-Alexander; Becker, Leonie [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenkunde und Bodenerhaltung

    2011-09-15

    Causal correlations between environmental contamination with PCBs and PCDD/Fs and food and feed contamination with these substances are not been found so far. Because of the high importance of the transfer of these substances into the food chain this is subject to wide research. The present literature review summarizes the actual knowledge regarding emission, exposition and transfer of PCBs and Dioxins within the food chain. A particular focus has been laid to sources of emission, distribution processes and exposure assessment for environment and consumer. International publications as well as publications and reports on a German national level and so called ''grey'' literature were evaluated. In general it can be noticed that comparison of different publications is difficult since the authors usually do not differentiate between non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndl-PCBs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs). Most authors mix dl-PCBs and ndl-PCBs, a breakdown of the PCBs in single congeners is rarely given. Extended Abstract Due to atmospheric translocation PCBs and PCDD/Fs are ubiquitous distributed in the environment. The emissions in Germany could be reduced drastically in the first half of the nineties due to regulatory restrictions. At the same time contaminations detected in food and feed dropped down. But since 1997 no significant further reduction of environmental concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs can be observed. Present emissions of PCBs and PCDD/Fs derive from nonpoint sources mainly, e.g. remobilisation from soils and sediments by surface erosion and volatilization. Further increasing emissions of PCDD/Fs are expected due to promotion of renewable energies (combustion of wood). A short term reduction of environmental concentrations is not likely due to the persistence of the compounds. Major exposure pathway for plants is via dry and wet deposition of contaminated particles and volatiles, depending on the physical-chemical properties of the various

  12. Levels of PCBs, DDT, DDE and DDD in Italian human blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, C. La; Abate, V.; Alivernini, S.; Iacovella, N.; Mantovani, A.; Turrio-Baldassarri, L. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Silvestroni, L.; Spera, G. [Dept. of Medical Pathophysiology, Univ. (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    The environmental contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is effecting the exposure of the general population in a direct way through air inhalation, ingestion of particulate matter and dermal absorption and, most of all, in an indirect way through diet. Diet represents, in fact, the main way of human exposure to PCBs. PCBs have potential teratogenic, carcinogenic, hormonal and immunological effects. An association between endometriosis and high levels of PCB in plasma has also been reported3. Moreover, some congeners (PCB 105, PCB 118, PCB 153) have effects on thyroid hormones in animal models, although the PCB dose used in these experiments was an order of magnitude higher than the estimated human exposure. Humans are, however, exposed to a complex mixtures of PCB congeners. In this study identification and quantification of 60 PCB congeners and 3 chlorinated pesticides in human whole blood samples are presented. The subjects examined in this pilot study were a small group of patients with possible endocrine-related problems and unknown specific exposure. The aim of this study was to increase the present understanding about the distribution of the PCBs in human whole blood. The levels of DDT and metabolites were measured as well, since these compounds are consistently reported to contribute to the whole body burden of persistent chlorinated compounds, together with PCBs.

  13. Organochlorine compounds in European catfish (Silurus glanis) living in river areas under the influence of a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River basin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Benito, Josep; Benejam, Lluís; García-Berthou, Emili

    2016-01-01

    European catfish, Silurus glanis, were used as sentinel organisms of the influence of recent and past discharges of organochlorine compounds (OCs) from a chlor-alkali plant located in the Ebro River. The fish concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs were very high along the last 100 km of the river, including the irrigation channels, e.g. 1.2-27 ng/g wet weight of HCB, 6.3-100 ng/g ww of PCBs and 1-270 ng/g ww of total DDT compounds. These concentrations were much higher than those found upstream from the chlor-alkali discharge site, 0.2 ng/g ww for HCB, 5.6 ng/g ww for PCBs and 7.5 ng/g for DDT compounds. These concentrations were also standing out among those previously described in this fish species. The European catfish collected in sites under lower water flows, Ribarroja reservoir and irrigation channels, showed higher muscle lipid content, 1.09-7.2%, than those from sites of higher current intensities, river bed, 0.27%-0.67%. In these lower water current areas catfish exhibited OC ww concentrations that were correlated to % lipids. These differences suggest that normalization to lipid content is necessary for comparison of the OC accumulation in specimens from riverine systems living under different flow intensities. Accordingly, OC concentrations referred to lipid content showed more uniform downriver distribution which was consistent with a single focal point as main source of these compounds for the European catfish collected in the last 100 km of river stretch. This geographic distribution was also consistent with the uniform composition of PCB congeners in the studied European catfish. The distribution of DDT compounds was predominated by 4,4'-DDE which is common in most currently examined fish from aquatic environments. However, it included a high proportion of 4,4'-DDD and 2,4'-DDD which was consistent with the high contribution of benthic organisms from anoxic environments in the diet of these fish. Copyright

  14. Separating DDTs in edible animal fats using matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction with activated carbon filter, Toyobo-KF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Naoto

    2006-09-01

    A technique is presented for the economical, routine, and quantitative analysis of contamination by dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) [pp'-DDT, pp'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene, and pp'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloreothane in beef tallow and chicken fat samples, based on their separation using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction with Toyobo-KF, an activated carbon fiber. Toyobo-KF is a newly applied MSPD sorbent, and it is followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a photodiode array detector. The resulting analytical performance parameters [recoveries of spiked DDTs (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 microg/g) > or = 81%, with relative standard deviations of < or = 8% (n = 5), and quantitation limits < or = 0.03 microg/g], with minimal handling and cost-efficiency, indicate that the present MSPD-HPLC method may be a useful tool for routine monitoring of DDT contamination in meat.

  15. European developments following incidents with dioxins and PCBs in the food en feed chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Traag, W.A.; Fernandes, A.; Rose, M.

    2015-01-01

    Incidents with dioxins and PCBs have resulted in a strategy within the EU to reduce the exposure of the population to these compounds. Maximum levels were set for food and feed products and criteria were developed for the analytical methods (both confirmatory and screening) used for official control

  16. Bioaccumulation of PCBs from microplastics in Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devriese, Lisa I.; De Witte, Bavo; Vethaak, A. Dick; Hostens, Kris; Leslie, Heather A.

    2017-01-01

    Plastic debris acts as a sorbent phase for hydrophobic organic compounds like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Chemical partitioning models predict that the ingestion of microplastics with adsorbed chemicals in the field will tend not to result in significant net desorption of the chemical to the

  17. DDTs in rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) from an agricultural site, South China: tissue distribution, biomagnification, and potential toxic effects assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2012-04-01

    Contamination with agricultural pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), is among several proposed stressors contributing to the global declines in amphibian populations and species biodiversity. These chemicals were examined in insects and in the muscle, liver, and eggs of rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) from the paddy fields of an agricultural site in South China. The ΣDDT (sum of DDT, DDE, and DDD) concentrations ranged from 154 to 915, 195 to 1,400, and 165 to 1,930 ng/g lipid weight in the muscle, liver, and eggs, respectively. All the DDTs (DDT, DDE, and DDD) showed higher affinity for the liver relative to muscle tissue and can be maternally transferred to eggs in female frogs. The average biomagnification factors for DDTs ranged from 1.6 to 1.9 and 1.5 to 2.9 in female and male frogs, respectively, providing clear evidence of their biomagnification from insects to frogs. Compared with the reported DDT levels demonstrated to have toxic effects on frogs, DDTs in the present frogs are unlikely to constitute an immediate health risk. However, the adverse impacts of high DDT residues in eggs on the hatching success and their potential toxicity to the newly metamorphosed larval frogs should be assessed further. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  18. Aquaculture-derived enrichment of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in coastal sediments of Hong Kong and adjacent mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Cheng, Zhang; Du, Jun; Man, Yu-Bon; Leung, Ho-Man; Giesy, John P; Wong, Chris K C; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate contamination of sediments along the coast of Hong Kong and adjacent mainland China, concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in surface and core sediments were measured in six mariculture zones. In surface sediments (0 to 5 cm), concentrations of ∑HCHs and ∑DDTs in mariculture sediments were approximately 1.3- and 7.7-fold greater, respectively, than those detected in sediments at corresponding reference sites, which were 1 to 2 km away in areas where there was no mariculture. Similarly, in cores of sediments, concentrations of ∑HCHs and ∑DDTs were 1.2- and 14-fold greater in mariculture zones, respectively. Enrichment relative to regional background concentrations, expressed as percentages was as large as 8.67 × 10(3)% for o,p'-DDD. The major sources of the enriched organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were hypothesized to be derived from the use of contaminated fish feeds and anti-fouling paints for maintaining fish cages. Results of ecological risk assessments revealed that enriched OCPs had a large potential to contaminate the surrounding marine environment and lead to adverse effects on the associated biota. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the differences of OCP contaminations between mariculture and natural coastal sediments. © 2013.

  19. Trace elements, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in New Zealand common dolphins (Delphinus sp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockin, K.A. [Coastal-Marine Research Group, Institute of Natural Resources, Massey University, Private Bag 102 904, North Shore MSC (New Zealand)], E-mail: k.a.stockin@massey.ac.nz; Law, R.J. [The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Cefas Burnham Laboratory, Remembrance Avenue, Burnham on Crouch, Essex CM0 8HA (United Kingdom); Duignan, P.J.; Jones, G.W. [New Zealand Wildlife Centre, Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Porter, L. [AgriQuality Limited, PO Box 31 242, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Mirimin, L. [University College Cork, Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, North Mall, Distillery Fields, Cork (Ireland); Meynier, L. [New Zealand Wildlife Centre, Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Orams, M.B. [Coastal-Marine Research Group, Institute of Natural Resources, Massey University, Private Bag 102 904, North Shore MSC (New Zealand)

    2007-11-15

    Trace elements, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticide levels were determined in tissues collected from stranded and bycaught common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) from New Zealand waters between 1999 and 2005. The concentrations of mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and silver (Ag) were determined in blubber, liver and kidney tissue. PCBs (45 congeners) and a range of OC pesticides including dieldrin, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites DDE and DDD were determined in blubber samples. Cr and Ni were not detected in any of the samples and concentrations of Co, Sn and Pb were generally low. Concentrations of Hg ranged from 0.17 to 110 mg/kg wet weight. Organochlorine pesticides dieldrin, HCB, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were present at the highest concentrations. Sum DDT concentrations in the blubber ranged from 17 to 337 and 654 to 4430 {mu}g/kg wet weight in females and males, respectively. Similarly, {sigma}45CB concentrations ranged from 49 to 386 and 268 to 1634 {mu}g/kg wet weight in females and males, respectively. The mean transmission of {sigma}DDTs and ICES7CBs between a genetically determined mother-offspring pair was calculated at 46% and 42%, respectively. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides determined in the present study are within similar range to those reported for Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhyncus hectori) from inshore New Zealand waters.

  20. Development and validation of prediction models for blood concentrations of dioxins and PCBs using dietary intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Stigum, Hein; Thomsen, Cathrine; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Knutsen, Helle K

    2012-12-01

    Dioxins and PCBs accumulate in the food chain and might exert toxic effects in animals and humans. In large epidemiologic studies, exposure estimates of these compounds based on analyses of biological material might not be available or affordable. To develop and then validate models for predicting concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in blood using a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire and blood concentrations. Prediction models were built on data from one study (n=195), and validated in an independent study group (n=66). We used linear regression to develop predictive models for dioxins and PCBs, both sums of congeners and 33 single congeners (7 and 10 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/PCDFs), 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: 4 non-ortho and 8 mono-ortho), sum of all the 29 dioxin-like compounds (total TEQ) and sum of 4 non dioxin-like PCBs (∑ CB-101, 138, 153, 183=PCB(4)). We used the blood concentration and dietary intake of each of the above as dependent and independent variables, while sex, parity, age, place of living, smoking status, energy intake and education were covariates. We validated the models in a new study population comparing the predicted blood concentrations with the measured blood concentrations using correlation coefficients and Weighted Kappa (К(W)) as measures of agreement, considering К(W)>0.40 as successful prediction. The models explained 78% (sum dioxin-like compounds), 76% (PCDDs), 76% (PCDFs), 74% (no-PCBs), 69% (mo-PCBs), 68% (PCB(4)) and 63% (CB-153) of the variance. In addition to dietary intake, age and sex were the most important covariates. The predicted blood concentrations were highly correlated with the measured values, with r=0.75 for dl-compounds 0.70 for PCB(4), (p0.40. The models developed had high power to predict blood levels of dioxins and PCBs and to correctly rank subjects according to high or low exposure based on dietary intake and demographic information. These models

  1. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in fish from lakes of the Tibetan Plateau and the implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Ruiqiang; Wang Yawei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing, 100085 (China); Li An [School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Zhang Qinghua; Jing Chuanyong; Wang Thanh; Wang Pu; Li Yingming [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing, 100085 (China); Jiang Guibin, E-mail: gbjiang@rcees.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing, 100085 (China)

    2010-06-15

    High mountains may play significant roles in the global transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This work aims to investigate the levels, patterns and distribution of semi-volatile organoclorine pollutants and to improve the understanding of the long-range atmospheric transport and fate of contaminants on the Tibetan Plateau. A total of 60 fish samples were collected from eight lakes located between 2813 and 4718 m above sea level across the Plateau. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were measured in fish muscle. The results showed that concentrations of DDT, HCH and HCB were comparable to or lower than those found in remote mountains of Europe, Canada and US, while PCB concentrations in fish were, on average, about 4-150 times lower on Tibet than at other mountain areas. The transport and fate of contaminants in the Plateau are significantly influenced by the unique climatological and meteorological conditions, particularly by the summer Indian monsoon and winter westerly jet stream. - Occurrence of POPs in higher-altitude lakes suggests that Tibetan Plateau acts as potential regional convergence zones for long-range atmospheric transported contaminants.

  2. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Tilapia zillii from Lake El-Manzala, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Greisy, Zeinab Abdalbagi; Abdallah, A. Mohamed Ali

    2005-01-01

    A fresh water fish species, (Tilapia zillii) from Lake El-Manzala was analyzed for concentrations of several Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorine piphenyl's (PCBs) in liver, gonads, mesenteric fat, flesh and the digestive tract in mature fish during the breeding season. Polychlorinated piphenyls (PCBs) and Organochloripe pesticides (OCs) were calculated in (ng/g) dry weight (dw) in homogenized samples. The obtained results revealed differences in lipid content between these different organs. The females showed higher lipid content than males. There was significant positive correlation the lipid content and organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The results come concomitant with the lipophilicity of studied compounds. However, the recoded concentration of these studied pollutants still does not exceed international hazardous levels. (author)

  3. Unintentional formed PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs as impurities in Chinese pentachloronitrobenzene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Gao, Jie; Yu, Gang; Yamazaki, Norimasa; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Bin; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) products have been reported to contain relatively high levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) as impurities. No data was available for Chinese PCNB products which are still produced and used in China. Therefore, we analysed Chinese PCNB products, including two raw pesticides and three formulations available on the market. In all samples, PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were detected at levels exceeding Japanese regulation limits. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs (0.16 to 0.93 ng TEQ g(-1)) were lower than the PCNB formulations measured from the Australian market (3.9 ng TEQ g(-1)). However, the Toxic Equivalent (TEQ) contribution from DL-PCBs (0.7 to 2.5 ng TEQ g(-1)) to total TEQ was higher compared to PCDDs and PCDFs. This discovery demonstrated that it is necessary to consider the DL-PCBs impurity in organochlorine pesticides and other organochlorine chemicals in particular chlorinated aromatic compounds for adequate risk assessment. In addition to DL-PCBs, other unintentionally POPs-hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (3.7 to 52 ng g(-1)) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) (0.04 to 0.3 ng g(-1)) which are listed in the Stockholm Convention-were detected in the PCNB samples. The PCNB production steps were assessed for their unintentional POPs formation potential. Thermolysis of the aromatic compounds using iron chloride (FeCl3) as catalyst is suggested as relevant production step for (DL-)PCBs formation. Since the levels in the formulated PCNB recalculated to active ingredient were higher compared to the raw pesticide, the formulation process (e.g., milling) may also have had an influence on additional PCDD/Fs and PCBs formation.

  4. Chemical destruction of PCBs at ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dole, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports the development and testing of a one-step process that destroys PCBs at ambient temperatures. QUALTEC's process works on contaminated auto fluffs containing 50-200 ppm PCBs. These PCBs come from capacitors, transformers, hydraulic fluids, adhesives and plasticizers from cars and appliances. This low-temperature destruction process reduces the PCB concentration by more that 40%. The results were verified in two independent laboratories. These laboratories showed a 43% destruction of PCBs at a 95% confidence level. The laboratory results also showed that the reactions released no VOCs. Also, no harmful organic reaction byproducts were found by U.S. EPA SW-846 Method 8072 of analysis. The treated waste was fixed by adding binders. After a second fixation step, the final waste form passed the U.S. EPA's TCLP requirements and was not characteristically hazardous. The fixed product is acceptable at an unlined California Class III municipal landfill. The concentration of PCBs in the final waste form was less than 25 ppm at a 99% confidence level

  5. PCBs: structure–function relationships and mechanism of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe, Stephen; Bandiera, Stelvio; Sawyer, Tom; Robertson, Larry; Safe, Lorna; Parkinson, Andrew; Thomas, Paul E.; Ryan, Dene E.; Reik, Linda M.; Levin, Wayne; Denomme, Mary Anne; Fujita, Toshio

    1985-01-01

    Numerous reports have illustrated the versatility of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related halogenated aromatics as inducers of drug-metabolizing enzymes and the activity of individual compounds are remarkably dependent on structure. The most active PCB congeners, 3,4,4′,5-tetra-, 3,3′,4,4′-tetra-, 3,3′,4,4′,5-penta- and 3,3′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl, are substituted at both para and at two or more meta positions. The four coplanar PCBs resembled 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) in their mode of induction of the hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes. These compounds induced rat hepatic microsomal benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase (aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, AHH) and cytochromes P-450a, P-450c and P-450d. 3,4,4′,5-Tetrachlorobiphenyl, the least active coplanar PCB, also induced dimethylaminoantipyrine N-demethylase and cytochromes P-450b+e and resembled Aroclor 1254 as an inducer of the mixed-function oxidase system. Like Aroclor 1254, all the mono-ortho- and at least eight di-ortho-chloro analogs of the coplanar PCBs exhibited a “mixed-type” induction pattern and induced microsomal AHH, dimethylaminoantipyrine NM-demethylase and cytochromes P-450a–P-450e. Quantative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) within this series of PCBs were determined by comparing their AHH induction potencies (EC50) in rat hepatoma H-4-II-E cells and their binding affinities (ED50) for the 2,3,7,8-TCDD cytosolic receptor protein. The results showed that there was an excellent correlation between AHH induction potencies and receptor binding avidities of these compounds and the order of activity was coplanar PCBs (3,3′,4,4′-tetra-, 3,3′,4,4′,5-penta- and 3,3′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyls) > 3,4,4′,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl ~ mono-ortho coplanar PCBs > di-ortho coplanar PCBs. It was also apparent that the relative toxicities of this group of PCBs paralleled their biological potencies. The

  6. PCBs in phytoplankton in the Odra Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Konat-Stepowicz

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Eleven PCB congeners were determined in phytoplankton samples collected from the Odra Estuary at 9 stations in 2001-2002. The PCB concentrations were related to the temperature, turbidity, salinity, oxygen and redox potential of the water as well as to the pigment content in the samples. The results indicate that phytoplankton and the detritus derived from it play a crucial role in the distribution of PCBs, their transfer from the water column to sediments and from the Estuary to the sea. The species composition of the phytoplankton occurring in this area could also be very important as regards the sorption of PCBs.

  7. Fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in anaerobic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, N.B.K.

    1980-01-01

    Degradation of 14 C labelled 2,5,2; 2,5,2',5' PCBs was studied in Hagerstown silty clay loam with and without sludge amendments under anaerobic conditions for 42 days. Soil respiration was enhanced by PCBs in soil. PCBs reduced the soil respiration in soil with sludge. Volatilization of PCBs was decreased by sludge in soil. Most of the radioactivity was found in hexane extracts of soils. No further degradation products were observed. (author)

  8. Distribution and ecological risks of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations of Σ15 PCBs in sediments of the Forcados River, Nigeria, were determined in 2012 to provide information on the profile, sources and ecotoxicological risks of PCBs in the sediment. The screening concentrations of PCBs were quantified using a gas chromatograph equipped with a Ni-63 electron capture ...

  9. PCBs levels and indicator congeners in children's and adolescents' hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Baocui; Liu, Xinhui; Hou, Jing; Liang, Gang; Gong, Wenwen; Xu, Diandou; Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Thirty polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in the hair samples collected from children (4–12) and adolescents (13–18) of Changchun city, Northeastern China. The mean concentrations of total PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in the adolescents' hair samples were 161.0 ng g −1 and 61.7 ng g −1 , which were relatively higher than 43.7 ng g −1 and 14.6 ng g −1 in the children's ones. Considering gender difference, the mean concentrations in the girls' hair samples were approximately two times higher than those in the boys' ones for most PCB congeners. The pentachlorinated biphenyl was the dominant homologue. It was found that the levels of total PCBs and dl-PCBs were highly correlated with PCB 118 level in the children's hair samples, and with PCB 114 level in the adolescents' ones. The result demonstrated that the two PCB congeners could be applied as the indicators to evaluate the concentrations of total PCBs and dl-PCBs in children's and adolescents' hair, respectively. -- Highlights: • PCBs levels for most congeners were higher in the adolescents' hair samples. • The mean PCBs were approximately 2 times higher for girls except few congeners. • Pentachlorinated biphenyl was the dominant homologue in the both hair samples. • PCB 118 and PCB 114 were the indicators for total PCBs and total dl-PCBs. -- The PCBs levels can be predicted conveniently by the congener-specific analysis

  10. Import, use, and emissions of PCBs in Switzerland from 1930 to 2100.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Glüge

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic compounds that are ubiquitously found in the environment. Their use and manufacture were restricted or banned in many countries in the 1970-1980s, however, they still persist in the antroposphere, the environment and in biota worldwide today. Conventions like the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution encourage or bind the member parties to annually submit emission inventories of regulated air pollutants. Unfortunately, several member states have not yet reported PCB emissions. The identification and quantification of stocks and emissions sources is, however, an important precondition to handle and remove the remaining reservoirs of PCBs and, thus, to be able to reduce emissions and subsequently environmental exposure. Here, we estimate past, present, and future emissions of PCBs to air in Switzerland and provide emission factors for all relevant emission categories. Switzerland hereby represents a typical developed industrial country, and most of the assumptions and parameters presented here can be used to calculate PCB emission also for other countries. PCB emissions to air are calculated using a dynamic mass flow and emissions model for Switzerland, which is run for the years 1930-2100. The results point out the importance of the use of PCBs in open applications, which have largely been previously overlooked. Additionally, we show that PCBs will persist in applications during the coming decades with ongoing emissions. Especially the use of PCBs in open applications will cause Swiss emissions to remain above 100 kg PCB per year, even after the year 2030. Our developed model is available in Excel/VBA and can be downloaded with this article.

  11. Import, use, and emissions of PCBs in Switzerland from 1930 to 2100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glüge, Juliane; Steinlin, Christine; Schalles, Simone; Wegmann, Lukas; Tremp, Josef; Breivik, Knut; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Bogdal, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic compounds that are ubiquitously found in the environment. Their use and manufacture were restricted or banned in many countries in the 1970-1980s, however, they still persist in the antroposphere, the environment and in biota worldwide today. Conventions like the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution encourage or bind the member parties to annually submit emission inventories of regulated air pollutants. Unfortunately, several member states have not yet reported PCB emissions. The identification and quantification of stocks and emissions sources is, however, an important precondition to handle and remove the remaining reservoirs of PCBs and, thus, to be able to reduce emissions and subsequently environmental exposure. Here, we estimate past, present, and future emissions of PCBs to air in Switzerland and provide emission factors for all relevant emission categories. Switzerland hereby represents a typical developed industrial country, and most of the assumptions and parameters presented here can be used to calculate PCB emission also for other countries. PCB emissions to air are calculated using a dynamic mass flow and emissions model for Switzerland, which is run for the years 1930-2100. The results point out the importance of the use of PCBs in open applications, which have largely been previously overlooked. Additionally, we show that PCBs will persist in applications during the coming decades with ongoing emissions. Especially the use of PCBs in open applications will cause Swiss emissions to remain above 100 kg PCB per year, even after the year 2030. Our developed model is available in Excel/VBA and can be downloaded with this article.

  12. Carry-over of dioxins and PCBs from feed and soil to eggs at low contamination levels-- influence of mycotoxin binders on the carry-over from feed to eggs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L A P; Kan, C A; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Eijkeren, Jan C H van; Traag, Win A

    2006-01-01

    Laying hens were fed with compound feed containing six different levels of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and indicator PCBs for a period of 56 days. This was followed by a period of 56 days on clean feed. Dioxin levels in feed varied from background levels to three times the current EU tolerance limit

  13. Carry-over of dioxins and PCBs from feed and soil to eggs at low contamination levels - influence of mycotoxin binders on the carry-over from feed to eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Kan, C.A.; Zeilmaker, M.; Eijkeren, van J.; Traag, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Laying hens were fed with compound feed containing six different levels of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and indicator PCBs for a period of 56 days. This was followed by a period of 56 days on clean feed. Dioxin levels in feed varied from background levels to three times the current EU tolerance limit

  14. Implementation Of Palladized Iron-Impregnated Reactive Activated Carbon (RAC) System For PCBs Cleanup: Effects Of PCB Loading, Reaction pH, And Co-Existing NOM And Ionic Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the treatment of chlorinated organic compounds in the environment, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we have developed reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles. The RAC system can couple adsorption of PCBs to activated carbon wi...

  15. PCDD/Fs and PCBs in soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pussente, Igor C.; Dam, ten Guillaume; Leeuwen, van Stefan; Augusti, Rodinei

    2017-01-01

    Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) are substances that represent a global concern due to their ubiquitous presence and toxicity. Industrial processes and other human activities as well as uncontrollable

  16. PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and marker PCBs in eggs of peregrine falcons from Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malisch, R.; Baum, F. [CVUA, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Adverse effects of persistent organochlorine pesticides (POPs) on wildlife have been widely documented in the literature. For birds, the reproductive cycle is negatively influenced. Therefore, bird's eggs are frequently used to monitor the contamination of the environment with xenobiotic substances. A high content of PCBs and p,p'-DDE (as main metabolite of p,p'-DDT) was found in eggs of peregrine falcons collected between 1988 and 1993 in the German ''Bundesland'' Baden- Wuerttemberg. Many other publications presented results for organochlorine pesticides, indicator PCBs or organobromine compounds in various bird's eggs. PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs were determined in eggs of California peregrine falcons, of cormorants in Japan, of predatory birds in Spain, of common terns in Michigan, USA, of peregrine falcons in Spain (vii) and of different sorts of hawks in Germany. The Stockholm Convention is a global treaty signed now by 55 parties to take action against certain POPs, among them PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs. After ratification by France as the 50th Party, the Convention entered into force on 17 May 2004. The effectiveness should be evaluated four years after the date of entry into force and periodically thereafter at intervals. Therefore, a Global POPs Monitoring Programme was developed. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) organized a workshop to provide a scientific basis for this programme. One of the conclusions was to select the following matrices: air; bivalves; wildlife species (fish, bird's eggs, marine mammals) and human milk. The main reason for inclusion wildlife including bird's eggs was to gain information on temporal trends on, at the least, a regional basis, in animals, which represent either top predators or important species within aquatic or terrestrial food chains. For falcons, a high accumulation of POPs was observed. Regarding the migration habits it is known that older peregrine falcons

  17. Dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non-dioxin-like PCBs in foodstuffs : occurrence and dietary intake in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, A.J.; Bakker, M.I.; Baumann, R.A.; Boon, P.E.; Freijer, J.I.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Liem, A.K.D.; Traag, W.A.; Vries, de J.

    2004-01-01

    Data on occurrence of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs] and dibenzofurans [PCDFs]), dioxin-like PCBs (polychlorinated non-ortho and mono-ortho biphenyls) and non-dioxin-like PCBs (as represented by the so-called indicator-PCBs: congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) in food

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments of Liaohe River: levels, spatial and temporal distribution, possible sources, and inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jiapei; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Changbo; Guo, Changsheng; Luo, Yi; Meng, Wei; Zou, Guofang; Xu, Jian

    2015-03-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sediment of Liaohe River were investigated in this study. A total of 29 surface sediment samples were collected in May and September in 2013. Results showed that levels of the two classes of compounds were higher in September than in May. The total concentration of PBDEs (∑8PBDEs) ranged from 0.30 to 5.09 ng g(-1) in May and from 0.17 to 13.73 ng g(-1) in September, respectively, and BDE 209 was the dominant compound. The total concentration of PCBs (∑33PCBs) was in the range of 4.92-76.86 and 11.69-179.61 ng g(-1) in May and September, respectively, with tri- and tetra-CBs dominated in the total PCBs in the sediments. According to the congener profiles and the principal component analysis, the major sources of PCBs and PBDEs in sediments of Liaohe River were from the usage of commercial products and industrial activities, and the degradation of high brominated BDEs also contributed to the current PBDEs in the sediments. The mass inventories of PBDEs and PCBs in the sediments of Liaohe River were 1.74 and 21.96 t, respectively, indicating that Liaohe River sediments may act as the potential sources of PBDEs and PCBs to the downstream coastal areas.

  19. Blood levels of dioxins, furans, dioxin-like PCBs, and TEQs in general populations: a review, 1989-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Dario; Sindaco, Raffaella; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

    2012-09-01

    A comprehensive worldwide literature review of blood levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in non-exposed adult general populations was performed. The studies published in 1989-2010 reporting information on polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho-PCBs (nPCBs), mono-ortho-PCBs (mPCBs) levels and Toxic Equivalencies (TEQs, a summary weighted measure of their combined toxicity) were reviewed. TEQs were calculated using as standard the most recent WHO 2005 reevaluation of Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs). Weighted multiple regression analyses adjusted for year, subject's age, type of sample analyzed, method used for values below detection limit, and central tendency measure used were performed for each congener and standardized TEQs (log-transformed). We identified 187 studies regarding 29,687 subjects of 26 countries. Year of blood collection ranged from 1985 to 2008. The studies reporting congener levels 161. In adjusted analyses, European countries showed higher levels of most dioxin-like congeners and TEQs. A strong positive association of subjects' age with most congeners and with TEQ values was found, confirming previous findings. Significant decreases over time (1985-2008) were documented for PCCDs, PCDFs, and TEQs including their contributions. No significant decrease was found for non-ortho-PCBs, notably PCB 126. Only some mono-ortho-PCBs showed clear significant declines. Accordingly, TEQs including only PCB contribution did not decrease over time. In interpreting these findings, it should be considered that for dioxin-like PCBs the analysis period was shorter (17 years), since these compounds were first measured in 1992. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of standard humic materials on relative bioavailability of NDL-PCBs in juvenile swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Delannoy

    Full Text Available Young children with their hand-to-mouth activity may be exposed to contaminated soils. However few studies assessing exposure of organic compounds sequestrated in soil were realized. The present study explores the impact of different organic matters on retention of NDL-PCBs during digestive processes using commercial humic substances in a close digestive model of children: the piglet. Six artificial soils were used. One standard soil, devoid of organic matter, and five amended versions of this standard soil with either fulvic acid, humic acid, Sphagnum peat, activated carbon or a mix of Sphagnum peat and activated carbon (95∶5 (SPAC were prepared. In order to compare the different treatments, we use spiked oil and negative control animals. Forty male piglets were randomly distributed in 7 contaminated and one control groups (n = 5 for each group. During 10 days, the piglets were fed artificial soil or a corn oil spiked with 19,200 ng of Aroclor 1254 per g of dry matter (6,000 ng.g⁻¹ of NDL-PCBs to achieve an exposure dose of 1,200 ng NDL-PCBs.Kg⁻¹ of body weight per day. NDL-PCBs in adipose tissue were analyzed by GC-MS. Fulvic acid reduced slightly the bioavailability of NDL-PCBs compared to oil. Humic acid and Sphagnum peat reduced it significantly higher whereas activated carbon reduced the most. Piglets exposed to soil containing both activated carbon and Shagnum peat exhibited a lower reduction than soil with only activated carbon. Therefore, treatment groups are ordered by decreasing value of relative bioavailability as following: oil ≥ fulvic acid>Sphagnum peat ≥ Sphagnum peat and activated carbon ≥ Humic acid>>activated carbon. This suggests competition between Sphagnum peat and activated carbon. The present study highlights that quality of organic matter does have a significant effect on bioavailability of sequestrated organic compounds.

  1. Airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) reduce telomerase activity and shorten telomere length in immortal human skin keratinocytes (HaCat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, P.K.; Klingelhutz, A.J.; Jacobus, J.A.; Lehmler, H.; Robertson, L.W.; Ludewig, G.

    2011-01-01

    PCBs, a group of 209 individual congeners, are ubiquitous environmental pollutants and classified as probable human carcinogens. One major route of exposure is by inhalation of these industrial compounds, possibly daily from inner city air and/or indoor air in contaminated buildings. Hallmarks of aging and carcinogenesis are changes in telomere length and telomerase activity. We hypothesize that semi-volatile PCBs, like those found in inner city air, are capable of disrupting telomerase activity and altering telomere length. To explore this possibility, we exposed human skin keratinocytes to a synthetic Chicago Airborne Mixture (CAM) of PCBs, or the prominent airborne PCB congeners, PCB28 or PCB52 for up to 48 days and determined telomerase activity, telomere length, cell proliferation, and cell cycle distribution. PCBs 28, 52 and CAM significantly reduced telomerase activity from days 18–48. Telomere length was shortened by PCB52 from day 18 and PCB28 and CAM from days 30 on. All PCBs decreased cell proliferation from day 18; only PCB52 produced a small increase of cells in G0/G1 of the cell cycle. This significant inhibition of telomerase activity and reduction of telomere length by PCB congeners suggest a potential mechanism by which these compounds could lead to accelerated aging and cancer. PMID:21530622

  2. Bioremediation of PCBs. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div., TN (United States); Abramowicz, D.A. [General Electric Co. Corporate Research and Development, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was signed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and General Electric Company (GE) on August 12, 1991. The objective was a collaborative venture between researchers at GE and ORNL to develop bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The work was conducted over three years, and this report summarizes ORNL`s effort. It was found that the total concentration of PCBs decreased by 70% for sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment compared with a 67% decrease for aerobic treatment alone. The sequential treatment resulted in PCB products with fewer chlorines and shorter halflives in humans compared with either anaerobic or aerobic treatment alone. The study was expected to lead to a technology applicable to a field experiment that would be performed on a DOE contaminated site.

  3. Bioremediation of PCBs. CRADA final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, K.T.; Abramowicz, D.A.

    1996-06-01

    The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was signed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and General Electric Company (GE) on August 12, 1991. The objective was a collaborative venture between researchers at GE and ORNL to develop bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The work was conducted over three years, and this report summarizes ORNL's effort. It was found that the total concentration of PCBs decreased by 70% for sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment compared with a 67% decrease for aerobic treatment alone. The sequential treatment resulted in PCB products with fewer chlorines and shorter halflives in humans compared with either anaerobic or aerobic treatment alone. The study was expected to lead to a technology applicable to a field experiment that would be performed on a DOE contaminated site

  4. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in Southern Right Whales (Eubalaena australis) breeding at Península Valdés, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, P; Miglioranza, K S B; Uhart, M M; Gonzalez, M; Commendatore, M

    2015-06-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in blubber from 35 dead Southern Right Whales (SRW - Eubalaena australis) stranded at Península Valdés, Argentina. The life cycle includes a feeding period in high productivity areas of the South West Atlantic and a reproductive period in coastal template waters of Argentina. Organochlorine pesticides showed higher concentrations (22.6±13.8 ng·g(-1)ww) than PCBs (7.5±10 ng·g(-1)ww). Among pesticides, HCHs, DDTs, endosulfans, dieldrin, chlordans, heptachlor epoxide, and trans-nonachlor were detected. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT were present in 69% and 26% of samples, respectively. p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratio showed low values (whales is highlighted as a priority for research. This is the first study on levels, compositional patterns, and organochlorine sources in SRW. Moreover, more research including milk, and other tissues/organs is recommended considered that in the studied specimens, mostly calves, pollutants are likely transferred from the mother during pregnancy and nursing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of perinatal exposure to PCBs and dioxins on play behavior in Dutch children at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.I. Vreugdenhil (Hestien); F.M.E. Slijper (Froukje); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractPolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins are known as neurotoxic compounds that may modulate sex steroid hormones. Steroid hormones play a mediating role in brain development and may influence behaviors that show sex differences, such as childhood play behavior. In

  6. A toxicokinetic model for the carry-over of dioxins and PCBs from feed and soil to eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkeren, van J.; Zeilmaker, M.; Kan, C.A.; Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    A mathematical model for the kinetics of carry-over of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs from feed mixed with contaminated oil to eggs has been developed. This model incorporates uptake of the compounds over the gut wall and their subsequent transport by blood, distribution over the body, hepatic

  7. A toxicokinetic model for the carry-over of dioxins and PCBs from feed and soil to eggs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkeren, Jan C H van; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Kan, C A; Traag, Win A; Hoogenboom, L A P

    2006-01-01

    A mathematical model for the kinetics of carry-over of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs from feed mixed with contaminated oil to eggs has been developed. This model incorporates uptake of the compounds over the gut wall and their subsequent transport by blood, distribution over the body, hepatic

  8. Decomposition of PCBs in transformer oil using an electron beam accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, In-Ha; Lee, Myun-Joo; Mah, Yoon-Jung

    2012-07-01

    Decomposition of PCBs in commercially used transformer oil used for more than 30 years has been carried out at normal temperature and pressure without any additives using an electron beam accelerator. The experiments were carried out in two ways: batch and continuous pilot plant with 1.5 MeV of energy, a 50 mA current, and 75 kW of power in a commercial scale accelerator. The electron beam irradiation seemed to transform large molecular weight compounds into lower ones, but the impact was considered too small on the physical properties of oil. Residual concentrations of PCBs after irradiation depend on the absorption dose of the electron beam energy, but aliphatic chloride compounds were produced at higher doses of irradiation. As the results from FT-NMR, chloride ions decomposed from the PCBs are likely to react with aliphatic hydro carbon compounds rather than existing as free radical ions in the transformer oil. Since this is a dry process, treated oil can be used as cutting oil or machine oil for heavy equipment without any additional treatments.

  9. Some technical issues in managing PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhifu; Buekens, Alfons; Liu, Jie; Chen, Tong; Lu, Shengyong; Li, Xiaodong; Cen, Kefa

    2014-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were important industrial chemicals featuring high thermal and chemical stability and low flammability. They were widely used as dielectric and thermal fluid in closed electro-technical applications (transformers, capacitors…) and also in numerous dispersive uses, ranking from auto-copying paper to sealant or coatings. During the 1960s, severe environmental consequences started becoming apparent. The stability of PCBs contributed to their persistence in the environment, their lipophilic character to bio-magnification. Fish-eating species seemed threatened in their existence. In Japan and in Taiwan, thousands of people consumed PCB-contaminated oil. The production of PCBs stopped completely during the 1980s. Usage could continue in closed applications only. In this paper, particular attention is given to two issues: the cleaning of PCB electric transformers and the potential impact of PCB-containing building materials. Other contributions will cover the management and treatment of PCB-contaminated soil, sludge or fly ash. The complete survey is being prepared by request of the Knowledge Center for Engineers and Professionals.

  10. PCBs and OCPs in sediment cores from the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada: evidence of fluvial inputs and time lag in delivery to coring sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeuf, Michel; Nunes, Teresa

    2005-03-15

    Three sediment cores were collected along the longitudinal axis of the Laurentian Trough in the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary (LSLE) and an additional one at the junction of the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. After core-slicing, each sediment layer was analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and some organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and Mirex. 210Pb activity was also measured in these sediments, which allowed us to confirm that these cores were too much affected by the overall impact of surface mixing to be dated. Nevertheless, POP sedimentary profiles in cores from the LSLE upstream stations showed well-defined subsurface peak concentrations. Apparently, the peak inputs of POPs to these sediment cores had occurred after the years of maximum sales and production of these chemicals in North America, suggesting a time lag in the delivery of POPs to the LSLE sediments. Concentrations of POPs in the LSLE surface sediments as well as POP inventories in sediment cores decreased in the seaward direction, confirming that the head of the LSLE acts as a sink for sediments and associated constituents. Surface concentrations of sigmaPCBs, sigmaDDTs, and HCB in the most upstream core were on average similar to those reported in two fluvial lakes of the St. Lawrence River but were between 12 and 39 times lower than those from Lake Ontario. For Mirex, the surface concentration in that core was 5 and 130 times lower than the average values found in the fluvial lakes and Lake Ontario, respectively. Differences between Lake Ontario sediment cores and the most upstream core from the LSLE were much smaller on the basis of POP inventories than surface concentrations of POPs, but were still important. The total burdens of POPs in LSLE sediments below the 200 m isobath were 8704 kg for sigmaPCBs, 1825 kg for sigmaDDTs, 319 kg for HCB, and 27.5 kg for Mirex. These values represent

  11. Production and use of DDT containing antifouling paint resulted in high DDTs residue in three paint factory sites and two shipyard sites, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jia; Liu, Xiang; Liu, Wei; Jiang, Lu; Wang, Jihua; Niu, Jia

    2011-06-01

    This study provides the first intensive investigation of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDT) distribution in typical paint factories and shipyards in China where DDT containing antifouling paint were mass produced and used respectively. DDTs were analyzed in soil, sludge and sediment samples collected from three major paint factories and two shipyards. The results showed that the total DDTs concentrations detected in paint factory and shipyard sites ranged from 0.06 to 8387.24 mg kg(-1). In comparison with paint factory sites, the shipyard sites were much more seriously contaminated. However, for both kinds of sites, the DDTs level was found to be largely affected by history and capacity of production and use of DDT containing antifouling paint. (DDE+DDD)/DDT ratios indicated that DDT containing antifouling paint could serve as important fresh input sources for DDTs. It can be seen that most samples in shipyards were in ranges where heavy contamination and potential ecological risk were identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PCBs contamination in seafood species at the Eastern Coast of Thailand.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaikanlaya, C.; Settachan, D.; Denison, M.; Ruchirawat, M.; van den Berg, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08660466X

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a large group of persistent organic substances spread throughout the world. The most toxic PCBs are those that are dioxin-like (dl-PCBs). Environmental studies on PCBs in Thailand are limited, especially with regards to dl-PCBs. This study is one of the first in

  13. Fate of PCBs, PAHs and their source characteristic ratios during composting and digestion of source-separated organic waste in full-scale plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braendli, Rahel C.; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Kupper, Thomas; Mayer, Jochen; Stadelmann, Franz X.; Tarradellas, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Composting and digestion are important waste management strategies. However, the resulting products can contain significant amounts of organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study we followed the concentration changes of PCBs and PAHs during composting and digestion on field-scale for the first time. Concentrations of low-chlorinated PCBs increased during composting (about 30%), whereas a slight decrease was observed for the higher chlorinated congeners (about 10%). Enantiomeric fractions of atropisomeric PCBs were essentially racemic and stable over time. Levels of low-molecular-weight PAHs declined during composting (50-90% reduction), whereas high-molecular-weight compounds were stable. The PCBs and PAHs concentrations did not seem to vary during digestion. Source apportionment by applying characteristic PAH ratios and molecular markers in input material did not give any clear results. Some of these parameters changed considerably during composting. Hence, their diagnostic potential for finished compost must be questioned. - During field-scale composting, low molecular weight PCBs and PAHs increased and decreased, respectively, whereas high molecular weight compounds remained stable

  14. A Review on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in South Asia with a Focus on Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaw, Han Yeong; Kannan, Narayanan

    Malaysia is a developing country in Southeast Asia, with rapid industrial and economic growth. Speedy population growth and aggressive consumerism in the past five decades have resulted in environmental pollution issues, including products containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). PCBs and PBDEs are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention due to their persistence, bioaccumulation in the environment and toxicity to humans and wildlife. These compounds are known to cause liver dysfunction, thyroid toxicity, developmental neuro-toxicity and possibly cancer. PCBs in air, mussels, pellets, seawater, fresh water, and human breast milk samples were analyzed in Malaysia, while studies on the pollution level of PBDEs in Malaysia were conducted on mussels, soils, leachate and sediment samples. PCBs in breast milk collected from Malaysia was the highest among Asian developing countries, with mean concentration of 80 ng/g lipid weight. On the other hand, the mean concentration of PCBs in mussels collected from Malaysia recorded the second lowest, with 56 ng/g and 89 ng/g lipid weight in two studies respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs in mussels taken from Malaysia fall in the range of 0.84-16 ng/g lipid weight, which is considerably low compared to 104.5 ng/g lipid weight in Philippines and 90.59 ng/g in Korea. Nevertheless, there are limited studies on these compounds in Malaysia, particularly there is no research on PBDEs in breast milk and sediment samples. This review will summarize the contamination levels of PCBs and PBDEs in different samples collected from Asian countries since 1988 until 2010 with a focus on Malaysia and will provide needed information for further research in this field.

  15. Biomarkers, PCBs, DDT, DDE, and plastic pollution in albatross of the north Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auman, H.J.; Giesy, J.P.; Ludwig, J.P.; Summer, C.L.; Verbrugge, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    The impacts of pollution in a remote area of the Pacific Ocean on seabirds were assessed. The amount and effects of accidentally ingested plastic on survival of Laysan albatross chicks were determined. Concentrations of synthetic organochlorine compounds and biomarkers of exposure to several classes of those compounds were measured in plasma of adults and chicks of both Laysan and Black-footed albatross of Sand Island, Midway Atoll. Concentrations of PCBs, DDT, DDE, and other chlorinated insecticides were measured in plasma and egg. Average, total PCB concentrations in the plasma of ten adult Laysan and five Black-footed albatross were 39 and 115 ng/g, respectively; DDE concentrations were 10.8 and 37.2 ng/mg respectively. Total pooled concentrations of PCBs in egg yolk of Laysan or Black-footed albatross were 1.06 or 3.84 {micro}g/g, respectively; DDE concentrations were 321.5 or 1,836.6 ng/g, respectively. Data will be presented on differences between chicks and adults, between species, and among sampling times throughout the nesting season. Serum retinol, T3 and T4 concentrations were quantified and correlated to concentrations of total PCBs, DDT, DDE, and other insecticides in the blood.

  16. Spatial and temporal trends of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) in mussel from Galician coast (1998-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A

    2010-11-01

    PCBs were determined in wild mussel samples collected in several points from Galician Rías (Rías de Ferrol, A Coruña, Muros, Vigo and Arousa), Spain, during the period 1998-2008. The concentration levels of ΣPCBs ranged from 0.62 to 107.5 ng g(-1), w.w. The isomer concentrations in the Mytilus galloprovincialis were in the order hexachlorobiphenyls>pentachlorobiphenyls>tetrachlorbiphenyls>trichlorobiphenyls. CBs 153, 138 and 101 congeners were the most abundant in these samples. Two biological parameters, fat content and condition index (CI), have also been investigated for these mussel samples. Univariate techniques confirm that levels of some compounds, CBs 28, 52, 138, 153, and 180, presented significant relation (p<0.05) with biological parameters. Multivariate techniques of data exploration such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that spatial trends of PCB levels appeared in the studied samples. Rias de Ferrol and A Coruña presented the highest levels of PCBs and Ría de Arousa the lowest levels of these compounds. In general, temporal trends (linear regressions) showed a decrease of PCB levels along the period 1998-2008. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Individual PCBs as predictors for concentrations of non and mono-ortho PCBs in human milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vandenBerg, M; Sinnige, TL; Tysklind, M; Bosveld, ATC; Huisman, M; KoopmansEssenboom, C; Koppe, JG

    1995-01-01

    32 Dutch human milk samples were analyzed for PCBs with either HRGC-ECD or HRGC-LRMS in the NCI mode. Samples were collected from three different locations in The Netherlands: Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Groningen. Quantitatively, no differences could be observed between the three localities, while in

  18. Deeper insights into PCBs in orcas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Rune; Eulaers, Igor; Desforges, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Having read the recent article by Jepson and Law (DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf9075) we want to emphasise the worrying nature of the fact that at present many marine apex predators, including killer whales, remain highly polluted with PCBs despite world-wide initiatives over past decades to restrict...... the ultimate industrial PCB phase-out deadline before conservation of this species surpasses a tipping point. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species does not state concern for killer whales as data are deficient. This urgently asks for international risk assessment, requiring in vivo and in vitro approaches...

  19. Fetal exposure markers of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampa, Erik; Eguchi, Akifumi; Todaka, Emiko; Mori, Chisato

    2018-02-15

    Fetal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated-p-dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been associated with a number of adverse health outcomes. Although the placenta acts as a barrier between the mother and the fetus, these contaminants transfer through the placenta exposing the fetus. Several studies have investigated placental transfer, but few have assessed the co-variation among these contaminants. Maternal blood, cord blood, and cord tissue were collected from 41 Japanese mother-infant pairs and analyzed for dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs. Hierarchical cluster analysis followed by principal component analysis were used to assess the co-variation. Two stable clusters of dioxin-like PCBs were found in maternal and cord blood. One cluster of low/medium chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs was present in all three matrices with 2,3',4,4',5-PeCB(#118) and 3,3',4,4',5-PeCB(#126) explaining the majority of the clusters' variances. Medium/high chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs clustered in maternal blood and cord blood but not in cord tissue. 2,3,4,4',5-PeCB(#114) and 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-HpCB(#189) explained the majority of the clusters' variances. There was a substantial correlation between the sum of dioxin-like PCBs and total PCDD/F in all three matrices. The sum of the four suggested PCBs plus 3,3',4,4'-TeCB(#77) correlated well with total PCDD/F in all three matrices. Apart from the dioxin-like PCBs, little co-variation existed among the studied contaminants. The five PCBs can be used as fetal exposure markers for dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs in maternal and cord blood respectively. In cord tissue, more higher chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs need to be measured as well.

  20. Separation and identification of picogram levels of dioxins and PCBs by GC/cryogenic trapping FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David J.; Powell, Jay R.; Krishnan, K.

    1994-01-01

    Capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has routinely been used by the analytical chemist to separate and identify low levels of environmentally important compounds. A GC/Cryogenic Trapping Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (Tracer) provides the sensitivity of the GC/MS with the added capability of differentiating between compounds of the same mass. In this work, the Tracer was utilized to study low levels of six Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), eight Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Doxins and Norflurazon. In all cases, picogram levels of these compounds were easily detected from `on the fly' generated IR chromatograms. Since the separated compounds eluting from the capillary column are cryogenically trapped onto a moving liquid nitrogen cooled ZnSe crystal, excellent signal-to- noise spectra of these same compounds may be collected after the run by returning to the same areas of deposition and signal averaging.

  1. Distribution of pesticides, PAHs, PCBs, and bioavailable metals in depositional sediments of the lower Missouri River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, K.R.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Orazio, C.E.; May, T.W.; Poulton, B.C.; Peterman, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The lower Missouri River was studied to determine the distribution of selected persistent organic pollutants and bioavailable metals in depositional sediments. Nineteen sites between Omaha, Nebraska and Jefferson City, Missouri were sampled. This stretch of the river receives point-source and non-point-source inputs from industrial, urban, and agricultural activities. As part of an ecological assessment of the river, concentrations of 29 legacy organochlorine pesticides (OC pesticides), including chlordanes, DDTs, and hexachlorocyclohexanes; a select list of current-use pesticides, including trifluralin, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and permethrin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), divalent metals (copper, nickel, zinc, cadmium, and lead), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined. Concentrations (dry weight basis) of OC pesticides in the sediments were less than 1 ng/g, with the exception of the backwater sediment collected from the mouth of the Blue River in the Kansas City metropolitan area, which contained up to 20 ng/g total chlordane, 8.1 ng/g p,p???-DDE, 1.5 ng/g lindane, 4.8 ng/g dieldrin, and 3 ng/g endrin. Concentrations of chlorpyrifos and permethrin ranged from less than 1 ng/g to 5.5 ng/g and 44 ng/g, respectively. Concentrations of PCBs ranged from less than 11 ng/g to 250 ng/g, with the Blue River and Sibley sediments containing 100 and 250 ng/g total PCBs, respectively. Concentrations of total PAHs at 17 of the 19 sites ranged from 250 to 700 ng/g, whereas the Riverfront and Blue River sites in Kansas City contained 1100 ng/g and nearly 4000 ng/g, respectively. Concentrations of the metals did not vary significantly among most sites; however, the Blue River site contained elevated concentrations of zinc (104 ??g/g), cadmium (0.7 ??g/g), and lead (34 ??g/g) compared to the other sites. The moderately high concentrations of acid-volatile sulfide in the sediments suggest a low potential for metal

  2. Using nestling plasma to assess long-term spatial and temporal concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bald eagles within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, H Tyler; Bowerman, William W; Grim, Leland H; Grubb, Teryl G; Bridges, William C; Wierda, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population at Voyageurs National Park (VNP) provides an opportunity to assess long-term temporal and spatial trends of persistent environmental contaminants. Nestling bald eagle plasma samples collected from 1997 to 2010 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. Trends of total PCBs, total DDTs, 4,4'-DDE, and Dieldrin were analyzed since >50% of nestling plasma samples had detectable concentrations. Total PCBs, total DDTs, and 4,4'-DDE concentrations have all decreased over time (26.09%, 24.09%, and 40.92% respectively). Concentrations of Dieldrin have increased by 50.25%. In this study, 61.1% of all nestlings sampled had detectable concentrations of Dieldrin from all time periods and all areas of VNP. Since Dieldrin is a banned pesticide in North America, the source of this increase is unknown. However, increases and fluctuations in Dieldrin concentration suggest contaminant levels in VNP may be linked to a new source or environmental process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 40 CFR 129.105 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). 129.105 Section 129.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS TOXIC POLLUTANT EFFLUENT STANDARDS Toxic Pollutant Effluent Standards and Prohibitions § 129.105 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (a)...

  4. Research of Adsorption on PCBs: Isotherm Modeling and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Peiyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PCBs are a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in the environment. Adsorption behavior of PCBs has obtained great attention affecting the degradation, mobility activities. In this paper, adsorption process was studied systematically to figure out the model of adsorption, adsorption mechanism and the influencing factors, which will provides the theoretical basis for further research.

  5. Research of Adsorption on PCBs: Isotherm Modeling and Influencing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Peiyu; Xing Luping; Xuan Hui; Xue Wen

    2016-01-01

    PCBs are a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment. Adsorption behavior of PCBs has obtained great attention affecting the degradation, mobility activities. In this paper, adsorption process was studied systematically to figure out the model of adsorption, adsorption mechanism and the influencing factors, which will provides the theoretical basis for further research.

  6. Persistent Toxic Burdens of Halogenated Phenolic Compounds in Humans and Wildlife

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montano Garces, M.; Gutleb, A.C.; Murk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Halogenated phenolic compounds (HPCs) including hydroxylated polychlorobiphenyls (OH-PCBs) and hydroxylated polybromodiphenyl-ethers (OH-PBDEs) can be persistent organic pollutant (POP) metabolites or natural marine compounds. Structurally similar to thyroid hormones (THs), they are retained in

  7. Comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to low resolution quadrupole mass spectrometry for the analysis of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, J.P. [Universitat de Barcelona (Spain). Facultat de Quimica, Dept. de Quimica Analitica; Korytar, P.; Boer, J. de [Netherlands Institutes for Fisheries Research, Ijmuiden (Netherlands); Leonards, P. [Instituto Quimico de Sarria, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    Because of the high persistency and extreme toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and so-called dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), their trace level determination is a topic of much interest. The typical concentrations of this compounds, sub-ng/kg, makes that they have to be clearly separated from other, less toxic, congeners present in the samples and from the matrix and the use of sensitive techniques is required for the quantification. The analyses of the compounds are usually done by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS). Recently, alternative novel techniques have been developed which are improving the chromatographic separation, e.g. comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC), for the analysis of the compounds. The aim of this work is to evaluate GC x GC coupled to a low resolution quadrupole mass spectrometer for the quantification of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin like PCBs.

  8. Grouping chemicals for health risk assessment: A text mining-based case study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Guo, Yufan; Silins, Ilona; Högberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla; Korhonen, Anna

    2016-01-22

    As many chemicals act as carcinogens, chemical health risk assessment is critically important. A notoriously time consuming process, risk assessment could be greatly supported by classifying chemicals with similar toxicological profiles so that they can be assessed in groups rather than individually. We have previously developed a text mining (TM)-based tool that can automatically identify the mode of action (MOA) of a carcinogen based on the scientific evidence in literature, and it can measure the MOA similarity between chemicals on the basis of their literature profiles (Korhonen et al., 2009, 2012). A new version of the tool (2.0) was recently released and here we apply this tool for the first time to investigate and identify meaningful groups of chemicals for risk assessment. We used published literature on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-persistent, widely spread toxic organic compounds comprising of 209 different congeners. Although chemically similar, these compounds are heterogeneous in terms of MOA. We show that our TM tool, when applied to 1648 PubMed abstracts, produces a MOA profile for a subgroup of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) which differs clearly from that for the rest of PCBs. This suggests that the tool could be used to effectively identify homogenous groups of chemicals and, when integrated in real-life risk assessment, could help and significantly improve the efficiency of the process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. PCBs in fish and their cestode parasites in Lake Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluoch-Otiego, John; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Kiptoo, Kipkorir Koross Godfrey; Chemoiwa, Emily J; Ngugi, Charles C; Simiyu, Gelas; Omutange, Elijah S; Ngure, Veronica; Opiyo, Mary A

    2016-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention (2001). Although their production and use was stopped almost three decades ago, PCBs are environmental persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulate in biota. We assessed the levels of 7 PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) in sediment and fish (Oreochromis niloticus, Lates niloticus, and Rastrineobola argentea) and evaluated the potential of cestode fish endoparasite (Monobothrioides sp., Proteocephalaus sp., and Ligula intestinalis) as biomonitors of PCBs in Lake Victoria, Kenya. The median concentration of Σ7PCBs in sediments and fish were 2.2-96.3 μg/kg dw and 300-3,000 μg/kg lw, respectively. At all the sampling sites, CB138, CB153, and CB180 were the dominant PCB congeners in sediment and fish samples. Compared to the muscle of the piscine host, Proteocephalaus sp. (infecting L. niloticus) biomagnified PCBs ×6-14 while Monobothrioides sp. (infecting O. niloticus) biomagnified PCBs ×4-8. Meanwhile, L. intestinalis (infecting R. argentea) biomagnified PCBs ×8-16 compared to the muscle of unparasitized fish. We demonstrate the occurrence of moderate to high levels of PCB in sediments and fish in Lake Victoria. We also provide evidence that fish parasites bioaccumulate higher levels of PCBs than their piscine hosts and therefore provide a promising biomonitor of PCBs. We urge further a long-term study to validate the use of the above cestode fish parasites as biomonitoring tools for PCBs.

  10. Enhanced tolerance and remediation to mixed contaminates of PCBs and 2,4-DCP by transgenic alfalfa plants expressing the 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl-1,2-dioxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Ren, Hejun; Pan, Hongyu; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Lanying

    2015-04-09

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) generally led to mixed contamination of soils as a result of commercial and agricultural activities. Their accumulation in the environment poses great risks to human and animal health. Therefore, the effective strategies for disposal of these pollutants are urgently needed. In this study, genetic engineering to enhance PCBs/2,4-DCP phytoremediation is a focus. We cloned the 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl-1,2-dioxygenase (BphC.B) from a soil metagenomic library, which is the key enzyme of aerobic catabolism of a variety of aromatic compounds, and then it was expressed in alfalfa driven by CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic line BB11 was selected out through PCR, Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays. Its disposal and tolerance to both PCBs and 2,4-DCP were examined. The tolerance capability of transgenic line BB11 towards complex contaminants of PCBs/2,4-DCP significantly increased compared with non-transgenic plants. Strong dissipation of PCBs and high removal efficiency of 2,4-DCP were exhibited in a short time. It was confirmed expressing BphC.B would be a feasible strategy to help achieving phytoremediation in mixed contaminated soils with PCBs and 2,4-DCP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Associations between dioxins/furans and dioxin-like PCBs in estuarine sediment and blue crab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebens, J.; Mohrherr, C.J.; Karouna-Renier, N. K.; Snyder, R.A.; Rao, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationships between the quantity, toxicity, and compositional profile of dioxin/furan compounds (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in estuarine sediment and in the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). Sediment and blue crab samples were collected in three small urban estuaries that are in relatively close proximity to each other. Results show that differences between PCDD/F and DL-PCB mass concentrations and total toxic equivalents (TEQ) toxicity in sediments of the three estuaries are reflected in those of the blue crab. TEQs are higher in the hepatopancreas of the crabs than in the sediment, but the concentration factor is inversely proportional to the TEQ in the sediments. Congener profiles in the crabs are systematically different from those in the sediments, and the difference is more pronounced for PCDD/Fs than for DL-PCBs, possibly due to differences in metabolization rates. Compared with sediment profiles, more lesser-chlorinated PCDD/Fs that have higher TEFs accumulate in crab hepatopancreas. This selective bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs results in a TEQ augmentation in crab hepatopancreas compared with sediments. The bioaccumulation in the blue crab is also selective for PCDD/Fs over DL-PCBs. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Thirty year monitoring of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and tetrabromodiphenylether in eel from The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Jacob de, E-mail: jacob.de.boer@ivm.vu.n [VU University, Institute for Environmental Studies, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dao, Quy T., E-mail: quy.dao@wur.n [Wageningen IMARES: Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies, P.O. Box 68, 1970 AB IJmuiden (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Stefan P.J. van, E-mail: stefan.van.leeuwen@ivm.vu.n [VU University, Institute for Environmental Studies, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kotterman, Michiel J.J., E-mail: michiel.kotterman@wur.n [Wageningen IMARES: Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies, P.O. Box 68, 1970 AB IJmuiden (Netherlands); Schobben, John H.M., E-mail: john.schobben@wur.n [Wageningen IMARES: Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies, P.O. Box 68, 1970 AB IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    Because of their excellent properties as a biomonitor, yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) have been used for time-trend monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and tetrabrominated diphenylether (tetra-BDE). The program has now lasted for thirty years and has delivered valuable information on trends and spatial differences of these compounds in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse and other Dutch canals, rivers and lakes. Specific local PCB, HCH and dieldrin contaminations were identified. Temporal trends show a slow decrease of PCB concentrations since 1977. Eels from the rivers Rhine and Meuse still exceed present European maximum residue limits for dioxin-like PCBs. Apart from some exceptions, OCP and tetra-BDE concentrations have also decreased, and more than those of PCBs. Fat contents of eel have decreased from an average of 21 to ca. 13%. This decrease in fat contents, coincides with the strong reduction of the European eel stock. - Results of thirty-year eel monitoring in The Netherlands reveal decreasing PCB and organochlorine pesticide concentrations, and the identification of specific local contaminations.

  13. Trends in European background air reflect reductions in primary emissions of PCBs and PBDEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jasmin K; Gioia, Rosalinda; Breivik, Knut; Steinnes, Eiliv; Scheringer, Martin; Jones, Kevin C

    2010-09-01

    Data are presented for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyls ethers (PBDEs) in passive air samplers (PAS) collected along a rural/remote latitudinal transect from southern UK to northern Norway during 2004-2008. This study is part of an ongoing campaign, using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as PAS over two year intervals since 1994. Absolute sequestered amounts of selected PCB congeners have decreased in a first order fashion between 1994-2008, with the average time of 8.4+/-3.2 years for atmospheric concentrations to decline by 50%. PCBs have continued to fractionate with latitude during this period. PBDE concentrations declined by 50% between 2000 and 2008 every 2.2+/-0.4 years. Results are discussed in terms of sources, long-range atmospheric transport, global fractionation, and clearance processes. It is concluded that the spatial and temporal trends in background European air mainly reflect the strength of primary diffusive emissions of these compounds and subsequently their ongoing declines. The direct evidence for this is similar rates of decline at all the sites; similar rates of decline for all congeners; no systematic change in the fractionation pattern since 1994. The latest results indicate a reduction in the rate of decline for PCBs (and hence in primary emissions).

  14. PCBs and OCPs in marine species from the Belgian North Sea and the Western Scheldt Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorspoels, S.; Covaci, A.; Maervoet, J.; Schepens, P. [Antwerp Univ., Wilrijk (Belgium). Toxicological Centre

    2004-09-15

    The use and/or production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as 2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and lindane ({gamma}-HCH) have been banned in most developed countries since the 1970's. Despite this measure, these compounds are among the most prevalent environmental pollutants and they can be found in various environmental compartments, both biotic and abiotic. Their widespread presence is due to their extremely persistant and lipophilic nature, resulting in enrichment throughout the food chain. Prolonged exposure to these pollutants can interfere with normal physiology and biochemistry3, resulting in adverse effects in various organisms, including starfish, shrimp, crabs, and fish4. Because humans readily consume seafood, such as shrimp, crab and various fish species, these organisms are of great scientific value to estimate the possible exposure to PCBs and OCPs through marine food sources. The area studied in this investigation covered both commercial fishing grounds (Belgian North Sea - BNS) and a recreational fishing area (Western Scheldt Estuary - SE). The drainage basin of the SE covers a very densely populated and highly industrialised region, causing a high level of pollution in the SE. In this work, PCBs and OCPs were determined in benthic invertebrates and different fish species from both BNS and SE in order to evaluate trends in levels, congener distribution, and geographical variation.

  15. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D.; Walter, W. David; Lee, Cindy M.

    2016-01-01

    Conifers are often used as an “air passive sampler”, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former Sangamo-Weston (S-W) plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010, and winter and spring 2011. PCBs were detected in the collected leaves suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990, 2850, and 931 pg m-3 in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former S-W plant. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra- and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene (PE) passive samplers deployed in the water column suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves.

  16. The combined effects of DEHP and PCBs on phospholipase in the livers of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; Min, Lingli; Huang, Qiansheng; Chen, Yajie; Fang, Chao; Sun, Xia; Dong, Sijun

    2015-02-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are two widely distributed pollutants that are of great concern due to their adverse health effects. However, few studies have investigated the combined effects of DEHP and PCBs. In this study, adult mice were continuously exposed to mixtures of DEHP (15 mg/kg bodyweight/day) and Aroclor 1254 (7.5 mg/kg bodyweight/day) for 12 days to investigate the combined effects of these compounds. The results showed that the ratio of the liver weight to the body weight was higher in the treated group than that in the control group. The effects of combined exposure on three important receptors, the proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), estrogen receptor (ER), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), were investigated. The mRNA level of PPARγ was significantly up-regulated after exposure. The expression level of ERα was decreased in the male treated group. In contrast, the expression levels of AHR and related genes (cyp1a1 and cyp1b1) were not markedly affected. The expression level of phospholipase A (PLA) was significantly down-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels in male mice after combined treatment. In all, our study demonstrated the combined effects of DEHP and PCBs on the expression levels of key receptors in mice. The combined exposure led to a decrease in phospholipase in male mice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A retrospective study of PBDEs and PCBs in human milk from the Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs in wildlife and humans remain a cause of global concern, both in regard to traditional POPs, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and emerging POPs, such as the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs. To determine the time related concentrations, we analyzed human milk for these substances at three time points between 1987 and 1999. Polychlorobiphenylols (OH-PCBs, the dominating class of PCB metabolites, some of which are known to be strongly retained in human blood, were also included in the assessment. Methods We obtained milk from the Faroe Islands, where the population is exposed to POPs from their traditional diet (which may include pilot whale blubber. In addition to three pools, nine individual samples from the last time point were also analyzed. After cleanup, partitioning of neutral and acidic compounds, and separation of chemical classes, the analyses were carried out by gas chromatography and/or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Compared to other European populations, the human milk had high PCB concentrations, with pool concentrations of 2300 ng/g fat 1987, 1600 ng/g fat in 1994, and 1800 ng/g fat in 1999 (based on the sum of eleven major PCB congeners. The nine individual samples showed great variation in PCB concentrations. The OH-PCBs were present in trace amounts only, at levels of approximately 1% of the PCB concentrations. The PBDE concentrations showed a clear increase over time, and their concentrations in human milk from 1999 are among the highest reported so far from Europe, with results of individual samples ranging from 4.7 to 13 ng/g fat Conclusion Although remote from pollution sources, the Faroe Islands show high concentrations of POPs in human milk, particularly PCBs, but also PBDEs. The PBDEs show increasing concentrations over time. The OH-PCB metabolites are poorly transferred to human milk, which likely is related to their acidic character.

  18. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in egg and egg products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanca, Burcu; Cakirogullari, Gul Celik; Ucar, Yunus; Kirisik, Dursun; Kilic, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in eggs from cage hens without soil contact, pasteurized egg samples and imported egg yolk powder samples in Turkey. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs in eggs and pasteurized egg samples are in the range of 0.247-1.527 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.282-1.762 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 202-1,235 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. For egg yolk powder samples, concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are in the range of 0.122-0.494 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.214-0.640 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 217-1,498 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. All results for PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are below the values of 2.5 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 5.0 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 40 ng g(-1) fat imposed in Turkish Regulation for eggs and egg products, respectively. In all samples 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and PCB126 are the most prominent congeners. Mean estimated daily exposure to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs for Turkish population from egg is 0.011 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)d(-1)kg body weight (bw)(-1). Although the exposure levels are below the TDI of 2 pg WHO-TEQ(1998)kg bw(-1), the results were based only on consumption of egg. In order to estimate total dietary intake for Turkish population, various food items should be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Remediation plan for fluorescent light fixtures containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-30

    This report describes the remedial action to achieve compliance with 29 CFR 1910 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements of fluorescent light fixtures containing PCBs at K-25 site. This remedial action is called the Remediation Plan for Fluorescent Light Fixtures Containing PCBs at the K-25 Site (The Plan). The Plan specifically discusses (1) conditions of non-compliance, (2) alternative solutions, (3) recommended solution, (4) remediation plan costs, (5) corrective action, (6) disposal of PCB waste, (7) training, and (8) plan conclusions. The results from inspections by Energy Systems personnel in 2 buildings at K-25 site and statistical extension of this data to 91 selected buildings at the K-25 site indicates that there are approximately 28,000 fluorescent light fixtures containing 47,036 ballasts. Approximately 38,531 contain PCBs and 2,799 of the 38,531 ballasts are leaking PCBs. Review of reportable occurrences at K-25 for the 12 month period of September 1990 through August 1991 shows that Energy Systems personnel reported 69 ballasts leaking PCBs. Each leaking ballast is in non-compliance with 29 CFR 1910 - Table Z-1-A. The age of the K-25 facilities indicate a continued and potential increase in ballasts leaking PCBs. This report considers 4 alternative solutions for dealing with the ballasts leaking PCBs. The advantages and disadvantages of each alternative solution are discussed and ranked using cost of remediation, reduction of health risks, and compliance with OSHA as criteria.

  20. A Critical Review about Human Exposure to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) through Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, R; Yebra-Pimentel, I; Martínez-Carballo, E; Simal-Gándara, J

    2015-01-01

    Dioxins include polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and part of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Only the compounds that are chlorinated at the 2,3,7, and 8 positions have characteristic dioxin toxicity. PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs accumulate in the food chain due to their high lipophilicity, high stability, and low vapor pressure. They are not metabolized easily; however their hydroxylated metabolites are detected in feces. They cause a wide range of endocrine disrupting effects in experimental animals, wildlife, and humans. Endocrine related effects of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs on thyroid hormones, neurodevelopment and reproductive development were referenced. In addition, some studies of contamination of foods, bioaccumulation, dietary exposure assessment, as well as challenges of scientific research in these compounds were reviewed.

  1. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  2. Dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs in a large cohort of pregnant women: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Ida H; Knutsen, Helle K; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kvalem, Helen E

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy and breastfeeding may result in adverse health effects in children. Prenatal exposure is determined by the concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in maternal blood, which reflect the body burden obtained by long term dietary exposure. The aims of this study were (1) to describe dietary exposure and important dietary sources to dioxins and PCBs in a large group of pregnant women and (2) to identify maternal characteristics associated with high dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs. Dietary exposure to dioxins (sum of toxic equivalents (TEQs) from dioxin-like (dl) compounds) and PCB-153 in 83,524 pregnant women (gestational weeks 17-22) who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the years 2002-2009 was calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian food. The median (interquartile range, IQR) intake of PCB-153 (marker of ndl-PCBs) was 0.81 (0.77) ng/kg bw/day. For dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, the median (IQR) intake was 0.56 (0.37) pg TEQ/kg bw/day. Moreover, 2.3% of the participants had intakes exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14pg TEQ/kg bw/week. Multiple regression analysis showed that dietary exposure was positively associated with maternal age, maternal education, weight gain during pregnancy, being a student, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and negatively associated with pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking. A high dietary exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compounds (TEQ) was mainly explained by the consumption of seagull eggs and/or pate with fish liver and roe. Women who according to Norwegian recommendations avoid these food items generally do not have dietary exposure above the tolerable intake of dioxins and dl-PCBs. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination and quantification of PCBs, POCs and PAHs in Thunnus thynnus from the Straits of Messina (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saija, Emanuele; Mangano, Valentina; Casale, Katia Ermina; La Torre, Giovanna Loredana; Dugo, Giacomo; Salvo, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    This data set is composed to assess the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dioxin like (DL) and not dioxin like (NDL), organochlorine pesticides (POCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Thunnus thynnus and to elucidate the suitability of this species as a bioindicator for monitoring contaminations of these compounds in the marine ecosystems of the Straits of Messina. This investigation was conducted on liver samples of 14 T. thynnus collected during April 2015. Quantitative determination of PCBs (DL and NDL), POCs and PAHs in the examined samples has been carried out by HRGC-MS/MS. Among the PCBs, high prevalence of DL was found while, generally, the values detected for PCBs-NDL were lower than the legal limits. Tuna samples analyzed for PAHs residues revealed that all the samples were contaminated with acenaphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene. Moreover, generally the residual levels of DDT and DDT metabolites were low. The total content of PCB-DL, in almost all the samples, showed higher concentration than the legal limit.

  4. Sources, transport, reservoirs and fate of dioxins, PCBs and HCB in the Baltic Sea environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiberg, Karin (Dept. of Chemistry, Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden)); McLachlan, Michael; Jonsson, Per (Dept. of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Johansson, Niklas (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm (Sweden)) (and others)

    2009-01-15

    A better knowledge of sources, transport, reservoirs and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Baltic Sea environment is crucial for the identification of effective actions against these compounds. In this report the present situation regarding sources and current fluxes of persistent pollutants in the Baltic Sea ecosystem is presented. The compounds selected for the study were: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). These classes of compounds represent a broad range of physical-chemical properties, and hence their environmental behaviour encompasses the spectrum of most chemicals listed in the Stockholm Convention. Based on current knowledge and some new field measurements in air, sea water and sediments, mass balances for the selected POPs were calculated. These mass balances indicate that the atmosphere is the major source of PCDD/Fs to the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper and also the dominant external source of HCB and PCBs to the Baltic Sea. These findings emphasise the need for further international agreements to prevent long-range transboundary transport of these POPs

  5. Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides was examined in young-of-the-year bluefish from seven sub-estuaries of New...

  6. Contamination of Teflon surfaces by PCBs in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas J.; Sweet, Clyde W.

    Collection of a valid precipitation sample involves careful attention to all aspects of the sampling and analysis process. Difficulties in obtaining low field blanks were experienced for a collector used in a project to determine precipitation inputs to Green Bay of Lake Michigan. The cause of high field blanks was found to be PCBs scavenged from the atmosphere and adsorbed on the Teflon™ surface of the sampler. These PCBs were extracted from the collector surface by the methanol used as a rinse solvent. The amounts of PCBs on the surface were found to be a factor of 20-50 higher than the amounts in a typical precipitation sample. After rinsing the Teflon surface several times with methanol, additional PCBs could be obtained by rinsing the surface with hexane or dichloromethane.

  7. Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the young-of-the-year (YOY) blueÂżsh collected in the vicinity...

  8. Predictors of Serum Dioxins and PCBs among Peripubertal Russian Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jane S.; Williams, Paige L.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Korrick, Susan; Lee, Mary M.; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Needham, Larry L.; Saharov, Igor; Hauser, Russ

    2009-01-01

    Background Although sources and routes of exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been studied, information regarding exposure among children is limited. Breast-feeding and diet are two important contributors to early life exposure. To further understand other significant contributors to childhood exposure, we studied a cohort of children from a city with high environmental dioxin levels. Objectives We investigated predictors of serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)/co-planar PCBs (C-PCBs), toxic equivalents (TEQs), and PCBs among 8- to 9-year-old boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. Methods We used general linear regression models to explore associations of log10-transformed serum concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs/C-PCBs, TEQs, and PCBs at study entry with anthropometric, demographic, geographic, and dietary factors in 482 boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. Results The median (25th, 75th percentile) concentration for total 2005 TEQs was 21.1 pg/g lipid (14.4, 33.2). Boys who were older, consumed local foods, were breast-fed longer, and whose mothers were employed at the Khimprom chemical plant (where chlorinated chemicals were produced) or gardened locally had significantly higher serum dioxins and PCBs, whereas boys with higher body mass index or more educated parents had significantly lower serum dioxins and PCBs. Boys who lived 5 km away (adjusted mean = 18.8; 95% CI, 17.2–20.6). Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are specific local sources of dioxin and PCB exposure among children in Chapaevsk including maternal gardening, consumption of locally grown food, and residential proximity to the Khimprom plant. PMID:20019911

  9. Accumulation features and temporal trends of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs in Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaeda, Daisuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Ochi, Yoko; Iwata, Hisato; Tsydenova, Oyuna; Takahashi, Shin [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Amano, Masao [Department of Animal Sciences, Teikyo University of Science and Technology, 2525 Yatsusawa Uenohara-shi, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan); Petrov, Evgeny A. [The Eastern-Siberian Scientific and Production Fisheries Center, ' VOSTSIBRYBCENTER' , Ulan-Ude, Buryatia 670034 (Russian Federation); Batoev, Valeriy B. [Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Ude, Buryatia 670047 (Russian Federation); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Ude, Buryatia 670047 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2009-03-15

    This study investigated the accumulation features and temporal trends of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) in the blubber of Baikal seals collected in 1992 and 2005. DL-PCBs (480-3600 ng/g) and NDL-PCBs (980-35,000 ng/g) were dominant contaminants. Concentrations of PCDDs and PCBs in males were significantly higher than in females. In males, age-dependent accumulation was observed for PCDDs, mono-ortho PCBs and NDL-PCBs. PCDFs and non-ortho PCBs showed no such trends, implying that exposure of seals to these contaminants has been decreasing in recent years. No decreasing temporal trend was observed for PCDDs, mono-ortho PCBs and NDL-PCBs, suggesting that Baikal seals are still exposed to PCDDs and PCBs. TEQs of PCDDs and mono-ortho PCBs in seals collected in 2005 accounted for 62-77% of total TEQs. The TEQ levels in 40% of the specimens exceeded the threshold level for immunosuppression observed in harbor seals (209 pg/g). - Concentrations of PCDDs and PCBs remain high in Baikal seals.

  10. Análisis cromatográfico de PCBs e HO-PCBs en plasma humano

    OpenAIRE

    González Hernández, Lidia

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue desarrollar y validar un método analítico para cuantificar PCBs e HO-PCBs en plasma humano. El análisis fue realizado por medio de la técnica de cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. 2,2',3,4,5,5'-hexaclorobifenilo marcado con 13C (CB 141-13C12) y 4-hidroxi- 6 2,2',3,4',5,5',6-heptaclorobifenilo marcado con 13C (4-HO-CB187-13C12), fueron 6 empleados como estándares internos en la cuantificación de PCBs e HO-PCBs,...

  11. Phytoremediation of Polychlorobiphenyls PCBs in Landfill E-Waste Leachate with Water Hyacinth E.Crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A Omondi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of e-waste in a landfill can release persistent organic pollutants POPs including polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs into the environment. PCBs are a family of more than 200 chemical compounds congeners each of which consists of two benzene rings and one to ten chlorine atoms. This study investigated use of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes for phytoremediation of landfill leachate waste containing PCB. Landfill leachate was simulated in the laboratory by spiking water samples with PCB to obtain concentrations of 5 10 and 15 amp956gL which were in one to two orders of magnitude above the US Environmental Protection Agency EPA limit of 0.5 amp956gL or 0.5 ppb. Water hyacinth plants were grown in 2 L samples of the PCB spiked water for 15 days and evaluated for tolerance and bioaccumulation of PCB. Phytoremediation of PCB spiked water by the plants was evaluated by measuring the change in concentration of PCB. The plants tolerated PCB concentrations in the range of 5 to 15 amp956gL without depicting any serious adverse effect except for change in root color and an initial wilting of peripheral leaves. Water hyacinth reduced the concentration of PCBs in the leachate over 15 days from 15 to 0.42 amp956gL for the 15 amp956gL initial concentration sample and to below the GCMS detection limit of 0.142 amp956gL for the 10 and 5 ugL initial concentration samples. Bioaccumulation of PCB in the plant tissue was evaluated through solid phase extraction and testing of samples for PCB with GCMS. Bioaccumulation of PCBs at a concentration of 0.179 amp956gg was observed in the water hyacinth roots for the 15 amp956gL sample but none was detected for the lower initial PCB concentration and shoots. The study demonstrated potential of water hyacinth plants in phytoremediation of PCBs in e-waste leachate.

  12. Disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) levels and TH-regulated gene expression by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hydroxylated PCBs in e-waste recycling workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; He, Chun-Tao; Chen, She-Jun; Yan, Xiao; Guo, Mi-Na; Wang, Mei-Huan; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2017-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the primary toxicants released by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling, but their adverse effects on people working in e-waste recycling or living near e-waste sites have not been studied well. In the present study, the serum concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and hydroxylated PCBs, the circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs), and the mRNA levels of seven TH-regulated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes of e-waste recycling workers were analyzed. The associations of the hormone levels and gene expression with the exposure to these contaminants were examined using multiple linear regression models. There were nearly no associations of the TH levels with PCBs and hydroxylated PCBs, whereas elevated hormone (T 4 and T 3 ) levels were associated with certain lower-brominated BDEs. While not statistically significant, we did observe a negative association between highly brominated PBDE congeners and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the e-waste workers. The TH-regulated gene expression was more significantly associated with the organohalogen compounds (OHCs) than the TH levels in these workers. The TH-regulated gene expression was significantly associated with certain PCB and hydroxylated PCB congeners. However, the expression of most target genes was suppressed by PBDEs (mostly highly brominated congeners). This is the first evidence of alterations in TH-regulated gene expression in humans exposed to OHCs. Our findings indicated that OHCs may interfere with TH signaling and/or exert TH-like effects, leading to alterations in related gene expression in humans. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms of action and associated biological consequences of the gene expression disruption by OHCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of PCBs and allergies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Mayumi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Koriyama, Chihaya; Yamamoto, Megumi; Tsuchiya, Takuto; Matsumura, Fumio

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the incidence rates of childhood allergies have been rising around the world. The presence of persistent chemical pollutants in the environment and exposure to air pollutants are often cited as potential causes of childhood allergies. Accordingly, epidemiological studies of the associations between exposure to low levels of pollutants and adverse health effects are essential. However, at present no useful biomarkers for evaluating such associations have been developed. Thus, using a molecular epidemiological approach we planned to identify candidate biomarkers of pollutant-induced adverse health effects that can be used in children. In asthmatic children, we found that the serum levels of several polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener sub-types were significantly positively correlated with interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA expression, whereas in a sub-group of children who displayed positive immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses to milk or egg proteins IL-22 mRNA expression was demonstrated to be useful for detecting the adverse health effects of environmental pollutants, particularly PCB congeners. In conclusion, the mRNA expression levels of IL-8 and IL-22 can be used to detect children who are at particular risk of adverse health events caused by environmental pollutants, especially PCBs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides residues and PCBs in benthic organisms of the inner shelf of the São Sebastião Channel, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Gorni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty seven benthic samples of the inner shelf area of São Sebastião, Brazil, were collected between April 1994 and August 1998 and analysed for seventeen chlorinated pesticide residues and PCBs congeners. Pesticide residues and PCBs congeners levels were low (ng/g and predominantly found in the crustacean samples. DDE was the most frequently residue with a maximum of 9,7 ng/g followed by HCHs with maximum of 17,1ng/g. As for the PCBs, the heavier congeners predominate: CB 138,153,170, 180 and 183. Maximum total PCBs was 17,4 ug/g in a crab sample. Higher levels of PCBs are related to feeding habits and local inputs of raw sewage or land runoff. Although EPA and FDA (U.S.A below the guidelines for human consumption propose these levels, they do show that even in marine areas without intense agricultural or industrial activities these compounds are present at detectable levels.Trinta e sete amostras de bentos da área interna do Canal de São Sebastião, Brasil, foram coletadas entre Abril de 1994 e Agosto de 1998 e analisadas quanto aos níveis de resíduos de 17 pesticidas organoclorados os congêneres dos PCBs. Os níveis de resíduos de organoclorados e PCBs foram baixos( ng/g e encontrados com maior freqüência nas amostras de crustáceos. DDE foi o resíduo de pesticida encontrado com mais freqüência apresentado um máximo de 9,7 ng/g seguido dos isômeros de HCHs com um máximo de 17,1 ng/g. No caso dos PCBs os congêneres mais pesados foram os predominantes: CB 138, 153, 170, 180 e 183. O valor máximo de PCBs totais foi de 17,4 ug/g numa amostra de crustáceo. Níveis maiores de PCBs estão associados aos hábitos alimentares e introduções pontuais de esgotos e água de drenagem urbana. Apesar dos níveis observados estarem abaixo dos recomendados para consumo humano pela EPA e da FDA( U.S.A ,eles demonstram que mesmo em área marinhas costeiras sem agricultura intensiva ou atividades industriais de porte , estes compostos org

  15. Accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in resident and migratory birds from Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Mafumi; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sethuraman, Alagappan; Titenko, Alexei M.; Qui, Vo; Prudente, Maricar; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in migratory birds from Asia did not necessarily reflect only the pollution in the sampling area. - Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in the resident and migratory birds, which were collected from India, Japan, Philippines, Russia (Lake Baikal) and Vietnam. Accumulation patterns of organochlorine concentrations in resident birds suggested that the predominant contaminants of each country were as follows: Japan-PCBs Philippines-PCBs and CHLs, India-HCHs and DDTs, Vietnam-DDTs, and Lake Baikal-PCBs and DDTs. The migratory birds from Philippines and Vietnam retained mostly the highest concentrations of DDTs among the organochlorines analyzed, indicating the presence of stopover and breeding grounds of those birds in China and Russia. On the other hand, migratory birds from India and Lake Baikal showed different patterns of organochlorine residues, reflecting that each species has inherent migratory routes and thus has exposure to different contaminants. Species which have breeding grounds around the Red Sea and Persian Gulf showed high levels of PCBs, indicating the presence of areas heavily polluted by PCBs in the Middle East

  16. PCBs Exert an Estrogenic Effect through Repression of the Wnt7a Signaling Pathway in the Female Reproductive Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Risheng; Sassoon, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been proposed to have a weak estrogenic activity and therefore pose a risk as potential environmental endocrine disruptors to the perinatal development of the female reproductive tract. Perinatal exposure to high concentrations of the potent synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) induces abnormal development of the female reproductive tract via a mechanism that acts through the down-regulation of Wnt7a (wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 7A). To test the hypothesis that PCBs act as weak estrogens, we injected neonatal mice with a commercial PCB mixture (Aroclor 1254) or with low levels of DES and measured effects of exposure on Wnt7a expression and uterine morphology. We report here that neonatal PCB or low-level DES exposure resulted in the down-regulation of Wnt7a expression. In addition, both PCB and low-level DES exposure induced changes in the uterine myometrium and gland formation. These data reveal that weak estrogens such as the PCBs act through a Wnt7a-dependent pathway and suggest that Wnt7a regulation is a sensitive biomarker for testing weak estrogenic candidate compounds. The morphologic changes that were elicited by PCBs and DES were different immediately after exposure, suggesting that Wnt7a-independent pathways are also activated by one or both of these compounds. Although Wnt7a down-regulation is transient after estrogenic exposure, subsequent morphologic changes became more pronounced during postnatal and adult life, suggesting that the female reproductive tract is permanently reprogrammed after exposure even to weak estrogenic compounds. In addition, Wnt7a heterozygous mice were more sensitive to PCB exposure, revealing an important genetic predisposition to risks of environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:16759992

  17. Dioxins, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, A.; Kunisue, T.; Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Niida, M. [Japan Offspring Fund, Tokyo (Japan); Hashim, H. [Consumers Association of Penang, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2004-09-15

    Contaminations by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in the environment have been of great concern due to their endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife. Chemically stable and lipophilic properties of these contaminants led to their high contamination in higher trophic biota, including human. Despite the intensive monitoring efforts and anticipated results of decreasing trends of POPs in developed countries as a consequence of their regulation on use and waste treatment, little information are available on their contamination status in developing countries even though these chemicals are still being used and unintentionally produced in several parts of these countries. To ensure the reliability of exposure data and to delineate contamination status, fate and behavior in tropical developing countries, during last few years, our research groups conducted monitoring studies using various environmental matrices including air, water, sediment, soil, biota and human from several Asian developing countries. From these results, existing sources of OCs and formation of dioxins and related compounds could be predicted in this region. However, there is very little information addressing the accumulation of OCs pollution in Malaysia. Particularly available data are only on marine biota. To date no data are available on OCs contaminations in human milk samples from Malaysia. The present study aims at understanding recent contamination of POPs, including dioxins and related compounds, PCBs and OCs pesticides in human breast milk from the general population of Malaysia.

  18. Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of potential health impacts of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in recycled water for indirect potable reuse was conducted. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD and dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs congeners have been developed by the World Health Organization to simplify the risk assessment of complex mixtures. Samples of secondary treated wastewater in Perth, Australia were examined pre-and post-tertiary treatment in one full-scale and one pilot water reclamation plant. Risk quotients (RQs were estimated by expressing the middle-bound toxic equivalent (TEQ and the upper-bound TEQ concentration in each sampling point as a function of the estimated health target value. The results indicate that reverse osmosis (RO is able to reduce the concentration of PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCBs and produce water of high quality (RQ after RO=0.15. No increased human health risk from dioxin and dioxin-like compounds is anticipated if highly treated recycled water is used to augment drinking water supplies in Perth. Recommendations for a verification monitoring program are offered.

  19. Passive air sampling of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and emerging compounds in Kolkata megacity and rural mangrove wetland Sundarban in India: An approach to regional monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Karla; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Estellano, Victor H; Mitra, Soumita; Audi, Ondrej; Kukucka, Petr; Přibylová, Petra; Klánová, Jana; Corsolini, Simonetta

    2017-02-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers were deployed concurrently at five sites across Kolkata megacity and the rural mangrove wetland of Sundarban (UNESCO World Heritage Site) between January-March in 2014. Samples were analyzed for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltricholoroethanes (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Derived air concentrations (pg/m 3 ) for Kolkata ranged: for ∑α- and γ-HCH between 70 and 207 (114 ± 62), ∑ 6 DDTs: 127-216 (161 ± 36), ∑ 7 PCBs: 53-213 (141 ± 64), and ∑ 10 PBDEs: 0.30-23 (11 ± 9). Low values for all the studied POPs were recorded in the remote area of the Sundarban site (with the exception of DDTs: o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT), where ∑ 4 DDTs was 161 ± 36. In particular, the site of Ballygunge, located in the southern part of Kolkata, showed the highest level of all the metabolites/congeners of POPs, suggesting a potential hot spot of usage and emissions. From HCHs, α-/γ-HCH isomers ratio was low (0.67-1.96) indicating a possible sporadic source of lindane. γ-HCH dominated the HCH signal (at 3 sites) reflecting wide spread use of lindane both in Kolkata and the Sundarban region; however, isomeric composition in Kolkata also suggests potential technical HCHs use. Among DDT metabolites, both o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT shared the dominant percentages accounting for ∼26-46% of total DDTs followed by p,p'-DDE (∼12-19%). The PCB congener profile was dominated by tri- and tetra-Cl at the southern and eastern part of Kolkata. These results are one of the few contributions that reports air concentrations of POPs, concurrently, at urban and remote villages in India. These data are useful to assess atmospheric pollution levels and to motivate local and regional authorities to better understand the potential human exposure risk associated to urban areas in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  20. The study of the PCBs distribution in the blood, and the trial of the PCBs analysis based on specific isomers by HRGC/HRMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachino, H.; Hisashi, T.; Tomomi, J.; Yuri, K.; Hidenori, M.; Sawako, E.; Katsuo, K. [SRL, INC. Tokyo (Japan); Kimiyoshi, K.; Masatoshi, M. [National Inst. for Enviromental Studies, Ibaraki (Japan); Chisato, M. [Chiba Univ., Chiba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    When human and animal are exposed to the internal secretion disturbance chemical material, a bad influence on their reproduction and the nerve is concerned. PCBs is suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals. We need to measure the concentration of PCBs in the human blood sample to know accumulation of human exposure. This paper describes the comparison of the PCBs concentration in the whole blood and the plasma, the study of the PCBs distribution in the blood, and the trial of the analysis of PCBs based on UNEP-7, 30 isomers by HRGC/HRMS.

  1. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Daisuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Watanabe, Mafumi [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Subramanian, Annamalai [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea (Japan); Fillmann, Gilberto [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (Brazil); Lam, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Zheng, Gene J. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Muchtar, Muswerry [Research and Development Center for Oceanology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (Indonesia); Razak, Hamidah [Research and Development Center for Oceanology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (Indonesia); Prudente, Maricar [Science Education Department, De La Salle University (Philippines); Chung, Kyu-Hyuck [College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2005-07-15

    In order to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins and related compounds, such as PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs, levels of these compounds were determined in the muscle of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters and open seas near Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean. PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs were detected in almost all the specimens collected from all the locations surveyed, indicating widespread contamination by these compounds in the marine environment. Higher concentrations of dioxins and coplanar PCBs were detected in the samples from temperate Asian regions, plausibly due to larger usage and anthropogenic generation in highly industrialized countries around the East China Sea and the South China Sea, such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and coastal China. - Global pollution monitoring of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in offshore water and open sea were conducted using skipjack tuna as bioindicator.

  2. Effects of perinatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins on total development in 10-month-old Japanese male and female infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, J.; Shiraha, A.; Yanagawa, T. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukushige, J. [Fukuoka Children' s Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Iida, T.; Nakagawa, R.; Matsueda, T.; Hirakawa, H. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Watanabe O.B.G.Y. Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction Organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dieldrin, heptachlor and chlordane, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned to use in late 1960s and in early 1970s in Japan, because of their persistence and bioaccumulation in the environment, their appearance in animal and human tissue, and their toxicity. However, these chemicals and their metabolites still have been contaminating our environment, food and human beings. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar PCBs (Co-PCBs), highly toxic organochlorine compounds and so-called dioxins, are also determined in human beings. Consequently, the chemicals mentioned above and their metabolites have been measured in Japanese breast milk, which indicates Japanese mothers are also contaminated with these compounds. These compounds in Japanese mothers may cause some deleterious effects on the developmental condition of Japanese infants. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between perinatal exposure to the organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins and the total developmental condition at about 10 months of age in Japanese male and female infants.

  3. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Daisuke; Watanabe, Mafumi; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Fillmann, Gilberto; Lam, Paul K.S.; Zheng, Gene J.; Muchtar, Muswerry; Razak, Hamidah; Prudente, Maricar; Chung, Kyu-Hyuck; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    In order to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins and related compounds, such as PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs, levels of these compounds were determined in the muscle of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters and open seas near Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean. PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs were detected in almost all the specimens collected from all the locations surveyed, indicating widespread contamination by these compounds in the marine environment. Higher concentrations of dioxins and coplanar PCBs were detected in the samples from temperate Asian regions, plausibly due to larger usage and anthropogenic generation in highly industrialized countries around the East China Sea and the South China Sea, such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and coastal China. - Global pollution monitoring of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in offshore water and open sea were conducted using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

  4. Effects of in ovo exposure to PCBs (coplanar congener, kanechlor mixture, hydroxylated metabolite) on the developing cell-mediated immunity in chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, J.; Matsuda, M.; Kawano, M.; Wakimoto, T. [Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Kashima, Y. [Dept. of Hygiene, Yokohama City Univ. School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are wide spread environmental contaminants and known to cause various adverse effects on health of human and wildlife. Immune system is one of the several targets for toxic effects of PCBs and its normal balance is often disrupted by the exposure of the compounds. For example, PCBs may induce immune suppression and result in increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections, or conversely, excessive immune enhancement may cause adverse outcomes including as autoimmune disease and anergy. Therefore immune function is regarded as one of an important endpoint in toxicological risk assessment. There are a number of studies shown that neonatal organisms perinatally exposed to polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) such as PCBs have severer effects on their immune system than adult. Dioxins and coplanar PCB congeners, structurally planar PHAHs are known to have high affinity for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) have the strongest affinity among such compounds and these are considered to act on immune system through AhR. On the other hand, such as non-planar PCB congeners with low affinity for AhR, which are abundantly contained in commercial PCB preparations have non-additive (antagonistic) effects on immune function. Prenatal exposure of TCDD to rodent induced abnormal lymphoid development in the thymus and thymus-dependent immune functions were remarkably disturbed. Although several experimental studies in mammals have been carried out on the developmental immunotoxicity of PCBs, there are still limited information available on avian species. Thus in this study, prenatal exposure to low level of PCBs and the effects on the developing immune system were investigated with chicken as a model animal of avian species, especially it is focused on the cell-mediated immune function.

  5. Demonstration Testing of a Thermal Desorption Unit to Receive and Treat Waste with Unlimited Concentration of PCBs - 13437

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orton, Timothy L.; Palmer, Carl R.

    2013-01-01

    For the last nine years, EnergySolutions and TD*X Associates LP have teamed up to provide the most comprehensive organic removal treatment process in the radioactive waste industry. The high performance thermal desorption unit (HP-TDU) located at the EnergySolutions Clive facility in Utah has successfully processed over 1,850 tons of organically contaminated radioactive mixed waste. Products from the HP-TDU system include a radioactively contaminated dry solid material that can be disposed in the on-site landfill and an organic condensate with high thermal energy content that is generally below background radiation and capable of free-release to a non-radioactive incinerator. Over the years, Permits and approvals have been obtained through the state of Utah, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Region 8, and USEPA headquarters that enable the treatment of several waste categories including volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, combustion-coded (CMBST) compounds, volatile metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The unit has recently successfully completed Demonstration Testing for PCB concentrations up to 660,000 ppm (parts per million). Solid processed material from this Demonstration Testing was less than two ppm PCBs in three separate treatment runs; reprocessing or additional treatment was not needed to meet this limit. Through post-demonstration permitting, the system is unlimited in scope as approval has been given to receive and solidify up to pure PCBs down to this processing limit concentration to complete treatment of mixed waste. (authors)

  6. Demonstration Testing of a Thermal Desorption Unit to Receive and Treat Waste with Unlimited Concentration of PCBs - 13437

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Timothy L. [EnergySolutions, 423 West 300 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84101 (United States); Palmer, Carl R. [TD.X Associates LP, 148 South Dowlen Road, PMB 700, Beaumont, TX 77707 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    For the last nine years, EnergySolutions and TD*X Associates LP have teamed up to provide the most comprehensive organic removal treatment process in the radioactive waste industry. The high performance thermal desorption unit (HP-TDU) located at the EnergySolutions Clive facility in Utah has successfully processed over 1,850 tons of organically contaminated radioactive mixed waste. Products from the HP-TDU system include a radioactively contaminated dry solid material that can be disposed in the on-site landfill and an organic condensate with high thermal energy content that is generally below background radiation and capable of free-release to a non-radioactive incinerator. Over the years, Permits and approvals have been obtained through the state of Utah, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Region 8, and USEPA headquarters that enable the treatment of several waste categories including volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, combustion-coded (CMBST) compounds, volatile metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The unit has recently successfully completed Demonstration Testing for PCB concentrations up to 660,000 ppm (parts per million). Solid processed material from this Demonstration Testing was less than two ppm PCBs in three separate treatment runs; reprocessing or additional treatment was not needed to meet this limit. Through post-demonstration permitting, the system is unlimited in scope as approval has been given to receive and solidify up to pure PCBs down to this processing limit concentration to complete treatment of mixed waste. (authors)

  7. PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and OCPs in sediments from selected areas in the Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čonka, Kamil; Chovancová, Jana; Stachová Sejáková, Zuzana; Dömötörová, Milena; Fabišiková, Anna; Drobná, Beáta; Kočan, Anton

    2014-03-01

    Within our research project, 34 river bottom sediments were collected in 2006-2007 at five areas across Slovakia with industrial sources of persistent organic pollutants (Košice, Krompachy, Nemecká, Šala, Nováky) and one background area (Starina). Sediments were analyzed for seven 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and 10 dibenzofurans (PCDFs), 12 dioxin-like and 6 indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and 1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) with 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE). Analytical procedure based on accelerated solvent extraction followed by a semi-automated clean-up and fractionation was used. Determination of target compounds was performed by HRGC-HRMS analysis. Total WHO toxic equivalent WHO1998-PCDD/F/dl-PCB-TEQ concentrations ranged from 0.26 to 559 pg TEQ g(-1) dry matter (dm), with a median 2.2 pg TEQ g(-1) dm. The sums of six indicator PCBs were in the range 0.56-1014 ng g(-1) dm, with a median 11.8 ng g(-1) dm. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides HCB and p,p'-DDE/DDT varied from 0.15 to 34.8 ng g(-1) dm, with a median 0.91 ng g(-1) dm and 0.46-34.1 ng g(-1)dm, with a median 6.7 ng g(-1)dm, respectively. The most abundant congeners in all sediment samples among dioxins, furans and PCBs were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, PCB-118 and PCB-153. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. War waste and pollution of karstic area of Bosnia and Herzegovina with PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picer, N.; Hodak-Kobasic, V.; Kovac, T.; Calic, V. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Miosic, N.; Hrvatovic, H. [Geological Survey, Sarajevo (Yugoslavia)

    2004-09-15

    During the recent war, the karst area of Bosnia and Herzegovina has been jeopardized by hazardous waste and deserves particular attention because of its exceptional ecological sensitivity and unfortunately unscrupulous destruction of natural resources, infrastructure, homes and enterprises. This was the reason for creation and planning of a joint three year Project - APOPSBAL, within which scientists from the jeopardized countries (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia and Montenegro) with the help of scientists from other friendly countries (Czech Republic, Austria, Slovenia and Greece) would identify the real problems concerning the PCB and other POP's contamination of the environment. Objectives of this Project in Bosnia and Herzegovina are: To collect data about damaged facilities with oil with PCBs and also other even more dangerous POPs in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Much better determining the hydrogeological fate of PCBs and other POPs compounds in the most threatened areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina polluted with the POPs. Special emphasis will be paid for the sensitive karstic media of these areas. To recognize in the field directly the technical state of electrotransformers and capacitors with pyralene with special attention to spilling of this oil into the environment. To sample soil and sediments from the sites thought polluted with PCBs and to analyse themselves on its content. To choose several sites for atmospheric monitoring samples with POPs, which are in surroundings to the ground argumentative contaminated with POPs in Bosnia and Herzegovina to establish real data about level of contamination of this very important part of human ecosphere. In this paper it will be reported the results of investigation from the first to the fourth objectives.

  9. PCB 126 and Other Dioxin-Like PCBs Specifically Suppress Hepatic PEPCK Expression via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenshuo; Sargis, Robert M.; Volden, Paul A.; Carmean, Christopher M.; Sun, Xiao J.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds encompass a group of structurally related heterocyclic compounds that bind to and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The prototypical dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a highly toxic industrial byproduct that incites numerous adverse physiological effects. Global commercial production of the structurally similar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), however, commenced early in the 20th century and continued for decades; dioxin-like PCBs therefore contribute significantly to total dioxin-associated toxicity. In this study, PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB, was evaluated with respect to its direct effects on hepatic glucose metabolism using primary mouse hepatocytes. Overnight treatment with PCB 126 reduced hepatic glycogen stores in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PCB 126 suppressed forskolin-stimulated gluconeogenesis from lactate. These effects were independent of acute toxicity, as PCB 126 did not increase lactate dehydrogenase release nor affect lipid metabolism or total intracellular ATP. Interestingly, provision of cells with glycerol instead of lactate as the carbon source completely restored hepatic glucose production, indicating specific impairment in the distal arm of gluconeogenesis. In concordance with this finding, PCB 126 blunted the forskolin-stimulated increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA levels without affecting glucose-6-phosphatase expression. Myricetin, a putative competitive AhR antagonist, reversed the suppression of PEPCK induction by PCB 126. Furthermore, other dioxin-like PCBs demonstrated similar effects on PEPCK expression in parallel with their ability to activate AhR. It therefore appears that AhR activation mediates the suppression of PEPCK expression by dioxin-like PCBs, suggesting a role for these pollutants as disruptors of energy metabolism. PMID:22615911

  10. PCB 126 and other dioxin-like PCBs specifically suppress hepatic PEPCK expression via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuo Zhang

    Full Text Available Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds encompass a group of structurally related heterocyclic compounds that bind to and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. The prototypical dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a highly toxic industrial byproduct that incites numerous adverse physiological effects. Global commercial production of the structurally similar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, however, commenced early in the 20(th century and continued for decades; dioxin-like PCBs therefore contribute significantly to total dioxin-associated toxicity. In this study, PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB, was evaluated with respect to its direct effects on hepatic glucose metabolism using primary mouse hepatocytes. Overnight treatment with PCB 126 reduced hepatic glycogen stores in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PCB 126 suppressed forskolin-stimulated gluconeogenesis from lactate. These effects were independent of acute toxicity, as PCB 126 did not increase lactate dehydrogenase release nor affect lipid metabolism or total intracellular ATP. Interestingly, provision of cells with glycerol instead of lactate as the carbon source completely restored hepatic glucose production, indicating specific impairment in the distal arm of gluconeogenesis. In concordance with this finding, PCB 126 blunted the forskolin-stimulated increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK mRNA levels without affecting glucose-6-phosphatase expression. Myricetin, a putative competitive AhR antagonist, reversed the suppression of PEPCK induction by PCB 126. Furthermore, other dioxin-like PCBs demonstrated similar effects on PEPCK expression in parallel with their ability to activate AhR. It therefore appears that AhR activation mediates the suppression of PEPCK expression by dioxin-like PCBs, suggesting a role for these pollutants as disruptors of energy metabolism.

  11. Leeches as Sensor-bioindicators of River Contamination by PCBs

    OpenAIRE

    Macova, Stanislava; Harustiakova, Danka; Kolarova, Jitka; Machova, Jana; Zlabek, Vladimir; Vykusova, Blanka; Randak, Tomas; Velisek, Josef; Poleszczuk, Gorzyslaw; Hajslova, Jana; Pulkrabova, Jana; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of leeches of the genus Erpobdella as a means of assessing polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of watercourses. The River Skalice, heavily contaminated with PCBs, was selected as a model. The source of contamination was a road gravel processing factory in Rožmitál pod Třemšínem from which an estimated 1 metric ton of PCBs leaked in 1986. Levels of PCB were measured in leeches collected between 1992 to 2003 from 11 sites covering about 50 km of t...

  12. Ultratrace analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasuga, T.; Senthilkumar, K.; Watanabe, K.; Takemori, H. [Shimadzu Techno Research, Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Shoda, T. [Ehime Univ. Medical Research Center, Matsuyama (Japan); Kuroda, Y. [Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. for Neuroscience, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In the present study, we established pretreatment and high sensitivity analytical method of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of humans for the first time. Analyzing serum and CSF samples from humans found unique because PCBs behavior and metabolism could be discerned. Furthermore, so far studies reported concentrations of OH-PCBs in wildlife samples obtained by HRGC-LRMS or GC-ECD data. In this study, we established cleanup and analytical methods by high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) using 1 mL of sample. Mainly, total PCBs and OH-PCBs in the CSF were extracted by specialized developed method. Using this method, PCBs and OH-PCBs could be determined swiftly. Based on this method, major OH-PCB congeners were detected from human, serum, CSF, control serum and Rhesus monkey plasma. Present methodology developed based on the isotope dilution technique using OH-PCBs standard and thus we suggest the present methodology could apply for ultra trace analysis of OHPCBs as well as total PCBs in human samples.

  13. Effects of lactational exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins on immune response and thyroid hormone systems in Japanese male and female infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, J. [School of Health Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuji, H. [Kitakyushu-Tsuyazaki Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Iida, T.; Nakagawa, R.; Matsueda, T.; Hirakawa, H. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiraha, A.; Yanagawa, T. [Graduate School of Mathematics, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukushige, J. [Fukuoka Children' s Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Watanabe O.B.G.Y. Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Our environments including food have been polluted with some organochlorine compounds such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Japanese people have also been contaminated with these chemicals. Consequently, some pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexans (HCHs), 1,1,1-trichloro- 2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane (DDT), dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide (HCE), and PCBs have been determined in Japanese breast milk and their mean or median concentrations on fat weight basis were about 420, 330, 3, 4 and 110 ppb, respectively. Their levels were considered more than 100 to 10,000 times higher than those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), so-called dioxins, in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalent (TEQ) value as a whole. Therefore, we should give due attention to possible health consequences of these organochlorine pesticides and PCBs as well as dioxins in Japanese infants. We have already reported effects of the perinatal exposure to these compounds on lymphocyte subsets and thyroid hormone statuses in the peripheral blood of Japanese infants. In this study, in order to clarify the sexual distinction in their effects on the immune response and thyroid hormone systems, we investigated the lymphocyte subsets and thyroid related chemicals in the blood of Japanese male and female infants in relation to their concentrations of the breast milk.

  14. Risk Assessment and Risk Management of Dioxins and PCBs in Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom LAP; Kramer HJ; Jansen EHJM; Mengelers MJB; Klaveren JD van; Dooren M van; Traag WA; Kuiper HA; Konemann WH; TOX; RIKILT/DLO

    1995-01-01

    In this report a brief overview is given concerning PCBs and dioxins in food. Background levels and the way PCBs and dioxins enter the environment are described. In the risk assessment part of the report an evaluation of toxicity is given, the way standards for dioxins and PCBs have been determined,

  15. Tracing the sources of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in Lake Baikal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamontov, A.A.; Mamontova, E.A.; Tarasova, E.N.; McLachlan, M.S.

    2000-03-01

    Lake Baikal is a unique freshwater ecosystem that has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It contains high levels of PCBs, and Baikal seal were recently found to have PCDD/F concentrations comparable to those in the Baltic Sea. In this work fish and soil were analyzed to trace the sources of these compounds to the lake. The fish samples indicated that the PCDD/F and PCB contamination of Lake Baikal does not originate from background inputs and that the contamination increases from north to south. The soil inventory was determined at 34 sites around Lake Baikal and in the Angara River valley. For the PCDD/Fs and most PCBs, the soil inventory is a good approximation of the cumulative atmospheric deposition. It varied over a factor of 1,000, with the highest levels in Usol'ye Sibirskoe, a city 110 km north of the southwestern tip of the lake in the highly industrialized Angara River valley, and the lowest values in the pristine areas to the northeast of the lake. A continuous decrease in the soil inventory was observed moving from Usol'ye S. up the Angara River valley to Lake Baikal and from there northeastward along the lake.

  16. Investigations on the emissions of biocides and PCBs under low volume conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, Birte; Horn, Wolfgang; Jann, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a low volume air sampling strategy for biocides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) at low air change rates in modern, air-tight showcases as they are present in museums. Lindane, pentachlorophenol, dichlofluanid, tolyfluanid, isodrin, p,p-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and permethrin were the biocides and PCB28 and PCB153 were the PCBs studied, all of which are semi volatile organic compounds (SVOC). Their occurrences in the museum environment originate from various sources e.g. preventive treatment of organic exhibits or organic building materials. Exhibits are long-term exposed to these pollutants due to storing in showcases or other storage equipment at low air change rates. To achieve air sampling under the aforementioned conditions the influences of temperature, air circulation, air change rate and relative humidity on the emission behavior of the selected biocides and PCBs had to be determined. This was carried out with pre-soaked wood samples in low volume air sampling experiments using 27L test showcases and 23L and 24L emission test chambers and also diffusive sampling with glass as the sampling material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dioxins and PCBs in feed and food--review from European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    During the 1990s, a number of adverse contamination incidents focussed the attention of the media and the general public on food safety. This led to the evaluation of safety measures with regard to dioxin intake from food. Important aspects regarding dioxins and PCBs in the food chain are reviewed here, allowing a contextual understanding of the present situation through its chronological developments. About 90-98% of the average exposure of humans to dioxins and PCBs results from dietary intake, with food of animal origin being the predominant source. Therefore, animal feed contributes considerably to the presence of these compounds in food. The detection of the "real" source of a contamination event in the food chain is a complex scientific problem and requires specific knowledge on production processes and changes of patterns during bioaccumulation. This is demonstrated by complex investigations performed in three studies on two continents to identify the source (e.g. from contamination of cow's milk in Germany, to citrus pulp pellets from Brazil as an ingredient in feed, then to contaminated lime for neutralization and finally to a landfill with residues of vinyl chloride monomer production). This example shows also the substantial economic losses resulting from incidents in the food chain and the consequences to global trade. In 2001, the EU Scientific Committee on Food established a group tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight and concluded that a considerable proportion of the European population would exceed this TWI. On the global level, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) provides scientific advice to the Codex Alimentarius Commission and therefore contributes to harmonized international food standards. In its evaluation of 2001, JECFA derived a provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of 70 pg TEQ/kg body weight. The sum of the median intake of PCDD/F-TEQ and PCB-TEQ exceeded the PTMI in Western European

  18. Dioxins and PCBs in feed and food — Review from European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malisch, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.malisch@cvuafr.bwl.de; Kotz, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    During the 1990s, a number of adverse contamination incidents focussed the attention of the media and the general public on food safety. This led to the evaluation of safety measures with regard to dioxin intake from food. Important aspects regarding dioxins and PCBs in the food chain are reviewed here, allowing a contextual understanding of the present situation through its chronological developments. About 90–98% of the average exposure of humans to dioxins and PCBs results from dietary intake, with food of animal origin being the predominant source. Therefore, animal feed contributes considerably to the presence of these compounds in food. The detection of the “real” source of a contamination event in the food chain is a complex scientific problem and requires specific knowledge on production processes and changes of patterns during bioaccumulation. This is demonstrated by complex investigations performed in three studies on two continents to identify the source (e.g. from contamination of cow's milk in Germany, to citrus pulp pellets from Brazil as an ingredient in feed, then to contaminated lime for neutralization and finally to a landfill with residues of vinyl chloride monomer production). This example shows also the substantial economic losses resulting from incidents in the food chain and the consequences to global trade. In 2001, the EU Scientific Committee on Food established a group tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight and concluded that a considerable proportion of the European population would exceed this TWI. On the global level, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) provides scientific advice to the Codex Alimentarius Commission and therefore contributes to harmonized international food standards. In its evaluation of 2001, JECFA derived a provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of 70 pg TEQ/kg body weight. The sum of the median intake of PCDD/F-TEQ and PCB-TEQ exceeded the PTMI in

  19. Dioxins and PCBs in feed and food — Review from European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    During the 1990s, a number of adverse contamination incidents focussed the attention of the media and the general public on food safety. This led to the evaluation of safety measures with regard to dioxin intake from food. Important aspects regarding dioxins and PCBs in the food chain are reviewed here, allowing a contextual understanding of the present situation through its chronological developments. About 90–98% of the average exposure of humans to dioxins and PCBs results from dietary intake, with food of animal origin being the predominant source. Therefore, animal feed contributes considerably to the presence of these compounds in food. The detection of the “real” source of a contamination event in the food chain is a complex scientific problem and requires specific knowledge on production processes and changes of patterns during bioaccumulation. This is demonstrated by complex investigations performed in three studies on two continents to identify the source (e.g. from contamination of cow's milk in Germany, to citrus pulp pellets from Brazil as an ingredient in feed, then to contaminated lime for neutralization and finally to a landfill with residues of vinyl chloride monomer production). This example shows also the substantial economic losses resulting from incidents in the food chain and the consequences to global trade. In 2001, the EU Scientific Committee on Food established a group tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight and concluded that a considerable proportion of the European population would exceed this TWI. On the global level, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) provides scientific advice to the Codex Alimentarius Commission and therefore contributes to harmonized international food standards. In its evaluation of 2001, JECFA derived a provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of 70 pg TEQ/kg body weight. The sum of the median intake of PCDD/F-TEQ and PCB-TEQ exceeded the PTMI in

  20. Distribution of pesticides and PCBs in sediments of agricultural drains in the Culiacan Valley, Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de la Parra, Luz María; Cervantes-Mojica, L Juleny; González-Valdivia, Carolina; Martínez-Cordero, Francisco J; Aguilar-Zárate, Gabriela; Bastidas-Bastidas, Pedro; Betancourt-Lozano, Miguel

    2012-10-01

    Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Sinaloa, Mexico. The Culiacan Valley is an extensive agricultural region characterized by a variety of crops with high-yield productions. In this study, concentrations of organochlorine (OCPs) and organophosphorus (OPs) pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) were determined in sediments of the agricultural drainage system of Culiacan Valley. Overall, 32 compounds were detected, with concentrations widely ranging from 0.03 to 1 294 ng g(-1) dry weight. OCP concentrations (15) ranged from 0.1 to 20.19 ng g(-1) dw. OP concentrations (8) ranged from 0.03 to 1294 ng g(-1) dw, and diazinon was the compound with the highest concentration. PCB concentrations were also determined and varied from 0.05 to 3.29 ng g(-1) dw. Other compounds detected included permethrin, triadimefon, and fipronil. The central zone registered the higher concentrations and the greatest number of compounds, which could be related to the occurrence of horticultural fields in this zone. According to sediment quality guidelines, the compounds exceeding the probable effect level were γ-HCH, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE, while the pesticides above the maximum permissible concentration were endosulfan, azinphos methyl, diazinon, dichlorvos, and permethrin. Although Sinaloa is an important agricultural crop producer in northwest Mexico, there are not many studies dealing with pesticide distribution in agricultural areas.

  1. Evaluating the effectiveness of pollution control measures via the occurrence of DDTs and HCHs in wet deposition of an urban center, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling-Chuan; Bao, Lian-Jun; Li, Shao-Meng; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2017-04-01

    Wet deposition is not only a mechanism for removing atmospheric pollutants, but also a process which reflects loadings of atmospheric pollutants. Our previous study on wet deposition examined the effectiveness of short-term control measures on atmospheric particulate pollution, which were partly effective for organic pollutants of current input sources. In the present study, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), representative of legacy contaminants, were measured in the same samples collected throughout the entire year of 2010 in Guangzhou, a large urban center in South China. Concentrations of ∑DDT (sum of o,p' and p,p'-DDT, o,p' and p,p'-DDE, o,p' and p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDMU) and ∑HCH (sum of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-HCH) in wet deposition were in the ranges of nd-69 (average: 1.8 ng L -1 ) and nd-150 ng L -1 (average: 5.1 ng L -1 ), respectively. In addition, the results of source diagnostics and backward air mass trajectories appeared to suggest the transport of antifouling paint derived DDTs from the coastal region off South China to Guangzhou. The combined wet and dry deposition flux of ∑HCH in the first quarter (January to March) was greater than that in the fourth quarter (October to December), while those of ∑DDT were comparable in the first and fourth quarters. Similar trends were also observed for the concentrations of ∑HCH and ∑DDT in aerosol samples. These results suggested the short-term pollution control measures implemented during the 16th Asian Games and 10th Asian Para Games (held in November and December 2010, respectively) did not work well for DDTs. The reduced input of HCHs during the fourth quarter was probably associated with the strict ban on lindane for food safety, which also exposed the weakness of control measures focusing mainly on the removal of atmospheric particulate matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental contamination of ready meals by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenugba, Adeola A; McMartin, Dena W; Beck, Angus

    2012-01-01

    The level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in ready meals was investigated to determine exposure compared to other foodstuffs. Chilled ready meals from nine categories (ambient, Chinese, Indian, Traditional UK, Italian, American Tex-Mex, Vegetarian and Organic), and three samples within each category were Soxhlet extracted in triplicate with hexane for 24 h, followed by a clean-up on deactivated silica gel. The cleaned extracts were concentrated to 1 ml under N(2) gas and analyzed on gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for 7 target PCBs (congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138, and 180). Individual congener concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 0.40 ng g(-1) (wet weight). The cumulative concentration of all congeners (ΣPCBs) ranged between 0.20 and 1.00 ng g(-1) (wet weight). These values translate into exposure levels of less than 1 μg kg(-1)day(-1) for reference men and women of 70 and 57 kg, respectively. This preliminary study demonstrates that ready meals, like many other foods, are contaminated by PCBs and may represent an important route of human exposure given contemporary changes in consumer food choice. Even though low levels of contamination were observed, long-term exposure for population groups consuming a high volume of ready meals may have cause for concern regarding chronic health risks.

  3. PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    assessment of toxicant - induced deficits in neuropsychological function, measurement of serum PCB concentrations, non-invasive determination of bone...likelihood of exposure to PCBs, lead, mercury , and pesticides, using a four point scale. Each job has also been classified using Standard Industrial and... Diuretics Anti-depressants Beta blockers Diabetes meds Acetaminophen Potassium supplement Gastro-intestinals Ace inhibitors Hyperlipoproteinemia meds

  4. 77 FR 54863 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... today's rule on small entities, small entity is defined as: (1) A small business that is primarily...). Today's changes are to match, as much as possible, the manifesting requirements for PCBs under TSCA to... to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by...

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in harbor sediments from Sea Lots, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Azad; Peterman, Paul; Echols, Kathy; Feltz, Kevin; Tegerdine, George; Manoo, Anton; Maraj, Dexter; Agard, John; Orazio, Carl

    2011-06-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in nearshore marine surficial sediments from three locations in Trinidad. Sediments were sampled at Sea Lots on the west coast, in south Port-of-Spain Harbor, south of Sea Lots at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and on Trinidad's east coast at Manzanilla. Total PCB concentrations in Sea Lots sediments ranged from 62 to 601ng/g (dry weight {dw}), which was higher than at Caroni and Manzanilla, 13 and 8ng/g dw, respectively. Total OCP concentrations at Sea Lots were ranged from 44.5 to 145ng/g dw, compared with 13.1 and 23.8n/g (dw), for Caroni and Manzanilla respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and of some OCPs in sediments from Sea Lots were above the Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. To date, this data is the first report on the levels of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds from Trinidad and Tobago. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lactational Transfer of Polychlorinated-Biphenyls (PCBs) and Other Organochlorines in St. Lawrence Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadieux, Marc A; Muir, Derek C G; Béland, Pierre; Hickie, Brendan E

    2016-01-01

    This study uses an individual-based contaminant bioaccumulation model for marine mammals to explore factors controlling the transfer of PCBs from mother to calf via nursing in beluga from the St. Lawrence Estuary. Beluga blubber samples (n = 46), along with four matched milk samples from stranded animals over the 1986-1994 period were used for comparison with modelled results. Based on 68 POPs, including 48 PCBs and 20 other organochlorine compounds, milk:blubber ratios were 0.65 between log K OW 3-6.5, then decreased to 0.1 at log K OW 8. Model simulations based on this relationship indicated females were transferring PCBs that were relatively very hydrophobic and highly chlorinated less readily than their lower chlorinated counterparts, resulting in an enriched concentration of very hydrophobic congeners in nursing females relative to adult males. There was very good agreement between observed and modelled male:female PCB concentration ratios. Four females within our dataset (15 %) had male-like ΣPCB concentrations as well as male-like congener profiles, suggesting that these individuals may have had a reduced or limited nursing history.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in harbor sediments from Sea Lots, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Azad; Peterman, Paul; Echols, Kathy; Feltz, Kevin; Tegerdine, George; Manoo, Anton; Maraj, Dexter; Agard, John; Orazio, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in nearshore marine surficial sediments from three locations in Trinidad. Sediments were sampled at Sea Lots on the west coast, in south Port-of-Spain Harbor, south of Sea Lots at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and on Trinidad's east coast at Manzanilla. Total PCB concentrations in Sea Lots sediments ranged from 62 to 601 ng/g (dry weight {dw}), which was higher than at Caroni and Manzanilla, 13 and 8 ng/g dw, respectively. Total OCP concentrations at Sea Lots were ranged from 44.5 to 145 ng/g dw, compared with 13.1 and 23.8 n/g (dw), for Caroni and Manzanilla respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and of some OCPs in sediments from Sea Lots were above the Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. To date, this data is the first report on the levels of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds from Trinidad and Tobago.

  8. Developmental disorders of the brain can be caused by PCBs; low doses of hydroxy-PCBs disrupt thyroid hormone-dependent dendrite formation from Purkinje neurons in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Y.; Kimura-Kuroda, J. [Tokyo Metropol. Inst. for Neuroscience, Tokyo (Japan); Nagata, I. [CREST/ JST, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Exposure to some environmental chemicals during the perinatal period causes developmental disorders of the brain. Cognitive impairment and hyperactivity in infants were reported in Taiwan, known as Yu-cheng incidents caused by the accidental contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Together with recent experimental data, Kuroda proposes a hypothesis that spatio-temporal disruptions of developing neuronal circuits by PCB exposure can cause the comobidity of learning disorders (LD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autsm with the co-exposure to other environmental chemicals. PCBs and hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) have similar chemical structures to thyroid hormones (TH), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). TH deficiency in the perinatal period causes cretinism children with severe cognitive and mental retardation. In primate model, Rice demonstrates that postnatal exposure to PCBs can dramatically influence later behavioral function. Epidemiological studies also indicate the possible developmental neurotoxicity of PCBs accumulated in human bodies. However, the precise underlying mechanisms and which types of PCB or OH-PCB with such effects have yet to be elucidated. It is important to establish a simple, reproducible, and sensitive in vitro assay for determining the effects of PCBs and OH-PCBs on the development of the central nervous system. Recently Iwasaki et al. established a reporter assay system and disclosed that low doses of PCBs potentially interfere TH-dependent gene expressions. This is the first demonstration that PCBs and OH-PCBs directly affect TH-receptor (TR)-mediated gene expressions crucial to the brain development, through unique mechanism. We also have demonstrated TH-dependent development of Purkinje neurons in vitro using a serum-free chemically defined medium. The degree of dendritic development of Purkinje cells is TH dose-dependent and exhibits high sensitivity in the pM order. Therefore, in the present study

  9. Contamination by persistent organochlorines in cetaceans incidentally caught along Brazilian coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, N; Matsuoka, S; Iwata, H; Tanabe, S; Rosas, F C W; Fillmann, G; Readman, J W

    2004-01-01

    Wide ranges of organochlorine residues were determined in the blubber of franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei), estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis), and long-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus capensis) incidentally caught along Brazilian coastal waters. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs were the highest, followed by CHLs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, TCPMe, heptachlor epoxide, HCB, and HCHs. Unexpectedly, significant pollution of PCBs, DDTs, TCPMe, and TCPMOH were observed in cetaceans from Brazil, implying the occurrence of local sources in the Southern Hemisphere comparable to those in the Northern Hemisphere, probably by high industrialization in Brazil. On the other hand, CHLs, HCB, HCHs, heptachlor epoxide, and dieldrin residue levels in Brazilian dolphins were much lower than those in other species from the Northern Hemisphere. Significant correlations of TCPMe and TCPMOH were found along with PCBs and DDTs, indicating the highly bioaccumulative nature of all these compounds and/or possible similar pollution sources.

  10. Individual breast milk consumption and exposure to PCBs and PCDD/Fs in Hungarian infants: a time-course analysis of the first three months of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigh, Éva; Colombo, Andrea; Benfenati, Emilio; Håkansson, Helen; Berglund, Marika; Bódis, József; Garai, János

    2013-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals. These compounds are transferred to breast milk, therefore breastfed infants are at risk of being exposed to considerable amounts of PCBs and PCDD/Fs during this sensitive age. In the present study individual breast milk samples were collected at three time points (days 5, 12 and 84 postpartum) from 22 mothers who delivered their infants during 2007 in Baranya County, Hungary. Breast milk samples were analyzed for 17 PCDD/Fs, 12 dioxin-like (DL) PCBs and 7 non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Each infant's daily breast milk consumptions have been measured biweekly over three months. The concentration of several PCB and PCDD congeners in breast milk decreased significantly during lactation, with a main decline between days 5 and 12. The total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations, derived from PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, were 3.17±1.72, 2.70±1.57 and 2.41±1.47 pg TEQ/g fat at the three time points, respectively. The corresponding NDL-PCB concentrations were 33.5±29.2, 27.4±20.6 and 26.9±24.8 ng/g fat, respectively. The results highlight the importance of timing of breast milk sampling for consistent exposure assessment estimation. Levels of pollutants in Hungarian breast milk samples were at the lower concentration range when data from Europe are considered. This is the first study in Hungary where each infant's daily intakes of PCBs and PCDD/Fs via breast milk have been measured. The daily intakes of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs via breastfeeding per kg body weight were 11.79±6.42, 16.54±13.02 and 11.59±7.70 pg TEQ/kg bw on days 5, 12 and 84, respectively. The exposure was the highest on day 12 but at all three time points each infants' daily exposure to PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs via breastfeeding exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 2 pg

  11. Seasonal and spatial variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetation and cow milk from a high altitude pasture in the Italian Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tato, Liliana [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, Milan, I-20133 (Italy); Tremolada, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.tremolada@unimi.it [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, Milan, I-20133 (Italy); Ballabio, Cristiano [Department of Environmental and Land Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza Della Scienza 1, Milan, I-20126 (Italy); Guazzoni, Niccolo; Parolini, Marco; Caccianiga, Marco; Binelli, Andrea [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, Milan, I-20133 (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    The seasonal and spatial variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetation and cow milk was studied in a high altitude pasture in the Alps (1900 m a.s.l.). PCB contamination in vegetation shows a concentration peak in June, which is mainly interpreted as the consequence of a temporary PCB enrichment of the air layer above the ground due to net emission fluxes from the soil. A three compartment dynamic model was developed to test this hypothesis. The North/South enrichment factor in the vegetation was 1.5-1.6 for penta- and hexa-substituted congeners and 1.7 for hepta- and octa-PCBs, according to the effect of temperature on compounds having higher K{sub oa} values. Milk concentrations followed the vegetation seasonal trend. The congener abundance in milk is in agreement with the biotransformation susceptibility, absorption efficiency and residence time of the different congeners in dairy cows. - Highlights: > A PCB peak in vegetation was found at the end of June. > Higher PCB concentrations in vegetation were found in the Northern aspect. > A temperature-dependent bioaccumulation process was found in the vegetation. > A direct transfer of PCBs was found from vegetation to dairy milk. > Carry-over ratios and bioaccumulation factors were calculated for dairy cow. - In a mountain pasture, PCBs concentrations in vegetation were found to be related to emission flux from soil and to the mean temperature of the site, and a direct transfer to milk was also observed.

  12. A Method for Separating PCBs and OCPs in Biota Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONG Fu-qiang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic fraction and cleanup method was developed for PCBs and OCPs in biota samples, using a self-developing chro- matographic fraction instrument and solid phase mixture. The solid phase was composed of florisil(30%-35%, acid-treated silica gel(50%-60%and anhydrous sodiumsulphate(10%-15%. The recoveriesof spiked PCBsand OCPs in column ranged from 96.4% to 119% and from 78.4% to 103% respectively, while in fish fat tissue ranged from 74.4% to 100% and from 78.3% to 102% respectively. This approach was proved to be an efficient, fast, simple and cost-effective method for fraction and cleanup of PCBs and OCPs in biota samples.

  13. Enhanced PCBs sorption on biochars as affected by environmental factors: Humic acid and metal cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yu; Wang Lei; Fang Guodong; Herath, H.M.S.K.; Wang Yujun; Cang Long; Xie Zubin; Zhou Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    Biochar plays an important role in the behaviors of organic pollutants in the soil environment. The role of humic acid (HA) and metal cations on the adsorption affinity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the biochars in an aqueous medium and an extracted solution from a PCBs-contaminated soil was studied using batch experiments. Biochars were produced with pine needles and wheat straw at 350 °C and 550 °C under anaerobic condition. The results showed that the biochars had high adsorption affinity for PCBs. Pine needle chars adsorbed less nonplanar PCBs than planar ones due to dispersive interactions and separation. Coexistence of HA and metal cations increased PCBs sorption on the biochars accounted for HA adsorption and cation complexation. The results will aid in a better understanding of biochar sorption mechanism of contaminants in the environment. - Highlights: ► Application of the biochars for PCBs sorption was a new and effective way. ► The biochars had higher adsorption affinity for PCBs in the soil extracted solution. ► Pine needle chars adsorbed less nonplanar PCBs than planar ones. ► Coexisting humic acid or metal cations increased PCBs sorption on the biochars. - The biochars had higher adsorption affinity for PCBs in the extracted soil solution because coexisting humic acid and metal cations increased their sorption.

  14. [Status and influencing factors of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution in the coastal areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min-Xia; Yang, Yu-Yi; Li, Qing-Xiao; Wang, Jun

    2013-08-01

    This review focused on the distribution, pollution status, sources and influencing factors of PCBs in the coastal areas (seawater, surface sediments and biota) in China. A few main points are listed as follows: (1) For coastal seawater, concentrations of PCBs were increasing from the north to the south and the highest concentrations of PCBs were observed in the developed east coastal areas. The concentrations of PCBs in most coastal areas were higher than the seawater standard of U. S. EPA (30 ng x L(-1)), indicating that there was a high potential risk. (2) Only a small part of surface sediments had PCBs concentrations higher than the ISQG (interim sediment quality guideline) and ERL (effects range-low) values, suggesting little probability of causing biological adverse effects and potential risk in surface sediments. (3) High-molecular-weight PCBs (4, 5 and 6 chlorinated biphenyl) were bio-accumulated in marine biota. The concentrations of PCBs in organisms were generally lower than 2000 ng x g(-1), which may have negligible effects on human health. (4) The main sources of PCBs were wastewater discharged from factories and the leakage of dismantling PCBs from electronic wastes. Factors influencing the concentrations and distribution of PCBs in the coastal areas included distance from land, flow exchange situation, water-carrying capacity, season, sediment particle size and total organic carbon content.

  15. PCB and dioxin levels in plasma and human milk of 418 Dutch women and their infants. Predictive value of PCB congener levels in maternal plasma for fetal and infant's exposure to PCBs and dioxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Koopman-Esseboom (Corine); M. Huisman (Martijn); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); C.G. van der Paauw (Cornelis); L.G.M.Th. Tuinstra (L. G M Th); H. Boersma (Eric); P.J.J. Sauer (Pieter)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractPolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are potentially hazardous compounds in the environment for human beings. In order to investigate PCB and dioxin exposure of Dutch women and their neonates, levels

  16. PCB AND DIOXIN LEVELS IN PLASMA AND HUMAN-MILK OF 418 DUTCH WOMEN AND THEIR INFANTS - PREDICTIVE VALUE OF PCB CONGENER LEVELS IN MATERNAL PLASMA FOR FETAL AND INFANTS EXPOSURE TO PCBS AND DIOXINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOPMANESSEBOOM, C; HUISMAN, M; WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; VANDERPAAUW, CG; TUINSTRA, LGMT; BOERSMA, ER; SAUER, PJJ

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are potentially hazardous compounds in the environment for human beings. In order to investigate PCB and dioxin exposure of Dutch women and their neonates, levels were examined

  17. PCB and dioxin levels in plasma and human milk of 418 Dutch women and their infants : predictive value of PCB congener levels in maternal plasma for fetal and infant's exposure to PCBs and dioxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman-Esseboom, C.; Huisman, M.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Paauw, C.G. van der; Tuinstra, L.G.M.T.; Boersma, E.R.; Sauer, P.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are potentially hazardous compounds in the environment for human beings. In order to investigate PCB and dioxin exposure of Dutch women and their neonates, levels were examined

  18. A TIME-TRENDS STUDY OF THE OCCURRENCES AND LEVELS OF CDDS, CDFS AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS IN SEDIMENT CORES FROM 11 GEOGRAPHICALLY DISTRIBUTED LAKES IN THE U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (CDFs) and certain non- and mono-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (cp-PCBs) are a general class of chlorinated aromatic compounds that are considered as dioxin-like. Because these chemicals are hi...

  19. Learning from Dioxin & PCBs in meat - problems ahead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, R.

    2017-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs; “Dioxins”), or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely recognized environmental and food contaminants. More than 90% of PCDD/Fs and PCB exposure of the average population stem from animal based food including meat. While average PCDD/F and PCB levels have decreased compared to levels 1980s, still contamination above regulatory limits are observed and a share of the population is above the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. For PCBs the contamination of feed and food along the life cycle from production, use, recycling, end of life and related contaminated sites has been documented and can be seen as a model. Furthermore, it has been recently discovered that levels of PCBs in feed and soil below regulatory limits can result in meat contamination above EU regulatory limits. In particular, beef meat and chicken meat/eggs have been found very sensitive towards PCB contamination in the environment (soil and feed) but also in stables (paints and sealants). For PCDD/Fs, the major exposure pathways are feed, feed additives and contaminated sites. Chlorinated paraffins have substituted PCBs the last 40 years in open application and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) were recently (05/2017) listed in the Stockholm Convention. Furthermore, brominated and fluorinated POPs have been listed in the Convention. All these POPs groups can accumulate in meat animals. For these new listed POPs no regulatory limits in food including meat has been established yet. Initial information on presence and risk of new listed POPs to food animals is compiled. A more systematic assessment of exposure and risks of POPs to food animals/meat is needed.

  20. Potential for phytoextraction of PCBs from contaminated soils using weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficko, Sarah A; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2010-07-15

    A comprehensive investigation of the potential of twenty-seven different species of weeds to phytoextract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from contaminated soil was conducted at two field sites (Etobicoke and Lindsay) in southern Ontario, Canada. Soil concentrations were 31 microg/g and 4.7 microg/g at each site respectively. All species accumulated PCBs in their root and shoot tissues. Mean shoot concentrations at the two sites ranged from 0.42 microg/g for Chenopodium album to 35 microg/g for Vicia cracca (dry weight). Bioaccumulation factors (BAF=[PCB](plant tissue)/[PCB](mean soil)) at the two sites ranged from 0.08 for Cirsium vulgare to 1.1 for V. cracca. Maximum shoot extractions were 420 microg for Solidago canadensis at the Etobicoke site, and 120 microg for Chrysanthemum leucanthemum at the Lindsay site. When plant density was taken into account with a theoretical density value, seventeen species appeared to be able to extract a similar or greater quantity of PCBs into the shoot tissue than pumpkins (Curcurbita pepo ssp. pepo) which are known PCB accumulators. Therefore, some of these weed species are promising candidates for future phytoremediation studies. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxicity and biodegradation of PCBs in contaminated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dercova, K.; Cicmanova, J.; Lovecka, P.; Demnerova, K.; Mackova, M.; Hucko, P.; Kusnir, P.

    2006-01-01

    PCBs represent a serious ecological problem due to their low degradability, high toxicity, and strong bioaccumulation. Because of many environmental and economical problems, there are efforts to develop bio-remediation technologies for decontamination of the PCB-polluted areas. PCB were used by storage of spent nuclear fuel in nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice. In the locality of the former producer of PCB - Chemko Strazske a. s. - big amount of these substances is still persisting in sediments and soil. The goal of this study was to analyze the contaminated sediments from Strazsky canal and Zemplinska Sirava water reservoir from several points of view. The study of eco-toxicity confirmed that both sediments were toxic for various tested organisms. The genotoxicity test has not proved the mutagenic effect. The subsequent step included microbiological analysis of the contaminated sediments and isolation of pure bacterial cultures capable of degrading PCBs. In order to determine the genetic potential for their biodegradability, the gene bphA1 was identified using PCR technique in their genomes. This gene codes the enzyme biphenyl-dioxygenase, which is responsible for PCB degradation. The final goal was to perform aerobic biodegradation of PCBs in the sediments. The bacteria present in both sediments are able to degrade certain low chlorinated congeners. The issue of biodiversity is still open and has to be studied to reveal the real cooperation between bacteria. (authors)

  2. Associations between levels of hydroxylated PCBs and PCBs in serum of pregnant women and blood thyroid hormone levels and body size of neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisada, Aya; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Watanabe, Kiyohiko; Takemori, Hiroaki; Takasuga, Takumi; Koyama, Maiko; Watanabe, Noriko; Suzuki, Emiko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Noda, Yumiko; Komine, Yoko; Ariki, Nagako; Kato, Nobumasa; Yoshinaga, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible associations between concentrations of hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and PCBs in the serum of women in the first trimester of pregnancy and thyroid hormone levels and body size of newborn infants in 79 mother-neonate pairs. We measured 16 OH-PCB isomers and 29 PCB isomers in the serum of Japanese women sampled at 11.1±1.9 weeks of gestation. The concentrations of free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in whole blood spots on filter papers sampled from the neonates. Dietary and lifestyle information of the mothers were obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Geometric mean (GM) concentrations of the sum of 16 OH-PCB isomers and of 29 PCB isomers were 1.2×10(2)pg/g wet wt. and 69ng/g lipid wt., respectively, in maternal serum. The GM concentrations of neonatal fT4 and TSH were 2.21ng/dL and 1.37μIU/mL, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was performed using measures of neonatal thyroid hormones as dependent variable and serum levels of OH-PCBs/PCBs and other potential covariates (age, pre-pregnancy weight, smoking status, etc.) as independent variables. The results demonstrated a significant positive association between the concentrations of some OH-PCB isomers and that of neonatal TSH. There were no significant associations between levels of PCBs and neonatal fT4, or between OH-PCBs/PCBs and body size of neonates. We conclude that exposure to/body burden of OH-PCBs, but not PCBs, at environmental levels during the first trimester of pregnancy can affect neonatal thyroid hormone status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. PCBs in Rain Water, Streams and a Reservoir in a Small Catchment of NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Martín, Jordi; Cereijo-Arango, José Luis; García-Morrondo, David; Juncosa-Rivera, Ricardo; Cillero-Castro, Carmen; Muñoz-Ibáñez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) constitute a significant environmental concern due to its persistence, tendency to bio-accumulate, acknowledged toxicity and ubiquity. In the present study, a small water catchment (~100 km2) inclusive of a two-tailed water supply reservoir (Abegondo-Cecebre) has been monitored between 2009 and 2014. Sampling stations include: a) one precipitation gauge used to collect monthly-integrated bulk precipitation (25 samples); b) seven streams (95 samples); c) five surface and one bottom points within the reservoir (104 samples); d) five points for sediment sampling in two surveys (spring and summer; 10 samples). All the water samples as well as the leachates of sediment washing have been analyzed for their concentration in 6 marker PCB (congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) and 12 dioxin-like PCB (congeners 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169 and 189) compounds. The average concentration of PCBtot in the bulk precipitation during the sampling period is ~406 pg/L although a very significant decrease has occurred since the end of 2011 (~800 pg/L) to the end of 2014 (~60 pg/L). Likewise, the mean concentration of PCBtot in the stream water samples is 174 pg/L and a similar reduction in the concentration of PCBtot is also acknowledged for the same period of time (~250 pg/L before the end of 2011 and ~30 pg/L after then). Reservoir surface water has a PCBtot concentration of ~234 pg/L which, according to its sampling time (2010-2011) is consistent with the measured stream waters. However, deep reservoir water reveals an average concentration which is higher than the corresponding top water (~330 pg/L) but significantly smaller than the water-leached sediments (~860 pg/L). The available data suggest that up to a 30% of PCBs associated with precipitation becomes sequestered by the soil/sediment system while no significant change takes place during the transfer of water from the stream to the reservoir system, at least in

  4. Evidence of Spatially Extensive Resistance to PCBs in an Anadromous Fish of the Hudson River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhanpeng; Courtenay, Simon; Chambers, R. Christopher; Wirgin, Isaac

    2006-01-01

    Populations of organisms that are chronically exposed to high levels of chemical contaminants may not suffer the same sublethal or lethal effects as naive populations, a phenomenon called resistance. Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod) from the Hudson River, New York, are exposed to high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and bioaccumulate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). They have developed resistance to PCBs and PCDDs but not to PAHs. Resistance is largely heritable and manifests at early-life-stage toxic end points and in inducibility of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) mRNA expression. Because CYP1A induction is activated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway, as are most toxic responses to these compounds, we sought to determine the geographic extent of resistance to CYP1A mRNA induction by PCBs in the Hudson River tomcod population. Samples of young-of-the-year tomcod were collected from seven locales in the Hudson River, extending from the Battery at river mile 1 (RM 1) to RM 90, and from the Miramichi River, New Brunswick, Canada. Laboratory-reared offspring of tomcod adults from Newark Bay, in the western portion of the Hudson River estuary, were also used in this study. Fish were partially depurated in clean water and intraperitoneally injected with 10 ppm coplanar PCB-77, 10 ppm benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), or corn oil vehicle, and levels of CYP1A mRNA were determined. CYP1A was significantly inducible by treatment with BaP in tomcod from the Miramichi River, from laboratory-spawned offspring of Newark Bay origin, and from all Hudson River sites spanning 90 miles of river. In contrast, only tomcod from the Miramichi River displayed significantly induced CYP1A mRNA expression when treated with PCB-77. Our results suggest that the population of tomcod from throughout the Hudson River estuary has developed resistance to CYP1A inducibility and probably

  5. PAHs and PCBs in an Eastern Mediterranean megacity, Istanbul: Their spatial and temporal distributions, air-soil exchange and toxicological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Banu; Ozturk, Fatma; Keles, Melek; Yurdakul, Sema

    2017-01-01

    Istanbul, one of the mega cities in the world located between Asia and Europe, has suffered from severe air pollution problems due to rapid population growth, traffic and industry. Atmospheric levels of PAHs and PCBs were investigated in Istanbul at 22 sampling sites during four different sampling periods using PUF disk passive air samplers and spatial and temporal variations of these chemicals were determined. Soil samples were also taken at the air sampling sites. At all sites, the average ambient air Σ 15 PAH and Σ 41 PCB concentrations were found as 85.6 ± 68.3 ng m -3 and 246 ± 122 pg m -3 , respectively. Phenanthrene and anthracene were the predominant PAHs and low molecular weight congeners dominated the PCBs. The PAH concentrations were higher especially at urban sites close to highways. However, the PCBs showed moderately uniform spatial variations. Except four sites, the PAH concentrations were increased with decreasing temperatures during the sampling period, indicating the contributions of combustion sources for residential heating, while PCB concentrations were mostly increased with the temperature, probably due to enhanced volatilization at higher temperatures from their sources. The results of the Factor Analysis represented the impact of traffic, petroleum, coal/biomass and natural gas combustion and medical waste incineration plants on ambient air concentrations. A similar spatial distribution trend was observed in the soil samples. Fugacity ratio results indicated that the source/sink tendency of soil for PAHs and PCBs depends on their volatility and temperature; soil generally acts as a source for lighter PAHs and PCBs particularly in higher temperatures while atmospheric deposition is a main source for higher molecular weight compounds in local soils. Toxicological effect studies also revealed the severity of air and soil pollution especially in terms of PAHs in Istanbul. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Temporal trends of PCBs in feed and dietary influence in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, Monia; Manera, Maurizio; Tavoloni, Tamara; Lestingi, Carmela; Pecorelli, Ivan; Piersanti, Arianna

    2013-12-01

    As a rainbow trout producer, Italy is accounted as fifth in the world and second in continental Europe. In this study, the levels of the eighteen PCBs in feed and in trout, showed a statistical significant difference (ptrend from 2005 to 2010. This trend shows effectively that quality and safety of trout feeds has greatly improved during the last years and, as a consequence, also the PCBs values in muscle trout, showed a decreasing trend. Moreover, feed Σ18PCBs showed a statistical significant difference (p<0.01) among the analysed brands and was positively correlated (p<0.01 and r=0.451) with the rainbow trout muscle Σ18PCBs. These results showed that the presence of PCBs in trout muscle is directly linked to the chemical quality of aquaculture feed. The most commonly detected PCBs congeners were congeners PCB 153 and PCB 138 in all the three compared brands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Levels of PCBs in Oysters Coming from Galicia Coast: Comparison to Mussels from the Same Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A

    2016-05-01

    PCBs were analyzed in two species of oyster (Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea edulis) cultured in intertidal beds and rafts coming from the Galician Rías during the period 2011-2014. PCBs were also analyzed in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected in the same Rías during 2011. The main objective of this work is to investigate the distribution of PCBs in Galician oysters and to study their suitability as bioindicator in comparison to mussels. The levels of ΣPCBs (ten congeners) ranged from 5.58 to 179.49 ng g(-1) d.w. The effect of biological parameters (shell length, lipid content and condition index) on bioaccumulation of PCBs was also evaluated. ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference between species for higher chlorinated biphenyls (CBs 153 and 138). The spatial patterns were investigated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed differences between geographical areas (Rías Altas, Centrales and Baixas) in the distribution of PCBs.

  8. Desorption, partitioning, and dechlorination characteristics of PCBs in sediments in interaction with reactive activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyeok; Lawal, Wasiu; Al-Abed, Souhail R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Problematic aged real PCBs-contaminated sediment (WHS) was examined. • Performance of reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with Pd–ZVI was tested. • Fate and transport of PCBs bound to WHS in the presence of RAC was fully traced. • Direct mixing configuration was compared with compartment configuration. • Results reflected real world complexities associated with slow desorption of PCBs. - Abstract: Sediment (WHS) in Waukegan Harbor, Illinois, heavily contaminated and aged with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was treated with reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron nanoparticles. Lab test proceeded in a direct mixing configuration of RAC and WHS. A compartment configuration, where RAC was physically separated from WHS, was also designed to trace the sequential transport and fate of PCBs, including desorption, adsorption, dechlorination, and re-partitioning. PCBs, once desorbed from WHS, were immediately sequestrated to RAC and subject to dechlorination. Direct mixing of WHS with RAC was one-order of magnitude more effective for dechlorination than compartment configuration. Compared to their desorption-followed by-adsorption route, direct physical contact of RAC with PCBs bound to WHS exhibited negligible contribution to the availability of PCBs for dechlorination reaction. Addition of RAC even in compartment configuration facilitated PCBs desorption from WHS. However, slow desorption of PCBs limited overall performance, resulting in a five-order of magnitude lower dechlorination yield when compared with treatment of purely aqueous PCBs. The low dechlorination yield reflected real world complexities in treating 3.19% organic carbon-containing WHS aged with PCBs for 40 years. These observations were further supported when compared with results on clean Cesar Creek sediment spiked with 2-chlorinated biphenyls

  9. Desorption, partitioning, and dechlorination characteristics of PCBs in sediments in interaction with reactive activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyeok, E-mail: hchoi@uta.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, 416 Yates Street, Arlington, TX 76019-0308 (United States); Environmental and Earth Sciences Program, The University of Texas at Arlington, 500 Yates Street, Arlington, TX 76019-0049 (United States); Lawal, Wasiu [Environmental and Earth Sciences Program, The University of Texas at Arlington, 500 Yates Street, Arlington, TX 76019-0049 (United States); Al-Abed, Souhail R. [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Problematic aged real PCBs-contaminated sediment (WHS) was examined. • Performance of reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with Pd–ZVI was tested. • Fate and transport of PCBs bound to WHS in the presence of RAC was fully traced. • Direct mixing configuration was compared with compartment configuration. • Results reflected real world complexities associated with slow desorption of PCBs. - Abstract: Sediment (WHS) in Waukegan Harbor, Illinois, heavily contaminated and aged with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was treated with reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron nanoparticles. Lab test proceeded in a direct mixing configuration of RAC and WHS. A compartment configuration, where RAC was physically separated from WHS, was also designed to trace the sequential transport and fate of PCBs, including desorption, adsorption, dechlorination, and re-partitioning. PCBs, once desorbed from WHS, were immediately sequestrated to RAC and subject to dechlorination. Direct mixing of WHS with RAC was one-order of magnitude more effective for dechlorination than compartment configuration. Compared to their desorption-followed by-adsorption route, direct physical contact of RAC with PCBs bound to WHS exhibited negligible contribution to the availability of PCBs for dechlorination reaction. Addition of RAC even in compartment configuration facilitated PCBs desorption from WHS. However, slow desorption of PCBs limited overall performance, resulting in a five-order of magnitude lower dechlorination yield when compared with treatment of purely aqueous PCBs. The low dechlorination yield reflected real world complexities in treating 3.19% organic carbon-containing WHS aged with PCBs for 40 years. These observations were further supported when compared with results on clean Cesar Creek sediment spiked with 2-chlorinated biphenyls.

  10. The effect of hydrogen peroxide and solvent on photolysis of PCBs to reduce occupational exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Asilian; Reza Gholamnia; Abbas Rezaee; Ahmad Jonidi Jafari; Ali Khavanin; Elmira Darabi

    2010-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic bio-accumulate components and may increase risk of adverse effects on human health and the environment. For different social, technical and economic reasons, significant quantities of PCBs contaminated transformer oil are still in use or storied. The study aimed to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide and solvent on photolysis of PCBs to reduce occupational exposure. Methods: The photochemical annular geometry (500 ml volume) reactor...

  11. Desorption, partitioning, and dechlorination characteristics of PCBs in sediments in interaction with reactive activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeok; Lawal, Wasiu; Al-Abed, Souhail R

    2015-04-28

    Sediment (WHS) in Waukegan Harbor, Illinois, heavily contaminated and aged with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was treated with reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron nanoparticles. Lab test proceeded in a direct mixing configuration of RAC and WHS. A compartment configuration, where RAC was physically separated from WHS, was also designed to trace the sequential transport and fate of PCBs, including desorption, adsorption, dechlorination, and re-partitioning. PCBs, once desorbed from WHS, were immediately sequestrated to RAC and subject to dechlorination. Direct mixing of WHS with RAC was one-order of magnitude more effective for dechlorination than compartment configuration. Compared to their desorption-followed by-adsorption route, direct physical contact of RAC with PCBs bound to WHS exhibited negligible contribution to the availability of PCBs for dechlorination reaction. Addition of RAC even in compartment configuration facilitated PCBs desorption from WHS. However, slow desorption of PCBs limited overall performance, resulting in a five-order of magnitude lower dechlorination yield when compared with treatment of purely aqueous PCBs. The low dechlorination yield reflected real world complexities in treating 3.19% organic carbon-containing WHS aged with PCBs for 40 years. These observations were further supported when compared with results on clean Cesar Creek sediment spiked with 2-chlorinated biphenyls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. PCBs contamination in seafood species at the Eastern Coast of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikanlaya, Chate; Settachan, Daam; Denison, Michael S.; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; van den Berg, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a large group of persistent organic substances spread throughout the world. The most toxic PCBs are those that are dioxin-like (dl-PCBs). Environmental studies on PCBs in Thailand are limited, especially with regards to dl-PCBs. This study is one of the first in this country that demonstrates contamination of seafood with PCBs and determines the levels of PCBs and total dioxin like activity in mussels, oysters and shrimp, from the Eastern Coast of Thailand. Sixty pooled samples of mussels and twenty-seven pooled samples of oysters were collected from cultivation farms and twenty-one pooled samples of shrimp were collected from fisherman piers. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of 49 PCB congeners was obtained by HRGC-ECD analysis and total dioxin-like activity using the CAFLUX bioassay. Total PCB concentrations varied between three species, ranging between 19 and 1100 ng g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and the levels of PCBs in shrimp was three time higher than that in mussels and oysters. With respected to the pattern of PCB congeners, it implied that the source of PCBs exposure in this area could be from the regional contamination. The calculated CAFLUX bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs) values ranged between 0.8 and 18 pg BEQ g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and showed a good relationship with the chemical-derived TEQs. Therefore, the CAFLUX bioassay can be used for effective screening of dioxin-like activity in marine species effectively. PMID:19375780

  13. Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in ambient air and rainwater in a tropical environment: concentrations and temporal and seasonal trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2010-02-01

    The levels of a range of SVOCs (PAHs, OCPs, and PCBs) in atmospheric particulate and gaseous phases and rainwater samples were studied in Singapore from June 2007 to May 2008. Yearly average concentrations of PAHs, OCPs and PCBs in air (particle+gas) were 136.5 ng m(-3), 695.8 pg m(-3) and 27 pg m(-3), respectively while those of PAHs and OCPs in rainwater (particulate+dissolved) were 1218.1 and 114.2 ng L(-1), respectively. The lower molecular weight (LMW) PAHs were more abundant than those higher molecular weight (HMW) PAHs in rainwater. Among OCPs, HCHs were found in rainwater in relatively larger amounts than DDTs. Similar distributions patterns were also found in air samples. Statistical correlation analysis indicated that the atmospheric occurrence of SVOCs had positive correlation with ambient temperature except for particulate PAHs and negative correlations with relative humidity and wind speed; incoming solar radiation (SR) was negatively associated with PAHs, but there was almost no correlation between SR and the occurrence of OCPs and PCBs. ANOVA analysis revealed that the temporal variations were statistically significant for PAHs and PCBs in air samples and for OCPs in rainwater. In addition, local traffic emissions, trans-boundary transport of pesticides from regional sources and Aroclors 1248 and 1254 were identified as probable sources for PAHs, OCPs and PCBs in the atmosphere, respectively, based on molecular diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis (PCA) together with the assistance of air mass backward trajectories. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Persistent organochlorine residues and toxic evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls in sharks from the Mediterranean Sea (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storelli, M.M.; Marcotrigiano, G.O. [Bari Univ., Dip. Farmaco-Biologico, Bari (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls including coplanar congeners, DDT compounds and HCB were measured in different tissues (muscle, liver and eggs) of two Mediterranean shark species: namely Centrophorus granulosus and Squalus blainvillei. The concentrations of organochlorines in the tissues and organs of both species were in the order DDTs>PCBs>HCB. The highest values of DDTs, PCBs and HCB were found in liver followed by eggs and muscle. Among DDTs the compound found in greatest concentration was p,p -DDE. The PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 138, 153, and 180. The isomers with higher TEQs values were non- and mono-ortho congeners than di-ortho ones in muscle, liver and eggs of both species. Among the non-ortho, PCB 126 was the major contributing individual to the total TEQs in both species. (Author)

  15. Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in human blood: causes or consequences of diabetic nephropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M

    2014-07-01

    Nephropathy, or kidney disease, is a major, potential complication of diabetes. We assessed the association of 6 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, 9 chlorinated dibenzofurans and 8 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood with diabetic nephropathy in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (unweighted N=2588, population estimate=117,658,357). Diabetes was defined as diagnosed or undiagnosed (glycohemoglobin ≥ 6.5%) and nephropathy defined as urinary albumin to creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, representing microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria. For the 8 chemicals analyzed separately, values above the 75th percentile were considered elevated, whereas for the other 15 compounds values above the maximum limit of detection were considered elevated. Seven of 8 dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, analyzed separately, were found to be associated with diabetic nephropathy. The chemicals associated with diabetic nephropathy were: 1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran; PCB 126; PCB 169; PCB 118; and PCB 156. Three of the 8 dioxins and dioxin-like compounds; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran and PCB 118; expressed as log-transformed continuous variables; were associated with diabetes without nephropathy. When 4 or more of the 23 chemicals were elevated the odds ratios were 7.00 (95% CI=1.80-27.20) for diabetic nephropathy and 2.13 (95% CI=0.95-4.78) for diabetes without nephropathy. Log-transformed toxic equivalency (TEQ) was associated with both diabetic nephropathy, and diabetes without nephropathy, the odds ratios were 2.35 (95% CI=1.57-3.52) for diabetic nephropathy, and 1.44 (95% CI=1.11-1.87) for diabetes without nephropathy. As the kidneys function to remove waste products from the blood, diabetic nephropathy could be either the cause or the consequence (or both) of exposure to dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs. Copyright © 2014

  16. Evaluation of mitogen-induced responses in marine mammal and human lymphocytes by in-vitro exposure of butyltins and non-ortho coplanar PCBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.; Sakakibara, A.; Kanoh, M.; Kudo, S.; Watanabe, H.; Nagai, N.; Miyazaki, N.; Asano, Y.; Tanabe, S.

    2002-01-01

    Butyltins may affect the immune response in marine mammals. - The effects of exposure to butyltin compounds (BTs: tributyltin; TBT, dibutyltin; DBT and monobutyltin; MBT) and non-ortho coplanar PCBs (IUPAC 77, 126 and 169) on marine mammals and human lymphocyte were evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), a California sealion (Zalophus californianus), a larga seal (Phoca largha) and humans (Homo sapiens) were exposed at varying concentrations of BTs and coplanar PCBs. Concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated mitogenesis found significantly suppressed (P<0.01) when the cells were exposed at 300 nM (89 ng/ml) of TBT and 330 nM of DBT (77 ng/ml), while MBT showed little cytotoxicity at treatment levels of up to 3600 nM (620 ng/ml). BTs concentrations in the liver of Dall's porpoises from Japanese coastal waters ranged between 81-450 ng/g for TBT and 200-1100 ng/g (wet wt.) for DBTs, which is greater than the cytotoxic levels registered in this study. In contrast, non-ortho coplanar PCBs did not suppress cell proliferation at concentrations of up to 30 nM (10 ng/ml). The residue levels of coplanar PCBs in the blubber of Dall's porpoises were 0.12-1.3 ng/g, which were one order of lower than those levels that do cell proliferation. When cells were exposed to a mixture of TBT/DBTand coplanar PCBs, the proliferation was significantly reduced to 33 nM DBT plus 34 nM CB-77 and 33 nM DBT plus 28 nM CB-169 mixtures, respectively. The investigations relating the contaminant-induced immunosuppression in marine mammals have been focused on persistent organochlorines such as PCBs, pesticides and dioxin compounds. However, this study suggested the possibility of BTs could also pose a serious threat to the immune functions in free-ranging marine mammals and humans

  17. Serum concentrations of PCBs and OCPs among prepubertal Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Hyun; Hong, Young Sun; Ha, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2016-02-01

    Although children are more vulnerable than adults to environmental hazards, due to their physiological and behavioral characteristics, few studies have assessed their internal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The objective of this study was to determine the serum levels of certain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) among pre-pubertal children in Korea and examine their variation with age and gender. We analyzed a total of 51 POPs in 214 children (age range, 7-9 years), using data from the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort Study. To examine change over time, POP concentrations were measured at both 7 and 9 years of age in a sub-cohort of 26 children. The median and interquartile range (IQR, 25th to 75th percentiles) data for the sum of PCB congeners was 26.44 ng/g lipid (18.27-37.63 ng/g lipid). The median (IQR) concentration for the sum of OCPs was 74.82 ng/g lipid (51.11-112.45 ng/g lipid). Our results showed significant increases in serum concentrations of total PCBs with age (p = 0.0001), no gender dependence of total PCBs (p = 0.38) and total OCPs (p = 0.12), and strong correlations between individual POPs. Childhood exposure to POPs was relatively low compared to other studies carried out in different countries. However, even though the use of POPs has been banned since 2001, our results indicated that children in the general population are still exposed to various POPs. Because long-term, low-level exposure to POPs in the general population remains a concern for human health, future research should examine major routes of exposure and identification of risk factors.

  18. [Levels and distribution of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in the air, pine needles, and human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozul, Darija; Romanić, Snjezana Herceg

    2010-09-01

    This review presents the findings on the distribution and levels of 20 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) all over the world, based on measurements in samples of air, human milk and pine needles. The Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health has been conducting research in all three matrices for many years, and this review summarises its results too. Significant decrease in concentrations of organochlorine compounds has been seen after the legal ban of their use, but that decresing trend has been slowed down and they are still found in all samples. In general, higher PCB levels are found in samples from urban locations, pesticides levels are higher in samples from locations where has been their probable usage in agriculture, while HCB levels are usually indicator of industrial activity.γ-HCH has been found in the highest concentration in air and pine needles samples, while in humans DDE and β-HCH are the most abundant compounds. Indicator PCB congeners are also differently present in environment and humans: in air and pine needles lower-chlorinated, more volatile PCB congeners have higher concentrations while in humans that goes for more persistent higher-chlorinated PCB congeners. Among toxic ortho-substituted PCB congeners in human and environmental samples the most abundant is PCB-118 while three non-ortho substituted congeners (PCB-77, PCB-126 and PCB-169) that are the most toxic ones are rarely detected. From organochlorine pesticides, DDD is found in lowest concentrations in all samples.

  19. The Effect of Solvent, Hydrogen Peroxide and Dioxide Titanium on Degradation of PCBs, Using Microwave Radiation in Order to Reduce Occupational Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajik Reza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs that are of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment remains a very difficult challenge because the compounds are highly hydrophobic and have very low solubility in water. A 900 W domestic microwave oven, pyrex vessel reactor, pyrex tube connector and condensing system were used in this experiment. Radiation was discontinuous and ray powers were 540, 720 and 900 W. The PCBS were analyzed by GC-ECD. The application of microwave radiation and H2O2/TiO2 agents for the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated oil was explored in this study. PCB – contaminated oil was treated in a pyrex reactor by microwave irradiation at 2450 MHz with the addition of H2O2/TiO2. A novel grain TiO2 (GT01 was used. The determination of PCB residues in oil by gas chromatography (GC revealed that rates of PCB decomposition were highly dependent on microwave power, exposure time, ratio to solvent with transformer oil in 3:1, the optimal amount of GT01 (0.2 g and 0.116 mol of H2O2 were used in the study. It was suggested that microwave irradiation with the assistance of H2O2/TiO2 might be a potential technology for the degradation of PCB – contaminated oil. The experiments show that MW irradiation, H2O2 oxidant and TiO2 catalyst lead to a degradation efficiency of PCBs only in the presence of ethanol. The results showed that the addition of ethanol significantly enhanced degradation efficiency of PCBs.

  20. The influence of maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy on ADHD symptoms and cognitive functions in Norwegian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Ida Henriette; Aase, Heidi; Biele, Guido; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Skogan, Annette Holth; Zeiner, Pål; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Knutsen, Helle K

    2016-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (dioxins) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with potentially adverse impact on child neurodevelopment. Whether the potential detrimental effects of dioxins and PCBs on neurodevelopment are of specific or unspecific character is not clear. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs on ADHD symptoms and cognitive functioning in preschoolers. We aimed to investigate a range of functions, in particular IQ, expressive language, and executive functions. This study includes n=1024 children enrolled in a longitudinal prospective study of ADHD (the ADHD Study), with participants recruited from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Boys and girls aged 3.5years participated in extensive clinical assessments using well-validated tools; The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment interview (PAPA), Stanford-Binet 5th revision (SB-5), Child Development Inventory (CDI), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Preschool version (BRIEF-P). Maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs was estimated based on a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) answered mid-pregnancy and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian foods. Exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-compounds) was expressed in total toxic equivalents (TEQ), and PCB-153 was used as marker for non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndl-PCBs). Generalized linear and additive models adjusted for confounders were used to examine exposure-outcome associations. Exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compound was not significantly associated with any of the outcome measures when analyses were performed for boys and girls together. After stratifying by sex, adjusted analyses indicated a small inverse association with language in girls. An increase in the exposure variables of 1 SD was associated with a reduction in language score of -0.2 [CI -0.4, -0

  1. Residues of dioxins and PCBs in fat of growing pigs and broilers fed contaminated feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Kan, C.A.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Weg, van der G.; Onstenk, C.G.M.; Traag, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the kinetics of PCBs and dioxins, 3 week old broilers and 3 month old pigs were fed with a 10-fold diluted feed from the Belgium crisis for one week, followed by a period on clean feed. In the case of broilers this resulted in levels for dioxins, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs in fat

  2. Serum estrogen and its metabolites in pregnant women exposed to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuli; Chang, Y.C.; Li, C.M.; Chou, W.L. [National Health Research Insts., Kaohsiung (Taiwan). Div. of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine; Chao, H.R.; Guo, Y.L. [National Chung Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan). Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    2004-09-15

    Dioxins and PCBs are environmental endocrine disruptors that have half-life of 7-10 years in human bodies and have toxicities including carcinogenesis. Studies showed a high estrogen 4-/2- hydroxylation ratio appears to be a marker for neoplasm. The aim is to examine dioxin and PCBs body burden1 in relation to estrogen metabolites and catabolites.

  3. 40 CFR 761.187 - Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. 761.187 Section 761.187 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN...

  4. Fetal exposure to PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites in a Dutch cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soechitram, S.D.; Athanasiadou, M.; Hovander, L.; Bergman, A.; Sauer, P. J. J.

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are still the most abundant pollutants in wildlife and humans. Hydroxylated PCB metabolites (OH-PCBs) are known to be formed in humans and wildlife. Studies in animals show that these metabolites cause endocrine-related toxicity. The health effects in humans have not

  5. The effect of hydrogen peroxide and solvent on photolysis of PCBs to reduce occupational exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Asilian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are toxic bio-accumulate components and may increase risk of adverse effects on human health and the environment. For different social, technical and economic reasons, significant quantities of PCBs contaminated transformer oil are still in use or storied. The study aimed to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide and solvent on photolysis of PCBs to reduce occupational exposure. Methods: The photochemical annular geometry (500 ml volume reactor was designed with a cylindrical low-pressure mercury lamp (UV-C Cathodeon TUV 6WE with emission at 254 nm. The radiant power emitted by the lamp was 6w. The whole lamp was immersed in a reactor thermostat controlling of temperature at 32 ± 2 oC. The PCBs was determined using GC/ECD and data was analyzed by SPSS. Results: Degradation of total PCBs in terms of %10 and %20 of volume of H2O2 were 41%, 75% and 94%, respectively. The degradation of total PCBs in terms of ratio to solvent with oil transformer in 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 was 61%, 75% and 94%, respectively. Conclusion: Our study show that UV-C photolysis of H2O2 leads to a degradation efficiency of PCBs only in the presence of isooctane, therefore indicating that the intermediates formation after ethanol oxidation are able to initiate PCBs degradation.

  6. Leeches as Sensor-bioindicators of River Contamination by PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorzyslaw Poleszczuk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of leeches of the genus Erpobdella as a means of assessing polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of watercourses. The River Skalice, heavily contaminated with PCBs, was selected as a model. The source of contamination was a road gravel processing factory in Rožmitál pod Třemšínem from which an estimated 1 metric ton of PCBs leaked in 1986. Levels of PCB were measured in leeches collected between 1992 to 2003 from 11 sites covering about 50 km of the river (the first sampling site upstream to the source of contamination and 10 sites downstream. The PCB indicator congeners IUPA no. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180 were measured. Levels were highest at the four sampling sites nearest the source of pollution. The highest values of PCB congeners were found in 1992. PCB content decreased from 1992 to 2003 and with distance from the source. The study indicated that leeches of the genus Erpobdella are a suitable bioindicator of contamination in the surface layer of river sediments.

  7. Residual Strain in PCBs with Cu-Plated Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudajevova, A.; Dušek, K.

    2017-12-01

    The residual strain in pure printed circuit boards (PCBs) and PCBs with Cu-plated holes has been obtained by measurement of the temperature dependence of their dilatational characteristics in the x, y, and z directions up to 240°C. Shrinkage in all directions was observed for all samples of both materials in the first thermal cycle. No permanent length changes were observed in the second or subsequent thermal cycles. The residual strain was determined from the difference in relative elongation between the first and second thermal cycles. Relaxation of residual strain occurred only in the first thermal cycle, as a thermally activated process. The highest value of relaxed residual strain was found in the z direction for both materials. Relaxation of residual strain in the z direction of the pure PCB occurred only in the negative strain range, whereas relaxation of the PCB with Cu-plated holes occurred in both the positive and negative strain ranges. The relaxation of the positive strain in the PCB with Cu-plated holes in the z direction implies that this part of the PCB was under pressure during its preparation. This relaxation is a consequence of the high coefficient of thermal expansion of PCB laminate in this direction, which can also lead to cracks in Cu holes when the material is heated above the glass-transition temperature.

  8. Leeches as Sensor-bioindicators of River Contamination by PCBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macova, Stanislava; Harustiakova, Danka; Kolarova, Jitka; Machova, Jana; Zlabek, Vladimir; Vykusova, Blanka; Randak, Tomas; Velisek, Josef; Poleszczuk, Gorzyslaw; Hajslova, Jana; Pulkrabova, Jana; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of leeches of the genus Erpobdella as a means of assessing polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of watercourses. The River Skalice, heavily contaminated with PCBs, was selected as a model. The source of contamination was a road gravel processing factory in Rožmitál pod Třemšínem from which an estimated 1 metric ton of PCBs leaked in 1986. Levels of PCB were measured in leeches collected between 1992 to 2003 from 11 sites covering about 50 km of the river (the first sampling site upstream to the source of contamination and 10 sites downstream). The PCB indicator congeners IUPA no. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180 were measured. Levels were highest at the four sampling sites nearest the source of pollution. The highest values of PCB congeners were found in 1992. PCB content decreased from 1992 to 2003 and with distance from the source. The study indicated that leeches of the genus Erpobdella are a suitable bioindicator of contamination in the surface layer of river sediments. PMID:22573988

  9. Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions ampersand answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This open-quotes Management of PCBs Questions and Answersclose quotes has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith's presentation, and (3) the question and answer session

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in livers of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from San Francisco Bay, California and Gulf of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Soo; Kalantzi, Olga Ioanna; Kopec, Dianne; Petreas, Myrto

    2009-04-01

    Bioaccumulation of endocrine disruptors in marine mammals positioned at the top of the food chain is of toxicological concern. Livers from four pups and ten adult harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) stranded in San Francisco Bay (SFB) and the Gulf of Maine (GOM) were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs). We used GC-ECD and GC-NCI/MS to investigate the presence of 28 PCBs and 8 OH-PCB metabolites, respectively. Sigma(28)PCB concentrations (di- to octa-CBs) ranged from 1.81 to 35.9 microg/g lipid with a median of 6.53 for the seal pups and 2.31 to 249 microg/g lipid with a median of 28.9 for the adult seals. Sigma(8)OH-PCB concentrations (penta- to hepta-OH-PCBs) ranged from 0.02 to 0.69 microg/g lipid with a median of 0.04 for the adult seals, i.e., at much lower concentrations than those for PCBs. Ratios of OH-PCBs to PCBs (0.24% on average) were comparable to those in beluga whale, but were lower than ratios in human livers. The OH-PCB profiles were slightly different between SFB and GOM seal livers, although similar PCB congener patterns were observed. Generally, 4-OH-CB107 was found predominantly in seal livers and was the only OH-PCB detectable in most of seal pup livers. This study provides information on OH-PCBs in seals, adding to the scarce exposure data for these chemicals.

  11. PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs in European catfish from a northern Italian lake: the contribution of an alien species to human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, S; Prearo, M; Nespoli, R; Scanzio, T; Abete, M C

    2016-03-01

    PCDDs/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs are environmentally persistent substances that have been associated with adverse effects on human health. Humans are mainly exposed to these pollutants through ingestion of contaminated fish and fishery products; the consumption of fatty fish such as European catfish can contribute considerably to the intake of dioxins and PCBs. Samples of fish muscle of the top-of-the-food-chain predator Silurus glanis from the northern Italian Lake Varese were analyzed to detect the levels of 17 PCDD/F and 18 PCB congeners. All samples presented detectable levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs, with concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 1.310pgg(-1) wet weight (w.w.) for Σ PCDD/Fs, 0.031 to 21.000pgg(-1) w. w. for Σ DL-PCBs, and 0.397 to 117.910ngg(-1) w. w. for Σ NDL-PCBs. One sample exceeded the maximum levels of 6.5pgg(-1) w. w. for the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs set by European regulations for fish (1259/2011 EU), while other samples exceeded the action levels of 0.75pgg(-1) w. w. for the sum of PCDD/Fs, and 2pgg(-1) w. w. for the sum of DL-PCBs (277/2012 EU). Consuming contaminated catfish may pose a risk for human health, especially for the subpopulation traditionally accustomed to eating this fish, as well as sensitive individuals, such as children and pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish, water and sediment from Shing Mun River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chui, V.W.; Lam-Leung, S.Y.; Chan, T.C. (Department of Bioogy, Hong Kong Baptist College, Kowloon (Hong Kong))

    1991-12-01

    The level and pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters), sediment, and water from the Shing Mun River. The range of total PCBs was 12.9 ng/g to 181.6 ng/g wet weight in tilapia, 12.7 ng/g to 46.0 ng/g freeze-dried weight in sediment, and 3.8 ng/L to 13.6 ng/L in water. The effect of biomagnification was also observed, PCB concentrations increased from water to sediment to tilapia. PCB congeners occurred in such a way that lower chlorinated PCBs comprised a higher fraction of the total PCBs in water, sediment, and tilapia muscle, whereas higher chlorinated PCBs were more commonly found only in tilapia.

  13. Exposure to Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in the Prenatal Period and Subsequent Neurodevelopment in Eastern Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Youn; Park, June-Soo; Sovcikova, Eva; Kocan, Anton; Linderholm, Linda; Bergman, Ake; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2009-01-01

    Background Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), unlike PCBs, are in general readily excreted yet are still detected in humans and animals. Active transport of OH-PCBs across the placenta and hydroxylation of PCBs by the fetus suggest the potential for greater impact on the fetus compared with the parent PCB compounds, but little is known about their health effects, particularly in humans. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between prenatal OH-PCB exposure and neurodevelopment in children at 16 months of age in eastern Slovakia. Methods A birth cohort (n = 1,134) was enrolled during 2002–2004. We analyzed six OH-PCB metabolites (4-OH-CB-107, 3-OH-CB-153, 4-OH-CB-146, 3′-OH-CB-138, 4-OH-CB-187, and 4′-OH-CB-172) in a subset of the cohort. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered to the children at the 16-month follow-up visit. We developed multiple linear regression models predicting standardized scores for the Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) from maternal (n = 147) and cord (n = 80) serum OH-PCB concentrations, adjusting for sex of child, district, HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) score, and maternal score on Raven’s Progressive Matrices. Results Cord 4-OH-CB-107 was significantly associated with lower MDI (β = −2.27; p = 0.01) and PDI (β = −4.50; p = 0.004). Also, maternal 4-OH-CB-107 was significantly associated with lower MDI (β = −1.76; p = 0.03) but not PDI. No other OH-PCB metabolites were associated with decreased PDI or MDI. Conclusions Our findings showed a significant association of 4-OH-CB-107 with decreased MDI, which can possibly be mediated by endocrine disruption, altered neurotransmitter functions, or reduced thyroid hormone concentrations in brain. PMID:20019912

  14. Neurodevelopmental toxicity of prenatal polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs by chemical structure and activity: a birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hye-Youn

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous environmental toxins. Although there is growing evidence to support an association between PCBs and deficits of neurodevelopment, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The potentially different roles of specific PCB groups defined by chemical structures or hormonal activities e.g., dioxin-like, non-dioxin like, or anti-estrogenic PCBs, remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to defined subsets of PCBs and neurodevelopment in a cohort of infants in eastern Slovakia enrolled at birth in 2002-2004. Methods Maternal and cord serum samples were collected at delivery, and analyzed for PCBs using high-resolution gas chromatography. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development -II (BSID were administered at 16 months of age to over 750 children who also had prenatal PCB measurements. Results Based on final multivariate-adjusted linear regression model, maternal mono-ortho-substituted PCBs were significantly associated with lower scores on both the psychomotor (PDI and mental development indices (MDI. Also a significant association between cord mono-ortho-substituted PCBs and reduced PDI was observed, but the association with MDI was marginal (p = 0.05. Anti-estrogenic and di-ortho-substituted PCBs did not show any statistically significant association with cognitive scores, but a suggestive association between di-ortho-substituted PCBs measured in cord serum and poorer PDI was observed. Conclusion Children with higher prenatal mono-ortho-substituted PCB exposures performed more poorly on the Bayley Scales. Evidence from this and other studies suggests that prenatal dioxin-like PCB exposure, including mono-ortho congeners, may interfere with brain development in utero. Non-dioxin-like di-ortho-substituted PCBs require further investigation.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in traditional seafood items from western Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Pernilla; Herzke, Dorte; Kallenborn, Roland

    2014-03-01

    In this study, contamination levels were determined for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in traditional Greenland seafood items, such as raw and smoked fish fillet (salmon and halibut), whale and seal meat and narwhal mattak (skin and blubber). The daily intake of PCBs, PBDEs and PFASs through traditional seafood items in Greenland was assessed. Based on the presented levels of contaminants, in combination with earlier food intake studies, suggests that the daily exposure was below the tolerable daily intake threshold for all compounds. BDE-47 was the only PBDE-congener detected in all food items, except in smoked halibut. The levels of BDE-47 varied from < LOD in smoked halibut up to 18 ng/g lw in narwhal mattak and 21 ng/g lw in whale beef. ∑PCB were lowest in smoked halibut (37 ng/g lw) and highest in narwhal mattak with 1,146 ng/g lw. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the most common of the PFASs. However, ΣPFASs were below detection limits in most fish fillet samples, and varied from 2.9 ng/g ww in whale beef to 13.5 ng/g ww in seal beef. The present study shows that the exclusion from the diet of local food items such as intestines and blubber have a strong positive effect for the reduction of POPs levels in food, without a reducing the health benefits of traditional food intake considerably.

  16. [Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in soils in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, M; Brudnowska, B; Falandysz, J; Wakimoto, T

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides such as DDTs, HCHs, CHLs, HCBz and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 59 soil samples collected in Poland in 1990-1994 to understand the scale of contamination, spatial distribution and sources of these compounds. Identification and quantification of organochlorines were carried out using HRGC-ECD (63Ni) and HRGC-LRMS. All soil samples were contaminated by DDTs, PCBs and HCHs, while HCBz and CHLs were absent in a few samples. DDTs dominated as organochlorine residues in Polish soil and on the concentration of other insecticides was two orders of magnitude lower. Percentage composition of DDTs (about 60% of p,p'-DDT) indicates a very slow metabolism of DDT in Polish soils. Spatial distribution of HCHs in Poland is similar to distribution of DDTs, while HCBz and CHLs are rather evenly distributed. PCBs concentrations in soil of the Former Soviet Union Army Base are 10 times higher then in urban soils, and 100 times higher then in cultivated and forests soils.

  17. Levels and sources of PCDDs, PCDFs and dl-PCBs in the water ecosystems of central Poland — A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Zieliński

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs and dibenzofurans (PCDFs are unwanted by-products in a variety of industrial and thermal processes. They have been present on Earth long before the human era, since they may be also formed as a result of forest fires or volcanic explosions. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in turn, have been intentionally produced by humans. Poland was a minor producer of PCB mixtures (Chlorofen and Tarnol, which were a source of direct and indirect environmental diffusion with PCB and less with PCDDs/PCDFs. Industrial accidents with PCDDs/PCDFs were absent in Poland. Their stability and resistance to thermal breakdown made them very dangerous for environment and, in consequence, due to their environmental persistence, bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the terrestrial and aquatic food chains, to humans. Humans may become affected by PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs through environmental (soil and water contamination, fish and food, occupational (incinerators; pulp, paper and metallurgy industry; copper production, or accidental (Seveso accident exposure. The aim of this review was to evaluate environmental hazard caused by PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like-PCBs in the central region of Poland based on the accessible data on diffusion of those compounds in sediments and riverine, reservoir and storm water from our previous studies and discussed in the context of other achievements in Poland and elsewhere.

  18. Optimization of a method based on micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion (micro-MSPD for the determination of PCBs in mussel samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Carro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the development and optimization of micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion (micro-MSPD of nine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in mussel samples (Mytilus galloprovincialis by using a two-level factorial design. Four variables (amount of sample, anhydrous sodium sulphate, Florisil and solvent volume were considered as factors in the optimization process. The results suggested that only the interaction between the amount of anhydrous sodium sulphate and the solvent volume was statistically significant for the overall recovery of a trichlorinated compound, CB 28. Generally most of the considered species exhibited a similar behaviour, the sample and Florisil amounts had a positive effect on PCBs extractions and solvent volume and sulphate amount had a negative effect. The analytical determination and confirmation of PCBs were carried out by using GC-ECD and GC-MS/MS, respectively. The method was validated having satisfactory precision and accuracy with RSD values below 6% and recoveries between 81 and 116% for all congeners. The optimized method was applied to the extraction of real mussel samples from two Galician Rías.

  19. Assessment of the emission of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs from an industrial area over a nearby town using a selective wind direction sampling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Karell; Austrui, Joan Rivera [Lab. of Dioxins, Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Environmental Chemistry Department, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Jover, Eric [FEMAN group, IN2UB, Applied Physics and Optics Department, Physics Faculty, University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Abalos, Manuela; Rivera, Josep [Lab. of Dioxins, Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Environmental Chemistry Department, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Abad, Esteban, E-mail: esteban.abad@idaea.csic.e [Lab. of Dioxins, Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Environmental Chemistry Department, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    The development of new sampling devices or strategies to assess the concentration of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment has increased in the last two decades. In this study, a selective sampling device was used to evaluate the impact of potential local sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCBs) emissions on the ambient air levels of such compounds in a town near an important industrial estate. Average concentrations of target compounds of up to 2.5 times for PCDD/Fs and 2 times for dl-PCBs were found to come from the industrial state confirming this area as the main responsible for the majority of such compounds reaching the town. This finding was supported by a PCDD/F and dl-PCB sample profile analysis and a principal component analysis (PCA), which established a direct link between the dioxin-like compounds found in the samples collected in the town and their source. - Selective ambient air samplers provide a valuable information on POP emission sources

  20. Pollutants make rheumatic diseases worse: Facts on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposure and rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Vanessa; Pérez, Tamara; Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Pirozzi, Claudio; Pino, Jesús; Lago, Francisca; González-Gay, Miguel Ángel; Mera, Antonio; Gómez, Rodolfo; Gualillo, Oreste

    2016-07-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that bioaccumulate in adipose tissue, disturbing its metabolism and the balance of adipokines, related to obesity. The altering secretion pattern of adipokines from the adipose tissue and the increasing mechanical load in weight-bearing joints presented in obesity condition, are risk factors for osteoarthritis development. The most prevalent rheumatic diseases, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, are chronic conditions that target the whole joints, leading to increasing disability and health care cost. The goal of this focused review is to summarize the current knowledge on the role of PCBs in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis. A PubMed search was managed using keywords as "rheumatic diseases", "polychlorinated biphenyls", "obesity" and "endocrine disruption". The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis has been reported to be increased especially in urban areas in industrialized countries, emphasizing the importance of environment in the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases. Analysis of two cohorts exposed to PCBs food contamination showed high incidence of arthritis. In addition, PCBs in serum correlated positively with the prevalence of self-reported arthritis. Few studies support the hypothesis that osteoarthritis development could be related to PCBs induction of chondrocytes apoptosis. Evidences have emerged for a relationship between PCBs and development of several types of arthritis. Further research is encouraged to determine the correlation between PCBs exposure and the development of rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mode of action of dioxin-like versus non-dioxin-like PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeters, G. [VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), Dept. of Environemental Toxicology (Belgium)]|[Antwerp Univ. (Belgium); Birnbaum, L. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Exposure of humans to polychlorinated biphenyls has been associated with different adverse effects such as immune impairment, changes in hormone levels, reproductive and neuropsychological changes and cancer. It is difficult to attribute the observed effects to either dioxin-like, non-dioxin-like PCBs or to both. All known human exposures are mixed, comprising dioxin and non-dioxin like PCB congeners as well as dioxins and furans. The purpose of this work was to evaluate, based on mechanistic data available in the open literature, whether non-dioxin like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) themselves may pose specific health risks. It is clear that dioxin and NDL-PCBs differ in the spectrum of metabolizing enzymes they induce, but the mechanistic links to health of these biochemical changes remain unclear at the moment. NDL-PCBs also cause immunotoxicity and tumor promotion via different mechanisms than do dioxin-like PCBs. We focus on neurotoxicity which has been associated with developmental exposure to PCBs and which is considered as one of the most sensitive adverse health effects.

  2. A review of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution in indoor air environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qizhou; Min, Xia; Weng, Mili

    2016-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were widely used in industrial production due to the unique physical and chemical properties. As a kind of persistent organic pollutants, the PCBs would lead to environment pollution and cause serious problems for human health. Thus, they have been banned since the 1980s due to the environment pollution in the past years. Indoor air is the most direct and important environment medium to human beings; thus, the PCBs pollution research in indoor air is important for the protection of human health. This paper introduces the industrial application and potential harm of PCBs, summarizes the sampling, extracting, and analytical methods of environment monitoring, and compares the indoor air levels of urban areas with those of industrial areas in different countries according to various reports. This paper can provide a basic summary for PCBs pollution control in the indoor air environment. The review of PCBs pollution in indoor air in China is still limited. In this paper, we introduce the industrial application and potential harm of PCBs, summarize the sampling, extracting, and analytical methods of environment monitoring, and compare the indoor air levels of urban areas with industrial areas in different countries according to various reports.

  3. A spatial temporal assessment of pollution from PCBs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ying; Lu, Yonglong; Dawson, Richard W; Shi, Yajuan; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Tieyu; Liu, Wenbin; Ren, Hongchang

    2005-08-01

    This research represents an assessment of the current state of pollution from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in China. Various environmental media including sediment, water, organism and soil were analyzed and the spatial character of PCB pollution in each environmental medium was determined. On a national basis, PCB levels in all environmental media were relatively low, with little evidence of major contamination in China's main regions and rivers. However, there were some locations with high PCB concentrations. Sediments in Pearl River (83.1 ng/g) and its estuary (58.9 ng/g), Dalian Bay (58.1 ng/g) and Songhua River (36.8 ng/g) had relatively high level of PCBs. There were also some areas, which were mainly the industrial pollution sites or PCB equipment storage locations, remained seriously polluted with the highest PCB residue level of 150,000 ng/g. In addition, Minjiang Estuary (985.2 ng/g) and Taihu Lake (631 ng/g) had high levels of water pollution, while Pearl Estuary (635.7 ng/g) and Jiaozhou Bay (273.3 ng/g) had relatively high PCB levels in organisms. PCB pollution in soil was limited to a few special pollution areas with the highest PCB level of 4.5448 x 10(6) ng/g. Point source pollution was the common pattern of contamination, influenced primarily by local geographic, economic and historical factors. Analysis of PCB concentrations from the 1980s to 1990s shows an increasing trend, possibly due to the improper disposal of and leakage from PCB containers, chemical transfers, and the general rise of industrial pollution.

  4. Trophic magnification of PCBs and its relationship to the octanol-water partition coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, D.M.; Mills, M.A.; Cade, B.S.; Burkard, L.P.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation relative to octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) and organism trophic position (TP) at the Lake Hartwell Superfund site (South Carolina). We measured PCBs (127 congeners) and stable isotopes (??15N) in sediment, organic matter, phytoplankton, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, and fish. TP, as calculated from ??15N, was significantly, positively related to PCB concentrations, and food web trophic magnification factors (TMFs) ranged from 1.5-6.6 among congeners. TMFs of individual congeners increased strongly with log KOW, as did the predictive power (r2) of individual TP-PCB regression models used to calculate TMFs. We developed log KOW-TMF models for eight food webs with vastly different environments (freshwater, marine, arctic, temperate) and species composition (cold- vs warmblooded consumers). The effect of KOW on congener TMFs varied strongly across food webs (model slopes 0.0-15.0) because the range of TMFs among studies was also highly variable. We standardized TMFs within studies to mean = 0, standard deviation (SD) = 1 to normalize for scale differences and found a remarkably consistent KOW effect on TMFs (no difference in model slopes among food webs). Our findings underscore the importance of hydrophobicity (as characterized by KOW) in regulating bioaccumulation of recalcitrant compounds in aquatic systems, and demonstrate that relationships between chemical KOW and bioaccumulation from field studies are more generalized than previously recognized. ?? This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2011 by the American Chemical Society.

  5. Leaching of PCBs and Nutrients from Soil Fertilized with Municipal Sewage Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Magdalena; Gągała, Ilona; Szewczyk, Mariusz; Bednarek, Agnieszka

    2016-08-01

    Although sewage sludge is a rich source of nutrients for arable farming and soil improvement, it can also be a source of pollutants. The effects of the land application of sludge on the PCB and nutrient content of leachate were investigated using cylindrical 650 mm length columns filled with poor quality soil. Treatments included no fertilization (control), fertilization using a 62.5 t/ha dose (O50) of sewage sludge from the largest Polish Wastewater Treatment Plant, in Lodz, and a 62.5 t/ha dose of sewage sludge mixed with CaO (O50Ca). The leaching of sludge-borne PCBs and nutrients was simulated by the application of distilled water in a quantity reflecting the annual rainfall of 562.5 mm. The obtained results demonstrate that application of sewage sludge and water simulated leaching of the most mobile chemical compounds, nitrate for example, whereas the addition of CaO decreased the average PCB and phosphorus concentrations in comparison to the control and O50 samples.

  6. Watershed land use is strongly linked to PCBs in white perch in Chesapeake Bay subestuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ryan S; Beaman, Joseph R; Whigham, Dennis F; Hines, Anson H; Baker, Matthew E; Weller, Donald E

    2004-12-15

    We related total PCBs (t-PCBs) in white perch (Morone americana), an abundant estuarine resident that supports a valuable recreational and commercial fishery in the mid-Atlantic region, to the amount and spatial arrangement of developed land in watersheds that discharge into 14 subestuaries of Chesapeake Bay. We considered the intensity of development in watersheds using four developed land-use measures (% impervious surface, % total developed land, % high-intensity residential + commercial [%high-res/comm], and % commercial) to represent potential source areas of PCBs to the subestuaries. We further evaluated the importance of source proximity by calculating three inverse-distance weighted (IDW) metrics of development, an approach that weighted developed land near the shoreline more heavily than developed land farther away. Unweighted percentages of each of the four measures of developed land explained 51-69% of the variance in t-PCBs. However, IDWs markedly improved the relationships between % developed land measures and t-PCBs. Percent commercial land, weighted by its simple inverse distance, explained 99% of the variance in t-PCBs, whereas the other three measures explained as much as 93-97%. PCBs historically produced or used in commercial and residential areas are apparently persisting in the environment atthe scale of the watersheds and subestuaries examined in this study, and developed land close to the subestuary has the greatest unit effect on t-PCBs in fish. These findings provide compelling evidence for a strikingly strong linkage between watershed land use and t-PCBs in white perch, and this relationship may prove useful for identifying unsampled subestuaries with a high risk of PCB contamination.

  7. Reducing the bioavailability of PCBs in soil to plant by biochars assessed with triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membrane technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yu-Jun; Wang, Lei; Fang, Guo-Dong; Cang, Long; Herath, H.M.S.K.; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Coupling with triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM) technique, hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrins (HPCD) extraction method, and the greenhouse pot experiments, the influences of biochars on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) bioavailability in soil to plant (Brassica chinensis L. and Daucus carota) were investigated. Addition of 2% biochars to soils significantly reduced the uptake of PCBs in plant, especially for di-, tri- and tetra-chlorobiphenyls. PCBs concentrations in the roots of B. chinensis and D. carota were reduced for 61.5–93.7%, and 12.7–62.4%, respectively in the presence of biochars. The kinetic study showed that in the soils amended with/without biochars, PCBs concentrations accumulated in TECAM, as well as in the HPCD extraction solution, followed significant linear relationships with those in plant roots. Application of biochars to soil is a potentially promising method to reduce PCBs bioavailability whereas TECAM technique can be a useful tool to predict the bioavailability of PCBs in soil. -- Highlights: ► Application of biochars significantly reduced the uptake of PCBs in plant. ► TECAM was a new and effective method to predict the PCBs bioavailability in soil. ► PCBs accumulated in TECAM followed significant linear relationships with plant. ► PCBs in TECAM were more similar with the plant uptake than HPCD solution. -- The reduced PCBs concentrations in plant roots by biochars show good linear relationship with those in TECAM

  8. New certified and candidate certified reference materials for the analysis of PCBs, PCDD/Fs, OCPs and BFRs in the environment and food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Cleuvenbergen, van R.; Abalos, M.; Pasini, A.L.; Eriksson, U.; Cleemann, M.; Hajslova, J.; Boer, de J.

    2006-01-01

    Three new matrix-type certified reference materials (CRMs) have been produced for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sterilized and wet (shell) fish matrices - BCR-682 (PCBs in mussels), BCR-718 (PCBs in herring) and BCR-719 (non-ortho PCBs in chub). Additional feasibility studies have been carried

  9. Comparative bioleaching of metals from pulverized and non-pulverized PCBs of cell phone charger: advantages of non-pulverized PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vyenkatesh; Shah, Neha; Wakte, Prashant; Dhakephalkar, Prashant; Dhakephalkar, Anita; Khobragade, Rahul; Naphade, Bhushan; Shaikh, Sajid; Deshmukh, Arvind; Adhapure, Nitin

    2017-12-01

    Sample inhomogeneity is a severe issue in printed circuit boards especially when we are comparing the bioleaching efficiency. To avoid the ambiguous results obtained due to inhomogeneity in PCBs, 12 similar cell phone chargers (of renowned company) having same make and batch number were collected from scrap market. PCBs obtained from them were used in present studies. Out of these 12, three PCBs were used separately for chemical analysis of PCBs with prior acid digestion in aqua regia. It was found that, 10.8, 68.0, and 710.9 mg/l of Zn, Pb, and Cu were present in it, respectively. Six PCBs were used for bioleaching experiment with two variations, pulverized and non-pulverized. Though the pulverized sample have shown better leaching than non-pulverized one, former has some disadvantages if overall recycling of e-waste (metallic and nonmetallic fraction) is to be addressed. At the end of leaching experiments, copper was recovered using a simple setup of electrodeposition and 92.85% recovery was attained. The acidophiles involved in bioleaching were identified by culture dependent and culture independent techniques such as DGGE and species specific primers in PCR.

  10. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Duan; Yu, Riqing; He, Xuan; Tu, Qin; Chen, Laiguo; Wu, Yuping

    2014-11-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) are apex predators in the Pearl River Estuary waters (PRE) of China. PCBs, DDTs and other organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (e.g., HCHs, HCB, mirex and dieldrin) were analysed in blubber samples of 45 dolphins and 10 prey fishes of S. chinensis collected from 2004 to 2013 in the PRE region to investigate the bioaccumulation and potential biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). DDTs were the most abundant residue in the dolphins, with an average of 6,2700 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww), followed by PCBs (average: 1,790 ng g(-1) ww) and other OCPs including ∑HCHs, mirex, endrin, ∑chlordanes, HCB, dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, and pentachlorobenzene. The concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in male dolphins significantly increased with age and length. In contrast, female dolphins did not show obvious bioaccumulation trends with age and body length, possibly due to the lactational and parturitional transfer of these compounds. Compared with the POP residues in the prey fishes, the concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs in the dolphin blubber increased by factors of 99, 212, and 5, respectively, whereas the residue levels of the other OCPs increased 2-185 times, indicating a potentially significant biomagnification in the top predators. The potential biomagnification factors calculated for most POPs were significantly higher than those in the cetacean species from other regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A case report of motor neuron disease in a patient showing significant level of DDTs, HCHs and organophosphate metabolites in hair as well as levels of hexane and toluene in blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanavouras, Konstantinos [Department of Neurology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Tzatzarakis, Manolis N. [Center of Toxicology Science and Research, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Mastorodemos, Vasileios; Plaitakis, Andreas [Department of Neurology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Tsatsakis, Aristidis M., E-mail: aris@med.uoc.gr [Center of Toxicology Science and Research, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2011-11-15

    Motor neuron disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition, with the majority of sporadic, non-familial cases being of unknown etiology. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that occupational exposure to chemicals may be associated with disease pathogenesis. We report the case of a patient developing progressive motor neuron disease, who was chronically exposed to pesticides and organic solvents. The patient presented with leg spasticity and developed gradually clinical signs suggestive of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which was supported by the neurophysiologic and radiological findings. Our report is an evidence based case of combined exposure to organochlorine (DDTs), organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and organic solvents as confirmed by laboratory analysis in samples of blood and hair confirming systematic exposure. The concentration of non-specific dialkylphosphates metabolites (DAPs) of OPs in hair (dimethyphopshate (DMP) 1289.4 pg/mg and diethylphosphate (DEP) 709.4 pg/mg) and of DDTs (opDDE 484.0 pg/mg, ppDDE 526.6 pg/mg, opDDD 448.4 pg/mg, ppDDD + opDDT 259.9 pg/mg and ppDDT 573.7 pg/mg) were considerably significant. Toluene and n-hexane were also detected in blood on admission at hospital and quantified (1.23 and 0.87 {mu}g/l, respectively), while 3 months after hospitalization blood testing was found negative for toluene and n-hexane and hair analysis was provided decrease levels of HCHs, DDTs and DAPs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure to pesticides and organic solvents might be a risk factor for sporadic MND. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a patient who developed progressive upper and lower motor neuron disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The patient had a history of occupational exposure to pesticides and solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High DDTs' levels and increased levels of DMP and DEP were measured in his hair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The patients' exposure to chemicals might

  12. Search and studying of salt resisting bacteria -destructors of organochlorine pesticides with help of tritium labeled PCBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Dadakhanov, J.A.; Djumaniyazova, G.I.; Yadgarov, Kh.T.; Zinovev, P.V.; Norbaeva, Kh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Salinization of soils is one of serious problems of agriculture of Uzbekistan. The problem is also aggravated as the salted soils are strongly contaminated with pesticides. We isolated aboriginal active strains of bacteria- destructors of organochlorine compounds from soils contaminated by pesticides (HCCH, DDT, PCBs). We investigated their cultural-morphological and physiological -biochemical properties and determined their taxonomic position. In laboratory experiments the effect of various concentrations of NaCl - 3%-5-7-10-20-30-40-50 % and reproduction of the active strains-destructors was investigated. It was found that the culture number 20 stands the NaCl concentration - up to 3 %, culture number 505 - up to 7 % salt in medium that specifies ability of this culture to survive in the middle salinated soils, cultures number 28 and 33 stand the NaCl concentration up to 30-40 % that characterize their survival rate in strongly salinated soils; the culture number 26 stood the NaCl concentration up to 50 % that characterizes its ability to survive and propagate in brackish soils. With the help of designed radiochemical methods we had been explored ability of the active salt resisting strains of bacteria to utilize and destroy the tritium labeled PCBs. The precise quantity and quality characteristics of the PCB-destructive activity of each investigated strain were received. The salt resisting strains of bacteria having high PCB-destructive activity were determined. At present, investigation on development of the new biological preparation designed for destruction of persistent organochlorine compounds in salted soils are carried out. (author)

  13. Contamination by PAHs, PCBs, PCPs and heavy metals in the Mecoacan lake Estuarine water and sediments after oil spilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armenta-Arteaga, G. [Univ. Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, D.A., Ciencias Biologicas, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Elizalde-Gonzalez, M.P. [Centro de Quimica, Univ. Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla, Pue (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Intention, Goal, Scope, Background. Environmental pollution caused by oil spills is a major ecological problem. Oil contamination in the environment is primarily evaluated by measuring the chemical concentrations of hydrocarbons. The results of chemical analyses are important for estimating water and sediment quality in the risk assessment to the flora and fauna of oil-contaminated sites. In the world there are lake ecosystems under permanent chemical stress due to urbanization and the oil industry. Studies, however, have been generally limited to petroleum compounds and have not considered other pollutants of the site like PCBs, polychlorinated pesticides and heavy metals. Objective. Water and sediment from stations in the Mecoacan Lake in the Mexican State of Tabasco were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs), aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated pesticides (PCPs) and heavy metals. The objective of this study was to examine the contaminant levels of the samples collected in February 1993 and 1996 after oil spills at the Mecoacan petroleum region. The goals of this study were to reveal the effect of the spills on the distribution of the hydrocarbons and assess the toxicological significance of the levels found. In addition, our aim was to examine the distribution of the PAHs in sediments from Mecoacan originated from both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. Methods. Samples were collected from 19 stations and prepared according to the CARIPOL (Caribbean Pollution) methodology of the United Nations Environmental Programme (1992) of the Great Caribbean Region for hydrocarbons in marine and coastal water, and sediments. The gas-chromatographic and atomic absorption analysis of the samples was performed after sampling. (orig.)

  14. Deep-ocean foraging northern elephant seals bioaccumulate persistent organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Sarah H., E-mail: sarahpeterson23@gmail.com [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, 100 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Peterson, Michael G. [Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, 130 Mulford Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Debier, Cathy [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Université catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Dirtu, Alin C. [Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Malarvannan, Govindan [Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Crocker, Daniel E. [Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, 1801 East Cotati Ave, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 (United States); Schwarz, Lisa K. [Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, 100 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Costa, Daniel P. [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, 100 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    As top predators in the northeast Pacific Ocean, northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) are vulnerable to bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Our study examined a suite of POPs in blubber (inner and outer) and blood (serum) of free-ranging northern elephant seals. For adult females (N = 24), we satellite tracked and sampled the same seals before and after their approximately seven month long foraging trip. For males, we sampled different adults and sub-adults before (N = 14) and after (N = 15) the same foraging trip. For females, we calculated blubber burdens for all compounds. The highest POP concentrations in males and females were found for ∑ DDTs and ∑ PCBs. In blubber and serum, males had significantly greater concentrations than females for almost all compounds. For males and females, ∑ DDT and ∑ PBDEs were highly correlated in blubber and serum. While ∑ PCBs were highly correlated with ∑ DDTs and ∑ PBDEs in blubber and serum for males, ∑ PCBs showed weaker correlations with both compounds in females. As females gained mass while foraging, concentrations of nearly all POPs in inner and outer blubber significantly decreased; however, the absolute burden in blubber significantly increased, indicating ingestion of contaminants while foraging. Additionally, we identified three clusters of seal foraging behavior, based on geography, diving behavior, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, which corresponded with differences in ∑ DDTs, ∑ PBDEs, MeO-BDE 47, as well as the ratio of ∑ DDTs to ∑ PCBs, indicating the potential for behavior to heighten or mitigate contaminant exposure. The greatest concentrations of ∑ DDTs and ∑ PBDEs were observed in the cluster that foraged closer to the coast and had blood samples more enriched in {sup 13}C. Bioaccumulation of POPs by elephant seals supports mesopelagic food webs as a sink for POPs and highlights elephant seals as a potential sentinel of contamination in

  15. Deep-ocean foraging northern elephant seals bioaccumulate persistent organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Sarah H.; Peterson, Michael G.; Debier, Cathy; Covaci, Adrian; Dirtu, Alin C.; Malarvannan, Govindan; Crocker, Daniel E.; Schwarz, Lisa K.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    As top predators in the northeast Pacific Ocean, northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) are vulnerable to bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Our study examined a suite of POPs in blubber (inner and outer) and blood (serum) of free-ranging northern elephant seals. For adult females (N = 24), we satellite tracked and sampled the same seals before and after their approximately seven month long foraging trip. For males, we sampled different adults and sub-adults before (N = 14) and after (N = 15) the same foraging trip. For females, we calculated blubber burdens for all compounds. The highest POP concentrations in males and females were found for ∑ DDTs and ∑ PCBs. In blubber and serum, males had significantly greater concentrations than females for almost all compounds. For males and females, ∑ DDT and ∑ PBDEs were highly correlated in blubber and serum. While ∑ PCBs were highly correlated with ∑ DDTs and ∑ PBDEs in blubber and serum for males, ∑ PCBs showed weaker correlations with both compounds in females. As females gained mass while foraging, concentrations of nearly all POPs in inner and outer blubber significantly decreased; however, the absolute burden in blubber significantly increased, indicating ingestion of contaminants while foraging. Additionally, we identified three clusters of seal foraging behavior, based on geography, diving behavior, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, which corresponded with differences in ∑ DDTs, ∑ PBDEs, MeO-BDE 47, as well as the ratio of ∑ DDTs to ∑ PCBs, indicating the potential for behavior to heighten or mitigate contaminant exposure. The greatest concentrations of ∑ DDTs and ∑ PBDEs were observed in the cluster that foraged closer to the coast and had blood samples more enriched in 13 C. Bioaccumulation of POPs by elephant seals supports mesopelagic food webs as a sink for POPs and highlights elephant seals as a potential sentinel of contamination in deep

  16. THE EFFECT OF PCBS ON GLYCOGEN RESERVES IN THE EASTERN OYSTER CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA. (R825349)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent declines in Chesapeake Bay oyster populations have been attributed to disease, and reduced water quality from pollution. The stress associated with pollutant exposure may reduce energy available for growth and reproduction. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are lipophilic c...

  17. Compilations of measured and calculated physicochemical property values for PCBs, PBDEs, PCDDs and PAHs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset consists of compilations of measured and calculated physicochemical property values for PCBs, PBDEs, PCDDs and PAHs. The properties included in this...

  18. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS). (R826694C633)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments with commercial askarals (Aroclors 1221, 1248 and 1254) have confirmed the feasibility of catalytic steam reforming as a method for destroying polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Rhodium, platinum and nickel supported on Effects of PCBs on liver ultrastructure and monooxygenase activities in Japanese quail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stouvenakers, N.; Kremers, P. [Univeriste de Liege, Liege (Belgium)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The effect of environmental pollutants such as PCBs and DDT on avian species is well documented. It is proven that chronic high level PCB intoxication perturbs calcium metabolism in birds, affecting eggshell thickness. PCBs have an impact on the liver. which accumulates high levels of toxicants. These induce drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in quail (Coturnix coturnix), herring gull (larus argentatus), and partridge (Prdix perdix). As these enzymes can degrade endogeneous molecules such as steroids, xenobiotics like PCBs can severely hinder birds` reproductive performance. PCBs induce damage such as regression of the testes, decreased sperm concentration, and altered embryonic development resulting in death or malformation of chicks. More ever, ultrastructural alterations linked with induction of these enzymes have been observed in the livers of PCB-contaminated chickens and ducks. This study examines the effects of Aroclor 1254 on liver morphology and glycogen content in quail, and related morphological modification to liver monoxygenase activities. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Development and Application of Immunoaffinity Chromatography for Coplanar PCBs in Soil and Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    An immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column was developed as a simple cleanup procedure for preparing environmental samples for analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil and sediment samples were prepared using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), followed by the IAC c...

  1. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: PRELIMINARY REPORT ON TREATMENT/DETOXIFICATION ALTERNATIVES FOR PCBS AND CHLORINATED ORGANICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Hazardous Vaste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) report summarizes the development of systems to dechlorinate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) using a series of reagents prepared from ...

  2. Non-Dioxin-Like PCBs: Effects and Consideration In Ecological Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    An estimated one million metric tons of commercial mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as Aroclors (USA), Kanechlors (Japan) and Clophens (Germany), were manufactured (WHO, 1993) and used worldwide as dielectric fluids

  3. Exposure assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in pasteurised bovine milk using probabilistic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunte, Adefunke O; Tiwari, Brijesh K; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative exposure assessment is a useful technique to investigate the risk from contaminants in the food chain. The objective of this study was to develop a probabilistic exposure assessment model for dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) in pasteurised bovine milk. Mean dioxins and DL-PCBs (non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs) concentrations (pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)) in bovine milk were estimated as 0.06 ± 0.07 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) for dioxins and 0.08 ± 0.07 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) for DL-PCBs using Monte Carlo simulation. The simulated model estimated mean exposure for dioxins was 0.19 ± 0.29 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1)bw d(-1) and 0.14 ± 0.22 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1) and for DL-PCBs was 0.25 ± 0.30 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1) and 0.19 ± 0.22 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1) for men and women, respectively. This study showed that the mean dioxins and DL-PCBs exposure from consumption of pasteurised bovine milk is below the provisional maximum tolerable monthly intake of 70 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) (equivalent of 2.3 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1)) recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (JECFA). Results from this study also showed that the estimated dioxins and DL-PCBs concentration in pasteurised bovine milk is comparable to those reported in previous studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exposure of the adult population resident in Ireland to dioxins and PCBs from the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlustos, C; Anderson, W; Flynn, A; Pratt, I

    2014-01-01

    Irish monitoring data on PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and marker PCBs were collated and combined with Irish adult food consumption data to estimate dietary background exposure of adults (18-90 years of age) living in Ireland to dioxins and PCBs. The average upper-bound daily intake of dioxins total WHO TEQ (2005) (PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs) from food contaminated via the environment was estimated as 0.3 pg kg(-1) bw day(-1) and at the 95th percentile at 1 pg kg(-1) bw day(-1). The average upper-bound daily intake of sum of six marker PCBs from food contaminated via the environment was estimated at 1.6 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) and at the 95th percentile at 6.8 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1). Dietary background exposure estimates for both dioxins and PCBs indicate that the Irish adult population has exposures below the European average, a finding which is also supported by the relatively lower levels detected in breast milk of Irish mothers compared with breast milk levels reported for other European countries. Exposure levels are below health-based guidance values and/or body burdens associated with the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) (for dioxins) or associated with a no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) (for PCBs). Given the current toxicological knowledge, based on biomarker data and estimated dietary exposure, the authors consider that general background exposure of the Irish adult population to dioxins and PCBs is not likely to be of human health concern.

  5. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Enhance Metastatic Properties of Breast Cancer Cells by Activating Rho-Associated Kinase (ROCK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sijin; Li, Shitao; Du, Yuguo

    2010-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of structurally related chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. Numerous studies have documented a wide spectrum of biological effects of PCBs on human health, such as immunotoxicity, neurotoxocity, estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity, and carcinogensis. The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo, animal and epidemiologic studies. A number of investigations indicated that higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera correlated to breast cancer risk, and PCBs might be implicated in advancing breast cancer progression. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, we for the first time report that PCBs greatly promote the ROCK activity and therefore increase cell motility for both non-metastatic and metastatic human breast cancer cells in vitro. In the in vivo study, PCBs significantly advance disease progression, leading to enhanced capability of metastatic breast cancer cells to metastasize to bone, lung and liver. Additionally, PCBs robustly induce the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in breast cancer cells; ROS mechanistically elevate ROCK activity. Conclusions/Significance PCBs enhance the metastatic propensity of breast cancer cells by activating the ROCK signaling, which is dependent on ROS induced by PCBs. Inhibition of ROCK may stand for a unique way to restrain metastases in breast cancer upon PCB exposure. PMID:20585605

  6. Interspecies variability of Dioxin-like PCBs accumulation in five plants from the modern Yellow River delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Guolan [Environmental Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250100 (China); Cui Zhaojie [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250100 (China)], E-mail: cuizj@sdu.edu.cn; Liu Jing [School of City Planning and Environmental Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250101 (China)

    2009-04-30

    To investigate the interspecies variance of Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in the plants from modern Yellow River delta, the concentrations of 12 DL-PCBs congeners were examined in five plant species and their associated soils. The DL-PCBs concentrations in plants (2.32-287.60 ng/kg dry weight) were low compared to most published literature, and the concentrations and ratios of DL-PCBs congeners in plants varied greatly among species. The properties of plants and PCBs were then studied to explore the factors affecting the interspecies variance of DL-PCBs accumulation. The plants with the smallest variance of morphological and physiological characteristics (Imperata cylindrical var. Major and Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud) had the most similar accumulation patterns of DL-PCBs among the species tested. As the octanol-air partitioning coefficient (K{sub oa}) of the DL-PCBs increased, interspecies variance decreased on the whole plant level. Interestingly, the correlation between the DL-PCBs concentrations in plants and log K{sub oa} of congeners was found to be significant for annual plants, but for perennial plants it was not significant. Thus the patterns of uptake of DL-PCBs are different between annual and perennial plants.

  7. Correlations between dioxin-like and indicators PCBs: Potential consequences for environmental studies involving fish or sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babut, M., E-mail: marc.babut@cemagref.f [Cemagref, UR BELY, 3bis quai Chauveau - CP 220, F-69336 Lyon (France); Miege, C. [Cemagref, UR QELY, F-69336 Lyon (France); Villeneuve, B. [Cemagref, UR BELY, 3bis quai Chauveau - CP 220, F-69336 Lyon (France); Abarnou, A. [IFREMER Departement Biogeochimie et Ecotoxicologie, Centre de Brest, BP70, F 29280 Plouzane (France); Duchemin, J. [Agence de l' Eau Seine-Normandie, DDD Eau et Sante, 21 rue l' Homme-de-Bois, F-14600 Honfleur (France); Marchand, P. [LABERCA, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire, Atlanpole La Chantrerie - BP 50707, F 44307 Nantes (France); Narbonne, J.F. [LPTC, Bordeaux 1-CNRS, Bat A12, 351 cours de la Liberation, F-33405 Talence (France)

    2009-12-15

    Among the numerous PCB congeners, most of the dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) need to be characterized by hyphenated techniques. It has been shown in several instances that these congeners are well related to the total PCB content in fish. We examined datasets collected mainly in France, on freshwater and marine fish and sediments. A statistical model linking DL- and indicator PCBs was developed for a dataset composed of freshwater fishes, and proved to predict well DL-PCBs from indicator PCBs in all other fish sets, including marine ones. Type II error rates remained low in almost all fish sets. A similar correlation was observed in sediments. Non-dioxin-like PCBs elicit various adverse effects and represent 95% of the total PCBs. A European guideline for them is needed; the correlation between DL- and indicator PCBs could help develop this standard in the future. - Dioxin-like PCBs in fish and maybe sediments are rather well predicted by indicator PCBs.

  8. The effect of hydroxylated PCBs on DCF-fluorescence and cell death in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonnum, F.; Dreiem, A.; Rykken, S. [Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (Norway); Lehmler, H.Y.; Robertson, L. [Univ. of Iowa (United States); Mariussen, E. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    We have previously investigated the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on free radical formation and cell death in cerebellar granule cells. PCBs may be metabolised to hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) in the body. Therefore, we wanted to expand our study to include also the HO-PCBs. After hydroxylation, many of the PCBs are conjugated to either glucoronic acid or sulphate, which facilitates their excretion. Nevertheless, some of the HO-PCBs are retained in the body. The structures of some of the HO-PCBs show a certain similarity to the structure of the cathecholamines, and PCBs have been shown to affect the level of cathecholamines in the brain. Therefore, we compared the effect of some HO-PCBs with the effects of PCBs on some important physiological parameters in the brain. In the present communication we have compared the effects of PCB and HO-PCB on formation of DCF-fluorescence, which is used as a measure of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and cell death in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs enhance metastatic properties of breast cancer cells by activating Rho-associated kinase (ROCK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a family of structurally related chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. Numerous studies have documented a wide spectrum of biological effects of PCBs on human health, such as immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity, and carcinogenesis. The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo, animal and epidemiologic studies. A number of investigations indicated that higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera correlated to breast cancer risk, and PCBs might be implicated in advancing breast cancer progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, we for the first time report that PCBs greatly promote the ROCK activity and therefore increase cell motility for both non-metastatic and metastatic human breast cancer cells in vitro. In the in vivo study, PCBs significantly advance disease progression, leading to enhanced capability of metastatic breast cancer cells to metastasize to bone, lung and liver. Additionally, PCBs robustly induce the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in breast cancer cells; ROS mechanistically elevate ROCK activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PCBs enhance the metastatic propensity of breast cancer cells by activating the ROCK signaling, which is dependent on ROS induced by PCBs. Inhibition of ROCK may stand for a unique way to restrain metastases in breast cancer upon PCB exposure.

  10. Relationships between vitamin A and PCBs in grey seal mothers and pups during lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanden Berghe, Marie; Mat, Audrey; Arriola, Aline; Polain, Stephanie; Stekke, Valerie; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Gaspart, Frederic; Pomeroy, Paddy; Larondelle, Yvan; Debier, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    A previous study has shown a simultaneous increase of vitamin A and PCBs in grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) milk at late lactation (). Here we sought to understand this unexpected relationship by comparing the dynamics of vitamin A and PCBs in the different tissue compartments of transfer. Lactating grey seals and their pups were sampled longitudinally in Scotland during the 2006 breeding season. As blubber reserves decreased, concentrations of vitamin A and PCBs increased during lactation in the inner layer of maternal blubber. A concomitant rise was observed in milk and consequently in the serum of suckling pups. The similar dynamics of vitamin A and PCBs in milk and inner blubber suggest a common mechanism of mobilisation from maternal body stores and transfer into the milk. A panel data analysis highlighted a negative impact of PCBs in milk and pup serum on vitamin A status in pup serum. - Vitamin A and PCBs show similar dynamics in maternal inner blubber and milk during lactation in grey seal.

  11. Relationships between vitamin A and PCBs in grey seal mothers and pups during lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanden Berghe, Marie, E-mail: marie.vandenberghe@uclouvain.b [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Unite de biochimie de la nutrition, Universite catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2/8, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Mat, Audrey [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Unite de biochimie de la nutrition, Universite catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2/8, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Arriola, Aline, E-mail: aa226@st-andrews.ac.u [Sea Mammal Research Unit, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9AJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Polain, Stephanie; Stekke, Valerie [Laboratoire d' ecologie animale et d' ecotoxicologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 15, 4000 Sart-Tilman, Liege (Belgium); Thome, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jp.thome@ulg.ac.b [Laboratoire d' ecologie animale et d' ecotoxicologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 15, 4000 Sart-Tilman, Liege (Belgium); Gaspart, Frederic, E-mail: frederic.gaspart@uclouvain.b [Unite d' economie rurale, Universite catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2/15, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Pomeroy, Paddy, E-mail: pp6@st-andrews.ac.u [Sea Mammal Research Unit, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9AJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Larondelle, Yvan, E-mail: yvan.larondelle@uclouvain.b [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Unite de biochimie de la nutrition, Universite catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2/8, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Debier, Cathy, E-mail: cathy.debier@uclouvain.b [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Unite de biochimie de la nutrition, Universite catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2/8, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    A previous study has shown a simultaneous increase of vitamin A and PCBs in grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) milk at late lactation (). Here we sought to understand this unexpected relationship by comparing the dynamics of vitamin A and PCBs in the different tissue compartments of transfer. Lactating grey seals and their pups were sampled longitudinally in Scotland during the 2006 breeding season. As blubber reserves decreased, concentrations of vitamin A and PCBs increased during lactation in the inner layer of maternal blubber. A concomitant rise was observed in milk and consequently in the serum of suckling pups. The similar dynamics of vitamin A and PCBs in milk and inner blubber suggest a common mechanism of mobilisation from maternal body stores and transfer into the milk. A panel data analysis highlighted a negative impact of PCBs in milk and pup serum on vitamin A status in pup serum. - Vitamin A and PCBs show similar dynamics in maternal inner blubber and milk during lactation in grey seal.

  12. Potential Impacts of PCBs on Sediment Microbiomes in a Tropical Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the tropical marine study site of Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are subjected to coastal and oceanic currents coupled with marine microbial and geochemical processes. To evaluate these processes a hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the transport of PCBs within nearshore and offshore marine areas of Guánica Bay. Material transport and circulation information from the model were matched with measurements from samples collected from within the bay. These samples, consisting of both intertidal and submerged sediments, were analyzed for physical characteristics (organic carbon, grain size, and mineralogy, microbial characteristics (target bacteria levels and microbial community analyses, presence of PCBs, and PCB-degrading enzymes. Results show that the bay geometry and bathymetry limit the mixing of the extremely high levels of PCBs observed in the eastern portion of the bay. Bay bottom sediments showed the highest levels of PCBs and these sediments were characterized by high organic carbon content and finer grain size. Detectable levels of PCBs were also observed within sediments found along the shore. Microbes from the bay bottom sediments showed a greater relative abundance of microbes from the Chloroflexi, phylum with close phylogenetic associations with known anaerobic PCB-degrading organisms. Based on quantitative PCR measurement of the biphenyl dioxygenase gene, the intertidal sediments showed the greatest potential for aerobic PCB degradation. These results elucidate particular mechanisms of PCB’s fate and transport in coastal, tropical marine environments.

  13. Uptake of PCBs contained in marine sediments by the green macroalga Ulva rigida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Donald; Rajic, Ljiljana; Sly, Elizabeth; Meric, Dogus; Sheahan, Thomas

    2014-11-15

    The uptake of PCBs contained in marine sediments by the green macroalga Ulva rigida was investigated in both laboratory and field experiments. Under laboratory conditions, total PCBs (tPCBs) uptake was significantly greater in live vs dead plants. The concentration of tPCB taken up in live plants was greatest in the first 24h (1580 μg kg(-1) dry weight), and then increased at a lower rate from day 2 to 14. Dead plants had a significantly lower tPCB concentration after 24h (609 μg kg(-1) dry weight) and lower uptake rate through day 14. Lesser chlorinated PCB congeners (below 123) made up the majority of PCBs taken up. Congener composition in both laboratory and field experiments was correlated to congener logKow value and sediment content. Field experiments showed that Ulva plants could concentrate PCBs to 3.9 mg kg(-1) in 24h. Thus, U. rigida is capable of removing PCBs in sediments at a rapid rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Africa: a review of environmental levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Rosalinda; Akindele, Abidemi James; Adebusoye, Sunday Adekunle; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Buekens, Alfons; Sasco, Annie J

    2014-05-01

    Several studies have shown an increase in PCB sources in Africa due to leakage and wrongly disposed transformers, continuing import of e-waste from countries of the North, shipwreck, and biomass burning. Techniques used in the recycling of waste such as melting and open burning to recover precious metals make PCBs contained in waste and other semivolatile organic substances prone to volatilization, which has resulted in an increase of PCB levels in air, blood, breast milk, and fish in several regions of Africa. Consequences for workers performing these activities without adequate measures of protection could result in adverse human health effects. Recent biodegradation studies in Africa have revealed the existence of exotic bacterial strains exhibiting unique and unusual PCB metabolic capability in terms of array of congeners that can serve as carbon source and diversity of congeners attacked, marking considerable progress in the development of effective bioremediation strategies for PCB-contaminated matrices such as sediments and soils in tropical regions. Action must be taken to find and deal with the major African sources of these pollutants. The precise sources of the PCB plume should be pinned down and used to complete the pollutant inventories of African countries. These nations must then be helped to safely dispose of the potentially dangerous chemicals.

  15. Reductive dechlorination of PCBs using photocatalyzed UV light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Jyoti P.; Achari, Gopal [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Langford, Cooper H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2012-05-15

    Feasibility of photocatalytic dechlorination of PCB-138 and Aroclor-1254 using platinum loaded TiO{sub 2} (P25) in an alkaline 2-propanol medium has been investigated. Experiments were conducted in batch mode using a Rayonet photo-reactor under aerated and deaerated conditions with black lamps emitting around 350 nm as light source. Two forms of platinum deposition were investigated: Photochemically loaded P25 as well as addition of potassium hexachloroplatinate into the reaction medium. Partial dechlorination of PCBs was observed after 7 h of irradiation with pure TiO{sub 2} as catalyst when the reaction vessel was kept open to air. Complete dechlorination was observed after 5 h of irradiation in a deaerated environment. Enhanced photocatalytic efficiency was observed when platinum deposited P25 was used as catalyst, with the best result being obtained when aqueous potassium hexachloroplatinate was added into the reaction medium. Lower potassium hexachloroplatinate concentration (0.1 mM) yielded better performance. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. PCBs in schools--where communities and science come together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterberg, David; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2016-02-01

    A novel aspect of the 8th International PCB Workshop at Woods Hole, MA, was the interaction between scientists and activists. While earlier workshops in this series had mentioned policy making, this Workshop focused on the problem of PCBs in schools. Focus on a problem brought an activist to give a plenary talk and facilitated a 1-day registration for other non-scientists to attend. The workshop was cohosted by the Superfund Research Programs at University of Iowa and Boston University and included active participation of each Program's Research Translation and Community Engagement Cores. A mandate of each National Institute of Environmental Health Science (NIEHS)-funded Superfund Research Program is bidirectional communication between scientists and community groups. The authors describe the events leading up to community involvement in the Workshop and the substance of the community engagement aspects of the workshop, in particular the participation by a parent-teacher group, Malibu Unites. The authors also discuss the value of such communication in terms of making important research accessible to those who are most affected by the results and poised to use it and the value of making scientists aware of the important role they play in society in addressing difficult questions that originate in community settings.

  17. Serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in participants of the Anniston Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuk, M; Olson, J R; Sjödin, A; Wolff, P; Turner, W E; Shelton, C; Dutton, N D; Bartell, S

    2014-03-01

    Serum concentrations of 35 ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) were measured in 765 adults from Anniston, Alabama, where PCBs were manufactured between 1929 and 1971. As part of the Anniston Community Health Survey (ACHS), demographic data, questionnaire information, and blood samples were collected from participants in 2005-2007. Forty-six percent of study participants were African-American, 70% were female, and the median age was 56 years. The median concentration of the sum of 35 PCB congeners (ΣPCBs) was 528 ng/g lipid, with a 90th percentile of 2,600 ng/g lipid, minimum of 17.0 ng/g lipid, and maximum of 27,337 ng/g lipid. The least square geometric mean ΣPCBs was more than 2.5 times higher for African-American participants than for White participants (866 ng/g lipid vs. 331 ng/g lipid); this difference did not change materially after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and current smoking. In spite of large differences in absolute PCB levels, relative contributions of individual congeners to ΣPCBs were quite similar between race groups. Nevertheless, while percent contributions to ΣPCBs for most of the most abundant penta- to heptachlorobiphenyls were higher among African-Americans, the percentages were higher in Whites for the lower-chlorinated PCBs 28 and 74 and for octa- to decachlorinated PCBs. No major differences were observed in geometric mean ΣPCBs between women and men when adjusted for age, race, BMI and current smoking (516 ng/g lipid vs. 526 ng/g lipid). Principal component analysis revealed groups of co-varying congeners that appear to be determined by chlorine substitution patterns. These congener groupings were similar between ACHS participants and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-04 sample of the general United States population, despite ACHS participants having serum concentrations of ΣPCBs two to three times higher than those in comparable age and race groups from

  18. POLYCHLORODIBENZODIOXINS (PCDDs, POLYCHLORODIBENZO-FURANS (PCDFs, AND DIOXIN-LIKE POLYCHLOROBIPHENYLS (DL-PCBs IN MILK, MOZZARELLA CHEESE, WHEY, AND WHEY CHEESE FROM BUFFALOES RAISED IN THE CAMPANIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Cortesi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dioxins (PCDDs and PCDFs and PCBs are a group of and toxic organo-chlorinated chemicals comprising hundreds of structurally related compounds (congeners classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs. It is acknowledged that 17 PCDD and PCDF congeners are of major concern due to their toxicity; 12 PCB congeners are also recognized to express dioxin-like toxicity and are thereby identified as DL-PCBs. Due to their high persistence and lipophilic nature, dioxins and PCBs tend to accumulate in fat and their bio-accumulation through the food chain may pose the risk of causing adverse effects to human health. For the general population, dietary intake is the most important pathway of exposure to the aforesaid environmental contaminants: meat, milk and dairy products, and fish and other seafood products contribute to total daily intake for more than 90 %. To prevent excessive human exposure to dioxins and DL-PCBs, the European Commission established maximum levels for dioxins and the sum of dioxins and DL-PCBs in an array of food components mainly of animal origin (Regulation EC 1881/2006. In this study, dioxins and DL-PCB concentrations were measured in buffalo milk collected from three impounded Campania farms producing milk with different contamination levels. The fate of contaminants in mozzarella cheese, whey, and whey cheese was also investigated. Analyses were carried out by HRGC-HRMS using US EPA Method 1613. The results of this study show the carry-over of the contamination from milk to its dairy products.

  19. PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and PBDEs in blood samples of a rural population in South Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Hermann; Albrecht, Michael; Appel, Markus; Hilger, Bettina; Völkel, Wolfgang; Liebl, Bernhard; Roscher, Eike

    2015-01-01

    The body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like (dl-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like (ndl-PCBs) polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was determined in blood samples from 70 subjects between 4 and 76 years old. The participants of the study were recruited in the neighborhood of a reclamation plant located in a rural area in Southern Germany. The median concentrations (95th percentiles in parentheses), expressed as WHO2005-TEQ (toxic equivalents), for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were 4.5 (17.9)pgg(-1) l.w. and 2.6 (13.2)pgg(-1) l.w., respectively. The dl-PCBs contributed 40% of the total TEQ (median values), and the most abundant congener was PCB 156. Combined, the sum of the 6 non-dioxin-like PCBs had a median of 0.773μgL(-1) and a 95th percentile of 4.895μgL(-1). For the six tetra to hepta PBDE congeners, the median was 1.8ngg(-1) l.w. (95th percentile: 16.2ngg(-1) l.w.). None of our study subjects had a body burden that exceeded the biomonitoring equivalents for dioxins or PBDE congener 99 or the human biomonitoring values for ndl-PCBs. Likewise the study group did not exceed German reference values or values obtained in similar investigations. Overall, our study did not exhibit elevated internal exposures. The results also hint further decreasing tendencies for PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs in Germany and demonstrates that people in the vicinity of a reclamation plant with no indication of an environmental contamination did not exhibit elevated internal exposures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    property has been used to determine whether a compound is aromatic or not. Mesoionic compounds are structurally very different from ben- zenoid compounds, but they fulfill most of the criteria of aroma- ticity and form a part of a variety of aromatic compounds, which can be classified as follows. A) Benzenoid Compounds.

  1. A case report of motor neuron disease in a patient showing significant level of DDTs, HCHs and organophosphate metabolites in hair as well as levels of hexane and toluene in blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanavouras, Konstantinos; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N.; Mastorodemos, Vasileios; Plaitakis, Andreas; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.

    2011-01-01

    Motor neuron disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition, with the majority of sporadic, non-familial cases being of unknown etiology. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that occupational exposure to chemicals may be associated with disease pathogenesis. We report the case of a patient developing progressive motor neuron disease, who was chronically exposed to pesticides and organic solvents. The patient presented with leg spasticity and developed gradually clinical signs suggestive of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which was supported by the neurophysiologic and radiological findings. Our report is an evidence based case of combined exposure to organochlorine (DDTs), organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and organic solvents as confirmed by laboratory analysis in samples of blood and hair confirming systematic exposure. The concentration of non-specific dialkylphosphates metabolites (DAPs) of OPs in hair (dimethyphopshate (DMP) 1289.4 pg/mg and diethylphosphate (DEP) 709.4 pg/mg) and of DDTs (opDDE 484.0 pg/mg, ppDDE 526.6 pg/mg, opDDD 448.4 pg/mg, ppDDD + opDDT 259.9 pg/mg and ppDDT 573.7 pg/mg) were considerably significant. Toluene and n-hexane were also detected in blood on admission at hospital and quantified (1.23 and 0.87 μg/l, respectively), while 3 months after hospitalization blood testing was found negative for toluene and n-hexane and hair analysis was provided decrease levels of HCHs, DDTs and DAPs. -- Highlights: ► Exposure to pesticides and organic solvents might be a risk factor for sporadic MND. ► We report a patient who developed progressive upper and lower motor neuron disease. ► The patient had a history of occupational exposure to pesticides and solvents. ► High DDTs’ levels and increased levels of DMP and DEP were measured in his hair. ► The patients’ exposure to chemicals might have played a role in MND development.

  2. Concentrations and compositions of organochlorine contaminants in sediments, soils, crustaceans, fishes and birds collected from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay and Shanghai city region, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Haruhiko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: nakata@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Hirakawa, Yuko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kawazoe, Masahiro [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555, (Japan); Nakabo, Tetsuji [Kyoto University Museum, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Arizono, Koji [Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Kumamoto Prefectural University, 3-1-100 Tsukide, Kumamoto 862-8502 (Japan); Abe, Shin-Ichi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kitano, Takeshi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Shimada, Hideaki [Faculty of Education, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Watanabe, Izumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchuu-city, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Li Weihua [Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xie Tu road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Ding Xucheng [Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xie Tu road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2005-02-01

    Contamination by persistent organochlorines (OCs), such as DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were examined in sediments, soils, fishes, crustaceans, birds, and aquaculture feed from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay, and in the vicinity of Shanghai city in China during 2000 and 2001. OCs were detected in all samples analyzed, and DDT and its metabolites were the predominant contaminants in most sediments, soils and biota. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT and ratio of p,p'-DDT to {sigma}DDTs were significantly higher in marine fishes than those in freshwater fishes. While the use of DDTs has been officially banned in China since 1983, these results indicate a recent input of technical DDTs into the marine environment around Hangzhou Bay. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in fishes collected from Lake Tai and Hangzhou Bay suggests the presence of local sources of HCHs, chlordanes and PCBs at Lake Tai. Higher proportions of penta- and hexa-PCB congeners in fishes at Lake Tai may suggest the use of highly chlorinated PCB product, such as PCB{sub 5}, around this lake. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive study to examine the present status of organochlorine contamination in various environmental media, such as sediments, soils and wildlife, in China. - Elevated concentrations of DDTs were detected in sediments, soils, and wildlife collected from China.

  3. Persistent organochlorine residues in human breast milk from Hanoi and Hochiminh City, Vietnam contamination, accumulation kinetics and risk assessment for infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Nguyen Hung; Someya, Masayuki; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Viet, Pham Hung; Tuyen, Bui Cach

    2004-01-01

    Despite the ban on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in most of the developed nations, their usage continued until recently in many Asian developing countries including Vietnam, for agricultural purposes and vector-borne disease eradication programs. In this study, we collected human breast milk samples from the two big cities in Vietnam: Hanoi (n=42) and Hochiminh (n=44) and determined the concentrations of persistent OCs such as PCBs, DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and tris-4-chlorophenyl-methane (TCPMe). The contamination pattern of OCs was in the order of DDTs > PCBs > HCHs > CHLs∼HCB∼TCPMe. Compilation of available data indicated that DDT residue levels in human breast milk from Vietnam were among the highest values reported for Asian developing countries as well as developed nations. This result suggests recent usage of DDTs in both north and south Vietnam. Interestingly, in both cities, the p,p'-DDT portion was higher in multiparas than those in primiparas. Considering the fact that the interval between the first and the second child of a mother in Vietnam is usually short, this result probably indicates continuous intake of DDTs in the population. Analysis of infant exposure to DDTs via breast milk suggested that the daily intake rates for number of individuals are close to or above the threshold for adverse effects which may raise concern on children health. - It is suggested that daily intake rates of persistent organochlorines in mothers in Vietnam may result in health risk for nursing children

  4. Prediction of octanol-air partition coefficients for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using 3D-QSAR models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Cai, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Long; Li, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Based on the experimental data of octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) for 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, two types of QSAR methods, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA), are used to establish 3D-QSAR models using the structural parameters as independent variables and using logKOA values as the dependent variable with the Sybyl software to predict the KOA values of the remaining 190 PCB congeners. The whole data set (19 compounds) was divided into a training set (15 compounds) for model generation and a test set (4 compounds) for model validation. As a result, the cross-validation correlation coefficient (q(2)) obtained by the CoMFA and CoMSIA models (shuffled 12 times) was in the range of 0.825-0.969 (>0.5), the correlation coefficient (r(2)) obtained was in the range of 0.957-1.000 (>0.9), and the SEP (standard error of prediction) of test set was within the range of 0.070-0.617, indicating that the models were robust and predictive. Randomly selected from a set of models, CoMFA analysis revealed that the corresponding percentages of the variance explained by steric and electrostatic fields were 23.9% and 76.1%, respectively, while CoMSIA analysis by steric, electrostatic and hydrophobic fields were 0.6%, 92.6%, and 6.8%, respectively. The electrostatic field was determined as a primary factor governing the logKOA. The correlation analysis of the relationship between the number of Cl atoms and the average logKOA values of PCBs indicated that logKOA values gradually increased as the number of Cl atoms increased. Simultaneously, related studies on PCB detection in the Arctic and Antarctic areas revealed that higher logKOA values indicate a stronger PCB migration ability. From CoMFA and CoMSIA contour maps, logKOA decreased when substituents possessed electropositive groups at the 2-, 3-, 3'-, 5- and 6- positions, which could reduce the PCB migration ability. These results are

  5. Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs: occurrence in food and dietary intake in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tard, A; Gallotti, S; Leblanc, J-C; Volatier, J-L

    2007-09-01

    PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs contamination data in food products consumed in France collected from national monitoring programmes (2001-04) and representing analytical results for almost 800 individual food samples were combined with food consumption data from the French national dietary survey to estimate PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs dietary intakes, expressed as toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs). The mean PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs intakes were estimated as 1.8 and 2.8 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) b.w. day(-1), respectively, for adults (aged 15 years and over) and children (aged 3-14 years). The main contributors to total intake were fish and milk products for both children and adults (48 and 31% for adults and 34 and 43% for children, respectively). DL-PCBs constituted the largest contributor to contamination in most foodstuffs. A life-long intake estimate showed that a non-negligible part of the French population (between 20 and 28%) had an intake above the tolerable monthly intake for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of 70 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) b.w. month(-1).

  6. Total PCBs, TCDD-EQs in eggs: Reproductive hazards to north Pacific albatrosses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, J.P.; Auman, H.J.; Summer, C.L.; Giesy, J.P.; Sanderson, J.T.; DeDoes, J.M.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Jones, P.

    1995-12-31

    Freshly laid eggs of Laysan and black-footed Albatrosses (Diomedea immutabilis and D. nigripes) were collected at Midway Atoll 1992 through 1994 and subsequently analyzed for chlorinated contaminants including OC pesticides, PCBs, dioxins and furans. TCDD-EQs in eggs were calculated from congener-specific data. Total PCBs ranged from 1.1 to 3.8 mglkg ww. Calculated TCDD-EQs ranged from 52--124 pg/g. A substantial portion (30--35%) of the TCDD-EQs in eggs were owing to dioxins and furans, and the balance to PCBs. PCBs in albatross eggs were much less potent than PCBs from waterbirds` eggs of the Great Lakes and other continental inland waters. Hazard indices based on calculated TCDD-EQs suggested that Laysan eggs were at the LOAEL for embryonic effects, but black-footed eggs were well above avian LOAELS. Egg death during natural incubation was 2--3% greater in black-footed than Laysan nests, and 5% fewer black-footed albatross chicks were fledged in 1994. A low incidence of deformities in hatchlings was noted in 1994 and 1995. Crossed-bill hatchlings were not reported in these populations until the late 1970s in spite of intensive studies 1957--1972, but occurred at rates of 1 in 14,000 hatchlings, and 1 in 300 dead eggs 1993--1995. Reproductive effects owing to contaminant exposures in these most pelagic seabirds are confirmed.

  7. PCDDs, PCDFs AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBs IN SHEEP MILK IN SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Scarano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs are widespread contaminants with important implications for the environment protection and for the human health. Milk and dairy products consumption has been classified as one of the primary pathways of human exposure to these toxic chemicals. In this study we evaluated the levels of 17 laterally substituted PCDD/Fs and 12 DL-PCBs in 45 sheep milk samples collected from small dairy sheep farms in Sardinia (Italy. Mean concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs were 2.31 and 3.11 pg g-1 fat basis, respectively. With regard to the DL-PCBs only PCB 118 was detected in 51.1% of samples (0.73 ng g-1 fat basis, while the rest of the studied congeners was never detected. The contamination of milk by PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (0.92 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat being within the permissible limit set by the European Commission (6 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat gives no indication of particular health risk. However, continuous surveillance on PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs levels in milk is needed in order to correctly evaluate either the environmental impact and human health risk.

  8. Comparison of SFE with Soxhlet in the analyses of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, Mari; Koistinen, Jaana; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2002-12-01

    The efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for the isolation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) from sediments was investigated by comparing SFE with Soxhlet. Five sediments obtained from an international interlaboratory study were used as a test material. SFE was performed with an automatic system where extracted analytes were collected by solid-phase trapping using carbon mixed with Celite as an adsorbent. For the first time, SFE of the most toxic PCBs, coplanar PCBs, was studied with real sediment samples. The majority of PCBs investigated, a total of 38 congeners from tri- to decachlorinated, were quantitatively extracted from sediment by SFE with pure CO2 at pressure 400 atm and temperature 100 degrees C. Under these conditions a successful extraction was obtained also for PCDD/PCDFs except for hepta- and octachlorinated congeners. Copper powder added to the sediment efficiently prevented the transfer of sulfur from the sample during SFE. The TEQs of both PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs obtained by SFE corresponded well with those obtained by the Soxhlet-based method. The reproducibility of SFE was high for both groups.

  9. Lead and PCBs as Risk Factors for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubig, Paul A.; Aguiar, Andréa; Schantz, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently diagnosed neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, yet its etiology is not well understood. In this review we present evidence that environmental chemicals, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lead, are associated with deficits in many neurobehavioral functions that are also impaired in ADHD. Data sources Human and animal studies of developmental PCB or lead exposures that assessed specific functional domains shown to be impaired in ADHD children were identified via searches of PubMed using “lead” or “PCB exposure” in combination with key words, including “attention,” “working memory,” “response inhibition,” “executive function,” “cognitive function,” “behavior,” and “ADHD.” Data synthesis Children and laboratory animals exposed to lead or PCBs show deficits in many aspects of attention and executive function that have been shown to be impaired in children diagnosed with ADHD, including tests of working memory, response inhibition, vigilance, and alertness. Studies conducted to date suggest that lead may reduce both attention and response inhibition, whereas PCBs may impair response inhibition to a greater degree than attention. Low-level lead exposure has been associated with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD in several recent studies. Similar studies of PCBs have not been conducted. Conclusions We speculate that exposures to environmental contaminants, including lead and PCBs, may increase the prevalence of ADHD. PMID:20829149

  10. Painted surfaces - Important sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination to the urban and marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jartun, Morten [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Geological Survey of Norway, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: morten.jartun@ngu.no; Ottesen, Rolf Tore [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Geological Survey of Norway, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Steinnes, Eiliv [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Volden, Tore [Geological Survey of Norway, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2009-01-15

    A study of a large number of samples of flaking old paint from various buildings in Bergen, Norway (N = 68) suggests that paint may be the most important contemporary source of PCBs in this urban environment with concentrations of PCB{sub 7} up to 3.39 g/kg. Twenty-three of the samples were collected from a single building, and the concentrations were found to vary over 3 orders of magnitude. In addition, 16 concrete samples from a large bridge previously coated with PCB-containing paint were collected and separated into outer- and inner samples indicating that PCBs are still present in high concentrations subsequent to renovation. PCBs were found in several categories of paint from wooden and concrete buildings, potentially introduced to the environment by natural weathering, renovation, and volatilization. Consequently, this dispersion may lead to increased levels of PCBs in urban atmospheres, soils, and harbor sediments where high concentrations have resulted in Governmental advice against consumption of certain seafood. - Paint from structures built during the period 1950-1970 may be the most important source of PCBs in an urban environment.

  11. Exposure of pig oocytes to PCBs during in vitro maturation: effects on developmental competence, cytoplasmic remodelling and communications with cumulus cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAL Brevini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are one of the most persistent and widespread groups of endocrine disrupting compounds in the ecosystem. These substances are present in sewage sludge that is spread in increasing amounts on arable land and pasture as fertilizer, and are ingested by farm animals with food and drinking water. This study investigated the effect of different PCB concentrations on pig oocyte in vitro maturation and developmental competence as well as examined the possible mechanisms involved. A concentration ranging from 0 to 1 ?g/mL of Aroclor 1254 (A1254, a pool of more than 60 PCB congeners, was added to the maturation medium, as its composition is considered environmentally relevant. A1254 had no effect on maturation of pig oocytes and on the number of oocytes that cleaved following parthenogenetic activation at any of the doses tested. By contrast, a significant decrease in the number of zygotes that developed to blastocyst stage became evident at a concentration of 10 ng/mL. The number of blastocysts obtained decreased significantly, and in a dose response manner with higher concentrations. Exposure to PCBs altered mitochondria relocation during maturation and this was associated with the lack of a cytoplasmic microtubule network. No effect on mitochondria activity was observed. A1254 exposure also perturbed gap-junction mediated communications between oocytes and cumulus cells. In conclusion, PCB exposure of pig oocytes during in vitro maturation significantly decreased oocyte developmental competence, altered both their cytoplasmic remodelling and the communication with the somatic compartment. These data indicated that accumulation of PCBs in the pig organism may have a detrimental effect on the reproductive efficiency in this species.

  12. Effect of dietary antioxidants on the promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis by PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glauert, H.; Tharappel, J.; Stemm, D.; Spear, B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Lehmler, H.J.; Robertson, L. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Mixtures of halogenated biphenyls as well as many individual congeners have been reported to be promoters of carcinogenesis in various liver tumor models. However, their mechanism of action is not known. A number of mechanisms have been investigated, including direct effects on signal transduction pathways, induction of oxidative stress, effects on vitamin A metabolism, and effects on intercellular communication. One mechanism by which PCBs may promote hepatic tumors is by inducing oxidative damage in the liver. Forms of oxidative damage that may be important are the induction of lipid peroxidation, the induction of oxidative DNA damage, and the alteration of gene expression. One possible mechanism for inhibiting the promoting activity of PCBs may be to increase the concentration of antioxidants in the diet. In this study, we examined if dietary selenium or antioxidant phytochemicals could inhibit the hepatic promoting activity of PCBs in rats.

  13. Modelling the impact of room temperature on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Clausen, Per Axel; Lundsgaard, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a health concern for the building occupants. Inhalation exposure is linked to indoor air concentrations of PCBs, which are known to be affected by indoor temperatures. In this study, a highly PCB contaminated room was heated to six...... tested on field data from a PCB remediation case in an apartment in another contaminated building complex where PCB concentrations and temperature were measured simultaneously and regularly throughout one year. The model fitted relatively well with the regression of measured PCB air concentrations, ln...... temperature levels between 20 and 30 C, i.e. within the normal fluctuation of indoor temperatures, while the air exchange rate was constant. The steady-state air concentrations of seven PCBs were determined at each temperature level. A model based on Clausius–Clapeyron equation, ln(P) = −H/RT + a0, where...

  14. PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs co-occurrence in TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ctistis, Georgios; Schön, Peter; Bakker, Wouter; Luthe, Gregor

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we report on the co-occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) adsorbed on nanoparticular titanium dioxide (TiO2). We report on the finding of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the surface of commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles, being formed during the fabrication process of the TiO2. Thereby, the samples comprise PCBs with higher congener numbers or, in the absence of PCBs, a high concentration of PCDDs and PCDFs. This new class of POPs on an active catalytic surface and the great range of applications of nanoparticular TiO2, such as in color pigments, cosmetics, and inks, give rise to great concern due to their potential toxicity.

  15. Reproduction of European eel jeopardised by high levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraerts, C; Focant, J-F; Eppe, G; De Pauw, E; Belpaire, C

    2011-09-01

    Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analysed in muscle tissue from yellow phased European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from 38 sites in Belgium. Dioxin concentrations in eel vary considerably between sampling locations, indicating that yellow eel is a good indicator of local pollution levels. Measured levels of dioxin-like PCBs are much higher than those of the dioxins and furans. In the majority of the sites, eel has levels considered to be detrimental for their reproduction. Field levels of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs are therefore suggested as an additional causal factor contributing to the decline of the European eel. 42% of the sampling sites show especially dioxin-like PCB levels exceeding the European consumption level (with a factor 3 on average). Human consumption of eel, especially in these highly contaminated sites, seems unjustified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of PCB sources and releases for identifying priorities to reduce PCBs in Washington State (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Holly; Delistraty, Damon

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously distributed in the environment and produce multiple adverse effects in humans and wildlife. As a result, the purpose of our study was to characterize PCB sources in anthropogenic materials and releases to the environment in Washington State (USA) in order to formulate recommendations to reduce PCB exposures. Methods included review of relevant publications (e.g., open literature, industry studies and reports, federal and state government databases), scaling of PCB sources from national or county estimates to state estimates, and communication with industry associations and private and public utilities. Recognizing high associated uncertainty due to incomplete data, we strived to provide central tendency estimates for PCB sources. In terms of mass (high to low), PCB sources include lamp ballasts, caulk, small capacitors, large capacitors, and transformers. For perspective, these sources (200,000-500,000 kg) overwhelm PCBs estimated to reside in the Puget Sound ecosystem (1500 kg). Annual releases of PCBs to the environment (high to low) are attributed to lamp ballasts (400-1500 kg), inadvertent generation by industrial processes (900 kg), caulk (160 kg), small capacitors (3-150 kg), large capacitors (10-80 kg), pigments and dyes (0.02-31 kg), and transformers (PCB distribution and decrease exposures include assessment of PCBs in buildings (e.g., schools) and replacement of these materials, development of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to contain PCBs, reduction of inadvertent generation of PCBs in consumer products, expansion of environmental monitoring and public education, and research to identify specific PCB congener profiles in human tissues.

  17. Assessment of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels in soil samples near an electric capacitor manufacturing industry in Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Maldonado, Ivan N; Salazar, Rogelio Costilla; Ilizaliturri-Hernandez, Cesar A; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Perez-Vazquez, Francisco J; Fernandez-Macias, Juan C

    2014-09-19

    In Mexico, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were principally used as heat transfer chemicals in electric transformers and capacitors as well as hydraulic fluids and lubricants in heavy electrical equipment since the early 1940s. However, although PCBs have been banned in Mexico, their past and present improper disposal has resulted in environmental contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the PCBs levels in soil samples in the immediate area of an electric capacitor manufacturing industry, which was established several years ago in Alpuyeca, Morelos, Mexico. To confirm the presence of PCBs, surface soil samples (1-5 cm in depth) were collected from the vicinity of the industry. We determined the concentrations of 40 PCB congeners in soil samples using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total PCBs levels in the soil samples ranged from 6.2 to 108460.6 μg kg(-1). Moreover, when we analyzed the results of the congeners (non-dioxin-like PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs), the levels of non-dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 5.7 to 103469 μg kg(-1) and the levels of dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 0.5 to 4992 μg kg(-1). Considering that soil is an important pathway of exposure in humans, analysis of PCBs levels in blood (as a biomarker of exposure) is necessary in individuals living in Alpuyeca, Morelos.

  18. A Research Study to Investigate PCBs in School Buildings: Final Research Plan. EPA 600/R-10/074

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals that were manufactured in the United States between about 1930 and 1977 for use in various industrial and commercial applications because of their nonflammability, chemical stability, high boiling point, and electrical insulation properties (ATSDR, 2000). PCBs were used in numerous products…

  19. 40 CFR 761.185 - Certification program and retention of records by importers and persons generating PCBs in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification program and retention of records by importers and persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. 761.185 Section 761.185 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs)...

  20. Comparison of Passive and Active Air Sampling (PAAS) Methods for PCBs – A Pilot Study in New York City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    PCBs were used extensively in school building materials (caulk and lighting fixture ballasts) during the approximate period of 1950-1978. Most of the schools built nationwide during this period have not had indoor air sampling conducted for PCBs. Passive air sampling holds promi...

  1. Simultaneous determination of aliphatic hydrocarbons, PCBs and PCTs in pork liver by gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Barros, C. [Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Area Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alvarez Pineiro, M.E. [Inst. de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentarios, Lab. de Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Simal Lozano, J. [Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Area Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lage Yusty, M.A. [Inst. de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentarios, Lab. de Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    1996-10-01

    A multicomponent extraction/concentration procedure has been developed for the enrichment of PCBs, PCTs and aliphatic hydrocarbons (pristane, C{sub 18}, C{sub 19}, C{sub 20}, C{sub 22}, C{sub 24}, C{sub 28}, C{sub 32} and C{sub 36}) in pork liver. These components of the enriched extract were then simultaneously determined by gas chromatography. Mean recoveries ranged from 81.5% for pristane to 93% for PCBs; CV % (0.9-6.7) indicated the method to be both precise and reproducible. (orig.)

  2. Simultaneous elimination of cyanotoxins and PCBs via mechanical collection of cyanobacterial blooms: An application of "green-bioadsorption concept".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Jia, Yunlu; Liu, Anyue; Zhou, Qichao; Song, Lirong

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the distribution, transfer and fate of both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and cyanotoxins via phytoplankton routes were systematically investigated in two Chinese lakes. Results indicated that PCB adsorption/bioaccumulation dynamics has significantly positive correlations with the biomass of green alga and diatoms. Total lipid content of phytoplankton is the major factor that influences PCB adsorption/bioaccumulation. Cyanobacterial blooms with relatively lower lipid content could also absorb high amount of PCBs due to their high cell density in the water columns, and this process was proposed as major route for the transfer of PCBs in Chinese eutrophic freshwater. According to these findings, a novel route on fates of PCBs via phytoplankton and a green bioadsorption concept were proposed and confirmed. In the practice of mechanical collections of bloom biomass from Lake Taihu, cyanotoxin/cyanobacteria and PCBs were found to be removed simultaneously very efficiently followed this theory. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Mineralization of PCBs by the genetically modified strain Cupriavidus necator JMS34 and its application for bioremediation of PCBs in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra, Juan Matias; Acevedo, Francisca; Gonzalez, Myriam; Seeger, Michael [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile). Lab. de Microbiologia Molecular y Biotecnologia

    2010-07-15

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are classified as ''high-priority pollutants''. Diverse microorganisms are able to degrade PCBs. However, bacterial degradation of PCBs is generally incomplete, leading to the accumulation of chlorobenzoates (CBAs) as dead-end metabolites. To obtain a microorganism able to mineralize PCB congeners, the bph locus of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, which encodes one of the most effective PCB degradation pathways, was incorporated into the genome of the CBA-degrading bacterium Cupriavidus necator JMP134-X3. The bph genes were transferred into strain JMP134-X3, using the mini-Tn5 transposon system and biparental mating. The genetically modified derivative, C. necator strain JMS34, had only one chromosomal insertion of bph locus, which was stable under nonselective conditions. This modified bacterium was able to grow on biphenyl, 3-CBA and 4-CBA, and degraded 3,5-CBA in the presence of m-toluate. The strain JMS34 mineralized 3-CB, 4-CB, 2,4{sup '}-CB, and 3,5-CB, without accumulation of CBAs. Bioaugmentation of PCB-polluted soils with C. necator strain JMS34 and with the native B. xenovorans LB400 was monitored. It is noteworthy that strain JMS34 degraded, in 1 week, 99% of 3-CB and 4-CB and approximately 80% of 2,4{sup '}-CB in nonsterile soil, as well as in sterile soil. Additionally, the bacterial count of strain JMS34 increased by almost two orders of magnitude in PCB-polluted nonsterile soil. In contrast, the presence of native microflora reduced the degradation of these PCBs by strain LB400 from 73% (sterile soil) to approximately 50% (nonsterile soil). This study contributes to the development of improved biocatalysts for remediation of PCB-contaminated environments. (orig.)

  4. Elucidating the structural properties that influence the persistence of PCBs in humans using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megson, David, E-mail: dpmegson@hotmail.co.uk [Biogeochemistry Research Centre, SoGEES, Plymouth University, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); O’Sullivan, Gwen [Department of Environmental Science, Mount Royal University, 4825 Mount Royal Gate SW, Calgary, Alberta, T3E 6K6 (Canada); Comber, Sean; Worsfold, Paul J.; Lohan, Maeve C. [Biogeochemistry Research Centre, SoGEES, Plymouth University, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Edwards, Melanie R.; Shields, Walter J. [Exponent Inc., 15375 Southeast 30th Place, Bellevue, WA 98007 (United States); Sandau, Courtney D. [Chemistry Matters Inc., 2120 1st Avenue NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 0B5 (Canada); Patterson, Donald G. [Exponent Inc., One Capital City Plaza, Suite 1620, 3350 Peachtree Road, Atlanta, GA 30326 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    In human exposure studies involving Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), it is useful to establish when an individual was potentially exposed. Age dating PCB exposure is complex but assessments can be made because different PCB congeners have different residence times in the human body. The less chlorinated congeners generally tend to have shorter residence times because they are biotransformed and eliminated faster than more chlorinated congeners. Therefore, the presence of high proportions of less chlorinated congeners is often indicative of recent exposure. The 2003–04 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset contains results for the concentration of 37 PCBs in a sub-sample of the US population. Multivariate statistical analysis of the NHANES data showed that less chlorinated congeners are not always biotransformed faster than higher chlorinated compounds. For example, PCB 28 (a tri-chlorobiphenyl) appears to be more resistant to biotransformation than PCB 101 and 110 (penta-chlorobiphenyls). Using statistical analysis of the NHANES data in conjunction with previously published studies on PCB persistence in humans, it was possible to identify the structural relationships that determine if a PCB is likely to be from a recent exposure (termed ‘episodic’) or from steady state exposure. Congeners with chlorine atoms in the 2,5- and 2,3,6-positions appear to be more susceptible to biotransformation whereas congeners with chlorine bonds in the 2,3,4- 2,4,5- 3,4,5- and 2,3,4,5-positions appear to be more persistent. This work shows that future investigations to date PCB exposure would benefit from the analysis of a wide range of congeners, including the selection of key congeners based not only on the degree of chlorination but also on the positions of the chlorine atoms on the biphenyl. - Highlights: • NHANES data was used to compare the PCB signature of different aged participants. • PCB residence time may be explained by the number

  5. Elucidating the structural properties that influence the persistence of PCBs in humans using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megson, David; O’Sullivan, Gwen; Comber, Sean; Worsfold, Paul J.; Lohan, Maeve C.; Edwards, Melanie R.; Shields, Walter J.; Sandau, Courtney D.; Patterson, Donald G.

    2013-01-01

    In human exposure studies involving Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), it is useful to establish when an individual was potentially exposed. Age dating PCB exposure is complex but assessments can be made because different PCB congeners have different residence times in the human body. The less chlorinated congeners generally tend to have shorter residence times because they are biotransformed and eliminated faster than more chlorinated congeners. Therefore, the presence of high proportions of less chlorinated congeners is often indicative of recent exposure. The 2003–04 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset contains results for the concentration of 37 PCBs in a sub-sample of the US population. Multivariate statistical analysis of the NHANES data showed that less chlorinated congeners are not always biotransformed faster than higher chlorinated compounds. For example, PCB 28 (a tri-chlorobiphenyl) appears to be more resistant to biotransformation than PCB 101 and 110 (penta-chlorobiphenyls). Using statistical analysis of the NHANES data in conjunction with previously published studies on PCB persistence in humans, it was possible to identify the structural relationships that determine if a PCB is likely to be from a recent exposure (termed ‘episodic’) or from steady state exposure. Congeners with chlorine atoms in the 2,5- and 2,3,6-positions appear to be more susceptible to biotransformation whereas congeners with chlorine bonds in the 2,3,4- 2,4,5- 3,4,5- and 2,3,4,5-positions appear to be more persistent. This work shows that future investigations to date PCB exposure would benefit from the analysis of a wide range of congeners, including the selection of key congeners based not only on the degree of chlorination but also on the positions of the chlorine atoms on the biphenyl. - Highlights: • NHANES data was used to compare the PCB signature of different aged participants. • PCB residence time may be explained by the number

  6. PCBs and PCDD/Fs in soil from informal e-waste recycling sites and open dumpsites in India: Levels, congener profiles and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Nakamura, Masafumi; Prithiviraj, Balasubramanian; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Bang, John J

    2018-04-15

    Growth of informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sector is an emerging problem for India. The presence of halogenated compounds in e-wastes may result in the formation of persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) during recycling processes. We therefore investigated PCBs and PCDD/Fs in surface soils explicitly from the informal e-waste recycling sites and nearby open dumpsites of major metropolitan cities from four corners of India, viz., New Delhi (North), Kolkata (East), Mumbai (West) and Chennai (South). In the informal e-waste recycling sites, the range of Σ 26 PCBs (0.4-488ng/g) and ƩPCDD/Fs (1.0-10.6ng/g) were higher than Ʃ 26 PCBs (0.3-21ng/g) and ƩPCDD/Fs (0.15-7.3ng/g) from open dumpsites. In the e-waste sites, ƩPCDDs were found with increasing trend from ƩTetraCDD to OctaCDD, whereas ƩPCDFs showed a reverse trend. The dominance of PCDF congeners and maximum toxicity equivalents (TEQ) for both PCDDs (17pg TEQ/g) and PCDFs (82pg TEQ/g) at Mandoli in New Delhi has been related to intensive precious metal recovery process using acid bath. Among dumpsites, highest TEQ for PCDD/Fs was observed at Kodangaiyur dumpsite of Chennai (CN DS -02, 45pg TEQ/g). Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model identified distinct congener pattern based on the functional activities, such as e-waste dismantling, shredding, precious metal recovery and open burning in dumpsites. E-waste metal recovery factor was loaded with 86-91% of PCB-77, -105, -114, -118 and 30% of PCB-126, possibly associated with the burning of wires during the copper extraction process. Almost 70% of the Ʃ 26 PCB concentrations was comprised of the dioxin-like PCB congeners with a maximum concentration of 437ng/g at New Moore market in Chennai, followed by Wire Lane (102ng/g), in Mumbai. We speculate that PCB-126 might have resulted from combustion of plastic materials in e-waste stream and dumped waste

  7. Residues of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs in eggs, fat and livers of laying hens following consumption of contaminated feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Kan, C.A.; Weg, van der G.; Onstenk, C.G.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Laying hens were fed with feed from the Belgian dioxin incident diluted ten-fold with non-contaminated feed, resulting in concentrations of 61 ng TEQ kg(-1) PCDD/Fs, 23 ng TEQ kg(-1) non-ortho PCBs, 116 ng TEQ kg(-1) mono-ortho PCBs and 3.2 mg kg(-1) of the seven indicator PCBs. Following exposure

  8. Self-organizing maps for indications of airborne polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) dependence on spatial and meteorological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanić, Snježana Herceg; Vuković, Gordana; Klinčić, Darija; Antanasijević, Davor

    2018-07-01

    This paper investigates the relation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in air samples with meteorological parameters (temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity) using the Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM). Both gas- and particle-adsorbed phase of 20 PCB congeners and 7 OCPs including the three new ones (α-HCH, β-HCH, and γ-HCH) listed in the Stockholm Convention were collected during a one-year period at urban locations in Zagreb (Croatia). Moving beyond existing studies, the SOM analysis showed that the meteorological characteristics of transient seasons such as spring had no influence on the dissimilarities in the behavior of PCBs and OCPs. Towards the identification of pollutant spatial patterns, the SOM did not isolate a clear phenomenon probably due to the absence of local pollution sources contributing to the elevated concentrations of these compounds. Overall, our results have shown that the SOM method, by recognizing significant differences among PCB and OCP seasonality, could be recommended in the analysis of pollutant distribution depending on temperature and atmospheric pressure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. PAHs, OCPs and PCBs in sediments from three catchments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the comparison of chemical concentrations to international sediment quality guidelines, PAH, OCP and PCB concentrations in most sediment samples posed a low risk to sediment-dwelling organisms. However, in some instances the risk was moderate or high. It is recommended that these compounds be ...

  10. DIOXINS AND PCBS IN MEAT AND MILK FROM THE REGIONS OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. Amirov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental data on monitoring of dioxins and PCBs in samples of beef and pork, as well as in milk from the areas of the Chechen Republic and the Republic of Bashkortostan. The data are compared with the available information on Europe and the USA. Conclusion is made about compliance of the product with the standards for Russia and the European Union.

  11. Dietary exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in The Netherlands anno 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, de A.; Bakker, M.I.; Zeilmaker, M.J.; Traag, W.A.; Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Boon, P.E.; Klaveren, van J.D.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, representative occurrence data for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in food were obtained and used to estimate dietary exposure of the Dutch population. Food composite samples were analyzed as well as single fish and vegetables samples. Total dioxin concentrations in animal products

  12. Thirty year monitoring of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and tetrabromodiphenylether in eel from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.; Dao, Q.T.; Leeuwen, van P.W.; Kotterman, M.J.J.; Schobben, J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Because of their excellent properties as a biomonitor, yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) have been used for time-trend monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and tetrabrominated diphenylether (tetra-BDE). The program has now lasted for thirty years and has

  13. Dietary intake of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher-Gabernig, Elke; Mischek, Daniela; Moche, Wolfgang; Prean, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) should be assessed regularly. In order to evaluate the contamination levels in various food products on the Austrian market and to assess the dietary exposure of the Austrian population for the first time, a national monitoring programme was conducted from 2005 to 2011. The 235 food products comprised meat, poultry, game and offal, fish and fish products, milk and dairy products, eggs, animal fats and vegetable oils. To estimate the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, mean concentrations in food were combined with the respective food consumption data from the Austrian food consumption survey. Estimated dietary intakes were expressed as toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs 1998). The mean intakes for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were estimated as 0.77, 0.75 and 0.61 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1) for children, women and men, respectively. The main contributors to total intake were milk and dairy products followed by fish and fish products for children and women, and meat, poultry, game and offal for men (65% and 15% for children, 67% and 14% for women, and 63% and 19% for men, respectively). Comparison of the estimated dietary intakes with the toxicological reference values shows that both children and adults are well below those values.

  14. Radiation evaluation method of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic printed circuit boards (PCBs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBel, K.A.; Gruner, T.D.; Reed, R.A.; Settles, B.; Wilmot, J.; Dougherty, L.F.; Russo, A.; Yuknis, W.; Foster, M.G.; Garrisson-Darrin, A.; Marshall, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    We present a radiation evaluation methodology and proton ground test results for candidate COTS PCBs (commercial off-the-shelf electronic printed circuit boards) and their associated electronics for low-altitude, low-inclination orbits. We will also discuss the implications associated with mission orbit and duration. (authors)

  15. Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and Soxhlet extraction for the determination of PCBs in seaweed samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punín Crespo, M O; Lage Yusty, M A

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction for the determination of 12 polychlorinated biphenyls from algae samples is compared to Soxhlet extraction. Analytical detection limits for the individual congeners ranged from 0.62 microgl(-1) to 19 microgl(-1). Recovery was tested for both methods using standard addition procedure. At maximum spike level of concentration, the mean recoveries were not significantly different (P>0.05) of all PCBs studied, with the exception of PCBs 28, 52, 77 and 169. Method precision for Soxhlet extraction (< or =3.9%) was slightly better than for SFE (< or =9.2%). Although both methods yield comparable results, SFE offers the advantage of detecting all PCBs studied at lower concentrations, reducing extraction time, and reducing the amount of solvents needed. The optimized methods were applied to the analysis of three real seaweed samples, except for PCB101 the concentrations of all PCBs were low or below the detection limits. The levels of PCB101 found in sample 1 were 6.6+/-0.54 ng g(-1) d.w., in sample 2 the levels were 8.2+/-0.86 ng g(-1) d.w. and in sample 3 they were 7.7+/-0.08 ng g(-1) d.w.

  16. Biodegradation of PCBs by ligninolytic fungi and characterization of the degradation products

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čvančarová, Monika; Křesinová, Zdena; Filipová, Alena; Covino, S.; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 11 (2012), s. 1317-1323 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/09/1058 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Polychlorinated biphenyls * PCBs * Biodegradation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.137, year: 2012

  17. Analysis of PCBs in Sewage sludge for the characterization study of ERM-CC392

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korytar, P.; Dao, Q.T.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was measurement of PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 105, 118, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180) in a sewage sludge material ERM – CC392, in a control sample and in ampoule of the “Beltest” solution as part of the characterization study of ERM – CC392 “PCBs in Sewage sludge” organized by

  18. Risk Assessment and Risk Management of Dioxins and PCBs in Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom LAP; Kramer HJ; Jansen EHJM; Mengelers MJB; van Klaveren JD; van Dooren M; Traag WA; Kuiper HA; Konemann WH; TOX; RIKILT/DLO

    1995-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt in het kort een overzicht gegeven van de stand van zaken op het gebied van PCBs en dioxines in voedsel. Achtergrondblootstelling en de manier waarop deze achtergrondblootstelling ontstaat wordt besproken. In de risicobeoordeling wordt een overzicht gegeven van de

  19. Neurodevelopmental effects of perinatal exposure to environmental levels of PCBs and dioxins v

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.I. Vreugdenhil (Hestien)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis describes results of a follow-up study in the Dutch PCB/dioxin cohort at school age. Associations between perinatal exposure to PCBs and dioxins and several neurodevelopmental outcomes, assessed at 6/7 and 9 years of age, are evaluated in these studies.

  20. The neuroendocrine effects of non-dioxine-like-PCBs: filling in the gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antunes Fernandes, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Clearly, the neurotoxic potential of NDL-PCBs has been associated with neurobehavioral effects, including changes in motor activity, learning, memory and attention, which have been associated with neurotransmitter systems. So far, much research has been focused on presynaptic mechanisms, such as

  1. Environmental PCBs in Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico: implications for community health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh; Ramirez-Ortiz, Daisy; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Treaster, Joseph B; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Toborek, Michal; Deo, Sapna; Klaus, Jim; Bachas, Leonidas G; Whitall, David; Daunert, Sylvia; Szapocznik, Jose

    2016-02-01

    Guánica Bay, located in southwestern Puerto Rico, has suffered oil spills and other pollution discharges since the 1960s. Previous research showed elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coral reef and sediment. This research examined PCB concentrations in sediment and fish. Sediment and fish sampling in the bay was facilitated by community members. This study identified the second highest reported PCB level (129,300 ng/g) in sediment in the USA. Fish samples also showed elevated concentrations (1623 to 3768 ng/g), which were higher than the thresholds of safe levels of PCBs in fish for human consumption. The alarmingly high concentration of PCBs calls for proactive community engagement to bring awareness about contamination of the bay and more extensive sampling to test for the concentration of PCBs in seafood and the people of Guánica. This study also underscores the value of the involvement of local communities during sampling design aimed at identifying hot spots of contaminants.

  2. External exposure and bioaccumulation of PCBs in humans living in a contaminated urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Karin; Czub, Gertje; McLachlan, Michael S.; Hu, Dingfei; Thorne, Peter S.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are exposed to different mixtures of PCBs depending on the route of exposure. In this study we investigated the potential contribution of inhalation to the overall human exposure to PCBs in an urban area. For this purpose, the mechanistically based, non-steady state bioaccumulation model ACC-HUMAN was applied to predict the PCB body burden in an adult living in the Midwestern United States who eats a typical North American diet and inhales air contaminated with PCBs. Dietary exposure was estimated using measured data for eighteen PCB congeners in different food groups (fish, meat and egg, dairy products). Two scenarios for inhalation exposure were evaluated: one using air concentrations measured in Chicago, and a second using air measurements in a remote area on Lake Michigan, Sleeping Bear Dunes. The model predicted that exposure via inhalation increases the accumulated mass of PCBs in the body by up to thirty percent for lower chlorinated congeners, while diet is by far the dominant source of exposure for those PCB congeners that accumulate most in humans. PMID:19394084

  3. Transformation of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a stream food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, V.D.; Walters, D.M.; Lee, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The enantiomeric composition of chiral PCB congeners was determined in Twelvemile Creek (Clemson, SC) to examine potential mechanisms of biotransformation in a stream food web. We measured enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of six PCB atropisomers (PCBs 84, 91, 95, 136, 149, and 174) in surface sediment, fine benthic organic matter (FBOM), coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM), periphyton, Asian clam, mayflies, yellowfin shiner, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using gas chromatography (GC-ECD). Nonracemic EFs of PCBs 91, 95, 136, and 149 were measured in almost all samples. Enantiomeric compositions of PCBs 84 and 174 were infrequently detected with racemic EFs measured in samples except for a nonracemic EF of PCB 84 in clams. Nonracemic EFs of PCBs 91, 136, and 149 in SPMDs may be due to desorption of nonracemic residues from FBOM. EFs for some atropisomers were significantly different among FBOM, CPOM, and periphyton, suggesting that their microbial communities have different biotransformation processes. Nonracemic EFs in clams and fish suggest both in vivo biotransformation and uptake of nonracemic residues from their food sources. Longitudinal variability in EFs was generally low among congeners observed in matrices. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. SURVEY ON THE PRESENCE OF POLYCHLOROBIPHENYLS (PCBs ON FISHES OF PIEDILUCO LAKE (TERNI, CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Latini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2004-2006, 254 specimen belonging to Ciprinidae, Percidae and Anguillidae fishes of Piediluco Lake were analyzed by gas chromatography to check for the presence of PCBs contamination. Data obtained show low level of contamination with a decreasing trend from 2004 to 2006.

  5. Quercetin blocks caveolae-dependent proinflammatory responses induced by coplanar PCBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yean Jung; Arzuaga, Xabier; Kluemper, Chase T.; Caraballo, Adelka; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread environmental contaminants, and co-planar PCBs can induce oxidative stress and activation of pro-inflammatory signaling cascades which are associated with atherosclerosis. The majority of the toxicological effects elicited by co-planar PCB exposure are associated to activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and subsequent induction of responsive genes. Previous studies from our group have shown that quercetin, a nutritionally relevant flavonoid can significantly reduce PCB77 induction of oxidative stress and expression of the AHR responsive gene cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). We also have evidence that membrane domains called caveolae may regulate PCB-induced inflammatory parameters. Thus, we hypothesized that quercetin can modulate PCB-induced endothelial inflammationassociated with caveolae. To test this hypothesis, endothelial cells were exposed to co-planar PCBs in combination with quercetin, and expression of pro-inflammatory genes was analyzed by real time PCR. Quercetin co-treatment significantly blocked both PCB77 and PCB126 induction of CYP1A1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin and P-selectin. Exposure to PCB77 also induced caveolin-1 protein expression, which was reduced by cotreatment with quercetin. Our results suggest that inflammatory pathways induced by co-planar PCBs can be down-regulated by the dietary flavonoid quercetin through mechanisms associated with functional caveolae. PMID:19608276

  6. [Patterns of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs homologues in fly ash from cement kilns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Ni, Yu-Wen; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Ping; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Ji-Ping

    2009-02-15

    The concentrations and toxic equivalent (TEQ) values of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs in fly ash collected from three types of cement kilns (vertical shaft kiln, wet-process rotary kiln and dry-process rotary kiln) and two types of waste incinerators were determined, and the patterns of homologues and congeners were compared. The results showed that the total TEQ of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs in cement kiln fly ash, which were in the range of 4.0-62, 0.069-3.9 and 0.47-2.8 ng x kg(-1) respectively, were much lower than that of fly ash from waste incinerators. In cement kiln fly ash, the predominating PCDD/Fs homologues were TCDFs, and the chief 2, 3, 7, 8-PCDD/Fs congeners were OCDD, 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDF and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8-HpCDF. The patterns of PCBs homologues in cement kiln fly ash were similar to those of waste incinerators in which TeCB were predominating homologues. PCB77, PCB105, PCB118 were at higher concentrations than other co-polar PCBs. Different types of cement kiln fly ash presented similar PCNs homologue patterns. The predominant homologues were TeCN, whereas OcCN were not detected. PCN 66/67 which has dioxin like toxity was the most abundant congener in all fly ash.

  7. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of soil PCBs in crickets: Comparison of laboratory and field studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paine, J.M.; McKee, M.J.; Ryan, M.E. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab. and Dept. of Zoology)

    1993-11-01

    Laboratory and field studies were used to investigate toxicity and bioaccumulation of PCBs in crickets exposed to contaminated soil. A 14-d laboratory soil bioassay with the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) yielded an LC50 of 1,200 ppm Aroclor 1254. Mean whole-body concentrations of Aroclor 1254 in exposed crickets were 11, 48, 92, 149, and 144 ppm for soil test concentrations of 100, 250, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 ppm, respectively. A whole-body concentration of about 150 ppm appears to be a threshold concentration above which acute mortality will be observed. House crickets placed in cages on a PCB-contaminated landfill accumulated 1.6 and 0.9 ppm of PCBs after 3 and 7 d of exposure, respectively. Although this represents a rapid uptake of PCBs, whole-body concentrations remained considerably below levels expected to cause acute mortality. Abundance of another species, the field cricket (Gryllus pennsylvanicus), was investigated using pitfall traps placed at the PCB-contaminated landfill and a reference site. No adverse effect on abundance was observed at the contaminated site, nor was pitfall trap success correlated to soil PCB concentration. These data indicate that PCBs in soil can rapidly move into epigeic fauna but that the likelihood of acquiring sufficient body burdens to cause acute mortality is low.

  8. PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs co-occurrence in TiO2 nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ctistis, Georgios; Schön, Peter Manfred; Bakker, W.; Luthe, G.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we report on the co-occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) adsorbed on nanoparticular titanium dioxide (TiO2). We report on the finding of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the

  9. Dietary fat interacts with PCBs to induce changes in lipid metabolism in LDL receptor deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, B.; Reiterer, G.; Toborek, M.; Matveev, S.V.; Daugherty, A.; Smart, E. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States); Robertson, L.W. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States)

    2004-09-15

    From epidemiological studies, there is substantial evidence that cardiovascular diseases are linked to environmental pollution and that exposure to polycyclic and/or polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons can lead to human cardiovascular toxicity. A major route of exposure to PCBs in humans is via oral ingestion of contaminated food products. Therefore, circulating environmental contaminants derived from diets, such as PCBs, are in intimate contact with the vascular endothelium. Endothelial activation and dysfunction is an important factor in the overall regulation of vascular lesion pathology. In addition to endothelial barrier dysfunction, another functional change in atherosclerosis is the activation of the endothelium that is manifested as an increase in the expression of specific cytokines and adhesion molecules. These cytokines and adhesion molecules are proposed to mediate the inflammatory aspects of the disease by regulating the vascular entry of leukocytes. Alterations in lipid profile and lipid metabolism as a result of exposure to PCBs may be important components of endothelial cell dysfunction. Little is known about the interaction of dietary fats and PCBs in the pathology of atherosclerosis. We have reported a significant disruption in endothelial barrier function when cells were exposed to linoleic acid. In the current study we aimed to demonstrate the PCB-fatty acid interaction in vivo and hypothesized that PCB toxicity can be modulated by the type of fat consumed.

  10. Thyroid hormone-like and estrogenic activity of hydroxylated PCBs in cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Jinno, Norimasa; Suzuki, Tomoharu; Sugihara, Kazumi; Ohta, Shigeru; Kuroki, Hiroaki; Fujimoto, Nariaki

    2005-01-01

    The thyroid hormone-disrupting activity of hydroxylated PCBs was examined. 4-Hydroxy-2,2',3,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-2,2',3,4',5,5'-HxCB), 4-hydroxy-3,3',4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-3,3',4',5-TCB) and 4,4'-dihydroxy-3,3',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (4,4'-diOH-3,3',5,5'-TCB), which have been detected as metabolites of PCBs in animals and humans, and six other 4-hydroxylated PCBs markedly inhibited the binding of triiodothyronine (1 x 10 -10 M) to thyroid hormone receptor (TR) in the concentration range of 1 x 10 -6 to 1 x 10 -4 M. However, 4-hydroxy-2',4',6'-trichlorobiphenyl (4-OH-2',4',6'-TCB), 3-hydroxy-2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-2,3,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,3',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl and 2,3',4',5,5'-pentachlorodiphenyl did not show affinity for TR. The thyroid hormonal activity of PCBs was also examined using rat pituitary cell line GH3 cells, which grow and release growth hormone in a thyroid hormone-dependent manner. 4-OH-2,2',3,4',5,5'-HxCB, 4,4'-diOH-3,3',5,5'-TCB and 4-OH-3,3',4',5-TCB enhanced the proliferation of GH3 cells and stimulated their production of growth hormone in the concentration range of 1 x 10 -7 to 1 x 10 -4 M, while PCBs which had no affinity for thyroid hormone receptor were inactive. In contrast, only 4-OH-2',4',6'-TCB exhibited a significant estrogenic activity using estrogen-responsive reporter assay in MCF-7 cells. However, the 3,5-dichloro substitution of 4-hydroxylated PCBs markedly decreased the estrogenic activity. These results suggest that, at least for the 17 PCB congeners and hydroxylated metabolites tested, a 4-hydroxyl group in PCBs is essential for thyroid hormonal and estrogenic activities, and that 3,5-dichloro substitution favors thyroid hormonal activity, but not estrogenic activity

  11. Hazardous chemicals in marine mammals from the western North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, N.; Tanabe, S.

    1999-01-01

    Marine mammals have long-term life and occupy the highest ecological niche in the marine ecosystem. Thus, higher concentration of hazardous chemicals are expected in marine mammals. In the present study, we review contamination of organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, etc.), heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, etc.) and butyltin (TBT, DBT and MBT) in marine mammals collected from the western North Pacific, and discuss the worldwide contamination of these chemicals

  12. Longitudinal assessment of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in pregnant women from Western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauser Russ

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal exposures to organochlorines prior to pregnancy are considered a risk to neonatal welfare, specifically in relation to neurocognitive functions. There is growing interest in the evaluation of maternal blood testing as a marker for fetal exposure as well as the variable geographic distribution of these priority chemicals. Methods Three hundred and twenty-three women in the second trimester of pregnancy entered the study at a prenatal clinic providing genetic counselling information. Subjects who had an indication for genetic amniocentesis based on late maternal age were eligible to participate. Two hundred and thirty-eight completed an environmental questionnaire. A sample of amniotic fluid was taken for karyotype analysis in 323 women and blood samples during pregnancy (209, at birth (105 and from the umbilical cord (97 and breast milk (47 were also collected. These samples were tested for 29 PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides. Results The concentrations of PCB 153 in these media were relatively low in relation to other studies. Σ PCBs measurements in samples taken during the second trimester of pregnancy, at birth and in the umbilical cord were strongly correlated. Specific measurements of PCB 153 and PCB 180 among those subjects with completed sampling of blood samples from mothers and cord samples were significantly correlated. The concentrations of PCBs and pesticides did not differ in relation to prior spontaneous abortion history. There were no organochlorines present in the amniotic fluid at the current level of quantification. Conclusion Pregnant women from the Western Canada region of Calgary, Alberta are exposed to relatively low concentrations of organochlorines. Measurement of maternal blood during the second trimester of pregnancy can reliably estimate the fetal exposure to PCBs. This estimate is reliable for Group 2 and 3 PCBs as well as PCB 153 and PCB 180. The amniotic fluid does not contain

  13. Developmental Exposure to PCBs, MeHg, or Both: Long-Term Effects on Auditory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Brian E.; Poon, Emily; Sable, Helen J.K.; Schantz, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or methylmercury (MeHg) can result in a variety of neurotoxic effects, including long-term auditory deficits. However, little is known about the effects of combined exposure to PCBs and MeHg on auditory function. Objective We developmentally exposed rats to PCBs and/or MeHg and assessed auditory function in adulthood to determine the effects of exposure to these contaminants individually and in combination. Methods We exposed female Long-Evans rats to 1 or 3 mg/kg PCB in corn oil, 1.5 or 4.5 ppm MeHg in drinking water, or combined exposure to 1 mg/kg PCB + 1.5 ppm MeHg or 3 mg/kg PCB + 4.5 ppm MeHg. Controls received corn oil vehicle and unadulterated water. Dosing began 28 days before breeding and continued until weaning at postnatal day (PND) 21. Auditory function of the offspring was assessed at approximately PND 200 by measuring distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). Results Groups exposed to PCBs alone had attenuated DPOAE amplitudes, elevated DPOAE thresholds, and elevated ABR thresholds compared with controls. Groups exposed to MeHg alone did not differ from controls. Unexpectedly, the effects of PCB exposure appeared to be attenuated by coexposure to MeHg. Conclusion Developmental exposure to PCBs can result in permanent hearing deficits, and the changes in DPOAE amplitudes and thresholds suggest a cochlear site of action. Coexposure to MeHg appeared to attenuate the PCB-related deficits, but the mechanism for this unexpected interaction remains to be determined. PMID:19654920

  14. Cancer risk assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in former agricultural soils of Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Yu Bon [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China); Lopez, Brenda Natalia [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Hong Sheng [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China); Leung, Anna Oi Wah [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China); Chow, Ka Lai [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@zafu.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Electronic recycling site contain high concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs in Hong Kong. {yields} Changing of agricultural land use to electronic waste recycling sites can increase potential cancer risk on human. {yields} High levels of soil organic matter in soils render PBDEs and PCBs more resistant to degradation. - Abstract: The major objective of this study was to evaluate the carcinogenic risk posed to humans through PBDEs and PCBs of changing agricultural land use for recycling of e-waste and open burning of municipal waste. Nine locations were selected to represent 6 different types of land use such as e-waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)) and e-waste open burning site (EW (OBS)). The total concentrations for PBDEs and PCBs, and the bioaccessibility of PCBs were determined using Soxhlet extraction and in vitro simulated gastric solution, respectively. Both total and bioaccessible concentrations were subsequently used to establish the cancer risk probabilities in humans via ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation of soil particles. It was found that very low cancer risk in all 6 types of different land use was caused by BDE-209. Nevertheless, at the 95th centile, the concentration of PCBs in EW (DW) and EW (OBS) indicate a low cancer risk to humans of 40 and 2.1 in a million, respectively, while the same was also observed for the bioaccessible PCBs in EW (DW) of 1.71 {+-} 2.96 in a million.

  15. Homing pigeons as a biomonitor for atmospheric PAHs and PCBs in Guangzhou, a megacity in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yuanyuan; Halbrook, Richard S; Li, Huizhen; You, Jing

    2017-11-30

    The occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) in urban atmosphere in Guangzhou, China were assessed using homing pigeons as a biomonitor. Contaminant concentrations in lung were significantly higher than those in liver and fat, indicating chemical uptake was mainly through respiratory route. Tricyclic PAHs and low chlorinated PCBs dominated composition of PAHs and PCBs in homing pigeons, similar as their composition in local atmosphere. Different age-dependent bioaccumulation patterns were noted for PAHs and PCBs. For 1-year old homing pigeons, higher levels of PAHs and PCBs in lung and liver tissues were probably ascribed to more intense flying than 5- and 10-year groups. Fat concentrations of PCBs were greater in aged pigeons than 1-year old pigeons, but PAH concentrations in fat slightly decreased in aged pigeons because of relatively fast biotransformation. Overall, homing pigeons could serve as a suitable biomonitor for urban atmospheric contaminants in coastal cities. Homing pigeons could serve as a good biomonitor for PAHs and PCBs in urban atmosphere, yet different biotransformation potential of the chemicals caused different bioaccumulation patterns in pigeon fat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bayesian Analysis of a Lipid-Based Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Model for a Mixture of PCBs in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. Sasso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A lipid-based physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK model has been developed for a mixture of six polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in rats. The aim of this study was to apply population Bayesian analysis to a lipid PBTK model, while incorporating an internal exposure-response model linking enzyme induction and metabolic rate. Lipid-based physiologically based toxicokinetic models are a subset of PBTK models that can simulate concentrations of highly lipophilic compounds in tissue lipids, without the need for partition coefficients. A hierarchical treatment of population metabolic parameters and a CYP450 induction model were incorporated into the lipid-based PBTK framework, and Markov-Chain Monte Carlo was applied to in vivo data. A mass balance of CYP1A and CYP2B in the liver was necessary to model PCB metabolism at high doses. The linked PBTK/induction model remained on a lipid basis and was capable of modeling PCB concentrations in multiple tissues for all dose levels and dose profiles.

  17. Seasonal characteristics and current sources of OCPs and PCBs and enantiomeric signatures of chiral OCPs in the atmosphere of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weitao; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Ruijie; Wang, Shaopeng; Wei, Chaoshuai; Chaemfa, Chakra; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Yu, Kefu

    2016-01-15

    Passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed concurrently at 15 locations (nine urban sites and six rural sites) in Vietnam and exposed for approximately 6 weeks from June 26, 2012 to August 26, 2012 and from December 8, 2012 to February 8, 2013. The concentration, composition and enantiomeric signatures of the target compound and Air Mass Backward Trajectories of the 15 sampling sites are presented and discussed in this study. Relatively clean air mass from ocean and similar concentrations and composition of POPs between the south and north of Vietnam indicate that local emissions is most likely the major source of POPs in Vietnam. Technical DDT and technical HCH were widely used in Vietnam and corresponding quantitative data suggests the sporadic use. The preferential degradation of (+)-α-HCH was found in all sampling sites, which could be a regional characteristic of Vietnam. High trans-/cis-chlordane (TC/CC) ratios indicate the current use of technical chlordane for termite control. PCA estimated that main source of PCBs present in the atmosphere of Vietnam was uncontrolled discarded e-waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bidirectional air-sea exchange and accumulation of POPs (PAHs, PCBs, OCPs and PBDEs) in the nocturnal marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, Gerhard; Meixner, Franz X.; Vrana, Branislav; Efstathiou, Christos I.; Kohoutek, Jiři; Kukučka, Petr; Mulder, Marie D.; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Rusina, Tatsiana P.; Song, Guo-Zheng; Tsapakis, Manolis

    2016-05-01

    As a consequence of long-range transported pollution, air-sea exchange can become a major source of persistent organic pollutants in remote marine environments. The vertical gradients in the air were quantified for 14 species, i.e. four parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), three polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), three organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and two polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in the gas-phase at a remote coastal site in the southern Aegean Sea in summer. Most vertical gradients were positive (Δc/Δz > 0), indicating downward (net depositional) flux. Significant upward (net volatilisational) fluxes were found for three PAHs, mostly during daytime, and for two OCPs, mostly during night-time, as well as for one PCB and one PBDE during part of the measurements. While phenanthrene was deposited, fluoranthene (FLT) and pyrene (PYR) seem to undergo flux oscillation, hereby not following a day-night cycle. Box modelling confirms that volatilisation from the sea surface has significantly contributed to the night-time maxima of OCPs. Fluxes were quantified based on eddy covariance. Deposition fluxes ranged from -28.5 to +1.8 µg m-2 day-1 for PAHs and -3.4 to +0.9 µg m-2 day-1 for halogenated compounds. Dry particle deposition of FLT and PYR did not contribute significantly to the vertical flux.

  19. Bidirectional air–sea exchange and accumulation of POPs (PAHs, PCBs, OCPs and PBDEs in the nocturnal marine boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lammel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of long-range transported pollution, air–sea exchange can become a major source of persistent organic pollutants in remote marine environments. The vertical gradients in the air were quantified for 14 species, i.e. four parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, three polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, three organochlorine pesticides (OCPs and two polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs in the gas-phase at a remote coastal site in the southern Aegean Sea in summer. Most vertical gradients were positive (Δc∕Δz > 0, indicating downward (net depositional flux. Significant upward (net volatilisational fluxes were found for three PAHs, mostly during daytime, and for two OCPs, mostly during night-time, as well as for one PCB and one PBDE during part of the measurements. While phenanthrene was deposited, fluoranthene (FLT and pyrene (PYR seem to undergo flux oscillation, hereby not following a day–night cycle. Box modelling confirms that volatilisation from the sea surface has significantly contributed to the night-time maxima of OCPs. Fluxes were quantified based on eddy covariance. Deposition fluxes ranged from −28.5 to +1.8 µg m−2 day−1 for PAHs and −3.4 to +0.9 µg m−2 day−1 for halogenated compounds. Dry particle deposition of FLT and PYR did not contribute significantly to the vertical flux.

  20. Assessment of cytochrome P450 1A in dab as biomarker of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and related compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleiderink, H.M.

    1996-01-01


    The objective of this thesis was to investigate whether the CYP1A response in dab could be used as a biological marker of exposure to PCBs and related compounds in monitoring programmes in the southern North Sea. Only because of its wide occurrence in the North Sea, dab is already playing

  1. Subtask 1.20 - Development of Methods to Determine the Environmental Availability of PAHs, PCBs, and Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Hawthorne

    2007-06-30

    Three methods to determine the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were modified and developed for application to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Water/XAD desorption and selective supercritical fluid extraction methods were developed to determine the rapidly-released fraction of PCBs from contaminated soils and sediments. A method to determine PCBs in sediment pore water based on solid-phase microextraction was also developed that is capable of determining low pg/mL concentrations with water samples as small as 1.5 mL.

  2. Investigation of Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans (PCDD/Fs and Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Bbiphenyls (dl-PCBs in Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 first-time mothers (primiparous living in twelve locations at mesoregion industrial area, southern of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2014. Questionnaires with questions regarding to food habits, social and economic conditions, places of dwelling were applied. Mothers were breast-feeding only one infant and milk was collected between 4 and 6 weeks after delivery. TEQs of PCDDs/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for taking better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It’s important for pregnant women to have a diet free as possible of contaminants chemical. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;}    

  3. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: Levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), JL. MH. Thamrin 8, Jakarta (Indonesia); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Adibroto, Tussy A. [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), JL. MH. Thamrin 8, Jakarta (Indonesia); Hartono, Phillipus [National Seafarming Development Centre (NSDC), JL. Yos Sudarso, Hanura Padang Cermin, Lampung (Indonesia); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2006-01-15

    This study determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine compound (OC) pesticides in the milk samples of women from the general population in four locations of Indonesia. The most prevalent residues of OCs were DDTs, PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), whereas other OCs such as chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane and hexachlorobenzene were lower. The levels of OCs varied between locations and individuals, with DDTs higher in suburban and rural areas than urban localities, may be due to the differences in food habits and sources between the individuals and locations. Data from Purwakarta site indicated continuing DDT exposure, which may confirm recent usage of DDT in Indonesia. A positive correlation was observed between concentration of OCs in human milk and age of mothers, primiparas women having higher OCs than multiparas, suggesting these parameters play an important role influencing the OC burdens in lactating women. Some individuals accumulated DDTs and HCHs in breast milk close to or even higher than the TDI (tolerable daily intake) guidelines proposed by Health Canada. - Specific residents were exposed to high levels of DDTs in Indonesia.

  4. Different profiles of anthropogenic and naturally produced organohalogen compounds in serum from residents living near a coastal area and e-waste recycling workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifumi; Nomiyama, Kei; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Bulbule, Kesav A; Parthasarathy, Peethambaram; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2012-10-15

    We determined the contamination status and accumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated PCB congeners (OH-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), and bromophenols (BPhs) in serum from e-waste recycling workers and residents near a coastal area in India. Residue levels of penta- to octa-chlorinated PCBs, penta- to octa-chlorinated OH-PCBs, 6MeO-BDE47, 6OH-BDE47, and 2,4,6-tri-BPh in serum from residents living near the coastal area were significantly higher than those in serum from e-waste recycling workers. Residue levels of tri- to tetra-chlorinated PCBs, tri- to tetra-chlorinated OH-PCBs, PBDEs, octa-brominated OH-PBDEs, and tetra-BPhs in serum from e-waste recycling workers were higher than those in serum from residents living near the coastal area. Principal component analysis revealed that residents living near the coastal area and e-waste recycling workers had different serum profiles of chlorinated and brominated compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum concentrations of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans and PCBs, among former phenoxy herbicide production workers and firefighters in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Mannetje, Andrea; Eng, Amanda; Walls, Chris; Dryson, Evan; McLean, Dave; Kogevinas, Manolis; Fowles, Jeff; Borman, Barry; O'Connor, Patrick; Cheng, Soo; Brooks, Collin; H Smith, Allan; Pearce, Neil

    2016-02-01

    To quantify serum concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dioxin-like compounds in former phenoxy herbicide production plant workers and firefighters, 20 years after 2,4,5-T production ceased. Of 1025 workers employed any time during 1969-1984, 430 were randomly selected and invited to take part in a morbidity survey and provide a blood sample; 244 (57%) participated. Firefighters stationed in close proximity of the plant and/or engaged in call-outs to the plant between 1962 and 1987 also participated (39 of 70 invited). Reported here are the serum concentrations of TCDD and other chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Determinants of the serum concentrations were assessed using linear regression. The 60 men who had worked in the phenoxy/TCP production area had a mean TCDD serum concentration of 19.1 pg/g lipid, three times the mean concentration of the 141 men and 43 women employed in other parts of the plant (6.3 and 6.0 pg/g respectively), and more than 10 times the mean for the firefighters (1.6 pg/g). Duration of employment in phenoxy herbicide synthesis, maintenance work, and work as a boilerman, chemist, and packer were associated with increased serum concentrations of TCDD and 1,2,3,4,7-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (PeCDD). Employment as a boilerman was also associated with elevated serum concentrations of PCBs. Occupations in the plant associated with phenoxy herbicide synthesis had elevated levels of TCDD and PeCDD. Most other people working within the plant, and the local firefighters, had serum concentrations of dioxin-like compounds comparable to those of the general population.

  6. Quantification of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in small amounts of human serum using the sensitive H1L7.5c1 mouse hepatoma cell line: optimization and analysis of human serum samples from adolescents of the Flemish human biomonitoring program FLEHS II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, K.; Van Langenhove, K.; Den Hond, E.; Bruckers, L.; Colles, A.; Koppen, G.; Loots, I.; Nelen, V.; Schoeters, G.; Nawrot, T.; Van Larebeke, N.; Denison, M.S.; Vandermarken, T.; Elskens, M.; Baeyens, W.

    2012-01-01

    Since the CALUX (Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression) bioassay is a fast and inexpensive tool for the throughput analysis of dioxin-like compounds in a large number of samples and requires only small sample volumes, the use of this technique in human biomonitoring programs provides a good alternative to GC-HRMS. In this study, a method for the separate analysis of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in human serum with the new sensitive H1L7.5c1 mouse hepatoma cell line was optimized. Sample dilution factors of 5 and 2.4 were selected for routine analysis of respectively the PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. The validation studies showed that repeatability and within-lab reproducibility for the QC standard were within the in-house criteria. A long-term within-lab reproducibility of 25% for the PCDD/F fraction and 41% for the dl-PCB fraction for the analysis of pooled serum samples, expressed as pg BEQ/g fat, was determined. CALUX recoveries of the spiked procedural blanks were within the acceptable in-house limits of 80–120% for both fractions and the LOQ was 30.3 pg BEQ/g fat for the PCDD/Fs and 14.5 pg BEQ/g fat for the dl-PCBs. The GC-HRMS recovery of a C13-spiked pooled serum sample was between 60–90 % for all PCDD/F congeners and between 67–82 % for the non-ortho PCBs. An adequate separation between both fractions was found. The CALUX/GC-HRMS ratio for a pooled serum sample was respectively 2.0 and 1.4 for the PCDD/Fs and the dl-PCBs, indicating the presence of additional AhR active compounds. As expected, a correlation was found between human serum samples analyzed with both the new H1L7.5c1 cell line and the more established H1L6.1c3 cell line. The geometric mean CALUX-BEQ values, reported for the adolescents of the second Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS II) recruited in 2009–2010, were 108 (95% CI: 101–114) pg CALUX-BEQ/g fat for the PCDD/Fs and 32.1 (30.1–34.2) pg CALUX-BEQ/g fat for the dioxin-like PCBs. PMID:21962672

  7. Air-sea gas exchange of HCHs and PCBs and enantiomers of α-HCH in the Kattegat Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundqvist, Kristina L.; Wingfors, Haakan; Brorstoem-Lunden, Eva; Wiberg, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations and air-water gas exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were determined in nine paired air and water samples. The samples were collected monthly in the Kattegat Sea between December 1998 and November 1999. Average fugacity and flux values indicated that PCBs were oversaturated in the water, while HCHs were net deposited. Variations were large over the year, especially during spring and summer. Air parcel back trajectories suggested that air concentrations over the Kattegat Sea are largely dependent of air mass origin. Seasonal trends were detected for airborne HCHs and for PCBs in water. The air and water enantiomeric compositions of α-HCH indicated that a larger portion of α-HCH in air originated from the underlying water during summer than during winter. - Air-water exchange of PCBs and HCHs is studied in the Kattegat Sea and shows to vary seasonally

  8. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olenycz, M.; Sokolowski, A.; Niewinska, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Namiesnik, J.; Hummel, H.; Jansen, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene,

  9. Biomonitoring aquatic pollution with feral eel (Anguilla anguilla): I. Bioaccumulation: biota-sediment ratios of PCBs, OCPs, PCDDs and PCDFs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Oost, R.; Opperhuizen, A.; Satumalay, K.; Heida, H.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1996-01-01

    Samples of sediments and eel taken from six Amsterdam freshwater sites were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were

  10. KINETIC DISTRIBUTION MODEL OF EVAPORATION, BIOSORPTION AND BIODEGRADATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN THE SUSPENSION OF PSEUDOMONAS STUTZERI. (R826652)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractKinetics of distribution of PCBs in an active bacterial suspension of Pseudomonas stutzeri was studied by monitoring the evaporated amounts and the concentration remaining in the liquid medium with the biomass. To determine the biodegradation rate const...

  11. Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and organochlorinated contaminants in marine biota and coastal sediments from the ROPME Sea Area during 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mora, Stephen; Tolosa, Imma; Fowler, Scott W; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cassi, Roberto; Cattini, Chantal

    2010-12-01

    The composition and spatial distribution of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs), comprising both aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and selected chlorinated pesticides and PCBs were measured in biota and coastal sediments from seven countries in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman (Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates). Evidence of extensive marine contamination with respect to organochlorinated compounds and PHs was not observed. Only one site, namely the BAPCO oil refinery in Bahrain, was considered to be chronically contaminated. Comparison of the results from this survey for Σ DDTs and Σ PCBs in rock oysters from the Gulf of Oman with similar measurements made at the same locations over the past two decades indicates a temporal trend of overall decreasing Σ PCB concentrations in oysters, whereas Σ DDTs levels have little changed during that period. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anthropogenic contaminants in Indo-Pacific humpback and Australian snubfin dolphins from the central and southern Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnazzi, Daniele; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Parra, Guido J; Harrison, Peter L; Maltese, Silvia; Coppola, Daniele; Soccodato, Alice; Bent, Michael; Marsili, Letizia

    2013-11-01

    We present the first evidence of accumulation of organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs, HCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Indo-Pacific humpback and Australian snubfin dolphins from the central and southern Great Barrier Reef. These dolphins are considered by the Great Barrier Marine Park Authority to be high priority species for management. Analyses of biopsy samples, collected from free ranging individuals, showed PAHs levels comparable to those reported from highly industrialized countries. DDTs and HCB were found at low levels, while in some individuals, PCBs were above thresholds over which immunosuppression and reproductive anomalies occur. These results highlight the need for ongoing monitoring of these and other contaminants, and their potential adverse effects on dolphins and other marine fauna. This is particularly important given the current strategic assessment of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area being undertaken by the Australian Government and the Queensland Government. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution and spatial trends of PCBs in commercial scallops from Galician littoral (NW, Spain). Possible influence of biometric parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A

    2012-04-01

    Levels and profiles of 10 individual congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied in 3 species of commercial scallops (Pecten maximus, Chlamys varia, and Chlamys opercularis) from several Rías in Galician littoral (NW, Spain). ΣPCBs levels ranged from 2.21 to 41.0 ng/g wet weight for P. maximus, from 13.9 to 24.9 ng/g wet weight for C. varia, and from 1.58 to 24.3 ng/g wet weight for C. opercularis. The possible influence between biometric parameters (lipid content, condition index, and shell size) and PCBs levels were studied using statistical analysis (ANOVA). No relationship between biometric parameters could be established in the studied samples. Multivariate analysis showed there were differences in bioaccumulation of some PCBs congeners. Principal component analysis classifies clearly the 3 studied Rías (Ría de Ferrol, Ría de Arousa, and Ría de Vigo) taking into account PCBs levels found in the shellfish. We investigated levels and profiles of 10 congeners of PCBs in 3 commercial scallop species from the Galician littoral zone. The influence of 3 biometric parameters on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels was also studied in order to assess results from the monitoring programs of production areas. According to PCBs levels, geographical differences were observed in commercial scallops from the 3 studied estuarine bays (Ría de Ferrol, Ría de Arousa, and Ría de Vigo). © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. PCBs destruction now the focus of Canada/US trade, environment dispute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, R.

    1995-01-01

    A discussion about PCB incineration and related issues dealt with in the Canada/US trade agreement were discussed. A dispute arose between Chem-Security in Swan Hills, Alberta, and S.D. Myers, in Tallmadge, Ohio. S.D. Myers wanted to compete for Chem-Security's Canadian business, although an Interim Order to the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) prevents the exportation of PCBs. The owners of PCB waste in Ontario and eastward were lobbying for a loosening cross-border shipments of PCBs, because shipping cost would be much less than transporting them to the remote Alberta community. The nature of the conflict and the respective positions of the participants were described in detail

  15. Associations between congenital cryptorchidism in newborn boys and levels of dioxins and PCBs in placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, H E; Koskenniemi, J J; Sundqvist, E

    2012-01-01

    between congenital cryptorchidism and colostrum PCB levels. We performed a case-control study to evaluate whether congenital cryptorchidism in boys was associated with increased levels of dioxins or PCBs in placenta reflecting foetal exposure. In addition, associations between placenta levels...... of these chemicals and reproductive hormone levels in boys at 3 months were studied. Placentas were collected in a Danish-Finnish joint prospective cohort study on cryptorchidism (1997-2001). The boys were examined for cryptorchidism at birth and at 3 months. Altogether, 280 placentas [112 Finnish (56 cases, 56.......58 pg/g fat in Finland, 13.94 vs. 13.00 pg/g fat in Denmark). Placenta WHO-TEq levels of dioxins were not associated with infant reproductive hormone levels at 3 months. In Finland, PCB WHO-TEq levels in placenta associated positively with infant LH levels. WHO-TEq levels of dioxins and PCBs and total...

  16. Characterization of the deformation behaviour of PCBs under dynamic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, P F; Major, Z; Lang, R W, E-mail: fuchs@pccl.a [Polymer Competence Center Leoben GmbH, Leoben (Austria)

    2009-08-01

    Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are frequently exposed to a complex combination of external and internal thermo-mechanical loads (static, cyclic and impact loads superimposed by local and global temperature effects). In this study, instrumented impact tests of the PCBs were performed and characterized. In addition to the acceleration measurement of the impact, the deformation behaviour was analyzed using a high speed camera and strain gauges. To reduce the testing effort for future PCB design the oscillation behavior of the PCB after impact was simulated using a finite element (FE)-software. Dynamic mechanical analysis experiments were performed and a linear viscoelastic material model was defined. Furthermore, the results of the simulation were compared to the measured values. In spite of the difference in the measured and simulated frequency values over the time, the viscoelastic effects including the damping behaviour were reflected accurately in the simulation.

  17. Investigation into levels of dioxins, furans and PCBs in battery, free range, barn and organic eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tlustos, C.; Pratt, I. [Food Safety Authority of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); Moylan, R.; Neilan, R. [Dept. of Agriculture and Food, Maynooth (Ireland); White, S.; Fernandes, A.; Rose, M. [Central Science Lab., York (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) has a statutory responsibility to assure the safety of food consumed, distributed, produced and sold on the Irish market. The results of a targeted surveillance study on levels of dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in battery, free-range, barn and organic eggs are presented here. The study was undertaken against the background of increased awareness in the European Union of the possible health risks posed by dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the food chain, and builds on previous studies undertaken by FSAI into levels of these contaminants in milk, fish and fish oils. The opportunity was taken at the same time to investigate the levels of a number of metals in these eggs, and results of the full study are available on the FSAI website.

  18. Predicting Shielding Effectiveness of Populated Enclosures Using Absorption Cross Section of PCBs

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Sarah L; Flintoft, Ian D; Marvin, Andy C; Dawson, John F; Bale, Simon J; Robinson, Martin P; Ye, Ming; Wan, Changyong; Zhang, Mengze

    2016-01-01

    Shielding effectiveness (SE) is an important measure of how well an enclosure reduces the electromagnetic (EM) field incident upon it. Commonly, when the shielding effectiveness of an enclosure is stated it is for the case when the enclosure is empty. Including contents such as printed circuit boards (PCBs) in the enclosure will affect the shielding effectiveness as the PCB absorbs EM energy. One technique of determining how much energy a PCB absorbs is to measure its absorption cross section...

  19. Biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs by the novel identified cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangjun Zhang

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, a class of hazardous pollutants, are difficult to dissipate in the natural environment. In this study, a cyanobacterial strain Anabaena PD-1 showed good resistance against PCB congeners. Compared to a control group, chlorophyll a content decreased 3.7% and 11.7% when Anabaena PD-1 was exposed to 2 and 5 mg/L PCBs for 7 d. This cyanobacterial strain was capable of decomposing PCB congeners which was conclusively proved by determination of chloride ion concentrations in chlorine-free medium. After 7 d, the chloride ion concentrations in PCB-treated groups (1, 2, 5 mg/L were 3.55, 3.05, and 2.25 mg/L, respectively. The genetic information of strain PD-1 was obtained through 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. The GenBank accession number of 16S rRNA of Anabaena PD-1 was KF201693.1. Phylogenetic tree analysis clearly indicated that Anabaena PD-1 belonged to the genus Anabaena. The degradation half-life of Aroclor 1254 by Anabaena PD-1 was 11.36 d; the total degradation rate for Aroclor 1254 was 84.4% after 25 d. Less chlorinated PCB congeners were more likely to be degraded by Anabaena PD-1 in comparison with highly chlorinated congeners. Meta- and para-chlorines in trichlorodiphenyls and tetrachlorobiphenyls were more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines during the PCB-degradation process by Anabaena PD-1. Furthermore, Anabaena PD-1 can decompose dioxin-like PCBs. The percent biodegradation of 12 dioxin-like PCBs by strain PD-1 ranged from 37.4% to 68.4% after 25 days. Results above demonstrate that Anabaena PD-1 is a PCB-degrader with great potential for the in situ bioremediation of PCB-contaminated paddy soils.

  20. 75 FR 34076 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations; Extension of Comment Period...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ...EPA issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) in the Federal Register of April 7, 2010, concerning the reassessment of the use authorizations for PCBs. This document extends the comment period for 45 days, from July 6, 2010, to August 20, 2010. This extension is necessary to provide the public with an opportunity to provide additional and more thorough comments. Also, EPA is holding two additional public meetings to enable additional public comment on the ANPRM during the comment period extension.

  1. Leaching of gold, silver and accompanying metals from circuit boards (PCBs) waste

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Ficeriová; Peter Baláž; Eberhard Gock

    2011-01-01

    Au-Ag noble metal wastes represent a wide range of waste types and forms, with various accompanying metallic elements.The presented leaching strategy for Au-Ag contained in circuit boards (PCBs) aims at gaining gold and silver in the metallic form.Application of the proposed ammonium thiosulphate leaching process for the treatment of the above mentioned Au-Ag containing wastesrepresents a practical, economic and at the same time an ecological solution. The ammonium thiosulphate based leaching...

  2. A holistic approach to recycling of CRT glass and PCBs in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesmeth, Hans; Häckl , Dennis; Do, Quang Trung; Bui, Duy Cam

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly growing quantities of e-waste (WEEE) demand the increasing attention of environmental policy all over the world. Developing countries are particularly affected by recycling and disposal activities, which are deemed harmful to health and environment. Holistic or integrated approaches to WEEE policy are required. The paper discusses first recycling technologies for glass from cathode ray tubes (CRT) and printed circuit boards (PCBs) in Vietnam. Thereafter the German approach to WEEE ...

  3. PCBs and DDT in the serum of juvenile California sea lions: associations with vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debier, Cathy; Ylitalo, Gina M; Weise, Michael; Gulland, Frances; Costa, Daniel P; Le Boeuf, Burney J; de Tillesse, Tanguy; Larondelle, Yvan

    2005-03-01

    Top-trophic predators like California sea lions bioaccumulate high levels of persistent fat-soluble pollutants that may provoke physiological impairments such as endocrine or vitamins A and E disruption. We measured circulating levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in 12 healthy juvenile California sea lions captured on Año Nuevo Island, California, in 2002. We investigated the relationship between the contamination by PCBs and DDT and the circulating levels of vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones (thyroxine, T4 and triiodothyronine, T3). Serum concentrations of total PCBs (sigmaPCBs) and total DDT were 14 +/- 9 mg/kg and 28 +/- 19 mg/kg lipid weight, respectively. PCB toxic equivalents (sigmaPCB TEQs) were 320 +/- 170 ng/kg lipid weight. Concentrations of sigmaPCBs and sigmaPCB TEQs in serum lipids were negatively correlated (p serum vitamin A and T3, potentially reflecting PCB-related toxicity. A slight but not significant negative correlation (p serum T4 and the levels of sigmaPCBs and sigmaPCB TEQs. Conversely, no relationship was evident between the contaminant concentrations and vitamin E (p > 0.1). As juvenile California sea lions are useful sentinels of coastal contamination, the high levels encountered in their serum is cause for concern about the ecosystem health of the area.

  4. Passive air monitoring of PCBs and PCNs across East Asia: a comprehensive congener evaluation for source characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarh, Jonathan Nartey; Seike, Nobuyasu; Kobara, Yuso; Habib, Ahsan; Nam, Jae-Jak; Lee, Jong-Sik; Li, Qilu; Liu, Xiang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2012-02-01

    A comprehensive congener specific evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the atmosphere was conducted across East Asia in spring 2008, applying polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air sampler (PAS) as monitoring device. Mean concentrations derived for Japan, China and Korea were 184 ± 24, 1100 ± 118, and 156 ± 20 pg m(-3) for ∑(202) PCBs, and 9.5 ± 1.5, 61 ± 6, and 16 ± 2.4 pg m(-3) for ∑(63) PCNs, respectively. Relative to reported data from 2004, the present results suggest that air PCBs concentrations have not changed much in Japan and Korea, while it has increased by one order of magnitude in China. From principal component analysis, combustion emerged highly culpable in contemporary emissions of both PCBs and PCNs across the East Asian sub-region. Another factor derived as important to air PCBs was re-emissions/volatilization. Signals from PCBs formulations were also picked, but their general importance was virtually consigned to the re-emissions/volatilization tendencies. On the contrary, counterpart PCNs formulations did not appear to contribute much to air PCNs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in some Brazilian municipal solid waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourencetti, Carolina; Favoreto, Rodrigo; Marchi, Mary R R; Ribeiro, Maria L

    2007-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), listed as per the Stockholm Convention (alpha -HCH, beta -HCH, gamma -HCH, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, PCBs 28, 52, 118, 138, 153, and 180), were analyzed in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost samples from three different Brazilian composting plants located in three São Paulo State cities: Araras, Araraquara and São Paulo (Vila Leopoldinha). Quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out using gas chromatography electron capture detection (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (Ion Trap, electron impact ionization), respectively. The samples were analyzed in triplicate and the target POPs were not detected by GC-ECD. Twelve pollutants were identified in two samples when qualitative analysis (GC-MS) was used (beta -HCH, gamma -HCH, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE, PCBs 28, 118, 138, 153 and 180). The composting process has advantages such as urban solid waste reduction and landfill life-span increase, however the MSW compost quality, which can be utilized for agricultural purposes, should be evaluated and be controlled. This kind of study is the first step in making available information to answer questions regarding MSW compost for sustainable agricultural use, such as the pollutants accumulation in soil and in groundwater, and plants uptake.

  6. Tissue damage after acute intoxication by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in cockroaches Blattella germanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Lambiase

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is common knowledge that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs represent a serious threat to the health of both vertebrates and invertebrates. As far as the former are concerned, especially as regards human beings, a broad literature describes the direct and indirect effects induced by the PCBs on their systems and organs. Among invertebrates, the information available is mostly related to arthropods and is, however, very scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs on tissues and organs of individuals belonging to a species of Blattaria (Blattella germanica treated with various doses of this toxic material. The pathologies found became more serious as the dosage increased and were present throughout the entire digestive system, in the fat body and in the male gonads: in these areas cell and tissue breakdown and severely damaged spermiogenesis were observed. In particular, the testicles, Malpighian tubules and fat body accumulated an amorphous basophilic PAS-positive substance. Furthermore, the NOS-dependent NADPH diaphorase activity pattern in the retina and optic lobes was more evident in the treated than in the control insects.

  7. PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere: determining important driving forces using a global atmospheric transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Friedman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a spatially and temporally resolved global atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB model, driven by meteorological data, that is skilled at simulating mean atmospheric PCB concentrations and seasonal cycles in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and mean Arctic concentrations. However, the model does not capture the observed Arctic summer maximum in atmospheric PCBs. We use the model to estimate global budgets for seven PCB congeners, and we demonstrate that congeners that deposit more readily show lower potential for long-range transport, consistent with a recently described "differential removal hypothesis" regarding the hemispheric transport of PCBs. Using sensitivity simulations to assess processes within, outside, or transport to the Arctic, we examine the influence of climate- and emissions-driven processes on Arctic concentrations and their effect on improving the simulated Arctic seasonal cycle. We find evidence that processes occurring outside the Arctic have a greater influence on Arctic atmospheric PCB levels than processes that occur within the Arctic. Our simulations suggest that re-emissions from sea ice melting or from the Arctic Ocean during summer would have to be unrealistically high in order to capture observed temporal trends of PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere. We conclude that midlatitude processes are likely to have a greater effect on the Arctic under global change scenarios than re-emissions within the Arctic.

  8. PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere: determining important driving forces using a global atmospheric transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carey L.; Selin, Noelle E.

    2016-03-01

    We present a spatially and temporally resolved global atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) model, driven by meteorological data, that is skilled at simulating mean atmospheric PCB concentrations and seasonal cycles in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and mean Arctic concentrations. However, the model does not capture the observed Arctic summer maximum in atmospheric PCBs. We use the model to estimate global budgets for seven PCB congeners, and we demonstrate that congeners that deposit more readily show lower potential for long-range transport, consistent with a recently described "differential removal hypothesis" regarding the hemispheric transport of PCBs. Using sensitivity simulations to assess processes within, outside, or transport to the Arctic, we examine the influence of climate- and emissions-driven processes on Arctic concentrations and their effect on improving the simulated Arctic seasonal cycle. We find evidence that processes occurring outside the Arctic have a greater influence on Arctic atmospheric PCB levels than processes that occur within the Arctic. Our simulations suggest that re-emissions from sea ice melting or from the Arctic Ocean during summer would have to be unrealistically high in order to capture observed temporal trends of PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere. We conclude that midlatitude processes are likely to have a greater effect on the Arctic under global change scenarios than re-emissions within the Arctic.

  9. Effect of temperature and particle size on the thermal desorption of PCBs from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhifu; Chen, Tong; Bai, Sihong; Yan, Mi; Lu, Shengyong; Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Jianhua; Bulmău, Cora; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-03-01

    Thermal desorption is widely used for remediation of soil contaminated with volatiles, such as solvents and distillates. In this study, a soil contaminated with semivolatile polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was sampled at an interim storage point for waste PCB transformers and heated to temperatures from 300 to 600 °C in a flow of nitrogen to investigate the effect of temperature and particle size on thermal desorption. Two size fractions were tested: coarse soil of 420-841 μm and fine soil with particles <250 μm. A PCB removal efficiency of 98.0 % was attained after 1 h of thermal treatment at 600 °C. The residual amount of PCBs in this soil decreased with rising thermal treatment temperature while the amount transferred to the gas phase increased up to 550 °C; at 600 °C, destruction of PCBs became more obvious. At low temperature, the thermally treated soil still had a similar PCB homologue distribution as raw soil, indicating thermal desorption as a main mechanism in removal. Dechlorination and decomposition increasingly occurred at high temperature, since shifts in average chlorination level were observed, from 3.34 in the raw soil to 2.75 in soil treated at 600 °C. Fine soil particles showed higher removal efficiency and destruction efficiency than coarse particles, suggesting that desorption from coarse particles is influenced by mass transfer.

  10. Dioxins, PCBs and heavy metals in Chinese mitten crabs from Dutch rivers and lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Kotterman, Michiel J J; Hoek-van Nieuwenhuizen, Marion; van der Lee, Martijn K; Mennes, Wim C; Jeurissen, Suzanne M F; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2015-03-01

    Chinese mitten crab is an invasive species in many European rivers and lakes. Data from the UK indicated high levels of dioxins and PCBs, in particular in the brown meat in the body. This was confirmed by studies in the Netherlands, showing average levels of dioxins and PCBs in the meat in the body of 43 pg TEQ g(-1) ww in crabs caught in the large rivers. Levels in crab of lakes in the Northern part of the Netherlands were on average 3.7-fold lower. Consumption of crabs from polluted areas results in a relatively high dose of dioxins and dl-PCBs and could significantly increase the intake above the TWI. However, in general consumption of these crabs is low, even in the Asian sub-population in the Netherlands. Cadmium and lead levels were higher in crabs from contaminated areas, but for mercury and arsenic there was no clear difference. Consumption of crabs would not result in significant risks for cadmium and mercury. For lead the daily intake could be raised above the BMDL01 for neurodevelopmental toxicity, but this would only occur on a limited number of days. For arsenic the exposure would exceed the lower end of the BMDL01 values for certain cancers, but again, the infrequent consumption by most consumers reduces this risk. Furthermore, speciation showed that most arsenic in crabs was probably not a toxic inorganic form, but likely to be in an organic form. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dry deposition and soil-air gas exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an industrial area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozlaker, Ayse; Odabasi, Mustafa [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Kaynaklar Campus, Buca 35160, Izmir (Turkey); Muezzinoglu, Aysen [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Kaynaklar Campus, Buca 35160, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: aysen.muezzin@deu.edu.tr

    2008-12-15

    Ambient air and dry deposition, and soil samples were collected at the Aliaga industrial site in Izmir, Turkey. Atmospheric total (particle + gas) {sigma}{sub 41}-PCB concentrations were higher in summer (3370 {+-} 1617 pg m{sup -3}, average + SD) than in winter (1164 {+-} 618 pg m{sup -3}), probably due to increased volatilization with temperature. Average particulate {sigma}{sub 41}-PCBs dry deposition fluxes were 349 {+-} 183 and 469 {+-} 328 ng m{sup -2} day{sup -1} in summer and winter, respectively. Overall average particulate deposition velocity was 5.5 {+-} 3.5 cm s{sup -1}. The spatial distribution of {sigma}{sub 41}-PCB soil concentrations (n = 48) showed that the iron-steel plants, ship dismantling facilities, refinery and petrochemicals complex are the major sources in the area. Calculated air-soil exchange fluxes indicated that the contaminated soil is a secondary source to the atmosphere for lighter PCBs and as a sink for heavier ones. Comparable magnitude of gas exchange and dry particle deposition fluxes indicated that both mechanisms are equally important for PCB movement between air and soil in Aliaga. - Determined fluxes indicated that dry deposition and air-soil exchange are equally important mechanisms for movement of PCBs between air and soil in the study area.

  12. Atmospheric deposition, retention, and stream export of dioxins and PCBs in a pristine boreal catchment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergknut, Magnus, E-mail: magnus.bergknut@chem.umu.se [Umea University, Department of Chemistry, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Laudon, Hjalmar [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SE-901 83 Umea (Sweden); Jansson, Stina [Umea University, Department of Chemistry, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Larsson, Anna [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SE-901 83 Umea (Sweden); Gocht, Tilman [University of Tuebingen, Center for Applied Geoscience, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Wiberg, Karin [Umea University, Department of Chemistry, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    The mass-balance between diffuse atmospheric deposition of organic pollutants, amount of pollutants retained by the terrestrial environment, and levels of pollutants released to surface stream waters was studied in a pristine northern boreal catchment. This was done by comparing the input of atmospheric deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs with the amounts exported to surface waters. Two types of deposition samplers were used, equipped with a glass fibre thimble and an Amberlite sampler respectively. The measured fluxes showed clear seasonality, with most of the input and export occurring during winter and spring flood, respectively. The mass balance calculations indicates that the boreal landscape is an effective sink for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, as 96.0-99.9 % of received bulk deposition was retained, suggesting that organic pollutants will continue to impact stream water in the region for an extended period of time. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > The fluxes of organic pollutants in a pristine boreal catchment were measured. > Most of the input and export occurred during winter and spring flood. > 96.0-99.9% of received bulk deposition was retained by the landscape. > Organic pollutants will impact boreal stream waters for an extended period of time. - The boreal landscape is effective in retaining diffuse atmospheric deposition of dioxins and PCBs, slowly releasing these pollutants into nearby streams.

  13. Dioxins and dl-PCBs in gull eggs from Spanish Natural Parks (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Laura; Gene'rosa Martrat, Ma; Parera, Jordi; Bertolero, Albert; Ábalos, Manuela; Santos, Francisco Javier; Lacorte, Silvia; Abad, Esteban

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), concretely those so-called as dioxin-like PCBs, in yellow-legged gull eggs (Larus michahellis) collected from five Natural Parks (some of them National Parks) in Spain during the period 2010-2013. PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were detected in all the samples. Due to the proximity to important urban and industrial areas higher concentrations were determined in colonies located in the Northern Mediterranean coast than those found in the Southern Mediterranean or Atlantic colonies where a softer anthropogenic impact occurs. Mean ∑PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 49 to 223pg/g lipid weight (lw) and ∑dl-PCB concentrations varied from 146 to 911ng/g lw. In the Natural Park of the Ebro Delta (Northern Mediterranean coast) two gull species share habitat: yellow-legged and Audouin gull (Larus audouinii). Eggs from both species were collected and PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels compared. The species that feeds exclusively on pelagic fish (L. audouinii) had significantly higher PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels than the scavenger L. michahellis, pointing out the diet-dependent differences in the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants between similar cohabitant breeding species. Finally, mean TEQ values were in general below those considered as critical for toxicological effects in birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Atmospheric deposition of PAHs, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides to Corpus Christi Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Soo; Wade, Terry L.; Sweet, Stephen T.

    Air and rain samples were collected at an atmospheric sampling site on Corpus Christi Bay from 20 August 1998 to 16 September 1999. Water samples were periodically collected from Corpus Christi Bay concurrently with air samples for calculation of the air-water gas exchange. Wet deposition, dry deposition and air-water gas exchange rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to Corpus Christi Bay were estimated as 182, 68, and -38.4 μg m -2 yr - 1 (negative values indicate loss from surface water to the air), and those of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were estimated as 3.93, 0.98, and -67.2 μg m -2 yr - 1. Total input of PAHs and PCBs directly to the surface of Corpus Christi Bay were estimated to be 298 and -87.9 kg yr -1, respectively. The estimation indicates that Corpus Christi Bay is currently acting as a net sink for PAHs and as a net source for PCBs to the atmosphere. Total atmospheric input of PAHs to Corpus Christi Bay is not as large as inputs from land runoff and periodic oil spills. The daily and annual gas exchange fluxes of most pesticides appear to be approaching equilibrium between the atmosphere and bay water (flux in is nearly equal to flux out).

  15. Atmospheric deposition, retention, and stream export of dioxins and PCBs in a pristine boreal catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergknut, Magnus; Laudon, Hjalmar; Jansson, Stina; Larsson, Anna; Gocht, Tilman; Wiberg, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The mass-balance between diffuse atmospheric deposition of organic pollutants, amount of pollutants retained by the terrestrial environment, and levels of pollutants released to surface stream waters was studied in a pristine northern boreal catchment. This was done by comparing the input of atmospheric deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs with the amounts exported to surface waters. Two types of deposition samplers were used, equipped with a glass fibre thimble and an Amberlite sampler respectively. The measured fluxes showed clear seasonality, with most of the input and export occurring during winter and spring flood, respectively. The mass balance calculations indicates that the boreal landscape is an effective sink for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, as 96.0-99.9 % of received bulk deposition was retained, suggesting that organic pollutants will continue to impact stream water in the region for an extended period of time. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → The fluxes of organic pollutants in a pristine boreal catchment were measured. → Most of the input and export occurred during winter and spring flood. → 96.0-99.9% of received bulk deposition was retained by the landscape. → Organic pollutants will impact boreal stream waters for an extended period of time. - The boreal landscape is effective in retaining diffuse atmospheric deposition of dioxins and PCBs, slowly releasing these pollutants into nearby streams.

  16. Persistent organochlorine residues in foodstuffs from Australia, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands: contamination levels and human dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, K; Tanabe, S; Williams, R J; Tatsukawa, R

    1994-08-15

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide and HCB were determined in a wide variety of foodstuffs collected from different locations in Australia, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. Elevated levels of PCBs, CHLs, DDTs and dieldrin were detected in most of the foodstuffs of animal origin. Fish samples collected near the coast of Sydney recorded noticeable concentrations of PCBs, CHLs and DDTs. PCB contamination was generally prominent in samples collected in urban areas, whereas organochlorine pesticides were distributed uniformly throughout Australia. The widespread usage of CHLs was evident from the composition of its compounds in various foods while HCHs and DDTs were found to have been used sporadically in space and time. For the most part, residue levels of organochlorines in foodstuffs were below the tolerance limits established by national and international health organizations. The exception was CHLs in some fish samples, which exceeded the maximum residue limits recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council of the Australian government. Although the number of samples analysed in each class of foods is small for the purpose of estimating human dietary exposure, we tentatively conclude that the dietary intake of PCBs in Australia was higher than those observed in most developed and developing nations, whereas the intake of organochlorine pesticides was higher than in developed nations but lower than in developing countries. Meat products contributed to the higher dietary intakes of most of the organochlorines. The contamination pattern and the residual concentrations of organochlorines in foodstuffs of Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands resembled those observed in Australia.

  17. Linking pollutant exposure of humpback whales breeding in the Indian Ocean to their feeding habits and feeding areas off Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Krishna; Malarvannan, Govindan; Dirtu, Alin; Dulau, Violaine; Dumont, Magali; Lepoint, Gilles; Mongin, Philippe; Covaci, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, breeding off la Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) undergo large-scale seasonal migrations between summer feeding grounds near Antarctica and their reproductive winter grounds in the Indian Ocean. The main scope of the current study was to investigate chemical exposure of humpback whales breeding in the Indian Ocean by providing the first published data on this breeding stock concerning persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs). Analyses of stable isotopes δ 13 C and δ 15 N in skin resulted in further insight in their feeding ecology, which was in agreement with a diet focused mainly on low trophic level prey species, such as krill from Antarctica. POPs were measured in all humpback whales in the order of HCB > DDTs > CHLs > HCHs > PCBs > PBDEs > MeO-BDEs. HCB (median: 24 ng g -1  lw) and DDTs (median: 7.7 ng g -1  lw) were the predominant compounds in all whale biopsies. Among DDT compounds, p,p'-DDE was the major organohalogenated pollutant, reflecting its long-term accumulation in humpback whales. Significantly lower concentrations of HCB and DDTs were found in females than in males (p  0.05). Differences in the HCB and DDTs suggested gender-specific transfer of some compounds to the offspring. POP concentrations were lower than previously reported results for humpback whales sampled near the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting potential influence of their nutritional status and may indicate different exposures of the whales according to their feeding zones. Further investigations are required to assess exposure of southern humpback whales throughout their feeding zones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An integrative risk assessment approach for persistent chemicals: a case study on dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béchaux, Camille; Zeilmaker, Marco; Merlo, Mathilde; Bokkers, Bas; Crépet, Amélie

    2014-10-01

    For persistent chemicals slowly eliminated from the body, the accumulated concentration (body burden), rather than the daily exposure, is considered the proper starting point for the risk assessment. This work introduces an integrative approach for persistent chemical risk assessment by means of a dynamic body burden approach. To reach this goal a Kinetic Dietary Exposure Model (KDEM) was extended with the long term time trend in the exposure (historic exposure) and the comparison of bioaccumulation with body burden references for toxicity. The usefulness of the model was illustrated on the dietary exposure to PolyChlorinatedDibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), PolyChlorinatedDibenzoFurans (PCDFs) and PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in France. Firstly the dietary exposure to these compounds was determined in 2009 and combined with its long term time trend. In order to take differences between the kinetics of PCDD/F and dl-PCBs into account, three groups of congeners were considered i.e. PCDD/Fs, PCB 126 and remaining dl-PCBs. The body burden was compared with reference body burdens corresponding to reproductive, hepatic and thyroid toxicity. In the case of thyroid toxicity this comparison indicated that in 2009 the probability of the body burden to exceed its reference ranged from 2.8% (95% CI: 1.5-4.9%) up to 3.9% (95% CI: 2.7-7.1%) (18-29 vs. 60-79year olds). Notwithstanding the decreasing long-term time trend of the dietary dioxin exposure in France, this probability still is expected to be 1.5% (95% CI: 0.3-2.5%) in 2030 in 60-79 olds. In the case of reproductive toxicity the probability of the 2009 body burden to exceed its reference ranged from 3.1% (95% CI: 1.4-5.0%) (18-29year olds) to 3.5% (95% CI: 2.2-5.2%) (30-44year olds). In 2030 this probability is negligible in 18-29year olds, however small though significant in 30-44year olds (0.7%, 95% CI: 0-1.6%). In the case of hepatic toxicity the probability in 2009 even in 60-79year olds already was negligible. In

  19. Assessment of the exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and PAHs in six species of predatory birds of the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

    2014-02-15

    In the present study, we investigated the concentrations and distributions of 57 anthropogenic pollutants, including 23 organochlorine pesticides (OCs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liver samples from 102 birds of prey of six species that were found dead or that had died during their stay in the Wildlife Recovery Centers of the Canary Islands (Spain) between 2009 and 2012. The dual goal of this work was to determine the occurrence of these contaminants in these six species of birds of prey, and also whether they can be used as bioindicators for monitoring environmental pollution in the region. We found that Accipiter nisus, Falco pelegrinoides and Falco tinnunculus were the most contaminated species. The profiles of contamination among the species were extremely similar in the case of organochlorine contaminants, with DDT and its metabolites as the most abundant compounds. The contamination by DDT and its metabolites, as well as contamination by dieldrin, could be considered high in these animals, much higher than reports from other regions of the planet, which is in agreement with previous reports from our group regarding humans, food and other animals from this area. In contrast, the contamination by PCBs could be considered extremely low and was probably below the threshold of toxicity for these contaminants. The content of carcinogenic/mutagenic PAHs in these animals was clearly dependent on the feeding pattern of the species; however, the levels were also well below the values that were considered toxic in predictive models. This study represents the first report of contamination by PAHs in all these species and is also the first report of PCB levels in Barbary Falcons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A non-invasive approach to study lifetime exposure and bioaccumulation of PCBs in protected marine mammals: PBPK modeling in harbor porpoises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Covaci, Adrian; Yang, Raymond S.H.; Das, Krishna; Blust, Ronny

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have increasingly been developed to explain the kinetics of environmental pollutants in wildlife. For marine mammals specifically, these models provide a new, non-destructive tool that enables the integration of biomonitoring activities and in vitro studies. The goals of the present study were firstly to develop PBPK models for several environmental relevant PCB congeners in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), a species that is sensitive to pollution because of its limited metabolic capacity for pollutant transformation. These models were tested using tissue data of porpoises from the Black Sea. Secondly, the predictive power of the models was investigated for time trends in the PCB concentrations in North Sea harbor porpoises between 1990 and 2008. Thirdly, attempts were made to assess metabolic capacities of harbor porpoises for the investigated PCBs. In general, results show that parameter values from other species (rodents, humans) are not always suitable in marine mammal models, most probably due to differences in physiology and exposure. The PCB 149 levels decrease the fastest in male harbor porpoises from the North Sea in a time period of 18 years, whereas the PCB 101 levels decrease the slowest. According to the models, metabolic breakdown of PCB 118 is probably of lesser importance compared to other elimination pathways. For PCB 101 and 149 however, the presence of their metabolites can be attributed to bioaccumulation of metabolites from the prey and to metabolic breakdown of the parent compounds in the harbor porpoises. - Highlights: → PBPK modeling was used to study the kinetics of several PCBs in a marine mammal. → Harbor porpoises are sensitive to pollution and therefore ideal model organisms. → Black Sea data were used for parameterization. → North Sea data for assessing temporal trends (1990-2008). → PBPK modeling is a non-invasive and non-destructive tool.

  1. Air-sea Exchange of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, G. P.; Heil, A.; Kukucka, P.; Meixner, F. X.; Mulder, M. D.; Prybilova, P.; Prokes, R.; Rusina, T. S.; Song, G. Z.; Vrana, B.

    2015-12-01

    The marine atmospheric environment is a receptor for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which are advected from sources on land, primary, such as biomass burning by-products (PAHs, dioxins), and secondary, such as volatilization from contaminated soils (PCBs, pesticides). Primary sources do not exist in the marine environment, except for PAHs (ship engines) but following previous atmospheric deposition, the sea surface may turn to a secondary source by reversal of diffusive air-sea mass exchange. No monitoring is in place. We studied the vertical fluxes of a wide range of primary and secondary emitted POPs based on measurements in air and surface seawater at a remote coastal site in the eastern Mediterranean (2012). To this end, silicon rubbers were used as passive water samplers, vertical concentration gradients were determined in air and fluxes were quantified based on Eddy covariance. Diffusive air-sea exchange fluxes of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and semivolatile PAHs were found close to phase equilibrium, except one PAH, retene, a wood burning tracer, was found seasonally net-volatilisational. Some PCBs, p,p'-DDE, penta- and hexachlorobenzene (PeCB, HCB) were mostly net-depositional, while PBDEs were net-volatilizational. Fluxes determined at a a remote coastal site ranged -33 - +2.4 µg m-2 d-1 for PAHs and -4.0 - +0.3 µg m-2 d-1for halogenated compounds ( 0 means net-volatilization). It is concluded that nowadays in open seas more pollutants are undergoing reversal of the direction of air-sea exchange. Recgional fire activity records in combination with box model simulations suggest that deposition of retene during summer is followed by a reversal of air-sea exchange. The seawater surface as secondary source of pollution should be assessed based on flux measurements across seasons and over longer time periods.

  2. Exposure patterns of UV filters, fragrances, parabens, phthalates, organochlor pesticides, PBDEs, and PCBs in human milk: correlation of UV filters with use of cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumpf, Margret; Kypke, Karin; Wittassek, Matthias; Angerer, Juergen; Mascher, Hermann; Mascher, Daniel; Vökt, Cora; Birchler, Monika; Lichtensteiger, Walter

    2010-11-01

    In order to assess potential risks of exposure to environmental chemicals, more information on concomitant exposure to different chemicals is needed. We present data on chemicals in human milk of a cohort study (2004, 2005, 2006) of 54 mother/child pairs, where for the first time, cosmetic UV filters, synthetic musks, parabens and phthalate metabolites were analyzed in the same sample along with persistent organochlor pollutants (POPs), i.e., organochlor pesticides and metabolites, polybrominated diphenylethers and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The two groups of chemicals exhibited different exposure patterns. Six out of seven PCB congeners and a majority of pesticides were present in all milk samples, with significant correlations between certain PCB congener and pesticide levels, whereas the cosmetic-derived compounds, UV filters, parabens and synthetic musks, exhibited a more variable exposure pattern with inter-individual differences. UV filters were present in 85.2% of milk samples, in the range of PCB levels. Comparison with a questionnaire revealed a significant correlation between use of products containing UV filters and their presence in milk for two frequently used and detected UV filters, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor and octocrylene, and for the whole group of UV filters. Concentrations of PCBs and organochlor pesticides were within ranges seen in Western and Southern European countries. For several POPs, mean and/or maximum daily intake calculated from individual concentrations was above recent US EPA reference dose values. Our data emphasize the need for analyses of complex mixtures to obtain more information on inter-individual and temporal variability of human exposure to different types of chemicals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Atmospheric concentrations and gas-particle partitioning of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs around Hochiminh city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Minh Man; Tsai, Ching Lan; Hien, To Thi; Thuan, Ngo Thi; Chi, Kai Hsien; Lien, Chien Guo; Chang, Moo Been

    2018-07-01

    Atmospheric PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs samples were collected in Hochiminh city, Vietnam to address the effect of meteorological parameters, especially rainfall, on the occurrence and gas/particle partitioning of these persistent organic pollutants. The results indicate that PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs concentrations in industrial site are higher than those measured in commercial and rural sites during both rainy and dry seasons. In terms of mass concentration, ambient PCDD/F levels measured in dry season are significantly higher than those measured in rainy season while dl-PCB levels do not vary significantly between rainy and dry seasons. The difference could be attributed to different gas/particle partitioning characteristics between PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. PCDD/Fs are found to be mainly distributed in particle phase while dl- PCBs are predominantly distributed in gas phase in both rainy and dry seasons. Additionally, Junge-Pankow and Harner-Bidleman models are applied to better understand the gas/particle partitioning of these pollutants in atmosphere. As a results, both PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs are under non-equilibrium gas/particle partitioning condition, and PCDD/Fs tend to reach equilibrium easier in rainy season while there are no clear trend for dl-PCBs. Harner-Bidleman model performs better in evaluating the gas/particle partitioning of PCDD/Fs while Junge-Pankow model results in better prediction for dl-PCBs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE in eggs and their impacts on aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis) from Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, M.A., E-mail: mmora@tamu.edu [Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-2258 (United States); Baxter, C. [Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-2258 (United States); Sericano, J.L. [Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Montoya, A.B. [The Peregrine Fund, Inc, Boise, ID 83709 (United States); Gallardo, J.C. [Instituto de Neuroetologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz 91190 (Mexico); Rodriguez-Salazar, J.R. [The Peregrine Fund, Inc, Boise, ID 83709 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Eggs from aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) nesting in Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs. p,p'-DDE was the only organochlorine found in all eggs at concentrations ranging from 0.13 to 7.85 {mu}g/g wet weight. PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.80 {mu}g/g wet weight and PBDEs from 62 to 798 ng/g lipid weight. DDE concentrations in eggs were not significantly different among regions; however, PCBs were significantly greater (P = 0.015) in Tinaja Verde, Chihuahua than in the other three regions. Also, PBDEs were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in eggs from Veracruz than in those from Chihuahua. DDE concentrations in eggs were much lower than those associated with eggshell thinning. PBDEs and PCBs were lower than those reported in raptors from industrialized countries. Overall, contaminant concentrations observed suggest no likely impact on hatching success. The PBDE concentrations are among the first to be reported in raptor species in Mexico. - Highlights: > We analyzed environmental contaminants in eggs of aplomado falcons from Mexico. > Of all the organochlorine pesticides, only p,p'-DDE was detected in all the eggs. > Eggshell thickness was 20% thicker than the reported in eggshells from the 1970s. > Total PCBs and PBDEs were lower than those reported in industrialized countries. > Aplomado falcons in Mexico are currently not affected by DDE, PCBs, or PBDEs. - PBDEs, PCBs, and p,p'-DDE were not elevated in eggs and not likely to impact aplomado falcons in eastern and northern Mexico.

  5. Organohalogen compounds in human breast milk from Republic of Buryatia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsydenova, Oyuna V. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Batoev, Valeriy B. [Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Sakhyanova st. 6, Ulan-Ude 670047 (Russian Federation); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-03-15

    Human breast milk samples collected during 2003/04 in Buryatia, a Russian autonomous republic, were analyzed in order to assess human exposure to organohalogen compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). When compared with available worldwide data, levels of HCB (23-880 ng/g lipid wt.), PCBs (69-680 ng/g lipid wt.), and HCHs (100-3700 ng/g lipid wt.) were relatively high, indicating elevated human exposure to these organochlorines (OCs) in Buryatia. In contrast to OCs, PBDE concentrations were low (0.46-1.7 ng/g lipid wt.). Out of 14 BDE congeners analyzed, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-197, and BDE-207 were detected. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of HCHs, HCB, CHLs, and PCBs by infants solely from human milk for 100%, 43%, 34%, and 17% of the samples, respectively, exceeded guideline thresholds. Although high EDIs raise concern for possible toxic effects of OCs, women in Buryatia are recommended to breastfeed due to numerous advantages of breastfeeding for mother and child. - People in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia are exposed to relatively high levels of HCHs, HCB and PCBs.

  6. THE 2005 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION RE-EVALUATION OF HUMAN AND MAMMALIAN TOXIC EQUIVALENCY FACTORS FOR DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2005 a WHO-IPCS expert meeting was held in Geneva during which the toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for dioxin like compounds, including some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were re-evaluated. For this re-evaluation process the refined TEF database recently published by...

  7. Dioxins, dioxin-like compounds, and PBDEs in the U.S. domestic meat supply: trends and levels 2003 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the mid-1990s, 2002-2003, 2007-2008, and again in 2012-2013 the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducted statistical surveys for dioxin and dioxin-like compound (PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs) residues in domestic meat and poultry. The surveys were conducted to determine background levels of diox...

  8. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Jeffry

    2007-02-13

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  9. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  10. PCBs and DDT in the serum of juvenile California sea lions: associations with vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debier, Cathy; Ylitalo, Gina M.; Weise, Michael; Gulland, Frances; Costa, Daniel P.; Le Boeuf, Burney J.; Tillesse, Tanguy de; Larondelle, Yvan

    2005-01-01

    Top-trophic predators like California sea lions bioaccumulate high levels of persistent fat-soluble pollutants that may provoke physiological impairments such as endocrine or vitamins A and E disruption. We measured circulating levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in 12 healthy juvenile California sea lions captured on An-tilde o Nuevo Island, California, in 2002. We investigated the relationship between the contamination by PCBs and DDT and the circulating levels of vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones (thyroxine, T4 and triiodothyronine, T3). Serum concentrations of total PCBsPCBs) and total DDT were 14 ± 9 mg/kg and 28 ± 19 mg/kg lipid weight, respectively. PCB toxic equivalents (ΣPCB TEQs) were 320 ± 170 ng/kg lipid weight. Concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣPCB TEQs in serum lipids were negatively correlated (p 0.1). As juvenile California sea lions are useful sentinels of coastal contamination, the high levels encountered in their serum is cause for concern about the ecosystem health of the area. - Results show high levels of organochlorine contaminants in juvenile California sea lions and a link between vitamin A, thyroid hormones and PCB exposure

  11. Levels of dioxin-like PCBs in low-volume serum samples of male patients attending fertility clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltó, Julia; Paul, Raiza; Ortuño, Nuria; Medrano, María Llanos; Aizpurua, Jon; Gómez-Torres, María José

    2016-02-01

    An accurate and easy method for the extraction, cleanup, and HRGC-HRMS analysis of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) in low-volume serum samples (1 mL) was developed. Serum samples were extracted several times using n-hexane and purified by acid washing. Recovery rates of labeled congeners ranged from 70 to 110% and the limits of detection were below 1 pg/g on lipid basis. Although human studies are limited and contradictory, several studies have shown that DL-PCBs can have adverse effects on the male reproductive system. In this way, the present method was applied to 21 serum samples of male patients attending fertility clinics. The total levels obtained for the patients ranged from 6.90 to 84.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid, with a mean value of 20.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid. The predominant PCBs (the sum of PCB 118, 156, and 105) contributed 67% to the mean concentration of total DL-PCBs in the samples analyzed.

  12. PCBs Contaminantion of Transformer Oil and its Occupational Health and Safety Status in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman K.C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrification in Kathmandu valley had started in 1911 and the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs probably started since 1940s (Devkota, 2005. This research work was undertaken to find out the degree and extent of PCBs contamination in transformer oil and to explore its impacts on occupational health and safety issues of the workers and on the environment. The research was focused on Distributions Centers of the Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA in the Kathmandu valley, NEA Lainchaur workshop and welding workshops of the Kathmandu valley. The samples of transformer oil were collected, safely stored and analyzed using L2000DX Chloride Analyzer, PCBs contamination at >50 ppm level was found in 184 distribution transformers with total volume of PCBs contaminated transformer oil to be 67566.3 Kg. The knowledge on impacts of PCBs contaminated transformer oil on human health and environment was better among NEA employees than among employees of welding workshops, though not satisfactory. Due to very low awareness, the workers come in contact with the transformer oil regularly and many health impacts such as eye problems, skin related complication, weakness and respiratory problems might be due to this exposure; however, exact impacts could not be verified scientifically.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i4.11727       International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page : 12-23 

  13. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in Arctic seabirds: influence of dietary exposure and congener biotransformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borga, Katrine; Wolkers, Hans; Skaare, Janneche U.; Hop, Haakon; Muir, Derek C.G.; Gabrielsen, Geir W.

    2005-01-01

    Four seabird species and their prey (zooplankton or fish) were collected in the Barents Sea to determine how dietary exposure, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities and sex influenced their hepatic PCB concentrations and accumulation patterns. Five males and five females from each seabird species (little auk (Alle alle), Bruennich's guillemot (Uria lomvia), black guillemot (Cepphus grylle) and black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla)) were analysed. PCB concentrations could not be explained directly by carbon source (δ 13 C) or trophic position (δ 15 N), but by a combination of dietary parameters (δ 13 C, δ 15 N, migratory pattern, age) and contaminant metabolism. Contrary to previous studies, the PCB pattern differed among seabirds, with a higher proportion of persistent congeners (% of PCB-153, R PCB-153 ) in black-legged kittiwake than in auks. The PCB pattern also differed among auks, with little auk as the most efficient biotransformer (highest R PCB-153 values of persistent congeners). Based on high R PCB-153 values, Bruennich's guillemot poorly metabolised ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners, whereas black guillemot poorly metabolised meta-para unsubstituted congeners. Species-specific differences in PCB biotransformation were confirmed by metabolic indices, where PCB patterns in seabirds were adjusted for PCB pattern in prey. The relative contribution of ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners to ΣPCBsdecreased with increasing EROD activity. There were no differences in PCB concentrations, PCB patterns or cytochrome P450 enzyme activities between males and females. CYP P450 activities (CYP1A- and CYP2B/3A-like: EROD and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation, respectively) were low and did not correlate with concentrations of non- or mono-ortho Cl-substituted PCBs (NO- and MO-PCBs), or with total toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) for dioxin-like effects of NO- and MO-PCBs. - Contaminant patterns is linked to phylogeny and species-specific differences in

  14. PCBs and OCPs in human milk and selected foods from Luqiao and Pingqiao in Zhejiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Gaofeng; Xu Ying; Li Wen; Han Guanggen; Ling Bo

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to measure the levels of 23 PCB congeners and 6 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in human milk and three food types collected from Luqiao and Pingqiao in Zhejiang Province, China. An effort was also made to explore the potential health risk for the mothers and breast-fed infants living in these two localities. Luqiao was selected as the sampling site because it is the largest place for the disassembly of obsolete transformers and electrical waste in China. Pingqiao, located 100 km NW of Luqiao, is not known to be a place for any electronic or electrical waste and hence was chosen as the control site. Both localities are important agricultural places in the province. The organochlorines were measured in the samples using the GC-μECD technique. Micro-EROD bioassay method was also used as a complement of the chemical analysis to estimate the TEQ levels of dioxin-like PCBs in human milk. The data showed that the human milk, rice, hen egg, and fish samples from Luqiao were more heavily contaminated with PCBs than those from Pingqiao, suggesting that the mothers and their breast-fed infants in Luqiao tended to receive greater exposure to PCBs than those living in Pingqiao. The OCP levels in the two localities were found comparable, suggesting that the major source of contamination with these pesticides was from their agricultural uses. Significant correlation (R 2 = 0.87, P < 0.001) of PCB TEQs was found between the bioassay and chemical analysis method, suggesting that micro-EROD is an effective method for comprehensive determination of TEQ levels in human milk. Comparison with literature data showed that the PCB levels in milk samples from Luqiao were significantly higher than those from localities in other Chinese provinces and comparable to those in developed or industrialized countries

  15. Decomposition of PCBs in Oils Using Gamma Radiolysis A Treatability Study - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincher, B. J.; Arbon, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Several legacy hydraulic oil waste streams contaminated with Aroclor 1260 and small amounts of Cesium-137 have been in storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) due to the lack of appropriate treatment facilities. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) could be selectively decomposed in the oils. Removal of the PCB component to less than the 2 mg/L treatment standard should result in a waste oil that is not regulated by the Toxic Substances Control Act. Irradiation of the oils with high gamma-ray doses produces free electrons in the solution that react with PCBs. The reaction results in dechlorination of the PCBs to produce biphenyl. The gamma-ray source was spent reactor fuel stored in the Advanced Test Reactor canal at the INEL. A dry tube extends into the canal which allowed for positioning of samples in the proximity of the fuel. The gamma-ray dose rates at the samples varied from 10 to 30 kGy/h. This was measured using commercially available FWT-60 dosimeters. Irradiation of samples in a series of progressively increasing absorbed doses allowed the generation of rate constants used to predict absorbed doses necessary to meet the 2 mg/kg treatment standard. Three separate irradiation experiments were performed. The first irradiation used a maximum absorbed dose of 183 kGy. This experiment demonstrated that the PCB concentration decreased and allowed calculation of preliminary rate constants. The second irradiation used a maximum absorbed dose of 760 kGy. From this experiment, accurate rate constants were calculated, and the necessary absorbed dose to achieve the treatment standard was calculated. In the third irradiation of 2,242 kGy, all three waste streams were adequately decontaminated

  16. PCBs and OCPs in human milk and selected foods from Luqiao and Pingqiao in Zhejiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Gaofeng [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072 (China); Xu Ying [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072 (China)]. E-mail: xuying@ihb.ac.cn; Li Wen [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072 (China); Han Guanggen [Zhejiang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, 310009 (China); Ling Bo [Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China)

    2007-06-01

    This study was conducted to measure the levels of 23 PCB congeners and 6 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in human milk and three food types collected from Luqiao and Pingqiao in Zhejiang Province, China. An effort was also made to explore the potential health risk for the mothers and breast-fed infants living in these two localities. Luqiao was selected as the sampling site because it is the largest place for the disassembly of obsolete transformers and electrical waste in China. Pingqiao, located 100 km NW of Luqiao, is not known to be a place for any electronic or electrical waste and hence was chosen as the control site. Both localities are important agricultural places in the province. The organochlorines were measured in the samples using the GC-{mu}ECD technique. Micro-EROD bioassay method was also used as a complement of the chemical analysis to estimate the TEQ levels of dioxin-like PCBs in human milk. The data showed that the human milk, rice, hen egg, and fish samples from Luqiao were more heavily contaminated with PCBs than those from Pingqiao, suggesting that the mothers and their breast-fed infants in Luqiao tended to receive greater exposure to PCBs than those living in Pingqiao. The OCP levels in the two localities were found comparable, suggesting that the major source of contamination with these pesticides was from their agricultural uses. Significant correlation (R {sup 2} = 0.87, P < 0.001) of PCB TEQs was found between the bioassay and chemical analysis method, suggesting that micro-EROD is an effective method for comprehensive determination of TEQ levels in human milk. Comparison with literature data showed that the PCB levels in milk samples from Luqiao were significantly higher than those from localities in other Chinese provinces and comparable to those in developed or industrialized countries.

  17. Study on scraped PCBs combustion and inorganic pollutants emission characteristics in a high temperature furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Hanxi; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua; Ni, Mingjiang; Jin, Yuqi

    2010-01-01

    The significance of research on PCBs (Waste Printed Circuit Boards) not only lies in avoiding negative impacts on peoples lives and local environment but also in recycling the resource and energy which means profound influence on sustainable development with positive ecology impacts and economic rewards. During high temperature combustion of scraped PCBs, the combustible fraction is burned out and the metals are mostly retained in the bottom of furnace containing molten slag and blister copper. By conventional treatment of blister copper, the copper and noble metals can be recovered effectively. High temperature combustion of scraped PCBs is the key process during this PCB recycling and very few published literature on this topic. In present study, experiments were carried on ia a lab-scale continue-feeding drop tube combustion system. Investigation included the interaction of combustion temperature, excess air factor and high temperature zone resident time. The CO, CO 2 , NO x , Br etc. emission were measured continuously. Ash deposits from different locations were collected and analyzed for their texture (SEM imaging), elemental (EDS) and mineralogical (XRD) characteristics. The results show that temperature has significance on the combustion performance, Br and metal transfer and transformation. The proposed process parameters are 1200 degree Celsius, excess air factor more than 1.3, high temperature zone residence more than >0.75 s, in which CO concentration in flue gas is less than 50 ppm, more than 93 % Br is transferred in the form of inorganic matter to flue gas while Br 2 / HBr is more than 7. With temperature increased, heavy metals distribution in different kinds ash changed and its texture also changed. (author)

  18. Dioxins and PCBs in ostrich meat and eggs: levels and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Jadwiga; Strucinski, Pawel; Mikolajczyk, Szczepan; Pajurek, Marek; Maszewski, Sebastian; Pietron, Wojciech

    2017-12-01

    Although consumption of eggs is an essential part of our diet, limited information is available for table eggs other than those laid by hens. The aim of our study was to determine concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like (DL-) and non-dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ostrich eggs and meat available on the Polish market, in order to obtain baseline information on the current status of these pollutants in comparison to poultry products. Obtained data were compared with the binding EU limits set for chicken eggs and meat. The levels of individual PCDD/Fs and PCBs congeners varied considerably. The percentage share of total WHO toxic equivalency factor (WHO-TEQ) content indicates the dominant role of PCDD/Fs. High concentrations of PCDD/F and DL-PCBs, in the range of 0.85-74.48 pg WHO-TEQ g -1 fat, were found in ostrich eggs; this exceeds the maximum level permitted for chicken eggs by a factor of up to 15. Eight of the 11 egg samples exceeded the action level for hen eggs. Although the ostrich meat concentrations of PCDD/Fs do not exceed the limit established for poultry muscle (1.75 pg g -1 fat), average contents of PCDD/Fs exceeded almost four times the levels in chicken and turkey muscle. Human exposure was evaluated and the resulting risk was characterised. Taking into account the low average consumption of ostrich eggs, the resulting exposure to dioxins for the general population can be considered as negligibly low. However, the individuals who frequently consume such eggs may be at risk of elevated exposure. Although ostrich products are not consumed frequently, such data are nevertheless useful for food safety purposes.

  19. Assessment of the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in Orogodo River sediments Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edjere Oghenekohwiroro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs concentration in Orogodo River Sediments at Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria. Sixteen sediment samples at different sample point were collected and analyzed; obtained concentrations were compared with exiting standards. Sediment samples were extracted using a mixture of hexane and acetone (1:1, sonicated in an ultrasonic bath (15 min and placed on a shaker for two hours. Chromatographic analysis was done after solvent exchange, was carried out on the final extract using n-hexane (1000 μl and injected (1 μl into a gas chromatographic system coupled with an electron capture detector (ECD. Results from this study revealed that the concentration of PCBs in all the sediment samples under investigation was highest with 0.198 μg/kg in the Agric yard Agbor 2 sample point and lowest with 0.026 μg/kg in the Behind Prison - Agbor 1. The concentration of PCBs for all the sediment samples analyzed ranged in the order: Agric Yard Agbor 2 < Slaugther Agbor 2 < River Ama 1 < Mr. Biggs Agbor 1 < Behind Prison Agbor 2 < River Ama 2 < Mr. Biggs Agbor 3 < Under Bridge Agbor 1 < Mr. Biggs Agbor 2 < River Ama 4 < Agric Yard Agbor 1 < Mr. Biggs Agbor 4 < SlaugtherAgbor 1 < River Ama 3 < Under Bridge Agbor 2 < Behind Prison Agbor 1. The obtained results in this study suggest the urgent need to establish a program for monitoring organochlorine pollutants in our rivers and sediment in other to curb any elevation in concentration of pollutants over the environmental quality standards and appropriate actions taken.

  20. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sydnone, the representative mesoionic compound has been extensively studied because of its unusual structure, chemi- cal properties and synthetic utility. Sydnone is used as a versatile synthon in heterocyclic synthesis. This article gives a brief account of the comparative studies of the structural features of mesoionic ...

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the frame of the dismantling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenbart, Lars; Held, Christian; Reichert, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    During construction and maintenance of nuclear facilities PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) containing paints were used in a large extent in the past. The WAK dismantling and disposal Company has dismantles such facilities and identified the PCB in the buildings. Besides the radionuclides the conventional hazardous material group of the PCBs has also to be disposed. The respective legal regulations have to be considered. In the frame of the contribution the radiological release of building structures with respect to re-use or demolition and residual PCB containing materials is discussed. The radiological disposal in final repositories and the conventional disposal regulations for releasable residual wastes are reported.

  2. Extraction of copper from solution after bioleaching of printed circuit boards (PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Willner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The solvent extraction of copper and iron from bioleaching solutions of PCBs with LIX 860N-IC and next stripping test with H2SO4 were investigated. In test the effect of varying sulfuric acid concentration on stripping rate of Cu and Fe and also phase ratio (O : A were determined. It was found that the stripping rate of copper increases with the sulfuric acid concentration. The optimal concentration of H2SO4 is suggested to be about 150 g/L and phase ratio O:A = 1:1.

  3. Preliminary study of PCBs in raccoons living on or near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbrook, Richard S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Zoology. Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab. Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and Environment

    2016-01-15

    The “Ecological Monitoring at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: Historical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Monitoring” report (Halbrook, et al. 2007) recommended the raccoon as a species for study at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). This species was selected to fill data gaps in ecological resources and provide resource managers with knowledge that will be valuable in making decisions and implementing specific actions to safeguard ecological resources and reduce human exposure. The current paper reports results of a preliminary evaluation to establish protocols for collection of tissues and initial screening of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in raccoons collected near the PGDP. These data are useful in developing future more comprehensive studies.

  4. Spatial and temporal trends in PCBs in sediment along the lower Rhone River, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmet, Marc, E-mail: marc.desmet@univ-tours.fr [EA 6293 GeHCO Universite Francois-Rabelais de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Mourier, Brice, E-mail: brice.mourier@entpe.fr [Universite Lyon 1, UMR 5023 Ecologie des Hydrosystemes Naturels et Anthropises, ENTPE, CNRS, 3, Rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); Mahler, Barbara J., E-mail: bjmahler@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Van Metre, Peter C., E-mail: pcvanmet@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Roux, Gwenaeelle, E-mail: gwenaelle.roux@entpe.fr [Universite Lyon 1, UMR 5023 Ecologie des Hydrosystemes Naturels et Anthropises, ENTPE, CNRS, 3, Rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); Persat, Henri, E-mail: persat@biomserv.univ-lyon1.fr [Universite de Lyon, UMR 5023 Ecologie des Hydrosystemes Naturels et Anthropises, Universite Lyon 1, ENTPE, CNRS, 5 rue Raphaeel Dubois, 69221 Villeurbanne (France); Lefevre, Irene, E-mail: Irene.Lefevre@lsce.ipsl.fr [UMR 8212, LSCE, Bat. 12, avenue de la Terrasse, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Peretti, Annie, E-mail: royannie@gmail.com [Irstea, UR MALY, 3 bis Quai Chauveau, CP220, F-69336 Lyon (France); and others

    2012-09-01

    Despite increasingly strict control of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) releases in France since the mid-1970s, PCB contamination of fish recently has emerged as a major concern in the lower Rhone River basin. We measured PCB concentrations in Rhone sediment to evaluate the effects of PCB releases from major urban and industrial areas, sediment redistribution by large floods, and regulatory controls on PCB trends from 1970 to present. Profiles of PCBs (the sum of seven indicator PCB congeners) were reconstructed from sediment cores collected from an off-river rural reference site and from three depositional areas along the Rhone upstream and downstream from the city of Lyon, France. Core chronology was determined from radionuclide profiles and flood deposits. PCB concentrations increased progressively in the downstream direction, and reached a maximum concentration in 1991 of 281 {mu}g/kg at the most downstream site. At the rural reference site and at the upstream Rhone site, PCB concentrations peaked in the 1970s (maximum concentration of 13 and 78 {mu}g/kg, respectively) and have decreased exponentially since then. PCB concentrations in the middle and downstream cores were elevated into the early 1990s, decreased very rapidly until 2000, and since then have remained relatively stable. Congener profiles for three time windows (1965-80, 1986-93, and 2000-08) were similar in the three sediment cores from the Rhone and different from those at the rural reference site. The results indicate that permitted discharges from a hazardous-waste treatment facility upstream from Lyon might have contributed to high concentrations into the 1980-90s, but that industrial discharges from the greater Lyon area and tributaries to the Rhone near Lyon have had a greater contribution since the 1990s. There is little indication that PCB concentration in sediments downstream from Lyon will decrease over at least the short term. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We reconstructed

  5. Improved separation of the 209 PCBs using GCxGC-TOFMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focant, J. [Liege Univ. (Belgium); Sjoedin, A.; Patterson, D. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Solving all the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from each others in a single gas chromatographic (GC) injection has never been possible so far. Many types of column phases have been tested for that particular job, some have even been especially designed for it, but none can claim the full separation award. The aim of the present work was to evaluate comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC x GC) coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) for the enhanced separation of PCBs. Several recent review articles on GC x GC are available in the literature.

  6. The influence of low level pre- and perinatal exposure to PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and lead on attention performance and attention-related behavior among German school-aged children: results from the Duisburg Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Julia; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Schöneck, Nina; Schölmerich, Axel; Wilhelm, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lead are thought to be risk factors for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), whereas the prenatal influence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) on attention performance has been less studied. Within the Duisburg Birth Cohort Study, we investigated low-level exposure to these compounds in relation to children's attention. We measured blood levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and lead from pregnant mothers (32(nd) week of pregnancy) and PCDD/Fs and PCBs in breast milk (2 weeks after delivery). The attention of school-aged children (N=117) was investigated with a computer-based test battery of attention performance (KITAP) and a parent rating questionnaire of behaviors related to ADHD (FBB-ADHS). Influences of the exposure on attention were analyzed by multiple regression analyses. Increasing prenatal PCDD/F and PCB concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) associated with a higher number of omission errors in the subtest Divided Attention (47% and 42%; 95% confidence intervals (95%-CI): 1.08-2.00 and 1.07-1.89, respectively). Prenatal lead concentrations had few significant associations with attention performance (e.g., a 23% higher number of omission errors in the subtest Distractibility; 95%-CI: 1.00-1.51), whereas ADHD-related behavior (questionnaire based) was increased with increasing lead exposure (Overall-ADHD: 9%; 95%-CI: 1.01-1.17). ADHD-related behavior was negatively associated with prenatal PCDD/F or PCB exposures (e.g., for PCB exposure: -10%; 95%-CI: 0.82-0.99). Pre- and perinatal PCDD/F and PCB exposure may have subtle influences on attention performance in healthy children at low environmental levels, while behavior changes are negatively associated. Furthermore, we provide additional evidence for the impact of prenatal lead exposure on attention deficits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Olenycz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(aanthracene, chrysene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, benzo(apyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene, dibenz(a,hanthracene, benzo(g,h,iperylene at 17 sampling sites to assess their relative bioavailabilities in coastal waters around Europe. Because of the temporal differences in PCBs and PAHs concentrations, data were adjusted using Seasonal Variation Coefficients (SVC before making large-scale spatial comparisons. The highest concentrations of PCBs were found near estuaries of large rivers flowing through urban areas and industrial regions. Elevated bioavailabilities of PAHs occurred in the vicinity of large harbors, urban areas, and regions affected by petroleum pollution as well as in some remote locations, which indicated long-range atmospheric deposition.

  8. Emissions of PCDD/Fs and WHO-12 PCBs from stack flue gases of sinter plants in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aries, E.; Anderson, D.R.; Fisher, R.; Wilson, D.T. [Corus R, D and T, Swinden Technology Centre, Rotherham (United Kingdom); Hemfrey, D. [Corus Strip Products UK, Port Talbot (United Kingdom); Fray, T.A.T. [Corus Contruction and Industrial, Scunthorpe (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction Steel made in the UK and most European countries is mainly produced at integrated works using a series of closely-linked processes: coke ovens, sintering, blast furnace, basic oxygen steel making (BOS), casting and rolling. Amongst steel-making processes, previous studies showed that the sintering of iron ore is a significant source of dioxins (PCDD/Fs). Investigations carried out in the period 1994-1999 at the five sinter plants operated by Corus in the UK showed that the overall PCDD/F stack emission concentration was 1.21 ng I-TEQ / Nm{sup 3}, yielding an estimated mass release between 37 and 40 g TEQ / year. Since 1998, a group of 12 PCBs, exhibiting a 'dioxinlike' behaviour, has been identified by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the individual members of the group have been assigned toxic equivalent factors (TEFs) relative to that of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. These so-called WHO-12 PCBs are included as part of the overall dioxin concentration and should now be systematically investigated in industrial emissions. Therefore, Corus group has recently modified its PCDD/F analytical procedure in order to allow quantitative determination of WHO-12 PCBs by isotope dilution using a method derived from US EPA method 1668A. As a very limited amount of data is available with regard to PCBs in emissions of the iron ore sintering process, sampling trials were carried out in 2002 and 2003 at the three sinter plants operated by Corus in the UK. This study summarises the PCDD/F and PCB results obtained during those investigations. The congener profiles of PCDD/Fs and WHO-12 PCBs in the stack flue gases of these three sinter plants are presented and compared. The annual emission quantities of PCDD/Fs and WHO-12 PCBs estimated from the emission factors of each sinter plant were also determined.

  9. Leachability and desorption of PCBs from soil and their dependency on pH and dissolved organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu, E-mail: badeasilviu@gmail.com; Mustafa, Majid; Lundstedt, Staffan; Tysklind, Mats

    2014-11-15

    pH affects both soil–water partitioning coefficient (K{sub d}) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), thereby influencing PCBs' leachability from contaminated soils. To explore these incompletely understood interactions, the leachability of 11 selected PCBs in a naturally aged soil was investigated in pH static leaching tests spanning a wide pH range (2 to 9). The K{sub d} was calculated for each of the PCBs, based on their observed concentrations in the soil and leachates obtained from each test. The concentration and composition of DOM in each leachate were also determined, the latter using FTIR spectroscopy. Correlations between the DOM's FTIR spectra and K{sub d} values were investigated by orthogonal projections to latent structures. The log K{sub d}-values varied among the PCB congeners and were most variable at low pH, but the values for all studied congeners decreased with increasing pH, by up to 3 log units (for PCB 187). In the pH 5–7 interval, an abrupt decrease in log K{sub d} values with increases in pH was observed, although the total organic carbon content remained relatively stable. The FTIR data indicate that fulvic and humic acids in DOM partially deprotonate as the pH rises from 5 to 7. - Highlights: • The log K{sub d}-values of 11 selected PCBs were investigated in pH static leaching tests • The log K{sub d}-values of all PCBs decreased with increasing pH, by up to 3 log units • The de-protonation of humics may explain why K{sub d}-values fell as pH rose from 5 to 7.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramani, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.27889@gmail.com; Howell, Nathan L., E-mail: nlhowell@central.uh.edu; Rifai, Hanadi S., E-mail: rifai@uh.edu

    2014-03-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K{sub oc} values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K{sub ow}, organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs.

  11. Spatial variation of PAHs and PCBs in coastal air, seawater, and sediments in a heavily industrialized region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Kara, Melik; Altiok, Hasan; Elbir, Tolga; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2017-05-01

    Concurrent coastal seawater (n = 22), sediment (n = 22), and atmospheric samples (n = 10) were collected in the Aliaga industrial region, Turkey, to explore the spatial variation, sources, and air-seawater exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Seawater Σ 16 PAH concentrations (particle + dissolved) ranged between 5107 and 294,624 pg L -1 , while Σ 41 PCB concentrations were in the range of 880-50,829 pg L -1 . Levels in sediments were highly variable ranging between 35.5-49,682 and 2.7-2450 μg kg -1 in dry weight for Σ 16 PAHs and Σ 41 PCBs, respectively. Atmospheric concentrations varied between 1791-274,974 and 104-20,083 pg m -3 for Σ 16 PAHs and Σ 41 PCBs, respectively. Sediment organic matter (OM) content and levels of Σ 16 PAHs and Σ 41 PCBs correlated weakly (r 2  = 0.19-0.23, p seawater, and sediment and factor analysis on the sediment levels pointed out that the major sources in the region are steel plants, petroleum refinery, petrochemical complex, ship breaking, loading/unloading activities at the ports, vehicular emissions, and fossil fuel combustion emissions. The direction of the air-seawater exchange was also explored by estimating seawater fugacity fractions of PAHs and PCBs. For PAHs, the number of cases implying deposition (43.0%) and volatilization (39.5%) was similar, while for PCBs, the number of cases implying volatilization (60.4%) was much higher compared to deposition (21.6%). Fugacity fractions were generally seawater and sediment levels were measured, implying that atmospheric deposition is an important mechanism affecting seawater and sediment PAH and PCB levels.

  12. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  13. Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in foodstuffs : occurrence and dietary intake in the Netherlands at the end of the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Freijer, J.I.

    2001-01-01

    Information on the occurrence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in foodstuffs in the Netherlands. The data collected during measurement programmes on occurrence were combined with food consumption data to assess the dietary intake of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in the general population.

  14. Levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food of animal origin in the Netherlands during the period 2001-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Schoss, Stefanie; Theelen, Rob M.C.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess levels of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (DL-PCBs) in food of animal origin produced in the Netherlands, including potential trends in time. Test results from about 2500

  15. THE DUTCH PCB DIOXIN STUDY - CONTENTS OF DIOXINS, PLANAR AND OTHER PCBS IN HUMAN-MILK FROM THE ROTTERDAM AND GRONINGEN AREA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TUINSTRA, LGMT; HUISMAN, M; BOERSMA, ER

    1994-01-01

    In two areas (Groningen and Rotterdam): individual human milk samples (24 hr.) were obtained 10 and 42 days after delivery from about 200 mothers. In all samples non-planar PCBs, including some mono-orthochlorine substituted PCBs were determined. All first samples, and a smaller number of the second

  16. Task 3 Report - PCBs in the Environment Near the Oak Ridge Reservation - A Reconstruction of Historical Doses and Health Risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Paul S; Widner, Thomas; Bonnevie, Nancy; Schmidt, Charlie; McCrodden-Hamblen, Jane; Vantaggio, Joanne; Gwinn, Patrick

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the results of an in-depth assessment of historical releases of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and risks of adverse health effects in local populations. The study was conducted by ChemRisk, a service of McLaren/Hart, Inc., for the Tennessee Department of Health. The project team (1) investigated releases of PCBs from the government sites, (2) evaluated PCB levels in environmental media in the area, (3) described releases of PCBs from other sources in the area, and (4) evaluated potential human exposures and health impacts associated with the historical presence of these contaminants in the environment. Beginning in the 1940s, PCBs were used extensively on the ORR and throughout the U.S. as a fire retardant in electrical components. PCBs were also used as cutting fluids for lubrication and cooling during metal working operations. Using information specific to the ORR, the project team estimated health risks for five off-site populations: (1) farm families that raised beef, dairy cattle, and vegetables on the flood plain of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC); (2) individuals who may have purchased beef and milk from cattle raised in the EFPC flood plain; (3) commercial and recreational fish consumers; (4) individuals that may have consumed turtles; and (5) users of surface water for recreation. Noteworthy features of the study include a two-dimensional analysis of uncertainty and variability in the non-cancer risk estimates and an assessment of the uncertainty in PCB toxicology thresholds. Conservative estimates of cancer risks from the ORR releases of PCBs to consumers of fish from Watts Bar Reservoir and the Clinch River range from less than 1 in a 1,000,000 to 2 in 10,000. Three or less excess cases of cancer would be expected to occur among individuals who consumed fish from these local waters since the 1940's. Persons who consumed large amounts of fish from the Clinch R. and Watts Bar were also at risk

  17. Zero-Valent Metallic Treatment System and Its Application for Removal and Remediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen B. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    PCBs are removed from contaminated media using a treatment system including zero-valent metal particles and an organic hydrogen donating solvent. The treatment system may include a weak acid in order to eliminate the need for a coating of catalytic noble metal on the zero-valent metal particles. If catalyzed zero-valent metal particles are used, the treatment system may include an organic hydrogen donating solvent that is a non-water solvent. The treatment system may be provided as a "paste-like" system that is preferably applied to natural media and ex-situ structures to eliminate PCBs.

  18. Food contamination by PCBs and waste disposal crisis: Evidence from goat milk in Campania (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, M C; Fusco, G; Monnolo, A; Saggiomo, F; Guccione, J; Mercogliano, R; Clausi, M T

    2017-11-01

    The study aims at investigating whether, and if so, to what extent the strong presence of urban and industrial waste in a territory may cause PCB contamination in goat milk produced therein. We compared PCB concentrations in goat milk from three different locations in the Campania region (Italy). One of the three locations, together with its surrounding area, has long suffered from illegal waste disposal and burning mainly by the so-called Ecomafia. The other locations, not involved in these illegal activities, allowed us to create a control group of goats with characteristics very similar to those of main interest. In milk from the waste contaminated area we identified high PCB concentrations (six indicator PCBs amounted to 170 ng g -1 on lipid weight, on average), whereas there was an almost total absence of such pollutants in milk from the control group. Concentrations of the six indicator PCBs were above the current European maximum residue limit fixed by the EU. At the same time, we found a lower average value of lipid content and a negative relationship between lipid content and PCB concentrations. Evidence indicates the potential health risk for consumers living in areas involved in illegal dumping of waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Leaching of gold, silver and accompanying metals from circuit boards (PCBs waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ficeriová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Au-Ag noble metal wastes represent a wide range of waste types and forms, with various accompanying metallic elements.The presented leaching strategy for Au-Ag contained in circuit boards (PCBs aims at gaining gold and silver in the metallic form.Application of the proposed ammonium thiosulphate leaching process for the treatment of the above mentioned Au-Ag containing wastesrepresents a practical, economic and at the same time an ecological solution. The ammonium thiosulphate based leaching of gold and silverfrom PCBs waste, using crushing as a pretreatment, was investigated. It was possible to achieve 98 % gold and 93 % silver recovery within48 hours of ammonium thiosulphate leaching. This type of leaching is a better leaching procedure for recovery of gold and silver from PCBwaste than the classical toxic cyanide leaching. 84 % Cu, 82 % Fe, 77 % Al, 76 % Zn, 70 % Ni, 90 % Pd, 88 % Pb and 83 % Sn recovery ofthe accompanying metals was achieved, using sulphuric acid with hydrogen peroxide, sodium chloride and aqua regia. A four steps leachingprocess gave a very satisfactory yield and a more rapid kinetics for all observed metals solubilization than other technologies.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the atmosphere of sub-alpine northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro-Jimenez, J. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, Ispra 21027, VA (Italy)], E-mail: javier.castro-jimenez@jrc.it; Dueri, S. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, Ispra 21027, VA (Italy); Eisenreich, S.J. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, Ispra 21027, VA (Italy); Mariani, G.; Skejo, H.; Umlauf, G. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, Ispra 21027, VA (Italy); Zaldivar, J.M. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, Ispra 21027, VA (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    The main objective of this work was to assess the atmospheric concentrations and seasonal variations of selected POPs in a sub-alpine location where few data are available. A monitoring and research station was set up at the JRC Ispra EMEP site (Italy). We present and discuss a one-year data set (2005-2006) on PCB air concentrations. {sigma}7PCBs monthly averaged concentration varied from 31 to 76 pg m{sup -3}. Concentrations in the gas phase (21-72 pg m{sup -3}) were higher than those in the particulate phase (3-10 pg m{sup -3}). Advection of air masses and re-volatilization from local sources seem to play a dominant role as drivers of PCB atmospheric concentrations in the area. Indications of seasonal variation affecting PCB congener patterns and the gas/particulate partitioning were found. Modeling calculations suggest a predominant importance of the wet deposition in this region (1 {mu}g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} {sigma}7PCBs yearly total wet deposition flux; 650-2400 pg L{sup -1} rainwater concentrations). - Advection of air masses and re-volatilization from local sources play a dominant role as drivers of the PCB atmospheric concentration in sub-alpine northern Italy.

  1. Atmospheric concentrations and potential sources of PCBs, PBDEs, and pesticides to Acadia National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofuoglu, Sait C.; Sofuoglu, Aysun; Holsen, Thomas M.; Alexander, Colleen M.; Pagano, James J.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed concentrations and investigated potential source regions for PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides in Acadia National Park, Maine, USA. Back-trajectories and potential source contribution function (PSCF) values were used to map potential source areas for total-PCBs, BDE-47, and 10 organochlorine pesticides. The constructed PSCF maps showed that ANP receives high pollutant concentrations in air masses that travel along four main pathways: (1) from the SW along the eastern Atlantic seaboard, (2) from the WSW over St. Louis, and Columbus regions, (3) from the west over Chicago, and Toronto regions, and (4) from WNW to NNW over the Great Lakes, and Quebec regions. Transport of all studied pollutants were equally distributed between the first three pathways, with only minor contributions from the last pathway. This study concludes that the high-pollutant concentrations arriving at ANP do not exclusively originate from the major urban centers along the eastern Atlantic seaboard. -- Highlights: ► POP concentrations and source areas were determined for Acadia National Park. ► ANP receives high air mass pollutant concentrations from four main pathways. ► Highest PCB concentration events were summer samples derived from three different pathways. ► OCPs arriving at ANP have southern, midwestern, and eastern US source regions. ► POPs do not exclusively originate from urban centers along the eastern seaboard. -- This study concludes that the high-pollutant concentrations arriving at ANP do not exclusively originate from the major urban centers along the eastern Atlantic seaboard

  2. Organochlorines in free-range hen and duck eggs from Shanghai: occurrence and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Bignert, Anders; Zhou, Yihui; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu

    2015-02-01

    As an important part of the residents' diet in China, the consumption of hen and duck eggs has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Being rich in protein and lipid, eggs may be one of the main exposure routes for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to human beings. In this study, four kinds of free-range hen and duck eggs were collected from two traditional egg-producing areas in Shanghai, namely Dianshan Lake Area and Jinshan Industry Zone. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, 18 compounds) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 14 compounds) were analyzed with 41 egg samples. Among all OCPs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the dominant contaminant, with the concentrations ranging from 100 to 730 ng/g, lw. Unlike the 4,4'-DDE as the predominant DDTs congener in other three kinds of eggs, the duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone had an abnormally high concentration of 2,4'-DDD, which may be related to ducks' feedings in the water. The levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and pentachloroanisole (PCA) in eggs from different places were similar to each other, while hexchlorobenzene (HCB) for hen eggs from Dianshan Lake was much higher than other eggs. According to the results, the DDTs residues detected in this study were mainly due to the historical usage, whereas the high ratio of γ-HCH/α-HCH suggested that there might be some recent input of lindane in these two areas. For PCBs, the congener profiles varied among species. Low molecular PCBs (Tri-PCBs and Tetra-PCBs) were main congeners for duck eggs from Dianshan Lake and all hen eggs, while high molecular PCBs accounted for more than 50 % for duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone, which was consistent with the water analysis results of the synchronous study from our group. This study suggests that Dianshan Lake Area may not be a good reference area for POPs monitoring in Shanghai. The estimated daily intakes of DDTs, HCHs, HCBs, and PCBs were far below the reference limits, showing no

  3. Measurement and estimated health risks of volatile organic compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls in air at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Blanton, M.L.

    1994-10-01

    A variety of radioactive and nonradioactive chemicals have been released in effluent streams and discharged to waste disposal facilities during the nuclear materials production period at the Hanford Site. Extensive environmental surveillance for radioactive materials has occurred at Hanford; however, only limited information is available on the types and concentrations of organic pollutants potentially present. This report describes work performed to provide the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project with representative air concentration data for volatile organic compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) volatile organic compound sampling methods evaluated for Hanford Site use were carbon-based adsorbent traps (TO-2) and Summa air canisters (TO-14). Polychlorinated biphenyls were sampled using USEPA method (TO-4), which uses glass fiber filters and polyurethane foam adsorbent beds to collect the PCBS. This report also presents results for environmental surveillance samples collected for volatile organic compound and PCB analyses from 1990 to 1993. All measured air concentrations of volatile organic compounds and PCBs were well below applicable maximum allowable concentration standards for air contaminants. Because of the lack of ambient air concentration standards, a conservative estimate is provided of the potential human health impacts from exposure to the ambient air concentrations measured on the Hanford Site

  4. Study of potential air emissions of PCBs, HCB and dioxins from thermal processes offshore; Utredning av mulige utslipp til luft av PCB, HCB og dioksiner fra termiske prosesser offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langoergen, Oeyvind; Malvik, Bjarne

    2010-12-15

    Chlorinated aromatic compounds PCBs, HCB and PCDD / F are persistent in nature. They are fat-soluble, accumulate in the food chain and can cause severe health damage. Environmental authorities want a better overview of air emissions of these chemical groups in the oil and gas activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. As part of this goal, a study of relevant available literature and information obtained from industry-keeping and other sources is performed. The work has shown that the quantification of PCBs, HCB and dioxins in emissions from thermal processes associated with the production of oil and gas on the Norwegian continental shelf is slightly uncertain, mainly because few relevant data in the literature. The same uncertainty, however, affect similar and other types of land-based sources. Based on emission factors from comparable industries and from the nature of the process, evaluated the emissions of chlorinated aromatics from the offshore industry to be low. The industry operates a systematic effort to limit emissions of other pollutants Tii air. These measures normally means a reduction of chlorinated aromatics. (AG)

  5. Species-specific accumulation of dioxin related compounds in cetaceans collected from Japanese coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiwara, N.; Watanabe, M.; Tanabe, S. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime Univ. (Japan); Amano, M. [Ocean Research Inst., Univ. of Tokyo, Iwate (Japan); Yamada, T. [National Science Museum, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are extremely hazardous and persistent chemicals identified as contaminants in chlorophenols, herbicides, fly ash and other incineration products. Dioxin-like PCBs including non- and mono-ortho coplanar PCBs are referred to as dioxin related compounds and are evaluated on par with PCDD/Fs in environmental risks since they have a high toxicity, similar to that of PCDD/Fs. These congeners have a range of physicochemical characteristics, which profoundly affect their persistence, environmental distribution, and bioaccumulation in aquatic food chains. Fish-eating wildlife such as marine mammals are particularly vulnerable to such contamination given their long lives, high trophic level, relative inability to metabolize many persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and the biomagnification of these contaminants in aquatic food chains. However, most studies dealing with PCDDs and PCDFs in marine mammals have been carried out on pinnipeds, and data on PCDD/Fs levels in cetaceans are scarce. The present study is aimed at understanding the recent pattern of contamination by dioxin related compounds including non- and mono-ortho coplanar PCBs and PCDD/Fs in three cetacean species collected from Japanese coastal waters during 1998-2001, and also to discuss the factors determining the accumulation.

  6. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in Arctic seabirds: influence of dietary exposure and congener biotransformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borga, Katrine [Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)]. E-mail: katrine.borga@npolar.no; Wolkers, Hans [Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Skaare, Janneche U. [National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 8156 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Hop, Haakon [Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Muir, Derek C.G. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Gabrielsen, Geir W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)

    2005-04-01

    Four seabird species and their prey (zooplankton or fish) were collected in the Barents Sea to determine how dietary exposure, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities and sex influenced their hepatic PCB concentrations and accumulation patterns. Five males and five females from each seabird species (little auk (Alle alle), Bruennich's guillemot (Uria lomvia), black guillemot (Cepphus grylle) and black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla)) were analysed. PCB concentrations could not be explained directly by carbon source ({delta}{sup 13}C) or trophic position ({delta}{sup 15}N), but by a combination of dietary parameters ({delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 15}N, migratory pattern, age) and contaminant metabolism. Contrary to previous studies, the PCB pattern differed among seabirds, with a higher proportion of persistent congeners (% of PCB-153, R{sub PCB-153}) in black-legged kittiwake than in auks. The PCB pattern also differed among auks, with little auk as the most efficient biotransformer (highest R{sub PCB-153} values of persistent congeners). Based on high R{sub PCB-153} values, Bruennich's guillemot poorly metabolised ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners, whereas black guillemot poorly metabolised meta-para unsubstituted congeners. Species-specific differences in PCB biotransformation were confirmed by metabolic indices, where PCB patterns in seabirds were adjusted for PCB pattern in prey. The relative contribution of ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners to {sigma}PCBsdecreased with increasing EROD activity. There were no differences in PCB concentrations, PCB patterns or cytochrome P450 enzyme activities between males and females. CYP P450 activities (CYP1A- and CYP2B/3A-like: EROD and testosterone 6{beta}-hydroxylation, respectively) were low and did not correlate with concentrations of non- or mono-ortho Cl-substituted PCBs (NO- and MO-PCBs), or with total toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) for dioxin-like effects of NO- and MO-PCBs. - Contaminant

  7. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE in eggs and their impacts on aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis) from Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, M A; Baxter, C; Sericano, J L; Montoya, A B; Gallardo, J C; Rodríguez-Salazar, J R

    2011-12-01

    Eggs from aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) nesting in Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs. p,p'-DDE was the only organochlorine found in all eggs at concentrations ranging from 0.13 to 7.85 μg/g wet weight. PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.80 μg/g wet weight and PBDEs from 62 to 798 ng/g lipid weight. DDE concentrations in eggs were not significantly different among regions; however, PCBs were significantly greater (P = 0.015) in Tinaja Verde, Chihuahua than in the other three regions. Also, PBDEs were significantly higher (P Chihuahua. DDE concentrations in eggs were much lower than those associated with eggshell thinning. PBDEs and PCBs were lower than those reported in raptors from industrialized countries. Overall, contaminant concentrations observed suggest no likely impact on hatching success. The PBDE concentrations are among the first to be reported in raptor species in Mexico. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Concentrations of dioxins and dioxine-like PCBs in feed material in the Netherlands, 2001-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Schoss, S.; Jong, de J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain insights into contamination of feed materials used in the Netherlands with dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Monitoring results from the period 2001-11, covering in total 4938 samples, were

  9. Atmospheric concentrations of PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs and some pesticides in northern Algeria using passive air sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaoui, Yacine; Tuduri, Ludovic; Kerchich, Yacine; Meklati, B Y; Eppe, Gauthier

    2012-07-01

    Two monitoring campaigns were conducted in northern Algeria to assess the contamination level of pesticides and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ambient air. Six pesticides (α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, fenitrothion, malathion, chlorpyrifos and λ-cyhalothrin) were monitored at two different sampling locations during the first campaign. The passive sampling was performed at a semi urban/industrial site but also in a rural area between July to September 2008. The pesticides levels, analyzed by GC/MS/MS, ranged from 16 pg m(-3) to 11 ng m(-3). The second campaign was carried out from May to November 2009. The polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) concentrations were evaluated at an urban/industrial and at an industrial site. The PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, analyzed by HRGC/HRMS, ranged from 249 to 923 fg TEQ m(-3). In addition to passive sampling, active sampling using an isokinetic sampler was also performed at an industrial waste incinerator. The PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs found was 268 pg TEQ m(-3). This paper presents the first measurements of PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs and pesticides in rural, urban and industrial areas of northern Algeria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The cumulative MeHg and PCBs exposure and risk of tribal and US general population with SHEDS-multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have shown that the U.S. population continues to be exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) due to the long half-life of those environmental contaminants. Fish intake of Tribal populations is much higher than the U.S. general population due t...

  11. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of dioxin-furans and dioxin-like PCBs from environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Pedro; Viana, Paula; Vinhas, Tereza; Capelo, J L; Rivera, J; Gaspar, Elvira M S M

    2008-05-30

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) applying three extraction cycles, temperature and pressure, improved the efficiency of solvent extraction when compared with the classical Soxhlet extraction. Polychlorinated-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like PCBs (coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs)) in two Certified Reference Materials [DX-1 (sediment) and BCR 529 (soil)] and in two contaminated environmental samples (sediment and soil) were extracted by ASE and Soxhlet methods. Unlike data previously reported by other authors, results demonstrated that ASE using n-hexane as solvent and three extraction cycles, 12.4 MPa (1800 psi) and 150 degrees C achieves similar recovery results than the classical Soxhlet extraction for PCDFs and Co-PCBs, and better recovery results for PCDDs. ASE extraction, performed in less time and with less solvent proved to be, under optimized conditions, an excellent extraction technique for the simultaneous analysis of PCDD/PCDFs and Co-PCBs from environmental samples. Such fast analytical methodology, having the best cost-efficiency ratio, will improve the control and will provide more information about the occurrence of dioxins and the levels of toxicity and thereby will contribute to increase human health.

  12. Bioleaching of gold, copper and nickel from waste cellular phone PCBs and computer goldfinger motherboards by two Aspergillus nigerstrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Arias, Jorge Enrique; Argumedo-Delira, Rosalba; Alarcón, Alejandro; Mendoza-López, Ma. Remedios; García-Barradas, Oscar; Cruz-Sánchez, Jesús Samuel; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Jiménez-Fernández, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to develop alternate techniques to recover metals from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), this research evaluated the bioleaching efficiency of gold (Au), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) by two strains of Aspergillus niger in the presence of gold-plated finger integrated circuits found in computer motherboards (GFICMs) and cellular phone printed circuit boards (PCBs). These three metals were analyzed for their commercial value and their diverse applications in the industry. Au-bioleaching ranged from 42 to 1% for Aspergillus niger strain MXPE6; with the combination of Aspergillus niger MXPE6 + Aspergillus niger MX7, the Au-bioleaching was 87 and 28% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. In contrast, the bioleaching of Cu by Aspergillus niger MXPE6 was 24 and 5%; using the combination of both strains, the values were 0.2 and 29% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. Fungal Ni-leaching was only found for PCBs, but with no significant differences among treatments. Improvement of the metal recovery efficiency by means of fungal metabolism is also discussed. PMID:26413051

  13. Bioleaching of gold, copper and nickel from waste cellular phone PCBs and computer goldfinger motherboards by two Aspergillus nigerstrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Arias, Jorge Enrique; Argumedo-Delira, Rosalba; Alarcón, Alejandro; Mendoza-López, Ma Remedios; García-Barradas, Oscar; Cruz-Sánchez, Jesús Samuel; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Jiménez-Fernández, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to develop alternate techniques to recover metals from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), this research evaluated the bioleaching efficiency of gold (Au), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) by two strains of Aspergillus niger in the presence of gold-plated finger integrated circuits found in computer motherboards (GFICMs) and cellular phone printed circuit boards (PCBs). These three metals were analyzed for their commercial value and their diverse applications in the industry. Au-bioleaching ranged from 42 to 1% for Aspergillus niger strain MXPE6; with the combination of Aspergillus niger MXPE6 + Aspergillus niger MX7, the Au-bioleaching was 87 and 28% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. In contrast, the bioleaching of Cu by Aspergillus niger MXPE6 was 24 and 5%; using the combination of both strains, the values were 0.2 and 29% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. Fungal Ni-leaching was only found for PCBs, but with no significant differences among treatments. Improvement of the metal recovery efficiency by means of fungal metabolism is also discussed.

  14. Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) in eel, trout, and barbel from the River Roya, Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, S; Mignone, W; Abete, M C; Favaro, L; Scanzio, T; Foglini, C; Vivaldi, B; Prearo, M

    2015-05-15

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) contribute to the dietary intake of total PCBs. They are consumed via ingestion of contaminated fish and fishery products. Thus, it is important to quantify their levels in aquatic organisms in order to evaluate the risks associated with fish consumption by humans. In 2013, an advisory against consumption of fish from the River Roya (IT) was disseminated after NDL PCBs were found to exceed maximum levels set by EU Regulations. We investigated the presence of NDL PCBs in eel, trout and barbel from the River Roya. We found concentrations in the range of 9.2-27.6 ng g(-)(1)ww in barbel, 9.2-97.0 ng g(-1)ww in trout and 9.0-239.5 ng g(-1)ww in eel. The distribution of congeners among different species did not show significant variations and was characterized by a higher proportion of 153, 138 and 180 congeners, according to their high resistance to metabolic degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PCBs in sediments of the Great Lakes - Distribution and trends, homolog and chlorine patterns, and in situ degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li An [School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago (United States)], E-mail: anli@uic.edu; Rockne, Karl J. [Department of Civil and Materials Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago (United States); Sturchio, Neil [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago (United States); Song Wenlu; Ford, Justin C.; Wei Hua [School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago (United States)

    2009-01-15

    A region-wide data analysis on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sediment of the Great Lakes reveals a total accumulation of approximately 300 {+-} 50 tonnes, representing a >30% reduction from the 1980s. Evidence of in situ degradation of sediment PCB was found, with estimated t{sub 1/2} of 11 and 17 years, at two open water locations in Lake Ontario. The relative abundance of heavy homologs as well as para-chlorines decreases with increasing depth, while the opposite is true for medium and light homologs and ortho-chlorines. In Lake Michigan, the vertical pattern features enrichment of heavier congeners and reduction of ortho-chlorines in deeper sediment layers, opposite to the trend in Lake Ontario. PCBs decrease log-linearly with increasing latitude and longitude. Air deposition of PCBs to lake sediment decreases at about 0.077 ng cm{sup -2} yr{sup -1} per degree latitude (N) for the geographic region extending from the Great Lakes to within the Arctic Circle. - Data analysis on PCBs in the Great Lakes sediments reveals decline of overall burden, occurrence of in situ degradation, and the geographic gradient in the region and beyond.

  16. QSPR study on the gas/particle partition coefficient of PCBs by using molecular distance-edge vector index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Long

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR for gas/particle partition coefficient, Kp, of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs was investigated. Molecular distance-edge vector (MDEV index was used as the structural descriptor of PCBs. The quantitative relationship between the MDEV index and log Kp was modeled by multivariate linear regression (MLR and artificial neural network (ANN respectively. Leave one out cross validation and external validation were carried out to assess the prediction ability of the developed models. When the MLR method is used, the root mean square relative error (RMSRE of prediction for leave one out cross validation and external validation is 4.72 and 8.62 respectively. When the ANN method is employed, the prediction RMSRE of leave one out cross validation and external validation is 3.87 and 7.47 respectively. It is demonstrated that the developed models are practicable for predicting the Kp of PCBs. The MDEV index is shown to be quantitatively related to the Kp of PCBs.

  17. Accelerated delivery of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in recent sediments near a large seabird colony in Arctic Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelutti, Neal, E-mail: nm37@queensu.c [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory (PEARL), Department of Biology, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Liu, Huijun [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou (China); Smol, John P. [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory (PEARL), Department of Biology, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Kimpe, Lynda E. [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Keatley, Bronwyn E. [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory (PEARL), Department of Biology, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Mallory, Mark [Environment Canada, Iqaluit, NU (Canada); Macdonald, Robie W. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Sidney, BC V8L 4B2 (Canada); Douglas, Marianne S.V. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E3 (Canada); Blais, Jules M. [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in sediment cores from ponds located near a large seabird colony at Cape Vera, Devon Island, Arctic Canada. Surface sediment PCB concentrations were approx5x greater in seabird-affected sites relative to a nearby control pond and were correlated with independent indicators of seabird activity including, sedimentary delta{sup 15}N and lakewater chlorophyll a and cadmium concentrations. PCB fluxes were amongst the highest recorded from the High Arctic, ranging from 290 to 2400 ng m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. Despite a widespread ban of PCBs in the mid-1970s, PCB accumulation rates in our cores increased, with the highest values recorded in the most recent sediments. Possible mechanisms for the recent PCB increases include a vertical flux step driven by seabird-delivered nutrients and/or delayed loading of PCBs from the catchment into the ponds. The high PCB levels recorded in the seabird-affected sites suggest that seabird colonies are exposing coastal ecosystems to elevated levels of contaminants. - Seabird activity accelerates the delivery of PCBs from marine to terrestrial ecosystems.

  18. Bioleaching of gold, copper and nickel from waste cellular phone PCBs and computer goldfinger motherboards by two Aspergillus nigerstrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Madrigal-Arias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to develop alternate techniques to recover metals from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE, this research evaluated the bioleaching efficiency of gold (Au, copper (Cu and nickel (Ni by two strains of Aspergillus niger in the presence of gold-plated finger integrated circuits found in computer motherboards (GFICMs and cellular phone printed circuit boards (PCBs. These three metals were analyzed for their commercial value and their diverse applications in the industry. Au-bioleaching ranged from 42 to 1% for Aspergillus niger strain MXPE6; with the combination of Aspergillus niger MXPE6 + Aspergillus niger MX7, the Au-bioleaching was 87 and 28% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. In contrast, the bioleaching of Cu by Aspergillus niger MXPE6 was 24 and 5%; using the combination of both strains, the values were 0.2 and 29% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. Fungal Ni-leaching was only found for PCBs, but with no significant differences among treatments. Improvement of the metal recovery efficiency by means of fungal metabolism is also discussed.

  19. TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF PCBS AND ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN ALASKAN NORTHERN FUR SEALS: COMPARISON OF VARIOUS CONGENER CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are believed to adversely affect reproduction and cause health problems in Pinnipeds 1-4. In this study, 145 PCB congeners and OCPs were analyzed in 10 juvenile male northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus, collected from Alaskan...

  20. Using SPMDs for monitoring hydrophobic organic compounds in urban river water in Korea compared with using conventional water grab samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Un-Jung; Kim, Hee Young; Alvarez, David A.; Lee, In-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to verify the effectiveness of semi-permeablemembrane devices (SPMDs) formonitoring hydrophobic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), that are not easy to detect using conventional grab samples (because of their low concentrations), in water.We used SPMDs and grab samples to monitor PCBs and PBDEs upstream and downstream of a sewage treatment plant (STP) in the Suyeong River in Busan, Korea. Concentrations in three different phases (freely dissolved, apparently dissolved, and particulate) were measured, to investigate the aquatic fate of PCBs and PBDEs. The freely dissolved (SPMD) concentrations were 2–3 times higher than the apparently dissolved and particulate phase (grab sample) concentrations. No meaningful relationships were found between the total PCB and PBDE concentrations of the grab sample and SPMD sample because of the different partitioning behaviors and detection frequencies of the individual chemicals. However, the summed concentrations of specific PCB and PBDE congeners (that were abundant in all samples) in the grab and SPMD samples correlated well (r2 = 0.7451 for PCBs 28 + 52 + 153, r2 = 0.9987 for PBDEs 28 + 47 + 99). The PBDE concentrations measured using SPMDs decreased with increasing distance from the STP, but no apparent dilution effect was found in the grab samples. Our results show that SPMDs could be used to support grab sampling for specific chemicals, or to trace chemical sources (such as STPs) to the aquatic environment.

  1. Levels, profiles and dietary sources of hydroxylated PCBs and hydroxylated and methoxylated PBDEs in Japanese women serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Koichi; Ito, Yoshiko; Takagi, Masae; Fujii, Yukiko; Harada, Kouji H; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-12-01

    Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may result in retention of specific congeners of hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and hydroxylated/methoxylated PBDEs (OH-/MeO-PBDEs) in serum. However, dietary sources and biotransformation of OH-/MeO-PBDEs in humans are poorly understood. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the levels, profiles, and exposure sources of OH-/MeO-PBDEs along with OH-PCBs present in human serum. Twenty serum samples pooled from women of four age groups (30s/40s/50s/60s) living in four districts of Japan were analyzed for OH-/MeO-PBDEs, and their profiles were then compared with those of seafood (seaweed and fish). The major component of OH-PCBs in the phenolic fraction of serum was 4-OH-CB187 (mean: 85pgg -1 wet weight (ww)). Total OH-PCBs accounted for about 1/20 of the total PCBs (mean; 1800pgg -1 ww). In contrast, the predominant component of OH-PBDEs in serum was 6-OH-BDE47 (mean: 183pgg -1 ww), which was about 20-fold higher than BDE-47 (mean; 8.7pgg -1 ww). In the neutral fraction, 2'-MeO-BDE68 was primarily found at a similar concentration (mean 5.6pgg -1 ww) to BDE-47. Both 4-OH-PCB187 and 2'-MeO-BDE68 were significantly correlated with woman's age (pserum were consistent with those in edible seaweeds (Sargassum fusiforme) sold for human consumption, whereas MeO-PBDEs had a similar profile as those in edible fish (Serranidae sp.) from Japanese coastal waters. These findings indicate that the profiles of OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in Japanese serum are different from those in other countries, and their sources may be specific edible seaweeds and fish, respectively. This is the first report of profiles and dietary sources of OH/MeO-PBDEs in human serum from Japan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Content and pattern of organic pollutants (PAHs, PCBs and DDT in blue mussels Mytilus trossulus from the southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Potrykus

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the contents and patternsof selected organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons- PAHs, polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs, and chlorinated pesticides- DDT in the southern part of the Baltic Sea proper, using bluemussels, Mytilus trossulus, as sentinel organisms. The musselswere collected from the Baltic Sea off Poland. The sampling programmefocused on the mouths of the rivers Odra and Vistula, locatedrespectively in the Pomeranian Bay and the Gulf of Gdansk, bothknown to be under anthropogenic pressure.    The analyses of PCBs and DDT were performed by GC-ECD, thatof PAHs by GC-MS. Mussels from both the Vistula and Odra estuarieswere found to contain higher levels of organic contaminants (PAHs,PCBs, DDT; 29.7 ng g-1 w.w. (wet weight,22.3 ng g-1 w.w., 11.2 ng g-1 w.w. respectively as compared tothe reference point (PAHs - 8.6 ng g-1 w.w., PCBs - 1.9 ng g-1 w.w., DDT - 1.3 ng g-1 w.w.. These results confirm the direct influence of land-based pollutionsources on the content of organic pollutants (PAHs, PCBs, andDDT in the southern Baltic Sea, and point to the Gulf of Gdanskas the area most under threat.    P/A and Fluo/Py ratios indicate that in all the mussels analysed, the contaminants were derived mainly from pyrolitic combustion.The mussels collected along the Polish coast of the Baltic containmostly tetra-aromatic isomers (fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(aanthracene and chrysene, penta-aromatic isomers (benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(efluorene, benzo(apyrene and dibenzo(a,h-anthraceneand hexa-aromatics (indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene andbenzo(ghiperylene rather than di- and tri-aromatics (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene. As regards PCBs, the Baltic mussels containmostly the more highly chlorinated congeners (penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls.The PCB / pp' DDE and PAH / pp' DDE ratios indicate the predominance of PCBs and PAHs over agriculturally derived DDE in both the Pomeranian Bay and

  3. Bismaleimide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  4. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  5. Infant dietary exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios

    2013-09-01

    The dietary exposure of infants to polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) is an issue of great social impact. We investigated for the first time the dietary intake of these compounds in infants living in Greece. We included in our study two age groups: 0-6 months, when infants are fed exclusively by human milk and/or formula milk, and 6 to 12 months, when solid food is introduced to nutrition. We took into consideration analytical results for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs concentrations in the most popular infant formulae in the Greek market, previous data for mother milk concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from Greece, and finally analytical data for fat-containing food products from the Greek market. In the first study group, it was found than in infants exclusively fed by breast milk, the calculated sum of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (60.3-80.4 TEQ pg/kg body weight) was significantly higher than that of infants that consume a combination of human milk and formula (31.2-41.6 TEQ pg/kg body weight). In the second study group, separate daily intake estimations were performed for babies receiving human milk (estimated total daily intake 19.76-24.95 TEQ pg/kg body weight) and formula milk (estimated total daily intake 1.60-2.24 TEQ pg/kg body weight). The risks of this exposure should not be overestimated because nursing is restricted to a limited period of human life and besides, the potential consumption of higher levels of dioxin-like compounds is fully compensated by the significant benefits of breast-feeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and three organochlorine pesticides in fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hardell

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate.This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p'-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight, while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight. Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight. Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p'-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight. The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits.The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the many health and cultural benefits from eating

  7. Temporal and spatial variation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in environmental compartments of highly polluted area in Central Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Natalia; Mazlova, Elena A

    2017-10-01

    This study highlights the fact that serious contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) still exists in Serpukhov City (Russia). The research help to determine the temporal (16- and 24-year periods) and spatial PCBs distribution in the environmental compartments of the studied region. Samples of soil, sediments, water and plants were analysed in order to establish their contamination levels. The most recent data on the Serpukhov City's soil contamination showed that the PCBs concentrations varies from 0.0009 to 1169 mg/kg depending on the sampling point and the distance from the pollution source. The temporal trends of the contamination distribution with the soil depth showed contamination migration in the upper soil layers of the highly polluted site. The high level of water pollution (11.5 μg/L) in the proximity to the contamination source and the sediments contamination (0.098-119 mg/kg) were determined, as well as the water migration pathways of the PCBs that were prevalent in the studied region. The PCB congener group (by the level of chlorination) analysis showed that heptachlorinated biphenyls were only found in the soils in close proximity to the contamination place, while biphenyls with Cl ≤ 6 were found in the soil samples downstream of the condenser plant and with Cl ≤ 5 in the soil samples upstream of the plant. The plant uptake of PCBs, even on the extremely contaminated site, was shown. In turn, this research present new knowledge necessary for the development of a contaminated territory remediation strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Three Organochlorine Pesticides in Fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Sara; Tilander, Hanna; Welfinger-Smith, Gretchen; Burger, Joanna; Carpenter, David O.

    2010-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate. Methods and Findings This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p′-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight), while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight). Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight). Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p′-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight). The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits. Conclusion The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the many health

  9. Effects of condensed organic matter on PCBs bioavailability in juvenile swine, an animal model for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Matthieu; Rychen, Guido; Fournier, Agnès; Jondreville, Catherine; Feidt, Cyril

    2014-06-01

    The exposure assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated soils is a critical issue in terms of human health, especially since little reliable information on transfer of PCBs to humans via involuntary soil ingestion is available. Indeed, young children with their hand-to-mouth activity may be exposed to contaminated soils. The current study addresses the impact of soil organic matter (OM) condensation on bioavailability of sequestrated NDL-PCBs. Three artificial soils (ASs) were prepared according to OECD guideline 207. One standard soil (SS), devoid of OM, and two amended versions of this SS with fulvic acid (FA) or activated carbon (AC) were prepared to obtain 1% organic mass. This study involved fourteen juvenile male swine as a digestive physiology model of young children. Animals were randomly distributed into 4 contaminated groups (3 replicates) and a control one (2 replicates). During 10d, the piglets were fed AS or a corn oil spiked with 19200 ng of Aroclor 1254 per g of dry matter (6000 ng g(-1) of NDL-PCBs) to achieve an exposure dose of 1200 ng NDL-PCBskg(-1) of body weight per day. After 10d of oral exposure, NDL-PCBs in adipose tissue, liver and muscles were analyzed by GC-MS, after extraction and purification. Two distinct groups of treatments were found: on the one hand oil, SS and FA, on the other hand C and AC. This study highlights that condensed OM (AC) strongly reduces bioavailability whereas the less condensed one (FA) does not seem to have a significant effect. This result has to be considered as a first major step for further relative bioavailability studies involving mixture of different humic substances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of PCBs on the lactational transfer of methyl mercury in mice: PBPK modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Ku; Hamer, Dwayne; Bedwell, Cathy L.; Lohitnavy, Manupat; Yang, Raymond S. H.

    2009-01-01

    MeHg and PCB exposure to lactating mice were analyzed and a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to describe the lactational transfer of MeHg in mice. The influence of albumin on the lactational transfer of MeHg was incorporated into the PBPK model. Experimental results with lactating mice and their pups showed that co-exposure with PCB congeners increased the lactational transfer of MeHg to the pups, which was associated with the rise of albumin levels in maternal blood. Observed results were matched with PBPK model simulations conducted under the assumptions that (1) MeHg bound to plasma albumin is transferred to maternal milk, and (2) PCB congeners may increase the lactational transfer of MeHg by escalating albumin levels in maternal blood. Further refinement of PBPK model quantitatively described the pharmacokinetic changes of MeHg by co-exposure with PCBs in pup’s tissues. PMID:20046988

  11. Surveillance program on dioxin-like compounds in fatty food in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh Junghyuck; Choi Dongmi; Lee Eunju; Hong Mooki [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Although dioxin-like compounds (PCDD/Fs and co-planar PCBs) are environmental contaminants mainly produced from municipal waste incineration, the main route of human intake of these are food. This is because these chemicals have strong tendencies to bioaccumulate in lipid-rich compartments of organisms because of their highly lipophilic property. The contamination levels of dioxin-like compounds depends on species. Species with a higher fat content may have higher contamination levels so that detectable levels are found in fatty food such as meat, eggs, dairy products and fishes. Therefore it is very important to measure the levels of dioxin-like compounds in food(especially fatty food) and to do the risk assessment. The aim of this study was to measure the levels of dioxin-like compounds of retail food in Korea and then assess the health risks potentially associated with the dioxin-like compounds intake.

  12. Analysis of the Dreissena polymorpha gill proteome following exposure to dioxin-like PCBs: mechanism of action and the role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, C; Binelli, A

    2014-03-01

    PCBs are a persistent environmental problem due to their high stability and lipophilicity. The non-ortho- and the mono-ortho-substituted PCBs (dioxin-like-PCBs) share a common and well-described toxicity mechanism in vertebrates, initially involving binding to cytosolic AhRs. Invertebrate AhRs, however, show a lack of dioxin binding, and little information is available regarding the mechanism of toxicity of dl-PCBs in invertebrates. In this study, a proteomic approach was applied to analyse the variations in the pattern of the gill proteome of the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Mussels were exposed to a mixture of dl-PCBs, and to perform a more in-depth evaluation, we chose to investigate the role of gender in the proteome response by analysing male and female mussels separately. The results revealed significant modulation of the gill tissue proteome: glycolysis and Ca(2+) homeostasis appear to be the main pathways targeted by dl-PCBs. In light of the differences between the male and female gill proteome profiles following exposure to dl-PCBs, further in-depth investigations of the role of gender in the protein expression profiles of a selected biological model are required. © 2013.

  13. Historical analysis of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruemmel, Eva M. [Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC), Canada Office, 75 Albert St., Suite 1001, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 5E7 (Canada)], E-mail: eva_kruemmel@hotmail.com; Scheer, Michael [Scheer Software Solutions, 6 Coghlan Lane, P.O. Box 86, Barry' s Bay, Ontario, K0J 1B0 (Canada); Gregory-Eaves, Irene [Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 1B1 (Canada); Macdonald, Robie W. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia, V8L 4B2 (Canada); Kimpe, Lynda E. [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Smol, John P. [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory, Department of Biology, Queen' s University, 10 Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Finney, Bruce [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Blais, Jules M. [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2009-03-01

    Several recent studies have highlighted the importance of salmon as a means to deliver biomagnifying contaminants to nursery lakes. There is a lack of studies, however, which demonstrate empirically how this source has varied through time. This is of great significance because past salmon-derived contaminant loading was potentially greater than it is today. By analyzing radiometrically dated sediment cores collected from ten lakes in Alaska and British Columbia (B.C.), we relate historical numbers of sockeye salmon spawners to {sigma}PCB concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N values (a paleolimnological proxy for past salmon-derived nitrogen) in the sediments. The results confirm that sockeye salmon have provided an important route for PCBs to enter the lakes in the past, a finding that is especially evident when the data of all lakes are pooled. Significant relationships between sockeye salmon numbers and {delta}{sup 15}N, as well as {sigma}PCB concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N in sediments, were also found. However, it is difficult to establish relationships between salmon numbers, {sigma}PCBs and {delta}{sup 15}N in individual lakes. This may be due to a number of factors which may influence contaminant loadings to the lakes. The factors include: a) changing salmon contaminant loads over time resulting from a lag in the upper ocean reservoir and/or changing salmon feeding locations; b) greater importance of atmospheric transport in lakes with relatively low salmon returns; and c) increased PCB scavenging due to higher algae productivity in the lakes in recent years.

  14. Discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine and amphetamine in rats following developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, Helen J. K.; Monaikul, Supida; Poon, Emily; Eubig, Paul A.; Schantz, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental neurotoxicants known to affect the brain dopaminergic (DA) system. This project investigated whether developmental exposure to PCBs would alter the discriminative stimulus effects of psychostimulant drugs known to act on the DA system. Female Long-Evans rats were orally exposed to 0, 3, or 6 mg/kg/day of an environmentally relevant PCB mixture from four weeks prior to breeding through weaning of their litters on PND 21. When they reached adulthood one male and female/litter were trained to discriminate cocaine (10.0 mg/kg, IP) from saline by repeatedly pairing cocaine injections with reinforcement on one operant response lever, and saline injections with reinforcement on the other lever. After response training, generalization tests to four lower doses of cocaine (7.5, 5.0, 2.5, and 1.25 mg/kg, IP) and to amphetamine (1.0, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.125 mg/kg, IP) were given two days/week, with additional training dose days in-between. Percent responding of the PCB-exposed rats on the cocaine-paired lever was significantly higher than that of controls for the highest generalization dose of cocaine, and lower than that of controls for the highest dose of amphetamine. Response rate and percent responding on the cocaine lever did not differ among the exposure groups on the days when the training dose of cocaine was given, suggesting the generalization test results were not due to pre-existing differences in discrimination ability or rate of responding. These findings suggest developmental PCB exposure can alter the interoceptive cues of psychostimulants. PMID:20933596

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) decrease the placental syncytiotrophoblast volume and increase Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) in the placenta of normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, M; Aiko, Y; Kawamoto, T; T Hachisuga; Kooriyama, C; Myoga, M; Tomonaga, C; Matsumura, F; Anan, A; Tanaka, M; Yu, H S; Fujisawa, Y; Suga, R; Shibata, E

    2013-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of biologically active, highly stable compounds. Exposure risks include consumption of fatty fish, meat, dairy products and human breast milk, as well as environmental and occupational settings. Numerous reports have described PCB-dependent adverse effects on human fetal growth, including increased risk for IUGR, changes in endocrine function and hormone metabolism, and immunosuppressive and neurological deficits. Here we test the prediction that in utero PCB exposure adversely effects placental morphology, potentially leading to placental insufficiency en route to fetal growth restriction. PCB homologs (10) were measured in the maternal and fetal blood of a small cohort of normotensive pregnancies (22) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PCB levels were compared with angiogenesis associated proteins Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) and sFlt-1, determined by ELISA, and the total estimated syncytiotrophoblast (ST) volume. Significant associations between PCB exposure and both PlGF and ST volume were identified. PCB effects on placenta morphology and predicted function are discussed. These results demonstrate that the human placenta, including ST, is a target of PCB toxicity, and that current environmental PCB exposure levels are a risk to reproductive health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. GEM/POPs: a global 3-D dynamic model for semi-volatile persistent organic pollutants ─ Part 2: Global transports and budgets of PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Barrie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Global transports and budgets of three PCBs were investigated with a 3-D dynamic model for semi-volatile persistent organic pollutants – GEM/POPs. Dominant pathways were identified for PCB transports in the atmosphere with a transport flux peaking below 8 km for gaseous and 14 km for particulate PCB28, and peaking below 4 km for gaseous and 6 km for particulate PCB180. The inter-continental transports of PCBs in the Northern Hemisphere (NH are dominated in the zonal direction with their route changes regulated seasonally by the variation of westerly jet. The transport pathways from Europe and North Atlantic contributed the most PCBs to the Arctic. Inter-hemispheric transports of PCBs originated from the regions of Europe, Asia and North America in three different flow-paths, accompanying with easterly jet, Asian monsoon winds and trade winds. PCBs from the Southern Hemisphere (SH could also be exported into the NH. According to the PCB emissions of year 2000, Europe, North America and Asia are the three largest sources of the three PCBs, contributing to the global background concentrations in the atmosphere, soil and water. Globally, PCB28 in soil and water has become a comparable source to the anthropogenic emissions while heavier PCBs such as PCB153 and 180 are still transporting into soil and water. For all three congeners, particulate PCBs are concentrated in the higher levels than gaseous PCBs. More than half of the particulate PCB28 could reach up to the stratosphere, while most of the heavier counter-parts (PCB153 and PCB180 are stored in the troposphere including boundary layer with more than 99% gaseous PCB180 below 6 km.

  17. Survey on the presence of non-dioxine-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded in south Mediterranean coasts (Sicily, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammilleri, Gaetano; Calvaruso, Enza; Pantano, Licia; Cascio, Giovanni Lo; Randisi, Barbara; Macaluso, Andrea; Vazzana, Mirella; Caracappa, Giulia; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Vella, Antonio; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2017-11-01

    A total of 71 loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded along the coasts of Sicily (Southern Italy) were examined for non-dioxine like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) levels in muscle and adipose tissue by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method. The results revealed 6 high-indicator congener (∑ 6 PCB IND ) levels in 45% of the loggerhead turtles examined, with mean values of 980.39 ± 2508.39 ng/g wet weight in adipose tissue and 102.53 ± 238.58 ng/g wet weight in muscle tissue. The hexachloro and heptachloro PCB congeners were the most abundant in both the sample types. The highest NDL-PCB levels were reached in an adipose tissue sample of a loggerhead turtle of 80 kg stranded along the coasts of Termini Imerese (14 183.85 ng/g wet wt). No significant correlation was found between modified Fulton's K values of the loggerhead turtles and PCB contents (S = 47 151, p > 0.05). Furthermore, no significant differences were found between sexes (W = 365, p >  0.05). The PCB levels found in the present study were much higher than those found in the literature. The present study is the first report on the existence of NDL-PCBs in loggerhead turtles stranded in Sicilian coasts confirming C. caretta as a valuable indicator of contaminant exposure in the marine environment because of their specific biological and ecological characteristics. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2997-3002. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  18. Deep-ocean foraging northern elephant seals bioaccumulate persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah H; Peterson, Michael G; Debier, Cathy; Covaci, Adrian; Dirtu, Alin C; Malarvannan, Govindan; Crocker, Daniel E; Schwarz, Lisa K; Costa, Daniel P

    2015-11-15

    As top predators in the northeast Pacific Ocean, northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) are vulnerable to bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Our study examined a suite of POPs in blubber (inner and outer) and blood (serum) of free-ranging northern elephant seals. For adult females (N=24), we satellite tracked and sampled the same seals before and after their approximately seven month long foraging trip. For males, we sampled different adults and sub-adults before (N=14) and after (N=15) the same foraging trip. For females, we calculated blubber burdens for all compounds. The highest POP concentrations in males and females were found for ∑DDTs and ∑PCBs. In blubber and serum, males had significantly greater concentrations than females for almost all compounds. For males and females, ∑DDT and ∑PBDEs were highly correlated in blubber and serum. While ∑PCBs were highly correlated with ∑DDTs and ∑PBDEs in blubber and serum for males, ∑PCBs showed weaker correlations with both compounds in females. As females gained mass while foraging, concentrations of nearly all POPs in inner and outer blubber significantly decreased; however, the absolute burden in blubber significantly increased, indicating ingestion of contaminants while foraging. Additionally, we identified three clusters of seal foraging behavior, based on geography, diving behavior, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, which corresponded with differences in ∑DDTs, ∑PBDEs, MeO-BDE 47, as well as the ratio of ∑DDTs to ∑PCBs, indicating the potential for behavior to heighten or mitigate contaminant exposure. The greatest concentrations of ∑DDTs and ∑PBDEs were observed in the cluster that foraged closer to the coast and had blood samples more enriched in (13)C. Bioaccumulation of POPs by elephant seals supports mesopelagic food webs as a sink for POPs and highlights elephant seals as a potential sentinel of contamination in deep ocean food webs

  19. Application of the AhR reporter gene assay for the determination of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in feed samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskorska-Pliszczyńska Jadwiga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs belong to a well-known group of pollutants. Present in feedstuffs, they bioaccumulate in tissues of food-producing animals. Food is the source of over 90% of human PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs intake. Thus, feed control is one of the pillars of the EU strategy and a mean of reducing human exposure. The article presents AhR based reporter gene bioassay method for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs analysis in feed and its validation results.

  20. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Fate of PCBs During K Basin Sludge Dissolution in Nitric Acid and with Hydrogen Peroxide Addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Hoppe, E.W.; Mong, G.M.; Pool, K.H.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    The work described in this report is part of the studies being performed to address the fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in K Basin sludge before the sludge can be transferred to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) double shell tanks. One set of tests examined the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the disposition of PCBs in a simulated K Basin dissolver solution containing 0.5 M nitric acid/1 M Fe(NO 3 ) 3 . A second series of tests examined the disposition of PCBs in a much stronger (∼10 M) nitric acid solution, similar to that likely to be encountered in the dissolution of the sludge

  1. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air, grass and yak butter from Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Yuan, Xiaohua; Ren, Jiao; Gong, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Limited studies on bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along terrestrial food chains were conducted. The food chain air–grass–yak (butter) in the pasture region of Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) was chosen for study. The air, grass and butter POPs in the TP were at the lower end of the concentrations generally found around the globe. HCB was the main pollutant in air and butter. Besides HCB, β-HCH and p,p′-DDE were the other major compounds in butter. Along the food chain, DDTs and high molecular weight PCB-138, 153 and 180 had higher Biological Concentration Factor values. The air–butter transfer factors of POPs were derived and demonstrated the practical advantage in predicting the atmospheric OCPs and PCBs to the TP. This study sheds light on the transfer and accumulation of POPs along the terrestrial food chain of the TP. - Highlights: • Air, grass and butter POPs in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) were at the lower end of the global levels. • The pasture of the TP was found to be a “sink” of DDTs. • Bioaccumulation of OCPs and PCBs happened along the food chain: air–grass–yak. • The TF A:B was tested to be an excellent tool to predict air OCPs and PCBs in the TP. - Transfer and bioaccumulation of OCPs and PCBs happened along the terrestrial food chain: air–grass–yak (butter)

  2. Organic micropollutants in marine plastics debris from the open ocean and remote and urban beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hisashi; Takada, Hideshige; Ogata, Yuko; Yamashita, Rei; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Saha, Mahua; Kwan, Charita; Moore, Charles; Gray, Holly; Laursen, Duane; Zettler, Erik R; Farrington, John W; Reddy, Christopher M; Peacock, Emily E; Ward, Marc W

    2011-08-01

    To understand the spatial variation in concentrations and compositions of organic micropollutants in marine plastic debris and their sources, we analyzed plastic fragments (∼10 mm) from the open ocean and from remote and urban beaches. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), alkylphenols and bisphenol A were detected in the fragments at concentrations from 1 to 10,000 ng/g. Concentrations showed large piece-to-piece variability. Hydrophobic organic compounds such as PCBs and PAHs were sorbed from seawater to the plastic fragments. PCBs are most probably derived from legacy pollution. PAHs showed a petrogenic signature, suggesting the sorption of PAHs from oil slicks. Nonylphenol, bisphenol A, and PBDEs came mainly from additives and were detected at high concentrations in some fragments both from remote and urban beaches and the open ocean. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and blue shark (Prionace glauca) from Brazilian Coast. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo e Silva, C.E.; Azeredo, A.; Meire, R.; Torres, J.P. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos E.P.F., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ; Brito Jr., J.L.; Malm, O. [Projeto Mamiferos Aquaticos, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia, UERJ

    2004-09-15

    There is conclusive evidence showing that, in general, fish in meals human diet contributes with a significant proportion of the total intake of PCBs and others organochlorine compounds, particularly fish with higher fat content. Thus, human exposure to PCBs is predominantly via diet, and especially from fish and seafood products. Comparatively, little is know about organochlorine contaminants in elasmobranch species, although they are also top predators. Characteristically, sharks are live longer, with comparatively slow rates of growth that in conjuction with their high trophic position may contribute to the accumulation of high concentrations of pollutants. Blue shark and swordfish are carnivorous fishes of great economic importance. This study investigate the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in samples of muscle tissues of blue shark (Prionace glauca) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from Brazilian Coast.

  4. Hausa verbal compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McIntyre, Joseph Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Verbal compounds abound in Hausa (a Chadic language). A very broad definition of Hausa verbal compounds (henceforth: VC) is “a compound with a verb”. Four types of verbal compound are analysed: V[erb]+X compounds, PAC+V compounds (a PAC is a pronoun complex indicating TAM), VCs with a ma prefix

  5. Differences in serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds by occupational social class in pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porta, Miquel; Bosch de Basea, Magda; Benavides, Fernando G.; Lopez, Tomas; Fernandez, Esteve; Marco, Esther; Alguacil, Juan; Grimalt, Joan O.; Puigdomenech, Elisa

    2008-01-01

    Background: The relationships between social factors and body concentrations of environmental chemical agents are unknown in many human populations. Some chemical compounds may play an etiopathogenic role in pancreatic cancer. Objective: To analyze the relationships between occupational social class and serum concentrations of seven selected organochlorine compounds (OCs) in exocrine pancreatic cancer: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), 3 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane. Methods: Incident cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were prospectively identified, and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission (n=135). Serum concentrations of OCs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Social class was classified according to occupation. Results: Multivariate-adjusted concentrations of all seven compounds were higher in occupational social classes IV-V (the less affluent) than in classes I-II; they were higher as well in class III than in classes I-II for four compounds. Concentrations of six OCs were higher in manual workers than in non-manual workers (p<0.05 for PCBs). Social class explained statistically between 3.7% and 5.7% of the variability in concentrations of PCBs, and 2% or less variability in the other OCs. Conclusions: Concentrations of most OCs were higher in the less affluent occupational social classes. In pancreatic cancer the putative causal role of these persistent organic pollutants may not be independent of social class. There is a need to integrate evidence on the contribution of different social processes and environmental chemical exposures to the etiology of pancreatic and other cancers

  6. Persistent organochlorines in human breast milk collected from primiparae in Dalian and Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Someya, Masayuki; Kayama, Fujio; Jin Yihe; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    The present study determined the concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe) in human breast milk collected from primiparae in Dalian and Shenyang, northeastern China during 2002. In addition, dioxins and related compounds in pooled samples of human breast milk from Dalian and Shenyang were also analyzed. OCs were detected in all the human breast milk samples analyzed in this study. The predominant contaminants in human breast milk were HCHs, DDTs and HCB, and the levels were relatively higher than those in other countries. On the other hand, concentrations of dioxins and related compounds, PCBs, and CHLs were relatively low. Concentrations of OCs in human breast milk from Dalian, which is located along the coast of Bo Hai Strait, were significantly higher than those from Shenyang, implying that the residents in Dalian might be mainly exposed to these contaminants from seafood. When the relationship between concentrations of OCs in human breast milk and age of primiparae was examined, no significant correlation was observed. This might be caused by the limited sample numbers and narrow range of mother's age and/or recent ban of DDT and HCH production and use. Significant correlation between concentrations of TCPMe and DDTs in human breast milk suggested that technical DDT might be a source of TCPMe in the Chinese population. When daily intakes of DDTs and HCHs to infants through human breast milk were estimated, human breast milk from Dalian showed significantly higher contribution than Shenyang, implying that infants in Dalian might be at higher risk by these contaminants

  7. The effect of mangrove reforestation on the accumulation of PCBs in sediment from different habitats in Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Zhou, Yan-Wu; Chen, Gui-Zhu

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the influence of mangrove reforestation on the accumulation of PCBs, the concentrations and homologue patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface sediments from different mangrove forests and their adjacent mud flats in Guangdong Province were determined. The total PCB concentrations in the sediments ranged from 3.03 to 46.62 ng g⁻¹ (dry weight). Differences in the accumulation and distribution of PCBs were found between the mangrove sites and the mud flats. Furthermore, the natural forests and restored mangrove forests of native species showed slight PCB contamination, whereas the exotic species Sonneratia apetala exacerbated the PCB pollution at certain sites. It was suggested that the native mangrove species Kandelia candel and Aegiceras corniculatum could represent good choices for the phytoremediation of PCB contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in soil after 42 years of bio-waste application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umlauf, G.; Christoph, E.H.; Savolainen, R.; Skejo, H.; Lanzini, L. [European Commizzion, Institute for Environment and Sustainablility (IES), Joint Research Centre (JRC); Clemens, J.; Goldbach, H.; Scherer, H. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Plant Nutrition

    2004-09-15

    Land spreading of bio-waste can partially replace mineral fertilisers and is a low cost disposal for waste. However, the obvious benefits of land spreading need to be carefully evaluated against potential adverse effects on soil quality. Elevated PCDD/F concentrations after sewage sludge application on soil have been reported and it has been demonstrated that the elevated concentrations in sludge-amended soils persist over time. Using archived soil samples of a plot which received a single sludge application, McLachlan et al. demonstrated that 59% of the PCDD/F concentration was still present after 18 years. The half-life of PCDD/Fs in soil is estimated to be at least 10 years. The key question arising is obviously whether the elevated concentrations in sludge-amended soils detected nowadays are a result of current application practice or just reflecting elevated contamination levels in sludges applied in the past. An answer to this question is crucial to create a scientifically sound basis for the decision whether or not it makes sense to include PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) in future legislation related to biowaste spreading on land. Another aspect of bio-waste application is the enhancement of leachability of PCDD/Fs due to the presence of dissolved humic matter (DHM) as reported by Kim and Lee. In how far these observations are reproducible under field conditions remains to be assessed, although the authors recommended on the basis of their findings that dioxin abundant wastes should not be co-disposed with organic wastes such as sewage sludge and other types of bio-waste. Only few publications refer to the accumulation of DL-PCBs in bio-waste amended soils. However, DL-PCBs are present in sewage sludges as shown by Eljarrat et al. who found contributions from DL-PCBs to the WHO-TEQ ranging from 13% to 50% in various domestic and industrial sludges in Catalonia (Spain). The present study intends to supplement the existing information on PCDD

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air originating from sealants in contaminated and uncontaminated apartments within the same housing estate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Meyer, Harald William; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2012-01-01

    . The PCB(tot) levels in the air of the contaminated section were 168-3843 ng m(-3) (mean: 1030 ng m(-3)), while the mean levels in the reference apartments were 6.03 ng m(-3). The sum of the 24 measured PCB congeners in sealants from the contaminated section was 187-221680 mg kg(-1). Principal component......Twenty-four congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 83 air samples and 20 elastic sealants samples of apartments with PCB-containing sealants. In addition, PCBs were measured in 21 air samples from reference apartments located in an uncontaminated section of the same estate...... analysis revealed four groups among the sealant samples with different congener c