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Sample records for compound voc determination

  1. Volatile organic compound (VOC) determination in working atmospheres; Determinacion de compuestos organicos volatiles (VOC) en ambiente laboral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blass A, Georgina; Panama T, Luz A; Corrales C, Deyanira [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present work describes, in a synthesized way, the implementation and application of procedures based on the normativity related to the subject of the volatile organic compounds (Volatile Organic Compounds VOC), that allow to sample, quantify and evaluate the present contamination in the working atmosphere of a refinery due to the fugitive emissions of VOC and other substances. In accordance with the corresponding normativity, more than 189 organic compounds denominated dangerous air polluting agents (Hazardous Air Pollutants, HAP) can be found in a working atmosphere, but they are the 11 main HAP that can be found in a refinery. In the present article the work made for the sampling and quantification of 5 of the 11 dangerous polluting agents of the air: benzene, toluene, xylene, iso-octane and naphthalene. [Spanish] El presente trabajo describe, de manera sintetizada, la implementacion y aplicacion de procedimientos basados en la normatividad relacionada al tema de los compuestos organicos volatiles (Volatil Organic Compounds, VOC), que permiten muestrear, cuantificar y evaluar la contaminacion presente en el ambiente laboral de una refineria debido a las emisiones fugitivas de VOC y otras sustancias. De acuerdo con la normatividad correspondiente, mas de 189 compuestos organicos denominados contaminantes peligrosos del aire (Hazardous Air Pollutants, HAP), pueden ser encontrados en un ambiente laboral, pero son 11 los principales HAP que pueden ser hallados en una refineria. En el presente articulo se informa el trabajo realizado para el muestreo y cuantificacion de 5 de los 11 contaminantes peligrosos del aire: benceno, tolueno, xileno, iso-octano y naftaleno.

  2. TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the technical justification for choosing and using propane as a calibration standard for estimating total flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an air matrix. A propane-in-nitrogen standard was selected based on a number of criteria: (1) has an analytical response similar to the VOCs of interest, (2) can be made with known accuracy and traceability, (3) is available with good purity, (4) has a matrix similar to the sample matrix, (5) is stable during storage and use, (6) is relatively non-hazardous, and (7) is a recognized standard for similar analytical applications. The Waste Retrieval Project (WRP) desires a fast, reliable, and inexpensive method for screening the flammable VOC content in the vapor-phase headspace of waste containers. Table 1 lists the flammable VOCs of interest to the WRP. The current method used to determine the VOC content of a container is to sample the container's headspace and submit the sample for gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The driver for the VOC measurement requirement is safety: potentially flammable atmospheres in the waste containers must be allowed to diffuse prior to processing the container. The proposed flammable VOC screening method is to inject an aliquot of the headspace sample into an argon-doped pulsed-discharge helium ionization detector (Ar-PDHID) contained within a gas chromatograph. No actual chromatography is performed; the sample is transferred directly from a sample loop to the detector through a short, inert transfer line. The peak area resulting from the injected sample is proportional to the flammable VOC content of the sample. However, because the Ar-PDHID has different response factors for different flammable VOCs, a fundamental assumption must be made that the agent used to calibrate the detector is representative of the flammable VOCs of interest that may be in the headspace samples. At worst, we desire that calibration with the selected calibrating

  3. Surface emission determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from a closed industrial waste landfill using a self-designed static flux chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, E; Perales, J F; Roca, F J; Guardino, X

    2014-02-01

    Closed landfills can be a source of VOC and odorous nuisances to their atmospheric surroundings. A self-designed cylindrical air flux chamber was used to measure VOC surface emissions in a closed industrial landfill located in Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain. The two main objectives of the study were the evaluation of the performance of the chamber setup in typical measurement conditions and the determination of the emission rates of 60 different VOC from that industrial landfill, generating a valuable database that can be useful in future studies related to industrial landfill management. Triplicate samples were taken in five selected sampling points. VOC were sampled dynamically using multi-sorbent bed tubes (Carbotrap, Carbopack X, Carboxen 569) connected to SKC AirCheck 2000 pumps. The analysis was performed by automatic thermal desorption coupled with a capillary gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry detector. The emission rates of sixty VOC were calculated for each sampling point in an effort to characterize surface emissions. To calculate average, minimum and maximum emission values for each VOC, the results were analyzed by three different methods: Global, Kriging and Tributary area. Global and Tributary area methodologies presented similar values, with total VOC emissions of 237 ± 48 and 222 ± 46 g day(-1), respectively; however, Kriging values were lower, 77 ± 17 gd ay(-1). The main contributors to the total emission rate were aldehydes (nonanal and decanal), acetic acid, ketones (acetone), aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. Most aromatic hydrocarbon (except benzene, naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes) and aldehyde emission rates exhibited strong correlations with the rest of VOC of their family, indicating a possible common source of these compounds. B:T ratio obtained from the emission rates of the studied landfill suggested that the factors that regulate aromatic hydrocarbon distributions in the landfill emissions are different from the ones

  4. The fight against Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper strikes the balance of the fight against organic volatile compounds emissions in France and in Europe. The first part describes the influence of VOC on production of Ozone in troposphere and gives numerical data on permissive emission values in atmosphere. The second part describes french and european policy and regulations. The third part gives the principle methods and devices for COV measurement in the atmosphere. In the last part, effluents treatment is given: thermal incineration, catalytic incineration, adsorption on active carbon, biologic purification, condensation and separative processes on membrane

  5. Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs from Wrapping Films and Wrapped PDO Italian Cheeses by Using HS-SPME and GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Panseri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays food wrapping assures attractive presentation and simplifies self-service shopping. Polyvinylchloride (PVC- and polyethylene (PE-based cling-films are widely used worldwide for wrapping cheeses. For this purpose, films used in retail possess suitable technical properties such as clinginess and unrolling capacity, that are achieved by using specific plasticizers during their manufacturing process. In the present study, the main VOCs of three cling-films (either PVC-based or PE-based for retail use were characterized by means of Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction and GC/MS. In addition, the effects of cling film type and contact time on the migration of VOCs from the films to four different PDO Italian cheeses during cold storage under light or dark were also investigated. Among the VOCs isolated from cling-films, PVC released 2-ethylhexanol and triacetin. These compounds can likely be considered as a “non-intentionally added substance”. These same compounds were also detected in cheeses wrapped in PVC films with the highest concentration found after 20 days storage. The PE cling-film was shown to possess a simpler VOC profile, lacking some molecules peculiar to PVC films. The same conclusions can be drawn for cheeses wrapped in the PE cling-film. Other VOCs found in wrapped cheeses were likely to have been released either by direct transfer from the materials used for the manufacture of cling-films or from contamination of the films. Overall, HS-SPME is shown to be a rapid and solvent free technique to screen the VOCs profile of cling-films, and to detect VOCs migration from cling-films to cheese under real retail storage conditions.

  6. 688 AMBIENT VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    using Gas Chromatography (GC) fitted with Flame Ionization Detector (FID). ... and Industrial emission were identified as sources of VOCs in the studied .... Wax, IIasamaja Market, Chesebrough way, ... A validation processes for diffusive.

  7. Determination of concentration of radon, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and water chemistry in springs near to Popocatepetl volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Lopez M, B.E.; Cisniega, G.; Valdes, C.; Armienta, M.A.; Mena, M.

    2004-01-01

    Popocatepetl volcano is a high-risk active volcano in Central Mexico where the highest population density in the country is settled. Radon in the soil and groundwater together with water chemistry from samples of nearby springs is analysed as a function of the 2002-2003 volcanic activity. Soil radon indicated fluctuations related both the meteorological parameters and sporadic explosive events. Groundwater radon showed essentially differences in concentration due to the specific characteristics of the studied springs. Water chemistry showed stability along the monitoring period indicating also differences between springs. No anthropogenic pollution from volatile organic compounds was observed. (Author)

  8. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during malting and beer manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Nigel B.; Costigan, Gavin T.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Woodfield, Michael J.

    Estimates have been made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released during different stages of beer manufacture. The estimates are based on recent measurements and plant specification data supplied by manufacturers. Data were obtained for three main manufacturing processes (malting, wort processing and fermentation) for three commercial beer types. Some data on the speciation of emitted compounds have been obtained. Based on these measurements, an estimate of the total unabated VOC emission. from the U.K. brewing industry was calculated as 3.5 kta -1, over 95% of which was generated during barley malting. This value does not include any correction for air pollution control.

  9. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air from Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece): Natural versus anthropogenic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassi, F.; Capecchiacci, F.; Giannini, L.; Vougioukalakis, G.E.; Vaselli, O.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the chemical composition of VOCs in air and gas discharges collected at Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece). The main goals are i) to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic VOC sources and ii) to evaluate their impact on local air quality. Up to 63 different VOCs were recognized and quantitatively determined in 6 fumaroles and 19 air samples collected in the Lakki caldera, where fumarolic emissions are located, and the outer ring of the island, including the Mandraki village and the main harbor. Air samples from the crater area show significant concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, cyclic, aromatics, and S- and O-bearing heterocycles directly deriving from the hydrothermal system, as well as secondary O-bearing compounds from oxidation of primary VOCs. At Mandraki village, C 6 H 6 /Σ(methylated aromatics) and Σ(linear)/Σ(branched) alkanes ratios 2 O–CO 2 –H 2 S rich and discharge a large variety of VOC species. •Benzene/toluene ratios identify anthropogenic and natural sources of VOCs in air. •Aldehydes in air are produced by oxidation of alkanes and alkenes. •Geogenic furans and hydrogenated halocarbons in air are recalcitrant. -- Anthropogenic and natural VOCs in air are distinguished on the basis of aromatic, O-substituted, S-substituted and halogenated compounds

  10. Novel collection method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host derived chemical cues are an important aspect of arthropod attraction to potential hosts. Host cues that act over longer distances include CO2, heat, and water vapor, while cues such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) act over closer distances. Domestic dogs are important hosts for disease cy...

  11. Concentrations and flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in boreal forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki, Mari; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Hellén, Heidi; Pumpanen, Jukka; Bäck, Jaana

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) impact soil processes as VOCs transmit signals between roots and rhizosphere (Ditengou et al., 2015), VOCs can regulate microbial activity (Asensio et al., 2012), and VOCs can also promote root growth (Hung et al., 2012). Belowground concentrations of VOCs have not been measured in situ and for this reason, knowledge of how different soil organisms such as roots, rhizosphere and decomposers contribute to VOC production is limited. The aim of this study was to determine and quantify VOC fluxes and concentrations of different horizons from boreal forest soil. The VOC concentrations and fluxes were measured from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest soil at the SMEAR II station in southern Finland from 21th of April to 2nd of December in 2016. VOC fluxes were measured using dynamic (flow-through) chambers from five soil collars placed on five different locations. VOC concentrations were also measured in each location from four different soil horizons with the measurement depth 1-107 cm. VOCs were collected from underground gas collectors into the Tenax-Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes using portable pumps ( 100 ml min-1). The VOC concentrations and fluxes of isoprene, 11 monoterpenes, 13 sesquiterpenes and different oxygenated VOCs were measured. Sample tubes were analyzed using thermal desorption-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Soil temperature and soil water content were continuously monitored for each soil horizon. Our preliminary results show that the primary source of VOCs is organic soil layer and the contribution of mineral soil to the VOC formation is minor. VOC fluxes and concentrations were dominated by monoterpenes such as α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, and Δ3-carene. Monoterpene concentration is almost 10-fold in organic soil compared to the deeper soil layers. However, the highest VOC fluxes on the soil surface were measured in October, whereas the monoterpene concentrations in organic soil were highest in July

  12. Ionic liquid technology to recover volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salar-García, M J; Ortiz-Martínez, V M; Hernández-Fernández, F J; de Los Ríos, A P; Quesada-Medina, J

    2017-01-05

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise a wide variety of carbon-based materials which are volatile at relatively low temperatures. Most of VOCs pose a hazard to both human health and the environment. For this reason, in the last years, big efforts have been made to develop efficient techniques for the recovery of VOCs produced from industry. The use of ionic liquids (ILs) is among the most promising separation technologies in this field. This article offers a critical overview on the use of ionic liquids for the separation of VOCs both in bulk and in immobilized form. It covers the most relevant works within this field and provides a global outlook on the limitations and future prospects of this technology. The extraction processes of VOCs by using different IL-based assemblies are described in detail and compared with conventional methods This review also underlines the advantages and limitations posed by ionic liquids according to the nature of the cation and the anions present in their structure and the stability of the membrane configurations in which ILs are used as liquid phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using tedlar bag/solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS) in ambient and workplace air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hwan; Lee, Dai Woon [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Seung Man; Heo, Gwi Suk [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-01

    SPME techniques have proven to be very useful tools in the analysis of wide VOCs in the air. In this study, we estimated VOCs in ambient and workplace air using a Tedlar ba/SPME/GC/MS system. The calibration curve was set to be linear over the range of 1-30 ppbv. The detection limits ranged from 10 pptv 0.93 ppbv for all VOCs. Reproducibility of TO-14 target gas mixtures by SPME/GC/MS averaged at 8.8 R.S.D (%). Air toxic VOCs (hazardous air pollutants, HAPs) containing a total of forty halohydrocarbons, aromatics, and haloaro-matic carbons could be analyzed with significant accuracy, detection limit and linearity at low ppbv level. Only reactive VOCs with low molecular weight, such as chloromethane, vinylchloride, ethylchloride and 1,2-dichloro-ethane, yielded relatively poor results using this technique. In ambient air samples, ten VOCs were identified and quantified after external calibration. VOC concentration in ambient and workplace air ranged from 0.04 to 1.85 ppbv. The overall process was successfully applied to identify and quantify VOCs in ambient/workplace air.

  14. Determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using tedlar bag/solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS) in ambient and workplace air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hwan; Lee, Dai Woon; Hwang, Seung Man; Heo, Gwi Suk

    2002-01-01

    SPME techniques have proven to be very useful tools in the analysis of wide VOCs in the air. In this study, we estimated VOCs in ambient and workplace air using a Tedlar ba/SPME/GC/MS system. The calibration curve was set to be linear over the range of 1-30 ppbv. The detection limits ranged from 10 pptv 0.93 ppbv for all VOCs. Reproducibility of TO-14 target gas mixtures by SPME/GC/MS averaged at 8.8 R.S.D (%). Air toxic VOCs (hazardous air pollutants, HAPs) containing a total of forty halohydrocarbons, aromatics, and haloaro-matic carbons could be analyzed with significant accuracy, detection limit and linearity at low ppbv level. Only reactive VOCs with low molecular weight, such as chloromethane, vinylchloride, ethylchloride and 1,2-dichloro-ethane, yielded relatively poor results using this technique. In ambient air samples, ten VOCs were identified and quantified after external calibration. VOC concentration in ambient and workplace air ranged from 0.04 to 1.85 ppbv. The overall process was successfully applied to identify and quantify VOCs in ambient/workplace air

  15. Occurrence and removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) relative to water treatment plants in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soh Shiau Chian

    2005-01-01

    A solid phase micro extraction technique with determination analysis by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry detector (SPME-GC-MSD) to determine 54 volatile organic compounds (VOC) in drinking water was successfully developed. The optimal conditions lead to mean recoveries of 85 % with the relative standard deviation below 13 %. Limit of detection was ranged from 0.005 μg/ l to 1.121 μg/ l for all VOC. Upon consideration of the complete procedure from sample preparation to instrumental determination, the expanded uncertainty for all VOC under study was in the range of 1.056 to 2.952 μg/ l. The optimised SPME-GC-MSD method was used to determine distributions and occurence of VOC in drinking water for Peninsular Malaysia for one year and a specific study carried out in Semenyih Catchment and Semenyih River Water Treatment Plant. Results from the monitoring programme showed that concentration of VOC ranged from undetectable to 190.9 μg/ l. Chloroform has the highest concentration and was detected in all drinking water samples. Apart from trihalomethanes (THM), other abundant compounds detected were 1,2-dibromoethane, cis and trans-1,3-dichloropropene, 1,2,3-trichloropropane and benzene. This indicated the presence of VOC in drinking water and thus is required to be frequently monitored in order to ensure and maintain drinking water quality. Based on exposure risks assessment, results from this study showed that total cancer risks was the greatest for benzene, followed by 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, 1,2-dibromomethane, chloroform and dichlorobromomethane. Nevertheless, after considering the frequency of detection factor and alteration of cancer risks that has been done, chloroform contributed the highest cancer risks among other VOC compounds. On a specific study in Semenyih Catchment, the declination of water quality in Semenyih River between 1990 and 2004 to a perturbing stage was due to urbanisation process and industrial growth. Apart from raw water

  16. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC Removal by Vapor Permeation at Low VOC Concentrations: Laboratory Scale Results and Modeling for Scale Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Moulin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum transformation industries have applied membrane processes for solvent and hydrocarbon recovery as an economic alternative to reduce their emissions and reuse evaporated components. Separation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs (toluene-propylene-butadiene from air was performed using a poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS/α-alumina membrane. The experimental set-up followed the constant pressure/variable flow set-up and was operated at ~21 °C. The membrane is held in a stainless steel module and has a separation area of 55 × 10−4 m². Feed stream was set to atmospheric pressure and permeate side to vacuum between 3 and 5 mbar. To determine the performance of the module, the removed fraction of VOC was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detector (GC/FID. The separation of the binary, ternary and quaternary hydrocarbon mixtures from air was performed at different flow rates and more especially at low concentrations. The permeate flux, permeance, enrichment factor, separation efficiency and the recovery extent of the membrane were determined as a function of these operating conditions. The permeability coefficients and the permeate flux through the composite PDMS-alumina membrane follow the order given by the Hildebrand parameter: toluene > 1,3-butadiene > propylene. The simulated data for the binary VOC/air mixtures showed fairly good agreement with the experimental results in the case of 1,3-butadiene and propylene. The discrepancies observed for toluene permeation could be minimized by taking into account the effects of the porous support and an influence of the concentration polarization. Finally, the installation of a 0.02 m2 membrane module would reduce 95% of the VOC content introduced at real concentration conditions used in the oil industry.

  17. Experimental and statistical characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) within the ile-de-France region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudic, Alexia

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a key role within the atmospheric system acting as precursors of ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosols (causing health and climatic impacts); hence the growing interest of better characterizing them. Significant uncertainties are still associated with compounds speciation, quantification and respective contributions from the different emission sources. This thesis proposes, through several laboratory and intensive field campaigns, a detailed characterization of VOCs and their main emissions sources within the Ile-de-France region. We used methods based on the determination of speciation profiles indicative of road traffic, wood burning and natural gas sources obtained from near-field investigations (inside a tunnel, at a fireplace and from a domestic gas flue). These different source profiles were used as chemical fingerprints for the identification of the main VOC emission sources, which respective contributions were estimated using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) source-receptor model applied to one-year VOCs (including NMHC+OVOC) measurements in Paris. This thesis allowed, for the first time, to evaluate the seasonal variability of VOCs and their main emission sources. Road traffic-related emissions are major VOC local/regional sources in Paris (contributing to a quarter of total annual emissions). The important impact of wood burning in winter (50 % of the VOC total mass) was observed. Results obtained from this approach were compared with the regional emissions inventory provided by the air quality monitoring network Airparif. Finally, a good agreement was found between our observations and the inventory for road traffic and wood burning-related sources. This independent assessment of inventories is of great interest because they are currently used as input data within air quality prediction models. (author) [fr

  18. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from forests in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindfors, V.; Laurila, T.

    2000-01-01

    We present model estimates of biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the forests in Finland. The emissions were calculated for the years 1995-1997 using the measured isoprene and monoterpene emission factors of boreal tree species together with detailed satellite land cover information and meteorological data. The three-year average emission is 319 kilotonnes per annum, which is significantly higher than the estimated annual anthropogenic VOC emissions of 193 kilotonnes. The biogenic emissions of the Finnish forests are dominated by monoterpenes, which contribute approximately 45% of the annual total. The main isoprene emitter is the Norway spruce (Picea abies) due to its high foliar biomass density. Compared to the monoterpenes, however, the total isoprene emissions are very low, contributing only about 7% of the annual forest VOC emissions. The isoprene emissions are more sensitive to the meteorological conditions than the monoterpene emissions, but the progress of the thermal growing season is clearly reflected in all biogenic emission fluxes. The biogenic emission densities in northern Finland are approximately half of the emissions in the southern parts of the country. (orig.)

  19. Dynamic permeation sources for volatile organic compounds (VOCS): 'a standards test environment' nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Marr, I.

    2000-01-01

    The generation of a test environment for trace VOCs in urban air or work place has never been easy. This investigation is concerned with the loss rates of VOCs through polythene membrane of different thickness. Permeation glass sample bottles were suspended in the chamber with water jacket at 24 deg. C -+ 0.5 deg. temperature. The condenser was connected with a stream of nitrogen gas at a flow rate of 75-ml min/sup -1 and further diluted with air 500-ml min/sup -1/. The loss in weight of VOCs in each bottle was determined regularly, every 24 hours, with a good agreement. The loss rate depends upon temperature of the bath, thickness of the polythene, internal diameter of the permeation bottle opening. However the loss rate from permeation tubes also depends upon the solubility of the VOCs in the polymer. It is generally believed that the vapors of VOCs in the permeation bottle are dissolved in the polythene sheet (making some sort of solution) and are eventually evaporated out of it. It was observed that the loss rate per minute for benzene > toluene. This simple technique described 'generation of test environment through dynamic permeation source' could be suitable for preparing mixture of benzene, toluene and xylene in atmosphere at ppm levels or lower, with good stability, reliability and also for other compounds of atmospheric interest. (author)

  20. Source profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured in China: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Shao, Min; Fu, Linlin; Lu, Sihua; Zeng, Limin; Tang, Dagang

    The profiles of major volatile organic compound (VOC) sources in China, including vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapor, paint, asphalt, industrial and residential coal burning, biomass burning, and the petrochemical industry, were experimentally determined. Source samples were taken using a dilution chamber for mobile and stationary sources, biomass burning in an actual Chinese farmer's house, and ambient air in a petrochemical industrial area. The concentrations of 92 VOC species were quantified using canister sampling and a gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry system, and VOC source profiles were developed for source apportionment of VOCs in the Pearl River Delta region. Based on the measurement of source profiles, possible tracers for various emission sources were identified; e.g., 2-methylpentane and 1,3-butadiene could be used as tracers for vehicle exhaust; the characteristic compounds of architectural coating were aromatics such as toluene and m, p-xylene; the light hydrocarbons, namely n-butane, trans-2-butene, and n-pentane, dominated the composition of gasoline vapor; and n-nonane, n-decane, and n-undecane were found to be typical of diesel vapor and asphalt application processes. As different emission sources are characterized by overlapping VOC species, the ratio of possible VOC tracers could be used to assess the contribution of various sources. The ratios between n-butane and isobutane, 1,3-butadiene and isoprene, and the ratios of aromatics (e.g., toluene to benzene and ethylbenzene to m, p-xylene) in the measured sources were compared.

  1. Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) pollution in Isolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorbed VOCs were desorbed with carbondisulphide (CS2) and the solution analysed using Gas Chromatography (GC) fitted with Flame Ionization Detector (FID). The results from analysis of the air samples collected showed that twenty-six (26) VOCs were captured in Isolo Industrial area. The VOCs were classified ...

  2. New device for time-averaged measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago Sánchez, Noemí; Tejada Alarcón, Sergio; Tortajada Santonja, Rafael; Llorca-Pórcel, Julio, E-mail: julio.llorca@aqualogy.net

    2014-07-01

    through a glass cell containing adsorbent material where the VOCs are retained. The adsorbent used, made in LABAQUA, is a mixture of alginic acid and activated carbon. Due to its high permeability it allows the passage and retention of THMs in a suitable way, thus solving many of the problems of other common adsorbents. Also, to avoid degradation of the adsorbent, it is wrapped in a low density polyethylene (LDPE) membrane. After a sampling period of between 1 and 14 days, the adsorbent is collected and analyzed in the laboratory to quantify the VOC average concentration. This device resolves some of the limitations of the classical sampling system (spot samples), since we will take into account the fluctuations in the concentration of VOCs by averaging the same over time. This study presents the results obtained by the device for quantifying the VOCs legislated in the Directive 2000/60/EC. We present the validation of linearity over time and the limits of quantification, as well as the results of sample rate (Rs) obtained for each compound. The results demonstrate the high robustness and high sensitivity of the device. In addition the system has been validated in real waste water samples, comparing the results obtained with this device with the values of classical spot sampling, obtaining excellent results. - Highlights: • Device to determine time weighted average concentrations of VOCs in water • This device is presented as an important alternative to spot sampling. • Very low LOD values of VOCs are obtained over 7 days of sampling. • Optimization, validation and application of the device in waters.

  3. Determination of concentration of radon, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and water chemistry in springs near to Popocatepetl volcano; Determinacion de la concentracion de radon, VOCs y Quimica del agua en manantiales cercanos al volcan Popocatepetl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Lopez M, B.E.; Cisniega, G. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Valdes, C.; Armienta, M.A.; Mena, M. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Popocatepetl volcano is a high-risk active volcano in Central Mexico where the highest population density in the country is settled. Radon in the soil and groundwater together with water chemistry from samples of nearby springs is analysed as a function of the 2002-2003 volcanic activity. Soil radon indicated fluctuations related both the meteorological parameters and sporadic explosive events. Groundwater radon showed essentially differences in concentration due to the specific characteristics of the studied springs. Water chemistry showed stability along the monitoring period indicating also differences between springs. No anthropogenic pollution from volatile organic compounds was observed. (Author)

  4. Leaf level emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from some Amazonian and Mediterranean plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho-Nunez, A.; Knothe, , N. M.; Welter, S.; Staudt, M.; Costa, W. R.; Liberato, M. A. R.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2013-09-01

    Emission inventories defining regional and global biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission strengths are needed to determine the impact of VOC on atmospheric chemistry (oxidative capacity) and physics (secondary organic aerosol formation and effects). The aim of this work was to contribute with measurements of tree species from the poorly described tropical vegetation in direct comparison with the quite well-investigated, highly heterogeneous emissions from Mediterranean vegetation. VOC emission from sixteen plant species from the Mediterranean area were compared with twelve plant species from different environments of the Amazon basin by an emission screening at leaf level using branch enclosures. Analysis of the volatile organics was performed online by a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and offline by collection on adsorbent tubes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis. Isoprene was the most dominant compound emitted followed by monoterpenes, methanol and acetone. The average loss rates of VOC carbon in relation to the net CO2 assimilation were found below 4% and indicating normal unstressed plant behavior. Most of the Mediterranean species emitted a large variety of monoterpenes, whereas only five tropical species were identified as monoterpene emitters exhibiting a quite conservative emission pattern (α-pinene plants showed additional emissions of sesquiterpenes. In the case of Amazonian plants no sesquiterpenes were detected. However, missing of sesquiterpenes may also be due to a lack of sensitivity of the measuring systems. Furthermore, our screening activities cover only 1% of tree species of such tropical areas as estimated based on recent biodiversity reports. Methanol emissions, an indicator of growth, were found to be common in most of the tropical and Mediterranean species. A few species from both ecosystems showed acetone emissions. The observed heterogeneous emissions, including reactive VOC species which are not

  5. Leaf level emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC from some Amazonian and Mediterranean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bracho-Nunez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Emission inventories defining regional and global biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC emission strengths are needed to determine the impact of VOC on atmospheric chemistry (oxidative capacity and physics (secondary organic aerosol formation and effects. The aim of this work was to contribute with measurements of tree species from the poorly described tropical vegetation in direct comparison with the quite well-investigated, highly heterogeneous emissions from Mediterranean vegetation. VOC emission from sixteen plant species from the Mediterranean area were compared with twelve plant species from different environments of the Amazon basin by an emission screening at leaf level using branch enclosures. Analysis of the volatile organics was performed online by a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS and offline by collection on adsorbent tubes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis. Isoprene was the most dominant compound emitted followed by monoterpenes, methanol and acetone. The average loss rates of VOC carbon in relation to the net CO2 assimilation were found below 4% and indicating normal unstressed plant behavior. Most of the Mediterranean species emitted a large variety of monoterpenes, whereas only five tropical species were identified as monoterpene emitters exhibiting a quite conservative emission pattern (α-pinene < limonene < sabinene < ß-pinene. Mediterranean plants showed additional emissions of sesquiterpenes. In the case of Amazonian plants no sesquiterpenes were detected. However, missing of sesquiterpenes may also be due to a lack of sensitivity of the measuring systems. Furthermore, our screening activities cover only 1% of tree species of such tropical areas as estimated based on recent biodiversity reports. Methanol emissions, an indicator of growth, were found to be common in most of the tropical and Mediterranean species. A few species from both ecosystems showed acetone emissions. The observed

  6. Detection of new VOC compounds with iCRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Leen, J. B.; Gardner, A.; Gupta, M.; Baer, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The instrument at Los Gatos Research (a member of ABB Inc.) which is based on incoherent cavity ringdown spectroscopy (iCRDS) that operates in the mid-infrared (bands from 860-1060 cm-1 or 970-1280 cm-1) is capable of detecting a broad range of VOCs, in situ, continuously and autonomously, for example, BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), including differentiation of xylene isomers. Previously, we have demonstrated the measurement of trichloroethylene (TCE) in zero air with a precision of 0.17 ppb (1σ in 4 minutes), and the measurement of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) with a precision of 0.15 ppb (1σ in 4 minutes). Both of these measured precisions exceed the EPA's commercial building action limit, which for TCE is 0.92 ppb (5 µg/m3) and for PCE is 0.29 ppb (2 µg/m3). This ability has been fully demonstrated by the deployment of the instrument to the Superfund site at Moffett Naval Air Station in Mountain View, California where contaminated ground water results in vapor intrusion of TCE and PCE. For two weeks, the instrument operated continuously and autonomously, successfully measuring TCE and PCE concentrations in both the breathing zone and steam tunnel air, in excellent agreement with previous TO-15 data. In this poster, we present laboratory performance data targeting new toxic molecules with the same instrument. We have demonstrated the measurement of trichlorofluolomethane (Freon 11) in zero air with a precision of 1 ppb (3σ at 1075cm-1), and hexafluoropropene in zero air with a precision of about 0.3 ppb (3σ per spectrum). The iCRDS instrument has shown the ability to continuously and autonomously measure sub-ppb levels of toxic VOCs in the lab/field, offering an unprecedented picture of the short term dynamics associated with vapor intrusion and ground water pollution.

  7. Monitoring Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in real-time on oil and natural gas production sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupardus, R.; Franklin, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Oil and Natural Gas (O&NG) development, production, infrastructure, and associated processing activities can be a substantial source of air pollution, yet relevant data and real-time quantification methods are lacking. In the current study, O&NG fugitive emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) were quantified in real-time and used to determine the spatial and temporal windows of exposure for proximate flora and fauna. Eleven O&NG sites on the Pawnee National Grassland in Northeastern Colorado were randomly selected and grouped according to production along with 13 control sites from three geographical locations. At each site, samples were collected 25 m from the wellhead in NE, SE, and W directions. In each direction, two samples were collected with a Gasmet DX4040 gas analyzer every hour from 8:00 am to 2:00 pm (6 hours total), July to October, 2016 (N=864). VOC concentrations generally increased during the 6 hr. day with the exception of N2O and were predominately the result of O&NG production and not vehicle exhaust. Thirteen of 24 VOCs had significantly different levels between production groups, frequently above reference standards and at biologically relevant levels for flora and fauna. The most biologically relevant VOCs, found at concentrations exceeding time weighted average permissible exposure limits (TWA PELs), were benzene and acrolein. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEEs) measured the relative quality of statistical models predicting benzene concentrations on sites. The data not only confirms that O&NG emissions are impacting the region, but also that this influence is present at all sites, including controls. Increased real-time VOC monitoring on O&NG sites is required to identify and contain fugitive emissions and to protect human and environmental health.

  8. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs): chemical compositions and separation of sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Coggon, Matthew M.; Koss, Abigail R.; Warneke, Carsten; Eilerman, Scott; Peischl, Jeff; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2017-04-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) emit a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. In this study, we conducted mobile laboratory measurements of VOCs, methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) downwind of dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep and chicken CAFO facilities in northeastern Colorado using a hydronium ion time-of-flight chemical-ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+ ToF-CIMS), which can detect numerous VOCs. Regional measurements of CAFO emissions in northeastern Colorado were also performed using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) campaign. Alcohols and carboxylic acids dominate VOC concentrations and the reactivity of the VOCs with hydroxyl (OH) radicals. Sulfur-containing and phenolic species provide the largest contributions to the odor activity values and the nitrate radical (NO3) reactivity of VOC emissions, respectively. VOC compositions determined from mobile laboratory and aircraft measurements generally agree well with each other. The high time-resolution mobile measurements allow for the separation of the sources of VOCs from different parts of the operations occurring within the facilities. We show that the emissions of ethanol are primarily associated with feed storage and handling. Based on mobile laboratory measurements, we apply a multivariate regression analysis using NH3 and ethanol as tracers to determine the relative importance of animal-related emissions (animal exhalation and waste) and feed-related emissions (feed storage and handling) for different VOC species. Feed storage and handling contribute significantly to emissions of alcohols, carbonyls, carboxylic acids and sulfur-containing species. Emissions of phenolic species and nitrogen-containing species are predominantly associated with animals and their waste.

  9. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in pesticide factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bing; Wang, Tie-Yu; Pang, Bo; Zhu, Zhao-Yun; Wang, Dao-Han; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-12-01

    A method for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air by summa canister collecting and gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy detecting was adopted. Pollution condition and characteristics of VOCs were discussed in three representative pesticide factories in Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province. Meanwhile, an internationally recognized four-step evaluation model of health risk assessment was applied to preliminarily assess the health risk caused by atmospheric VOCs in different exposure ways, inhalation and dermal exposure. Results showed that serious total VOCs pollution existed in all factories. Concentrations of n-hexane (6161.90-6910.00 microg x m(-3)), benzene (126.00-179.30 microg x m(-3)) and 1,3-butadiene (115.00-177.30 microg x m(-3)) exceeded the Chronic Inhalation Reference Concentrations recommended by USEPA, corresponding to 700, 30 and 2 microg x m(-3), respectively. Concentration of dichloromethane (724.00 microg x m(-3)) in factory B was also higher than the reference concentration (600 microg x m(-3)). Results of health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic risk indexes of VOCs ranged from 1.00E-04 to 1.00E + 00 by inhalation exposure, and 1.00E-09 to 1.00E-05 by dermal exposure. Risk indexes of n-hexane and dichloromethane by inhalation exposure in all factories exceeded 1, and risk index of benzene by inhalation in factory B was also higher than 1. Carcinogenic risk indexes exposed to VOCs ranged from 1.00E-08 to 1.00E-03 by inhalation exposure and 1. oo00E -13 to 1.00E-08 by dermal exposure. Cancer risk of 1,3-butadiene by inhalation exceeded 1.0E-04, which lead to definite risk, and those of benzene by inhalation also exceeded the maximum allowable level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (5.0E-05). The risks of dermal exposure presented the same trend as inhalation exposure, but the level was much lower than that of inhalation exposure. Thus, inhalation exposure of atmospheric VOCs was the

  10. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 Section 60.502 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a...

  11. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from cooking and their speciation: A case study for Shanghai with implications for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongli; Xiang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Lina; Jing, Shengao; Lou, Shengrong; Tao, Shikang; Liu, Jing; Yu, Mingzhou; Li, Li; Lin, Li; Chen, Ying; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Chen, Changhong

    2018-04-15

    Cooking emission is one of sources for ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which is deleterious to air quality, climate and human health. These emissions are especially of great interest in large cities of East and Southeast Asia. We conducted a case study in which VOC emissions from kitchen extraction stacks have been sampled in total 57 times in the Megacity Shanghai. To obtain representative data, we sampled VOC emissions from kitchens, including restaurants of seven common cuisine types, canteens, and family kitchens. VOC species profiles and their chemical reactivities have been determined. The results showed that 51.26%±23.87% of alkane and 24.33±11.69% of oxygenated VOCs (O-VOCs) dominate the VOC cooking emissions. Yet, the VOCs with the largest ozone formation potential (OFP) and secondary organic aerosol potential (SOAP) were from the alkene and aromatic categories, accounting for 6.8-97.0% and 73.8-98.0%, respectively. Barbequing has the most potential of harming people's heath due to its significant higher emissions of acetaldehyde, hexanal, and acrolein. Methodologies for calculating VOC emission factors (EF) for restaurants that take into account VOCs emitted per person (EF person ), per kitchen stove (EF kitchen stove ) and per hour (EF hour ) are developed and discussed. Methodologies for deriving VOC emission inventories (S) from restaurants are further defined and discussed based on two categories: cuisine types (S type ) and restaurant scales (S scale ). The range of S type and S scale are 4124.33-7818.04t/year and 1355.11-2402.21t/year, respectively. We also found that S type and S scale for 100,000 people are 17.07-32.36t/year and 5.61-9.95t/year, respectively. Based on Environmental Kuznets Curve, the annual total amount of VOCs emissions from catering industry in different provinces in China was estimated, which was 5680.53t/year, 6122.43t/year, and 66,244.59t/year for Shangdong and Guangdong provinces and whole China, respectively

  12. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) measurements in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Chang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chen, Gao

    2008-03-01

    We measured levels of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at seven sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China during the Air Quality Monitoring Campaign spanning 4 October to 3 November 2004. Two of the sites, Guangzhou (GZ) and Xinken (XK), were intensive sites at which we collected multiple daily canister samples. The observations reported here provide a look at the VOC distribution, speciation, and photochemical implications in the PRD region. Alkanes constituted the largest percentage (>40%) in mixing ratios of the quantified VOCs at six sites; the exception was one major industrial site that was dominated by aromatics (about 52%). Highly elevated VOC levels occurred at GZ during two pollution episodes; however, the chemical composition of VOCs did not exhibit noticeable changes during these episodes. We calculated the OH loss rate to estimate the chemical reactivity of all VOCs. Of the anthropogenic VOCs, alkenes played a predominant role in VOC reactivity at GZ, whereas the contributions of reactive aromatics were more important at XK. Our preliminary analysis of the VOC correlations suggests that the ambient VOCs at GZ came directly from local sources (i.e., automobiles); those at XK were influenced by both local emissions and transportation of air mass from upwind areas.

  13. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC measurements in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-chung Chang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured levels of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs at seven sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region of China during the Air Quality Monitoring Campaign spanning 4 October to 3 November 2004. Two of the sites, Guangzhou (GZ and Xinken (XK, were intensive sites at which we collected multiple daily canister samples. The observations reported here provide a look at the VOC distribution, speciation, and photochemical implications in the PRD region. Alkanes constituted the largest percentage (>40% in mixing ratios of the quantified VOCs at six sites; the exception was one major industrial site that was dominated by aromatics (about 52%. Highly elevated VOC levels occurred at GZ during two pollution episodes; however, the chemical composition of VOCs did not exhibit noticeable changes during these episodes. We calculated the OH loss rate to estimate the chemical reactivity of all VOCs. Of the anthropogenic VOCs, alkenes played a predominant role in VOC reactivity at GZ, whereas the contributions of reactive aromatics were more important at XK. Our preliminary analysis of the VOC correlations suggests that the ambient VOCs at GZ came directly from local sources (i.e., automobiles; those at XK were influenced by both local emissions and transportation of air mass from upwind areas.

  14. Major reactive species of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their sources in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO; Min; FU; Linlin; LIU; Ying; LU; Sihua; ZHANG; Yuanhan

    2005-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors of atmospheric chemical processes. As a whole mixture, the ambient VOCs show very strong chemical reactivity. Based on OH radical loss rates in the air, the chemical reactivity of VOCs in Beijing was calculated. The results revealed that alkenes, accounting for only about 15% in the mixing ratio of VOCs, provide nearly 75% of the reactivity of ambient VOCs and the C4 to C5 alkenes were the major reactive species among the alkenes. The study of emission characteristics of various VOCs sources indicated that these alkenes are mainly from vehicle exhaust and gasoline evaporation. The reduction of alkene species in these two sources will be effective in photochemical pollution control in Beijing.

  15. Characteristics of Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Measured in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chang-Jie; Geng, Fu-Hai; Tie, Xue-Xi; Yu, Qiong; Peng, Li; Zhou, Guang-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the characteristics of ambient abundance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Shanghai, one of the biggest metropolis of China, VOCs were measured with a gas chromatography system equipped with a mass-selective detector (GC/MSD) from July 2006 to February 2010. An intensive measurement campaign was conducted (eight samples per day with a 3 hour interval) during May 2009. The comparison of ambient VOCs collected in different regions of Shanghai shows that the concentrations are slightly higher in the busy commercial area (28.9 ppbv at Xujiaui) than in the urban administrative area (24.3 ppbv at Pudong). However, during the intensive measurement period, the concentrations in the large steel industrial area (28.7 ppbv at Baoshan) were much higher than in the urban administrative area (18 ppbv at Pudong), especially for alkanes, alkenes, and toluene. The seasonal variations of ambient VOC concentrations measured at the Xujiahui sampling site indicate that the VOC concentrations are significantly affected by meteorological conditions (such as wind direction and precipitation). In addition, although alkanes are the most abundant VOCs at the Xujiahui measurement site, the most important VOCs contributing to ozone formation potential (OFP) are aromatics, accounting for 57% of the total OFP. The diurnal variations of VOC concentrations show that VOC concentrations are higher on weekdays than in weekends at the Xujiahui sampling site, suggesting that traffic condition and human activities have important impacts on VOC emissions in Shanghai. The evidence also shows that the major sources of isoprene are mainly resulted from gasoline evaporation at a particular time (06:00–09:00) in the busy commercial area. The results gained from this study provide useful information for better understanding the characteristics of ambient VOCs and the sources of VOCs in Shanghai. PMID:22163629

  16. Characteristics of Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs Measured in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Qiang Zhou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the characteristics of ambient abundance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Shanghai, one of the biggest metropolis of China, VOCs were measured with a gas chromatography system equipped with a mass-selective detector (GC/MSD from July 2006 to February 2010. An intensive measurement campaign was conducted (eight samples per day with a 3 hour interval during May 2009. The comparison of ambient VOCs collected in different regions of Shanghai shows that the concentrations are slightly higher in the busy commercial area (28.9 ppbv at Xujiaui than in the urban administrative area (24.3 ppbv at Pudong. However, during the intensive measurement period, the concentrations in the large steel industrial area (28.7 ppbv at Baoshan were much higher than in the urban administrative area (18 ppbv at Pudong, especially for alkanes, alkenes, and toluene. The seasonal variations of ambient VOC concentrations measured at the Xujiahui sampling site indicate that the VOC concentrations are significantly affected by meteorological conditions (such as wind direction and precipitation. In addition, although alkanes are the most abundant VOCs at the Xujiahui measurement site, the most important VOCs contributing to ozone formation potential (OFP are aromatics, accounting for 57% of the total OFP. The diurnal variations of VOC concentrations show that VOC concentrations are higher on weekdays than in weekends at the Xujiahui sampling site, suggesting that traffic condition and human activities have important impacts on VOC emissions in Shanghai. The evidence also shows that the major sources of isoprene are mainly resulted from gasoline evaporation at a particular time (06:00–09:00 in the busy commercial area. The results gained from this study provide useful information for better understanding the characteristics of ambient VOCs and the sources of VOCs in Shanghai.

  17. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in Conventional and High Performance School Buildings in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexuan Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs has been an indoor environmental quality (IEQ concern in schools and other buildings for many years. Newer designs, construction practices and building materials for “green” buildings and the use of “environmentally friendly” products have the promise of lowering chemical exposure. This study examines VOCs and IEQ parameters in 144 classrooms in 37 conventional and high performance elementary schools in the U.S. with the objectives of providing a comprehensive analysis and updating the literature. Tested schools were built or renovated in the past 15 years, and included comparable numbers of conventional, Energy Star, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED-certified buildings. Indoor and outdoor VOC samples were collected and analyzed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy for 94 compounds. Aromatics, alkanes and terpenes were the major compound groups detected. Most VOCs had mean concentrations below 5 µg/m3, and most indoor/outdoor concentration ratios ranged from one to 10. For 16 VOCs, the within-school variance of concentrations exceeded that between schools and, overall, no major differences in VOC concentrations were found between conventional and high performance buildings. While VOC concentrations have declined from levels measured in earlier decades, opportunities remain to improve indoor air quality (IAQ by limiting emissions from building-related sources and by increasing ventilation rates.

  18. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Conventional and High Performance School Buildings in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lexuan; Su, Feng-Chiao; Batterman, Stuart

    2017-01-21

    Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been an indoor environmental quality (IEQ) concern in schools and other buildings for many years. Newer designs, construction practices and building materials for "green" buildings and the use of "environmentally friendly" products have the promise of lowering chemical exposure. This study examines VOCs and IEQ parameters in 144 classrooms in 37 conventional and high performance elementary schools in the U.S. with the objectives of providing a comprehensive analysis and updating the literature. Tested schools were built or renovated in the past 15 years, and included comparable numbers of conventional, Energy Star, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-certified buildings. Indoor and outdoor VOC samples were collected and analyzed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy for 94 compounds. Aromatics, alkanes and terpenes were the major compound groups detected. Most VOCs had mean concentrations below 5 µg/m³, and most indoor/outdoor concentration ratios ranged from one to 10. For 16 VOCs, the within-school variance of concentrations exceeded that between schools and, overall, no major differences in VOC concentrations were found between conventional and high performance buildings. While VOC concentrations have declined from levels measured in earlier decades, opportunities remain to improve indoor air quality (IAQ) by limiting emissions from building-related sources and by increasing ventilation rates.

  19. Development of a novel biofilter for aerobic biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govind, R.; Utgikar, V.; Shan, Y.; Zhao, Wang; Sayles, G.D.; Bishop, D.F.; Safferman, S.I.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the emission into the atmosphere of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has undergone increased regulation by EPA, OSHA and other government agencies due to potential human health hazards. The sources of these VOCs include releases during industrial production and use, from contaminated wastewaters in collection systems and treatment plants, and from hazardous wastes in landfills and contaminated ground water. Conventional methods for treating VOC emissions include adsorption on solids, absorption in solvents, incineration and catalytic oxidation. One alternative to these conventional treatment methods is the biological destruction of the VOCs in gas phase biofilters. This method has the advantage of pollution destruction (as compared to transfer to another medium) at lower operation and maintenance costs. The biofilter method also can be combined with various stripping or vapor extraction separation processes which effectively transfer VOCs from liquid or solid matrices into the gas phase entering biofilters

  20. Field observations of volatile organic compound (VOC) exchange in red oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellin, Luca; Algarra Alarcon, Alberto; Herdlinger-Blatt, Irina; Sanchez, Juaquin; Biasioli, Franco; Martin, Scot T.; Loreto, Francesco; McKinney, Karena A.

    2017-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by forests strongly affect the chemical composition of the atmosphere. While the emission of isoprenoids has been largely characterized, forests also exchange many oxygenated VOCs (oVOCs), including methanol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and acetaldehyde, which are less well understood. We monitored total branch-level exchange of VOCs of a strong isoprene emitter (Quercus rubra L.) in a mixed forest in New England, where canopy-level fluxes of VOCs had been previously measured. We report daily exchange of several oVOCs and investigated unknown sources and sinks, finding several novel insights. In particular, we found that emission of MEK is linked to uptake of methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), a product of isoprene oxidation. The link was confirmed by corollary experiments proving in vivo detoxification of MVK, which is harmful to plants. Comparison of MEK, MVK, and isoprene fluxes provided an indirect indication of within-plant isoprene oxidation. Furthermore, besides confirming bidirectional exchange of acetaldehyde, we also report for the first time direct evidence of benzaldehyde bidirectional exchange in forest plants. Net emission or deposition of benzaldehyde was found in different periods of measurements, indicating an unknown foliar sink that may influence atmospheric concentrations. Other VOCs, including methanol, acetone, and monoterpenes, showed clear daily emission trends but no deposition. Measured VOC emission and deposition rates were generally consistent with their ecosystem-scale flux measurements at a nearby site.

  1. Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2006-06-01

    A system that captures and analyzes volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from skin surfaces may offer a viable alternative method to the polygraph instrument currently in use for detecting deception in U.S. government settings. Like the involuntary autonomic central nervous system response data gathered during polygraph testing, VOC emissions from the skin may provide data that can be used to detect stress caused by deception. Detecting VOCs, then, may present a noninvasive, non-intrusive method for observing, recording, and quantifying evidence of stress or emotional change.

  2. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) source profiles of on-road vehicle emissions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Li, Wang; Sheng-Ao, Jing; Sheng-Rong, Lou; Qing-Yao, Hu; Li, Li; Shi-Kang, Tao; Cheng, Huang; Li-Ping, Qiao; Chang-Hong, Chen

    2017-12-31

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) source profiles of on-road vehicles were widely studied as their critical roles in VOCs source apportionment and abatement measures in megacities. Studies of VOCs source profiles from on-road motor vehicles from 2001 to 2016 were summarized in this study, with a focus on the comparisons among different studies and the potential impact of different factors. Generally, non-methane hydrocarbons dominated the source profile of on-road vehicle emissions. Carbonyls, potential important components of vehicle emission, were seldom considered in VOCs emissions of vehicles in the past and should be paid more attention to in further study. VOCs source profiles showed some variations among different studies, and 6 factors were extracted and studied due to their impact to VOCs source profile of on-road vehicles. Vehicle types, being dependent on engine types, and fuel types were two dominant factors impacting VOCs sources profiles of vehicles. In comparison, impacts of ignitions, driving conditions and accumulated mileage were mainly due to their influence on the combustion efficiency. An opening and interactive database of VOCs from vehicle emissions was critically essential in future, and mechanisms of sharing and inputting relative research results should be formed to encourage researchers join the database establishment. Correspondingly, detailed quality assurance and quality control procedures were also very important, which included the information of test vehicles and test methods as detailed as possible. Based on the community above, a better uncertainty analysis could be carried out for the VOCs emissions profiles, which was critically important to understand the VOCs emission characteristics of the vehicle emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sesquiterpene volatile organic compounds (VOCs are markers of elicitation by sulfated laminarine in grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik eChalal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Inducing resistance in plants by application of elicitors of defense reactions is an attractive plant protection strategy, especially for grapevine (Vitis vinifera which is susceptible to severe fungal diseases. Though induced resistance (IR can be successful in controlled conditions, under outdoor conditions IR is in most cases not effective enough for practical disease control. Progress in the application of IR requires a better understanding of grapevine defense mechanisms and the ability to monitor defense markers in order to identify factors (physiological, environmental… that can impact IR in the vineyard.Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are well-known plant defenses compounds that have only received little or no attention in the case of grape-pathogen interactions to date. This prompted us to investigate whether an elicitor, the sulfated laminarin (PS3, actually induces the production of VOCs in grapevine. Online analysis (PTR-QMS of VOC emissions in dynamic cuvettes and passive sampling in gas tight bags with solid phase micro extraction (SPME-GC-MS under greenhouse conditions showed that PS3 elicited emission of VOCs. Some of them (as (E,E-α-farnesene might be good candidates as biomarkers of elicitor-IR whereas methyl salicylate appears to be rather a biomarker of downy mildew infection. A negative correlation between VOC emission and disease severity suggests a positive role of VOCs in grape defense against diseases.

  4. Solid phase microextraction: measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Dhaka City air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussam, A; Alauddin, M; Khan, A H; Chowdhury, D; Bibi, H; Bhattacharjee, M; Sultana, S

    2002-08-01

    A solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique was applied for the sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air polluted by two stroke autorickshaw engines and automobile exhausts in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Analysis was carried out by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). The methodology was tested by insitu sampling of an aromatic hydrocarbon mixture gas standard with a precision of +/-5% and an average accuracy of 1-20%. The accuracy for total VOCs concentration measurement was about 7%. VOC's in ambient air were collected by exposing the SPME fiber at four locations in Dhaka city. The chromatograms showed signature similar to that of unburned gasoline (petrol) and weathered diesel containing more than 200 organic compounds; some of these compounds were positively identified. These are normal hydrocarbons pentane (n-C5H2) through nonacosane (n-C29H60), aromatic hydrocarbons: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene, n-butylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, xylenes, and 1-isocyanato-3-methoxybenzene. Two samples collected near an autorickshaw station contained 783000 and 1479000 microg/m3 of VOCs. In particular, the concentration of toluene was 50-100 times higher than the threshold limiting value of 2000 microg/m3. Two other samples collected on street median showed 135000 microg/m3 and 180000 microg/m3 of total VOCs. The method detection limit of the technique for most semi-volatile organic compounds was 1 microg/m3.

  5. Nematicidal effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs on the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Batista Fialho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that volatile organic compounds (VOCs, produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were able to inhibit the development of phytopathogenic fungi. In this context, the nematicidal potential of the synthetic mixture of VOCs, constituted of alcohols and esters, was evaluated for the control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica, which causes losses to crops of high economic value. The fumigation of substrate containing second-stage juveniles with VOCs exhibited nematicidal effect higher than 30% for the lowest concentration tested (33.3 µL g-1 substrate, whereas at 66.6 and 133.3 µL g-1 substrate, the nematode mortality was 100%. The present results stimulate other studies on VOCs for nematode management.

  6. Release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from the lung cancer cell line CALU-1 in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schubert Jochen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work was to confirm the existence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs specifically released or consumed by lung cancer cells. Methods 50 million cells of the human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell line CALU-1 were incubated in a sealed fermenter for 4 h or over night (18 hours. Then air samples from the headspace of the culture vessel were collected and preconcentrated by adsorption on solid sorbents with subsequent thermodesorption and analysis by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Identification of altogether 60 compounds in GCMS measurement was done not only by spectral library match, but also by determination of retention times established with calibration mixtures of the respective pure compounds. Results The results showed a significant increase in the concentrations of 2,3,3-trimethylpentane, 2,3,5-trimethylhexane, 2,4-dimethylheptane and 4-methyloctane in the headspace of CALU-1 cell culture as compared to medium controls after 18 h. Decreased concentrations after 18 h of incubation were found for acetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanal, butyl acetate, acetonitrile, acrolein, methacrolein, 2-methylpropanal, 2-butanone, 2-methoxy-2-methylpropane, 2-ethoxy-2-methylpropane, and hexanal. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that certain volatile compounds can be cancer-cell derived and thus indicative of the presence of a tumor, whereas other compounds are not released but seem to be consumed by CALU-1 cells.

  7. Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Calgary, Alberta: Sources and screening health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2018-08-01

    Exposure to ambient volatile organic compound (VOCs) in urban areas is of interest because of their potential chronic and acute adverse effects to public health. Limited information is available about VOC sources in urban areas in Canada. An investigation of ambient VOCs levels, their potential sources and associated risks to public health was undertaken for the urban core of Alberta's largest city (downtown Calgary) for the period 2010-2015. Twenty-four hour arithmetic and geometric mean concentrations of total VOCs were 42μg/m 3 and 39μg/m 3 , respectively and ranged from 16 to 160μg/m 3 , with winter levels about two-fold higher than summer. Alkanes (58%) were the most dominant compounds followed by halogenated VOCs (22%) and aromatics (11%). Mean and maximum 24h ambient concentrations of selected VOCs of public health concern were below chronic and acute health risk screening criteria of the United States regulatory agencies and a cancer screening benchmark used in Alberta equivalent to 1 in 100,000 lifetime risk. The Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model revealed nine VOC sources at downtown Calgary, where oil/natural gas extraction/combustion (26%), fuel combustion (20%), traffic sources including gasoline exhaust, diesel exhaust, mixed fugitive emissions (10-15%), and industrial coatings/solvents (12%) were predominant. Other sources included dry cleaning (3.3%), biogenic (3.5%) and a background source (18%). Source-specific health risk values were also estimated. Estimated cancer risks for all sources were below the Alberta cancer screening benchmark, and estimated non-cancer risks for all sources were well below a safe level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Adsorptive performance of chromium-containing ordered mesoporous silica on volatile organic compounds (VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Fan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are the primary poisonous emissions into the atmosphere in natural gas exploitation and disposing process. The adsorption method has been widely applied in actual production because of its good features such as low cost, low energy consumption, flexible devices needed, etc. The commonly used adsorbents like activated carbon, silicon molecular sieves and so on are not only susceptible to plugging or spontaneous combustion but difficult to be recycled. In view of this, a new adsorbent (CrSBA15 was made by the co-assembly method to synthesize the ordered mesoporous silica materials with different amounts of chromium to eliminate VOCs. This new adsorbent was characterized by small-angle-X-ray scattering (SAXS, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Its adsorption performance to eliminate VOCs (toluene, benzene, cyclohexane and ethyl acetate used as typical pollutants was also tested systematically. Research results indicate that this new adsorbent of CrSBA-15(30, with the silicon/chromium ration being 30, owns the maximum micropore volume, and shows a higher adsorption performance in eliminating toluene, benzene, cyclohexane and ethyl acetate. Besides, it is cost-effective and much easier to be recycled than the activated carbon. In conclusion, CrSBA-15(30 is a good adsorbent to eliminate VOCs with broad application prospects. Keywords: Mesoporous materials, Silicon dioxide, Synthesis, Adsorption, Volatile organic compounds (VOCs, Recyclability, Energy saving

  9. Chlorinated and Non chlorinated-Volatile Organic Compounds (Vocs) in Drinking Water of Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Pauzi Abdullah; Chian, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    A survey undertaken in Peninsular Malaysia has shown that volatile organic compounds (VOCs), both chlorinated and non-chlorinated, are present in selected drinking water samples. In this study, analyses of VOCs were performed by means of solid phase micro extraction (SPME) with a 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibre followed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry detector (GC-MSD). Samples from different points of the distribution system networks were taken and analysed for 54 VOCs of different chemical families. The results of the study indicated that chloroform constituted the major portion of the VOCs in all samples analysed. In addition to trihalo methanes (THMs), other abundant compounds detected were cis and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, 1,2-dibromoethane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene. However, the measured concentrations did not exceed the National Guideline for Drinking Water Quality 2000 in any case. No clear relationship between the status of development of a state in Malaysia to the levels and types of VOCs detected in its drinking water was noted. Nevertheless, the finding of anthropogenic chemicals, even at low concentrations, gave credibility to the viewpoint that improper development and disposal practices threatened the purity of the drinking water. (author)

  10. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Dairy Cows and Their Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, S.; Holzinger, R.; Mitloehner, F.; Goldstein, A.

    2005-12-01

    Biogenic VOCs are typically defined as those directly emitted from plants, but approximately 6% of global net primary production is consumed by cattle that carry out enteric fermentation and then emit VOCs that could also be considered biogenic. Current regulatory estimates suggest that dairy cattle in central California emit VOCs at rates comparable to those from passenger vehicles in the region, and thus contribute significantly to the extreme non-attainment of ozone standards there. We report PTR-MS measurements of ammonia and VOCs, and cavity-enhanced-absorption gas analyzer (Los Gatos Research, Inc.) measurements of CH4, emitted from dairy cattle in various stages of pregnancy/lactation and their waste. Experiments were conducted in chambers at UC Davis that simulate freestall cow housing conditions. CH4 fluxes ranged from 125-374 lb/cow/year. The compounds with the highest fluxes from '3 cows+waste' treatments were: ammonia (1-18), methanol (0-2.3), acetone+propanal (0.2-0.7), dimethylsulfide (0-0.4), and mass 109 (likely ID = p-cresol; 0-0.3) in lb/cow/year. Mass 60 (likely ID = trimethylamine) and acetic acid were also abundant. There were 10s of additional compounds with detectable, but small, emissions. A few compounds that were likely emitted (i.e. ethanol, formaldehyde, and dimethylamine) were not quantified by the PTR-MS. The total flux for all measured organic gases (TOG = CH4 + PTR-MS VOCs(including acetone+propanal)) averaged 246±45 lb/cow/year for '3 cows+waste' treatments, and was dominated by methane (>98%). TOG flux for 'waste only' treatments averaged 1.1±0.1 lb/cow/year, and was instead dominated by VOC (>84%). The PTR-MS VOCs as a percent of TOG (0.6±0.2%) emitted from '3 cows+waste' treatments in chamber conditions was a factor of 10 smaller than that currently estimated by the California Air Resources Board. In addition, the ozone forming potentials of the most abundant VOCs are only about 10% those of typical combustion or plant

  11. Productions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Surface Waters from Reactions with Atmospheric Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Frances; Bell, Thomas; Yang, Mingxi

    2017-04-01

    Ozone (O3) is a key atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and air pollutant. In marine environments, some atmospheric ozone is lost by reactions with aqueous compounds (e.g. dissolved organic material, DOM, dimethyl sulfide, DMS, and iodide) near the sea surface. These reactions also lead to formations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Removal of O3 by the ocean remains a large uncertainty in global and regional chemical transport models, hampering coastal air quality forecasts. To better understand the role of the ocean in controlling O3 concentrations in the coastal marine atmosphere, we designed and implemented a series of laboratory experiments whereby ambient surface seawater was bubbled with O3-enriched, VOC-free air in a custom-made glass bubble equilibration system. Gas phase concentrations of a range of VOCs were monitored continuously over the mass range m/z 33 - 137 at the outflow of the bubble equilibrator by a proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Gas phase O3 was also measured at the input and output of the equilibrator to monitor the uptake due to reactions with dissolved compounds in seawater. We observed consistent productions of a variety of VOCs upon reaction with O3, notably isoprene, aldehydes, and ketones. Aqueous DMS is rapidly removed from the reactions with O3. To test the importance of dissolved organic matter precursors, we added increasing (milliliter) volumes of Emiliania huxleyi culture to the equilibrator filled with aged seawater, and observed significant linear increases in gas phase concentrations of a number of VOCs. Reactions between DOM and O3 at the sea-air interface represent a potentially significant source of VOCs in marine air and a sink of atmospheric O3.

  12. Contribution of low vapor pressure-volatile organic compounds (LVP-VOCs) from consumer products to ozone formation in urban atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; McKone, Thomas E.; Bennett, Deborah H.

    2015-05-01

    Because recent laboratory testing indicates that some low vapor pressure-volatile organic compounds (LVP-VOC) solvents readily evaporate at ambient conditions, LVP-VOCs used in some consumer product formulations may contribute to ozone formation. The goal of this study is to determine the fraction of LVP-VOCs available for ozone formation from the use of consumer products for two hypothetical emissions. This study calculates and compares the fraction of consumed product available for ozone formation as a result of (a) volatilization to air during use and (b) down-the-drain disposal. The study also investigates the impact of different modes of releases on the overall fraction available in ambient air for ozone formation. For the portion of the LVP-VOCs volatilized to air during use, we applied a multi-compartment mass-balance model to track the fate of emitted LVP-VOCs in a multimedia urban environment. For the portion of the LVP-VOCs disposed down the drain, we used a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) fate model to predict the emission rates of LVP-VOCs to ambient air at WWTPs or at the discharge zone of the facilities and then used these results as emissions in the multimedia urban environment model. In a WWTP, the LVP-VOCs selected in this study are primarily either biodegraded or removed via sorption to sludge depending on the magnitude of the biodegradation half-life and the octanol-water partition coefficient. Less than 0.2% of the LVP-VOCs disposed down the drain are available for ozone formation. In contrast, when the LVP-VOC in a consumer product is volatilized from the surface to which it has been applied, greater than 90% is available for photochemical reactions either at the source location or in the downwind areas. Comparing results from these two modes of releases allows us to understand the importance of determining the fraction of LVP-VOCs volatilized versus disposed down the drain when the product is used by consumers. The results from this study

  13. [Characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission from electronic products processing and manufacturing factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ru; Ma, Yong-Liang

    2013-12-01

    Based on the EPA method T0-11 and 14/15 for measurement of toxic organics in air samples, fast VOCs detector, Summa canister and DNPH absorbent were used to determine the VOCs concentrations and the compositions in the ambient air of the workshops for different processes as well as the emission concentration in the exhaust gas. In all processes that involved VOCs release, concentrations of total VOCs in the workshops were 0.1-0.5 mg x m(-3), 1.5-2.5 mg x m(-3) and 20-200 mg x m(-3) for casting, cutting and painting respectively. Main compositions of VOCs in those workshops were alkanes, eneynes, aromatics, ketones, esters and ethers, totally over 20 different species. The main compositions in painting workshop were aromatics and ketones, among which the concentration of benzene was 0.02-0.34 mg x m(-3), toluene was 0.24-3.35 mg x m(-3), ethyl benzene was 0.04-1.33 mg x m(-3), p-xylene was 0.13-0.96 mg x m(-3), m-xylene was 0.02-1.18 mg x m(-3), acetone was 0.29-15.77 mg x m(-3), 2-butanone was 0.06-22.88 mg x m(-3), cyclohexene was 0.02-25.79 mg x m(-3), and methyl isobutyl ketone was 0-21.29 mg x m(-3). The VOCs emission from painting process was about 14 t x a(-1) for one single manufacturing line, and 840 t x a(-1) for the whole factory. According to the work flows and product processes, the solvent used during painting process was the main source of VOCs emission, and the exhaust gas was the main emission point.

  14. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detection using plasmonic bimetallic nanogap substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chi Lok; Dinish, U. S.; Buddharaju, Kavitha Devi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detection with bimetallic nanogap structure substrate. Deep UV photolithography at the wavelength of 250 nm is used to pattern circular shape nanostructures. The nanogap between adjacent cir......-based VOCs detection platform for point-of-care breath analysis, homeland security, chemical sensing and environmental monitoring....

  15. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Air Monitoring Program design for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, L.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Monitoring Program has been developed as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) No-Migration Variance petition submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The program is designed to demonstrate that there will be no migration of hazardous chemicals past the unit boundary in concentrations which exceed any health-based standards. The monitoring program will use EPA compendium Method TO-14. Both air and carbon sorption media samples will be collected as part of the program. Eleven separate monitoring sites have been selected where both 24-hour integrated and 1-hour grab samples will be collected and analyzed for five target compounds. The bin-scale experimental test rooms will be configured with a gas collection manifold and an activated carbon sorption bed to remove VOCs before they can be emitted into the WIPP underground atmosphere. 10 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  16. A comparison of sample preparation methods for extracting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from equine faeces using HS-SPME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Rachael; Archer, Debra; Probert, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Disturbance to the hindgut microbiota can be detrimental to equine health. Metabolomics provides a robust approach to studying the functional aspect of hindgut microorganisms. Sample preparation is an important step towards achieving optimal results in the later stages of analysis. The preparation of samples is unique depending on the technique employed and the sample matrix to be analysed. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) is one of the most widely used platforms for the study of metabolomics and until now an optimised method has not been developed for equine faeces. To compare a sample preparation method for extracting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from equine faeces. Volatile organic compounds were determined by headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GCMS). Factors investigated were the mass of equine faeces, type of SPME fibre coating, vial volume and storage conditions. The resultant method was unique to those developed for other species. Aliquots of 1000 or 2000 mg in 10 ml or 20 ml SPME headspace were optimal. From those tested, the extraction of VOCs should ideally be performed using a divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethysiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS) SPME fibre. Storage of faeces for up to 12 months at - 80 °C shared a greater percentage of VOCs with a fresh sample than the equivalent stored at - 20 °C. An optimised method for extracting VOCs from equine faeces using HS-SPME-GCMS has been developed and will act as a standard to enable comparisons between studies. This work has also highlighted storage conditions as an important factor to consider in experimental design for faecal metabolomics studies.

  17. Belowground communication: impacts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soil fungi on other soil-inhabiting organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Stephanie; Polle, Andrea; Brinkmann, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    We reviewed the impact of fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on soil-inhabiting organisms and their physiological and molecular consequences for their targets. Because fungi can only move by growth to distinct directions, a main mechanism to protect themselves from enemies or to manipulate their surroundings is the secretion of exudates or VOCs. The importance of VOCs in this regard has been significantly underestimated. VOCs not only can be means of communication, but also signals that are able to specifically manipulate the recipient. VOCs can reprogram root architecture of symbiotic partner plants or increase plant growth leading to enlarged colonization surfaces. VOCs are also able to enhance plant resistance against pathogens by activating phytohormone-dependent signaling pathways. In some cases, they were phytotoxic. Because the response was specific to distinct species, fungal VOCs may contribute to regulate the competition of plant communities. Additionally, VOCs are used by the producing fungus to attack rivaling fungi or bacteria, thereby protecting the emitter or its nutrient sources. In addition, animals, like springtails, nematodes, and earthworms, which are important components of the soil food web, respond to fungal VOCs. Some VOCs are effective repellents for nematodes and, therefore, have applications as biocontrol agents. In conclusion, this review shows that fungal VOCs have a huge impact on soil fauna and flora, but the underlying mechanisms, how VOCs are perceived by the recipients, how they manipulate their targets and the resulting ecological consequences of VOCs in inter-kingdom signaling is only partly understood. These knowledge gaps are left to be filled by future studies.

  18. New device for time-averaged measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago Sánchez, Noemí; Tejada Alarcón, Sergio; Tortajada Santonja, Rafael; Llorca-Pórcel, Julio

    2014-07-01

    Contamination by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the environment is an increasing concern since these compounds are harmful to ecosystems and even to human health. Actually, many of them are considered toxic and/or carcinogenic. The main sources of pollution come from very diffuse focal points such as industrial discharges, urban water and accidental spills as these compounds may be present in many products and processes (i.e., paints, fuels, petroleum products, raw materials, solvents, etc.) making their control difficult. The presence of these compounds in groundwater, influenced by discharges, leachate or effluents of WWTPs is especially problematic. In recent years, law has been increasingly restrictive with the emissions of these compounds. From an environmental point of view, the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) sets out some VOCs as priority substances. This binding directive sets guidelines to control compounds such as benzene, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride to be at a very low level of concentration and with a very high frequency of analysis. The presence of VOCs in the various effluents is often highly variable and discontinuous since it depends on the variability of the sources of contamination. Therefore, in order to have complete information of the presence of these contaminants and to effectively take preventive measures, it is important to continuously control, requiring the development of new devices which obtain average concentrations over time. As of today, due to technical limitations, there are no devices on the market that allow continuous sampling of these compounds in an efficient way and to facilitate sufficient detection limits to meet the legal requirements which are capable of detecting very sporadic and of short duration discharges. LABAQUA has developed a device which consists of a small peristaltic pump controlled by an electronic board that governs its operation by pre-programming. A constant flow passes

  19. Screening the Emission Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in China Based on Multi-effect Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, H., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere have adverse impacts via three main pathways: photochemical ozone formation, secondary organic aerosol production, and direct toxicity to humans. Few studies have integrated these effects to prioritize control measures for VOCs sources. In this study, we developed a multi-effect evaluation methodology based on updated emission inventories and source profiles, which was combined with ozone formation potential (OFP), secondary organic aerosol potential (SOAP), and VOC toxicity data to identify important emission sources and key species. We derived species-specific emission inventories for 152 sources. The OFPs, SOAPs, and toxicity of each source were determined, and the contribution and share of each source to each of these adverse effects was calculated. Weightings were given to the three adverse effects by expert scoring, and the integrated impact was determined. Using 2012 as the base year, solvent usage and industrial process were found to be the most important anthropogenic sources, accounting for 24.2 and 23.1% of the integrated environmental effect, respectively. This was followed by biomass burning, transportation, and fossil fuel combustion, all of which had a similar contribution ranging from 16.7 to 18.6%. The top five industrial sources, including plastic products, rubber products, chemical fiber products, the chemical industry, and oil refining, accounted for nearly 70.0% of industrial emissions. In China, emissions reductions are required for styrene, toluene, ethylene, benzene, and m/p-xylene. The 10 most abundant chemical species contributed 76.5% of the integrated impact. Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Guangdong were the five leading provinces when considering the integrated effects. Besides, the chemical mass balance model (CMB) was used to verify the VOCs inventories of 47 cities in China, so as to optimize our evaluation results. We suggest that multi-effect evaluation is necessary to

  20. Biomass burning contribution to ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Chengdu-Chongqing Region (CCR), China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyu; Chen, Yuan; Zeng, Limin; Shao, Min; Xie, Shaodong; Chen, Wentai; Lu, Sihua; Wu, Yusheng; Cao, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured intensively using an online gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID) at Ziyang in the Chengdu-Chongqing Region (CCR) from 6 December 2012 to 4 January 2013. Alkanes contributed the most (59%) to mixing ratios of measured non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), while aromatics contributed the least (7%). Methanol was the most abundant oxygenated VOC (OVOC), contributing 42% to the total amount of OVOCs. Significantly elevated VOC levels occurred during three pollution events, but the chemical composition of VOCs did not differ between polluted and clean days. The OH loss rates of VOCs were calculated to estimate their chemical reactivity. Alkenes played a predominant role in VOC reactivity, among which ethylene and propene were the largest contributors; the contributions of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were also considerable. Biomass burning had a significant influence on ambient VOCs during our study. We chose acetonitrile as a tracer and used enhancement ratio to estimate the contribution of biomass burning to ambient VOCs. Biomass burning contributed 9.4%-36.8% to the mixing ratios of selected VOC species, and contributed most (>30% each) to aromatics, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde.

  1. Technology projects for characterization--monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junk, G.A.; Haas, W.J. Jr.

    1992-07-01

    One hundred thirty technology project titles related to the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at an arid site are listed alphabetically by first contact person in a master compilation that includes phone numbers, addresses, keywords, and short descriptions. Separate tables are presented for 62 field-demonstrated, 36 laboratory-demonstrated, and 35 developing technology projects. The technology projects in each of these three categories are also prioritized in separate summary tables. Additional tables are presented for a number of other categorizations of the technology projects: In Situ; Fiberoptic; Mass Spectrometer; Optical Spectroscopy; Raman or SERS; Ion Mobility or Acoustic; Associated; and Commercial. Four lists of contact person names are provided so details concerning the projects that deal with sampling, and VOCs in gases, waters, and soils (sediments) can be obtained. Finally, seven wide-ranging conclusions based on observations and experiences during this work are presented.

  2. A Novel Wireless Wearable Volatile Organic Compound (VOC Monitoring Device with Disposable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Deng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel portable wireless volatile organic compound (VOC monitoring device with disposable sensors is presented. The device is miniaturized, light, easy-to-use, and cost-effective. Different field tests have been carried out to identify the operational, analytical, and functional performance of the device and its sensors. The device was compared to a commercial photo-ionization detector, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and carbon monoxide detector. In addition, environmental operational conditions, such as barometric change, temperature change and wind conditions were also tested to evaluate the device performance. The multiple comparisons and tests indicate that the proposed VOC device is adequate to characterize personal exposure in many real-world scenarios and is applicable for personal daily use.

  3. Technology projects for characterization--monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junk, G.A.; Haas, W.J. Jr.

    1992-07-01

    One hundred thirty technology project titles related to the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at an arid site are listed alphabetically by first contact person in a master compilation that includes phone numbers, addresses, keywords, and short descriptions. Separate tables are presented for 62 field-demonstrated, 36 laboratory-demonstrated, and 35 developing technology projects. The technology projects in each of these three categories are also prioritized in separate summary tables. Additional tables are presented for a number of other categorizations of the technology projects: In Situ; Fiberoptic; Mass Spectrometer; Optical Spectroscopy; Raman or SERS; Ion Mobility or Acoustic; Associated; and Commercial. Four lists of contact person names are provided so details concerning the projects that deal with sampling, and VOCs in gases, waters, and soils (sediments) can be obtained. Finally, seven wide-ranging conclusions based on observations and experiences during this work are presented

  4. An Analysis of Air Pollution Control Technologies for Shipyard Emitted Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snider, Thomas J

    1993-01-01

    ...) emissions from industrial operations. One approach to VOC reduction is through air pollution control technology to remove the contaminants from the exhaust airstream of VOC generating processes...

  5. Seasonal variability and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the Paris megacity (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baudic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of air quality studies at the megacity scale, highly time-resolved volatile organic compound (C2–C8 measurements were performed in downtown Paris (urban background sites from January to November 2010. This unique dataset included non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs and aromatic/oxygenated species (OVOCs measured by a GC-FID (gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector and a PTR-MS (proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometer, respectively. This study presents the seasonal variability of atmospheric VOCs being monitored in the French megacity and their various associated emission sources. Clear seasonal and diurnal patterns differed from one VOC to another as the result of their different origins and the influence of environmental parameters (solar radiation, temperature. Source apportionment (SA was comprehensively conducted using a multivariate mathematical receptor modeling. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's positive matrix factorization tool (US EPA, PMF was used to apportion and quantify ambient VOC concentrations into six different sources. The modeled source profiles were identified from near-field observations (measurements from three distinct emission sources: inside a highway tunnel, at a fireplace and from a domestic gas flue, hence with a specific focus on road traffic, wood-burning activities and natural gas emissions and hydrocarbon profiles reported in the literature. The reconstructed VOC sources were cross validated using independent tracers such as inorganic gases (NO, NO2, CO, black carbon (BC and meteorological data (temperature. The largest contributors to the predicted VOC concentrations were traffic-related activities (including motor vehicle exhaust, 15 % of the total mass on the annual average, and evaporative sources, 10 %, with the remaining emissions from natural gas and background (23 %, solvent use (20 %, wood-burning (18 % and a biogenic source (15 %. An

  6. Monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from an oil and gas station in northwest China for 1 year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huang; Kong, Shaofei; Xing, Xinli; Mao, Yao; Hu, Tianpeng; Ding, Yang; Li, Gang; Liu, Dantong; Li, Shuanglin; Qi, Shihua

    2018-04-01

    Oil and natural gas are important for energy supply around the world. The exploring, drilling, transportation and processing in oil and gas regions can release a lot of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). To understand the VOC levels, compositions and sources in such regions, an oil and gas station in northwest China was chosen as the research site and 57 VOCs designated as the photochemical precursors were continuously measured for an entire year (September 2014-August 2015) using an online monitoring system. The average concentration of total VOCs was 297 ± 372 ppbv and the main contributor was alkanes, accounting for 87.5 % of the total VOCs. According to the propylene-equivalent concentration and maximum incremental reactivity methods, alkanes were identified as the most important VOC groups for the ozone formation potential. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis showed that the annual average contributions from natural gas, fuel evaporation, combustion sources, oil refining processes and asphalt (anthropogenic and natural sources) to the total VOCs were 62.6 ± 3.04, 21.5 ± .99, 10.9 ± 1.57, 3.8 ± 0.50 and 1.3 ± 0.69 %, respectively. The five identified VOC sources exhibited various diurnal patterns due to their different emission patterns and the impact of meteorological parameters. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) and concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) models based on backward trajectory analysis indicated that the five identified sources had similar geographic origins. Raster analysis based on CWT analysis indicated that the local emissions contributed 48.4-74.6 % to the total VOCs. Based on the high-resolution observation data, this study clearly described and analyzed the temporal variation in VOC emission characteristics at a typical oil and gas field, which exhibited different VOC levels, compositions and origins compared with those in urban and industrial areas.

  7. Antennal olfactory responses of adult meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius, to volatile organic compounds (VOCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacinto Salvatore Germinara

    Full Text Available The meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius L. (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae is a commonly found vector of Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. (1987 strain subspecies pauca associated with the "Olive Quick Decline Syndrome" in Italy. To contribute to the knowledge of the adult P. spumarius chemoreceptivity, electroantennographic (EAG responses of both sexes to 50 volatile organic compounds (VOCs including aliphatic aldehydes, alcohols, esters, and ketones, terpenoids, and aromatics were recorded. Measurable EAG responses were elicited by all compounds tested. In both sexes, octanal, 2-octanol, 2-decanone, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, and vanillin elicited the strongest antennal amplitude within the chemical groups of aliphatic saturated aldehydes, aliphatic alcohols, aliphatic acetates and aromatics, respectively. Male and female EAG responses to sulcatol, (±linalool, and sulcatone were higher than those to other terpenoinds. In both sexes, the weakest antennal stimulants were phenethyl alcohol and 2-pentanone. Sexual differences in the EAG amplitude were found only for four of test compounds suggesting a general similarity between males and females in antennal sensitivity. The olfactory system of both sexes proved to be sensitive to changes in stimulus concentration, carbon chain length, and compound structure. Compounds with short carbon chain length (C5-C6 elicited lower EAG amplitudes than compounds with higher carbon chain length (C9-C10 in all classes of aliphatic hydrocarbons with different functional groups. The elucidation of the sensitivity profile of P. spumarius to a variety of VOCs provides a basis for future identification of behaviorally-active compounds useful for developing semiochemical-based control strategies of this pest.

  8. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in photochemically aged air from the eastern and western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derstroff, Bettina; Hüser, Imke; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Crowley, John N.; Fischer, Horst; Gromov, Sergey; Harder, Hartwig; Janssen, Ruud H. H.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Lelieveld, Jos; Mallik, Chinmay; Martinez, Monica; Novelli, Anna; Parchatka, Uwe; Phillips, Gavin J.; Sander, Rolf; Sauvage, Carina; Schuladen, Jan; Stönner, Christof; Tomsche, Laura; Williams, Jonathan

    2017-08-01

    During the summertime CYPHEX campaign (CYprus PHotochemical EXperiment 2014) in the eastern Mediterranean, multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured from a 650 m hilltop site in western Cyprus (34° 57' N/32° 23' E). Periodic shifts in the northerly Etesian winds resulted in the site being alternately impacted by photochemically processed emissions from western (Spain, France, Italy) and eastern (Turkey, Greece) Europe. Furthermore, the site was situated within the residual layer/free troposphere during some nights which were characterized by high ozone and low relative humidity levels. In this study we examine the temporal variation of VOCs at the site. The sparse Mediterranean scrub vegetation generated diel cycles in the reactive biogenic hydrocarbon isoprene, from very low values at night to a diurnal median level of 80-100 pptv. In contrast, the oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) methanol and acetone exhibited weak diel cycles and were approximately an order of magnitude higher in mixing ratio (ca. 2.5-3 ppbv median level by day, range: ca. 1-8 ppbv) than the locally emitted isoprene and aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene. Acetic acid was present at mixing ratios between 0.05 and 4 ppbv with a median level of ca. 1.2 ppbv during the daytime. When data points directly affected by the residual layer/free troposphere were excluded, the acid followed a pronounced diel cycle, which was influenced by various local effects including photochemical production and loss, direct emission, dry deposition and scavenging from advecting air in fog banks. The Lagrangian model FLEXPART was used to determine transport patterns and photochemical processing times (between 12 h and several days) of air masses originating from eastern and western Europe. Ozone and many OVOC levels were ˜ 20 and ˜ 30-60 % higher, respectively, in air arriving from the east. Using the FLEXPART calculated transport time, the contribution of photochemical

  9. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs in photochemically aged air from the eastern and western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Derstroff

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During the summertime CYPHEX campaign (CYprus PHotochemical EXperiment 2014 in the eastern Mediterranean, multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured from a 650 m hilltop site in western Cyprus (34° 57′ N/32° 23′ E. Periodic shifts in the northerly Etesian winds resulted in the site being alternately impacted by photochemically processed emissions from western (Spain, France, Italy and eastern (Turkey, Greece Europe. Furthermore, the site was situated within the residual layer/free troposphere during some nights which were characterized by high ozone and low relative humidity levels. In this study we examine the temporal variation of VOCs at the site. The sparse Mediterranean scrub vegetation generated diel cycles in the reactive biogenic hydrocarbon isoprene, from very low values at night to a diurnal median level of 80–100 pptv. In contrast, the oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs methanol and acetone exhibited weak diel cycles and were approximately an order of magnitude higher in mixing ratio (ca. 2.5–3 ppbv median level by day, range: ca. 1–8 ppbv than the locally emitted isoprene and aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene. Acetic acid was present at mixing ratios between 0.05 and 4 ppbv with a median level of ca. 1.2 ppbv during the daytime. When data points directly affected by the residual layer/free troposphere were excluded, the acid followed a pronounced diel cycle, which was influenced by various local effects including photochemical production and loss, direct emission, dry deposition and scavenging from advecting air in fog banks. The Lagrangian model FLEXPART was used to determine transport patterns and photochemical processing times (between 12 h and several days of air masses originating from eastern and western Europe. Ozone and many OVOC levels were  ∼  20 and  ∼  30–60 % higher, respectively, in air arriving from the east. Using the FLEXPART

  10. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs) in environment - sources, potential human health impacts, and current remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Binbin; Lei, Chao; Wei, Chaohai; Zeng, Guangming

    2014-10-01

    Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs), including polychloromethanes, polychloroethanes and polychloroethylenes, are widely used as solvents, degreasing agents and a variety of commercial products. These compounds belong to a group of ubiquitous contaminants that can be found in contaminated soil, air and any kind of fluvial mediums such as groundwater, rivers and lakes. This review presents a summary of the research concerning the production levels and sources of Cl-VOCs, their potential impacts on human health as well as state-of-the-art remediation technologies. Important sources of Cl-VOCs principally include the emissions from industrial processes, the consumption of Cl-VOC-containing products, the disinfection process, as well as improper storage and disposal methods. Human exposure to Cl-VOCs can occur through different routes, including ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact. The toxicological impacts of these compounds have been carefully assessed, and the results demonstrate the potential associations of cancer incidence with exposure to Cl-VOCs. Most Cl-VOCs thus have been listed as priority pollutants by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) of China, Environmental Protection Agency of the U.S. (U.S. EPA) and European Commission (EC), and are under close monitor and strict control. Yet, more efforts will be put into the epidemiological studies for the risk of human exposure to Cl-VOCs and the exposure level measurements in contaminated sites in the future. State-of-the-art remediation technologies for Cl-VOCs employ non-destructive methods and destructive methods (e.g. thermal incineration, phytoremediation, biodegradation, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and reductive dechlorination), whose advantages, drawbacks and future developments are thoroughly discussed in the later sections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A self-consistent, multivariate method for the determination of gas-phase rate coefficients, applied to reactions of atmospheric VOCs and the hydroxyl radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jacob T.; Lidster, Richard T.; Cryer, Danny R.; Ramirez, Noelia; Whiting, Fiona C.; Boustead, Graham A.; Whalley, Lisa K.; Ingham, Trevor; Rickard, Andrew R.; Dunmore, Rachel E.; Heard, Dwayne E.; Lewis, Ally C.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Hamilton, Jacqui F.; Dillon, Terry J.

    2018-03-01

    Gas-phase rate coefficients are fundamental to understanding atmospheric chemistry, yet experimental data are not available for the oxidation reactions of many of the thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) observed in the troposphere. Here, a new experimental method is reported for the simultaneous study of reactions between multiple different VOCs and OH, the most important daytime atmospheric radical oxidant. This technique is based upon established relative rate concepts but has the advantage of a much higher throughput of target VOCs. By evaluating multiple VOCs in each experiment, and through measurement of the depletion in each VOC after reaction with OH, the OH + VOC reaction rate coefficients can be derived. Results from experiments conducted under controlled laboratory conditions were in good agreement with the available literature for the reaction of 19 VOCs, prepared in synthetic gas mixtures, with OH. This approach was used to determine a rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with 2,3-dimethylpent-1-ene for the first time; k = 5.7 (±0.3) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. In addition, a further seven VOCs had only two, or fewer, individual OH rate coefficient measurements available in the literature. The results from this work were in good agreement with those measurements. A similar dataset, at an elevated temperature of 323 (±10) K, was used to determine new OH rate coefficients for 12 aromatic, 5 alkane, 5 alkene and 3 monoterpene VOC + OH reactions. In OH relative reactivity experiments that used ambient air at the University of York, a large number of different VOCs were observed, of which 23 were positively identified. Due to difficulties with detection limits and fully resolving peaks, only 19 OH rate coefficients were derived from these ambient air samples, including 10 reactions for which data were previously unavailable at the elevated reaction temperature of T = 323 (±10) K.

  12. Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from Animal Husbandry: Chemical Compositions, Separation of Sources and Animal Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, B.; Coggon, M.; Koss, A.; Warneke, C.; Eilerman, S. J.; Neuman, J. A.; Peischl, J.; Aikin, K. C.; Ryerson, T. B.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are important sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere. We used a hydronium ion time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+ ToF-CIMS) to measure VOC emissions from CAFOs in the Northern Front Range of Colorado during an aircraft campaign (SONGNEX) for regional contributions and from a mobile laboratory sampling for chemical characterizations of individual animal feedlots. The main VOCs emitted from CAFOs include carboxylic acids, alcohols, carbonyls, phenolic species, sulfur- and nitrogen-containing species. Alcohols and carboxylic acids dominate VOC concentrations. Sulfur-containing and phenolic species become more important in terms of odor activity values and NO3 reactivity, respectively. The high time-resolution mobile measurements allow the separation of the sources of VOCs from different parts of the operations occurring within the facilities. We show that the increase of ethanol concentrations were primarily associated with feed storage and handling. We apply a multivariate regression analysis using NH3 and ethanol as tracers to attribute the relative importance of animal-related emissions (animal exhalation and waste) and feed-related emissions (feed storage and handling) for different VOC species. Feed storage and handling contribute significantly to emissions of alcohols, carbonyls and carboxylic acids. Phenolic species and nitrogen-containing species are predominantly associated with animals and their waste. VOC ratios can be potentially used as indicators for the separation of emissions from dairy and beef cattle from the regional aircraft measurements.

  13. The Amazonian Floodplains, an ecotype with challenging questions on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are affected by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors such as light intensity, temperature, CO2 and drought. Another factor usually overlooked but very important for the tropical rainforest in Amazonia is regular flooding. According to recent estimates, the total Amazonian floodplain area easily ranges up to 700,000 km^2, including whitewater river floodplains (várzea) blackwater regions (igapó) and further clearwater regions. Regarding the total Amazonian wetlands the area sums up to more than 2.000.000 km^2, i.e. 30% of Amazonia. To survive the flooding periods causing anoxic conditions for the root system of up to several months, vegetation has developed several morphological, anatomical and physiological strategies. One is to switch over the root metabolism to fermentation, thus producing ethanol as one of the main products. Ethanol is a toxic metabolite which is transported into the leaves by the transpiration stream. From there it can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere, or can be re-metabolized to acetaldehyde and/or acetate. All of these compounds are volatile enough to be partly released into the atmosphere. We observed emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid under root anoxia. Furthermore, plant stress induced by flooding also affected leaf primary physiological processes as well as other VOC emissions such as the release of isoprenoids and other volatiles. For example, Hevea spruceana could be identified as a monoterpene emitting tree species behaving differently upon anoxia depending on the origin, with increasing emissions of the species from igapó and decreasing with the corresponding species from várzea. Contrasting such short term inundations, studies of VOC emissions under long term conditions (2-3 months) did not confirm the ethanol/acetaldehyde emissions, whereas emissions of other VOC species decreased considerably. These results demonstrate that the transfer of our knowledge

  14. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission characteristics and control strategies for a petrochemical industrial area in middle Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Hsien; Horng, Jao-Jia

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated VOC emissions from the largest petrochemical industrial district in Taiwan and recommended some control measures to reduce VOC emissions. In addition to the petrochemical industry, the district encompasses a chemical and fiber industry, a plastics industry and a harbor, which together produce more than 95% of the VOC emissions in the area. The sequence of VOC emission was as follows: components (e.g., valves, flanges, and pumps) (47%) > tanks (29%) > stacks (15%) > wastewater treatment facility (6%) > loading (2%) > flares (1%). Other plants producing high-density polyethylene (HDPE), styrene, ethylene glycol (EG), gas oil, and iso-nonyl-alchol (INA) were measured to determine the VOC leaching in the district. The VOC emissions of these 35 plants (90% of all plants) were less than 100 tons/year. About 74% of the tanks were fixed-roof tanks that leached more VOCs than the other types of tanks. To reduce leaching, the components should be checked periodically, and companies should be required to follow the Taiwan EPA regulations. A VOC emission management system was developed in state implementation plans (SIPs) to inspect and reduce emissions in the industrial district.

  15. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Analysis For Disease Detection: Proof Of Principle For Field Studies Detecting Paratuberculosis And Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Henri; Köhler, Heike; Nicola, Commander; Reinhold, Petra; Turner, Claire; Chambers, Mark

    2009-05-01

    A proof of concept investigation was performed to demonstrate that two independent infectious diseases of cattle result in different patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the headspace of serum samples detectable using an electronic nose (e-nose). A total of 117 sera from cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (paraTB, n = 43) or Brucella sp. (n = 26) and sera from corresponding control animals (n = 48) were randomly and analysed blind to infection status using a ST214 e-nose (Scensive Ltd, Leeds, UK). Samples were collected under non-standardised conditions on different farms from the UK (brucellosis) and Germany (paraTB). The e-nose could differentiate the sera from brucellosis infected, paraTB infected and healthy animals at the population level, but the technology used was not suitable for determination of the disease status of individual animals. Nevertheless, the data indicate that there are differences in the sensor responses depending on the disease status, and therefore, it shows the potential of VOC analysis from serum headspace samples for disease detection.

  16. Identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in different colour carrot (Daucus carota L.) cultivars using static headspace/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Zehra Güler; Fatih Karaca; Halit Yetisir

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as sugar and acid contents affect carrot flavour. This study compared VOCs in 11 carrot cultivars. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using static headspace technique was applied to analyse the VOCs. The number of VOCs per sample ranged from 17 to 31. The primarily VOCs identified in raw carrots with the exception of “Yellow Stone” were terpenes, ranging from 65 to 95%. The monoterpenes with values ranging from 31 to 89% were higher than those (from...

  17. Blood miRNAs as sensitive and specific biological indicators of environmental and occupational exposure to volatile organic compound (VOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Ryu, Jae-Chun

    2015-10-01

    To date, there is still shortage of highly sensitive and specific minimally invasive biomarkers for assessment of environmental toxicants exposure. Because of the significance of microRNA (miRNA) in various diseases, circulating miRNAs in blood may be unique biomarkers for minimally invasive prediction of toxicants exposure. We identified and validated characteristic miRNA expression profiles of human whole blood in workers exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and compared the usefulness of miRNA indicator of VOCs with the effectiveness of the already used urinary biomarkers of occupational exposure. Using a microarray based approach we screened and detected deregulated miRNAs in their expression in workers exposed to VOCs (toluene [TOL], xylene [XYL] and ethylbenzene [EBZ]). Total 169 workers from four dockyards were enrolled in current study, and 50 subjects of them were used for miRNA microarray analysis. We identified 467 miRNAs for TOL, 211 miRNAs for XYL, and 695 miRNAs for XYL as characteristic discernible exposure indicator, which could discerned each VOC from the control group with higher accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity than urinary biomarkers. Current observations from this study point out that the altered levels of circulating miRNAs can be a reliable novel, minimally invasive biological indicator of occupational exposure to VOCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Industrial sector-based volatile organic compound (VOC) source profiles measured in manufacturing facilities in the Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junyu; Yu, Yufan; Mo, Ziwei; Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Xinming; Yin, Shasha; Peng, Kang; Yang, Yang; Feng, Xiaoqiong; Cai, Huihua

    2013-07-01

    Industrial sector-based VOC source profiles are reported for the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China, based source samples (stack emissions and fugitive emissions) analyzed from sources operating under normal conditions. The industrial sectors considered are printing (letterpress, offset and gravure printing processes), wood furniture coating, shoemaking, paint manufacturing and metal surface coating. More than 250 VOC species were detected following US EPA methods TO-14 and TO-15. The results indicated that benzene and toluene were the major species associated with letterpress printing, while ethyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol were the most abundant compounds of other two printing processes. Acetone and 2-butanone were the major species observed in the shoemaking sector. The source profile patterns were found to be similar for the paint manufacturing, wood furniture coating, and metal surface coating sectors, with aromatics being the most abundant group and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) as the second largest contributor in the profiles. While OVOCs were one of the most significant VOC groups detected in these five industrial sectors in the PRD region, they have not been reported in most other source profile studies. Such comparisons with other studies show that there are differences in source profiles for different regions or countries, indicating the importance of developing local source profiles. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in the Atmospheric Environment: Regulatory Aspects and Monitoring in Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, so-called air toxics or toxic air pollutants, have been detected in the atmospheric air at low concentration levels, causing public concern about the adverse effect of long-term exposure to HAPs on human health. Most HAPs belong to volatile organic compounds (VOCs. More seriously, most of them are known carcinogens or probably carcinogenic to humans. The objectives of this paper were to report the regulatory aspects and environmental monitoring management of toxic VOCs designated by Japan and Korea under the Air Pollution Control Act, and the Clean Air Conservation Act, respectively. It can be found that the environmental quality standards and environmental monitoring of priority VOCs (i.e., benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and dichloromethane have been set and taken by the state and local governments of Japan since the early 2000, but not completely established in Korea. On the other hand, the significant progress in reducing the emissions of some toxic VOCs, including acrylonitrile, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,2-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene in Japan was also described as a case study in the brief report paper.

  20. The European wool-carder bee (Anthidium manicatum) eavesdrops on plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during trichome collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kelsey K; Brown, Steve; Clarke, Stephanie; Röse, Ursula S R; Starks, Philip T

    2017-11-01

    The plant-pollinator relationship is generally considered mutualistic. This relationship is less clear, however, when pollinators also cause tissue damage. Some Megachilidae bees collect plant material for nests from the plants they pollinate. In this study, we examined the relationship between Anthidium manicatum, the European wool-carder bee, and the source of its preferred nesting material - Stachys byzantina, lamb's ear. Female A. manicatum use their mandibles to trim trichomes from plants for nesting material (a behaviour dubbed "carding"). Using volatile organic compound (VOC) headspace analysis and behavioural observations, we explored (a) how carding effects S. byzantina and (b) how A. manicatum may choose specific S. byzantina plants. We found that removal of trichomes leads to a dissimilar VOC bouquet compared to intact leaves, with a significant increase in VOC detection following damage. A. manicatum also visit S. byzantina plants with trichomes removed at a greater frequency compared to plants with trichomes intact. Our data suggest that A. manicatum eavesdrop on VOCs produced by damaged plants, leading to more carding damage for individual plants due to increased detectability by A. manicatum. Accordingly, visitation by A. manicatum to S. byzantina may incur both a benefit (pollination) and cost (tissue damage) to the plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-labeling multiplex surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chi Lok; Dinish, U. S.; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    2014-01-01

    chemical sensing layer for the enrichment of gas molecules on sensor surface. The leaning nano-pillar substrate also showed highly reproducible SERS signal in cyclic VOCs detection, which can reduce the detection cost in practical applications. Further, multiplex SERS detection on different combination...... device for multiplex, specific and highly sensitive detection of complex VOCs samples that can find potential applications in exhaled breath analysis, hazardous gas analysis, homeland security and environmental monitoring....

  2. Ambient air/near-field measurements of methane and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from a natural gas facility in Northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudic, Alexia; Gros, Valérie; Bonsang, Bernard; Baisnee, Dominique; Vogel, Félix; Yver Kwok, Camille; Ars, Sébastien; Finlayson, Andrew; Innocenti, Fabrizio; Robinson, Rod

    2015-04-01

    Since the 1970's, the natural gas consumption saw a rapid growth in large urban centers, thus becoming an important energy resource to meet continuous needs of factories and inhabitants. Nevertheless, it can be a substantial source of methane (CH4) and pollutants in urban areas. For instance, we have determined that about 20% of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in downtown Paris are originating from this emission source (Baudic, Gros et al., in preparation). Within the framework of the "Fugitive Methane Emissions" (FuME) project (Climate-KIC, EIT); 2-weeks gas measurements were conducted at a gas compressor station in Northern Europe. Continuous ambient air measurements of methane and VOCs concentrations were performed using a cavity ring-down spectrometer (model G2201, Picarro Inc., Santa Clara, USA) and two portable GC-FID (Chromatotec, Saint-Antoine, France), respectively. On-site near-field samplings were also carried out at the source of two pipelines using stainless steel flasks (later analyzed with a laboratory GC-FID). The objective of this study aims to use VOCs as additional tracers in order to better characterize the fugitive methane emissions in a complex environment, which can be affected by several urban sources (road-traffic, others industries, etc.). Moreover, these measurements have allowed determining the chemical composition of this specific source. Our results revealed that the variability of methane and some VOCs was (rather) well correlated, especially for alkanes (ethane, propane, etc.). An analysis of selected events with strong concentrations enhancement was performed using ambient air measurements; thus allowing the preliminary identification of different emission sources. In addition, some flasks were also sampled in Paris to determine the local natural gas composition. A comparison between both was then performed. Preliminary results from these experiments will be presented here.

  3. Determination of Summertime VOC Emission Rates from Produced Water Ponds in the Uintah Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. S.; Woods, C.; Lyman, S.

    2013-12-01

    The observance of excess ozone concentrations in Utah's Uintah Basin over past several years has prompted several investigations into the extent and causes of the elevated ozone. Among these is the assessment of potential emissions of reactive VOCs. Evaporation ponds, used a remediation technique for treatment of contaminated production and other waters, are one potential source of significant VOC emissions and is estimated that there are around 160 such ponds within the Uintah Basin's oil and gas production areas. In June 2012 VOC emission rates for several reactive VOCs were derived for an evaporation facility consisting of a small inlet pond (≈0.03 acres) and two larger, serial ponds (≈4.3 acres each). The emission rates were determined over three sampling periods using an inverse modeling approach. Under this methodology, ambient VOC concentrations are determined at several downwind locations through whole-air collection into SUMMA canisters, followed by GC/MS quantification and compared with predicted concentrations using an EPA-approved dispersion model, AERMOD. The presumed emission rates used within the model were then adjusted until the modeled concentrations approach the observed concentrations. The derived emission rates for the individual VOCs were on the order of 10-3 g/s/m2 from the inlet pond and 10-6 g/s/m2 from the larger ponds. The emissions from the 1st pond in series after the inlet pond were about 3-4x the emissions from the 2nd pond. These combined emission rates are about an order of magnitude those reported for a single study in Colorado (Thoma, 2009). It should be noted, however, that the variability about each of the VOC emission rates was significant (often ×100% at the 95% confidence interval). Extrapolating these emission rates to the estimated total areas of all the evaporation ponds within Basin resulted in calculated Basin-wide VOC emissions 292,835 tons/yr. However, Bar-Ilan et al. (2009) estimated 2012 VOC oil and gas related

  4. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  5. VOC emissions chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In order to support the development of test methods and reference materials for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from building materials and furnishings,...

  6. A Gas Chromatographic Continuous Emissions Monitoring System for the Determination of VOCs and HAPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, William M; Gordon, Bert M

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a new gas chromatography-based emissions monitoring system for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The system is composed of a dual-column gas chromatograph equipped with thermal conductivity detectors, in which separation is optimized for fast chromatography. The system has the necessary valving for stream selection, which allows automatic calibration of the system at predetermined times and successive measurement of individual VOCs before and after a control device. Nine different VOCs (two of which are HAPs), plus methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are separated and quantified every two minutes. The accuracy and precision of this system has been demonstrated to be greater than 95%. The system employs a mass flow measurement device and also calculates and displays processed emission data, such as control device efficiency and total weight emitted during given time periods. Two such systems have been operational for one year in two separate gravure printing facilities; minimal upkeep is required, about one hour per month. One of these systems, used before and after a carbon adsorber, has been approved by the pertinent local permitting authority.

  7. Rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria by volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senecal, Andre G.; Magnone, Joshua; Yeomans, Walter; Powers, Edmund M.

    2002-02-01

    Developments in rapid detection technologies have made countless improvements over the years. However, because of the limited sample that these technologies can process in a single run, the chance of capturing and identifying a small amount of pathogens is difficult. The problem is further magnified by the natural random distribution of pathogens in foods. Methods to simplify pathogenic detection through the identification of bacteria specific VOC were studied. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium were grown on selected agar medium to model protein, and carbohydrate based foods. Pathogenic and common spoilage bacteria (Pseudomonas and Morexella) were screened for unique VOC production. Bacteria were grown on agar slants in closed vials. Headspace sampling was performed at intervals up to 24 hours using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) techniques followed by GC/MS analysis. Development of unique volatiles was followed to establish sensitivity of detection. E. coli produced VOC not found in either Trypticase Soy Yeast (TSY) agar blanks or spoilage organism samples were - indole, 1-decanol, and 2-nonanone. Salmonella specific VOC grown on TSY were 3-methyl-1-butanol, dimethyl sulfide, 2-undecanol, 2-pentadecanol and 1-octanol. Trials on potato dextrose agar (PDA) slants indicated VOC specific for E. coli and Salmonella when compared to PDA blanks and Pseudomonas samples. However, these VOC peaks were similar for both pathogens. Morexella did not grow on PDA slants. Work will continue with model growth mediums at various temperatures, and mixed flora inoculums. As well as, VOC production based on the dynamics of bacterial growth.

  8. Source Signature of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas operations in Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Warneke, C.; Holloway, J. S.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Young, C. J.; Edwards, P.; Brown, S. S.; Wolfe, D. E.; Williams, E. J.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration has reported a sharp increase in domestic oil and natural gas production from "unconventional" reserves (e.g., shale and tight sands) between 2005 and 2012. The recent growth in drilling and fossil fuel production has led to environmental concerns regarding local air quality. Severe wintertime ozone events (greater than 100 ppb ozone) have been observed in Utah's Uintah Basin and Wyoming's Upper Green River Basin, both of which contain large natural gas fields. Raw natural gas is a mixture of approximately 60-95 mole percent methane while the remaining fraction is composed of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other non-hydrocarbon gases. We measured an extensive set of VOCs and other trace gases near two highly active areas of oil and natural gas production in Utah's Uintah Basin and Colorado's Denver-Julesburg Basin in order to characterize primary emissions of VOCs associated with these industrial operations and identify the key VOCs that are precursors for potential ozone formation. UBWOS (Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study) was conducted in Uintah County located in northeastern Utah in January-February 2012. Two Colorado studies were conducted at NOAA's Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in Weld County in northeastern Colorado in February-March 2011 and July-August 2012 as part of the NACHTT (Nitrogen, Aerosol Composition, and Halogens on a Tall Tower) and SONNE (Summer Ozone Near Natural gas Emissions) field experiments, respectively. The C2-C6 hydrocarbons were greatly enhanced for all of these studies. For example, the average propane mixing ratio observed during the Utah study was 58 ppb (median = 35 ppb, minimum = 0.8, maximum = 520 ppb propane) compared to urban averages which range between 0.3 and 6.0 ppb propane. We compare the ambient air composition from these studies to urban measurements in order to show that the VOC source signature from oil and natural gas operations is distinct and can be clearly

  9. A self-consistent, multivariate method for the determination of gas-phase rate coefficients, applied to reactions of atmospheric VOCs and the hydroxyl radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Shaw

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas-phase rate coefficients are fundamental to understanding atmospheric chemistry, yet experimental data are not available for the oxidation reactions of many of the thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOCs observed in the troposphere. Here, a new experimental method is reported for the simultaneous study of reactions between multiple different VOCs and OH, the most important daytime atmospheric radical oxidant. This technique is based upon established relative rate concepts but has the advantage of a much higher throughput of target VOCs. By evaluating multiple VOCs in each experiment, and through measurement of the depletion in each VOC after reaction with OH, the OH + VOC reaction rate coefficients can be derived. Results from experiments conducted under controlled laboratory conditions were in good agreement with the available literature for the reaction of 19 VOCs, prepared in synthetic gas mixtures, with OH. This approach was used to determine a rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with 2,3-dimethylpent-1-ene for the first time; k =  5.7 (±0.3  ×  10−11 cm3 molecule−1 s−1. In addition, a further seven VOCs had only two, or fewer, individual OH rate coefficient measurements available in the literature. The results from this work were in good agreement with those measurements. A similar dataset, at an elevated temperature of 323 (±10 K, was used to determine new OH rate coefficients for 12 aromatic, 5 alkane, 5 alkene and 3 monoterpene VOC + OH reactions. In OH relative reactivity experiments that used ambient air at the University of York, a large number of different VOCs were observed, of which 23 were positively identified. Due to difficulties with detection limits and fully resolving peaks, only 19 OH rate coefficients were derived from these ambient air samples, including 10 reactions for which data were previously unavailable at the elevated reaction temperature of T =  323 (±10 K.

  10. Evaluation of an on-line methodology for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOC) fluxes by eddy-covariance with a PTR-TOF-Qi-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Benjamin; Buysse, Pauline; Lafouge, Florence; Ciuraru, Raluca; Decuq, Céline; Zurfluh, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Field scale flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) are essential for improving our knowledge of VOC emissions from ecosystems. Many VOCs are emitted from and deposited to ecosystems. Especially less known, are crops which represent more than 50% of French terrestrial surfaces. In this study, we evaluate a new on-line methodology for measuring VOC fluxes by Eddy Covariance with a PTR-Qi-TOF-MS. Measurements were performed at the ICOS FR-GRI site over a crop using a 30 m long high flow rate sampling line and an ultrasonic anemometer. A Labview program was specially designed for acquisition and on-line covariance calculation: Whole mass spectra ( 240000 channels) were acquired on-line at 10 Hz and stored in a temporary memory. Every 5 minutes, the spectra were mass-calibrated and normalized by the primary ion peak integral at 10 Hz. The mass spectra peaks were then retrieved from the 5-min averaged spectra by withdrawing the baseline, determining the resolution and using a multiple-peak detection algorithm. In order to optimize the peak detection algorithm for the covariance, we determined the covariances as the integrals of the peaks of the vertical-air-velocity-fluctuation weighed-averaged-spectra. In other terms, we calculate , were w is the vertical component of the air velocity, Sp is the spectra, t is time, lag is the decorrelation lag time and denotes an average. The lag time was determined as the decorrelation time between w and the primary ion (at mass 21.022) which integrates the contribution of all reactions of VOC and water with the primary ion. Our algorithm was evaluated by comparing the exchange velocity of water vapor measured by an open path absorption spectroscopy instrument and the water cluster measured with the PTRQi-TOF-MS. The influence of the algorithm parameters and lag determination is discussed. This study was supported by the ADEME-CORTEA COV3ER project (http://www6.inra.fr/cov3er).

  11. Occupational hygiene in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols at two solid waste management plants in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, Jenni, E-mail: jenni.k.lehtinen@jyu.fi [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Tolvanen, Outi; Nivukoski, Ulla; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Odorous VOCs: acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene. ► VOC concentrations did not exceed occupational exposure limit concentrations. ► 2,3-Butanedione as the health effecting compound is discussed. ► Endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems in waste treatment. - Abstract: Factors affecting occupational hygiene were measured at the solid waste transferring plant at Hyvinkää and at the optic separation plant in Hämeenlinna. Measurements consisted of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols including microbes, dust and endotoxins. The most abundant compounds in both of the plants were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, esters of carboxylic acids, ketones and terpenes. In terms of odour generation, the most important emissions were acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene due to their low threshold odour concentrations. At the optic waste separation plant, limonene occurred at the highest concentration of all single compounds of identified VOCs. The concentration of any single volatile organic compound did not exceed the occupational exposure limit (OEL) concentration. However, 2,3-butanedione as a health risk compound is discussed based on recent scientific findings linking it to lung disease. Microbe and dust concentrations were low at the waste transferring plant. Only endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems; the average concentration inside the plant was 425 EU/m{sup 3} which clearly exceeded the threshold value of 90 EU/m{sup 3}. In the wheel loader cabin the endotoxin concentrations were below 1 EU/m{sup 3}. High microbial and endotoxin concentrations were measured in the processing hall at the optic waste separation plant. The average concentration of endotoxins was found to be 10,980 EU/m{sup 3}, a concentration which may cause health risks. Concentrations of viable fungi were quite high in few measurements in the control room. The most

  12. Occupational hygiene in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols at two solid waste management plants in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Jenni; Tolvanen, Outi; Nivukoski, Ulla; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Odorous VOCs: acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene. ► VOC concentrations did not exceed occupational exposure limit concentrations. ► 2,3-Butanedione as the health effecting compound is discussed. ► Endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems in waste treatment. - Abstract: Factors affecting occupational hygiene were measured at the solid waste transferring plant at Hyvinkää and at the optic separation plant in Hämeenlinna. Measurements consisted of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols including microbes, dust and endotoxins. The most abundant compounds in both of the plants were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, esters of carboxylic acids, ketones and terpenes. In terms of odour generation, the most important emissions were acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene due to their low threshold odour concentrations. At the optic waste separation plant, limonene occurred at the highest concentration of all single compounds of identified VOCs. The concentration of any single volatile organic compound did not exceed the occupational exposure limit (OEL) concentration. However, 2,3-butanedione as a health risk compound is discussed based on recent scientific findings linking it to lung disease. Microbe and dust concentrations were low at the waste transferring plant. Only endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems; the average concentration inside the plant was 425 EU/m 3 which clearly exceeded the threshold value of 90 EU/m 3 . In the wheel loader cabin the endotoxin concentrations were below 1 EU/m 3 . High microbial and endotoxin concentrations were measured in the processing hall at the optic waste separation plant. The average concentration of endotoxins was found to be 10,980 EU/m 3 , a concentration which may cause health risks. Concentrations of viable fungi were quite high in few measurements in the control room. The most problematic factor was

  13. Determination of radon exhalation from construction materials using VOC emission test chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M; Jann, O; Kemski, J; Schneider, U; Krocker, C; Hoffmann, B

    2013-10-01

    The inhalation of (222) Rn (radon) decay products is one of the most important reasons for lung cancer after smoking. Stony building materials are an important source of indoor radon. This article describes the determination of the exhalation rate of stony construction materials by the use of commercially available measuring devices in combination with VOC emission test chambers. Five materials - two types of clay brick, clinker brick, light-weight concrete brick, and honeycomb brick - generally used for wall constructions were used for the experiments. Their contribution to real room concentrations was estimated by applying room model parameters given in ISO 16000-9, RP 112, and AgBB. This knowledge can be relevant, if for instance indoor radon concentration is limited by law. The test set-up used here is well suited for application in test laboratories dealing with VOC emission testing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Characterisation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by the composting of different waste matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Marco; Martini, Luca Matteo; Corrà, Cesare; Scapinello, Marco; Coller, Graziano; Tosi, Paolo; Ragazzi, Marco

    2017-12-01

    The complaints arising from the problem of odorants released by composting plants may impede the construction of new composting facilities, preclude the proper activity of existing facilities or even lead to their closure, with negative implications for waste management and local economy. Improving the knowledge on VOC emissions from composting processes is of particular importance since different VOCs imply different odour impacts. To this purpose, three different organic matrices were studied in this work: dewatered sewage sludge (M1), digested organic fraction of municipal solid waste (M2) and untreated food waste (M3). The three matrices were aerobically biodegraded in a bench-scale bioreactor simulating composting conditions. A homemade device sampled the process air from each treatment at defined time intervals. The samples were analysed for VOC detection. The information on the concentrations of the detected VOCs was combined with the VOC-specific odour thresholds to estimate the relative weight of each biodegraded matrix in terms of odour impact. When the odour formation was at its maximum, the waste gas from the composting of M3 showed a total odour concentration about 60 and 15,000 times higher than those resulting from the composting of M1 and M2, respectively. Ethyl isovalerate showed the highest contribution to the total odour concentration (>99%). Terpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, p-cymene and limonene) were abundantly present in M2 and M3, while sulphides (dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide) were the dominant components of M1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of cigarette smoking on volatile organic compound (VOC) blood levels in the U.S. population: NHANES 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David M; Ocariz, Jessica M; McGuirk, Maureen F; Blount, Benjamin C

    2011-11-01

    The impact of cigarette smoking on volatile organic compound (VOC) blood levels is studied using 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Cigarette smoke exposure is shown to be a predominant source of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene (BTEXS) measured in blood as determined by (1) differences in central tendency and interquartile VOC blood levels between daily smokers [≥1 cigarette per day (CPD)] and less-than-daily smokers, (2) correlation among BTEXS and the 2,5-dimethylfuran (2,5-DMF) smoking biomarker in the blood of daily smokers, and (3) regression modeling of BTEXS blood levels versus categorized CPD. Smoking status was determined by 2,5-DMF blood level using a cutpoint of 0.014 ng/ml estimated by regression modeling of the weighted data and confirmed with receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis. The BTEXS blood levels among daily smokers were moderately-to-strongly correlated with 2,5-DMF blood levels (correlation coefficient, r, ranging from 0.46 to 0.92). Linear regression of the geometric mean BTEXS blood levels versus categorized CPD showed clear dose-response relationship (correlation of determination, R(2), ranging from 0.81 to 0.98). Furthermore, the pattern of VOCs in blood of smokers is similar to that reported in mainstream cigarette smoke. These results show that cigarette smoking is a primary source of benzene, toluene and styrene and an important source of ethylbenzene and xylene exposure for the U.S. population, as well as the necessity of determining smoking status and factors affecting dose (e.g., CPD, time since last cigarette) in assessments involving BTEXS exposure. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) measurements onboard the HALO research aircraft during OMO-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadi, Layal; Neumaier, Marco; Fischbeck, Garlich; Geiger, Felix; Förster, Eric; Tomsche, Laura; Zahn, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the OMO-Asia campaign that took place in summer 2015 was to study the free-radical chemistry at higher altitudes during the Asian summer monsoon taken over a wide area of Asia. VOC measurements (e.g. acetone, acetonitrile, benzene, and toluene) were conducted using a strongly modified instrument based on a commercial Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTRMS) from Ionicon. The PTRMS data are generally in good agreement with VOC measurements taken by the GC instrument from Max Planck Institute for Chemistry. In the outflow of the Monsoon plume acetone and acetonitrile volume mixing ratios (VMR) up to 1500 pptV and 180 pptV have been measured, respectively, pointing to a small contribution from biomass burning sources of which acetonitrile is an important tracer. Comparison with VOCs simulated in the atmospheric chemistry model EMAC model exhibits an underestimation (factor of 3 for acetone). The measured data were analyzed with the help of 10 days back trajectories to distinguish air mass origins. For air masses originating from North America (NA) an enhancement of 500 pptV acetone relative to the atmospheric background ( 500 pptV) can be traced back to active biogenic acetone sources in the NA boreal summer. An average enhancement of 400 pptV acetone comes from the Asian summer monsoon. Acetone - CO correlations in the monsoon relative to background air is being analyzed for further characterization and estimation of the sources.

  17. Identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in different colour carrot (Daucus carota L. cultivars using static headspace/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Güler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs as well as sugar and acid contents affect carrot flavour. This study compared VOCs in 11 carrot cultivars. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using static headspace technique was applied to analyse the VOCs. The number of VOCs per sample ranged from 17 to 31. The primarily VOCs identified in raw carrots with the exception of “Yellow Stone” were terpenes, ranging from 65 to 95%. The monoterpenes with values ranging from 31 to 89% were higher than those (from 2 to 15% of sesquiterpenes. Monoterpene α-terpinolene (with ranging from 23 to 63% and (--α-pinene (26%, and alcohol ethanol (35% was the main VOC in extracts from the nine carrot cultivars, “Purple” and “Yellow Stone”, respectively. As a result, among 16 identified monoterpenes, 7 monoterpenes (--α-pinene, (--β-pinene, β-myrcene, d-limonene, γ-terpinene, α-terpinolene and p-cymene constituted more than 60% of total VOCs identified in carrots including “Atomic Red”, “Nantes”, “Cosmic Purple”, “Red Samurai”, “Eregli Black”, “White Satin”, “Parmex” and “Baby Carrot”. Thus, these cultivars may advise to carrot breeders due to the beneficial effects of terpenes, especially monoterpenes on health.

  18. Indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment in a multistorey shopping mall by high-spatial-resolution monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, M; Dambruoso, P R; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; de Gennaro, L; Loiotile, A Demarinis; Marzocca, A; Stasi, F; Trizio, L; Tutino, M

    2014-12-01

    In order to assess indoor air quality (IAQ), two 1-week monitoring campaigns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were performed in different areas of a multistorey shopping mall. High-spatial-resolution monitoring was conducted at 32 indoor sites located in two storehouses and in different departments of a supermarket. At the same time, VOC concentrations were monitored in the mall and parking lot area as well as outdoors. VOC were sampled at 48-h periods using diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption. The samples were then analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The data analysis and chromatic maps indicated that the two storehouses had the highest VOC concentrations consisting principally of terpenes. These higher TVOC concentrations could be a result of the low efficiency of the air exchange and intake systems, as well as the large quantity of articles stored in these small spaces. Instead, inside the supermarket, the food department was the most critical area for VOC concentrations. To identify potential emission sources in this department, a continuous VOC analyzer was used. The findings indicated that the highest total VOC concentrations were present during cleaning activities and that these activities were carried out frequently in the food department. The study highlights the importance of conducting both high-spatial-resolution monitoring and high-temporal-resolution monitoring. The former was able to identify critical issues in environments with a complex emission scenario while the latter was useful in interpreting the dynamics of each emission source.

  19. Modeling explicit tropospheric oxidation through identifying volatile organic compound (VOC) sources, their impact on air quality and their signatures in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hairong

    Photochemical smog, characterized by high concentrations of ozone (O 3) and fine particles, is of great concern in the urban areas like the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Ambient O3 and its precursors were simultaneously measured for the first time at a site within the inland PRD region (WQS) and a site in Hong Kong (TC) from 22 October to 01 December 2007, in order to improve our understanding of the interplay of O3 pollution between Hong Kong and the inland PRD region, to explore the relationships between O3 and its precursors, and to identify the key volatile organic compound (VOC) species and emission source categories contributing to the O3 formation. Ratio analyses for trace gases and VOCs and back trajectory calculation revealed that the air masses arriving at WQS were more aged due to regional influence, whereas the air masses at TC were mainly affected by local emissions and/or regional transport. An observation-Based Model (OBM) was employed to determine the O 3-precursor relationship. At both sites, O3 production was found to be VOC-limited. Anthropogenic hydrocarbons played a key role in O 3 production, while reducing NO emissions aided the build up of O 3 concentrations. The contribution of carbonyls to O3 formation was firstly input in the OBM by using measured data, the results showed that the net O3 production derived from the OBM agreed better with the observed O3 increment after hourly carbonyl concentrations were included. A photochemical trajectory model was developed and used for the first time to simulate the formation of photochemical pollutants at WQS, Guangzhou during photochemical pollution episodes between 12 and 17 November, 2007. Calculated photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) indices indicated that alkanes and oxygenated organic compounds had relatively low reactivity, while alkenes and aromatics presented high reactivity. Analysis of the emission inventory found that the sum of 60 of the 139 VOC species accounted for 91% of the

  20. Nanotechnology in environmental remediation: degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over visible-light-active nanostructured materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Rengaraj; Al-Kindy, Salma M Z; Silanpaa, Mika; Kim, Younghun

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major pollutants and are considered to be one of the most important contaminants generated by human beings living in urban and industrial areas. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a VOC that has been widely used as a gasoline additive to reduce VOC emissions from motor vehicles. However, new gasoline additives like MTBE are having negative environmental impacts. Recent survey reports clearly show that groundwater is often polluted owing to leakage of petroleum products from underground storage tanks. MTBE is highly soluble in water (e.g., 0.35-0.71 M) and has been detected at high concentrations in groundwater. The presence of MTBE in groundwater poses a potential health problem. The documented effects of MTBE exposure are headaches, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, cough, muscle aches, sleepiness, disorientation, dizziness, and skin and eye irritation. To address these problems, photocatalytic treatment is the preferred treatment for polluted water. In the present work, a simple and template-free solution phase synthesis method has been developed for the preparation of novel cadmium sulfide (CdS) hollow microspheres using cadmium nitrate and thioacetamide precursors. The synthesized products have been characterized by a variety of methods, including X-ray powder diffraction, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy. The HR-SEM measurements revealed the spherical morphology of the CdS microspheres, which evolved by the oriented aggregation of the primary CdS nanocrystals. Furthermore, studies of photocatalytic activity revealed that the synthesized CdS hollow microspheres exhibit an excellent photocatalytic performance in rapidly degrading MTBE in aqueous solution under visible light illumination. These results suggest that CdS microspheres will be an interesting candidate for photocatalytic detoxification studies under visible light

  1. Characterization of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions at Sites of Oil Sands Extraction and Upgrading in northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, J.; Simpson, I. J.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    The crude oil reserves in Canada's oil sands are second only to Saudi Arabia, holding roughly 173 billion barrels of oil in the form of bitumen, an unconventional crude oil which does not flow and cannot be pumped without heating or dilution. Oil sands deposits are ultimately used to make the same petroleum products as conventional forms of crude oil, though more processing is required. Hydrocarbons are the basis of oil, coal and natural gas and are an important class of gases emitted into the atmosphere during oil production, particularly because of their effects on air quality and human health. However, they have only recently begun to be independently assessed in the oil sands regions. As part of the 2008 ARCTAS airborne mission, whole air samples were collected in the boundary layer above the surface mining operations of northern Alberta. Gas chromatography analysis revealed enhanced concentrations of 53 VOCs (C2 to C10) over the mining region. When compared to local background levels, the measured concentrations were enhanced up to 1.1-400 times for these compounds. To more fully characterize emissions, ground-based studies were conducted in summer 2010 and winter 2011 in the oil sands mining and upgrading areas. The data from the 200 ground-based samples revealed enhancements in the concentration of 65 VOCs. These compounds were elevated up to 1.1-3000 times above background concentrations and include C2-C8 alkanes, C1-C5 alkyl nitrates, C2-C4 alkenes and potentially toxic aromatic compounds such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

  2. Supercritical fluid extraction-gas chromatography of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from Tenax devices. Final report, November 1985-September 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, B.W.; Kopriva, A.J.; Smith, R.D.

    1987-11-01

    This report describes the development and evaluation of on-line supercritical-fluid extraction - gas-chromatography instrumentation and methodology for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from adsorbent sampling devices. Supercritical fluid extraction offers potential advantages for the removal and transport of organic components from adsorbent matrices including rapid and efficient extraction at mild temperatures. Extraction at mild temperatures eliminates potential problems such as analyte decomposition that can be encountered with the high temperatures needed for thermal desorption analysis. Since a major objective of the study was to develop viable instrumentation and methodology, a relatively detailed description of the instrumentation design requirements and present limitations are discussed. The results of several series of methodology validation studies are also presented. These studies included recovery studies of model VOC spiked on three types of Tenax sampling devices including authentic actively pumped (VOST) and passive (EPA) devices. Replicate devices spiked in an exposure chamber were also subjected to parallel analyses using the new methodology and traditional thermal-desorption gas chromatography

  3. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from oil and natural gas activities: compositional comparison of 13 major shale basins via NOAA airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Aikin, K. C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Koss, A.; Yuan, B.; Warneke, C.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Holloway, J. S.; Graus, M.; Tokarek, T. W.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Sueper, D.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    The recent and unprecedented increase in natural gas production from shale formations is associated with a rise in the production of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including natural gas plant liquids (e.g., ethane, propane, and butanes) and liquid lease condensate (e.g., pentanes, hexanes, aromatics and cycloalkanes). Since 2010, the production of natural gas liquids and the amount of natural gas vented/flared has increased by factors of ~1.28 and 1.57, respectively (U.S. Energy and Information Administration), indicating an increasingly large potential source of hydrocarbons to the atmosphere. Emission of VOCs may affect local and regional air quality due to the potential to form tropospheric ozone and organic particles as well as from the release of toxic species such as benzene and toluene. The 2015 Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNex) campaign studied emissions from oil and natural gas activities across the central United States in order to better understand their potential air quality and climate impacts. Here we present VOC measurements from 19 research flights aboard the NOAA WP-3D over 11 shale basins across 8 states. Non-methane hydrocarbons were measured using an improved whole air sampler (iWAS) with post-flight analysis via a custom-built gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The whole air samples are complimented by higher-time resolution measurements of methane (Picarro spectrometer), ethane (Aerodyne spectrometer), and VOCs (H3O+ chemical ionization mass spectrometer). Preliminary analysis show that the Permian Basin on the New Mexico/Texas border had the highest observed VOC mixing ratios for all basins studied. We will utilize VOC enhancement ratios to compare the composition of methane and VOC emissions for each basin and the associated reactivities of these gases with the hydroxyl radical, OH, as a proxy for potential ozone formation.

  4. The human volatilome: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, feces and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Pleil, Joachim; Ratcliffe, Norman; Risby, Terence

    2014-09-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with its roots in antiquity. Antoine Lavoisier discovered carbon dioxide in exhaled breath during the period 1777-1783, Wilhelm (Vilém) Petters discovered acetone in breath in 1857 and Johannes Müller reported the first quantitative measurements of acetone in 1898. A recent review reported 1765 volatile compounds appearing in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, saliva, human breast milk, blood and feces. For a large number of compounds, real-time analysis of exhaled breath or skin emanations has been performed, e.g., during exertion of effort on a stationary bicycle or during sleep. Volatile compounds in exhaled breath, which record historical exposure, are called the 'exposome'. Changes in biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations can be used to mirror metabolic or (patho)physiological processes in the whole body or blood concentrations of drugs (e.g. propofol) in clinical settings-even during artificial ventilation or during surgery. Also compounds released by bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus pneumonia could be very interesting. Methyl methacrylate (CAS 80-62-6), for example, was observed in the headspace of Streptococcus pneumonia in concentrations up to 1420 ppb. Fecal volatiles have been implicated in differentiating certain infectious bowel diseases such as Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Cholera. They have also been used to differentiate other non-infectious conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, alterations in urine volatiles have been used to detect urinary tract infections, bladder, prostate and other cancers. Peroxidation of lipids and other biomolecules by reactive oxygen species produce volatile compounds like ethane and 1-pentane. Noninvasive detection and therapeutic monitoring of oxidative stress would be highly desirable in autoimmunological, neurological, inflammatory diseases and cancer

  5. Sampling and analytical procedures for the determination of VOCs released into air from natural and anthropogenic sources: A comparison between SPME (Solid Phase Micro Extraction) and ST (Solid Trap) methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassi, F.; Capecchiacci, F.; Buccianti, A.; Vaselli, O.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, two sampling and analytical methods for VOC determination in fumarolic exhalations related to hydrothermal-magmatic reservoirs in volcanic and geothermal areas and biogas released from waste landfills were compared: (a) Solid Traps (STs), consisting of three phase (Carboxen B, Carboxen C and Carbosieve S111) absorbent stainless steel tubes and (b) Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) fibers, composed of DiVinylBenzene (DVB), Carboxen and PolyDimethylSiloxane. These techniques were applied to pre-concentrate VOCs discharged from: (i) low-to-high temperature fumaroles collected at Vulcano Island, Phlegrean Fields (Italy), and Nisyros Island (Greece), (ii) recovery wells in a solid waste disposal site located near Florence (Italy). A glass condensing system cooled with water was used to collect the dry fraction of the fumarolic gases, in order to allow more efficient VOC absorption avoiding any interference by water vapor and acidic gases, such as SO 2 , H 2 S, HF and HCl, typically present at relatively high concentrations in these fluids. Up to 37 organic species, in the range of 40–400 m/z, were determined by coupling gas chromatography to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). This study shows that the VOC compositions of fumaroles and biogas determined via SPME and ST are largely consistent and can be applied to the analysis of VOCs in gases released from different natural and anthropogenic environments. The SPME method is rapid and simple and more appropriate for volcanic and geothermal emissions, where VOCs are present at relatively high concentrations and prolonged gas sampling may be hazardous for the operator. The ST method, allowing the collection of large quantities of sample, is to be preferred to analyze the VOC composition of fluids from diffuse emissions and air, where these compounds are present at relatively low concentrations.

  6. Multiple internal standard normalization for improving HS-SPME-GC-MS quantitation in virgin olive oil volatile organic compounds (VOO-VOCs) profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Martina; Migliorini, Marzia; Cherubini, Chiara; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Calamai, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The commercial value of virgin olive oils (VOOs) strongly depends on their classification, also based on the aroma of the oils, usually evaluated by a panel test. Nowadays, a reliable analytical method is still needed to evaluate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and support the standard panel test method. To date, the use of HS-SPME sampling coupled to GC-MS is generally accepted for the analysis of VOCs in VOOs. However, VOO is a challenging matrix due to the simultaneous presence of: i) compounds at ppm and ppb concentrations; ii) molecules belonging to different chemical classes and iii) analytes with a wide range of molecular mass. Therefore, HS-SPME-GC-MS quantitation based upon the use of external standard method or of only a single internal standard (ISTD) for data normalization in an internal standard method, may be troublesome. In this work a multiple internal standard normalization is proposed to overcome these problems and improving quantitation of VOO-VOCs. As many as 11 ISTDs were used for quantitation of 71 VOCs. For each of them the most suitable ISTD was selected and a good linearity in a wide range of calibration was obtained. Except for E-2-hexenal, without ISTD or with an unsuitable ISTD, the linear range of calibration was narrower with respect to that obtained by a suitable ISTD, confirming the usefulness of multiple internal standard normalization for the correct quantitation of VOCs profile in VOOs. The method was validated for 71 VOCs, and then applied to a series of lampante virgin olive oils and extra virgin olive oils. In light of our results, we propose the application of this analytical approach for routine quantitative analyses and to support sensorial analysis for the evaluation of positive and negative VOOs attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Health evaluation of volatile organic compound (VOC) emission from exotic wood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeskov, L; Witterseh, T; Funch, L W

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure and evaluate the impact of the emissions of selected products of exotic wood on health. Ten products were screened for chemical compounds, and five of the most used products which emitted more than 800 microg/kg were selected for further quantitative...... analyses by climate chamber measurement (iroko, ramin, sheesham, merbau, and rubber tree). Samples of exotic wood (rubber tree and belalu) were further analyzed for emission of chemical compounds by migration into artificial saliva and for content of pesticides and allergenic natural rubber latex (NR latex......) (rubber tree). The toxicological effects of all substances identified were evaluated and the lowest concentrations of interest (LCI) assessed. An R-value was calculated for each wood product (R-value below 1 is considered to be unproblematic as regards health). Emission from the evaluated exotic wood only...

  8. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions characterization during the flow-back phase of a hydraulically refractured well in the Uintah Basin, Utah using mobile PTR-MS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, F.; Warneke, C.; Brown, S. S.; De Gouw, J. A.; Dube, W. P.; Edwards, P.; Gilman, J.; Graus, M.; Helleis, F.; Kofler, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Orphal, J.; Petron, G.; Roberts, J. M.; Zahn, A.

    2014-12-01

    Ongoing improvements in advanced technologies for crude oil and natural gas extraction from unconventional reserves, such as directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing, have greatly increased the production of fossil fuels within recent years. The latest forecasts even estimate an enhancement of 56% in total natural gas production due to increased development of shale gas, tight gas and offshore natural gas resources from 2012 to 2040 with the largest contribution from shale formations [US EIA: Annual Energy Outlook 2014]. During the field intensive 'Energy and Environment - Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS)', measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made using proton-transfer-reactions mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) at the ground site Horse Pool and using a mobile laboratory in the Uintah Basin, Utah, which is a region well known for intense fossil fuel production. A reworked gas well in the Red Wash fields was sampled regularly within two weeks performing mobile laboratory measurements downwind of the well site. The well had been recently hydraulically refractured at that time and waste water was collected into an open flow-back pond. Very high mixing ratios of aromatic hydrocarbons (C6-C13) up to the ppm range were observed coming from condensate and flow-back reservoirs. The measurements are used to determine sources of specific VOC emissions originating from the different parts of the well site and mass spectra are used to classify the air composition in contrast to samples taken at the Horse Pool field site and crude oil samples from South Louisiana. Enhancement ratios and time series of measured peak values for aromatics showed no clear trend, which indicates changes in emissions with operations at the site.

  9. VOC emissions control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spessard, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The air pollution control equipment marketplace offers many competing technologies for controlling emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. If any technology was economically and technically superior under all conditions, it would be the only one on the market. In fact, each technology used to control VOCs is superior under some set of conditions. The reasons for choosing one control technology over another are situation-specific. Some general guidelines to VOC control technologies and the situations where each may be appropriate are presented in this article. The control technologies and applications are summarized in a table

  10. Peptide modified ZnO nanoparticles as gas sensors array for volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascini, Marcello; Gaggiotti, Sara; Della Pelle, Flavio; Di Natale, Corrado; Qakala, Sinazo; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Pittia, Paola; Compagnone, Dario

    2018-04-01

    In this work a peptide based gas sensor array based of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) has been realized. Four different pentapeptides molecularly modelled for alcohols and esters having cysteine as a common spacer have been immobilized onto ZnONPs. ZnONPs have been morphologically and spectroscopically characterized. Modified nanoparticles have been then deposited onto quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) and used as gas sensors with nitrogen as carrier gas. Analysis of the pure compounds modelled demonstrated a nice fitting of modelling with real data. The peptide based ZnONPs had very low sensitivity to water, compared to previously studied AuNPs peptide based gas sensors allowing the use of the array on samples with high water content. Real samples of fruit juices have been assayed; stability of the signal, good repeatability and discrimination ability of the array was achieved.

  11. Peptide Modified ZnO Nanoparticles as Gas Sensors Array for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Mascini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work a peptide based gas sensor array based of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs has been realized. Four different pentapeptides molecularly modeled for alcohols and esters having cysteine as a common spacer have been immobilized onto ZnONPs. ZnONPs have been morphologically and spectroscopically characterized. Modified nanoparticles have been then deposited onto quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs and used as gas sensors with nitrogen as carrier gas. Analysis of the pure compounds modeled demonstrated a nice fitting of modeling with real data. The peptide based ZnONPs had very low sensitivity to water, compared to previously studied AuNPs peptide based gas sensors allowing the use of the array on samples with high water content. Real samples of fruit juices have been assayed; stability of the signal, good repeatability, and discrimination ability of the array was achieved.

  12. Mineralization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over the catalyst CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 and its applications in industrial odor control

    KAUST Repository

    Somekawa, Shouichi

    2011-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present at ppm levels were decomposed over the catalyst CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 (Cu:Co:Ce = 10:45:45 in mol) in an attempt to scale up for industrial odor control. In addition to enhancing the catalytic activity, CuO-Co3O4 and CeO2 helped, respectively, to maintain the strength of the pelleted catalysts and inhibit their sintering. Using toluene as a VOC model compound, kinetic analysis of the total oxidation to carbon dioxide was conducted. The odor emitted from paint-drying processes could be eliminated effectively using CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 (Cu:Co:Ce = 10:45:45) pelleted catalysts (188 ml) in a large-scale system. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mineralization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over the catalyst CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 and its applications in industrial odor control

    KAUST Repository

    Somekawa, Shouichi; Hagiwara, Toshiya; Fujii, Kyoko; Kojima, Masayuki; Shinoda, Tsutomu; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Domen, Kazunari

    2011-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present at ppm levels were decomposed over the catalyst CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 (Cu:Co:Ce = 10:45:45 in mol) in an attempt to scale up for industrial odor control. In addition to enhancing the catalytic activity, CuO-Co3O4 and CeO2 helped, respectively, to maintain the strength of the pelleted catalysts and inhibit their sintering. Using toluene as a VOC model compound, kinetic analysis of the total oxidation to carbon dioxide was conducted. The odor emitted from paint-drying processes could be eliminated effectively using CuO-Co3O4-CeO2 (Cu:Co:Ce = 10:45:45) pelleted catalysts (188 ml) in a large-scale system. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Field screening procedures for determining the presence of volatile organic compounds in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crockett, A.B.; DeHaan, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Many field screening procedures have been used to detect the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in soils but almost none have been documented and verified. Users of these procedures have not really known whether their objectives in screening were met. A reliable VOC screening procedure could significantly reduce the number of samples currently being submitted to laboratories, thereby reducing costs and improving site characterization. The Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas (EMSL-LV) has therefore sponsored a research effort to evaluate and improve headspace methods for screening soils for VOC in the field. The research involved comparing several extraction procedures using soils from actual waste sites, and determining the agitation and mixing necessary to achieve equilibrium. Headspace was analyzed using a relatively simple portable gas chromatograph with a short column. The results were variable and show that several procedures should be attempted and the results evaluated before selecting a screening procedure. 10 refs., 6 tabs

  15. Active Iron Sites of Disordered Mesoporous Silica Catalyst FeKIL-2 in the Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Rangus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron-functionalized disordered mesoporous silica (FeKIL-2 is a promising, environmentally friendly, cost-effective and highly efficient catalyst for the elimination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from polluted air via catalytic oxidation. In this study, we investigated the type of catalytically active iron sites for different iron concentrations in FeKIL-2 catalysts using advanced characterization of the local environment of iron atoms by a combination of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Techniques (XANES, EXAFS and Atomic-Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (AR STEM. We found that the molar ratio Fe/Si ≤ 0.01 leads to the formation of stable, mostly isolated Fe3+ sites in the silica matrix, while higher iron content Fe/Si > 0.01 leads to the formation of oligonuclear iron clusters. STEM imaging and EELS techniques confirmed the existence of these clusters. Their size ranges from one to a few nanometers, and they are unevenly distributed throughout the material. The size of the clusters was also found to be similar, regardless of the nominal concentration of iron (Fe/Si = 0.02 and Fe/Si = 0.05. From the results obtained from sample characterization and model catalytic tests, we established that the enhanced activity of FeKIL-2 with the optimal Fe/Si = 0.01 ratio can be attributed to: (1 the optimal concentration of stable isolated Fe3+ in the silica support; and (2 accelerated diffusion of the reactants in disordered mesoporous silica (FeKIL-2 when compared to ordered mesoporous silica materials (FeSBA-15, FeMCM-41.

  16. Direct measurement of VOC diffusivities in tree tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baduru, K.K.; Trapp, Stefan; Burken, Joel G.

    2008-01-01

    Recent discoveries in the phytoremediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) show that vapor-phase transport into roots leads to VOC removal from the vadose zone and diffusion and volatilization out of plants is an important fate following uptake. Volatilization to the atmosphere constitutes one...... in numerous vegetation−VOC interactions, including the phytoremediation of soil vapors and dissolved aqueous-phase contaminants. The diffusion of VOCs through freshly excised tree tissue was directly measured for common groundwater contaminants, chlorinated compounds such as trichloroethylene, perchloroethene......, and tetrachloroethane and aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and methyl tert-butyl ether. All compounds tested are currently being treated at full scale with tree-based phytoremediation. Diffusivities were determined by modeling the diffusive transport data with a one-dimensional diffusive flux model...

  17. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) to more..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) more...

  18. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

  19. Evaluation of volatile organic compound (VOC) blank data and application of study reporting levels to groundwater data collected for the California GAMA Priority Basin Project, May 2004 through September 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed in quality-control samples collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. From May 2004 through September 2010, a total of 2,026 groundwater samples, 211 field blanks, and 109 source-solution blanks were collected and analyzed for concentrations of 85 VOCs. Results from analyses of these field and source-solution blanks and of 2,411 laboratory instrument blanks during the same time period were used to assess the quality of data for the 2,026 groundwater samples. Eighteen VOCs were detected in field blanks or source-solution blanks: acetone, benzene, bromodichloromethane, 2-butanone, carbon disulfide, chloroform, 1,1-dichloroethene, dichloromethane, ethylbenzene, tetrachloroethene, styrene, tetrahydrofuran, toluene, trichloroethene, trichlorofluoromethane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m- and p-xylenes, and o-xylene. The objective of the evaluation of the VOC-blank data was to determine if study reporting levels (SRLs) were needed for any of the VOCs detected in blanks to ensure the quality of the data from groundwater samples. An SRL is equivalent to a raised reporting level that is used in place of the reporting level used by the analyzing laboratory [long‑term method detection level (LT-MDL) or laboratory reporting level (LRL)] to reduce the probability of reporting false-positive detections. Evaluation of VOC-blank data was done in three stages: (1) identification of a set of representative quality‑control field blanks (QCFBs) to be used for calculation of SRLs and identification of VOCs amenable to the SRL approach, (2) evaluation of potential sources of contamination to blanks and groundwater samples by VOCs detected in field blanks, and (3) selection of appropriate SRLs from among four potential SRLs for VOCs detected in field blanks and application of those SRLs to the groundwater data. An important conclusion from this study is that to ensure the

  20. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sponsors special days for the collection of toxic household wastes. If such days are available, use them to ... Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, Waste, and ... Laws & Regulations By Business Sector By Topic Compliance Enforcement Laws ...

  1. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Measurements in Karachi, Pakistan (2006): a Comparison With Previous Urban Sampling Campaigns Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Baker, A. K.; Zou, S.; Rowland, F.; Blake, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and 47 nonmethane hydrocarbons - NMHCs - (19 alkanes, 13 alkenes, ethyne, and 14 aromatics) were determined for ground level whole air samples collected during the winter of 2006 in Karachi, Pakistan. Pakistan is among the fastest growing economies in Asia, and Karachi is one of the largest cities in the world with a rapidly expanding population of over 14 million in the whole metropolitan area, and a large industrial base. Samples were collected in January 2006 throughout the urban area to characterize the overall air composition of the city, and along the busiest road to determine the traffic signature of Karachi. This sampling campaign follows a previous study carried out in the winter of 1998-1999 in the same city, when elevated concentrations of many NMHCs were observed. Exceptionally high levels of methane were still observed in 2006 with an average mixing ratio of 5.0 ppmv (6.3 ppmv were observed in 1999). The overall air composition of the Karachi urban environment characterized during this 2006 sampling is compared to 1999 aiming to highlight any possible change in the main VOC sources present throughout the city. In particular, we want to evaluate the impact of the heavy usage of natural gas on the overall air quality of Karachi and the recently increased use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as alternative source of energy. We also compare the composition of the urban troposphere of Karachi to other major urban centers worldwide such as Guangzhou (China), Mexico City (Mexico), and Milan (Italy).

  2. Influence of adhesive bonding on quantity of emissions VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Čech

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the influence of urea-formaldehyde glue and veneered bolstering on technological operation veneering on quantity of emission VOCs (volatile organic compounds.The so-called Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC are among the largest pollution sources of both the internal and external environments.VOC is defined as emission of any organic compound or a mixture thereof, with the exception of methane, whereby the compound exerts the pressure of 0.01 kPa or more at the temperature of 20 °C (293.15 K and reaches the corresponding volatility under the specific conditions of its use and can undergo photochemical reactions with nitrogen oxides when exposed to solar radiation.The effects of VOC upon environment can be described by equation:VOC + NOx + UV radiation + heat = tropospheric ozone (O3.In this work there were tested background working environment in various parts of multi-storeyed press, next was judged emissive charge of veneered device and used glue. We used surface material such as chipboard. We used urea-formaldehyde glue KRONOCOL U300 on technological operation veneering.The VOC emissions from the wooden surfaces with or without finishing were tested in the Equipment for VOC Measuring with a small-space chamber. This equipment was installed in and made available by the Institute of Furniture, Design and Habitation. The small-space chamber is suitable for testing small parts of wood products. The device equipped with small-chamber satisfies all conditions mandated in the standard ENV 13 419 DIN -V-ENV 13 419 ”Determination of the emissions of Volatile organic compounds”.The VOC emissions were collected in columns with sorbent Tenax TA. We analyzed the columns with the VOC emissions by: the gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometer and Direct Thermal Desorption.

  3. Development of aromatic VOC control technology by electron beam hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, Ki-Joon

    2006-01-01

    As a fundamental study, the decomposition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using electron beam (EB) irradiation has been extensively investigated. EB treatments of VOCs such as toluene and styrene are discussed. The degradation characteristics were intensively investigated under various concentrations and irradiation doses to determine and improve VOC removal efficiencies. This work illustrates that the removal efficiencies of aromatic VOCs generally increase as their concentrations decrease and the irradiation doses increase. Based on these basic studies, it was found that by-products produced from EB irradiation of VOCs would cause a secondary pollution problem. Therefore, a novel hybrid technology has been applied to control aromatic VOC emissions by annexing the catalyst technique with conventional treatment study using EB technology. The experiments were carried out using a bench-scale at first, then a pilot-scale system was followed. Toluene was selected as a typical VOC for EB hybrid control to investigate by-products, effects of ceramic and catalyst, and factors affecting overall efficiency of degradation. It was concluded that VOCs could be destroyed more effectively by a novel hybrid system than single EB irradiation. (author)

  4. Pollution characteristic of VOCs of ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing CHANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to further explore the pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds in ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City, the pollution characteristics of 62 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, monthly and quarterly variation, the correlation between VOCs and PM2.5, and the main sources of VOCs are investigated by using EPA TO-15 method. It shows that 40 organic compounds of the 64 VOCs have been quantitatively determined in winter and spring in the city, which are mainly acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, toluene, ethyl acetate, etc.. In the no-quantitatively determined components, higher ethanol, butyl acetate, butane etc. are detected. The VOCs concentration has positive correlation with the PM2.5 concentration during haze days.

  5. Short-Term Intra-Subject Variation in Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in COPD Patients and Healthy Controls and Its Effect on Disease Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillips

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs are of interest for their potential to diagnose disease non-invasively. However, most breath VOC studies have analyzed single breath samples from an individual and assumed them to be wholly consistent representative of the person. This provided the motivation for an investigation of the variability of breath profiles when three breath samples are taken over a short time period (two minute intervals between samples for 118 stable patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and 63 healthy controls and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. The extent of the variation in VOC levels differed between COPD and healthy subjects and the patterns of variation differed for isoprene versus the bulk of other VOCs. In addition, machine learning approaches were applied to the breath data to establish whether these samples differed in their ability to discriminate COPD from healthy states and whether aggregation of multiple samples, into single data sets, could offer improved discrimination. The three breath samples gave similar classification accuracy to one another when evaluated separately (66.5% to 68.3% subjects classified correctly depending on the breath repetition used. Combining multiple breath samples into single data sets gave better discrimination (73.4% subjects classified correctly. Although accuracy is not sufficient for COPD diagnosis in a clinical setting, enhanced sampling and analysis may improve accuracy further. Variability in samples, and short-term effects of practice or exertion, need to be considered in any breath testing program to improve reliability and optimize discrimination.

  6. Chemical-specific screening criteria for interpretation of biomonitoring data for volatile organic compounds (VOCs)--application of steady-state PBPK model solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Lesa L; Kirman, Chris R; Blount, Ben C; Hays, Sean M

    2010-10-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) generates population-representative biomonitoring data for many chemicals including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in blood. However, no health or risk-based screening values are available to evaluate these data from a health safety perspective or to use in prioritizing among chemicals for possible risk management actions. We gathered existing risk assessment-based chronic exposure reference values such as reference doses (RfDs), reference concentrations (RfCs), tolerable daily intakes (TDIs), cancer slope factors, etc. and key pharmacokinetic model parameters for 47 VOCs. Using steady-state solutions to a generic physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model structure, we estimated chemical-specific steady-state venous blood concentrations across chemicals associated with unit oral and inhalation exposure rates and with chronic exposure at the identified exposure reference values. The geometric means of the slopes relating modeled steady-state blood concentrations to steady-state exposure to a unit oral dose or unit inhalation concentration among 38 compounds with available pharmacokinetic parameters were 12.0 microg/L per mg/kg-d (geometric standard deviation [GSD] of 3.2) and 3.2 microg/L per mg/m(3) (GSD=1.7), respectively. Chemical-specific blood concentration screening values based on non-cancer reference values for both oral and inhalation exposure range from 0.0005 to 100 microg/L; blood concentrations associated with cancer risk-specific doses at the 1E-05 risk level ranged from 5E-06 to 6E-02 microg/L. The distribution of modeled steady-state blood concentrations associated with unit exposure levels across VOCs may provide a basis for estimating blood concentration screening values for VOCs that lack chemical-specific pharmacokinetic data. The screening blood concentrations presented here provide a tool for risk assessment-based evaluation of population biomonitoring data for VOCs and

  7. Determination of volatile organic compounds from biowaste and co-fermentation biogas plants by single-sorbent adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Gómez, J I; Lohmann, H; Krassowski, J

    2016-06-01

    Characterisation of biogases is normally dedicated to the online monitoring of the major components methane and carbon dioxide and, to a lesser extent, to the determination of ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. For the case of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), much less attention is usually paid, since such compounds are normally removed during gas conditioning and with exception of sulphur compounds and siloxanes represent a rather low risk to conventional downstream devices but could be a hindrance for fuel cells. However, there is very little information in the literature about the type of substances found in biogases generated from biowaste or co-fermentation plants and their concentration fluctuations. The main aim of this study was to provide information about the time dependencies of the VOCs in three biogas plants spread out through Germany from autumn until summer, which have different process control, in order to assess their potential as biofuels. Additionally, this study was an attempt to establish a correlation between the nature of the substrates used in the biogas plants and the composition of the VOCs present in the gas phase. Significant time-dependent variations in concentration were observed for most VOCs but only small changes in composition were observed. In general, terpenes and ketones appeared as the predominant VOCs in biogas. Although for substances such as esters, sulphur-organic compounds and siloxanes the average concentrations observed were rather low, they exhibited significant concentration peaks. The second biogas plant which operates with dry fermentation was found to contain the highest levels of VOCs. The amount of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) for the first, second and third biogas plants ranged from 35 to 259 mg Nm(-3), 291-1731 mg Nm(-3) and 84-528 mg Nm(-3), respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural determination of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kintzinger, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the current methods available in high-field NMR spectroscopy are such that the tridimensional structure determination of any rigid molecule containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms may be achieved. The connectivities between carbon-carbon, carbon-hydrogen, and hydrogen-hydrogen atoms are determined by multipulse and two-dimensional (2D) experiments. These connectivity patterns or maps allow a step-by-step reconstruction of the molecular structures. From the carbon-carbon connectivity map, the carbon framework of the molecule is obtained, whereas the carbon-hydrogen pattern allows determination of the positions of the hydrogen atoms on their corresponding carbon atoms. High-field spectrometers are then necessary to remove fortuitous degeneracy and to reduce the proton spectra to a nearly first-order one, allowing an easy measurement of the chemical shifts and the coupling constants

  9. Evaporation of a volatile organic compound in a hygroscopic soil - influence of the airflow and its VOC vapour saturation

    OpenAIRE

    Naon , Bétaboalé; Benet , Jean-Claude; Cousin , Bruno; Cherblanc , Fabien; Chammari , Ali

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This article presents an experimental and theoretical study of VOC volatilization in soil during a decontamination process by vapour extraction or venting. A phase change law is proposed in the case of a sandy-silty soil when the convective gaseous phase is vapour-charged. A simple experimental method for analyzing the phase change is presented. Finally, an efficiency coefficient is introduced to quantify the contribution of airflow velocity on venting.

  10. Implementation of VOC source reduction practices in a manufactured house and in school classrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Apte, M.G.; Shendell, D.G.; Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.E.R.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed studies of a new manufactured house and four new industrialized relocatable school classrooms were conducted to determine the emission sources of formaldehyde and other VOCs and to identify and implement source reduction practices. Procedures were developed to generate VOC emission factors that allowed reasonably accurate predictions of indoor air VOC concentrations. Based on the identified sources of formaldehyde and other aldehydes, practices were developed to reduce the concentrations of these compounds in new house construction. An alternate ceiling panel reduced formaldehyde concentrations in the classrooms. Overall, the classrooms had relatively low VOC concentrations

  11. VOC contamination in hospital, from stationary sampling of a large panel of compounds, in view of healthcare workers and patients exposure assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Bessonneau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess, for the first time, the nature of the indoor air contamination of hospitals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: More than 40 volatile organic compounds (VOCs including aliphatic, aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, ethers and terpenes were measured in a teaching hospital in France, from sampling in six sampling sites--reception hall, patient room, nursing care, post-anesthesia care unit, parasitology-mycology laboratory and flexible endoscope disinfection unit--in the morning and in the afternoon, during three consecutive days. Our results showed that the main compounds found in indoor air were alcohols (arithmetic means ± SD: 928±958 µg/m³ and 47.9±52.2 µg/m³ for ethanol and isopropanol, respectively, ethers (75.6±157 µg/m³ for ether and ketones (22.6±20.6 µg/m³ for acetone. Concentrations levels of aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes and limonene were widely variable between sampling sites, due to building age and type of products used according to health activities conducted in each site. A high temporal variability was observed in concentrations of alcohols, probably due to the intensive use of alcohol-based hand rubs in all sites. Qualitative analysis of air samples led to the identification of other compounds, including siloxanes (hexamethyldisiloxane, octamethyltrisiloxane, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, anesthetic gases (sevoflurane, desflurane, aliphatic hydrocarbons (butane, esters (ethylacetate, terpenes (camphor, α-bisabolol, aldehydes (benzaldehyde and organic acids (benzoic acid depending on sites. CONCLUSION: For all compounds, concentrations measured were lower than concentrations known to be harmful in humans. However, results showed that indoor air of sampling locations contains a complex mixture of VOCs. Further multicenter studies are required to compare these results. A full understanding of the exposure of healthcare workers and patients

  12. VOCs and OVOCs distribution and control policy implications in Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Peter K. K.; Ho, Josephine W. K.; Tsang, Roy C. W.; Blake, Donald R.; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Yu, Jian Zhen; Yuan, Zibing; Wang, Xinming; Shao, Min; Zhong, Liuju

    2013-09-01

    Ambient air measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) were conducted and characterised during a two-year grid study in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of southern China. The present grid study pioneered the systematic investigation of the nature and characteristics of complex VOC and OVOC sources at a regional scale. The largest contributing VOCs, accounting over 80% of the total VOCs mixing ratio, were toluene, ethane, ethyne, propane, ethene, butane, benzene, pentane, ethylbenzene, and xylenes. Sub-regional VOC spatial characteristics were identified, namely: i) relatively fresh pollutants, consistent with elevated vehicular and industrial activities, around the PRD estuary; and ii) a concentration gradient with higher mixing ratios of VOCs in the west as compared with the eastern part of PRD. Based on alkyl nitrate aging determination, a high hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration favoured fast hydrocarbon reactions and formation of locally produced ozone. The photochemical reactivity analysis showed aromatic hydrocarbons and alkenes together consisted of around 80% of the ozone formation potential (OFP) among the key VOCs. We also found that the OFP from OVOCs should not be neglected since their OFP contribution was more than one-third of that from VOCs alone. These findings support the choice of current air pollution control policy which focuses on vehicular sources but warrants further controls. Industrial emissions and VOCs emitted by solvents should be the next targets for ground-level ozone abatement.

  13. Concentration, ozone formation potential and source analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a thermal power station centralized area: A study in Shuozhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yulong; Peng, Lin; Li, Rumei; Li, Yinghui; Li, Lijuan; Bai, Huiling

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from two sampling sites (HB and XB) in a power station centralized area, in Shuozhou city, China, were sampled by stainless steel canisters and measured by gas chromatography-mass selective detection/flame ionization detection (GC-MSD/FID) in the spring and autumn of 2014. The concentration of VOCs was higher in the autumn (HB, 96.87 μg/m 3 ; XB, 58.94 μg/m 3 ) than in the spring (HB, 41.49 μg/m 3 ; XB, 43.46 μg/m 3 ), as lower wind speed in the autumn could lead to pollutant accumulation, especially at HB, which is a new urban area surrounded by residential areas and a transportation hub. Alkanes were the dominant group at both HB and XB in both sampling periods, but the contribution of aromatic pollutants at HB in the autumn was much higher than that of the other alkanes (11.16-19.55%). Compared to other cities, BTEX pollution in Shuozhou was among the lowest levels in the world. Because of the high levels of aromatic pollutants, the ozone formation potential increased significantly at HB in the autumn. Using the ratio analyses to identify the age of the air masses and analyze the sources, the results showed that the atmospheric VOCs at XB were strongly influenced by the remote sources of coal combustion, while at HB in the spring and autumn were affected by the remote sources of coal combustion and local sources of vehicle emission, respectively. Source analysis conducted using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model at Shuozhou showed that coal combustion and vehicle emissions made the two largest contributions (29.98% and 21.25%, respectively) to atmospheric VOCs. With further economic restructuring, the influence of vehicle emissions on the air quality should become more significant, indicating that controlling vehicle emissions is key to reducing the air pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Measurement of VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC solubility in polyethylene drum liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Peterson, E.S.

    1995-03-01

    A test program conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) investigated the use of a transport model to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the void volume of a waste drum. Unsteady-state VOC transport model equations account for VOC permeation of polymer bags, VOC diffusion across openings in layers of confinement, and VOC solubility in a polyethylene drum liner. In support of this program, the VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC equilibrium concentration in a polyethylene drum liner were measured for nine VOCs. The VOCs used in experiments were dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, methanol, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), trichloroethylene, and p-xylene. The experimental results of these measurements as well as a method of estimating both parameters in the absence of experimental data are described in this report

  15. VOC identification and inter-comparison from laboratory biomass burning using PTR-MS and PIT-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Warneke; J. M. Roberts; P. Veres; J. Gilman; W. C. Kuster; I. Burling; R. Yokelson; J. A. de Gouw

    2011-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from fires of biomass commonly found in the southeast and southwest U.S. were investigated with PTR-MS and PIT-MS, which are capable of fast measurements of a large number of VOCs. Both instruments were calibrated with gas standards and mass dependent calibration curves are determined. The sensitivity of the PIT-MS linearly...

  16. Measurements of VOC adsorption/desorption characteristics of typical interior building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Y.; Zhang, J.S.; Shaw, C.Y.

    2000-07-01

    The adsorption/desorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on interior building material surfaces (i.e., the sink effect) can affect the VOC concentrations in a building, and thus need to be accounted for an indoor air quality (IAQ) prediction model. In this study, the VOC adsorption/desorption characteristics (sink effect) were measured for four typical interior building materials including carpet, vinyl floor tile, painted drywall, and ceiling tile. The VOCs tested were ethylbenzene, cyclohexanone, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, benzaldehyde, and dodecane. These five VOCs were selected because they are representative of hydrocarbons, aromatics, ketones, aldehydes, and chlorine substituted compounds. The first order reversible adsorption/desorption model was based on the Langmuir isotherm was used to analyze the data and to determine the equilibrium constant of each VOC-material combination. It was found that the adsorption/desorption equilibrium constant, which is a measure of the sink capacity, increased linearly with the inverse of the VOC vapor pressure. For each compound, the adsorption/desorption equilibrium constant, and the adsorption rate constant differed significantly among the four materials tested. A detailed characterization of the material structure in the micro-scale would improve the understanding and modeling of the sink effect in the future. The results of this study can be used to estimate the impact of sink effect on the VOC concentrations in buildings.

  17. VOC Control in Kraft Mills; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.Y.; Chai, X.-S.; Edwards, L.L.; Gu, Y.; Teja, A.S.; Kirkman, A.G.; Pfromm, P.H.; Rezac, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as methanol, in kraft mills has been an environmental concern. Methanol is soluble in water and can increase the biochemical oxygen demand. Furthermore, it can also be released into atmosphere at the process temperatures of kraft mill-streams. The Cluster Rule of the EPA now requires the control of the release of methanol in pulp and paper mills. This research program was conducted to develop a computer simulation tool for mills to predict VOC air emissions. To achieve the objective of the research program, much effort was made in the development of analytical techniques for the analysis of VOC and determination of vapor liquid partitioning coefficient of VOCs in kraft mill-streams using headspace gas chromatography. With the developed analytical tool, methanol formation in alkaline pulping was studied in laboratory to provide benchmark data of the amount of methanol formation in pulping in kraft mills and for the validation of VOC formation and vapor-liquid equilibrium submodels. Several millwide air and liquid samplings were conducted using the analytical tools developed to validate the simulation tool. The VOC predictive simulation model was developed based on the basic chemical engineering concepts, i.e., reaction kinetics, vapor liquid equilibrium, combined with computerized mass and energy balances. Four kraft mill case studies (a continuous digester, two brownstock washing lines, and a pre-evaporator system) are presented and compared with mill measurements. These case studies provide valuable, technical information for issues related to MACT I and MACT II compliance, such as condensate collection and Clean-Condensate-Alternatives (CCA)

  18. Economical incineration of volatile organic compounds (VOC) using oxide catalysts with optimized superficial properties; Incineration economique de composes organiques volatils (COV) a l'aide des catalyseurs d'oxydes aux proprietes superficielles optimisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evstratov, A. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Industrielles et des Mines d' Ales, ENSTIMA, Centre LGEI, 30 - Ales (France)

    2001-07-01

    This study aims at presenting the existing possibilities of improvement of the technological parameters of the incineration processes for VOC-bearing industrial gases. Two different approaches are considered. One is based on the preliminary accumulation of the compounds to be degraded on catalytic surfaces having important acid-base and redox capabilities; the formation of the deposits is followed by the in situ catalytic incineration. The other is based on the application of catalysts with optimized acidities in order to limit the acid-base interactions and to maintain the catalytic surfaces in a stationary state at reduced temperatures. The first approach is applied to reactive VOC (unsaturated and polar compounds), while the other can be useful for the economical treatment of any type of VOC-bearing effluent. (J.S.)

  19. Determination of Hazardous VOCs and Nicotine Released from Mainstream Smoke by the Combination of the SPME and GC-MS Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar Pandey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the contents of nicotine and volatile organic compounds (VOCs in mainstream smoke (MSS were analyzed using samples of four cigarette types consisting of two common brands (R and E with full (F and light (L flavor, coded with R-F, R-L, E-F, and E-L. These cigarettes were also analyzed after removing the filter portions with the assignment of a new sample code of (N as the third letter (e.g., R-L-N. A total of 44 VOCs (including nicotine were quantified by the combination of the SPME and GC-MS methods. Out of the 44 VOCs, 10 were identified as hazardous air pollutants listed by the U.S. EPA, while their concentrations exceeded the reference exposure limits set by various agencies. A clear distinction was apparent in the concentration levels of VOCs between different brands or between full and light flavors. Nicotine concentrations varied greatly between different cigarettes types of the R brand, whereas such changes were insignificant in the counterpart E brand. This thus suggests that light-flavor cigarettes do not necessarily guarantee low doses of carcinogens (and tar than regular cigarettes, as their differences can be balanced by the inhaling behavior of the smoker.

  20. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  1. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R.

    1995-08-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations

  2. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations

  3. Voltammetric determination of zirconium using azo compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orshulyak, O.O.; Levitskaya, G.D.

    2008-01-01

    The optimum conditions for zirconium complexation with azo compounds are found. The applicability of Eriochrome Red B, Calcon, and Calcion to the voltammetric determination of zirconium, total Zr(IV) and Hf(IV), and Zr(IV) in the presence of Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), or Ti(IV) is demonstrated. The developed procedures are used to determine zirconium in a terbium alloy and in an alloy for airplane wheel drums [ru

  4. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the Ambient Air Of Concentration Unit of Sar-Cheshmeh Copper Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi-Zrandi, A.; Akhgar, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollutants including gases, vapors and particles, are emitted from different sources. Volatile organic compounds are the most important pollutants in the ambient air of industries. The present study was carried out to identify and measurement of volatile organic compounds in concentration unit of Sar-Cheshmeh Copper Complex. In this study, sampling of the volatile organic compounds was done by using activated charcoal tube. To identify and measure these compounds gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy were used. Thirteen volatile organic compounds were identified in the ambient air of concentration unit. Among these compounds, the mean value and maximum concentration of isopropyl alcohol and nonane were 255, 640 μg/m3 and 1577, 14400 μg/m3, respectively. By using SPSS software and independent sample t- test, showed that there were no significant difference between mean value concentration of isopropyl alcohol and nonane in the ambient air and TLV values of these compounds (isopropyl alcohol; 200 ppm and nonane; 200 ppm) (P >0.05).

  5. Occurrence of Indoor VOCs in Nursery School - Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasova Senitkova, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Children’s exposure to air pollutants is an important public health challenge. Particular attention should be paid to preschools because younger children are more vulnerable to air pollution than higher grade children and spend more time indoors. The concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in younger and older children’s classrooms during the winter season were studied. An electronic nose based on gas chromatography was used for the analysis of individual VOCs and a photoionization detector with a UV lamp was used for the determination of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) concentration. Continuous measurements of CO2 concentrations both inside classrooms and outside each building were performed using automatic portable monitors. Improving ventilation, decreasing the occupancy per room and completing cleaning activities following occupancy periods can contribute to alleviating high CO2 and VOCs occurrence levels.

  6. Estimation of sources and factors affecting indoor VOC levels using basic numerical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Mentese

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs are a concern due to their adverse health effects and extensive usage. Levels of indoor VOCs were measured in six homes located in three different towns in Çanakkale, Turkey. Monthly indoor VOC samples were collected by passive sampling throughout a year. The highest levels of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC, benzene, toluene, and xylenes occurred in industrial, rural, and urban sites in a descending order. VOC levels were categorized as average values annually, during the heating period, and non-heating period. Several building/environmental factors together with occupants’ habits were scored to obtain a basic indoor air pollution index (IAPi for the homes. Bivariate regression analysis was applied to find the associations between the pollutant levels and home scores. IAPi scores were found to be correlated with average indoor VOC levels. In particular, very strong associations were found for occupants’ habits. Furthermore, observed indoor VOC levels were categorized by using self-organizing map (SOM and two simple scoring approaches, rounded average and maximum value methods, to classify the indoor environments based on their VOC compositions (IAPvoc. Three classes were used for both IAPi and IAPvoc approaches, namely “good”, “moderate”, and “bad”. There is an urgent need for indexing studies to determine the potential sources and/or factors affecting observed VOCs. This study gives a basic but good start for further studies.

  7. Selection of Sustainable Technology for VOC Abatement in an Industry: An Integrated AHP-QFD Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Alok Kumar; Modi, Bharat A.

    2018-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are universally present in global atmospheric pollutants. These VOCs are responsible for photo chemical reaction in atmosphere leading to serious harmful effects on human health and environment. VOCs are produced from both natural and man-made sources and may have good commercial value if it can be utilized as alternate fuel. As per data from US EPA, 15% of total VOC emissions are generated from surface coating industry but VOC concentration and exhaust air volume varies to a great extent and is dependent on processes used by industry. Various technologies are available for abatement of VOCs. Physical, Chemical and Biological technologies are available to remove VOCs by either recovery or destruction with many advantages and limitations. With growing environmental awareness and considering the resource limitations of medium and small scale industries, requirement of a tool for selecting appropriate techno economically viable solution for removal of VOCs from industrial process exhaust is envisaged. The aim of the present study is to provide management a tool to determine the overall effect of implementation of VOC abatement technology on business performance and VOC emissions. The primary purpose of this work is to outline a methodology to rate various VOC abatement technologies with respect to the constraint of meeting current and foreseeable future regulatory requirements, operational flexibility and Over All Economics Parameters considering conservation of energy. In this paper an integrated approach has been proposed to select most appropriate abatement technology strategically. Analytical hierarchy process and Quality function deployment have been integrated for Techno-commercial evaluation. A case study on selection of VOC abatement technology for a leading aluminium foil surface coating, lamination and printing facility using this methodology is presented in this study.

  8. Probability of Elevated Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  9. Carbon determination in uranium and its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Queiroz, C.A. da; Abrao, A.

    1982-01-01

    Carbon content in uranium and its compounds, especially ceramic grade UO 2 , must be controlled rigorously. A method for the determination of carbon with the aid of commercial equipment which uses platinum as a catalyst for the oxidation of CO, and infrared cells for CO 2 measurement is described. The detection limit is 5μg C/g U and the determination range is 0.0005 to 5% C/U. The method is being used routinely to control the carbon content in nuclear fuel materials. (Author) [pt

  10. Content and Formation Cause of VOCs in Medical Waste Non-incineration Treatment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengchao, Jin; Hongjun, Teng; Zhenbo, Bao; Yang, Li

    2018-02-01

    When medical waste is treated by non-incineration technology, volatile organic compounds in the waste will be volatile out and form odor pollution. This paper studied VOCs productions in medical waste steam treatment project, microwave treatment project and chemical dinifection project. Sampling and analysis were carried out on the waste gas from treatment equipment and the gas in treatment workshop. The contents of nine VOCs were determined. It was found that the VOCs content in the exhaust gas at the outlet of steam treatment unit was much higher than that of microwave and chemical treatment unit, while the content of VOCs in the chemical treatment workshop was higher than that in the steam and microwave treatment workshop. The formation causes of VOCs were also analyzed and discussed in this paper.

  11. 40 CFR 63.3165 - How do I determine the emission capture system efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system, and coating solvent flash-off and coating curing and drying occurs within the capture system. For... Compound (VOC) Released from Solventborne Automotive Coatings and Available for Removal in a VOC Control... Determining the Amount of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Released from Waterborne Automotive Coatings and...

  12. Comparison of the decomposition VOC profile during winter and summer in a moist, mid-latitude (Cfb climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari L Forbes

    Full Text Available The investigation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs associated with decomposition is an emerging field in forensic taphonomy due to their importance in locating human remains using biological detectors such as insects and canines. A consistent decomposition VOC profile has not yet been elucidated due to the intrinsic impact of the environment on the decomposition process in different climatic zones. The study of decomposition VOCs has typically occurred during the warmer months to enable chemical profiling of all decomposition stages. The present study investigated the decomposition VOC profile in air during both warmer and cooler months in a moist, mid-latitude (Cfb climate as decomposition occurs year-round in this environment. Pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus L. were placed on a soil surface to decompose naturally and their VOC profile was monitored during the winter and summer months. Corresponding control sites were also monitored to determine the natural VOC profile of the surrounding soil and vegetation. VOC samples were collected onto sorbent tubes and analyzed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography--time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS. The summer months were characterized by higher temperatures and solar radiation, greater rainfall accumulation, and comparable humidity when compared to the winter months. The rate of decomposition was faster and the number and abundance of VOCs was proportionally higher in summer. However, a similar trend was observed in winter and summer demonstrating a rapid increase in VOC abundance during active decay with a second increase in abundance occurring later in the decomposition process. Sulfur-containing compounds, alcohols and ketones represented the most abundant classes of compounds in both seasons, although almost all 10 compound classes identified contributed to discriminating the stages of decomposition throughout both seasons. The advantages of GC × GC-TOFMS were

  13. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Proestos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Wine contains natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds also known as bioactive compounds. Samples of commercially available Greek wines were analyzed in order to determine this phenolic content. For the analysis, Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC coupled with a multiwavelength Ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis detector was used. The most abundant phenolic substances detected were (+-catechin (13.5-72.4 mg L-1 , gallic acid (0.40-99.47 mg L-1 and caffeic acid (0.87-33.48 mg L-1. The principal component analysis (PCA technique was used to study differentiation among wines according to their production area. Red wines contained more phenolic substances than white ones. Differences of the phenolic composition in wines of the same cultivar were investigated too.

  14. Identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in plastic products using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerlis Pajaro-Castro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plastic materials are widely used in daily life. They contain a wide range of compounds with low molecular mass, including monomeric and oligomeric residues of polymerization, solvent-related chemicals residues, and various additives. Plastic products made of expanded polystyrene (EPS are currently employed as food containers. This study therefore sought to identify volatile organic compounds released by EPS from food packages and utensils used in Cartagena, Colombia. EPS-based plates, food and soup containers were subjected to various temperatures and released chemicals captured by solid phase microextraction, followed by on-column thermal desorption and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. The results revealed the presence of at least 30 different compounds in the EPS-based products examined; the most frequently found were benzaldehyde, styrene, ethylbenzene and tetradecane. The release of these molecules was temperature-dependent. It is therefore advisable to regulate the use of EPS products which may be subjected to heating in order to protect human health by decreasing the exposure to these chemicals.

  15. CO2 sensor versus Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) sensor – analysis of field measurement data and implications for demand controlled ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated performance of two commercially available non-selective metal oxide semiconductor VOC sensors and two commercially available non dispersive infrared CO2 sensors installed in one person office. The office was equipped with demand controlled ventilation. The signals from VOC...

  16. Modeling VOC transport in simulated waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the VOC permeability had been measured. Permeabilities for five VOCs [methylene chloride, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and trichloroethylene] were measured across a polyethylene bag. Comparison of model and experimental results of VOC concentration as a function of time indicate that model accurately accounts for significant VOC transport mechanisms in a lab-scale waste drum

  17. Method development for the determination of volatile organic compounds in mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, W.F.; Rogers, Y.C.; Schappert, M.F.; Boland, K.S.; Spall, W.D.; Wilkerson, C.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    While analytical methods exist for the determination of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed organic and inorganic compounds in hazardous materials, equivalent methods suitable for the characterization of radioactively contaminated samples are not at the same level of maturity. The Mixed Waste Methods Development Lab. has been established at Los Alamos National Lab. to address the need for such procedures. This presentation will focus on the efforts that have been directed toward the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in mixed waste matrices. The capabilities of the Mixed Waste Methods Development Lab. will be outlined. Modifications to the containment boxes and analytical instrumentation required for the analyses will be described, as will experimental procedures and system performance benchmarks. Preliminary results from surrogate and real mixed waste matrices will be presented, and future directions for our method development effort will be discussed

  18. Mass transfer study between soil, atmosphere, groundwater and building in a contaminated area; volatile organic compounds (VOC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotel, S.

    2008-10-01

    A bibliography review led to detail the mechanisms of exchange between phases and transport of volatile organic compounds in the vadose zone, to put in equations their transfer, to set experimental devices and to define relevant tests. The pollutant in question is trichloroethylene, the porous media is a medium sand and the experiments were implemented in column. Once, an analytical method was available to quantify aqueous, gaseous and sorb TCE, predominant transfers mechanisms were quantified separately especially with diffusion experiments through a sand at three different water contents (dry, residual saturation and saturated). Then, these mechanisms have been coupled in a TCE transfer experiment in sand with a hydrostatic water content profile. Each type of test was dimensioned, if it's possible duplicated and interpreted with the multiphasic software Comsol whose flow equation was changed to consider the gravity driven convection. By strictly controlling external factors and boundary conditions, it was possible to carry out transfer experiments reproducible and interpretable with a volatile and reactive compound in a very permeable porous medium. A good reproducibility of experimental results by simulation was achieved with minor changes in basic parameters: report permeability on viscosity, tortuosity (Millington, 1959) and aerodynamics conductivity curve setting parameter (Thomson et al., 1997). This work has resulted in a fine understanding of gas transfers in the vadose zone, especially in the capillarity fringe. (author)

  19. MEMBRANE BIOTREATMENT OF VOC-LADEN AIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses membrane biotreatment of air laden with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Microporous flat-sheet and hollow-fiber membrane contactors were used to support air-liquid mass transfer interfaces. These modules were used in a two-step process to transfer VOCs fr...

  20. Relationship between selected indoor volatile organic compounds, so-called microbial VOC, and the prevalence of mucous membrane symptoms in single family homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Atsuko; Kawai, Toshio; Eitaki, Yoko; Kanazawa, Ayako; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Nakayama, Kunio; Shibata, Eiji; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Takigawa, Tomoko; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Chikara, Hisao; Saijo, Yasuaki; Kishi, Reiko

    2010-01-01

    Microorganisms are known to produce a range of volatile organic compounds, so-called microbial VOC (MVOC). Chamber studies where humans were exposed to MVOC addressed the acute effects of objective and/or subjective signs of mucosal irritation. However, the effect of MVOC on inhabitants due to household exposure is still unclear. The purpose of this epidemiological study was to measure indoor MVOC levels in single family homes and to evaluate the relationship between exposure to them and sick building syndrome (SBS). All inhabitants of the dwellings were given a self-administered questionnaire with standardized questions to assess their symptoms. Air samples were collected and the concentrations of eight selected compounds in indoor air were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry - selective ion monitoring mode (GC/MS-SIM). The most frequently detected MVOC was 1-pentanol at a detection rate of 78.6% and geometric mean of 0.60 μg/m 3 . Among 620 participants, 120 (19.4%) reported one or more mucous symptoms; irritation of the eyes, nose, airway, or coughing every week (weekly symptoms), and 30 (4.8%) reported that the symptoms were home-related (home-related symptoms). Weekly symptoms were not associated with any of MVOC, whereas significant associations between home-related mucous symptoms and 1-octen-3-ol (per log 10 -unit: odds ratio (OR) 5.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1 to 14.8) and 2-pentanol (per log 10 -unit: OR 2.3, 95% CI: 1.0 to 4.9) were obtained after adjustment for gender, age, and smoking. Associations between home-related symptoms and 1-octen-3-ol remained after mutual adjustment. However, concentrations of the selected compounds in indoors were lower than the estimated safety level in animal studies. Thus, the statistically significant association between 1-octen-3-ol may be due to a direct effect of the compounds or the associations may be being associated with other offending compounds. Additional studies are needed to evaluate

  1. The adsorption and reaction of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOC's) on metal oxides. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, D.W.; Haw, J.F.; Lunsford, J.

    1998-01-01

    'The goal of the research is to elucidate the properties of the materials responsible for the activation of halocarbons and the nature of the intermediates formed in the dissociative adsorption of this class of compounds. This information is essential for interpreting and predicting stoichiometric and catalytic pathways for the safe destruction of halocarbon pollutants. The specific objectives are: (1) to study the adsorption and reactivity of chloromethanes and chloroethanes on metal oxides; (2) to identify the reaction intermediates using spectroscopic methods; and (3) to develop kinetic models for the reaction of these halocarbons with oxide surfaces. This report summarizes work after 20 months of a 36-month project. Emphasis has been placed understanding the surfaces phases, as well as the bulk phases that are present during the reactions of chlorinated hydrocarbons with strongly basic metal oxides. Most of the research has been carried out with carbon tetrachloride.'

  2. Tropospheric VOC measurements by PTR-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansel, A.; Wisthaler, A.; Graus, M.; Grabmer, W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: O 3 is formed photochemically from the photolysis of NO 2 , and because O 3 reacts rapidly with NO these reactions result in a photoequilibrium between NO, NO 2 with no net formation or loss of O 3 , However, in the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the degradation reactions of VOCs lead to the formation of intermediate peroxy radicals which react with NO, converting NO to NO 2 , which then photolyze to form O 3 . Thus, in order to understand quantitatively tropospheric ozone chemistry, it is necessary to know the VOC distribution within the troposphere as well as VOC fluxes from individual sources. Examples will be presented how the use of Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) has enhanced our understanding of anthropogenic VOC emissions, biosphere-atmosphere exchange processes, and photochemical processing of both anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs in the troposphere. (author)

  3. A comparative study of Cu, Ag and Au doped CeO{sub 2} in the total oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboukaïs, Antoine, E-mail: aboukais@univ-littoral.fr [Unité de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant EA 4492, ULCO, Equipe de Catalyse-UCEIV, MREI, 59140, Dunkerque (France); Skaf, Mira, E-mail: miraskaf@hotmail.com [Unité de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant EA 4492, ULCO, Equipe de Catalyse-UCEIV, MREI, 59140, Dunkerque (France); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Balamand, P.O. Box 100, Deir El Balamand, Kelhat-Tripoli (Lebanon); Hany, Sara, E-mail: sarahani@hotmail.com [Unité de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant EA 4492, ULCO, Equipe de Catalyse-UCEIV, MREI, 59140, Dunkerque (France); Cousin, Renaud, E-mail: Renaud.Cousin@univ-littoral.fr [Unité de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant EA 4492, ULCO, Equipe de Catalyse-UCEIV, MREI, 59140, Dunkerque (France); Aouad, Samer, E-mail: Samer.Aouad@balamand.edu.lb [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Balamand, P.O. Box 100, Deir El Balamand, Kelhat-Tripoli (Lebanon); Labaki, Madona, E-mail: mlabaki@ul.edu.lb [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Materials (LCPM)/PR2N, Faculty of Sciences, Lebanese University, Fanar, PO Box 90656, Jdeidet El Metn (Lebanon); Abi-Aad, Edmond, E-mail: abiaad@univ-littoral.fr [Unité de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant EA 4492, ULCO, Equipe de Catalyse-UCEIV, MREI, 59140, Dunkerque (France)

    2016-07-01

    Total oxidation of two Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), propylene and toluene, was investigated over M/CeO{sub 2} catalysts, where M is a metal from IB group (i.e. Au, Ag, Cu), prepared by two different methods: the conventional wet impregnation and the deposition-precipitation. The catalysts have been characterized by means of total surface area (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse reflectance ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy (DR-UV/Vis), and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), in order to explain the differences observed in their catalytic activity towards the studied reactions. By comparing the two different preparation methods, the presence of metal in high oxidation state for gold and silver, and the presence of clusters for copper were the main factors responsible for the high catalytic activity. This latter was also found to be related, when comparing the different IB metals, to the values of the oxidation/reduction potential of the redox couples of the different metals. - Highlights: • IB metals (Au, Ag and Cu) were supported on ceria (CeO{sub 2}) by two different methods. • The solids were tested as catalysts for total oxidation of propylene and toluene. • The deposition-precipitation is better for Au whereas for Ag and Cu it is the impregnation. • High oxidation states of gold and silver and clusters of copper enhanced catalytic behavior. • Catalytic activity is linked to the oxidation/reduction potential of the redox IB couples.

  4. A comparative study of Cu, Ag and Au doped CeO_2 in the total oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboukaïs, Antoine; Skaf, Mira; Hany, Sara; Cousin, Renaud; Aouad, Samer; Labaki, Madona; Abi-Aad, Edmond

    2016-01-01

    Total oxidation of two Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), propylene and toluene, was investigated over M/CeO_2 catalysts, where M is a metal from IB group (i.e. Au, Ag, Cu), prepared by two different methods: the conventional wet impregnation and the deposition-precipitation. The catalysts have been characterized by means of total surface area (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse reflectance ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy (DR-UV/Vis), and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), in order to explain the differences observed in their catalytic activity towards the studied reactions. By comparing the two different preparation methods, the presence of metal in high oxidation state for gold and silver, and the presence of clusters for copper were the main factors responsible for the high catalytic activity. This latter was also found to be related, when comparing the different IB metals, to the values of the oxidation/reduction potential of the redox couples of the different metals. - Highlights: • IB metals (Au, Ag and Cu) were supported on ceria (CeO_2) by two different methods. • The solids were tested as catalysts for total oxidation of propylene and toluene. • The deposition-precipitation is better for Au whereas for Ag and Cu it is the impregnation. • High oxidation states of gold and silver and clusters of copper enhanced catalytic behavior. • Catalytic activity is linked to the oxidation/reduction potential of the redox IB couples.

  5. VOC emissions and carbon balance of two bioenergy plantations in response to nitrogen fertilization: A comparison of Miscanthus and Salix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Jarosch, Ann-Mareike; Gauder, Martin; Graeff-Hönninger, Simone; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Grote, Rüdiger; Rennenberg, Heinz; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    2018-06-01

    Energy crops are an important renewable source for energy production in future. To ensure high yields of crops, N fertilization is a common practice. However, knowledge on environmental impacts of bioenergy plantations, particularly in systems involving trees, and the effects of N fertilization is scarce. We studied the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which negatively affect the environment by contributing to tropospheric ozone and aerosols formation, from Miscanthus and willow plantations. Particularly, we aimed at quantifying the effect of N fertilization on VOC emission. For this purpose, we determined plant traits, photosynthetic gas exchange and VOC emission rates of the two systems as affected by N fertilization (0 and 80 kg ha -1 yr -1 ). Additionally, we used a modelling approach to simulate (i) the annual VOC emission rates as well as (ii) the OH . reactivity resulting from individual VOC emitted. Total VOC emissions from Salix was 1.5- and 2.5-fold higher compared to Miscanthus in non-fertilized and fertilized plantations, respectively. Isoprene was the dominating VOC in Salix (80-130 μg g -1 DW h -1 ), whereas it was negligible in Miscanthus. We identified twenty-eight VOC compounds, which were released by Miscanthus with the green leaf volatile hexanal as well as dimethyl benzene, dihydrofuranone, phenol, and decanal as the dominant volatiles. The pattern of VOC released from this species clearly differed to the pattern emitted by Salix. OH . reactivity from VOC released by Salix was ca. 8-times higher than that of Miscanthus. N fertilization enhanced stand level VOC emissions, mainly by promoting the leaf area index and only marginally by enhancing the basal emission capacity of leaves. Considering the higher productivity of fertilized Miscanthus compared to Salix together with the considerably lower OH . reactivity per weight unit of biomass produced, qualified the C 4 -perennial grass Miscanthus as a superior source of future

  6. 湿建筑材料VOCs散发特性的实验研究%Experimental Research on the Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds(VOCs) from Wet Building Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧星; 耿耿; 李贝妮; 肖玮

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析湿建筑材料VOCs散发的规律及其影响因素,以更好地控制由室内污染源产生的VOCs污染.方法 在自制的模拟环境实验舱内,利用PGM-7240手持式VOC检测议和气相色谱仪对湿建筑材料VOCs的散发行为进行试验测试.结果 表明环境温度升高使得材料内VOCs分子热运动加剧,湿材料散发VOCs的速率加快;较高的相对湿度延长了湿材料的干燥时间,正向促进湿材料内部有机化合物的水解反应及VOCs的释放;湿材料涂层越厚,材料内部VOCs总量越多,材料干燥时间越长;较高的换气次数能缩短湿建筑材料的干燥时间.结论 湿材料释放VOCs的速率随环境温度升高而加快;增加相对湿度有助于湿材料VOCs的散发;湿材料涂层厚度与舱内VOCs质量浓度呈正比关系;提高舱内换气次数能有效促进VOCs的衰减.%This paper mainly researches the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wet building materials in order to control the VOCs pollution caused by indoor pollution source more efficiently. The author did a series of tests to the emission using handheld VOC detector PGM-7240 in an environmental test chamber and gas chromatograph. The results show that the ambient temperature, relative humidity, coating thickness of the material and air change rate of the chamber can all have a certain influence on the VOCs e-missions of the wet building materials. This paper draws the following conclusions;the rise of ambient temperature as well as the increase of relative humidity can accelerate the emission of VOCs; the thicker the coating of the material is,the higher VOCs concentration becomes inside the chamber;increasing air change rate of the chamber can improve the decay rate of the VOCs.

  7. Biogenic VOC Emissions from Tropical Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, A.; Greenberg, J.; Harley, P.; Otter, L.; Vanni Gatti, L.; Baker, B.

    2003-04-01

    Biogenic VOC have an important role in determining the chemical composition of atmosphere. As a result, these compounds are important for visibility, biogeochemical cycling, climate and radiative forcing, and the health of the biosphere. Tropical landscapes are estimated to release about 80% of total global biogenic VOC emissions but have been investigated to lesser extent than temperate regions. Tropical VOC emissions are particularly important due to the strong vertical transport and the rapid landuse change that is occurring there. This presentation will provide an overview of field measurements of biogenic VOC emissions from tropical landscapes in Amazonia (Large-scale Biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia, LBA) Central (EXPRESSO) and Southern (SAFARI 2000) Africa, Asia and Central America. Flux measurement methods include leaf-scale (enclosure measurements), canopy-scale (above canopy tower measurements), landscape-scale (tethered balloon), and regional-scale (aircraft measurements) observations. Typical midday isoprene emission rates for different landscapes vary by more than a factor of 20 with the lowest emissions observed from degraded forests. Emissions of alpha-pinene vary by a similar amount with the highest emissions associated with landscapes dominated by light dependent monoterpene emitting plants. Isoprene emissions tend to be higher for neotropical forests (Amazon and Costa Rica) in comparison to Africa and Asian tropical forests but considerable differences are observed within regions. Strong seasonal variations were observed in both the Congo and the Amazon rainforests with peak emissions during the dry seasons. Substantial emissions of light dependent monoterpenes, methanol and acetone are characteristic of at least some tropical landscapes.

  8. Variability of indoor and outdoor VOC measurements: An analysis using variance components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Chunrong; Batterman, Stuart A.; Relyea, George E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured inside and outside of 162 residences in southeast Michigan, U.S.A. Nested analyses apportioned four sources of variation: city, residence, season, and measurement uncertainty. Indoor measurements were dominated by seasonal and residence effects, accounting for 50 and 31%, respectively, of the total variance. Contributions from measurement uncertainty (<20%) and city effects (<10%) were small. For outdoor measurements, season, city and measurement variation accounted for 43, 29 and 27% of variance, respectively, while residence location had negligible impact (<2%). These results show that, to obtain representative estimates of indoor concentrations, measurements in multiple seasons are required. In contrast, outdoor VOC concentrations can use multi-seasonal measurements at centralized locations. Error models showed that uncertainties at low concentrations might obscure effects of other factors. Variance component analyses can be used to interpret existing measurements, design effective exposure studies, and determine whether the instrumentation and protocols are satisfactory. - Highlights: ► The variability of VOC measurements was partitioned using nested analysis. ► Indoor VOCs were primarily controlled by seasonal and residence effects. ► Outdoor VOC levels were homogeneous within neighborhoods. ► Measurement uncertainty was high for many outdoor VOCs. ► Variance component analysis is useful for designing effective sampling programs. - Indoor VOC concentrations were primarily controlled by seasonal and residence effects; and outdoor concentrations were homogeneous within neighborhoods. Variance component analysis is a useful tool for designing effective sampling programs.

  9. Determination of residual volatile organic compounds migrated from polystyrene food packaging into food simulant by headspace solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Marsin Sanagi; Ling, Susie Lu; Zalilah Nasir; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Abu Naim, Ahmedy

    2008-01-01

    The residual styrene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the polystyrene food packaging are of concern as these compounds have the potential to migrate into the food in contact. This work describes a method for quantitative determination of VOCs, namely styrene, toluene, ethyl benzene, iso-propylbenzene and n-propylbenzene that have migrated from polystyrene food packaging into food stimulant by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) technique was applied for migration test using water as food stimulant. The effects of extraction variables including sample volume, eluotropic strength, extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption time, sample agitation, and salt addition on the amounts of the extracted analyses were studied to obtain the optimal HS-SPME conditions. The optimized method was applied to test the VOCs migrated from polystyrene bowls and cups at storage temperatures ranging from 24 to 80 degree Celsius for 30 min. Styrene and ethyl benzene were found to migrate from the samples into the food stimulant. The migration of analyze was found to be strongly dependent upon the storage temperature. The HS-SPME is useful as an alternative method to determine the migration of VOCs from food packaging material into food stimulant. (author)

  10. Characterization of void volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums - an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-09-01

    A test program is underway at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to determine if the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the drum headspace is representative of the VOC concentration in the entire drum void space and to demonstrate that the VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. An experimental test plan was developed requiring gas sampling of 66 transuranic (TRU) waste drums. This interim report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions of VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement from waste drums sampled and analyzed in FY 1994

  11. Determination of arsenic compounds in earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiszinger, A.; Goessler, W.; Kuehnelt, D.; Kosmus, W. [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry; Francesconi, K. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology

    1998-08-01

    Earthworms and soil collected from six sites in Styria, Austria, were investigated for total arsenic concentrations by ICP-MS and for arsenic compounds by HPLC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 17.9 mg/kg dry weight in the worms and from 5.0 to 79.7 mg/kg dry weight in the soil samples. There was no strict correlation between the total arsenic concentrations in the worms and soil. Arsenic compounds were extracted from soil and a freeze-dried earthworm sample with a methanol/water mixture (9:1, v/v). The extracts were evaporated to dryness, redissolved in water, and chromatographed on an anion- and a cation-exchange column. Arsenic compounds were identified by comparison of the retention times with known standards. Only traces of arsenic acid could be extracted from the soil with the methanol/water (9:1, v/v) mixture. The major arsenic compounds detected in the extracts of the earthworms were arsenous acid and arsenic acid. Arsenobetaine was present as a minor constituent, and traces of dimethylarsinic acid were also detected. Two dimethylarsinoyltribosides were also identified in the extracts by co-chromatography with standard compounds. This is the first report of the presence of dimethylarsinoylribosides in a terrestrial organism. Two other minor arsenic species were present in the extract, but their retention times did not match with the retention times of the available standards.

  12. Effect of traffic restriction on reducing ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs): Observation-based evaluation during a traffic restriction drill in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyu; Zhang, Yanli; Yang, Weiqiang; Huang, Zuzhao; Wang, Yujun; Zhang, Zhou; He, Quanfu; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Bi, Xinhui; Wang, Xinming

    2017-07-01

    Traffic restriction (TR) is a widely adopted control measure in case of heavy air pollution particularly in urban areas, yet it is hard to evaluate the effect of TR on reducing VOC emissions based on monitoring data since ambient VOC mixing ratios are influenced not only by source emissions but also by meteorological conditions and atmospheric degradation. Here we collected air samples for analysis of VOCs before, during and after a TR drill carried out in Guangzhou in September 2010 at both a roadside and a rooftop (∼50 m above the ground) site. TR measures mainly included the "odd-even license" rule and banning high-emitting "yellow label" vehicles. The mixing ratios of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) did not show significant changes at the roadside site with total NMHCs of 39.0 ± 11.8 ppbv during non-TR period and 39.1 ± 14.8 ppbv during TR period, whereas total NMHCs decreased from 30.4 ± 14.3 ppbv during the non-TR period to 22.1 ± 10.6 ppbv during the TR period at rooftop site. However, the ratios of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene and toluene against carbon monoxide (MTBE/CO, T/CO and B/CO) at the both sampling sites dropped significantly. The ratios of toluene to benzene (T/B) instead increased significantly. Changes in these ratios all consistently indicated reduced input from traffic emissions particularly gasoline vehicles. Source attribution by positive matrix factorization (PMF) confirmed that during the TR period gasoline vehicles contributed less VOCs in percentages while industrial sources, biomass burning and LPG shared larger percentages. Assuming that emissions from industrial sources remained unchanged during the TR and non-TR periods, we further used the PMF-retrieved contribution percentages to deduce the reduction rate of traffic-related VOC emissions, and obtained a reduction rate of 31% based on monitoring data at the roadside site and of 34% based on the monitoring data at the rooftop site. Considering VOC emissions from all

  13. Determination of heat purgeable and ambient purgeable volatile organic compounds in water by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Donna L.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Murtagh, Lucinda K.

    2016-09-08

    Two new analytical methods have been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) that allow the determination of 37 heat purgeable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (USGS Method O-4437-16 [NWQL Laboratory Schedule (LS) 4437]) and 49 ambient purgeable VOCs (USGS Method O-4436-16 [NWQL LS 4436]) in unfiltered water. This report documents the procedures and initial performance of both methods. The compounds chosen for inclusion in the methods were determined as having high priority by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Both methods use a purge-and-trap technique with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The compounds are extracted from the sample by bubbling helium through a 25-milliliter sample. For the polar and less volatile compounds, the sample is heated at 60 degrees Celsius, whereas the less polar and more volatile compounds are purged using a separate analytical procedure at ambient temperature. The compounds are trapped on a sorbent trap, desorbed into a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer for separation, and then identified and quantified. Sample preservation is recommended for both methods by adding a 1:1 solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl [1:1]) to water samples to adjust the pH to 2. Analysis within 14 days from sampling is recommended.The heat purgeable method (USGS Method O-4437-16) operates with the mass spectrometer in the simultaneous full scan/selected ion monitoring mode. This method supersedes USGS Method O-4024-03 (NWQL LS 4024). Method detection limits (MDLs) for fumigant compounds 1,2-dibromoethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, chloropicrin, and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane range from 0.002 to 0.010 microgram per liter (µg/L). The MDLs for all remaining heat purgeable VOCs range from 0.006 µg/L for tert-butyl methyl ether to 3 µg/L for alpha-terpineol. Calculated holding times indicate that 36 of the 37 heat purgeable VOCs are stable for a minimum of 14 days

  14. Long-term measurements of biogenic VOCs in an Austrian valley - discussion of seasonal fluctuations of isoprene and monoterpene concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkl, J.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Beauchamp, J.; Wisthaler, A; Hansel, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: A proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was set up at a monitoring station in the river Inn valley (Vomp, Tirol, Austria) for a year-long measurement (February 2004-May 2005) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the local valley air. Measurements of PM 10 , NO x and CO, and certain meteorological parameters were additionally made. Together, these data-sets enabled relationships between VOC abundances, meteorological conditions and anthropogenic emissions (primarily from automobile emissions) to be examined. The work presented here focuses on the biogenic VOCs measured under these real-world outdoor conditions. Initially, data needed to be separated between VOCs of anthropogenic and of biogenic origin. This was achieved by generating a model for the PTR-MS VOC data-set. A clear correlation between benzene and CO concentrations - indicating benzene's predominance from anthropogenic sources - allowed benzene to be used as a tracer for anthropogenic compounds. The model thus allowed a regression to be made whereby the maximum anthropogenic contributions of almost all VOCs could be established relative to benzene. The maximum contribution from biogenic emissions to each VOC could thus be determined as the difference between the total individual VOC signal and the corresponding maximum anthropogenic share. The two biogenic VOCs of principle interest here were isoprene and the monoterpenes (detected by PTR-MS at masses 69 amu and 137 amu, respectively). As expected, abundances of isoprene and the monoterpenes displayed a late-summer maximum (despite good vertical valley air dilution that acts to reduce VOC levels) when temperatures were high and sunlight hours long. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed. (author)

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mitigation in the pyrolysis process of waste tires using CO₂ as a reaction medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Our work reported the CO2-assisted mitigation of PAHs and VOCs in the thermo-chemical process (i.e., pyrolysis). To investigate the pyrolysis of used tires to recover energy and chemical products, the experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale batch-type reactor. In particular, to examine the influence of the CO2 in pyrolysis of a tire, the pyrolytic products including C1-5-hydrocarbons (HCs), volatile organic carbons (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated qualitatively by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectroscopy (MS) as well as with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). The mass balance of the pyrolytic products under various pyrolytic conditions was established on the basis of their weight fractions of the pyrolytic products. Our experimental work experimentally validated that the amount of gaseous pyrolytic products increased when using CO2 as a pyrolysis medium, while substantially altering the production of pyrolytic oil in absolute content (7.3-17.2%) and in relative composition (including PAHs and VOCs). Thus, the co-feeding of CO2 in the pyrolysis process can be considered an environmentally benign and energy efficient process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Leaf ontogeny dominates the seasonal exchange of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in a SRC-poplar plantation during an entire growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, Federico; Gioli, Beniamino; Fares, Silvano; Zenone, Terenzio; Zona, Donatella; Gielen, Bert; Loreto, Francesco; Janssens, Ivan; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2015-04-01

    The declining cost of many renewable energy technologies and changes in the prices of fossil fuels have recently encouraged governments policies to subsidize the use of biomass as a sustainable source of energy. Deciduous poplars (Populus spp.) trees are often selected for biomass production in short rotation coppiced (SRC) for their high CO2 photosynthetic assimilation rates and their capacity to develop dense canopies with high values of leaf area index (LAI). So far, observations and projections of seasonal variations of many VOC fluxes has been limited to strong isoprenoids emitting evergreen ecosystems such tropical and Mediterranean forests as well as Citrus and oil palm plantation, all having constant values of LAI. We run a long-term field campaign where the exchange of VOC, together with CO2 and water vapor was monitored during an entire growing season (June - November, 2012) above a SRC-based poplar plantation. Our results confirmed that isoprene and methanol were the most abundant fluxes emitted, accounting for more than 90% of the total carbon released in form of VOC. However, Northern climates characterized by fresh summertime temperatures and recurring precipitations favored poplar growth while inhibiting the development of isoprene emission that resulted in only 0.7% of the net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE). Besides, measurements of a multitude of VOC fluxes by PTR-TOF-MS showed bi-directional exchange of oxygenated-VOC (OVOC) such as: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene oxidation products (iox, namely MVK, MAC and MEK) as well as ethanol and formic acid. The application of Self Organizing Maps to visualize the relationship between the full time-series of many VOC fluxes and the observed seasonal variations of environmental, physiological and structural parameters proved the most abundant isoprene ad methanol fluxes to occur mainly on the hottest days under mid-high light intensities when also NEE and evapotraspiration reached the highest

  17. Determination of Phytochemical Compounds, and Tyrosinase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the phytochemical content, and tyrosinase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of the wood ... problems from current whitening cosmetics such as ochronosis ... antibiotics may lead to drug resistance of many bacterial ...

  18. The sensitivity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA component partitioning to the predictions of component properties – Part 3: Investigation of condensed compounds generated by a near-explicit model of VOC oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McFiggans

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Calculations of the absorptive partitioning of secondary organic aerosol components were carried out using a number of methods to estimate vapour pressure and non-ideality. The sensitivity of predicted condensed component masses, volatility, O:C ratio, molar mass and functionality distribution to the choice of estimation methods was investigated in mixtures of around 2700 compounds generated by a near explicit mechanism of atmospheric VOC degradation. The sensitivities in terms of all metrics were comparable to those previously reported (using 10 000 semi-randomly generated compounds. In addition, the change in predicted aerosol properties and composition with changing VOC emission scenario was investigated showing key dependencies on relative anthropogenic and biogenic contributions. Finally, the contribution of non-ideality to the changing distribution of condensed components was explored in terms of the shift in effective volatility by virtue of component activity coefficients, clearly demonstrating both enhancement and reduction of component masses associated with negative and positive deviations from ideality.

  19. In-vehicle VOCs composition of unconditioned, newly produced cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzik, Krzysztof; Faber, Joanna; Łomankiewicz, Damian; Gołda-Kopek, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The in-vehicle volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations gains the attention of both car producers and users. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine if analysis of air samples collected from an unconditioned car cabin can be used as a quality control measure. The VOCs composition of in-vehicle air was analyzed by means of active sampling on Carbograph 1TD and Tenax TA sorbents, followed by thermal desorption and simultaneous analysis on flame ionization and mass detector (TD-GC/FID-MS). Nine newly produced cars of the same brand and model were chosen for this study. Within these, four of the vehicles were equipped with identical interior materials and five others differed in terms of upholstery and the presence of a sunroof; one car was convertible. The sampling event took place outside of the car assembly plant and the cars tested left the assembly line no later than 24 hr before the sampling took place. More than 250 compounds were present in the samples collected; the identification of more than 160 was confirmed by comparative mass spectra analysis and 80 were confirmed by both comparison with single/multiple compounds standards and mass spectra analysis. In general, aliphatic hydrocarbons represented more than 60% of the total VOCs (TVOC) determined. Depending on the vehicle, the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons varied from 12% to 27% of total VOCs. The very short period between car production and sampling of the in-vehicle air permits the assumption that the entire TVOC originates from off-gassing of interior materials. The results of this study expand the knowledge of in-vehicle pollution by presenting information about car cabin air quality immediately after car production. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of wet film thickness on VOC emissions from a finishing varnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shun-Cheng; Kwok, Ngai-Hong; Guo, Hai; Hung, Wing-Tat

    2003-01-20

    Finishing varnishes, a typical type of oil-based varnishes, are widely used to shine metal, wood trim and cabinet surfaces in Hong Kong. The influence of wet film thickness on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from a finishing varnish was studied in an environmental test chamber. The varnish was applied on an aluminium foil with three different wet film thickness (35.2, 69.9 and 107.3 microm). The experimental conditions were 25.0 degrees C, 50.0% relative humidity (RH) with an air exchange rate of 0.5 h(-1). The concentrations of the major VOCs were monitored for the first 10 h. The air samples were collected by canisters and analysed by gas chromatography/mass selective detector (GC/MSD). Six major VOCs including toluene, chlorobenzene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were identified and quantified. Marked differences were observed for three different film thicknesses. VOC concentrations increased rapidly during the first few hours and then decreased as the emission rates declined. The thicker the wet film, the higher the VOC emissions. A model expression included an exponentially decreasing emission rate of varnish film. The concentration and time data measured in the chamber were used to determine the parameters of empirical emission rate model. The present work confirmed that the film thickness of varnish influenced markedly the concentrations and emissions of VOCs. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. Modeling unsteady-state VOC transport in simulated waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a revision of an EG ampersand G Idaho informal report originally titled Modeling VOC Transport in Simulated Waste Drums. A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the permeability had been measured

  2. Full evaporation headspace gas chromatography for sensitive determination of high boiling point volatile organic compounds in low boiling matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mana Kialengila, Didi; Wolfs, Kris; Bugalama, John; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin

    2013-11-08

    Determination of volatile organic components (VOC's) is often done by static headspace gas chromatography as this technique is very robust and combines easy sample preparation with good selectivity and low detection limits. This technique is used nowadays in different applications which have in common that they have a dirty matrix which would be problematic in direct injection approaches. Headspace by nature favors the most volatile compounds, avoiding the less volatile to reach the injector and column. As a consequence, determination of a high boiling solvent in a lower boiling matrix becomes challenging. Determination of VOCs like: xylenes, cumene, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI), benzyl alcohol (BA) and anisole in water or water soluble products are an interesting example of the arising problems. In this work, a headspace variant called full evaporation technique is worked out and validated for the mentioned solvents. Detection limits below 0.1 μg/vial are reached with RSD values below 10%. Mean recovery values ranged from 92.5 to 110%. The optimized method was applied to determine residual DMSO in a water based cell culture and DMSO and DMA in tetracycline hydrochloride (a water soluble sample). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of subsurface VOCs using a chemical microsensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batterman, S.A.; Zellers, E.T.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes the results of laboratory investigations of several performance parameters relevant to surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) chemical sensor arrays for the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in contaminated soil and groundwater. The small size, low cost, sensitivity and selectivity of such instruments promise improvements in the quality and quantity of data used to guide site assessment and restoration efforts. In this investigation, calibrations were performed for 15 different coated SAW sensors. Each sensor was exposed to six VOCs selected to represent three chemical classes of contaminants that are commonly found at waste sites (i.e., aliphatic, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons). A new pattern recognition method was developed for determining which coated sensors would maximize the selectivity and accuracy of quantitation for a given set of vapor contaminants. Using this method, an optimal subwet of four coated sensors was selected for testing in a prototype microsensor instrument. Additional laboratory experiments were performed with this optimized array to assess the limits of detection and linear response ranges for the representative vapors, as well as the additivity of responses to vapors in binary mixtures, temperature and humidity effects, aging effects, and other performance parameters related to the application of this technology to soil and groundwater VOC monitoring. Results demonstrate that SAW microsensor arrays can identify and quantify specific VOCs at concentrations in the μg/L to mg/L range when present alone or in simple (e.g., binary) mixtures. SAW sensor technology offers a potentially effective alternative to existing field instrumentation for headspace analysis, soil vapor monitoring, and vacuum extraction process monitoring of VOCs in subsurface media

  4. VOCs in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (ID) was initiated in 1989. Objectives for the ID were to test the integrated demonstration concept, demonstrate and evaluate innovative technologies/systems for the remediation of VOC contamination in soils and groundwater, and to transfer technologies and systems to internal and external customers for use in fullscale remediation programs. The demonstration brought together technologies from DOE laboratories, other government agencies, and industry for demonstration at a single test bed. The Savannah River Site was chosen as the location for this ID as the result of having soil and groundwater contaminated with VOCS. The primary contaminants, trichlorethylene and tetrachloroethylene, originated from an underground process sewer line servicing a metal fabrication facility at the M-Area. Some of the major technical accomplishments for the ID include the successful demonstration of the following: In situ air stripping coupled with horizontal wells to remediate sites through air injection and vacuum extraction; Crosshole geophysical tomography for mapping moisture content and lithologic properties of the contaminated media; In situ radio frequency and ohmic heating to increase mobility, of the contaminants, thereby speeding recovery and the remedial process; High-energy corona destruction of VOCs in the off-gas of vapor recovery wells; Application of a Brayton cycle heat pump to regenerate carbon adsorption media used to trap VOCs from the offgas of recovery wells; In situ permeable flow sensors and the colloidal borescope to determine groundwater flow; Chemical sensors to rapidly quantify chlorinated solvent contamination in the subsurface; In situ bioremediation through methane/nutrient injection to enhance degradation of contaminants by methanotrophic bateria

  5. Leaf enclosure measurement for determining marijuana volatile organic compound emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. T.; Vizuete, W.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Ashworth, K.; Harley, P. C.; Ortega, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    In 2014, Colorado became the first US state to legalize the industrial-scale cultivation of marijuana plants. There are now more than 700 marijuana cultivation facilities (MCFs) in operation in the greater Denver area. High concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), predominantly monoterpenes (C10H16) such as alpha-pinene, myrcene, and limonene have been observed in the grow rooms of MCFs, suggesting MCFs have the potential to release a significant amount of reactive VOCs into the atmosphere. Further, many MCFs are located in the urban core, where other urban emission sources are concentrated, resulting in interactions which can lead to the formation of ozone, impacting air quality. The little research done on marijuana has focused on indoor air quality and occupational exposure, or identification of the compounds associated with the characteristic smells of marijuana plants. We know of no previous studies that have identified or quantified the monoterpene emission rates from marijuana. Here, we collected air samples from leaf enclosures from different marijuana clones at different growth stages onto sorbent cartridges. These samples were analyzed using GC-MS/-FID to identify and quantify the VOCs emitted by growing marijuana plants. These results were then used to estimate basal emission rates at standard conditions (T=30 C, PPFD = 1000 umol/m2/s) using standard algorithms. We discuss the potential impact on air quality from these VOCs emitted into the atmosphere using air quality models.

  6. Determination of volatile organic compounds pollution sources in malaysian drinking water using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Shiau-Chian; Abdullah, Md Pauzi

    2007-01-01

    A field investigation was conducted at all water treatment plants throughout 11 states and Federal Territory in Peninsular Malaysia. The sampling points in this study include treatment plant operation, service reservoir outlet and auxiliary outlet point at the water pipelines. Analysis was performed by solid phase micro-extraction technique with a 100 microm polydimethylsiloxane fibre using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection to analyse 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of different chemical families in drinking water. The concentration of VOCs ranged from undetectable to 230.2 microg/l. Among all of the VOCs species, chloroform has the highest concentration and was detected in all drinking water samples. Average concentrations of total trihalomethanes (THMs) were almost similar among all states which were in the range of 28.4--33.0 microg/l. Apart from THMs, other abundant compounds detected were cis and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, 1,2-dibromoethane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene and 1,2-dichloro - benzene. Principal component analysis (PCA) with the aid of varimax rotation, and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) method were used to statistically verify the correlation between VOCs and the source of pollution. The multivariate analysis pointed out that the maintenance of auxiliary pipelines in the distribution systems is vital as it can become significant point source pollution to Malaysian drinking water.

  7. Simultaneous determination of ten compounds in two main ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simultaneous determination of ten compounds in two main medicinal plant parts of Tibetan herb, Pterocephalus hookeri (CB Clarke) Höeck, by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array.

  8. Determination of HCl and VOC Emission from Thermal Degradation of PVC in the Absence and Presence of Copper, Copper(II Oxide and Copper(II Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamad J. Jafari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl chloride (PVC has played a key role in the development of the plastic industry over the past 40 years. Thermal degradation of PVC leads to formation of many toxic pollutants such as HCl, aromatic and volatile organic carbon vapors. Thermal degradation of PVC and PVC in the present of copper, cupric oxide and copper(II chloride were investigated in this study using a laboratory scale electrical furnace. HCl and Cl- ion were analyzed by a Dionex ion chromatograph and VOCs compounds were analyzed using GC or GC-MS. The results showed that HCl plus Cl- ion and benzene formed about 99% and 80% respectively in the first step of thermal degradation under air atmosphere. The presence of cupric oxide increases the percentage of short chain hydrocarbons more than 184% and decreases the amount of the major aromatic hydrocarbon and HCl plus Cl- ion to 90% and 65% respectively. The total aromatic hydrocarbon emitted less than when atmosphere was air and difference was statistically significant (Pvalue<0.000

  9. Determination of hydrogen isotope composition in organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordzhonikidze, K.G.; Parulava, L.P.; Vakhaniya, G.V.; Tarielashvili, V.O.

    1989-01-01

    method for determination of hydrogen isotope composition just in organic compounds using mass-spectrometer of the second class is suggested. The method enables to determine atomic fraction of hydrogen without multiplet separation. The accuracy of determination of deuterium atomic fraction in acetone in 1-99% range was equal to 3-0.2% respectively

  10. Energy Efficient Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants (o-HAPs) from Industrial Waste Streams by Direct Electron Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testoni, A. L.

    2011-10-19

    This research program investigated and quantified the capability of direct electron beam destruction of volatile organic compounds and organic hazardous air pollutants in model industrial waste streams and calculated the energy savings that would be realized by the widespread adoption of the technology over traditional pollution control methods. Specifically, this research determined the quantity of electron beam dose required to remove 19 of the most important non-halogenated air pollutants from waste streams and constructed a technical and economic model for the implementation of the technology in key industries including petroleum refining, organic & solvent chemical production, food & beverage production, and forest & paper products manufacturing. Energy savings of 75 - 90% and green house gas reductions of 66 - 95% were calculated for the target market segments.

  11. FORMULATING ULTRA-LOW-VOC WOOD FURNITURE COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article discusses the formulation of ultra-low volatile organic compound (VOC) wood furniture coatings. The annual U.S. market for wood coatings is about 240, 000 cu m (63 million gal). In this basis, between 57 and 91 million kg (125 and 200 million lb) of VOCs are emitted i...

  12. Role of Acidophilic Methanotrophs in Long Term Natural Attenuation of cVOCs in Low pH Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-15

    grow well only in dilute , oligtrophic media (Kip et al., 2011; Dedysh et al., 2002). It is likely that these organisms or similar ones may exist in...Carbon tetrachloride Cu – Copper cVOCs – Chlorinated volatile organic compounds 1,1-DCA – 1,2-Dichloroethane 1,2-DCA – 1,2-Dichloroethane DCM...the biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs) in low pH groundwater aquifers. Our objectives included (1) determining whether

  13. Time-activity relationships to VOC personal exposure factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rufus D.; Schweizer, Christian; Llacqua, Vito; Lai, Hak Kan; Jantunen, Matti; Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Künzli, Nino

    Social and demographic factors have been found to play a significant role in differences between time-activity patterns of population subgroups. Since time-activity patterns largely influence personal exposure to compounds as individuals move across microenvironments, exposure subgroups within the population may be defined by factors that influence daily activity patterns. Socio-demographic and environmental factors that define time-activity subgroups also define quantifiable differences in VOC personal exposures to different sources and individual compounds in the Expolis study. Significant differences in exposures to traffic-related compounds ethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene and o-xylene were observed in relation to gender, number of children and living alone. Categorization of exposures further indicated time exposed to traffic at work and time in a car as important determinants. Increased exposures to decane, nonane and undecane were observed for males, housewives and self-employed. Categorization of exposures indicated exposure subgroups related to workshop use and living downtown. Higher exposures to 3-carene and α-pinene commonly found in household cleaning products and fragrances were associated with more children, while exposures to traffic compounds ethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene and o-xylene were reduced with more children. Considerable unexplained variation remained in categorization of exposures associated with home product use and fragrances, due to individual behavior and product choice. More targeted data collection methods in VOC exposure studies for these sources should be used. Living alone was associated with decreased exposures to 2-methyl-1-propanol and 1-butanol, and traffic-related compounds. Identification of these subgroups may help to reduce the large amount of unexplained variation in VOC exposure studies. Further they may help in assessing impacts of urban planning that result in changes in behavior of individuals, resulting in shifts in

  14. VOCs in Arid soils: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds In Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) focuses on technologies to clean up volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soil and groundwater at arid sites. The initial host site is the 200 West Area at DOE's Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. The primary VOC contaminant is carbon tetrachloride, in association with heavy metals and radionuclides. An estimated 580--920 metric tons of carbon tetrachloride were disposed of between 1955 and 1973, resulting in extensive soil and groundwater contamination. The VOC-Arid ID schedule has been divided into three phases of implementation. The phased approach provides for: rapid transfer of technologies to the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) programs once demonstrated; logical progression in the complexity of demonstrations based on improved understanding of the VOC problem; and leveraging of the host site EM-40 activities to reduce the overall cost of the demonstrations. During FY92 and FY93, the primary technology demonstrations within the ID were leveraged with an ongoing expedited response action at the Hanford 200 West Area, which is directed at vapor extraction of VOCs from the vadose (unsaturated) zone. Demonstration efforts are underway in the areas of subsurface characterization including: drilling and access improvements, off-gas and borehole monitoring of vadose zone VOC concentrations to aid in soil vapor extraction performance evaluation, and treatment of VOC-contaminated off-gas. These current demonstration efforts constitute Phase 1 of the ID and, because of the ongoing vadose zone ERA, can result in immediate transfer of successful technologies to EM-40

  15. Fighting against VOC emissions; Lutter contre les emissions de COV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanlo, J.L. [Ecole des Mines d' Ales, 30 (France); Puech, G. [APAVE, 75 - Paris (France); Patoux, R. [Rhodia Rhoditech (France)] [and others

    2001-12-01

    This document brings together 15 testimonies of experts about the processes used in the industry for the abatement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. The different points approached concern: the first industrial experiments of fight against VOC emissions, how to audit the facilities, how to make a diagnosis, to hierarchized and to measure continuously VOC emissions, how to anticipate the explosion risks linked with VOC treatment processes, the techniques of VOC abatement at the source implemented by industrialists, the implementation of an emission mastery scheme by Crow Cork and Seal company, the implementation of a solvent management plan by Turbomeca company and of a paints strategy by Renault car-making company, the combination of VOC abatement techniques implemented by industrialists, the classification of destruction and recovery processes: the experience feedback of Sanofi Synthelabo and of Air Liquide companies, the combination of upstream and downstream techniques implemented by Pechiney Rhenalu, Ashland Polyester and Quebecor companies. (J.S.)

  16. Assessing and evaluating urban VOC emissions in mid-latitude megacities from intensive observations in Paris and Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbon, A.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; McKeen, S. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Gros, V.; Gaimoz, C.; Beekmann, M.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) affect urban air quality and regional climate change by contributing to ozone formation and the build-up of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). Quantification of VOC emissions is a first critical step to predict VOC environmental impacts and to design effective abatement strategies. Indeed, the quality of ozone and SOA forecasts strongly depends on an accurate knowledge of the primary VOC emissions. However, commonly used bottom-up approaches are highly uncertain due to source multiplicity (combustion processes, storage and distribution of fossil fuels, solvent use, etc.) because of numerous controlling factors (driving conditions, fuel type, temperature, radiation, etc.), and their great variability in time and space. Field observations of VOC and other trace gases can provide valuable top-down constraints to evaluate VOC emission inventories at urban scales. In addition, the implementation of emission reduction measures raises the question of the increasing importance of VOC sources other than traffic. Here, we will evaluate VOC emissions of two mid-latitude megacities in the Northern Hemisphere: the Greater Paris area (Europe) and Los Angeles (USA). In 2009 and 2010, three intensive field campaigns took place in Paris and Los Angeles in the framework of the MEGAPOLI (EU FP7) and CalNex-2010 projects, respectively. Very detailed measurements of aerosol composition and properties, and their gaseous VOC precursors were carried out at ground-based sites (urban center and suburban) and on various mobile platforms. This contribution uses a comprehensive suite of VOC measurements collected by GC-MS/FID techniques at ground-based sites in both cities by a source-receptor methodology. First, emission ratios were estimated from the observations (uncertainty of ± 20%) and compared regarding regional characteristics and European vs. Californian control policies. Then, determined emission ratios were used to assess the accuracy of up

  17. Analysis of Sidestream Smoke VOCs and Characterization of their Odor Profiles by VOC Preconcentrator-GC-O Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higashi N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Various techniques have been employed in the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. However, these techniques are insufficient for the precise analysis of tobacco smoke VOCs because of the complexity of the operating system, system instability, or poor sensitivity. To overcome these problems, a combined system of VOC preconcentrator, gas chromatograph, and olfactometer has been developed. The performance of this new system was evaluated in the analysis of VOCs in tobacco smoke and applied to the odor profiling of sidestream smoke (SSS that has not been sufficiently investigated in the past.

  18. Locating industrial VOC sources with aircraft observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toscano, P.; Gioli, B.; Dugheri, S.; Salvini, A.; Matese, A.; Bonacchi, A.; Zaldei, A.; Cupelli, V.; Miglietta, F.

    2011-01-01

    Observation and characterization of environmental pollution, focussing on Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), in a high-risk industrial area, are particularly important in order to provide indications on a safe level of exposure, indicate eventual priorities and advise on policy interventions. The aim of this study is to use the Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) method to measure VOCs, directly coupled with atmospheric measurements taken on a small aircraft environmental platform, to evaluate and locate the presence of VOC emission sources in the Marghera industrial area. Lab analysis of collected SPME fibres and subsequent analysis of mass spectrum and chromatograms in Scan Mode allowed the detection of a wide range of VOCs. The combination of this information during the monitoring campaign allowed a model (Gaussian Plume) to be implemented that estimates the localization of emission sources on the ground. - Highlights: → Flight plan aimed at sampling industrial area at various altitudes and locations. → SPME sampling strategy was based on plume detection by means of CO 2 . → Concentrations obtained were lower than the limit values or below the detection limit. → Scan mode highlighted presence of γ-butyrolactone (GBL) compound. → Gaussian dispersion modelling was used to estimate GBL source location and strength. - An integrated strategy based on atmospheric aircraft observations and dispersion modelling was developed, aimed at estimating spatial location and strength of VOC point source emissions in industrial areas.

  19. Gas chromatographic determination of impurities of inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drugov, Yu.S.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of concentration, separation, detection in gas chromatographic determination of impurities of inorganic compounds including low-boiling gases, reactive gases, organometallic compounds, free metals, anions, etc. are reviewed. Methods of reaction gas chromatography for determining reactive gases, water, anions, metal chelates are considered in detail as well as methods of reaction-sorption concentration and reaction gas extraction. The application of gas chromatograpny ior anaiysis of water and atmosphere contamination, for determination of impurities in highly pure solid substances and gases is described

  20. Analysis of uranium and its compounds. Ruthenium spectrographic determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Ruthenium determination in uranium and its compounds, suitable for content greater than 0.1 ppm with respect to uranium, by dissolution in sulfuric acid and addition of palladium as an internal standard, separation of the precipitated ruthenium, in the presence of gold, by reduction with zinc, the precipitate is calcined and ruthenium is determined by spectrography [fr

  1. Eddy covariance VOC emission and deposition fluxes above grassland using PTR-TOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Ruuskanen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eddy covariance (EC is the preferable technique for flux measurements since it is the only direct flux determination method. It requires a continuum of high time resolution measurements (e.g. 5–20 Hz. For volatile organic compounds (VOC soft ionization via proton transfer reaction has proven to be a quantitative method for real time mass spectrometry; here we use a proton transfer reaction time of flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF for 10 Hz EC measurements of full mass spectra up to m/z 315. The mass resolution of the PTR-TOF enabled the identification of chemical formulas and separation of oxygenated and hydrocarbon species exhibiting the same nominal mass. We determined 481 ion mass peaks from ambient air concentration above a managed, temperate mountain grassland in Neustift, Stubai Valley, Austria. During harvesting we found significant fluxes of 18 compounds distributed over 43 ions, including protonated parent compounds, as well as their isotopes and fragments and VOC-H+ – water clusters. The dominant BVOC fluxes were methanol, acetaldehyde, ethanol, hexenal and other C6 leaf wound compounds, acetone, acetic acid, monoterpenes and sequiterpenes.

    The smallest reliable fluxes we determined were less than 0.1 nmol m−2 s−1, as in the case of sesquiterpene emissions from freshly cut grass. Terpenoids, including mono- and sesquiterpenes, were also deposited to the grassland before and after the harvesting. During cutting, total VOC emission fluxes up to 200 nmolC m−2 s−1 were measured. Methanol emissions accounted for half of the emissions of oxygenated VOCs and a third of the carbon of all measured VOC emissions during harvesting.

  2. Determination of heats of formation of compounds melting incongruently

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, Y.A.; Cheshnitskii, S.M.; Fotiev, A.A.; Tret' yakov, Y.D.

    1985-09-01

    Of significant interest is the development of new procedures for experimental determination of heats of formation of compounds, making it possible to expand the range of substances for which the standard, well-developed methods are unacceptable. The use of hightemperature Calvet microcalorimeters offers great possibilities for this. They recently have been used to determine the most important thermodynamic characteristics of many inorganic substances. In this paper the authors consider the use of drop calorimetry, i.e., the dropping of a sample thermostated at 298/sup 0/K into a calorimeter cell kept at a preassigned temperature for the study of peritecticdecomposition reactions of compounds, to determine their heats of formation. The authors used the compounds Fe/sub 2/V/sub 4/O/sub 13/ and FeVO/sub 4/, as well as high-purity V/sub 2/O/sub 5/.

  3. A portion of plant airborne communication is endorsed by uptake and metabolism of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Plants have the ability to sense volatile organic compounds (VOCs) so as to efficiently adapt to their environment. The mechanisms underlying such plant 'olfactory' systems are largely unknown. Here I would like to propose that the metabolism of VOCs in plant tissues is one of the mechanisms by which plants sense VOCs. During the gas-exchange that is essential for photosynthesis, VOCs in the atmosphere are taken into the intercellular spaces of leaves. Each VOC is partitioned between the gas phase (intercellular space) and liquid phase (cell wall) at a certain ratio determined by Henry's law. The VOCs in the cell wall diffuse through the plasma membrane to the cytosol depending on their oil/water partition coefficients. Plants detoxify some VOCs, especially those that are oxidized, through glycosylation, glutathionylation, and reduction. These metabolic processes lower the concentration of VOCs in the cytosol, which facilitates further cytosolic uptake. As a result, vigorous metabolism of VOCs in the cytosol can lead to a substantial accumulation of VOC metabolites and the depletion of glutathione or NADPH. One such metabolite (a VOC glycoside) is known to mount a direct defense against herbivores, whilst deprivation of glutathione and NADPH can fortify plants with responses similar to the oxidative stress response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Single-laboratory validation of a method for the determination of select volatile organic compounds in foods by using vacuum distillation with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Patricia J; Limm, William; Begley, Timothy H; Chirtel, Stuart J

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed that headspace and purge and trap methods have limitations when used to determine volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in foods, including matrix effects and artifact formation from precursors present in the sample matrix or from thermal decomposition. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 8261A liberates VOCs from the sample matrix by using vacuum distillation at room temperature. The method was modified and validated for the determination of furan, chloroform, benzene, trichloroethene, toluene, and sytrene in infant formula, canned tuna (in water), peanut butter, and an orange beverage (orange-flavored noncarbonated beverage). The validation studies showed that the LOQ values ranged from 0.05 ng/g toluene in infant formula to 5.10 ng/g toluene in peanut butter. Fortified recoveries were determined at the first, second, and third standard additions, and concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 6.9 ng/g. When quantified by the method of standard additions, the recoveries ranged from 56 to 218% at the first standard addition and 89 to 117% at the third. The validated method was used to conduct a survey of the targeted VOCs in 18 foods. The amounts found ranged from none detected to 73.8 ng/g furan in sweet potato baby food.

  5. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, I. J.; Blake, N. J.; Barletta, B.; Diskin, G. S.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Gorham, K.; Huey, L. G.; Meinardi, S.; Rowland, F. S.; Vay, S. A.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Yang, M.; Blake, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Oil sands comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves and the crude oil reserves in Canada's oil sands deposits are second only to Saudi Arabia. The extraction and processing of oil sands is much more challenging than for light sweet crude oils because of the high viscosity of the bitumen contained within the oil sands and because the bitumen is mixed with sand and contains chemical impurities such as sulphur. Despite these challenges, the importance of oil sands is increasing in the energy market. To our best knowledge this is the first peer-reviewed study to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from Alberta's oil sands mining sites. We present high-precision gas chromatography measurements of 76 speciated C2-C10 VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, monoterpenes, oxygenated hydrocarbons, halocarbons and sulphur compounds) in 17 boundary layer air samples collected over surface mining operations in northeast Alberta on 10 July 2008, using the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory as a research platform. In addition to the VOCs, we present simultaneous measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2, which were measured in situ aboard the DC-8. Carbon dioxide, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, SO2 and 53 VOCs (e.g., non-methane hydrocarbons, halocarbons, sulphur species) showed clear statistical enhancements (1.1-397×) over the oil sands compared to local background values and, with the exception of CO, were greater over the oil sands than at any other time during the flight. Twenty halocarbons (e.g., CFCs, HFCs, halons, brominated species) either were not enhanced or were minimally enhanced (industry fell into two groups: (1) evaporative emissions from the oil sands and its products and/or from the diluent used to lower the viscosity of the extracted bitumen (i.e., C4-C9 alkanes, C5-C6 cycloalkanes, C6-C8 aromatics), together with CO; and (2) emissions associated with the mining effort, such as upgraders (i.e., CO2, CO, CH4, NO, NO2, NOy

  6. VOC emission rates over London and South East England obtained by airborne eddy covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Shaw, Marvin D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Vieno, Massimo; Davison, Brian; Karl, Thomas G; Carpenter, Lucy J; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2017-08-24

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originate from a variety of sources, and play an intrinsic role in influencing air quality. Some VOCs, including benzene, are carcinogens and so directly affect human health, while others, such as isoprene, are very reactive in the atmosphere and play an important role in the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Here we report spatially-resolved measurements of the surface-to-atmosphere fluxes of VOCs across London and SE England made in 2013 and 2014. High-frequency 3-D wind velocities and VOC volume mixing ratios (made by proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometry) were obtained from a low-flying aircraft and used to calculate fluxes using the technique of eddy covariance. A footprint model was then used to quantify the flux contribution from the ground surface at spatial resolution of 100 m, averaged to 1 km. Measured fluxes of benzene over Greater London showed positive agreement with the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, with the highest fluxes originating from central London. Comparison of MTBE and toluene fluxes suggest that petroleum evaporation is an important emission source of toluene in central London. Outside London, increased isoprene emissions were observed over wooded areas, at rates greater than those predicted by a UK regional application of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme model (EMEP4UK). This work demonstrates the applicability of the airborne eddy covariance method to the determination of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC fluxes and the possibility of validating emission inventories through measurements.

  7. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

    2001-12-31

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

  8. Determination of borneol and other chemical compounds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine borneol and other chemical compounds of essential oil derived from the exudate of Dryobalanops aromatica in Malaysia. Methods: Exudate was collected from D. aromatica and subjected to fractional distillation to obtain essential oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed ...

  9. Determination of oxygen in uranium compounds using sulfur monochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G.; Besson, J.; Blum, P.L.; Tran-Van, Danh

    1964-01-01

    The authors have described in an other paper (Anal. Chim. Acta, in press) a method for oxygen determination in uranium compounds, in which the sample is attacked by sulfur monochloride. The present paper is concerned with the experimental aspects of the method: apparatus procedure. (authors) [fr

  10. Nonvolatile, semivolatile, or volatile: redefining volatile for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võ, Uyên-Uyén T; Morris, Michael P

    2014-06-01

    Although widely used in air quality regulatory frameworks, the term "volatile organic compound" (VOC) is poorly defined. Numerous standardized tests are currently used in regulations to determine VOC content (and thus volatility), but in many cases the tests do not agree with each other, nor do they always accurately represent actual evaporation rates under ambient conditions. The parameters (time, temperature, reference material, column polarity, etc.) used in the definitions and the associated test methods were created without a significant evaluation of volatilization characteristics in real world settings. Not only do these differences lead to varying VOC content results, but occasionally they conflict with one another. An ambient evaporation study of selected compounds and a few formulated products was conducted and the results were compared to several current VOC test methodologies: SCAQMD Method 313 (M313), ASTM Standard Test Method E 1868-10 (E1868), and US. EPA Reference Method 24 (M24). The ambient evaporation study showed a definite distinction between nonvolatile, semivolatile, and volatile compounds. Some low vapor pressure (LVP) solvents, currently considered exempt as VOCs by some methods, volatilize at ambient conditions nearly as rapidly as the traditional high-volatility solvents they are meant to replace. Conversely, bio-based and heavy hydrocarbons did not readily volatilize, though they often are calculated as VOCs in some traditional test methods. The study suggests that regulatory standards should be reevaluated to more accurately reflect real-world emission from the use of VOC containing products. The definition of VOC in current test methods may lead to regulations that exclude otherwise viable alternatives or allow substitutions of chemicals that may limit the environmental benefits sought in the regulation. A study was conducted to examine volatility of several compounds and a few formulated products under several current VOC test

  11. Characteristics of 1 year of observational data of VOCs, NOx and O3 at a suburban site in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y.; Deng, X. J.; Zhu, D.; Gong, D. C.; Wang, H.; Li, F.; Tan, H. B.; Deng, T.; Mai, B. R.; Liu, X. T.; Wang, B. G.

    2015-06-01

    Guangzhou, one of China's megacities, is beset with frequent occurrence of high-concentration ozone events. In this study, online instruments were used to simultaneously monitor ozone, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at GPACS (the Guangzhou Panyu Atmospheric Composition Station) of the China Meteorological Administration, from June 2011 to May 2012, in order to determine their characteristics, the effect of VOCs on ozone photochemical production and the relationship between VOC / NOx ratio and ozone formation. The results showed that during the observation period, the seasonal variation of ozone concentration was lower in spring and winter compared to summer and autumn, which is opposite that for VOCs and NOx. In terms of VOCs, aromatics had the largest ozone formation potential, among which toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the most important species, with a total contribution of about 44%. As the VOC / NOx ratios were very high during high-concentration ozone events that occur all year round, we speculate ozone production was likely to be NOx-limited regime (12:00-16:00 LT) in Guangzhou. Further investigation based on numerical models is needed in the future to obtain more detailed and robust conclusions.

  12. 78 FR 11101 - Air Quality: Revision to Definition of Volatile Organic Compounds-Exclusion of trans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Review of Solstice\\TM\\ 1233zd(E) D. Significant New Alternatives Policy Program Review of Solstice\\TM... compounds creates an incentive for industry to use negligibly reactive compounds in place of more highly reactive compounds that are regulated as VOCs. The EPA lists compounds that it has determined to be...

  13. Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Selected Strains of Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Milovanović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biomass can be used in creating various functional food and feed products, but certain species of microalgae and cyanobacteria are known to produce various compounds causing off-flavour. In this work, we investigated selected cyanobacterial strains of Spirulina, Anabaena, and Nostoc genera originating from Serbia, with the aim of determining the chemical profile of volatile organic compounds produced by these organisms. Additionally, the influence of nitrogen level during growth on the production of volatile compounds was investigated for Nostoc and Anabaena strains. In addition, multivariate techniques, namely, principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, were used for making distinction among different microalgal strains. The results show that the main volatile compounds in these species are medium chain length alkanes, but other odorous compounds such as 2-methylisoborneol (0.51–4.48%, 2-pentylfuran (0.72–8.98%, β-cyclocitral (0.00–1.17%, and β-ionone (1.15–2.72% were also detected in the samples. Addition of nitrogen to growth medium was shown to negatively affect the production of 2-methylisoborneol, while geosmin was not detected in any of the analyzed samples, which indicates that the manipulation of growth conditions may be useful in reducing levels of some unwanted odor-causing components.

  14. Evaluation of three analytical techniques used to determine high levels of volatile organic compounds in type IV sludge from Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Tsai, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for volatile organic compound (VOC) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E reg-sign) and Oil Dri reg-sign to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a simulated Type IV RFP sludge (nonradioactive) was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East. This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. On the basis of historical information, a typical Type IV sludge is expected to contain approximately 1-10 percent of three target VOCs. The objective of this work is to evaluate three proposed methods for the determination of high levels of these three VOCs in Type IV sludge. The three methods are (1) static headspace gas analysis, (2) methanol extraction, and (3) ethylene glycol extraction. All three methods employ gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). They were evaluated regarding general method performance criteria, ease of operation, and amounts of secondary mixed waste generated

  15. Plant communication: mediated by individual or blended VOCs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hirokazu; Kikuta, Yukio; Matsuda, Kazuhiko

    2012-02-01

    Plants emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as a means to warn other plants of impending danger. Nearby plants exposed to the induced VOCs prepare their own defense weapons in response. Accumulated data supports this assertion, yet much of the evidence has been obtained in laboratories under artificial conditions where, for example, a single VOC might be applied at a concentration that plants do not actually experience in nature. Experiments conducted outdoors suggest that communication occurs only within a limited distance from the damaged plants. Thus, the question remains as to whether VOCs work as a single component or a specific blend, and at which concentrations VOCs elicit insect and pathogen defenses in undamaged plants. We discuss these issues based on available literature and our recent work, and propose future directions in this field.

  16. Determination of formation enthalpies of incongruently fusing compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, Ya.A.; Cheshnitskij, S.M.; Fotiev, A.A.; Tret'yakov, Yu.D.

    1985-01-01

    Using the method of drop-calorimetry i.e. drop into the calorimeter cell being at the specified temperature of the specimen thermostated at 298 K, for studying reactions of peritectic decomposition of compounds for determining their formation enthalpies is considered. The measurements have been performed at 973 K using high temperature double microcalorimeter. The values ΔH 1 =(367.0+-2.8) kJ/mol and ΔH 2 =)343.9+-3.1) kJ/mol are obtained as a result of two series of measurements (6 experiments in each). The advantage of the described technique consists in the fact that the value of enthalpy of compound formation is obtained as a result of direct calorimetric measurements while in the e.m.f. method this value is determined as a coefficient in the Gibbs energy temperature dependence. The method is simple and does not require much time (one measurement takes 30-40 min)

  17. Utilisation of VOC in Diesel Engines. Ignition and combustion of VOC released in crude oil tankers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melhus, Oeyvin

    2002-01-01

    The emission of VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) is a significant source of hydrocarbon pollution. In Norway, the offshore oil industry represents a major source. This emission represents both an energy loss and an environmental problem. Gas tankers have used boil-off gas from the cargo tanks as fuel for some time. However, for the current VOC project a new fuel injection concept is designed for tankers to take advantage of the energy present in the VOC evaporated from crude oil. The VOC is mixed with inert gas in these tankers, and thus the utilisation of this gas represents new challenges. The VOC project uses the concept of ''Condensate Diesel Process'' with pilot ignition. An experimental study of ignition and combustion of VOC Fuels reported here was initiated by the time it was decided to start a pilot project converting propulsion engines in shuttle tankers to use VOC Fuel. It is an experimental study carried out at the Marine Technology Centre (MTS). The objective was to study ignition and combustion of the chosen process in comparison with an ordinary diesel process. The experimental results have been discussed and compared with theoretical considerations of injection, ignition and combustion. For experiments on combustion, a rapid compression machine ''DyFo'' was redesigned to use VOC Fuel. The DyFo test rig was initially designed to study ignition and early combustion of spark ignited homogeneous gas/air charges. To study the ignition and early combustion of VOC Fuel injected at high pressure and ignited by pilot diesel fuel, a redesign was necessary. An important feature of the DyFo, is the visualisation of the combustion. The advantage of the DyFo test rig over an engine, is its simplicity and controllability. In an engine the visualisation would suffer from combustion deposits disturbing the view through the quartz glasses, making the images more difficult to interpret. The simplicity is on the other side a drawback. Correct thermal conditions inside

  18. Determination of chlorine in nuclear-grade uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chunqing; Liu Fuyun; Huang Dianfan

    1988-01-01

    The determination of chlorine in nuclear-grade uranium compounds is discribed. Chlorine is separated from uranium oxide pyrohydrolytically with stream of wet oxygen in a furnace at 800 ∼ 900 deg C. Chlorine is volatilized as hydrochloric acid, absorbed in a dilute alkaline solution and measured with chlorine-selective electrode. This method covers the concentration range of 10 ∼ 500 pm chlorine in uranium oxide. Precision of at least ± 10% and recovery of 85 ∼ 108% have been reported

  19. Structural determination of some uranyl compounds by vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez S, A.; Martinez Q, E.

    1990-07-01

    The vibrational spectra of different uranyl compounds has been studied and of it spectral information has been used the fundamental asymmetric vibrational frequency, to determine the length and constant bond force U=O by means of the combination of the concept of absorbed energy and the mathematical expression of Badger modified by Jones. It is intended a factor that simplifies the mathematical treatment and the results are compared with the values obtained for other methods. (Author)

  20. Method of estimating maximum VOC concentration in void volume of vented waste drums using limited sampling data: Application in transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles as well as limited waste drum sampling data. The model consists of a series of material balance equations describing steady-state VOC transport from each distinct void volume in the drum. The primary model input is the measured drum headspace VOC concentration. Model parameters are determined or estimated based on available process knowledge. The model effectiveness in estimating VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement was examined for vented waste drums containing different waste types and configurations. This paper summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions in vented transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste

  1. VOC and HAP recovery using ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael R. Milota : Kaichang Li

    2007-05-29

    (trihexyl)phosphonium dicyanamide as the RTIL. It was determined that it has good absorption properties for methanol and α-pinene, is thermally stable, and is relatively easy to synthesize. It has a density of 0.89 g/mL at 20°C and a molecular weight of 549.9 g/mol. Trials were conducted with a small absorption system and a larger absorption system. Methanol, formaldehyde, and other HAPs were absorbed well, nearly 100%. Acetaldehyde was difficult to capture. Total VOC capture, while satisfactory on methanol and α-pinene in a lab system, was less than expected in the field, 60-80%. The inability to capture the broad spectrum of total organics is likely due to difficulties in cleaning them from the ionic liquid rather than the ability of the ionic liquid to absorb. It’s likely that a commercial system could be constructed to remove 90 to 100% of the gas contaminates. Selecting the correct ionic liquid would be key to this. Absorption may not be the main selection criterion, but rather how easily the ionic liquid can be cleaned is very important. The ionic liquid absorption system might work very well in a system with a limited spectrum of pollutants, such as a paint spray line, where there are not very high molecular weight, non volatile, compounds in the exhaust.

  2. Methods of Selenium Supplementation: Bioavailability and Determination of Selenium Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Malgorzata; Szczyglowska, Marzena; Konieczka, Piotr; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Selenium, a "dual-surface" element, maintains a very thin line between a level of necessity and harmfulness. Because of this, a deficiency or excess of this element in an organism is dangerous and causes health-related problems, both physically and mentally. The main source of selenium is a balanced diet, with a proper selection of meat and plant products. Meanwhile, the proper assimilation of selenium into these products depends on their bioavailability, bioaccessibility, and/or bioactivity of a given selenium compound. From the time when it was discovered that selenium and its compounds have a significant influence on metabolic processes and in many countries throughout the world, a low quantity of selenium was found in different parts of the environment, pressure was put upon an effective and fast method of supplementing the environment with the help of selenium. This work describes supplementation methods applied with the use of selenium, as well as new ideas for increasing the level of this element in various organisms. Based on the fact that selenium appears in the environment at trace levels, the determination of total amount of selenium or selenium speciation in a given sample demands the selection of appropriate measurement methods. These methods are most often comprised of a sample preparation technique and/or a separation technique as well as a detection system. The work presents information on the subject of analytical methods used for determining selenium and its compounds as well as examples in literature of their application.

  3. Photocatalysts: ambient temperature destruction of VOCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R [IT Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Photocatalysis was a failure as a solar energy driven organic synthesis technique, but as this study indicates, it has undergone a renaissance as a promising treatment method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air streams. Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) relies upon the ability of certain semiconductors to be stimulated by UV radiation. UV light excites valence band electrons in the semiconductor catalyst to jump to a conductance band leaving holes in the valence band. The electrons and holes can react with compounds such as organic contaminants present in an air stream. Hallmarks of the technology include rapid destruction kinetics for many VOCs at ambient temperature and efficient use energy in the form of UV-A photons. Studies clearly indicate that PCO is competitive on capital cost and offers significant operating cost savings on selected applications. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Photocatalysts: ambient temperature destruction of VOCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.

    1994-01-01

    Photocatalysis was a failure as a solar energy driven organic synthesis technique, but as this study indicates, it has undergone a renaissance as a promising treatment method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air streams. Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) relies upon the ability of certain semiconductors to be stimulated by UV radiation. UV light excites valence band electrons in the semiconductor catalyst to jump to a conductance band leaving holes in the valence band. The electrons and holes can react with compounds such as organic contaminants present in an air stream. Hallmarks of the technology include rapid destruction kinetics for many VOCs at ambient temperature and efficient use energy in the form of UV-A photons. Studies clearly indicate that PCO is competitive on capital cost and offers significant operating cost savings on selected applications. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  5. VOCs and odors: key factors in selecting `green` building materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, C. [Steven Winter Associates Inc., Norwalk, CT and Washington DC (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The current state of knowledge available for selecting building materials on the basis of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors is reviewed. The significance of VOCs and odors in building materials is related to their role in influencing indoor air quality. As far as toxicity is concerned, many of the VOCs detected in indoor air are relatively inert when considered singly. They are not however, unimportant because in actual fact they are invariably found in mixtures some of which can be toxic. Although knowledge of VOCs is incomplete, it is important to specify ozone-resistant polymeric building products, i.e. those that are chemically stable and inert to oxidation. In addition to VOCs, attention should also be focused on semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) since they are even more persistent than VOCs and tend to offgas for prolonged periods of time. Similarly, it is reasonable to specify low-odor materials. Inclusion of issues related to complex indoor chemistry, less volatile emissions, in addition to VOCs and odor, should in time result in expanded choices of building materials that promote indoor air quality. 16 refs.,2 tabs.

  6. FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

    2002-06-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated exploratory work towards the development of new field screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of carbon-halogen bonds. Commercially available heated diode and corona discharge leak detectors were procured and evaluated for halogenated VOC response. The units were modified to provide a digital readout of signal related to VOC concentration. Sensor response was evaluated with carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE), which represent halogenated VOCs with and without double bonds. The response characteristics were determined for the VOCs directly in headspace in Tedlar bag containers. Quantitation limits in air were estimated. Potential interferences from volatile hydrocarbons, such as toluene and heptane, were evaluated. The effect of humidity was studied also. The performance of the new devices was evaluated in the laboratory by spiking soil samples and monitoring headspace for halogenated VOCs. A draft concept of the steps for a new analytical method was outlined. The results of the first year effort show that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work towards the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

  7. Emission of VOC's from modified rendering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, Z.A.; Raja, I.A.; Saddique, M.; Langenhove, H.V.

    2005-01-01

    Rendering technique for processing of dead animal and slaughterhouse wastes into valuable products. It involves cooking of raw material and later Sterilization was added to reduce the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE). Studies have been carried out on rendering emission, with the normal cooking process. Our study shows, that the sterilization step in rendering process increases the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC's). Gas samples, containing VOC's, were analyzed by the GC/MS (Gas Chromatograph and Mass Spectrometry). The most important groups of compounds- alcohols and cyclic hydrocarbons were identified. In the group of alcohol; 1-butanol, l-pentanol and l-hexanol compounds were found while in the group of cyclic hydrocarbon; methyl cyclopentane and cyclohexane compounds were detected. Other groups like aldehyde, sulphur containing compounds, ketone and furan were also found. Some compounds, like l-pentanol, 2-methyl propanal, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, which belong to these groups, cause malodor. It is important to know these compounds to treat odorous gasses. (author)

  8. VOCs and formaldehyde emissions from cleaning products and air fresheners

    OpenAIRE

    Solal , Cécilia; Rousselle , Christophe; Mandin , Corinne; Manel , Jacques; Maupetit , François

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Human indoor exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) may be associated with the use of household products. However little is known about their emissions and to what extent they contribute to indoor air pollution. The French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Afsset) conducted tests in order to characterize VOCs emissions from 32 consumer products: air fresheners, glass cleaners, furniture polishes, toilet products, carpet and floor cleaning ...

  9. Indoor Air Quality Assessment and Study of Different VOC Contributions within a School in Taranto City, South of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Marzocca

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Children spend a large amount of time in school environments and when Indoor Air Quality (IAQ is poor, comfort, productivity and learning performances may be affected. The aim of the present study is to characterize IAQ in a primary school located in Taranto city (south of Italy. Because of the proximity of a large industrial complex to the urban settlement, this district is one of the areas identified as being at high environmental risk in Italy. The study carried out simultaneous monitoring of indoor and outdoor Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC concentrations and assessed different pollutants’ contributions on the IAQ of the investigated site. A screening study of VOC and determination of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes (BTEX, sampled with Radiello® diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption, were carried out in three classrooms, in the corridor and in the yard of the school building. Simultaneously, Total VOC (TVOC concentration was measured by means of real-time monitoring, in order to study the activation of sources during the monitored days. The analysis results showed a prevalent indoor contribution for all VOC except for BTEX which presented similar concentrations in indoor and outdoor air. Among the determined VOC, Terpenes and 2-butohxyethanol were shown to be an indoor source, the latter being the indoor pollutant with the highest concentration.

  10. Determination of carbonyl compounds in air by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, S.; Perez, R.M.; Campos, A.; Gonzalez, D.

    1995-09-01

    A method for the determination of seven carbonyl compounds in air is presented. The procedure involve sampling of air by a Sep-Pak cartridge impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Elution was done with 3 mL of acetonitrile and the eluate was diluted to 5 mL. The analysis was done by HPLC with UV detection and external standard method quantification. It has been achieved relative standard deviations about 5% and detection limits of 80 ng/cartridge for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone+acrolein. Three different types of samples (rural, urban, petrol emission) were successfully analyzed

  11. Determination of carbonyl compounds in air by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, S.; Perez, R.M.; Campos, A.; Gonzalez, D.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the determination of seven carbonyl compounds in air is presented. The procedure involve sampling of air by a Sep-Pak Cartridge impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Elution was done with 3 mL of acetonitrile and the eluate was diluted to 5 mL. The analysis was done by HPLC with UV detection and external standard method quantification. It has been achieved relative standard deviations about 5% and detection limits of 80 ng/cartridge for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetoacetonitrile. Three different types of samples (rural, urban, petrol emission) were successfully analyzed. (Author) 12 refs

  12. Determination of organic compounds in water using ultraviolet LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chihoon; Ji, Taeksoo; Eom, Joo Beom

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a method of detecting organic compounds in water using an ultraviolet LED (280 nm) spectroscopy system and a photodetector. The LED spectroscopy system showed a high correlation between the concentration of the prepared potassium hydrogen phthalate and that calculated by multiple linear regression, indicating an adjusted coefficient of determination ranging from 0.953-0.993. In addition, a comparison between the performance of the spectroscopy system and the total organic carbon analyzer indicated that the difference in concentration was small. Based on the close correlation between the spectroscopy and photodetector absorbance values, organic measurement with a photodetector could be configured for monitoring.

  13. Determination of volatile organic compounds in eucalyptus fast pyrolysis bio-oil by full evaporation headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski Lima, Nathalya; Romualdo Lopes, André; Gimenes Guerrero, Palimecio; Itsuo Yamamoto, Carlos; Augusto Hansel, Fabricio

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports a full evaporation (FE) headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) method for the determination of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in bio-oil (i.e. methanol, ethanol, acetone, acetic acid and furfural). The method uses a 4μL sample of bio-oil in a headspace vial (ca. 20mL). Complete evaporation of the compounds was achieved after seven minutes at 90°C. The method showed good precision and accuracy for methanol, ethanol, acetone and acetic acid. The recovery of furfural was low (74.3%). The results showed that the protocol can be applied for the determination of methanol, ethanol, acetone and acetic acid in bio-oil. Detection limits ranged from 0.13 to 0.16μg. Acetic acid was the dominant analyte in the heavy bio-oil and light bio-oil analysis (113. 3 and 85.1µgmg -1 , respectively), followed by methanol, ethanol, and acetone. The polymerisation of furfural was suspected as the cause of its poor quantification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of impact factors on VOC emissions and concentrations from wooden flooring based on chamber tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chi-Chi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, No. 700, Kaohsiung University Rd., Kaohsiung (China); Yu, Kuo-Pin [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No.155, Sec.2, Linong Street, Taipei (China); Zhao, Ping [Filtration Group Inc., 912 E. Washington Street, Joliet, IL 60433 (United States); Whei-May Lee, Grace [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei (China)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, the impact factors of temperature, relative humidity (RH), air exchange rate, and volatile organic compound (VOC) properties on the VOC (toluene, n-butyl acetate, ethylbenzene, and m,p-xylene) specific emission rates (SERs) and concentrations from wooden flooring were investigated by chamber test for 8 days. The tested wood in this study is not common solid wood, but composite wood made of combined wood fibers. The experiments were conducted in a stainless-steel environmental test chamber coated with Teflon. The experimental results within 8 days of testing showed that, when the temperature increased from 15 to 30 C, the VOC SERs and concentrations increased 1.5-129 times. When the RH increased from 50% to 80%, the VOC concentrations and SERs increased 1-32 times. When the air change rate increased from 1 to 2 h{sup -1}, the VOC concentrations decreased 9-40%, while the VOC SERs increased 6-98%. The relations between the boiling points of the VOCs and each of the normalized VOC SERs and concentrations were linear with negative slopes. The relations between the vapor pressures of the VOCs and each of the normalized VOC SERs and concentrations were linear with positive slopes. At 15 C, RH50%, the relations between the diffusivities of VOCs and each of the normalized VOC equilibrium SERs and concentrations were linear with a positive slope. (author)

  15. Determination of formation enthalpies of incongruently fusing compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, Ya.A.; Cheshnitskij, S.M.; Fotiev, A.A.; Tret' yakov, Yu.D.

    1985-04-01

    Using the method of drop-calorimetry i.e. drop into the calorimeter cell being at the specified temperature of the specimen thermostated at 298 K, for studying reactions of peritectic decomposition of compounds for determining their formation enthalpies is considered. The measurements have been performed at 973 K using high temperature double microcalorimeter. The values ..delta..H/sub 1/=(367.0 +- 2.8) kJ/mol and ..delta..H/sub 2/=)343.9 +- 3.1) kJ/mol are obtained as a result of two series of measurements (6 experiments in each). The advantage of the described technique consists in the fact that the value of enthalpy of compound formation is obtained as a result of direct calorimetric measurements while in the e.m.f. method this value is determined as a coefficient in the Gibbs energy temperature dependence. The method is simple and does not require much time (one measurement takes 30-40 min).

  16. Native Fluorescence Detection Methods, Devices, and Systems for Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Naphthalene, benzene, toluene, xylene, and other volatile organic compounds VOCs have been identified as serious health hazards. Embodiments of the invention are directed to methods and apparatus for near-real-time in-situ detection and accumulated dose measurement of exposure to naphthalene vapor and other hazardous gaseous VOCs. The methods and apparatus employ excitation of fluorophors native or endogenous to compounds of interest using light sources emitting in the ultraviolet below 300 nm and measurement of native fluorescence emissions in distinct wavebands above the excitation wavelength. The apparatus of some embodiments are cell-phone-sized sensor/dosimeter "badges" to be worn by personnel potentially exposed to hazardous VOCs. The badge sensor of some embodiments provides both real time detection and data logging of exposure to naphthalene or other VOCs of interest from which both instantaneous and accumulated dose can be determined.

  17. Removal of Volatile Organic Contaminants (VOCs) from the Groundwater Sources of Drinking Water via Granular Activated Carbon Treatment (WaterRF Report 4440)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall goal of this project was to assess the feasibility of granular activated carbon (GAC) for the treatment of selected carcinogenic volatile organic compounds (cVOC) to sub-μg/L levels. The project consisted of three tasks. The task objectives are: Task I - determine c...

  18. Non-thermal plasmas for non-catalytic and catalytic VOC abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, Arne M.; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie; Leys, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We review the current status of catalytic and non-catalytic VOC abatement based on a vast number of research papers. → The underlying mechanisms of plasma-catalysis for VOC abatement are discussed. → Critical process parameters that determine the influent are discussed and compared. - Abstract: This paper reviews recent achievements and the current status of non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology for the abatement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Many reactor configurations have been developed to generate a NTP at atmospheric pressure. Therefore in this review article, the principles of generating NTPs are outlined. Further on, this paper is divided in two equally important parts: plasma-alone and plasma-catalytic systems. Combination of NTP with heterogeneous catalysis has attracted increased attention in order to overcome the weaknesses of plasma-alone systems. An overview is given of the present understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-catalytic processes. In both parts (plasma-alone systems and plasma-catalysis), literature on the abatement of VOCs is reviewed in close detail. Special attention is given to the influence of critical process parameters on the removal process.

  19. Evaluation of the Tekmar 3100 Purge and Trap Agilent GC/MSD system for VOC analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.; Fingas, M.F. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div

    2004-07-01

    This presentation described the Tekmar automated purge and trap (PAT) modular analyzer for detecting and quantifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in relatively clean water samples. A large percentage of emergency response work involves VOC analysis under various matrices such as water or soil. PAT analysis is an extraction method in which the VOCs from a liquid sample are purged by helium and concentrated on an internal trap, where the analytes are thermally desorbed into a gas chromatograph or a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GS/MS). This high degree of concentration results in good detection limits. The performance of the Tekmar PAT 31000 concentrator with autosampler and GC/MS system was evaluated using a 1 ppb and 100 ppb standard of the Method 524 mixture for some selected VOC on the list. The study also examined the purging parameters such as time and temperature. It also examined a new way of introducing gaseous samples through the 3-way purge vessel valve on the concentrator. The objective was to determine if the versatility of the system could be extended by using the the same instrument configuration for air sampling. Preliminary results indicate that it is not yet practical to use the system for air sampling. 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. Effect of catalyst for the decomposition of VOCs in a NTP reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Suchitra; Das, Smrutiprava; Paikaray, Rita; Sahoo, Gourishankar; Samantaray, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become a major cause of human distress both directly and indirectly. VOCs are becoming the major air pollutants. So the decomposition of VOCs is present need of our society. Non-thermal plasma reactor (NTP) is proven to be effective for low concentration VOCs decomposition. For safe and effective application of DBD, optimization of treatment process requires different plasma parameter characterization. So electron temperature and electron density parameters of VOCs show the decomposition path ways. In this piece of work by taking the emission spectra and comparing the line intensity ratios, the electron temperature and density were determined. Also the decomposition rate in terms of the deposited products on the dielectric surface was studied. Decomposition rate increases in presence of catalyst as compared to the pure compound in presence of a carrier gas. Decomposition process was studied by UV-VIS, FTIR, OES Spectroscopic methods and by GCMS. Deposited products are analyzed by UV-VIS and FTIR spectroscopy. Plasma parameters like electron temperature, density are studied with OES. And gaseous products are studied by GCMS showing the peaks for the by products. (author)

  1. Comparison of different real time VOC measurement techniques in a ponderosa pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kaser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compound (VOC mixing ratios measured by five independent instruments are compared at a forested site dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus Ponderosa during the BEACHON-ROCS field study in summer 2010. The instruments included a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS, a Proton Transfer Reaction Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS, a Fast Online Gas-Chromatograph coupled to a Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS; TOGA, a Thermal Dissociation Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (PAN-CIMS and a Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument (FILIF. The species discussed in this comparison include the most important biogenic VOCs and a selected suite of oxygenated VOCs that are thought to dominate the VOC reactivity at this particular site as well as typical anthropogenic VOCs that showed low mixing ratios at this site. Good agreement was observed for methanol, the sum of the oxygenated hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO and the hemiterpene isoprene, acetaldehyde, the sum of acetone and propanal, benzene and the sum of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK and butanal. Measurements of the above VOCs conducted by different instruments agree within 20%. The ability to differentiate the presence of toluene and cymene by PTR-TOF-MS is tested based on a comparison with GC-MS measurements, suggesting a study-average relative contribution of 74% for toluene and 26% for cymene. Similarly, 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal (HMPR is found to interfere with the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (MVK + MAC using PTR-(TOF-MS at this site. A study-average relative contribution of 85% for MVK + MAC and 15% for HMPR was determined. The sum of monoterpenes measured by PTR-MS and PTR-TOF-MS was generally 20–25% higher than the sum of speciated monoterpenes measured by TOGA, which included α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, carene, myrcene, limonene, cineole as well as other terpenes. However, this difference is consistent throughout the study

  2. Prediction of ambient concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the Sea Empress oil spill using vapour and oil property models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, D.J.; Ellis, K.L.

    1997-09-01

    Modelling has been used to estimate concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX), 1,3 butadiene and total hydrocarbons due to evaporation of volatiles from the Sea Empress oil spill. This involved estimating the release rates of oil during each tidal cycle, calculating the spread and evaporation rate of the oil and then using the dispersion model ADMS to determine concentrations in air of the species. The calculations generally show that the highest concentrations occur directly above recently released oil (released within the last 12 hours). Concentrations on land were generally small as the predominant wind directions were seaward throughout the period when the oil spill would have been evaporating. However, total hydrocarbon concentrations measured at various land sites were significant during the spill period even when the wind was blowing away from the monitoring sites. The measured concentrations were also high for a further period after the spill when evaporation of the spilled oil would have decreased to small levels. This suggests that much of the measured hydrocarbons were emitted from other sources (e.g. the oil refineries). (author)

  3. Volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone from radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Andraski, Brian J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Luo, Wentai

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often comingled with low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW), but little is known about subsurface VOC emanations from LLRW landfills. The current study systematically quantified VOCs associated with LLRW over an 11-yr period at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. Unsaturated-zone gas samples of VOCs were collected by adsorption on resin cartridges and analyzed by thermal desorption and GC/MS. Sixty of 87 VOC method analytes were detected in the 110-m-thick unsaturated zone surrounding a LLRW disposal facility. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were detected in 100% of samples collected. Chlorofluorocarbons are powerful greenhouse gases, deplete stratospheric ozone, and are likely released from LLRW facilities worldwide. Soil-gas samples collected from a depth of 24 m and a horizontal distance 100 m south of the nearest waste-disposal trench contained >60,000 ppbv total VOCs, including >37,000 ppbv CFCs. Extensive sampling in the shallow unsaturated zone (0–2 m deep) identified areas where total VOC concentrations exceeded 5000 ppbv at the 1.5-m depth. Volatile organic compound concentrations exceeded background levels up to 300 m from the facility. Maximum vertical diffusive fluxes of total VOCs were estimated to be 1 g m-2 yr-1. Volatile organic compound distributions were similar but not identical to those previously determined for tritium and elemental mercury. To our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the unsaturated zone distribution of VOCs emanating from a LLRW landfill. Our results may help explain anomalous transport of radionuclides at the ADRS and elsewhere.

  4. Technical Note: A fully automated purge and trap GC-MS system for quantification of volatile organic compound (VOC fluxes between the ocean and atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Andrews

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The oceans are a key source of a number of atmospherically important volatile gases. The accurate and robust determination of trace gases in seawater is a significant analytical challenge, requiring reproducible and ideally automated sample handling, a high efficiency of seawater–air transfer, removal of water vapour from the sample stream, and high sensitivity and selectivity of the analysis. Here we describe a system that was developed for the fully automated analysis of dissolved very short-lived halogenated species (VSLS sampled from an under-way seawater supply. The system can also be used for semi-automated batch sampling from Niskin bottles filled during CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth profiles. The essential components comprise a bespoke, automated purge and trap (AutoP & T unit coupled to a commercial thermal desorption and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (TD-GC-MS. The AutoP & T system has completed five research cruises, from the tropics to the poles, and collected over 2500 oceanic samples to date. It is able to quantify >25 species over a boiling point range of 34–180 °C with Henry's law coefficients of 0.018 and greater (CH22l, kHcc dimensionless gas/aqueous and has been used to measure organic sulfurs, hydrocarbons, halocarbons and terpenes. In the eastern tropical Pacific, the high sensitivity and sampling frequency provided new information regarding the distribution of VSLS, including novel measurements of a photolytically driven diurnal cycle of CH22l within the surface ocean water.

  5. Origin of 2-ethylhexanol as a VOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalli, Sandro; Horn, Owen J.; Grochowalski, Adam R.; Cooper, David G.; Nicell, Jim A.

    2006-01-01

    2-Ethylhexanol has been identified as a volatile organic compound (VOC) that contributes to the deterioration of indoor air quality. Plasticizers are common components of dust and building materials and are shown to be degraded by a variety of bacteria and fungi to produce 2-ethyhexanol and other metabolites. Of these, the 2-ethylhexanol has significant volatility and was observed in appreciable quantities. The degree to which 2-ethylhexanol is observed as a VOC in air samples would be limited by the fact that many of the microorganisms that are capable of producing this compound are also able to oxidize it to 2-ethylhexanoic acid, which is much less volatile. It is argued that an abiotic degradation mechanism of plasticizers that results in the generation of 2-ethylhexanol is unlikely and, if this did occur, other metabolites should have been observed. Thus, the microbial degradation of plasticizers is the most likely source of 2-ethylhexanol in indoor air. - A link has been observed between the partial biodegradation of plasticizers by microorganisms and VOCs associated with poor indoor air quality

  6. [Compound preservative and cyclamat determinated by gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ruozhu; Ding, Mei; Zheng, Xianguang; Li, Yajuan

    2008-07-01

    To establish a gas chromatography method for synchronous determination of six preservatives and cyclamat in cake and pastry. The pre-treatment of complicated compound was finished by dialysis cleaning technology. The interference of the complicated foundation body in the cake and pastry was removed by the best dialysis condition: 2 g/L NaOH of dialysis fluid was dialyzed at the temperature of 25 degrees C for 24h, and the six preservatives and cyclamat (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, dehydroacetic acid, ethylparabenum, propylparabenum, butylparabenun and sodium cyclamate) were synchronously seperated by 60-80 mesh Chromosorb WAW DMCS glass packing column of intercoated 5% DEGS + 1% H3 PO4. The seven components in the sample had a good lining relation at the concentration 100 -5000 mg/L when the external standard method was used, and their correlation coefficients were 0.9993-0.9998, and their average recovery rates were 87.5%-101.9%, and their relative standard deviations were 0.64%-3.3%, and detection limits were 1.1-8.8 mg/L. This method could be used to quickly analyse the compound preservatives of the large batch cake and pastry through the common gas chromatography and packed column and this method was simple, accurate and quick.

  7. [VOCs tax policy on China's economy development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Xin; Wang, Yu-Fei; Wang, Hai-Lin; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Wang, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, environmental tax was designed to control volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used to explore the impacts of environmental tax (in forms of indirect tax) on the macro-economy development at both national and sector levels. Different levels of tax were simulated to find out the proper tax rate. It is found out that imposing environmental tax on high emission sectors can cause the emission decreased immediately and can lead to negative impacts on macro-economy indicators, such as GDP (gross domestic products), total investment, total product and the whole consumption etc. However, only the government income increased. In addition, the higher the tax rate is, the more pollutants can be reduced and the worse economic effects can be caused. Consequently, it is suggested that, the main controlling policies of VOCs abatement should be mandatory orders, and low environmental tax can be implemented as a supplementary.

  8. Secondary organic aerosol formation through fog processing of VOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herckes, P.; Hutchings, J. W.

    2010-07-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) have been determined in highly concentrated amounts (>1 ug/L) in intercepted clouds in northern Arizona (USA). These VOCs are found in concentrations much higher than predicted by partitioning alone. The reactivity of BTEX in the fog/cloud aqueous phase was investigated through laboratory studies. BTEX species showed fast degradation in the aqueous phase in the presence of peroxides and light. Observed half-lives ranged from three and six hours, substantially shorter than the respective gas phase half-lives (several days). The observed reaction rates were on the order of 1 ppb/min but decreased substantially with increasing concentrations of organic matter (TOC). The products of BTEX oxidation reactions were analyzed using HPLC-UV and LCMS. The first generation of products identified included phenol and cresols which correspond to the hydroxyl-addition reaction to benzene and toluene. Upon investigating of multi-generational products, smaller, less volatile species are predominant although a large variety of products is found. Most reaction products have substantially lower vapor pressure and will remain in the particle phase upon droplet evaporation. The SOA generation potential of cloud and fog processing of BTEX was evaluated using simple calculations and showed that in ideal situations these reactions could add up to 9% of the ambient aerosol mass. In more conservative scenarios, the contribution of the processing of BTEX was around 1% of ambient aerosol concentrations. Overall, cloud processing of VOC has the potential to contribute to the atmospheric aerosol mass. However, the contribution will depend upon many factors such as the irradiation, organic matter content in the droplets and droplet lifetime.

  9. Application of ion chemistry to tropospheric VOC measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansel, A.; Wisthaler, A.; Graus, M.; Grabmer, W.

    2002-01-01

    The main interest in tropospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from biogenic sources such as forests and anthropogenic sources such as cities is because these reactive trace gases can have a significant impact on levels of oxidants such as ozone (O 3 ) and the hydroxyl radical (OH). The proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS) technique developed by Werner Lindingers Laboratory, utilizes positive ion chemistry to measure trace neutral concentrations in air. It has been applied in food research, medicine and environmental studies to gain gas phase information about VOCs at parts per trillion (pptv) levels.The real-time method relies on proton transfer reactions between H 3 O + primary ions and VOCs which have a higher proton affinity than water molecules. Organic trace gases such as hydrocarbons, carbonyls, alcohols, acetonitrile, and others can be monitored on-line.Results on tropospheric VOCs measurements in tropical regions and in cities are discussed. (nevyjel)

  10. Emission characteristics of VOCs emitted from consumer and commercial products and their ozone formation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Trieu-Vuong; Kim, Su-Yeon; Son, Youn-Suk; Choi, In-Young; Park, Seong-Ryong; Sunwoo, Young; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2015-06-01

    The characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from several consumer and commercial products (body wash, dishwashing detergent, air freshener, windshield washer fluid, lubricant, hair spray, and insecticide) were studied and compared. The spray products were found to emit the highest amount of VOCs (~96 wt%). In contrast, the body wash products showed the lowest VOC contents (~1.6 wt%). In the spray products, 21.6-96.4 % of the VOCs were propane, iso-butane, and n-butane, which are the components of liquefied petroleum gas. Monoterpene (C10H16) was the dominant component of the VOCs in the non-spray products (e.g., body wash, 53-88 %). In particular, methanol was present with the highest amount of VOCs in windshield washer fluid products. In terms of the number of carbon, the windshield washer fluids, lubricants, insecticides, and hair sprays comprised >95 % of the VOCs in the range C2-C5. The VOCs in the range C6-C10 were predominantly found in the body wash products. The dishwashing detergents and air fresheners contained diverse VOCs from C2 to C11. Besides comprising hazardous VOCs, VOCs from consumer products were also ozone precursors. The ozone formation potential of the consumer and commercial spray products was estimated to be higher than those of liquid and gel materials. In particular, the hair sprays showed the highest ozone formation potential.

  11. Status and Needs Research for On-line Monitoring of VOCs Emissions from Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Wang, Qiang; Zhong, Qi; Zhao, Jinbao; Yang, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Based on atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution control requirements during the twelfth-five year plan and the current status of monitoring and management at home and abroad, instrumental architecture and technical characteristics of continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) for VOCs emission from stationary sources are investigated and researched. Technological development needs of VOCs emission on-line monitoring techniques for stationary sources in china are proposed from the system sampling pretreatment technology and analytical measurement techniques.

  12. Spectrographic determination of some rare earths in thorium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, J. de.

    1977-01-01

    A method for spectrographic determination of Gd, Sm, Dy, Eu, Y, Yb, Tm and Lu in thorium compounds has been developed. Sensibilities of 0.01 μg rare earths/g Th02 were achieved. The rare earth elements were chromatographycally separated in a nitric acid-ether-cellulose system. The solvent mixture was prepared by dissolving 11% of concentrated nitric acid in ether. The method is based upon the sorption of the rare earths on activated cellulose, the elements being eluted together with 0.01 M HNO 3 . The retention of the 152 , 154 Eu used as tracer was 99,4%. The other elements showed recoveries varying from 95 to 99%. A direct carrier destillation procedure for the spectrochemical determination of the mentioned elements was used. Several concentrations of silver chloride were used to study the volatility behavior of the rare earths. 2%AgCl was added to the matrix as definite carrier, being lantanum selected as internal standard. The average coefficient of variation for this method was +- -+ 7%. The method has been appleid to the analysis of rare earths in thorium coumpounds prepared by Thorium Purification Pilot Plant at Atomic Energy Institute, Sao Paulo [pt

  13. Characterization and health risk assessment of VOCs in occupational environments in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman Lerner, J. E.; Sanchez, E. Y.; Sambeth, J. E.; Porta, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    To detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air in small enterprises in La Plata city and surrounding areas, sampling was conducted using passive diffusion monitors (3M-3500) and analysis of the samples were performed byCG-FID. Analytic methodology was optimized for 23 VOCs (n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatic and chlorinated compounds, ketones and terpenes compounds) by determining the recovery factor and detection limit for each analyte. Different recovery values were obtained by desorbing with a mixture of dichloromethane: methanol (50:50), with a standard deviation lower than 5%. Enterprise analyzed included chemical analysis laboratories, sewing workrooms, electromechanical repair and car painting centers, take away food shops, and a photocopy center. The highest levels of VOCs were found to be in electromechanical repair and car painting centers (hexane, BTEX, CHCl3, CCl4) followed by chemical analysis laboratories and sewing workrooms. Cancer and noncancer risks were assessed using conventional approaches (HQ and LCR, US EPA) using the benzene, trichloroethylene, chloroform for cancer risk, and toluene, xylene and n-hexane, for noncancer risks as markers. The results showed different LCR for benzene and trichloroethylene between the different indoor environments analyzed (electromechanical repair and car painting center ≫ others) and chloroform (laboratory > others), but comparing with the results obtained by other research, are in similar order of magnitude for equivalents activities. Similar finding were founded for HQ. Comparing these results with the worker protection legislation the electromechanical repair and car painting center and chemical analysis laboratories are close to the limits advised by OSHA and ACGIH. These facts show the importance of the use of abatement technologies for the complete reduction of VOCs levels, to mitigate their impact in the worker's health and their venting to the atmosphere.

  14. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  15. Determination of methylmercury compounds in foodstuffs. II. Determination of methylmercury in fish, egg, meat, and liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westoeoe, G

    1967-01-01

    The combined gas chromatographic and thin-layer chromatographic method for the identification and determination of methylmercury compounds in fish (Westoeoe) has been modified in order to render it applicable to a wider range of foods. In animal foodstuffs methylmercury is probably to a great extent attached to thiol groups. When these foods are extracted according to Gage, methylmercury chloride is formed and dissolves in the benzene together with varying amounts of thio compounds. Purification of the methylmercury in the benzene extracts of e.g., egg yolk or liver by extraction with aqueous alkali solution did not work, probably because the thio compounds were not volatile and could form alkali-insoluble methylmercury salts. Evidently methylmercury-S-compounds were reformed at high pH and prevented the formation of the water-soluble methylmercury hydroxide. Addition of excess mercuric ions, which expelled the methylmercury from the thio compounds, solved this clean-up problem. Samples of fish, egg-white, egg yolk, meat, and liver have been analyzed with the modified method. Extraction of the methylmercury into an aqueous phase was also possible with the aid of a water solution of cysteine. This led to a more rapid analytical procedure. 8 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  16. Assessment of subsurface VOCs using a chemical microsensor array. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S.A.; Zellers, E.T. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Public Health

    1993-06-01

    This report describes the results of laboratory investigations of several performance parameters relevant to surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) chemical sensor arrays for the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in contaminated soil and groundwater. The small size, low cost, sensitivity and selectivity of such instruments promise improvements in the quality and quantity of data used to guide site assessment and restoration efforts. In this investigation, calibrations were performed for 15 different coated SAW sensors. Each sensor was exposed to six VOCs selected to represent three chemical classes of contaminants that are commonly found at waste sites (i.e., aliphatic, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons). A new pattern recognition method was developed for determining which coated sensors would maximize the selectivity and accuracy of quantitation for a given set of vapor contaminants. Using this method, an optimal subwet of four coated sensors was selected for testing in a prototype microsensor instrument. Additional laboratory experiments were performed with this optimized array to assess the limits of detection and linear response ranges for the representative vapors, as well as the additivity of responses to vapors in binary mixtures, temperature and humidity effects, aging effects, and other performance parameters related to the application of this technology to soil and groundwater VOC monitoring. Results demonstrate that SAW microsensor arrays can identify and quantify specific VOCs at concentrations in the {mu}g/L to mg/L range when present alone or in simple (e.g., binary) mixtures. SAW sensor technology offers a potentially effective alternative to existing field instrumentation for headspace analysis, soil vapor monitoring, and vacuum extraction process monitoring of VOCs in subsurface media.

  17. Vertical characteristics of VOCs in the lower troposphere over the North China Plain during pollution periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Wang, Yuesi; Wu, Fangkun; Tang, Guiqian; Wang, Lili; Wang, Yinghong; Yang, Yuan

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, photochemical smog and gray haze-fog have frequently appeared over northern China. To determine the spatial distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) during a pollution period, tethered balloon flights were conducted over a suburban site on the North China Plain. Statistical analysis showed that the VOCs concentrations peaked at the surface, and decreased with altitude. A rapid decrease appeared from the surface to 400 m, with concnetrations of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and halocarbons decreasing by 48.0%, 53.3%, 43.3% and 51.1%, respectively. At heights in the range of 500-1000 m, alkenes concnetrations decline by 40.2%; alkanes and halocarbons concnetrations only decreased by 24.8% and 6.4%, respectively; and aromatics increased slightly by 5.5%. High concentrations VOCs covered a higher range of height (400 m) on heavy pollution days due to lacking of diffusion power. The VOCs concentrations decreased by 50% at 200 m on light pollution days. The transport of air mass affected the composition and concentration of high-altitude VOCs, especially on lightly polluted days. These air masses originated in areas with abundant traffic and combustion sources. Reactive aromatics (k OH >20,000 ppm -1  min -1 and k OH <20,000 ppm -1  min -1 ) were the main contributor to the ozone formation, accounting for 37%, on the surface on light pollution days. The contribution increased to 52% with pollution aggravated, and increased to 64% with height. The contributions of reactive aromatics were influenced by the degree of air mass aging. Under the umbrella of aging air mass, the contribution of reactive aromatics increased with height. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A dynamic dilution system-based evaluation of the procedure adopted for determining ozone precursor volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palluau, Fabienne; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

    2005-02-01

    A dynamic dilution system was created to evaluate the performance and the reliability of ozone precursor volatile organic compound (VOC) sampling ("TO-Can" canisters) and analysis (thermal desorption/gas chromatography/flame ionisation detection) techniques used by the "Laboratoire Interregional de Chimie du Grand Est (LIC)". Different atmospheres of VOCs were generated at concentrations between 0.8 and 25 ppb, with temperatures of 0, 10, 20 and 30 degrees C, and with relative humidities of 0, 30, 50, 70 and 90%. These conditions are generally representative of those commonly observed in ambient air in the eastern France. This dynamic dilution allows the simulation of a wide range of scenarios (concentrations, temperatures and relative humidities). After assessing the capacity and performance of the system, it was applied in order to evaluate the recoveries and stabilities of VOCs from canisters used for the collection and analysis of two mixtures of VOCs. The first mixture contained six alkanes (ethane, propane, butane, pentane, hexane and heptane), and the second contained five alkenes (ethene, propene, butene, 1-pentene and 1-hexene), five aromatics (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene and o-xylene), acetylene, and 1,3-butadiene. No significant losses of alkanes from the canisters were observed after 21 days of storage, and good recoveries of alkanes from the canisters (>80%) were obtained regardless of the concentration, the temperature and the relative humidity. However, losses of certain aromatics were noted at low relative humidity.

  19. Temporal variation of VOC emission from solvent and water based wood stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Loiotile, Annamaria Demarinis; Fracchiolla, Roberta; Palmisani, Jolanda; Saracino, Maria Rosaria; Tutino, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Solvent- and water-based wood stains were monitored using a small test emission chamber in order to characterize their emission profiles in terms of Total and individual VOCs. The study of concentration-time profiles of individual VOCs enabled to identify the compounds emitted at higher concentration for each type of stain, to examine their decay curve and finally to estimate the concentration in a reference room. The solvent-based wood stain was characterized by the highest Total VOCs emission level (5.7 mg/m3) that decreased over time more slowly than those related to water-based ones. The same finding was observed for the main detected compounds: Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes, Styrene, alpha-Pinene and Camphene. On the other hand, the highest level of Limonene was emitted by a water-based wood stain. However, the concentration-time profile showed that water-based product was characterized by a remarkable reduction of the time of maximum and minimum emission: Limonene concentration reached the minimum concentration in about half the time compared to the solvent-based product. According to AgBB evaluation scheme, only one of the investigated water-based wood stains can be classified as a low-emitting product whose use may not determine any potential adverse effect on human health.

  20. Decadal changes in emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from on-road vehicles with intensified automobile pollution control: Case study in a busy urban tunnel in south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanli; Yang, Weiqiang; Simpson, Isobel; Huang, Xinyu; Yu, Jianzhen; Huang, Zhonghui; Wang, Zhaoyi; Zhang, Zhou; Liu, Di; Huang, Zuzhao; Wang, Yujun; Pei, Chenglei; Shao, Min; Blake, Donald R; Zheng, Junyu; Huang, Zhijiong; Wang, Xinming

    2018-02-01

    In the efforts at controlling automobile emissions, it is important to know in what extent air pollutants from on-road vehicles could be truly reduced. In 2014 we conducted tests in a heavily trafficked tunnel in south China to characterize emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from on-road vehicle fleet and compared our results with those obtained in the same tunnel in 2004. Alkanes, aromatics, and alkenes had average emission factors (EFs) of 338, 63, and 42 mg km -1 in 2014 against that of 194, 129, and 160 mg km -1 in 2004, respectively. In 2014, LPG-related propane, n-butane and i-butane were the top three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) with EFs of 184 ± 21, 53 ± 6 and 31 ± 3 mg km -1 ; the gasoline evaporation marker i-pentane had an average EF of 17 ± 3 mg km -1 ; ethylene and propene were the top two alkenes with average EFs of 16 ± 1 and 9.7 ± 0.9 mg km -1 , respectively; isoprene had no direct emission from vehicles; toluene showed the highest EF of 11 ± 2 mg km -1 among the aromatics; and acetylene had an average EF of 7 ± 1 mg km -1 . While EFs of total NMHCs decreased only 9% from 493 ± 120 mg km -1 in 2004 to 449 ± 40 mg km -1 in 2014, their total ozone formation potential (OFP) decreased by 57% from 2.50 × 10 3  mg km -1 in 2004 to 1.10 × 10 3  mg km -1 in 2014, and their total secondary organic aerosol formation potential (SOAFP) decreased by 50% from 50 mg km -1 in 2004 to 25 mg km -1 in 2014. The large drop in ozone and SOA formation potentials could be explained by reduced emissions of reactive alkenes and aromatics, due largely to fuel transition from gasoline/diesel to LPG for taxis/buses and upgraded vehicle emission standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 78 FR 62451 - Air Quality: Revision to Definition of Volatile Organic Compounds-Exclusion of 2,3,3,3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program (CAA Sec. 612; 40 CFR 82 subpart G). The SNAP program has issued a final... incentive for industry to use negligibly reactive compounds in place of more highly reactive compounds that are regulated as VOCs. The EPA lists compounds that it has determined to be negligibly reactive in its...

  2. Determination of Volatile Compounds of Illicium verum Hook. f ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    02.1 mass spectral library in MSD ChemStation. Relative content of each compound in essential oil was calculated by peak area normalization method. These compounds accounted for more than 90 % in total star anise aroma molecules, including trans-anethole (75.76 %), p- anisaldehyde (8.65 %), estragole (4.70 %),.

  3. Determination of an Effective Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs) Oxidation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardena, D. P.; Crimi, M.; Holsen, T.; Bellona, C.

    2014-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a stable synthetic class of chemicals ubiquitously spread in environmental media (i.e. air, soil, biota, surface water and groundwater). The substances' strong polar carbon-fluorine bonds and their high thermal and chemical stability make them resistant to biological, chemical, and physical degradation. The purpose of this research is to identify the most effective oxidation method to treat perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and their by-products that is suitable for in situ application. The laboratory oxidation study focuses on the more commonly detected and studied long-chain (C-8) PFAS; perfluorooctanoic acids (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). Existing research evaluating oxidizing treatment effectiveness on perfluoroalkyl sulfoinoic acids (PFSAs) is limited. A review of the literature and results from preliminary studies indicate that activated persulfate and catalyzed hydrogen peroxide propagation (CHP) reactions appear to be promising oxidants for PFOA. It has been demonstrated that the reactivity of superoxide in water increases in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and solids. Superoxide generated in CHP reactions degrades PFOA seemingly similar to superoxide-mediated destruction of the perhalogenated compounds.The goal of this study is to look at conditions that promote generation of superoxide and look at PFASs treatment effectiveness and byproduct generation. CHP reactions are conducted with varying amount of H2O2 and Fe(III) to determine the optimum conditions for PFC degradation. Results will be compared to those of another experiment using manganese dioxide as a CHP catalyst with varied H2O2 concentration to generate superoxide to degrade PFASs. Activated persulfate conditions to be compared include alkaline pH activation, heat activation, and dual oxidation (combined H2O2 and persulfate ). This presentation will focus on a comparison of oxidation effectiveness under the

  4. Characterization of selected volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds at a roadside monitoring station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K. F.; Lee, S. C.; Chiu, Gloria M. Y.

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), PAHs and carbonyl compounds are the major toxic components in Hong Kong. Emissions from motor vehicles have been one of the primary pollution sources in the metropolitan areas throughout Hong Kong for a long time. A 1-yr monitoring program for VOCs, PAHs and carbonyl compounds had been performed at a roadside urban station at Hong Kong Polytechnic University in order to determine the variations and correlations of each selected species (VOCs, PAHs and carbonyl compounds). This study is aimed to analyze toxic volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), two carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde), and selective polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The monitoring program started from 16 April 1999 to 30 March 2000. Ambient VOC concentrations, many of which originate from the same sources as particulate PAHs and carbonyls compounds, show significant quantities of benzene, toluene and xylenes. Correlations and multivariate analysis of selected gaseous and particulate phase organic pollutants were performed. Source identification by principle component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis allowed the identification of four sources (factors) for the roadside monitoring station. Factor 1 represents the effect of diesel vehicle exhaust. Factor 2 shows the contribution of aromatic compounds. Factor 3 explains photochemical products—formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Factor 4 explains the effect of gasoline vehicle exhaust.

  5. PARAMETRIC EVALUATION OF VOC CONVERSION VIA CATALYTIC INCINERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaskantzis Neto G.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - A pilot-scale catalytic incineration system was used to investigate the effectiveness of catalytic incineration as a means of reducing volatile organic compound (VOC air pollutants. The objectives of the study were: 1 to investigate the effects of operating and design variables on the reduction efficiency of VOCs; and 2 to evaluate reduction efficiencies for specific compounds in different chemical classes. The study results verified that the following factors affect the catalyst performance: inlet temperature, space velocity, compound type, and compound inlet concentration. Tests showed that reduction efficiencies exceeding 98% were possible, given sufficiently high inlet gas temperatures for the following classes of compounds: alcohols, acetates, ketones, hydrocarbons, and aromatics

  6. Clinical breath analysis: Discriminating between human endogenous compounds and exogenous (environmental) chemical confounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath originate from current or previous environmental exposures (exogenous compounds) and internal metabolic anabolic and catabolic) production (endogenous compounds). The origins of certain VOCs in breath presumed to be endogenous ...

  7. Theoretical study of simultaneous water and VOCs adsorption and desorption in a silica gel rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, G.; Zhang, Y.F.; Fang, Lei

    2008-01-01

    One-dimensional partial differential equations were used to model the simultaneous water and VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) adsorption and desorption in a silica gel rotor which was recommended for indoor air cleaning. The interaction among VOCs and moisture in the adsorption and desorption...... process was neglected in the model as the concentrations of VOC pollutants in typical indoor environment were much lower than that of moisture and the adsorbed VOCs occupied only a minor portion of adsorption capacity of the rotor. Consequently VOC transfer was coupled with heat and moisture transfer only...... by the temperatures of the rotor and the air stream. The VOC transfer equations were solved by discretizing them into explicit up-wind finite differential equations. The model was validated with experimental data. The calculated results suggested that the regeneration time designed for dehumidification may...

  8. Volatile organic compounds in urban rivers and their estuaries in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Fukushima, M; Kakutani, N; Kuroda, K

    1997-01-01

    The levels and distribution of 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were determined by purge and trap GC-MS on water samples from 30 sites within the urban rivers and estuaries of Osaka, a populated industrialized city of Japan. Forty of 55 target VOCs listed in the US EPA Method 524.2 were detected. Dichloromethane (DCM) was found at higher levels at all of the sampling sites. The distribution of dominant VOCs followed four different patterns. First, the most common VOCs (DCM, toluene, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene) showed concentration maxima in the river segments, and the sites of maximum concentration fluctuated due to irregular large spills and/or loadings. Second, one VOC (cis-1,2-dichloroethene) was evenly distributed in particular rivers due to fixed loadings. Both of these patterns were found in the upper and middle reaches. Third, some of VOCs (1,2,3-trichloropropane and benzene) were specific to a single industrial site and truceable to those sources. Finally, some VOCs showed no concentration maxima along the rivers and entered from multiple sources (chloroform and bromodichloromethane). Diurnal variations of VOCs at the border of the city area, receiving domestic and industrial discharges, provided information to interpret their observed downstream distribution and possible sources.

  9. A predictive method for crude oil volatile organic compounds emission from soil: evaporation and diffusion behavior investigation of binary gas mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haijing; Fischer, Thomas; Wieprecht, Wolfgang; Möller, Detlev

    2015-05-01

    Due to their mobility and toxicity, crude oil volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are representative components for oil pipeline contaminated sites detection. Therefore, contaminated location risk assessment, with airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) survey, in particular, requires ground-based determinative methods for oil VOCs, the interaction between oil VOCs and soil, and information on how they diffuse from underground into atmosphere. First, we developed a method for determination of crude oil VOC binary mixtures (take n-pentane and n-hexane as examples), taking synergistic effects of VOC mixtures on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers into consideration. Using this method, we further aim to extract VOCs from small volumes, for example, from soil pores, using a custom-made sampling device for nondestructive SPME fiber intrusion, and to study VOC transport through heterogeneous porous media. Second, specific surface Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis was conducted and used for estimation of VOC isotherm parameters in soil. Finally, two models were fitted for VOC emission prediction, and the results were compared to the experimental emission results. It was found that free diffusion mode worked well, and an empirical correction factor seems to be needed for the other model to adapt to our condition for single and binary systems.

  10. Simultaneous determination of ten compounds in two main ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attempts were made to distinguish different medicinal parts of P. hookeri. Results: Regression equation for 10 compounds showed good linear regression (R2 > 0.9994). The relative standard deviations of precision, stability, repeatability and recovery were under 5 %. Compared with the aerial plant part, the root had ...

  11. Determination of ferulic acid and related compounds by thin layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of certain phenolic compounds from plants, and their chemical transformation with microorganisms or isolated enzymes, has application in the food and pharmaceutical industry. The rapid quantitative estimation of ferulic acid by thin layer chromatography is described by measurement of the area of the ...

  12. Determination of volatile aroma compounds of Ganoderma lucidum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted at Horticulture Department of Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey during 2010-2011. Fresh sample of Ganoderma lucidum collected from Mersin province of Turkey was used as material. Volatile aroma compounds were performed by Headspace Gas Chromatography (HS-GC/MS). Alcohols ...

  13. Determination of borneol and other chemical compounds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Pre-Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Lot PT. 21144, Jalan Sungai Long, .... due to geographical variation of plant species, which lead to difference in environmental and culture conditions. In summary, the compounds detected in this study such as ...

  14. New Compounds from Euphorbia helioscopia and Absolute Configuration Determination by Computational Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jiangbo; Zhu, Hua Jie; Luo, Gui Fen; Li, Yan; Cheng, Yong Xian; Chen, Hao; Chen, Shaopeng; Lu, Xin; Zhou, Guochun; Liu, Guang Ming

    2010-01-01

    The whole plant of Euphorbia helioscopia is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Fom its BuOH soluble extract, one new lactam, three new terpenoids including a new naturally occurring compound, and three known compounds were isolated. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic evidences. In particular, the absolute configurations of side chain of compounds 1 and 2 were determined using computational methods

  15. Volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silseth, May Liss

    1998-01-01

    The goal is: Not more emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than necessary. The items discussed in this presentation are the VOCs, how to calculate emission of VOCs, how to reduce or avoid them, and different recovery processes. The largest source of Norwegian emissions of non methane VOCs (NMVOCs) is offshore loading of raw petroleum. Emissions of VOCs should be reduced mainly for two reasons: (1) on sunny days NMVOCs may react with NOx to form ozon and smog close to the surface, (2) ozone and smog close to the surface may be harmful to plants and animals, and they are hazardous to human health. As for the calculation of VOC emissions, the VOCON project will release the calculation program HCGASS in 1999. This project is a cooperative project headed by SINTEF/Marintek

  16. SAFARI 2000 Leaf-Level VOC Emissions, Maun, Botswana, Wet Season 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise a significant proportion of trace gases in the atmospheric environment and play an important role in the...

  17. SAFARI 2000 Leaf-Level VOC Emissions, Maun, Botswana, Wet Season 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise a significant proportion of trace gases in the atmospheric environment and play an important role in...

  18. EVALUATION AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF INNOVATIVE LOW-VOC CONTACT ADHESIVES IN WOOD LAMINATING OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation and assessment of the perfor-mance, economics, and emission reduction potential upon application of low-volatile organic compound (VOC) waterborne contact adhesive formulations specifically ina manual laminating operation for assembling s...

  19. California; Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District; VOCs from Motor Vehicle Assembly Coating Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District portion of the California SIP concerning emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from motor vehicle assembly coating operations.

  20. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Baek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory

  1. Investigations of the ratios of stable carbon isotopes in atmospheric relevant VOC using simulation and field experiments; Untersuchungen der Verhaeltnisse stabiler Kohlenstoffisotope in atmosphaerisch relevanten VOC in Simulations- und Feldexperimenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spahn, Holger

    2010-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric chemistry. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the analysis of the ratios of stable carbon isotopes ({delta}({sup 13}C) analysis) in atmospheric VOCs. At first, the state of the art of this analytical technique is described. For the first time {delta}({sup 13}C) values of different monoterpenes have been determined in the investigation of vegetable emissions at a plant chamber. By means of the oxidation of {beta}-pinene by ozone in an aerosol chamber, the kinetic isotope effect of this reaction was determined. In southern Germany, air samples for the {delta}({sup 13}C) analysis were collected using a zeppelin. This enables a height-resolved measurement of {delta}({sup 13}C) values. Based on these measurements, the average photochemical age for methanol, toluene and p-xylene at different heights was calculated.

  2. Determination of gaseous compounds using online mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praun, S.

    1999-08-01

    The work is divided in three major parts and describes various measurements of gaseous compounds. The first part tasks the problem of transit traffic along the motorway from Kufstein, Northern Tyrol/Austria until Ala, Trentino/Italy. During three periods measurements of the immissions of many compounds were carried out simultaneously in Northern Tyrol, Southern Tyrol and Trentino. The influence of the ban of heavy lorry traffic during the weekend and during the night on the reduction of NO 2 could be demonstrated. Furthermore certain compounds (e.g. Benzene) were monitored online for the first time along the motorway at lowest concentrations using the mass spectrometer 'Airsense 500'. In the second part online measurements of exhaled human breath after the oral application of a medicine against bronchitis was performed. In that way beside clinical and pharmacological studies the effectiveness of this pharmacon could be proved. The last part of the present work shows adsorption- and desorption measurements on four different adsorbents. During this procedure seven different gases with an increasing number of carbon atoms were monitored online by the hyphenation of these adsorbents with the mass spectrometer 'Airsense 500'. Thereby, the various properties of the adsorbents in the interaction with the gases could be demonstrated. (author)

  3. Verification of T2VOC using an analytical solution for VOC transport in vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    T2VOC represents an adaption of the STMVOC to the TOUGH2 environment. In may contaminated sites, transport of volatile organic chemicals (VOC) is a serious problem which can be simulated by T2VOC. To demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the code, we chose a practical problem of VOC transport as the test case, conducted T2VOC simulations, and compared the results of T2VOC with those of an analytical solution. The agreements between T2VOC and the analytical solutions are excellent. In addition, the numerical results of T2VOC are less sensitive to grid size and time step to a certain extent.

  4. Impact of intentionally introduced sources on indoor VOC levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.S. [BOVAR Environmental, Downsview, Ontario (Canada); Otson, R. [Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Environmental Health Centre

    1997-12-31

    The concentrations of 33 target volatile organic compounds (VOC) were measured in outdoor air and in indoor air before and after the introduction of dry-cleaned clothes, and consumer products into two suburban homes. Emissions from the household products (air fresheners, furniture polishes, mothballs, and dry-cleaned clothes), showering, and two paints were analyzed to obtain source profiles. There were measurable increases in the 24 h average concentrations for 10 compounds in one house and 8 compounds in the second house after introduction of the sources. A contribution by showering to indoor VOC was not evident although the impact of the other sources and outdoor air could be discerned, based on results for the major constituents of source emissions. Also, contributions by paints, applied three to six weeks prior to the monitoring, to indoor VOC concentrations were evident. The pattern of concentrations indicated that sink effects need to be considered in explaining the indoor concentrations that result when sources are introduced into homes. Quantitative estimates of the relative contributions of the sources to indoor VOC levels were not feasible through the use of chemical mass balance since the number of tracer species detected (up to 6) and that could be used for source apportionment was similar to the number of sources to be apportioned (up to 7).

  5. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary D, McGinnis; Laura S, WIlliams; Amy E, Monte; Jagdish Rughani; Brett A, Niemi; Thomas M, Flicker

    2001-01-01

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board

  6. Report from Workshop on VOCs in diving chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, A.; Simpson, M.

    2000-05-01

    This report of the 'Setting the Standards' workshop on the problems of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in diving in offshore operations, sponsored jointly by the UK Health and Safety Executive Offshore Safety Division and the Stolt Rockwater Joint Venture, gives details of the papers presented covering the chemical contamination of diver's atmosphere, sampling protocols and methods, analytical procedures used for VOCs in hyperbaric chambers, and contamination in buildings. The setting of exposure limits in the UK, the derivation of threshold limiting values (TVLs), the selection of Tenax tubes for atmospheric sampling, organic contaminant monitoring, and NASA's approach to contamination in the space environment are examined, and dealing with contamination problems in a submarine atmosphere, and the simulation of a condensate spillage in a diving bell are discussed. Guidelines for the measurement of VOCs in hyperbaric chambers are given in the appendices

  7. A gas sensor array for the simultaneous detection of multiple VOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Zhao, Jianhong; Du, Tengfei; Zhu, Zhongqi; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Qingju

    2017-05-16

    Air quality around the globe is declining and public health is seriously threatened by indoor air pollution. Typically, indoor air pollutants are composed of a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are generally harmful to the human body, especially VOCs with low molecular weights (less than 100 Da). Moreover, in some situations, more than one type of VOC is present; thus, a device that can detect one or more VOCs simultaneously would be most beneficial. Here, we synthesized a sensor array with 4 units to detect 4 VOCs: acetone (unit 1), benzene (unit 2), methanol (unit 3) and formaldehyde (unit 4) simultaneously. All units were simultaneously exposed to 2.5 ppm of all four VOCs. The sensitivity of unit 1 was 14.67 for acetone and less than 2.54 for the other VOCs. The sensitivities of units 2, 3 and 4 to benzene, methanol and formaldehyde were 2 18.64, 20.98 and 17.26, respectively, and less than 4.01 for the other VOCs. These results indicated that the sensor array exhibited good selectivity and could be used for the real-time monitoring of indoor air quality. Thus, this device will be useful in situations requiring the simultaneous detection of multiple VOCs.

  8. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange.

  9. Determination of high molecular mass compounds from Amazonian plant's leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Denilson Soares de; Pereira, Alberto dos Santos; Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler de; Simoneit, Bernd R.T.

    2003-01-01

    The fractions of dichloromethane extracts of leaves from andiroba (Carapa guianensis - Meliaceae), caapi (Banisteriopsis caapi - Malpighiaceae), cocoa (Theobroma cacao - Sterculiaceae), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa - Lecytidaceae), cupuacu (Theobroma grandiflorum - Sterculiaceae), marupa (Simaruba amara - Simaroubaceae) and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis - Euphorbiaceae), were analyzed by HT-HRGC and HT-HRGC-MS. Esters of homologous series of fatty acids and long chain alcohols, phytol, amyrines and tocopherols were characterized. The characterization of the compounds was based mainly in mass spectra data and in addition by usual spectrometric data ( 1 H and 13 C NMR, IR). (author)

  10. Determination of Carbonyl Compounds in Exhaled Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings on a quantitative evaluation of carbonyl levels in exhaled cigarette smoke from human subjects. The cigarettes evaluated include products with 5.0 mg ‘tar’, 10.6 mg ‘tar’ and 16.2 mg ‘tar’, where ‘tar’ is defined as the weight of total wet particulate matter (TPM minus the weight of nicotine and water, and the cigarettes are smoked following U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC recommendations. The measured levels of carbonyls in the exhaled smoke were compared with calculated yields of carbonyls in the inhaled smoke and a retention efficiency was obtained. The number of human subjects included a total of ten smokers for the 10.6 mg ‘tar’, five for the 16.2 mg ‘tar’, and five for the 5.0 mg ‘tar’ product, each subject smoking three cigarettes. The analyzed carbonyl compounds included several aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde and n-butyraldehyde, and two ketones (acetone and 2-butanone. The smoke collection from the human subjects was vacuum assisted. Exhaled smoke was collected on Cambridge pads pretreated with a solution of dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of the dinitrophenylhydrazones of the carbonyl compounds. The cigarette butts from the smokers were collected and analyzed for nicotine. The nicotine levels for the cigarette butts from the smokers were used to calculate the level of carbonyls in the inhaled smoke, based on calibration curves. These were generated separately by analyzing the carbonyls in smoke and the nicotine in the cigarette butts obtained by machine smoking under different puffing regimes. The comparison of the level of carbonyl compounds in exhaled smoke with that from the inhaled smoke showed high retention of all the carbonyls. The retention of aldehydes was above 95% for all three different ‘tar’ levels cigarettes. The ketones were retained with a

  11. Adsorption of VOCs on reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lian; Wang, Long; Xu, Weicheng; Chen, Limin; Fu, Mingli; Wu, Junliang; Ye, Daiqi

    2018-05-01

    A modified Hummer's method was adopted for the synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). It was revealed that the modified method is effective for the production of GO and rGO from graphite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of GO and rGO showed a sheet-like morphology. Because of the presence of oxygenated functional groups on the carbon surface, the interlayer spacing of the prepared GO was higher than that of rGO. The presence of OH and CO groups in the Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) spectrum and G-mode and 2D-mode in Raman spectra confirmed the synthesis of GO and rGO. rGO (292.6m 2 /g) showed higher surface area than that of GO (236.4m 2 /g). The prepared rGO was used as an adsorbent for benzene and toluene (model pollutants of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) under dynamic adsorption/desorption conditions. rGO showed higher adsorption capacity and breakthrough times than GO. The adsorption capacity of rGO for benzene and toluene was 276.4 and 304.4mg/g, respectively. Desorption experiments showed that the spent rGO can be successfully regenerated by heating at 150.0°C. Its excellent adsorption/desorption performance for benzene and toluene makes rGO a potential adsorbent for VOC adsorption. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Native Fluorescence Detection Methods and Detectors for Naphthalene and/or Other Volatile Organic Compound Vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Naphthalene, benzene, toluene, xylene, and other volatile organic compounds have been identified as serious health hazards. This is especially true for personnel working with JP8 jet fuel and other fuels containing naphthalene as well as other hazardous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Embodiments of the invention are directed to methods and apparatus for near-real-time in-situ detection and accumulated dose measurement of exposure to naphthalene vapor and other hazardous gaseous VOCs. The methods and apparatus employ excitation of fluorophors native or endogenous to compounds of interest using light sources emitting in the ultraviolet below 300 nm and measurement of native fluorescence emissions in distinct wavebands above the excitation wavelength. The apparatus of some embodiments are cell-phone-sized sensor/dosimeter "badges" to be worn by personnel potentially exposed to naphthalene or other hazardous VOCs. The badge sensor of some embodiments provides both real time detection and data logging of exposure to naphthalene or other VOCs of interest from which both instantaneous and accumulated dose can be determined. The badges employ a new native fluorescence based detection method to identify and differentiate VOCs. The particular focus of some embodiments are the detection and identification of naphthalene while other embodiments are directed to detection and identification of other VOCs like aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and xylene.

  13. Temporal variability and sources of VOCs in urban areas of the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kaltsonoudis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During the summer of 2012 volatile organic compounds (VOCs were monitored by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS in urban sites, in Athens and Patras, two of the largest cities in Greece. Also, during the winter of 2013, PTR-MS measurements were conducted in the center of the city of Athens. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was applied to the VOC measurements to gain insights about their sources. In summer most of the measured VOCs were due to biogenic and traffic emissions. Isoprene, monoterpenes, and several oxygenated VOCs (oVOCs originated mainly from vegetation either directly or as oxidation products. Isoprene average concentrations in Patras and Athens were 1 and 0.7 ppb respectively, while the monoterpene concentrations were 0.3 and 0.9 ppb respectively. Traffic was the main source of aromatic compounds during summer. For Patras and Athens the average concentrations of benzene were 0.1 and 0.2 ppb, of toluene 0.3 and 0.8 ppb, and of the xylenes 0.3 and 0.7 ppb respectively. Winter measurements in Athens revealed that biomass burning used for residential heating was a major VOC source contributing both aromatic VOCs and biogenic compounds such as monoterpenes. Several episodes related to biomass burning were identified and emission ratios (ERs and emission factors (EFs were estimated.

  14. [Emission Characteristics of VOCs from Typical Restaurants in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tong; Cheng, Jing-chen; He, Wan-qing; Ren, Pei-fang; Nie, Lei; Xu, Dong-yao; Pan, Tao

    2015-05-01

    Using the EPA method, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) , sampled from barbecue, Chinese and Western fast-food, Sichuan cuisine and Zhejiang cuisine restaurants in Beijing was investigated. VOCs concentrations and components from different cuisines were studied. The results indicated that based on the calibrated baseline ventilation volume, the VOCs emission level from barbecue was the highest, reaching 12.22 mg · m(-3), while those from fast-food of either Chinese or Western, Sichuan cuisine and Zhejiang cuisine were about 4 mg · m(-3). The components of VOCs from barbecue were different from those in the other cuisines, which were mainly propylene, 1-butene, n-butane, etc. The non-barbecue cuisines consisted of high concentration of alcohols, and Western fast-food contained relatively high proportion of aldehydes and ketones organic compounds. According to emission concentration of baseline ventilation volume, barbecue released more pollutants than the non-barbecue cuisines at the same scale. So, barbecue should be supervised and controlled with the top priority.

  15. Volatile Organic Compounds: Characteristics, distribution and sources in urban schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Nitika; Bartsch, Jennifer; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Salthammer, Tunga; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-04-01

    Long term exposure to organic pollutants, both inside and outside school buildings may affect children's health and influence their learning performance. Since children spend significant amount of time in school, air quality, especially in classrooms plays a key role in determining the health risks associated with exposure at schools. Within this context, the present study investigated the ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in 25 primary schools in Brisbane with the aim to quantify the indoor and outdoor VOCs concentrations, identify VOCs sources and their contribution, and based on these; propose mitigation measures to reduce VOCs exposure in schools. One of the most important findings is the occurrence of indoor sources, indicated by the I/O ratio >1 in 19 schools. Principal Component Analysis with Varimax rotation was used to identify common sources of VOCs and source contribution was calculated using an Absolute Principal Component Scores technique. The result showed that outdoor 47% of VOCs were contributed by petrol vehicle exhaust but the overall cleaning products had the highest contribution of 41% indoors followed by air fresheners and art and craft activities. These findings point to the need for a range of basic precautions during the selection, use and storage of cleaning products and materials to reduce the risk from these sources.

  16. Determination of total gas in lithium tritide-deuteride compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.; Koski, N.L.; Waterbury, G.R.

    1979-04-01

    Lithium tritide--deuteride samples are enclosed in a copper foil and decomposed by heating to 850 0 C in a copper reaction tube in vacuum. The temperature and pressure of the evolved gas, collected in a measured volume using a Toepler pump, are measured to determine the total moles of gas released from the sample. The gas is transferred to a removable sample bulb and, if required, analyzed for gaseous constituents by mass spectrometry. Based on 14 total gas determinations for a lithium deuteride sample, the calculated relative standard deviation was 1.0% and the estimated bias was <2.5%

  17. Determination of carbon in uranium and its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Garcia, M. M.

    1972-01-01

    This paper collects the analytical methods used our laboratories for the determination of carbon in uranium metal, uranate salts and the oxides, fluorides and carbides of uranium. The carbon is usually burned off in a induction or resistance oven under oxygen flow. The CO 2 is collected in barite solution. Where it is backtitrated with potassium biphthalate. (Author)

  18. Evaluation of the correlation between concentration of volatile organic compounds and temperature of the exhaust gases in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrętowicz, Maria; Wróbel, Radosław; Andrych-Zalewska, Monika

    2017-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the group of organic compounds which are one of the most important air pollutants. One of the main sources of VOCs are combustion processes including fuel combustion is internal combustion engines. Volatile organic compounds are very dangerous pollution, because even in very low concentrations they have significant harmful effect on human health. A lot of that compounds are mutagenic and carcinogenic, in addition they could cause asthma, intoxication or allergy. The measurements of VOCs are quite problematic, because it is required using the specialist analytical apparatus, ex. chromatograph. However, not always it is need to measure the content of that compounds in engine exhaust with high precision and sometimes it is enough only to estimate the level of the concentration. Emission of the VOCs mainly depends on the combustion process in the engine and this determines the temperature of the exhaust gases. In this paper authors tried to determine if the correlation between temperature of exhaust gases and VOCs' concentration exist and is able to determine.

  19. Biofiltration of airborne VOCs with green wall systems-Microbial and chemical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, A; Li, T; Vesala, M; Saarenheimo, J; Ahonen, V; Kärenlampi, S; Blande, J D; Tiirola, M; Tervahauta, A

    2018-05-06

    Botanical air filtration is a promising technology for reducing indoor air contaminants, but the underlying mechanisms need better understanding. Here, we made a set of chamber fumigation experiments of up to 16 weeks of duration, to study the filtration efficiencies for seven volatile organic compounds (VOCs; decane, toluene, 2-ethylhexanol, α-pinene, octane, benzene, and xylene) and to monitor microbial dynamics in simulated green wall systems. Biofiltration functioned on sub-ppm VOC levels without concentration-dependence. Airflow through the growth medium was needed for efficient removal of chemically diverse VOCs, and the use of optimized commercial growth medium further improved the efficiency compared with soil and Leca granules. Experimental green wall simulations using these components were immediately effective, indicating that initial VOC removal was largely abiotic. Golden pothos plants had a small additional positive impact on VOC filtration and bacterial diversity in the green wall system. Proteobacteria dominated the microbiota of rhizosphere and irrigation water. Airborne VOCs shaped the microbial communities, enriching potential VOC-utilizing bacteria (especially Nevskiaceae and Patulibacteraceae) in the irrigation water, where much of the VOC degradation capacity of the biofiltration systems resided. These results clearly show the benefits of active air circulation and optimized growth media in modern green wall systems. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Smartphone-based sensing system using ZnO and graphene modified electrodes for VOCs detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Diming; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xing; Xu, Gang; Lu, Yanli; Liu, Qingjun

    2017-07-15

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detection is in high demand for clinic treatment, environment monitoring, and food quality control. Especially, VOCs from human exhaled breath can serve as significant biomarkers of some diseases, such as lung cancer and diabetes. In this study, a smartphone-based sensing system was developed for real-time VOCs monitoring using alternative current (AC) impedance measurement. The interdigital electrodes modified with zinc oxide (ZnO), graphene, and nitrocellulose were used as sensors to produce impedance responses to VOCs. The responses could be detected by a hand-held device, sent out to a smartphone by Bluetooth, and reported with concentration on an android program of the smartphone. The smartphone-based system was demonstrated to detect acetone at concentrations as low as 1.56ppm, while AC impedance spectroscopy was used to distinguish acetone from other VOCs. Finally, measurements of the exhalations from human being were carried out to obtain the concentration of acetone in exhaled breath before and after exercise. The results proved that the smartphone-based system could be applied on the detection of VOCs in real settings for healthcare diagnosis. Thus, the smartphone-based system for VOCs detection provided a convenient, portable and efficient approach to monitor VOCs in exhaled breath and possibly allowed for early diagnosis of some diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biodegradation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Their Effects on Biodegradability under Co-Existing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Miho; Zhang, Ming; Toyota, Koki

    2017-09-27

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major pollutants that are found in contaminated sites, particularly in developed countries such as Japan. Various microorganisms that degrade individual VOCs have been reported, and genomic information related to their phylogenetic classification and VOC-degrading enzymes is available. However, the biodegradation of multiple VOCs remains a challenging issue. Practical sites, such as chemical factories, research facilities, and illegal dumping sites, are often contaminated with multiple VOCs. In order to investigate the potential of biodegrading multiple VOCs, we initially reviewed the biodegradation of individual VOCs. VOCs include chlorinated ethenes (tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride), BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), and chlorinated methanes (carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and dichloromethane). We also summarized essential information on the biodegradation of each kind of VOC under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, together with the microorganisms that are involved in VOC-degrading pathways. Interactions among multiple VOCs were then discussed based on concrete examples. Under conditions in which multiple VOCs co-exist, the biodegradation of a VOC may be constrained, enhanced, and/or unaffected by other compounds. Co-metabolism may enhance the degradation of other VOCs. In contrast, constraints are imposed by the toxicity of co-existing VOCs and their by-products, catabolite repression, or competition between VOC-degrading enzymes. This review provides fundamental, but systematic information for designing strategies for the bioremediation of multiple VOCs, as well as information on the role of key microorganisms that degrade VOCs.

  2. Biodegradation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Their Effects on Biodegradability under Co-Existing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Miho; Zhang, Ming; Toyota, Koki

    2017-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major pollutants that are found in contaminated sites, particularly in developed countries such as Japan. Various microorganisms that degrade individual VOCs have been reported, and genomic information related to their phylogenetic classification and VOC-degrading enzymes is available. However, the biodegradation of multiple VOCs remains a challenging issue. Practical sites, such as chemical factories, research facilities, and illegal dumping sites, are often contaminated with multiple VOCs. In order to investigate the potential of biodegrading multiple VOCs, we initially reviewed the biodegradation of individual VOCs. VOCs include chlorinated ethenes (tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride), BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), and chlorinated methanes (carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and dichloromethane). We also summarized essential information on the biodegradation of each kind of VOC under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, together with the microorganisms that are involved in VOC-degrading pathways. Interactions among multiple VOCs were then discussed based on concrete examples. Under conditions in which multiple VOCs co-exist, the biodegradation of a VOC may be constrained, enhanced, and/or unaffected by other compounds. Co-metabolism may enhance the degradation of other VOCs. In contrast, constraints are imposed by the toxicity of co-existing VOCs and their by-products, catabolite repression, or competition between VOC-degrading enzymes. This review provides fundamental, but systematic information for designing strategies for the bioremediation of multiple VOCs, as well as information on the role of key microorganisms that degrade VOCs. PMID:28904262

  3. Airborne VOC measurements on board the Zeppelin NT during the PEGASOS campaigns in 2012 deploying the improvement Fast-GC-MSD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Julia Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise a large number of different species, estimated to 10 4 -10 6 . They are emitted on the Earth's surface from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources. VOCs are removed by multiple pathways from the atmosphere, by oxidation and finally by dry or wet deposition. Most primary emitted VOCs are non-polar and therefore have a low solubility in water. Oxidation facilitates efficient VOC removal by wet deposition. In the atmosphere the main photochemical VOC oxidation agent is the OH radical. As a consequence the polarity of the VOCs is increased and they can be removed faster. The oxidation of VOCs proceeds in several steps until the VOCs are deposited or are eventually oxidized to carbon dioxide. A downside of the VOCs oxidation process lies in the production of significant amounts ozone if nitrogen oxide is present which is a serious health hazard. Most of the VOC oxidation takes place in lower part of the atmosphere between the altitudes of 100 to 1000 m, which is only sparsely analyzed. Therefore, fast VOCs measurements by GC-MSD on board the Zeppelin NT offered new important insights in the distribution of VOCs. The measurements were performed within the PEAGSOS campaigns in the Netherlands and in Italy in 2012. For the implementation of the GC-MSD system (HCG) on board the Zeppelin it was reconstructed to enhance its performance and to meet aviation requirements. The system was optimized to measure VOCs ranging from C4 to C10 as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) with a detection limit below 10 ppt. The analyzed VOCs for both parts of the campaigns showed low mean concentration below 5 ppb for all VOCs. Especially, the mixing ratios of the primary emitted VOCs were very low with mean values lower than 200 ppt. Higher concentrations could be observed for the OVOCs with mean concentrations up to 5 ppb. The most abundant OVOCs apart from formaldehyde were methanol, ethanol, acetone and acetaldehyde.

  4. Numerical Study on the Contribution of Convective Mass Transfer Inside High-Porosity Adsorbents in the VOC Adsorption Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ge; He, Wenna; Fang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The transfer mechanism of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) being trapped inside the various types of adsorbents is usually regarded as mere diffusion. This paper investigated the contribution of convective mass transfer inside the adsorbents used for VOC air-cleaning. The adsorbents are typically...

  5. Biodegradation of volatile organic compounds by five fungal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, B.; Moe, W.M. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Kinney, K.A. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Five fungal species, Cladosporium resinae (ATCC 34066), Cladosporium sphaerospermum (ATCC 200384), Exophiala lecanii-corni (CBS 102400), Mucor rouxii (ATCC 44260), and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 24725), were tested for their ability to degrade nine compounds commonly found in industrial off-gas emissions. Fungal cultures inoculated on ceramic support media were provided with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) via the vapor phase as their sole carbon and energy sources. Compounds tested included aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and styrene), ketones (methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and methyl propyl ketone), and organic acids (n-butyl acetate, ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate). Experiments were conducted using three pH values ranging from 3.5 to 6.5. Fungal ability to degrade each VOC was determined by observing the presence or absence of visible growth on the ceramic support medium during a 30-day test period. Results indicate that E. lecanii-corni and C. sphaerospermum can readily utilize each of the nine VOCs as a sole carbon and energy source. P. chrysosporium was able to degrade all VOCs tested except for styrene under the conditions imposed. C. resinae was able to degrade both organic acids, all of the ketones, and some of the aromatic compounds (ethylbenzene and toluene); however, it was not able to grow utilizing benzene or styrene under the conditions tested. With the VOCs tested, M. rouxii produced visible growth only when supplied with n-butyl acetate or ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate. Maximum growth for most fungi was observed at a pH of approximately 5.0. The experimental protocol utilized in these studies is a useful tool for assessing the ability of different fungal species to degrade gas-phase VOCs under conditions expected in a biofilter application. (orig.)

  6. Ventilation Control of Volatile Organic Compounds in New U.S. Homes: Results of a Controlled Field Study in Nine Residential Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hult, Erin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, Marion L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Maddalena, Randy L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In order to optimize strategies to remove airborne contaminants in residences, it is necessary to determine how contaminant concentrations respond to changes in the air exchange rate. The impact of air exchange rate on the indoor concentrations of 39 target volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was assessed by measuring air exchange rates and VOC concentrations at three ventilation settings in nine residences. Active sampling methods were used for VOC concentration measurements, and passive perfluorocarbon tracer gas emitters with active sampling were used to determine the overall air exchange rate corresponding to the VOC measurements at each ventilation setting. The concentration levels and emission rates of the target VOCs varied by as much as two orders of magnitude across sites. Aldehyde and terpene compounds were typically the chemical classes with highest concentrations, followed by alkanes, aromatics, and siloxanes. For each home, VOC concentrations tended to decrease as the air exchange rate was increased, however, measurement uncertainty was significant. The indoor concentration was inversely proportional to air exchange rate for most compounds. For a subset of compounds including formaldehyde, however, the indoor concentration exhibited a non-linear dependence on the timescale for air exchange

  7. Ventilation Control of Volatile Organic Compounds in New U.S. Homes: Results of a Controlled Field Study in Nine Residential Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hult, Erin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, Marion L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Maddalena, Randy L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-23

    In order to optimize strategies to remove airborne contaminants in residences, it is necessary to determine how contaminant concentrations respond to changes in the air exchange rate. The impact of air exchange rate on the indoor concentrations of 39 target volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was assessed by measuring air exchange rates and VOC concentrations at three ventilation settings in nine residences. Active sampling methods were used for VOC concentration measurements, and passive perfluorocarbon tracer gas emitters with active sampling were used to determine the overall air exchange rate corresponding to the VOC measurements at each ventilation setting. The concentration levels and emission rates of the target VOCs varied by as much as two orders of magnitude across sites. Aldehyde and terpene compounds were typically the chemical classes with highest concentrations, followed by alkanes, aromatics, and siloxanes. For each home, VOC concentrations tended to decrease as the air exchange rate was increased, however, measurement uncertainty was significant. The indoor concentration was inversely proportional to air exchange rate for most compounds. For a subset of compounds including formaldehyde, however, the indoor concentration exhibited a non-linear dependence on the timescale for air exchange.

  8. Seasonal variations in VOC emission rates from gorse (Ulex europaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissard, C.; Cao, X.-L.; Juan, C.-Y.; Hewitt, C. N.; Gallagher, M.

    Seasonal variations of biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emission rates and standardised emission factors from gorse (Ulex europaeus) have been measured at two sites in the United Kingdom, from October 1994 to September 1995, within temperature and PAR conditions ranging from 3 to 34°C and 10-1300 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a relative composition fluctuating from 7% of the total VOC (winter) to 97% (late summer). The monoterpenes α-pinene, camphene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene, trans-ocimene and γ-terpinene were also emitted, with α-pinene being the dominant monoterpene during most the year. Trans-ocimene represented 33-66% of the total monoterpene during the hottest months from June to September. VOC emissions were found to be accurately predicted using existing algorithms. Standard (normalised) emission factors of VOCs from gorse were calculated using experimental parameters measured during the experiment and found to fluctuate with season, from 13.3±2.1 to 0.1±0.1 μg C (g dwt)-1 h-1 in August 1995 and January 1995, respectively, for isoprene, and from 2.5±0.2 to 0.4±0.2 μg C (g dwt)-1 h-1 in July and November 1995, respectively, for total monoterpenes. No simple clear relation was found to allow prediction of these seasonal variations with respect to temperature and light intensity. The effects of using inappropriate algorithms to derive VOC fluxes from gorse were assessed for isoprene and monoterpenes. Although on an annual basis the discrepancies are not significant, monthly estimation of isoprene were found to be overestimated by more than a factor of 50 during wintertime when the seasonality of emission factors is not considered.

  9. Simultaneous determination of oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and cadmium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaeda, K.; Kuriki, T.; Ohsawa, K.; Ishii, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Cadmium and its compounds were analysed for oxygen and cadmium by a modification of the Schutze-Unterzaucher method. Oxygen in some compounds such as cadmium oxide, nitrate and sulphate could not be determined by the usual method. The method of adding carbon was employed for the determination of total oxygen. Total oxygen could be determined by the addition of 5 mg of carbon to a sample boat and heating at 950 0 . The determination was also carried out by addition of naphthalene (2 mg). It was found that the cadmium powder and cadmium flake used contained ca. 1 and 0.15% oxygen, respectively. Oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and its compounds were simultaneously determined by the addition of 2 mg of naphthalene. Cadmium was determined colorimetrically by use of glyoxal-bis-(2-hydroxyanil). Oxygen and cadmium in the samples could be determined simultaneously with an average error of -0.02 and -0.22%, respectively. (author)

  10. Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of sorghum for food use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Phenolic compounds and related enzymes such as phenol biosynthesizing enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase) and phenol catabolizing enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) are determinants for sorghum utilization as human food because they influence product properties during and after sorghum

  11. [Target and non-target screening of volatile organic compounds in industrial exhaust gas using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huilian; Jin, Jing; Li, Yun; Chen, Jiping

    2017-10-08

    A method of comprehensive screening of the target and non-target volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in industrial exhaust gas using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) has been developed. In this paper, two types of solid phase adsorption column were compared, and the Tenex SS TD Tube was selected. The analytes were enriched into the adsorption tube by constant flow sampling, and detected by TD-GC-MS in full scan mode. Target compounds were quantified by internal standard method, and the quantities of non-target compounds were calculated by response coefficient of toluene. The method detection limits (MDLs) for the 24 VOCs were 1.06 to 5.44 ng, and MDLs could also be expressed as 0.004 to 0.018 mg/m 3 assuming that the sampling volume was 300 mL. The average recoveries were in the range of 78.4% to 89.4% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 3.9% to 14.4% ( n =7). The established analytical method was applied for the comprehensive screening of VOCs in a waste incineration power plant in Dalian city. Twenty-nine VOCs were identified. In these compounds, only five VOCs were the target compounds set in advance, which accounted for 26.7% of the total VOCs identified. Therefore, this study further proved the importance of screening non-target compounds in the analysis of VOCs in industrial exhaust gas, and has certain reference significance for the complete determination of VOCs distribution.

  12. A CFD modeling study of the impacts of NO x and VOC emissions on reactive pollutant dispersion in and above a street canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2012-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that includes the carbon bond mechanism IV (CBM-IV) is developed and used to investigate reactive pollutant dispersion in and above a street canyon with an aspect ratio of 1. Fourteen emission scenarios of NO x and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are considered. Dispersion types are classified into NO-type, NO 2-type, and O 3-type dispersion that exhibit concentration maxima at the street bottom, near the center of the street canyon, and above the street canyon, respectively. For the base emission scenario, the number of reactive species is 9 in the NO-type dispersion, 10 in the NO 2-type dispersion, and 15 in the O 3-type dispersion. As the NO x emission level decreases or the VOC emission level increases, some species in the O 3-type dispersion are shifted to the NO 2-type dispersion. The VOC-to-NO x emission ratio is found to be an important factor in determining the transition of dispersion type. In this transition process, OH plays a key role through a radical chain including HO 2, RO, and RO 2. Because of their high OH reactivities, XYL (xylene) and OLE (olefin carbon bond) among VOCs are largely responsible for the transition of dispersion type. The O 3 sensitivity is examined by reducing NO x or VOC emission level by a half. Because the NO titration of O 3 is more pronounced than the NO 2 photolysis and the radical chain process in the street canyon, the O 3 concentration therein is negatively correlated with the NO x emission level and weakly correlated with the VOC emission level. As a result, the street canyon is a negatively NO x-sensitive regime.

  13. Field demonstration and transition of SCAPS direct push VOC in-situ sensing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, William M.

    1999-01-01

    This project demonstrated two in-situ volatile organic compound (VOC) samplers in combination with the direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometer (DSITMS). The technologies chosen were the Vadose Sparge and the Membrane Interface Probe (MIP) sensing systems. Tests at two demonstration sites showed the newer VOC technologies capable of providing in situ contaminant measurements at two to four times the rate of the previously demonstrated Hydrosparge sensor. The results of this project provide initial results supporting the utility of these new technologies to provide rapid site characterization of VOC contaminants in the subsurface

  14. Removal of VOCs from groundwater using membrane-assisted solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutter, J.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Nunez, L.; Redfield, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    A membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASX) system coupled to a membrane-assisted distillation stripping (MADS) system for use in decontaminating groundwater is discussed. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are extracted in the MASX using a sunflower oil solvent. In the MADS, VOCs are stripped from the sunflower oil, and the oil is recycled to the MASX. Thermodynamic data for the sunflower oil-water-VOCs system were experimentally collected. Published membrane-mass transfer results along with these data were used to design the MASX and MADS modules

  15. VOC-Arid Integrated Demonstration guide to preparation of demonstration documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.J.; Brouns, T.M.; Koegler, K.J.; McCabe, G.H.; Morris, F.A.

    1994-06-01

    This guide has been prepared by Demonstration Operations of the Volatile Organic Compound-Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID). Its purpose is to describe demonstration documents, designate responsibilities for these documents, and guide the Principal Investigator (PI) and others in their preparation. The main emphasis of this guide is to describe the documentation required of the PI. However, it does cover some of the responsibilities of other members of the VOC-Arid ID team. The VOC-Arid ID is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) integrated demonstrations designed to support the demonstration of emerging environmental management and restoration technologies. The principal objective of the VOC-Arid ID is to identify, develop, and demonstrate new and innovative technologies for environmental restoration at arid or semiarid sites containing volatile organic compounds with or without associated contamination (e.g., radionuclides and metals)

  16. Determination of sulfur compounds in hydrotreated transformer base oil by potentiometric titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Qiu; Sheng, Han; Cheng, Xingguo; Ren, Tianhui

    2005-06-01

    A method was developed to analyze the distribution of sulfur compounds in model sulfur compounds by potentiometric titration, and applied to analyze hydrotreated transformer base oil. Model thioethers were oxidized to corresponding sulfoxides by tetrabutylammonium periodate and sodium metaperiodate, respectively, and the sulfoxides were titrated by perchloric acid titrant in acetic anhydride. The contents of aliphatic thioethers and total thioethers were then determined from that of sulfoxides in solution. The method was applied to determine the organic sulfur compounds in hydrotreated transformer base oil.

  17. Surface modification of coconut shell based activated carbon for the improvement of hydrophobic VOC removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Liu, Suqin; Liu, Junxin

    2011-08-30

    In this study, coconut shell based carbons were chemically treated by ammonia, sodium hydroxide, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, and phosphoric acid to determine suitable modification for improving adsorption ability of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on granular activated carbons (GAC). The saturated adsorption capacities of o-xylene, a hydrophobic volatile organic compound, were measured and adsorption effects of the original and modified activated carbons were compared. Results showed that GAC modified by alkalis had better o-xylene adsorption capacity. Uptake amount was enhanced by 26.5% and reduced by 21.6% after modification by NH(3)H(2)O and H(2)SO(4), respectively. Compared with the original, GAC modified by acid had less adsorption capacity. Both SEM/EDAX and BET were used to identify the structural characteristics of the tested GAC, while IR spectroscopy and Boehm's titration were applied to analysis the surface functional groups. Relationships between physicochemical characteristics of GAC and their adsorption performances demonstrated that o-xylene adsorption capacity was related to surface area, pore volume, and functional groups of the GAC surface. Removing surface oxygen groups, which constitute the source of surface acidity, and reducing hydrophilic carbon surface favors adsorption capacity of hydrophobic VOCs on carbons. The performances of modified GACs were also investigated in the purification of gases containing complex components (o-xylene and steam) in the stream. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. PTR-MS in environmental research: biogenic VOCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchamp, J.; Grabmer, W.; Graus, M.; Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.

    2004-01-01

    Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a chemical ionization mass spectrometry technique that allows for on-line measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at pptV levels. This well established analytical tool has been used in a broad variety of research, including the investigation of VOCs in various foods (e.g. for quality control or food degradation studies), as well as being used as a tool for non-invasive medical diagnostics (e.g. human breath analysis). In addition to these fields of study, PTR-MS has been widely used in environmental research, from trace gas analysis in the troposphere to VOC emissions from plants. Participation in two field campaigns (BEWA and ECHO - both part of the German AFO 2000 program) by the Institute of Ion Physics involved a variety of investigations for monitoring biogenic emissions. These included the technique of disjunct eddy covariance for flux measurements above a forest canopy, C-13 carbon labelling experiments to follow carbon use in a plant, and stress-induced VOC emission investigations to gain understanding of how plants react to stress (e.g. ozone exposure). A selection of results from these investigations will be discussed in this presentation. (author)

  19. Light dependency of VOC emissions from selected Mediterranean plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. M.; Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.

    The light, temperature and stomatal conductance dependencies of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from ten plant species commonly found in the Mediterranean region were studied using a fully controlled leaf cuvette in the laboratory. At standard conditions of temperature and light (30°C and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 PAR), low emitting species ( Arbutus unedo, Pinus halepensis, Cistus incanus, Cistus salvifolius, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) emitted between 0.1 and 5.0 μg (C) (total VOCs) g -1 dw h -1, a medium emitter ( Pinus pinea) emitted between 5 and 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1 and high emitters ( Cistus monspeliensis, Lavendula stoechas and Quercus sp.) emitted more than 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1. VOC emissions from all of the plant species investigated showed some degree of light dependency, which was distinguishable from temperature dependency. Emissions of all compounds from Quercus sp. were light dependent. Ocimene was one of several monoterpene compounds emitted by P. pinea and was strongly correlated to light. Only a fraction of monoterpene emissions from C. incanus exhibited apparent weak light dependency but emissions from this plant species were strongly correlated to temperature. Data presented here are consistent with past studies, which show that emissions are independent of stomatal conductance. These results may allow more accurate predictions of monoterpene emission fluxes from the Mediterranean region to be made.

  20. Development of new VOC exposure metrics and their relationship to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ten Brinke, JoAnn [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are suspected to contribute significantly to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' (SBS), a complex of subchronic symptoms that occurs during and in general decreases away from occupancy of the building in question. A new approach takes into account individual VOC potencies, as well as the highly correlated nature of the complex VOC mixtures found indoors. The new VOC metrics are statistically significant predictors of symptom outcomes from the California Healthy Buildings Study data. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis that a summary measure of the VOC mixture, other risk factors, and covariates for each worker will lead to better prediction of symptom outcome. VOC metrics based on animal irritancy measures and principal component analysis had the most influence in the prediction of eye, dermal, and nasal symptoms. After adjustment, a water-based paints and solvents source was found to be associated with dermal and eye irritation. The more typical VOC exposure metrics used in prior analyses were not useful in symptom prediction in the adjusted model (total VOC (TVOC), or sum of individually identified VOCsVOCi)). Also not useful were three other VOC metrics that took into account potency, but did not adjust for the highly correlated nature of the data set, or the presence of VOCs that were not measured. High TVOC values (2--7 mg m-3) due to the presence of liquid-process photocopiers observed in several study spaces significantly influenced symptoms. Analyses without the high TVOC values reduced, but did not eliminate the ability of the VOC exposure metric based on irritancy and principal component analysis to explain symptom outcome.

  1. Characterization of volatile organic compound adsorption on multiwall carbon nanotubes under different levels of relative humidity using linear solvation energy relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mei-syue; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-hsin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • LSER equations successfully predicted VOC sorption on MCNT at different humidity. • The five parameters in LSER could be narrowed down to three ones. • Main interaction is dispersion and partly dipolarity as well as hydrogen-bonds. • With increasing RH, it changes to cavity formation and hydrogen-bond basicity. • This approach can facilitate the VOC control design and the fate prediction. - Abstract: Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been used as an adsorbent for evaluating the gas/solid partitioning of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, 15 VOCs were probed to determine their gas/solid partitioning coefficient (Log K d ) using inverse gas chromatography at different relative humidity (RH) levels. Interactions between MWCNTs and VOCs were analyzed by regressing the observed Log K d with the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER). The results demonstrate that the MWCNT carbonyl and carboxyl groups provide high adsorption capacity for the VOCs (Log K d 3.72–5.24 g/kg/g/L) because of the π-/n-electron pair interactions and hydrogen-bond acidity. The increasing RH gradually decreased the Log K d and shifted the interactions to dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen-bond basicity, and cavity formation. The derived LSER equations provided adequate fits of Log K d , which is useful for VOC-removal processes and fate prediction of VOC contaminants by MWCNT adsorption in the environment.

  2. Characterization of volatile organic compound adsorption on multiwall carbon nanotubes under different levels of relative humidity using linear solvation energy relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mei-syue; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-hsin, E-mail: yhs@ntu.edu.tw

    2016-09-05

    Highlights: • LSER equations successfully predicted VOC sorption on MCNT at different humidity. • The five parameters in LSER could be narrowed down to three ones. • Main interaction is dispersion and partly dipolarity as well as hydrogen-bonds. • With increasing RH, it changes to cavity formation and hydrogen-bond basicity. • This approach can facilitate the VOC control design and the fate prediction. - Abstract: Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been used as an adsorbent for evaluating the gas/solid partitioning of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, 15 VOCs were probed to determine their gas/solid partitioning coefficient (Log K{sub d}) using inverse gas chromatography at different relative humidity (RH) levels. Interactions between MWCNTs and VOCs were analyzed by regressing the observed Log K{sub d} with the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER). The results demonstrate that the MWCNT carbonyl and carboxyl groups provide high adsorption capacity for the VOCs (Log K{sub d} 3.72–5.24 g/kg/g/L) because of the π-/n-electron pair interactions and hydrogen-bond acidity. The increasing RH gradually decreased the Log K{sub d} and shifted the interactions to dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen-bond basicity, and cavity formation. The derived LSER equations provided adequate fits of Log K{sub d}, which is useful for VOC-removal processes and fate prediction of VOC contaminants by MWCNT adsorption in the environment.

  3. Disjunct eddy covariance measurements of volatile organic compound fluxes using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipale, R.

    2011-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources, vegetation being the dominant source on a global scale. Some of these reactive compounds are deemed major contributors or inhibitors to aerosol particle formation and growth, thus making VOC measurements essential for current climate change research. This thesis discusses ecosystem scale VOC fluxes measured above a boreal Scots pine dominated forest in southern Finland. The flux measurements were performed using the micrometeorological disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) method combined with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), which is an online technique for measuring VOC concentrations. The measurement, calibration, and calculation procedures developed in this work proved to be well suited to long-term VOC concentration and flux measurements with PTR-MS. A new averaging approach based on running averaged covariance functions improved the determination of the lag time between wind and concentration measurements, which is a common challenge in DEC when measuring fluxes near the detection limit. The ecosystem scale emissions of methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone were substantial. These three oxygenated VOCs made up about half of the total emissions, with the rest comprised of monoterpenes. Contrary to the traditional assumption that monoterpene emissions from Scots pine originate mainly as evaporation from specialized storage pools, the DEC measurements indicated a significant contribution from de novo biosynthesis to the ecosystem scale monoterpene emissions. This thesis offers practical guidelines for long-term DEC measurements with PTR-MS. In particular, the new averaging approach to the lag time determination seems useful in the automation of DEC flux calculations. Seasonal variation in the monoterpene biosynthesis and the detailed structure of a revised hybrid algorithm, describing both de novo and pool emissions, should be determined in

  4. Volatile organic compounds released from Microcystis flos-aquae under nitrogen sources and their toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinghuan; Yang, Lin; Yang, Wangting; Bai, Yan; Hou, Ping; Zhao, Jingxian; Zhou, Lv; Zuo, Zhaojiang

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication promotes massive growth of cyanobacteria and algal blooms, which can poison other algae and reduce biodiversity. To investigate the differences in multiple nitrogen (N) sources in eutrophicated water on the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from cyanobacteria, and their toxic effects on other algal growth, we analyzed VOCs emitted from Microcystis flos-aquae with different types and concentrations of nitrogen, and determined the effects under Normal-N and Non-N conditions on Chlorella vulgaris. M. flos-aquae released 27, 22, 20, 27, 19, 25 and 17 compounds, respectively, with NaNO 3 , NaNO 2 , NH 4 Cl, urea, Ser, Lys and Arg as the sole N source. With the reduction in N amount, the emission of VOCs was increased markedly, and the most VOCs were found under Non-N condition. C. vulgaris cell propagation, photosynthetic pigment and Fv/Fm declined significantly following exposure to M. flos-aquae VOCs under Non-N condition, but not under Normal-N condition. When C. vulgaris cells were treated with two terpenoids, eucalyptol and limonene, the inhibitory effects were enhanced with increasing concentrations. Therefore, multiple N sources in eutrophicated water induce different VOC emissions from cyanobacteria, and reduction in N can cause nutrient competition, which can result in emissions of more VOCs. Those VOCs released from M. flos-aquae cells under Non-N for nutrient competition can inhibit other algal growth. Among those VOCs, eucalyptol and limonene are the major toxic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Field monitoring of volatile organic compounds using passive air samplers in an industrial city in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Kazunari; Ohura, Takeshi; Amagai, Takashi; Fusaya, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Highly portable, sensitive, and selective passive air samplers were used to investigate ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) levels at multiple sampling sites in an industrial city, Fuji, Japan. We determined the spatial distributions of 27 species of VOCs in three campaigns: Mar (cold season), May (warm season), and Nov (mild season) of 2004. In all campaigns, toluene (geometric mean concentration, 14.0 μg/m 3 ) was the most abundant VOC, followed by acetaldehyde (4.76 μg/m 3 ), and formaldehyde (2.58 μg/m 3 ). The spatial distributions for certain VOCs showed characteristic patterns: high concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde were typically found along major roads, whereas high concentrations of toluene and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were usually found near factories. The spatial distribution of PCE observed was extremely consistent with the diffusion pattern calculated from Pollutant Release and Transfer Register data and meteorological data, indicated that passive air samplers are useful for determining the sources and distributions of ambient VOCs. - Passive air samplings with hood are useful for determining the identities, sources, and distributions of ambient VOC pollutants

  6. Measurements of VOC fluxes by Eddy-covariance with a PTR-Qi-TOF-MS over a mature wheat crop near Paris: Evaluation of data quality and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysse, Pauline; Loubet, Benjamin; Ciuraru, Raluca; Lafouge, Florence; Zurfluh, Olivier; Gonzaga-Gomez, Lais; Fanucci, Olivier; Gueudet, Jean-Christophe; Decuq, Céline; Gros, Valérie; Sarda, Roland; Zannoni, Nora

    2017-04-01

    The quantification of volatile organic compounds (VOC) fluxes exchanged by terrestrial ecosystems is of large interest because of their influence on the chemistry and composition of the atmosphere including aerosols and oxidants. Latest developments in the techniques for detecting, identifying and measuring VOC fluxes have considerably improved the abilities to get reliable estimates. Among these, the eddy-covariance (EC) methodology constitutes the most direct approach, and relies on both well-established principles (Aubinet et al. 2000) and a sound continuously worldwide improving experience. The combination of the EC methodology with the latest proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) device, the PTR-Qi-TOF-MS, which allows the identification and quantification of more than 500 VOC at high frequency, now provides a very powerful and precise tool for an accurate quantification of VOC fluxes on various types of terrestrial ecosystems. The complexity of the whole methodology however demands that several data quality requirements are fulfilled. VOC fluxes were measured by EC with a PTR-Qi-TOF-MS (national instrument within the ANAEE-France framework) for one month and a half over a mature wheat crop near Paris (FR-GRI ICOS site). Most important emissions (by descending order) were observed from detected compounds with mass-over-charge (m/z) ratios of 33.033 (methanol), 45.033 (acetaldehyde), 93.033 (not identified yet), 59.049 (acetone), and 63.026 (dimethyl sulfide or DMS). Emissions from higher-mass compounds, which might be due to pesticide applications at the beginning of our observation period, were also detected. Some compounds were also seen to deposit (e.g. m/z 47.013, 71.085, 75.044, 83.05) while others exhibited bidirectional fluxes (e.g. m/z 57.07, 69.07). Before analyzing VOC flux responses to meteorological and crop development drivers, a data quality check was performed which included (i) uncertainty analysis of mass and concentration

  7. Total OH reactivity study from VOC photochemical oxidation in the SAPHIR chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z.; Tillmann, R.; Hohaus, T.; Fuchs, H.; Novelli, A.; Wegener, R.; Kaminski, M.; Schmitt, S. H.; Wahner, A.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that hydroxyl radicals (OH) act as a dominant reactive species in the degradation of VOCs in the atmosphere. In recent field studies, directly measured total OH reactivity often showed poor agreement with OH reactivity calculated from VOC measurements (e.g. Nölscher et al., 2013; Lu et al., 2012a). This "missing OH reactivity" is attributed to unaccounted biogenic VOC emissions and/or oxidation products. The comparison of total OH reactivity being directly measured and calculated from single component measurements of VOCs and their oxidation products gives us a further understanding on the source of unmeasured reactive species in the atmosphere. This allows also the determination of the magnitude of the contribution of primary VOC emissions and their oxidation products to the missing OH reactivity. A series of experiments was carried out in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich, Germany, to explore in detail the photochemical degradation of VOCs (isoprene, ß-pinene, limonene, and D6-benzene) by OH. The total OH reactivity was determined from the measurement of VOCs and their oxidation products by a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) with a GC/MS/FID system, and directly measured by a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) at the same time. The comparison between these two total OH reactivity measurements showed an increase of missing OH reactivity in the presence of oxidation products of VOCs, indicating a strong contribution to missing OH reactivity from uncharacterized oxidation products.

  8. Final Approval of California Air Plan Revision; Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District; VOCs From Motor Vehicle Assembly Coating Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to approve a revision to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California SIP concerning the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from motor vehicle assembly coating operations.

  9. California State Implementation Plan; San Diego County Air Pollution Control District; VOC Emissions from Polyester Resin Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to approve revisions to the San Diego County Air Pollution Control District (SDCAPCD) portion of the California SIP concerning volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from polyester resin operations.

  10. Investigation of VOC emissions from indoor and outdoor painting processes in shipyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Ugur Bugra; Vardar, Nurten

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from painting solvents are one of the most important sources of pollutant outputs for the shipbuilding and ship repair industry. Two ships of equal tonnage with the same painted area as each other, which were built in Turkish shipyards, are compared in terms of VOCs produced during painting and coating. Total area of all painted surfaces and total paint consumption of a 3500 deadweight tonne (DWT) oil/chemical tanker and a general cargo ship are calculated. An improved model for calculating the surface emissions of VOCs from painting and coating processes is utilized. Material balance emission estimation approach is employed to calculate the amount of VOCs, since it is used most often where a relatively large amount of material is emitted during use, and/or all air emissions are uncaptured. For both ships calculated VOCs are presented in figures. For the years 2005 and 2006 the total deadweight tonnage of ships delivered in Tuzla region, where 42 shipyards are located, is known. Therefore, a linear estimation is made to guess the total annual VOC emissions caused by painting operations. Finally, this information is used to project the total amount of VOCs emitted to the atmosphere for the year 2010.

  11. VOC reactivity and its effect on ozone production during the HaChi summer campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ran

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of ozone and its precursors conducted within the HaChi (Haze in China project in summer 2009 were analyzed to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOCs and their effects on ozone photochemical production at a suburban site in the North China Plain (NCP. Ozone episodes, during which running 8-h average ozone concentrations exceeding 80 ppbv lasted for more than 4 h, occurred on about two thirds of the observational days during the 5-week field campaign. This suggests continuous ozone exposure risks in this region in the summer. Average concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx and VOCs are about 20 ppbv and 650 ppbC, respectively. On average, total VOC reactivity is dominated by anthropogenic VOCs. The contribution of biogenic VOCs to total ozone-forming potential, however, is also considerable in the daytime. Key species associated with ozone photochemical production are 2-butenes (18 %, isoprene (15 %, trimethylbenzenes (11 %, xylenes (8.5 %, 3-methylhexane (6 %, n-hexane (5 % and toluene (4.5 %. Formation of ozone is found to be NOx-limited as indicated by measured VOCs/NOx ratios and further confirmed by a sensitivity study using a photochemical box model NCAR_MM. The Model simulation suggests that ozone production is also sensitive to changes in VOC reactivity under the NOx-limited regime, although this sensitivity depends strongly on how much NOx is present.

  12. Comparison of decomposition characteristics between aromatic and aliphatic VOCs using electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jo-Chun

    2011-01-01

    The removal efficiency of n-decane (C 10 H 22 ) by electron beam was the highest among aliphatic VOCs of concern, and that of n-hexane (C 6 H 14 ), n-butane (C 4 H 10 ), and methane (CH 4 ) followed. On the other hand, in terms of aromatic VOC decomposition efficiencies, benzene (C 6 H 6 ) decomposition was the lowest and that of toluene (C 7 H 8 ), ethylbenzene (C 8 H 10 ), and p-xylene (C 8 H 10 ) were similar. It was also found that there was increase in by-product (untreated VOC, CO, CO 2 , O 3 , and other compounds) formation as well as all VOC removal efficiencies. It was demonstrated that the removal efficiency of VOC increased as its concentration decreased and the irradiation dose increased. In addition, low removal efficiency was observed because helium was relatively stable compared to the other gases, and nothing but electrons produced by electron accelerator reacted with VOC. It was also found that relative humidity had some effects on the decomposition rates of VOC. The removal efficiency at the 100% RH condition was slightly higher than that at 7.4% RH (dry condition) due to OH radical formation. (author)

  13. Comparison of decomposition characteristics between aromatic and aliphatic VOCs using electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jo-Chun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    The removal efficiency of n-decane (C{sub 10}H{sub 22}) by electron beam was the highest among aliphatic VOCs of concern, and that of n-hexane (C{sub 6}H{sub 14}), n-butane (C{sub 4}H{sub 10}), and methane (CH{sub 4}) followed. On the other hand, in terms of aromatic VOC decomposition efficiencies, benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) decomposition was the lowest and that of toluene (C{sub 7}H{sub 8}), ethylbenzene (C{sub 8}H{sub 10}), and p-xylene (C{sub 8}H{sub 10}) were similar. It was also found that there was increase in by-product (untreated VOC, CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and other compounds) formation as well as all VOC removal efficiencies. It was demonstrated that the removal efficiency of VOC increased as its concentration decreased and the irradiation dose increased. In addition, low removal efficiency was observed because helium was relatively stable compared to the other gases, and nothing but electrons produced by electron accelerator reacted with VOC. It was also found that relative humidity had some effects on the decomposition rates of VOC. The removal efficiency at the 100% RH condition was slightly higher than that at 7.4% RH (dry condition) due to OH radical formation. (author)

  14. Determination of volatile organic compounds in water by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervera, M.I.; Beltran, J.; Lopez, F.J.; Hernandez, F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Employing a statistical optimization improves results reducing experiments. → Use of MS (QqQ) allows high sensitivity determination and improves identification capabilities. → Using Q/q intensity ratios is a powerful tool to ensure compound identification. → HS SPME GC-MS/MS method allows determination of VOCs in complex matrix water samples. - Abstract: In the present work, a rapid method with little sample handling has been developed for determination of 23 selected volatile organic compounds in environmental and wastewater samples. The method is based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) determination using triple quadrupole analyzer (QqQ) in electron ionization mode. The best conditions for extraction were optimised with a factorial design taking into account the interaction between different parameters and not only individual effects of variables. In the optimized procedure, 4 mL of water sample were extracted using a 10 mL vial and adding 0.4 g NaCl (final NaCl content of 10%). An SPME extraction with carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane 75 μm fiber for 30 min at 50 deg. C (with 5 min of previous equilibration time) with magnetic stirring was applied. Chromatographic determination was carried out by GC-MS/MS working in Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) mode. For most analytes, two MS/MS transitions were acquired, although for a few compounds it was difficult to obtain characteristic abundant fragments. In those cases, a pseudo selected reaction monitoring (pseudo-SRM) with three ions was used instead. The intensity ratio between quantitation (Q) and confirmation (q) signals was used as a confirmatory parameter. The method was validated by means of recovery experiments (n = 6) spiking mineral water samples at three concentration levels (0.1, 5 and 50 μg L -1 ). Recoveries between 70% and 120% were generally obtained with relative standard deviations (RSDs

  15. Determination of volatile organic compounds in water by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervera, M.I. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Beltran, J., E-mail: joaquim.beltran@uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Lopez, F.J.; Hernandez, F. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} Employing a statistical optimization improves results reducing experiments. {yields} Use of MS (QqQ) allows high sensitivity determination and improves identification capabilities. {yields} Using Q/q intensity ratios is a powerful tool to ensure compound identification. {yields} HS SPME GC-MS/MS method allows determination of VOCs in complex matrix water samples. - Abstract: In the present work, a rapid method with little sample handling has been developed for determination of 23 selected volatile organic compounds in environmental and wastewater samples. The method is based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) determination using triple quadrupole analyzer (QqQ) in electron ionization mode. The best conditions for extraction were optimised with a factorial design taking into account the interaction between different parameters and not only individual effects of variables. In the optimized procedure, 4 mL of water sample were extracted using a 10 mL vial and adding 0.4 g NaCl (final NaCl content of 10%). An SPME extraction with carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane 75 {mu}m fiber for 30 min at 50 deg. C (with 5 min of previous equilibration time) with magnetic stirring was applied. Chromatographic determination was carried out by GC-MS/MS working in Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) mode. For most analytes, two MS/MS transitions were acquired, although for a few compounds it was difficult to obtain characteristic abundant fragments. In those cases, a pseudo selected reaction monitoring (pseudo-SRM) with three ions was used instead. The intensity ratio between quantitation (Q) and confirmation (q) signals was used as a confirmatory parameter. The method was validated by means of recovery experiments (n = 6) spiking mineral water samples at three concentration levels (0.1, 5 and 50 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Recoveries between 70% and 120% were generally obtained with

  16. Characterization of VOCs Emissions from Industrial Facilities and Natural Gas Production Sites: A Mobile Sensing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Gu, J.; Trask, B.; Lyon, D. R.; Albertson, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    With the recent expansion of U.S. oil and gas (O&G) production, many studies have focused on the quantification of fugitive methane emissions. However, only a few studies have explored the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from O&G production sites that affect human health in adjacent communities, both directly through exposure to toxic chemical compounds and indirectly via formation of ground-level ozone. In this study, we seek to quantify emissions of VOCs from O&G production sites and petrochemical facilities using a mobile sensing approach, with both high-end analyzers and relatively low-cost sensors. A probabilistic source characterization approach is used to estimate emission rates of VOCs, directly taking into account quantitative measure of sensor accuracy. This work will provide data with proper spatiotemporal resolution and coverage, so as to improve the understanding of VOCs emission from O&G production sites, VOCs-exposure of local communities, and explore the feasibility of low-cost sensors for VOCs monitoring. The project will provide an important foundational step to enable large scale studies.

  17. Application of HPLC-DAD Technique for Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Bee Pollen Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waś Ewa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A method was elaborated to determine phenolic compounds (vanillin, caffeic, p-coumaric and salicylic acids, and flavonoids: rutin, hesperetin, quercetin, pinocembrin, apigenin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, chrysin, and acacetin in bee pollen loads using highperformance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD. Phenolic compounds from bee pollen were isolated on Cleanert C18-SPE columns (500 mg/6 mL, Agela Technologies. Polyphenols were identified by comparing the retention times and spectra of compounds found in pollen load samples with the ones of the standard mixture. Quantitative analysis was conducted using the external standard method. In addition, basic validation parameters for the method were determined. For the identified compounds (except for the salicylic acid, satisfactory (≥0.997 linear correlations were obtained. The elaborated method showed high repeatability and inter-laboratory reproducibility. Variability coeffcients of the majority of phenolic compounds did not exceed 10% in conditions of repeatability and inter-laboratory reproducibility, and for the total polyphenolic content they were 1.7 and 5.1%, respectively. The pollen load samples (n = 15 differed in qualitative and quantitative composition of the phenolic compounds. In all the samples, we identified the p-coumaric and salicylic acids and flavonoids rutin, hesperetin, and apigenin nevertheless, these compounds’ contents significantly differed among individual samples. The total phenolic content in the tested samples of pollen loads ranged from 0.653 to 5.966 mg/100 g (on average 2.737 mg/100 g.

  18. Building materials. VOC emissions, diffusion behaviour and implications from their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Leva, Paolo; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2012-10-01

    Five cement- and five lime-based building materials were examined in an environmental chamber for their emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Typical VOCs were below detection limits, whereas not routinely analysed VOCs, like neopentyl glycol (NPG), dominated the cement-based products emissions, where, after 72 h, it was found to occur, in levels as high as 1400 μg m(-3), accounting for up to 93% of total VOCs. The concentrations of NPG were not considerably changed between the 24 and 72 h of sampling. The permeability of building materials was assessed through experiments with a dual environmental chamber; it was shown that building materials facilitate the diffusion of chemicals through their pores, reaching equilibrium relatively fast (6 h). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. VOCs Air Pollutant Cleaning with Polyacrylonitrile/Fly Ash Nanocomposite Electrospun Nanofibrous Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong Ge, Jun; Wang, Zi Jian; Kim, Min Soo; Choi, Nag Jung

    2018-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as an environmental pollution, which have many kinds of chemical structures, and many of them are very toxic. Therefore, controlling and reducing the presence of VOCs has become a hot topic among researchers for many years. In this study, the VOCs adsorption capacity of polyacrylonitrile/fly ash (PAN/FA) nanocomposite electrospun nanofibrous membranes were investigated. The results indicated that the PAN with different contents of FA powder (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% compared with PAN by weight) could be spun well by electrospinning. The diameter of the fiber was very fine and its arrangement was irregular. The PAN nanofibrous membrane containing 60 wt% FA powder had the highest VOCs absorption capacity compared with other nanofibrous membranes due to its large specific surface area.

  20. Rapid and accurate determination of radiochemical purity of sup(99m)Tc compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamat, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    The wide spread use of sup(99m)Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals and limitation of the short half-life of the isotope, is associated with an urgent need for a rapid, simple but accurate method for determining the radiochemical purity of the compound. A short paper chromatographic (KK) or thin layer chromatographic (KLT) method using 95% methanol or 0.9% saline solution as solvents, has solved the problem. With these methods, the amount of free sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate in a compound, can be determined in only a few minutes. These methods compare satisfactorily with lengtheir procedures. (author)

  1. Sources of long-lived atmospheric VOCs at the rural boreal forest site, SMEAR II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patokoski, J.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Kajos, M. K.; Taipale, R.; Rantala, P.; Aalto, J.; Ryyppö, T.; Nieminen, T.; Hakola, H.; Rinne, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study a long-term volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentration data set, measured at the SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland during the years 2006-2011, was analyzed in order to identify source areas and profiles of the observed VOCs. VOC mixing ratios were measured using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Four-day HYSPLIT 4 (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) backward trajectories and the Unmix 6.0 receptor model were used for source area and source composition analysis. Two major forest fire events in Russia took place during the measurement period. The effect of these fires was clearly visible in the trajectory analysis, lending confidence to the method employed with this data set. Elevated volume mixing ratios (VMRs) of non-biogenic VOCs related to forest fires, e.g. acetonitrile and aromatic VOCs, were observed. Ten major source areas for long-lived VOCs (methanol, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, and toluene) observed at the SMEAR II site were identified. The main source areas for all the targeted VOCs were western Russia, northern Poland, Kaliningrad, and the Baltic countries. Industrial areas in northern continental Europe were also found to be source areas for certain VOCs. Both trajectory and receptor analysis showed that air masses from northern Fennoscandia were less polluted with respect to both the VOCs studied and other trace gases (CO, SO2 and NOx), compared to areas of eastern and western continental Europe, western Russia, and southern Fennoscandia.

  2. Air exchange rates and migration of VOCs in basements and residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, L; Batterman, S; Godwin, C; Rowe, Z; Chin, J-Y

    2015-12-01

    Basements can influence indoor air quality by affecting air exchange rates (AERs) and by the presence of emission sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other pollutants. We characterized VOC levels, AERs, and interzonal flows between basements and occupied spaces in 74 residences in Detroit, Michigan. Flows were measured using a steady-state multitracer system, and 7-day VOC measurements were collected using passive samplers in both living areas and basements. A walk-through survey/inspection was conducted in each residence. AERs in residences and basements averaged 0.51 and 1.52/h, respectively, and had strong and opposite seasonal trends, for example, AERs were highest in residences during the summer, and highest in basements during the winter. Airflows from basements to occupied spaces also varied seasonally. VOC concentration distributions were right-skewed, for example, 90th percentile benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and limonene concentrations were 4.0, 19.1, 20.3, and 51.0 μg/m(3), respectively; maximum concentrations were 54, 888, 1117, and 134 μg/m(3). Identified VOC sources in basements included solvents, household cleaners, air fresheners, smoking, and gasoline-powered equipment. The number and type of potential VOC sources found in basements are significant and problematic, and may warrant advisories regarding the storage and use of potentially strong VOCs sources in basements. Few IAQ studies have examined basements. A sizable volume of air can flow between the basement and living area, and AERs in these two zones can differ considerably. In many residences, the basement contains significant emission sources and contributes a large fraction of VOC concentrations found in the living area. Exposures can be lowered by removing VOC sources from the basement; other exposure management options, such as local ventilation or isolation, are unlikely to be practical. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Volatile organic compounds in alpine valleys: sources, evolutions and transformations; Les composes organiques volatils dans les vallees alpines: sources, evolutions et transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colomb, A.

    2002-12-01

    Dynamic and chemical specificity in alpine valleys was the principal goal during the POVA project (Pollution des Vallees Alpines). Volatile Organic Compounds emissions in troposphere have important impacts on animal lives and environment. Then, the aim of this work was the improvement of the biogenic or anthropogenic VOC sources determination, of VOC transformation and evolution in mountain areas. During this project, the realisation of a daily continuous measurements campaign of a few chemical compounds allowed the understanding of the seasonal variations of these compounds. The goals of intensive field campaigns, realised in August 2000 and January 2001, were to understand photochemical process in a temporal and geographic small scale and to follow diurnal variation of different pollutants in summer and winter. Moreover, the VOC data would be used to develop and validate coupled atmospheric dynamic/chemical model. Therefore, these VOC measures give answer to two lacks of knowledge in alpine valleys about: - Biogenic and anthropogenic VOC respective part, and their main sources, - VOC photochemical reactions in alpine valleys, according to seasonal and diurnal cycles. Finally, we presented two atypical days results, in Maurienne valley during a Saharan episode in August 2000. This episode permitted to understand mass air transport mechanism in mountain region. (author)

  4. Personal Exposure to Mixtures of Volatile Organic Compounds: Modeling and Further Analysis of the RIOPA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart; Su, Feng-Chiao; Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Jia, Chunrong

    2015-01-01

    strategies used in the two studies. CONCLUSIONS Accurate models for exposure data, which can feature extreme values, multiple modes, data below the MDL, heterogeneous interpollutant dependency structures, and other complex characteristics, are needed to estimate exposures and risks and to develop control and management guidelines and policies. Conventional and novel statistical methods were applied to data drawn from two large studies to understand the nature and significance of VOC exposures. Both extreme value distributions and mixture models were found to provide excellent fit to single VOC compounds (univariate distributions), and copulas may be the method of choice for VOC mixtures (multivariate distributions), especially for the highest exposures, which fit parametric models poorly and which may represent the greatest health risk. The identification of exposure determinants, including the influence of both certain activities (e.g., pumping gas) and environments (e.g., residences), provides information that can be used to manage and reduce exposures. The results obtained using the RIOPA data set add to our understanding of VOC exposures and further investigations using a more representative population and a wider suite of VOCs are suggested to extend and generalize results. PMID:25145040

  5. Measurements and modeling to quantify emissions of methane and VOCs from shale gas operations: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presto, Albert A [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The objectives of the project were to determine the leakage rates of methane and ozone-forming Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and the emission rates of air toxics from Marcellus shale gas activities. Methane emissions in the Marcellus Shale region were differentiated between “newer” sources associated with shale gas development and “older” sources associated with coal or conventional natural gas exploration. This project conducted measurements of methane and VOC emissions from both shale and non-shale natural gas resources. The initial scope of the project was the Marcellus Shale basin, and measurements were conducted in both the western wet gas regions (southwest PA and WV) and eastern dry gas region (northeast PA) of the basin. During this project, we obtained additional funding from other agencies to expand the scope of measurements to include additional basins. The data from both the Marcellus and other basins were combined to construct a national analysis of methane emissions from oil & gas production activities.

  6. Determination of volatile compounds of the first rose oil and the first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rose water and rose oil are used in the perfume, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The determination of volatile compounds in rose oil and rose water obtained from oil-bearing rose is highly important in terms of availability in the industry and in human health. Materials and Methods: Twenty four ...

  7. Determining order-up-to levels under periodic review for compound binomial (intermittent) demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R. H.; Syntetos, A. A.; Babai, M. Z.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new method for determining order-up-to levels for intermittent demand items in a periodic review system. Contrary to existing methods, we exploit the intermittent character of demand by modelling lead time demand as a compound binomial process. in an extensive numerical study using

  8. Odour Detection Threshold Determination of Volatile Compounds in Topical Skin Formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hyldig, Grethe; Taylor, Robert

    2018-01-01

    determination and also odour description by a trained sensory panel. In one case, the odour detection threshold value was 50 times higher (less detectable) in skin care products than in water, whereas for other volatile compounds the odour detection threshold value was only 1.5 times higher. The odour...

  9. [Elimination of volatile compounds of leaf tobacco from air emissions using biofiltration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagustina, N A; Misharina, T A; Vepritskiĭ, A A; Zhukov, V G; Ruzhitskiĭ, A O; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I; Kulikova, A K; Popov, V O

    2012-01-01

    The composition of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of various leaf tobacco brands and their blends has been studied. The differences in the content of nicotine, solanone, tetramethyl hexadecenol, megastigmatrienones, and other compounds, determining the specific tobacco smell, have been revealed. A microbial consortium, which is able to deodorize simulated tobacco emissions and decompose nicotine, has been formed by long-term adaptation to the VOCs of tobacco leaves in a laboratory reactor, functioning as a trickle-bed biofilter. Such a biofilter eliminates 90% of the basic toxic compound (nicotine) and odor-active compounds; the filtration efficiency does not change for tobacco brands with different VOC concentrations or in the presence of foreign substances. The main strains, isolated from the formed consortium and participating in the nicotine decomposition process, belong to the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Rhodococcus. An examination of the biofilter trickling fluid has shown full decomposition of nicotine and odor-active VOCs. The compounds, revealed in the trickling fluid, did not have any odor and were nontoxic. The obtained results make it possible to conduct scaling of the biofiltration process to eliminate odor from air emissions in the tobacco industry.

  10. Promotion of plant growth by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SS101 via novel volatile organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Yong-Soon; Dutta, Swarnalee; Ann, Mina; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; Park, Kyungseok

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play key roles in modulating plant growth and induced systemic resistance (ISR) to pathogens. Despite their significance, the physiological functions of the specific VOCs produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens

  11. Factors that influence the volatile organic compound content in human breath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchet, L.; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Baranska, Agnieszka; Tigchelaar-Feenstra, E.; Swertz, M.; Zhernakova, A.; Dallinga, J. W.; Wijmenga, C.; van Schooten, Frederik J.

    Background. Thousands of endogenous and exogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are excreted in each breath. Inflammatory and deviant metabolic processes affect the level of endogeneous VOCs, which can serve as specific biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and disease monitoring. Important issues

  12. The use of voltammetry for determining uranium and associated elements in compounds of nuclear interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.M.S. de.

    1988-01-01

    The determination of uranium and some trace elements found as impurities in nuclear materials by the voltammetric technique using the hanging mercury drop electrode is presented. Emphasis is given to the determination of uranium, of major interest. Europium and ytterbium are simultaneously determined in fractions of individual lanthanides. A procedure for the simultaneous determination of copper, cadmium, nickel and zinc in water, industrial effluents and uranium compounds is discussed. The advantage of the procedure is its simplicity and easiness of execution, with excellent precision and accuracy. (author) [pt

  13. Work plan for support to Upper East Fork Poplar Creek east end VOC plumes well installation project at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 guidelines and requirements from the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), the Y-12 Plant initiated investigation and monitoring of various sites within its boundaries in the mid-1980s. The entire Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was placed on the National Priorities List of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) sites in November 1989. Following CERCLA guidelines, sites within the ORR require a remedial investigation (RI) to define the nature and extent of contamination, evaluate the risks to public health and the environment, and determine the goals for a feasibility study (FS) or an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) of potential remedial actions. Data from monitoring wells at the east end of the Y-12 Plant have identified an area of groundwater contamination dominated by the volatile organic compound (VOC) carbon tetrachloride; other VOCs include chloroform, tetrachloroethene, and trichloroethene

  14. Work plan for support to Upper East Fork Poplar Creek east end VOC plumes well installation project at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 guidelines and requirements from the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), the Y-12 Plant initiated investigation and monitoring of various sites within its boundaries in the mid-1980s. The entire Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was placed on the National Priorities List of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) sites in November 1989. Following CERCLA guidelines, sites within the ORR require a remedial investigation (RI) to define the nature and extent of contamination, evaluate the risks to public health and the environment, and determine the goals for a feasibility study (FS) or an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) of potential remedial actions. Data from monitoring wells at the east end of the Y-12 Plant have identified an area of groundwater contamination dominated by the volatile organic compound (VOC) carbon tetrachloride; other VOCs include chloroform, tetrachloroethene, and trichloroethene.

  15. Influence of organic nitro-compounds and of surface active compounds on the inverse voltametric determination of cadmium, lead and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahdat, F; Neeb, R

    1983-12-01

    The influence of surface active agents and of organic nitro-compounds alone and in combination on the potentiometric stripping analysis and anodic-stripping differential-pulse-polarography of Cd, Pb and Cu is investigated. In some cases PSA offers advantages for the determination of these elements in the presence of organic nitro-compounds in comparison with differential pulse-polarography.

  16. The VOC-Ozone connection: a grassland case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Hoertnagl, L.; Bamberger, I.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Dunkel, J.; Hammerle, A.; Graus, M.; Hansel, A.

    2009-04-01

    Trophospheric ozone (O3) is formed in the presence of sunlight through the interaction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NOx (NO, NO2). O3 damages plants in several ways, most importantly by reducing net photosynthesis and growth. The extent of this damage depends on the time-integrated absorbed O3 flux (i.e. the dose), which is a function of leaf stomatal conductance and ambient O3 concentration, and further influenced by plant species specific defence mechanisms. VOCs are produced by plants through a variety of pathways and in response to a large number of different driving forces. A large variety of VOCs are emitted by plants in response to stress conditions, including the foliar uptake of O3. Here we present preliminary data from an ongoing study where concurrent measurements of the fluxes of VOCs and O3 are made above a managed mountain grassland in Tyrol/Austria. Fluxes of several different VOCs and O3 are measured by means of the eddy covariance method and a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and an ozone analyser, respectively. Our findings show that the Methanol (MeOH) flux is correlated with the daily time-integrated O3 uptake by vegetation (integrated daily from sunrise - a surrogate for the O3 dose absorbed and the oxidative stress experienced by plants) - MeOH deposition and emission prevailing at low and high time-integrated O3 uptake rates, respectively. Fluxes of other VOCs were not related to the time-integrated O3 uptake. Integrated over longer time scales (several weeks) no correlation between the O3 uptake and MeOH emissions were found. Our study thus confirms earlier leaf-level studies, who found that MeOH emission increase with O3 dose, at the ecosystems scale. As the reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH), which is responsible for the destruction of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4), is the major sink of atmospheric MeOH, this process provides a potentially important indirect radiative forcing.

  17. VOC emissions from residential combustion of Southern and mid-European woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtyugina, Margarita; Alves, Célia; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Tarelho, Luís; Duarte, Márcio; Prozil, Sónia O.; Evtuguin, Dmitry V.; Pio, Casimiro

    2014-02-01

    Emissions of trace gases (carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC)), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from combustion of European beech, Pyrenean oak and black poplar in a domestic woodstove and fireplace were studied. These woods are widely used as biofuel in residential combustion in Southern and mid-European countries. VOCs in the flue gases were collected in Tedlar bags, concentrated in sorbent tubes and analysed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (GC-FID). CO2 emissions ranged from 1415 ± 136 to 1879 ± 29 g kg-1 (dry basis). The highest emission factors for CO and THC, 115.8 ± 11.7 and 95.6 24.7 ± 6.3 g kg-1 (dry basis), respectively, were obtained during the combustion of black poplar in the fireplace. European beech presented the lowest CO and THC emission factors for both burning appliances. Significant differences in emissions of VOCs were observed among wood species burnt and combustion devices. In general the highest emission factors were obtained from the combustion of Pyrenean oak in the woodstove. Among the VOCs identified, benzene and related compounds were always the most abundant group, followed by oxygenated compounds and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The amount and the composition of emitted VOCs were strongly affected by the wood composition, the type of burning device and operating conditions. Emission data obtained in this work are useful for modelling the impact of residential wood combustion on air quality and tropospheric ozone formation.

  18. Separation of halogens from uranium compounds by means of pyrohydrolysis and their determination by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, M.A.F.; Brandao Filho, D.; Abrao, A.

    1987-07-01

    This paper describs the determination of fluorine in nuclear grade uranium compounds by means of phyrohydrolysis. A stream of wet oxygem at a temperature of 900 to 1000 0 C is passed through a quartz tube where the powdered samples is put. The halogens are volatilized as their respective acids that are absorbed in a buffer solution or water. The measurements are made with ion-seletive eletrodes or by ion chromatography. The sensitivity is of 1μg F - /g and 5μg Cl - /g. The separation of fluorine from uranium compounds by diferent methods is discussed. (Author) [pt

  19. [Study on atmospheric VOCs in Gongga Mountain base station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Ke; Wang, Yue-Si; Wu, Fang-Kun; Sun, Jie

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in the atmosphere as precursors of secondary air pollutants. The regional background concentrations and variation characteristics of VOCs in the atmosphere of southwestern China were studied. Meanwhile, a receptor model based on principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the major sources of VOCs. Weekly samples were collected in 2007 in the Gongga Mountain base station and analyzed with a three-stage preconcentration method coupled with GC-MS. The annual mean concentration of TVOCs and NMHCs were 9.40 x 10(-9) +/- 4.55 x 10(-9) and 7.73 x 10(-9) +/- 4.43 x 10(-9), respectively. Aromatic hydrocarbons provided the largest contribution to TVOCs (37.3%), follow by alkanes (30.0%) and halogenated hydrocarbons (19.8%), the smallest contribution was from alkenes (12.9%). Three major sources were resolved by the receptor model, traffic sources, biogenic sources and combustion sources. The seasonal variation of TVOCs in this area was obviously, and the order was autumn > winter > spring > summer. TVOCs concentration in autumn was very significantly higher than that in summer (P station emission characteristic.

  20. Comparison of VOC measurements made by PTR-MS, adsorbent tubes–GC-FID-MS and DNPH derivatization–HPLC during the Sydney Particle Study, 2012: a contribution to the assessment of uncertainty in routine atmospheric VOC measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dunne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding uncertainty is essential for utilizing atmospheric volatile organic compound (VOC measurements in robust ways to develop atmospheric science. This study describes an inter-comparison of the VOC data, and the derived uncertainty estimates, measured with three independent techniques (PTR-MS, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry; GC-FID-MS, gas chromatography with flame-ionization and mass spectrometric detection; and DNPH–HPLC, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization followed by analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography during routine monitoring as part of the Sydney Particle Study (SPS campaign in 2012. Benzene, toluene, C8 aromatics, isoprene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were selected for the comparison, based on objective selection criteria from the available data. Bottom-up uncertainty analyses were undertaken for each compound and each measurement system. Top-down uncertainties were quantified via the inter-comparisons. In all seven comparisons, the correlations between independent measurement techniques were high with R2 values with a median of 0.92 (range 0.75–0.98 and small root mean square of the deviations (RMSD of the observations from the regression line with a median of 0.11 (range 0.04–0.23 ppbv. These results give a high degree of confidence that for each comparison the response of the two independent techniques is dominated by the same constituents. The slope and intercept as determined by reduced major axis (RMA regression gives a different story. The slopes varied considerably with a median of 1.25 and a range of 1.16–2.01. The intercepts varied with a median of 0.04 and a range of −0.03 to 0.31 ppbv. An ideal comparison would give a slope of 1.00 and an intercept of 0. Some sources of uncertainty that are poorly quantified by the bottom-up uncertainty analysis method were identified, including: contributions of non-target compounds to the measurement of the target compound for

  1. Comparison of VOC measurements made by PTR-MS, adsorbent tubes-GC-FID-MS and DNPH derivatization-HPLC during the Sydney Particle Study, 2012: a contribution to the assessment of uncertainty in routine atmospheric VOC measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Erin; Galbally, Ian E.; Cheng, Min; Selleck, Paul; Molloy, Suzie B.; Lawson, Sarah J.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding uncertainty is essential for utilizing atmospheric volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements in robust ways to develop atmospheric science. This study describes an inter-comparison of the VOC data, and the derived uncertainty estimates, measured with three independent techniques (PTR-MS, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry; GC-FID-MS, gas chromatography with flame-ionization and mass spectrometric detection; and DNPH-HPLC, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization followed by analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography) during routine monitoring as part of the Sydney Particle Study (SPS) campaign in 2012. Benzene, toluene, C8 aromatics, isoprene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were selected for the comparison, based on objective selection criteria from the available data. Bottom-up uncertainty analyses were undertaken for each compound and each measurement system. Top-down uncertainties were quantified via the inter-comparisons. In all seven comparisons, the correlations between independent measurement techniques were high with R2 values with a median of 0.92 (range 0.75-0.98) and small root mean square of the deviations (RMSD) of the observations from the regression line with a median of 0.11 (range 0.04-0.23 ppbv). These results give a high degree of confidence that for each comparison the response of the two independent techniques is dominated by the same constituents. The slope and intercept as determined by reduced major axis (RMA) regression gives a different story. The slopes varied considerably with a median of 1.25 and a range of 1.16-2.01. The intercepts varied with a median of 0.04 and a range of -0.03 to 0.31 ppbv. An ideal comparison would give a slope of 1.00 and an intercept of 0. Some sources of uncertainty that are poorly quantified by the bottom-up uncertainty analysis method were identified, including: contributions of non-target compounds to the measurement of the target compound for benzene, toluene and isoprene by

  2. The identification of polar organic compounds found in consumer products and their toxicological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S D; Raymer, J H; Pellizzari, E D; Thomas, K W

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the indoor environment has received substantial research attention in the past several years, with the goal of better understanding the impact of such exposures on human health and well-being. Many VOCs can arise from consumer products used within the indoor environment. The VOCs emitted from five representative consumer products were collected onto Tenax-GC and subjected to thermal desorption and analysis by gas chromatography, in combination with low-resolution mass spectrometry (MS), high-resolution MS, and matrix-isolation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for structural characterization. An emphasis was placed on the polar organic compounds often used to provide fragrance in these products. The structures of a number of these compounds were confirmed, and an electronic literature search was carried out on them to determine any known toxic properties. The search revealed that many of the VOCs possess toxic properties when studied at acute, relatively high-level exposures. In addition, toxic effects were reported for a few of the chemicals, such as benzaldehyde, alpha-terpineol, benzyl acetate, and ethanol, at relatively low dose levels of 9-14 mg/kg. In general, the data were unclear as to the effect of chronic, low-level exposures. The widespread use of such chemicals suggests that the health effects of chronic exposures need to be determined. Validated analytical methods for the quantitative characterization of polar organic compounds at low concentrations will be required to make such work possible.

  3. Particle and VOC emission factor measurements for anthropogenic sources in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Keita

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of campaigns have been carried out to establish the emission factors of pollutants from fuel combustion in West Africa, as part of work package 2 (Air Pollution and Health of the DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa FP7 program. Emission sources considered here include wood (hevea and iroko and charcoal burning, charcoal making, open trash burning, and vehicle emissions, including trucks, cars, buses and two-wheeled vehicles. Emission factors of total particulate matter (TPM, elemental carbon (EC, primary organic carbon (OC and volatile organic compounds (VOCs have been established. In addition, emission factor measurements were performed in combustion chambers in order to reproduce field burning conditions for a tropical hardwood (hevea, and obtain particulate emission factors by size (PM0.25, PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. Particle samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and analyzed using gravimetric method for TPM and thermal methods for EC and OC. The emission factors of 58 VOC species were determined using offline sampling on a sorbent tube. Emission factor results for two species of tropical hardwood burning of EC, OC and TPM are 0.98 ± 0.46 g kg−1 of fuel burned (g kg−1, 11.05 ± 4.55 and 41.12 ± 24.62 g kg−1, respectively. For traffic sources, the highest emission factors among particulate species are found for the two-wheeled vehicles with two-stroke engines (2.74 g kg−1 fuel for EC, 65.11 g kg−1 fuel for OC and 496 g kg−1 fuel for TPM. The largest VOC emissions are observed for two-stroke two-wheeled vehicles, which are up to 3 times higher than emissions from light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. Isoprene and monoterpenes, which are usually associated with biogenic emissions, are present in almost all anthropogenic sources investigated during this work and could be as significant as aromatic emissions in wood burning (1 g kg−1 fuel. EC is

  4. Separation of chloride and fluoride from uranium compounds and their determination by ion selective electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, M.A.F.; Abrao, A.

    1982-01-01

    Fluoride and chloride must be rigorously controlled in uranium compounds, especially in ceramic grade UO 2 . Their determination is very difficult without previous uranium separation, particularly when both are at a low concentration. A simple procedure is described for this separation using a strong cationic resin to retain the uranyl ion. Both anions are determined in the effluent solution. Uranium compounds of nuclear fuel cycle, especially ammonium diuranate, ammonium uranyl tricarbonate, sodium diuranate, uranium trioxide and dioxide and uranium peroxide are dissolved in nitric acid and the solutions are percolated through the resin column. Chloride and fluoride are determined in the effluent by selective electrodes, the detection limits being 0.02 μg F - /ml and 1.0 μg Cl - /ml. The dissolution of the sample, the acidity of the solution, the measurement conditions and the sensitivity of the method are discussed. (Author) [pt

  5. Comparison of SPME Methods for Determining Volatile Compounds in Milk, Cheese, and Whey Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Tunick

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS are commonly used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds in various dairy products, but conditions have to be adjusted to maximize release while not generating new compounds that are absent in the original sample. Queso Fresco, a fresh non-melting cheese, may be heated at 60 °C for 30 min; in contrast, compounds are produced in milk when exposed to light and elevated temperatures, so milk samples are heated as little as possible. Products such as dehydrated whey protein are more stable and can be exposed to longer periods (60 min of warming at lower temperature (40 °C without decomposition, allowing for capture and analysis of many minor components. The techniques for determining the volatiles in dairy products by SPME and GC-MS have to be optimized to produce reliable results with minimal modifications and analysis times.

  6. Atomic absorption determination of iron and copper impurities in rare earth compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelyukova, Yu.V.; Kravchenko, J.B.; Kucher, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    An extraction atomic absorption method for the determination of copper and iron impurities in rare earth compounds has been developed. The extraction separation of determined elements as hydroxy quinolinates with isobuthyl alcohol was used. It increased the sensitivity of these element determination and excluded the effect of the analysed sample. Cu, Te, Zn, Bi, Sn, In, Ga, Tl and the some other elements can be determined at pH 2.0-3.0 but rare earths are remained in an aqueous phase. The condition of the flame combustion does not change during the introduction of isobutyl extract but the sensitivity of the determination of the elements increased 2-3 times. The limit of Fe determination is 0.01 mg/ml and the limit of Cu determination is 0.014 mg/ml

  7. Modeling the uncertainty of several VOC and its impact on simulated VOC and ozone in Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuai; Choi, Yunsoo; Roy, Anirban; Li, Xiangshang; Jeon, Wonbae; Souri, Amir Hossein

    2015-11-01

    A WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ modeling system was used to study Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions and their impact on surface VOC and ozone concentrations in southeast Texas during September 2013. The model was evaluated against the ground-level Automated Gas Chromatograph (Auto-GC) measurement data from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The comparisons indicated that the model over-predicted benzene, ethylene, toluene and xylene, while under-predicting isoprene and ethane. The mean biases between simulated and observed values of each VOC species showed clear daytime, nighttime, weekday and weekend variations. Adjusting the VOC emissions using simulated/observed ratios improved model performance of each VOC species, especially mitigating the mean bias substantially. Simulated monthly mean ozone showed a minor change: a 0.4 ppb or 1.2% increase; while a change of more than 5 ppb was seen in hourly ozone data on high ozone days, this change moved model predictions closer to observations. The CMAQ model run with the adjusted emissions better reproduced the variability in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) formaldehyde (HCHO) columns. The adjusted model scenario also slightly better reproduced the aircraft HCHO concentrations from NASA's DISCOVER-AQ campaign conducted during the simulation episode period; Correlation, Mean Bias and RMSE improved from 0.34, 1.38 ppb and 2.15 ppb to 0.38, 1.33 ppb and 2.08 ppb respectively. A process analysis conducted for both industrial/urban and rural areas suggested that chemistry was the main process contributing to ozone production in both areas, while the impact of chemistry was smaller in rural areas than in industrial and urban areas. For both areas, the positive chemistry contribution increased in the sensitivity simulation largely due to the increase in emissions. Nudging VOC emissions to match the observed concentrations shifted the ozone hotspots

  8. VOC source identification from personal and residential indoor, outdoor and workplace microenvironment samples in EXPOLIS-Helsinki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Rufus D. [KTL-Finnish National Inst. of Public Health, Dept. of Environmental Hygiene, Kuopio (Finland); California Univ., School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jurvelin, J. [KTL-Finnish National Inst. of Public Health, Dept. of Environmental Hygiene, Kuopio (Finland); Jyvaeskylae Polytechnic, School of Engineering and Technology, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Koistinen, K. [KTL-Finnish National Inst. of Public Health, Dept. of Environmental Hygiene, Kuopio (Finland); Saarela, K. [VTT, Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Jantunen, M. [EC JRC, Inst. of the Environment, Ispra (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Principal component analyses (varimax rotation) were used to identify common sources of 30 target volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in residential outdoor, residential indoor and workplace microenvironment and personal 48-h exposure samples, as a component of the EXPOLIS-Helsinki study. Variability in VOC concentrations in residential outdoor microenvironments was dominated by compounds associated with long-range transport of pollutants, followed by traffic emissions, emissions from trees and product emissions. Variability in VOC concentrations in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) free residential indoor environments was dominated by compounds associated with indoor cleaning products, followed by compounds associated with traffic emissions, long-range transport of pollutants and product emissions. Median indoor/outdoor ratios for compounds typically associated with traffic emissions and long-range transport of pollutants exceeded 1, in some cases quite considerably, indicating substantial indoor source contributions. Changes in the median indoor/outdoor ratios during different seasons reflected different seasonal ventilation patterns as increased ventilation led to dilution of those VOC compounds in the indoor environment that had indoor sources. Variability in workplace VOC concentrations was dominated by compounds associated with traffic emissions followed by product emissions, long-range transport and air fresheners. Variability in VOC concentrations in ETS free personal exposure samples was dominated by compounds associated with traffic emissions, followed by long-range transport, cleaning products and product emissions. VOC sources in personal exposure samples reflected the times spent in different microenvironments, and personal exposure samples were not adequately represented by any one microenvironment, demonstrating the need for personal exposure sampling. (Author)

  9. Aromatic VOCs global influence in the ozone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Perez, David; Pozzer, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are a subgroup of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) of special interest in the atmosphere of urban and semi-urban areas. Aromatics form a high fraction of VOCs, are highly reactive and upon oxidation they are an important source of ozone. These group of VOCs are released to the atmosphere by processes related to biomass burning and fossil fuel consumption, while they are removed from the atmosphere primarily by OH reaction and by dry deposition. In addition, a branch of aromatics (ortho-nitrophenols) produce HONO upon photolysis, which is responsible of certain amount of the OH recycling. Despite their importance in the atmosphere in anthropogenic polluted areas, the influence of aromatics in the ozone production remains largely unknown. This is of particular relevance, being ozone a pollutant with severe side effects on air quality, health and climate. In this work the atmospheric impacts at global scale of the most emitted aromatic VOCs in the gas phase (benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, styrene, phenol, benzaldehyde and trimethylbenzenes) are analysed and assessed. Specifically, the impact on ozone due to aromatic oxidation is estimated, as this is of great interest in large urban areas and can be helpful for developing air pollution control strategies. Further targets are the quantification of the NOx loss and the OH recycling due to aromatic oxidation. In order to investigate these processes, two simulations were performed with the numerical chemistry and climate simulation ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. The simulations compare two cases, one with ozone concentrations when aromatics are present or the second one when they are missing. Finally, model simulated ozone is compared against a global set of observations in order to better constrain the model accuracy.

  10. Use of biofilters and suspended-growth reactors to treat VOC's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, A.B.; Loehr, R.C.

    2000-07-01

    The greater limits placed on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by the Clean Air Act Amendments have stimulated evaluation of various VOC treatment methods. Two applicable gas phase treatment technologies are biofiltration and suspended growth reactors. Biofiltration removes contaminants from gas streams that are passed through a bed of biologically active solids. An aerobic suspended-growth reactor (SGR) removes VOCs by biologically treating contaminated air bubbled through an aqueous suspension of active microorganisms. This research compared the performance of a typical compost biofilter to a SGR for the removal of a common VOC (toluene) from gas streams. The objective was to evaluate the impact of mass loading on process performance. Major performance parameters investigated were (1) mass emitted and elimination capacity, (2) off-gas concentrations exiting each type of reactor for various mass loadings, and (3) removal efficiencies obtained by each type of reactor. The results indicated that SGRs can effectively treat gases containing VOCs. For mass loadings ranging from 5 to 30 mg/l-h, the biofilters and SGRs achieved similar VOC removals, in the range of 96--99.7%. Drying of the biofilter medium occurred a high mass loadings. In the SGRs, at mass loadings greater than 17 mg/l-h, process performance decreased when an unknown colored substance was present.

  11. [Development of biogenic VOC emissions inventory with high temporal and spatial resolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Zhang, Y; Xie, S; Zeng, L

    2001-11-01

    A new method was developed to estimate biogenic VOC emissions with high temporal and spatial resolution by use of Mesoscale Meteorology Modeling System Version5 (MM5). In this method, the isoprene and monoterpene standard emission factors for some types of tree in China were given and the standard VOC emission factors and seasonally average densities of leaf biomass for all types of vegetation were determined. A biogenic VOC emissions inventory in South China was established which could meet the requirement of regional air quality modeling. Total biogenic VOC emissions in a typical summer day were estimated to be 1.12 x 10(4) metric tons in an area of 729 km x 729 km of South China. The results showed the temporal and spatial distributions of biogenic VOC emission rates in this area. The results also showed that the geographical distribution of biogenic VOC emission rates depended on vegetation types and their distributions and the diurnal variation mainly depended on the solar radiation and temperature. The uncertainties of estimating biogenic VOC emissions were also discussed.

  12. Instrumental neutron-activation determination of impurities in lead and titanium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, I L

    1980-01-01

    Instrumental neutron-activation analysis was used to determine 22 impurities in lead and titanium compounds (e.g. PbO, Pb/NO3/2, and TiO2) used as raw materials for ferroelectrics. Five elements (Al, V, Mn, Sc, and Se) were determined by short-lived isotopes and 17 elements were determined by long-lived isotopes. The detection limits were 7 x 10 to the -3rd to 2 x 10 to the -8th %. A substantial difference in concentrations of certain impurity elements has been found in different series of lead and titanium oxides of similar purity.

  13. [Simultaneous determination of ten organotin compounds in polyvinyl chloride plastics using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Bin; Liu, Li; Zhang, Chen; Wu, Jingwu; Liu, Zhihong; Li, Xintian

    2009-01-01

    A rapid and effective gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry method has been developed systematically and studied for the simultaneous determination of 10 organotin compounds, dibutyltin-dichloride (DBT), n-butyltin-trichloride (MBT), triethyltinchloride (TET), fentin-chloride (TPhT), chlorotributylstannane (TBT), tri-n-propyltinchloride (TPrT), diphenyltin-dichloride (DPhT), tetrabutyltin (TeBT), di-n-octyltin-dichloride (DOT), phenyltin trichloride (MPhT)), in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. The PVC sample was dissolved with tetrahydrofuran and the polymer in the sample was precipitated with methanol, and then the target compounds were derivatized with sodium tetraethylborate and extracted with hexane under ultrasonication. The qualitative and quantitative analysis were carried out by GC-MS and the total ion chromatogram and selected ion chromatogram were obtained. The derivatization and extraction conditions, such as the derivatization time, derivatization pH value, dosages of derivatization reagent and precipitation reagent were optimized. The good linearities, recoveries and precisions were obtained. The linearity ranges were 0.5 - 50 mg/L. The linearity correlation coefficients of 10 organotin compounds were between 0.997 8 and 0.999 7. The average recoveries were 84.23% - 109.1% with relative standard deviations of 4.24% - 10.75%. The established method has been successfully applied to the determination of organotin compounds in PVC plastics.

  14. Microchip electrophoresis with amperometric detection for a novel determination of phenolic compounds in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Caballero, María del Pilar; Acedo-Valenzuela, María Isabel; Galeano-Díaz, Teresa; Costa-García, Agustín; Fernández-Abedul, María Teresa

    2012-11-07

    The relevance of the development of microchip electrophoresis applications in the field of food analysis is considered in this work. A novel method to determine important phenolic compounds in extra virgin olive oil samples using a miniaturized chemical analysis system is presented in this paper. Three interesting phenolic compounds in olive oil and fruit (tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein glucoside) were studied by end-channel amperometric detection using a 100 μm gold wire as working electrode in glass microchip electrophoresis. The electrochemical behavior of these compounds was studied and the medium to carry out their detection was selected (0.1 M aqueous sulfuric acid). The best conditions for the separation were achieved in sodium tetraborate (10% methanol, pH 9.50) with different concentrations for the sample and the running buffer in order to allow the sample stacking phenomenon. The injection was carried out using 600 V for 3 s and the separation voltage was set at 1000 V. The quality of the method was evaluated through its analytical figures of merit and by its performance on real extra virgin olive oil samples. Determination of these compounds was carried out using the standard addition calibration method with good recoveries.

  15. Quantitative assessment of industrial VOC emissions in China: Historical trend, spatial distribution, uncertainties, and projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chenghang; Shen, Jiali; Zhang, Yongxin; Huang, Weiwei; Zhu, Xinbo; Wu, Xuecheng; Chen, Linghong; Gao, Xiang; Cen, Kefa

    2017-02-01

    The temporal trends of industrial volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions was comprehensively summarized for the 2011 to 2013 period, and the projections for 2020 to 2050 for China were set. The results demonstrate that industrial VOC emissions in China increased from 15.3 Tg in 2011 to 29.4 Tg in 2013 at an annual average growth rate of 38.3%. Guangdong (3.45 Tg), Shandong (2.85 Tg), and Jiangsu (2.62 Tg) were the three largest contributors collectively accounting for 30.4% of the national total emissions in 2013. The top three average industrial VOC emissions per square kilometer were Shanghai (247.2 ton/km2), Tianjin (62.8 ton/km2), and Beijing (38.4 ton/km2), which were 12-80 times of the average level in China. The data from the inventory indicate that the use of VOC-containing products, as well as the production and use of VOCs as raw materials, as well as for storage and transportation contributed 75.4%, 10.3%, 9.1%, and 5.2% of the total emissions, respectively. ArcGIS was used to display the remarkable spatial distribution variation by allocating the emission into 1 km × 1 km grid cells with a population as surrogate indexes. Combined with future economic development and population change, as well as implementation of policy and upgrade of control technologies, three scenarios (scenarios A, B, and C) were set to project industrial VOC emissions for the years 2020, 2030, and 2050, which present the industrial VOC emissions in different scenarios and the potential of reducing emissions. Finally, the result shows that the collaborative control policies considerably influenced industrial VOC emissions.

  16. [Estimation of VOC emission from forests in China based on the volume of tree species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang-feng; Xie, Shao-dong

    2009-10-15

    Applying the volume data of dominant trees from statistics on the national forest resources, volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions of each main tree species in China were estimated based on the light-temperature model put forward by Guenther. China's VOC emission inventory for forest was established, and the space-time and age-class distributions of VOC emission were analyzed. The results show that the total VOC emissions from forests in China are 8565.76 Gg, of which isoprene is 5689.38 Gg (66.42%), monoterpenes is 1343.95 Gg (15.69%), and other VOC is 1532.43 Gg (17.89%). VOC emissions have significant species variation. Quercus is the main species responsible for emission, contributing 45.22% of the total, followed by Picea and Pinus massoniana with 6.34% and 5.22%, respectively. Southwest and Northeast China are the major emission regions. In specific, Yunnan, Sichuan, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Shaanxi are the top five provinces producing the most VOC emissions from forests, and their contributions to the total are 15.09%, 12.58%, 10.35%, 7.49% and 7.37%, respectively. Emissions from these five provinces occupy more than half (52.88%) of the national emissions. Besides, VOC emissions show remarkable seasonal variation. Emissions in summer are the largest, accounting for 56.66% of the annual. Forests of different ages have different emission contribution. Half-mature forests play a key role and contribute 38.84% of the total emission from forests.

  17. Volatile organic compound mixing ratios above Beijing in November and December 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, William; Shaw, Marvin; Huang, Zhonghui; Wang, Zhaoyi; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Yanli; Davison, Brian; Langford, Ben; Mullinger, Neil; Nemitz, Eiko; Fu, Pingqing; Squires, Freya; Carpenter, Lucy; Lewis, Alastair; Hewitt, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere from vegetation and anthropogenic sources such as fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and the evaporation of petroleum products. These compounds play an important role in the chemistry of the lower atmosphere through secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and facilitating the formation of tropospheric ozone. As well as their indirect impact on human health via the formation of ozone and SOA, some VOCs, including benzene, directly affect human health adversely. Here we report VOC mixing ratios measured in Beijing during a 5 week intensive field campaign from the 7th November to the 10th December 2016. This work was carried out as part of the Sources and Emissions of Air Pollutants in Beijing (AIRPOLL-Beijing) work project within the Air Pollution and Human Health in a Developing Megacity (APHH-Beijing) research programme. APHH is a large multi-institutional study which aims to record the concentrations and identify the sources of urban air pollutants in Beijing, determine exposure, understand their effects on human health, and to identify solutions. VOC mixing ratios were recorded using a Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS, Ionicon Analytik) and a Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometer (SIFT-MS, SYFT Technologies). During the measurement period Beijing was subject to multiple pollution events that alternated with periods of relatively good air quality, allowing the VOCs within the polluted air masses to be identified and quantified. VOCs were sampled at 102 m with additional gradient measurements made at 3, 15, 32 and 64 m providing a vertical profile of VOC mixing ratios. Mixing ratios of methanol, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and aromatics species will be reported together with a discussion of potential sources. Comparisons will then be drawn with other large cities.

  18. VOC SAMPLING IN THE WATER TABLE/CAPILLARY FRINGE AREA FOR ASSESSING IMPACT ON VAPOR INTRUSION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapor intrusion has been determined to be a major pathway for increased indoor air contamination from volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) at certain contaminated sites. In order to properly assess vapor intrusion, it is important to adequately evaluate VOC concentrations in the...

  19. Influence of way of finishing furniture segments on amount emissions VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Čech

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the influence of way of finishing furniture segments on amount emissions VOCs (volatile organic compounds. The so-called Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC are among the largest pollution sources of both the internal and external environments.VOC is defined as emission of any organic compound or a mixture thereof, with the exception of methane, whereby the compound exerts the pressure of 0.01 kPa or more at the temperature of 20 °C (293.15 K and reaches the corresponding volatility under the specific conditions of its use and can undergo photochemical reactions with nitrogen oxides when exposed to solar radiation. The effects of VOC upon environment can be described by equation: VOC + NOx + UV radiation + heat = tropospheric ozone (O3In this work there were tested MDF (medium density fibreboard coated by resin impregnated paper was used for the furniture components’ production. Next were tested compressed wood, which was used as a second material of furniture components. These both chosen materials was covered by resin impregnated paper and than sequentially finished by regular coat of finish.An attention of this study is especially put on mentioned factors and on quantity of instant and long-term VOCs emissions emitted from furniture components.The amount of emissions from furniture components, in different phases of the preparation including the resin impregnated paper coating finish, was monitored within the time intervals of 24 hours and 720 hours starting after the time of the finish preparation.The MDF (medium density fibreboard coated by resin impregnated paper was used for the furniture components´ production.A compressed wood was used as a second material of furniture components. This alternative material was covered by resin impregnated paper and than sequentially finished by regular coat of finish.

  20. VOC amounts in ambient areas of a high-technology science park in Taiwan: their reciprocal correlations and impact on inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsin-Wang; Wu, Bei-Zen; Nian, Hung-Chi; Chen, Hsing-Jung; Lo, Jiunn-Guang; Chiu, Kong-Hwa

    2012-02-01

    This study presents bihourly, seasonal, and yearly concentration changes in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the inlet and effluent water of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of a high-technology science park (HTIP) in Taiwan, with the VOC amounts at different sites correlated geologically. This research adopted a combination of two systems, solid-phase microextraction with a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector and an assembly of purge and trap coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, to monitor polar and nonpolar VOCs in wastewater. This paper investigated the total VOCs, acetone, isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations in real water samples collected in the ambient area of the HTIP. The major contents of VOCs measured in the effluent of the WWTP in the HTIP and the surrounding river region were DMS (14-176 ppb), acetone (5-95 ppb), and IPA (15-316 ppb). In comparison with the total VOCs in the inlet wastewater of the WWTP, no corresponding relationship for total VOC concentration in the wastewater was observed between the inlet water and effluent water of the WWTP. The peak VOC concentrations appeared in the third season, and the correlation of different VOC amounts reflects the production situation of the factories. In addition, VOC concentrations at different sites indicate that the Ke-Ya River is seemingly an effective channel for transporting wastewater to its final destination. The data are good indications for the management of environmental pollution near the HTIP.

  1. Analytical Methodologies for the Determination of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Biological and Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraida Sosa-Ferrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine-disruptor compounds (EDCs can mimic natural hormones and produce adverse effects in the endocrine functions by interacting with estrogen receptors. EDCs include both natural and synthetic chemicals, such as hormones, personal care products, surfactants, and flame retardants, among others. EDCs are characterised by their ubiquitous presence at trace-level concentrations and their wide diversity. Since the discovery of the adverse effects of these pollutants on wildlife and human health, analytical methods have been developed for their qualitative and quantitative determination. In particular, mass-based analytical methods show excellent sensitivity and precision for their quantification. This paper reviews recently published analytical methodologies for the sample preparation and for the determination of these compounds in different environmental and biological matrices by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The various sample preparation techniques are compared and discussed. In addition, recent developments and advances in this field are presented.

  2. Membrane Biotreatment of VOC-Laden Air

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peretti, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    ...%, depending primarily on air contact time. Octanol was used as the stripping fluid because of its low vapor pressure and water solubility, its high partitioning of VOCs from air, and its compatibility...

  3. Possibilities of analyzing dump and sewage gas, and determination of halogen and sulfur compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, R

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the utilization of refuse and sewage gas efficacions analytical methods are gaining increasing importance especially with regard to halogen and sulfur compounds. The paper describes various possibilities to determine those substances. Besides gas chromatography it takes into account classic analytical methods which can be superior in biogas analytics to modern physical processes. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed and practical experiences obtained by their application reported.

  4. Determination of the rates of clearance of insoluble compounds of plutonium from the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, L.

    1974-04-01

    There are indications that the process of clearance of inhaled insoluble plutonium compounds from the lung may be represented by a model consisting of three exponential phases. A survey of published data on 'in vivo' and bioassay measurements made after 239 PuO 2 inhalation by men and dogs has been carried out, and the half times of the three exponential phases determined as approximately 1 day, 30 days and 500 days. (author)

  5. Classification of wine by determination of bioactive phenolic compounds using high resolution mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Dimovska, Violeta; Mitrev, Sasa; Gulaboski, Rubin; Bogeva, Elena; Petruseva, Dragana; Causon, Tim; Hann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    In this project proposal, metabolomic fingerprinting of wine samples will be examined using high performance liquid chromatography combined with ion mobility quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC–IMS-QTOF-MS) for the first time. Bioactive compounds in wines from various red and white varieties produced in Macedonia and Austria from different wine regions and different vintages will be determined for the first time using a non-targeted fingerprinting approach on this analytical plat...

  6. Determination of one-electron reduction potentials of some radiosensitive compounds by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Zhihua; Yao Side; Li Hucheng; Lin Nianyun; Jin Yizun

    1994-01-01

    One-electron reduction potential (E 7 1 ) is one of the important parameters of radiosensitive compound with high electron affinity. In this work one-electron reduction potentials of some radiosensitizers, such as Miso, 911, CMNa, SMU-1, SMU-2, SMD, SNN, S 3 and BSO, were determined pulse radiolytically by using anthraquinone-2-sulfate (AQS), duroquinone (DQ) and methyl viologen (MV 2+ ) as references

  7. The Qualitative And Quantitative Determination Of The Phenolic Compounds In Polygonum Convolvulus L. Species, Polygonaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaru O T

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polygonum convolvulus L. (black bindweed, syn. Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve, Polygonaceae family is a plant from the spontaneous flora, spread from the plain zone up to the subalpine zone. The objectives of our researches are the qualitative and quantitative determination of polyphenolic compounds from Polygoni convolvuli herba and the choice of the adequate solvent for obtaining an active pharmacological extract.

  8. Ion exchange separation of nitrate from uranium compounds and its determination by spectrophotometry and ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, M.A.F.; Atalla, L.T.; Abrao, A.

    1985-11-01

    A procedure for the separation of nitrate from uranium compounds by retaintion of uranyl ion on a cationic ion exchanger and its determination in the effluent is described. Nitrate is analysed by the spectrometric method with 1-phenol-2,4-dissulphonic acid. This determination covers the 1 to 10 μg NO - 3 /mL range and requires an amount of 10 to 100 μg NO - 3 . The main interference is uranium (VI) due its own intense yellow color. This difficulty is overcome by the complete separation of UO 2 ++ with the cationic resin. Alternatively, the ion chromatography technique is used for the determination of nitrate in the effluent of the cationic resin. The determination was easily made by the comparison of the nitrate peak hights of the analyte and the standard solutions. The ion chromatography method is very sensitive (0,3 μg NO - 3 /mL), reproducible and suitable for routine analysis and permits the determination of fraction of part per million of nitrate in uranium. The results of nitrate determination using both spectrophotometric and ion chromatography techniques are compared. The method is being routinely applied for the quality control of uranium compounds in the fuel cycle, specially uranium oxide, ammonium diuranate, uranium peroxide and ammonium uranyl tricarbonate. (Author) [pt

  9. Improved Gas Chromatographic Determination of Guanidino Compounds Using Isovaleroylacetone and Ethyl Chloroformate as Derivatizing Reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zounr, Rizwan Ali; Khuhawar, Mumammad Yar; Jahangir, Taj Muhammad; Alamgir, Malik

    2016-01-01

    An improved GC method in terms of sensitivity and decrease in the analysis time has been developed for the analysis of eight guanidino compounds: guanidine (G), methylguanidine (MG), creatinine (CTN), guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), guanidinobutyric acid (GBA), guanidinopropionic acid (GPA), argenine (Arg), and guanidinosuccinic acid (GSA), using isovaleroylacetone (IVA) and ethyl chloroformate (ECF) as derivatizing reagents. The separation was obtained from column HP-5 (30 m × 0.32 mm i.d.) with film thickness of 0.25 μm within 11 min. The linear calibrations were obtained with 0.5 to 50 μg/mL with coefficient of determination (R(2)) within 0.9969 - 0.9998. Limits of detections (LODs) were within 5 - 140 ng/mL. The derivatization, separation and determination was repeatable (n = 6) with relative standard deviation (RSD) within 1.2 - 3.1%. The guanidino compounds were determined in deproteinized serum of healthy volunteers and uremic patients within below LOD to 8.8 μg/mL and below LOD to 43.99 μg/mL with RSD within 1.4 - 3.6%. The recovery of guanidino compounds calculated by standard addition from serum was within 96.1 - 98.9%, with RSD 1.4 - 3.6%.

  10. Removal of VOCs by hybrid electron beam reactor with catalyst bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinkyu; Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Yuri; Lee, J.H.; Park, C.R.; Kim, J.C.; Kim, J.C.; Kim, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Electron beam decomposition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was studied in order to obtain information for developing effective treatment method of off-gases from industries. We have examined the combination of electron beam and catalyst honeycomb which is either 1% platinum based or ceramic honeycomb- based aluminum oxide, using a hybrid reactor in order to improve removal efficiency and CO 2 formation; and to suppress undesirable by-product formation e.g. O 3 , aerosol, H x C y. , and tar. The experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale treatment system (maximum capacity; 1800 N m 3 /h) that fitted the field size to scale up from the traditional laboratory scale system for VOC removal with electron beam irradiation. Toluene was selected as a typical VOC that was irradiated to investigate product formation, effect of ceramic and catalyst, and factors effecting overall efficiency of degradation. Styrene was selected as the most odorous compound among the VOCs of interest. It was found that VOCs could be destroyed more effectively using a hybrid system with catalyst bed than with electron beam irradiation only

  11. Do the VOCs that evaporate from a heavily polluted river threaten the health of riparian residents?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juang, Der-Fong; Lee, Chao-Hsien; Chen, Wei-Chin; Yuan, Chung-Shin

    2010-01-01

    To understand the potential threat of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the health of residents living close to a heavily polluted river, this study investigated the species and the concentration of VOCs evaporating from a river and surveyed the health condition of the nearby residents. Air samples were taken seasonally at the upstream, midstream, and downstream water surfaces of the river, and at different locations at certain distances from the river. These samples were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively through gas chromatography and electron capture detector (GC/ECD) for chlorinated organic compounds, and through gas chromatography and flame ionization detector (GC/FID) for ordinary hydrocarbons. The health data obtained from valid health questionnaires of 908 residents were analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. Twenty-six species of VOCs were identified in the environment adjacent the river, many of which are carcinogenic or believed to be carcinogenic to humans. However, results of this study shows that the VOCs evaporating from the polluted river have not been definitively identified as a major factor of cancer in the residents. However, the risk of suffering from certain chronic diseases may increase in residents living less than 225 m away from the river due to the high levels of evaporated VOCs. Residents living less than 225 m away from the river and with nearby specific industries are 3.130 times more at risk of suffering from chronic diseases than those with no nearby specific industries.

  12. Radiochromatographic method for determination of macroenergetic phosphorus compounds in the rat heart muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajdowicz, A.

    1980-01-01

    The 32 P was injected intraperitoneally. After 20 min. a part of heart muscle was taken off under anaesthesia from which phosphorus compounds were extracted and separated by means of paper chromatography. Separation was performed on the Whatman 1 paper, in glass tank produced by Shandon by means of method replacing of two direction descending chromatography use together with three solvent system. Identification of nucleotides was conducted in the UV light, besides CP and inorganic phosphorus by means of chemical methods. For the qualitative analysis of separated phosphorus compounds autoradiography was applied. Quantitative analysis was conducted by means of radiogrametric method. Radioactivity for each of examined phosphorus compounds was computed from chromatograms. Radioactive curves were indicated for each stage of chromatography separation. It was found the peaks on the radioactive curves equal the black spots on the autoradiograms and the spots identified with optical test and by the chemical method. This method permits in constant condition absolute separation and quantitative determination of phosphorus compounds in the rat heart muscle. It is relatively simple and more specific than chemical methods. (author)

  13. Comprehensive Analysis of the Gas- and Particle-Phase Products of VOC Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker-Arkema, J.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Controlled environmental chamber studies are important for determining atmospheric reaction mechanisms and gas and aerosol products formed in the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Such information is necessary for developing detailed chemical models for use in predicting the atmospheric fate of VOCs and also secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. However, complete characterization of atmospheric oxidation reactions, including gas- and particle-phase product yields, and reaction branching ratios, are difficult to achieve. In this work, we investigated the reactions of terminal and internal alkenes with OH radicals in the presence of NOx in an attempt to fully characterize the chemistry of these systems while minimizing and accounting for the inherent uncertainties associated with environmental chamber experiments. Gas-phase products (aldehydes formed by alkoxy radical decomposition) and particle-phase products (alkyl nitrates, β-hydroxynitrates, dihydroxynitrates, 1,4-hydroxynitrates, 1,4-hydroxycarbonyls, and dihydroxycarbonyls) formed through pathways involving addition of OH to the C=C double bond as well as H-atom abstraction were identified and quantified using a suite of analytical techniques. Particle-phase products were analyzed in real time with a thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometer; and off-line by collection onto filters, extraction, and subsequent analysis of functional groups by derivatization-spectrophotometric methods developed in our lab. Derivatized products were also separated by liquid chromatography for molecular quantitation by UV absorbance and identification using chemical ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry. Gas phase aldehydes were analyzed off-line by collection onto Tenax and a 5-channel denuder with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography, or by collection onto DNPH-coated cartridges and subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography. The full product identification and quantitation, with careful

  14. VOC species and emission inventory from vehicles and their SOA formation potentials estimation in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Wang, H. L.; Li, L.; Wang, Q.; Lu, Q.; de Gouw, J. A.; Zhou, M.; Jing, S. A.; Lu, J.; Chen, C. H.

    2015-10-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) species from vehicle exhausts and gas evaporation were investigated by chassis dynamometer and on-road measurements of nine gasoline vehicles, seven diesel vehicles, five motorcycles, and four gas evaporation samples. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass yields of gasoline, diesel, motorcycle exhausts, and gas evaporation were estimated based on the mixing ratio of measured C2-C12 VOC species and inferred carbon number distributions. High aromatic contents were measured in gasoline exhausts and contributed comparatively more SOA yield. A vehicular emission inventory was compiled based on a local survey of on-road traffic in Shanghai and real-world measurements of vehicle emission factors from previous studies in the cities of China. The inventory-based vehicular organic aerosol (OA) productions to total CO emissions were compared with the observed OA to CO concentrations (ΔOA / ΔCO) in the urban atmosphere. The results indicate that vehicles dominate the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions and OA production, which contributed about 40 and 60 % of OA mass in the urban atmosphere of Shanghai. Diesel vehicles, which accounted for less than 20 % of vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT), contribute more than 90 % of vehicular POA emissions and 80-90 % of OA mass derived by vehicles in urban Shanghai. Gasoline exhaust could be an important source of SOA formation. Tightening the limit of aromatic content in gasoline fuel will be helpful to reduce its SOA contribution. Intermediate-volatile organic compounds (IVOCs) in vehicle exhausts greatly contribute to SOA formation in the urban atmosphere of China. However, more experiments need to be conducted to determine the contributions of IVOCs to OA pollution in China.

  15. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A. M.; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant–plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar ‘Alva’ cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar ‘Kara’. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant–plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant–plant signalling between ‘Alva’ and ‘Kara’. Methods The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by ‘Alva’ under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ‘Kara’ plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the ‘Alva’ plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for ‘Kara’ plants exposed to ‘Alva’ VOCs, and also for ‘Alva’ plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Key Results Total VOC emissions by ‘Alva’ were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by ‘Alva’ plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of ‘Kara’. Conclusions The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions

  16. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A M; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant-plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar 'Alva' cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar 'Kara'. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant-plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant-plant signalling between 'Alva' and 'Kara'. The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by 'Alva' under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 'Kara' plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the 'Alva' plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for 'Kara' plants exposed to 'Alva' VOCs, and also for 'Alva' plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Total VOC emissions by 'Alva' were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by 'Alva' plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of 'Kara'. The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions affect VOC-mediated plant-plant interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  17. Effects of cold temperature and ethanol content on VOC emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including mobile source air toxics (MSATs), were measured in vehicle exhaust from three light-duty spark ignition vehicles operating on summer and winter grade gasoline (E0) and ethanol blended (E10 and E85) fuels. Vehicle...

  18. DEMONSTRATION OF NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD FURNITURE COATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has contracted with AeroVironment Environmental Services, Inc. and its subcontractor, Adhesives Coating Co., to develop and demonstrate a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating s...

  19. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride tedlar bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) bags for ...

  20. Methanol and other VOC fluxes from a Danish beech forest during late springtime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schade, Gunnar W.; Solomon, Sheena J.; Dellwik, Ebba

    2011-01-01

    In-canopy mixing ratio gradients and above-canopy fluxes of several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using a commercial proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest in Denmark. Fluxes of methanol were bidirectional: Emission...

  1. DEMONSTRATION OF A NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD KITCHEN CABINET COATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the development and demonstration of a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating system at two cabinet manufacturing plants: one in Portland, OR, and the other in Redwood City, CA. Technology transfer ef...

  2. Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere of the Botanical Garden of the City of Rio de Janeiro: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cleyton Martins; Souza, Elaine Cesar C A; da Silva, Luane Lima; Oliveira, Rafael Lopes; Corrêa, Sergio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela

    2016-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a central role in atmospheric chemistry. In this work, VOCs in the Botanical Garden of Rio de Janeiro were determined using the TO-15 Method. The park occupies 1,370,000 m 2 in the southern area of the city and is next to the Tijuca Forest, which is considered the largest secondary urban forest in the world. The total VOC concentrations ranged from 43.52 to 168.75 µg m -3 , depending on the sampling site and dates. In terms of concentration isoprene represented 4 %-14 % of the total VOC masses. The results suggested that the differences in biomass, distance from the street and activities within the park affected the concentrations of VOCs. The ratios of isoprene/aromatic compounds were higher than those determined in other areas of the city, confirming that the atmosphere of this green area has the contribution of other sources. Kinetic and mechanistic reactivities were also evaluated.

  3. VOC emission into the atmosphere by trees and leaf litter in Polish forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidorov, V.; Smolewska, M.; Tyszkiewicz, Z.

    2009-04-01

    It is generally recognized at present that the vegetation of continents is the principal source of reactive volatile organic compounds (VOC) of the atmosphere. The upper limit of the evaluation of global phytogenic VOC is 1100-1500 Tg/yr (Isidorov, 1990; Guenther et al., 1995). Although these global evaluations showing the place of phytogenic emission among of other VOC sources are important, evaluations for individual countries are also very important. This poster represents the results of the estimation of VOC emission from Polish forests. Calculations took into account the composition and age of forests. According to our estimation, the total VOC emission by the arboreal vegetation differs from 190 to 750 kt/yr, depending of weather conditions in different years. There are only few studies conducted on decaying plant material as a source of atmospheric VOCs, but still they are able to give evidence of the importance of this source. For Polish forests, the litter mass is estimated to be (16-19)106 t/yr. These organic materials undergo decomposition by mesofauna and microorganisms. In these processes volatile organic compounds (VOC) stored in the litter and secondary metabolites of litter-destroying fungi are emitted into the atmosphere. The scale of the phenomenon makes leaf litter an important VOC source in the atmosphere. The filling of numerous gaps in researches of VOC emissions from decomposing leaf litter demands carrying out of long term field experiments in various climatic conditions. In this communication we report also the results of 3.5-year experiment on qualitative and quantitative GC-MS investigations of VOC emitted into the gas phase from leaves litter of some species of deciduous and coniferous trees of Polish forests. Apart from terpenes and their oxygenated derivatives, which are usual in plant tissues, leaf litter intensively emits vast amounts of lower alcohols and carbonyl compounds. We suppose that these volatile substances are products

  4. Determination of phenolic compounds in air by using cyclodextrin-silica hybrid microporous composite samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri-Aucejo, Adela R; Ponce-Català, Patricia; Belenguer-Sapiña, Carolina; Amorós, Pedro

    2015-03-01

    An analytical method for the determination of phenolic compounds in air samples based on the use of cyclodextrin-silica hybrid microporous composite samplers is proposed. The method allows the determination of phenol, guaiacol, cresol isomers, eugenol, 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol in workplaces according to the Norm UNE-EN 1076:2009 for active sampling. Therefore, the proposed method offers an alternative for the assessment of the occupational exposure to phenol and cresol isomers. The detection limits of the proposed method are lower than those for the NIOSH Method 2546. Storage time of samples almost reaches 44 days. Recovery values for phenol, guaiacol, o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, 4-ethylguaiacol, eugenol and 4-ethylphenol are 109%, 99%, 102%, 94%, 94%, 91%, 95% and 102%, respectively with a coefficient of variation below 6%. The method has been applied to the assessment of exposure in different areas of a farm and regarding the quantification of these compounds in the vapors generated by burning incense sticks and an essential oil marketed as air fresheners. The acquired results are comparable with those provided from a reference method for a 95% of confidence level. The possible use of these samplers for the sampling of other toxic compounds such as phthalates is evaluated by qualitative analysis of extracts from incense sticks and essential oil samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde and formaldehyde in polyethylene terephthalate containers designated for water conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžepović Azra S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET has in the last several years become the main packaging material for many food products, particularly carbonated beverages and bottled water, as well as for products of chemical industry (packaging of various hygiene maintenance agents, pesticides, solvents, etc.. The strength and permeability properties of PET are very good for packaging of beverages, its resistance to chemicals is high and it has a high degree of transparency. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde are formed during the thermoforming of PET containers. After cooling, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde remain trapped in the walls of a PET bottle and may migrate into the water after filling and storage. Since there are no migration tests in Serbia prescribed for the determination of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde, the purpose of the paper is to test the quantitative contents of carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde and formaldehyde in PET containers of different volumes, made by various manufacturers of bottled mineral carbonated and noncarbonated water, and exposed to different temperatures. In this study, the migration of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde from PET bottles into mineral carbonated and noncarbonated water was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Taking into consideration that formaldehyde and acetaldehyde have no UV active or fluorescent group, the chromatography shall be preceded by derivatization in a closed system (due to a low boiling point of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde, which shall transform carbonyl compounds into UV active compounds.

  6. Determination of volatile compounds in grape distillates by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Igor; Banović, Mara; Persurić, Dordano; Radeka, Sanja; Sladonja, Barbara

    2006-01-06

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure on octadecylsilica (C18) was developed for accumulation of volatile compounds from grape distillates. The procedure was optimised for final analysis by capillary gas chromatography. At mass concentrations in model solutions ranging from 0.1 to 50 mg/l solid-phase extraction recoveries of all analytes ranged from 69% for 2-phenylethanol to 102% for capric acid, with RSD values from 2 to 9%. SPE recoveries of internal standards to be added in the sample solution prior to extraction, higher alcohols 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and 1-undecanol, were 97 and 93%, respectively, with RSD values of 3%. Detection limits of analyzed compounds in model solutions ranged from 0.011 mg/l for isoamyl acetate to 0.037 mg/l for caproic acid. Method efficiency was tested in relation to acetic acid content, volume fraction of ethanol and possible matrix effects. A significant influence of matrix on SPE efficiency for geraniol, cis-2-hexen-1-ol and cis-3-hexen-1-ol was detected. For the same reason, 2-phenylethanol could not be determined by developed SPE method in samples of grape distillates. The developed solid-phase extraction method was successfully applied to determine the differences in volatile compound content in different grape distillates produced by the distillation of crushed, pressed and fermented grapes.

  7. Determination of the major phenolic compounds in pomegranate juices by HPLC−DAD−ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Verardo, Vito; Toselli, Moreno; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2013-06-05

    Traditionally, pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been consumed as fresh fruit or as pomegranate juice. In this study, the main phenolic compounds of 12 pomegranate varieties and 5 pomegranate clones were determined by HPLC−DAD−ESI-MS. Two chromatographic methods with a fused-core C18 column and a classical HPLC system were developed. Thirteen anthocyanins and fourteen other phenolic compounds were determined in the pomegranate juices. As far as we are concerned, a new flavonol-glycoside, phellatin or its isomer amurensin, has been tentatively identified for the first time in pomegranate juices. Total phenolic content ranged from 580.8 to 2551.3 mg/L of pomegranate juice. Anthocyanins varied between 20 to 82% of total phenolic content. Flavonoids were 1.6-23.6% of total phenolic compounds, while phenolic acids and ellagitannins were in the range 16.4-65.8%. The five clones reported a phenolic content comparable with that of the other pomegranate samples.

  8. Distance and sex determine host plant choice by herbivorous beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Ballhorn

    Full Text Available Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores?We determined the choice behavior of herbivorous beetles (Chrysomelidae: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials.Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores, whereas the presence of a slightly damaged

  9. Determination of material emission signatures by PTR-MS and their correlations with odor assessments by human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    K H, Han; J S, Zhang; Wargocki, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    by human subjects. VOC emissions from each material were measured in a 50-l small-scale chamber. Chamber air was sampled by PTR-MS to determine emission signatures. Sorbent tube sampling and TD-GC/MS analysis were also performed to identify the major VOCs emitted and to compare the resulting data...... VOC odor indices was used to represent the emission level measured by PTR-MS.......The objectives of this study were to determine volatile organic compound (VOC) emission signatures of nine typical building materials by using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and to explore the correlation between the PTR-MS measurements and the measurements of acceptability...

  10. Rapid determination of phenolic compounds in water samples by alternating-current oscillopolarographic titration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jun-ping; WANG Xue-feng; ZHOU Qing-xiang; FAN Xiao-yuan; SU Xian-fa; Bai Hua-hua; DUAN Hai-jing

    2007-01-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive method was demonstrated for the determination of phenolic compounds in water samples by alternating-current oscillopolarographic titration. With the presence of sulfuric acid, phenol could be transferred into a nitroso-compound by reacting with NaNO2. The titration end-point was obtained by the formation of a sharp cut in the oscillopolarographic with infinitesimal NaNO2 on double platinum electrodes. The results showed that phenol had an excellent linear relationship over the range of 4.82×10-6 -9.65×10-3 mol/L, the RSD of the proposed method was lower than 1.5%, and the spiked recoveries of three real water samples were in the range of 95.6%-106.9%.

  11. Fundamental mass transfer modeling of emission of volatile organic compounds from building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodalal, Awad Saad

    In this study, a mass transfer theory based model is presented for characterizing the VOC emissions from building materials. A 3-D diffusion model is developed to describe the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from individual sources. Then the formulation is extended to include the emissions from composite sources (system comprising an assemblage of individual sources). The key parameters for the model (The diffusion coefficient of the VOC in the source material D, and the equilibrium partition coefficient k e) were determined independently (model parameters are determined without the use of chamber emission data). This procedure eliminated to a large extent the need for emission testing using environmental chambers, which is costly, time consuming, and may be subject to confounding sink effects. An experimental method is developed and implemented to measure directly the internal diffusion (D) and partition coefficients ( ke). The use of the method is illustrated for three types of VOC's: (i) Aliphatic Hydrocarbons, (ii) Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ( iii) Aldehydes, through typical dry building materials (carpet, plywood, particleboard, vinyl floor tile, gypsum board, sub-floor tile and OSB). Then correlations for predicting D and ke based solely on commonly available properties such as molecular weight and vapour pressure were proposed for each product and type of VOC. These correlations can be used to estimate the D and ke when direct measurement data are not available, and thus facilitate the prediction of VOC emissions from the building materials using mass transfer theory. The VOC emissions from a sub-floor material (made of the recycled automobile tires), and a particleboard are measured and predicted. Finally, a mathematical model to predict the diffusion coefficient through complex sources (floor adhesive) as a function of time was developed. Then this model (for diffusion coefficient in complex sources) was used to predict the emission rate from

  12. Production of volatile organic compounds by cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraiwa, M.; Abe, M.; Hashimoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    Phytoplankton are known to produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which contribute to environmental problems such as global warming and decomposition of stratospheric ozone. For example, picophytoplankton, such as Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, are distributed in freshwater and oceans worldwide, accounting for a large proportion of biomass and primary production in the open ocean. However, to date, little is known about the production of VOCs by picophytoplankton. In this study, VOCs production by cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. (NIES-981) was investigated. Synechococcus sp. was obtained from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan, and cultured at 24°C in autoclaved f/2-Si medium under 54 ± 3 µE m-2 s-1 (1 E = 1 mol of photons) with a 12-h light and 12-h dark cycle. VOCs concentrations were determined using a purge-and-trap gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Agilent 5973). The concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl a) were also determined using a fluorometer (Turner TD-700). Bromomethane (CH3Br) and isoprene were produced by Synechococcus sp. Isoprene production was similar to those of other phytoplankton species reported earlier. Isoprene was produced when Chl a was increasing in the early stage of the incubation period (5-15 days of incubation time, exponential phase), but CH3Br was produced when Chl a was reduced in the late stage of the incubation period (30-40 days of incubation time, death phase).

  13. Plan for assessment of the occurrence, status, and distribution of volatile organic compounds in aquifers of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, W.W.; Tadayon, Saeid

    1996-01-01

    The occurrence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water is of national concern because of their relatively high aqueous solubility, mobility, and persistence, because many are known or suspected carcinogens, because of their widespread use, and because they have been found in drinking-water supplies. Because of this national concern, VOCs were selected for National investigation (hereafter termed "National Synthesis") by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1994. The broad goals of this National Synthesis are to: (1) describe current water- quality conditions with respect to VOCs; (2) define trends, or lack of trends, in VOCs in surface and ground water; and (3) identify, describe, and explain causal relations among the occurrence and distribution of VOCs in surface water and ground water, and natural and human factors. The National Synthesis of VOCs in ground water has three objectives: (1) to describe their occurrence, status, and distribution; (2) to determine relations among VOCs in shallow ground water and natural and human factors; and (3) to determine, compare, and contrast the occurrence, transformation, transport, and fate of selected VOCs in the hydrologic cycle for several regionally or nationally important aquifer systems. The description of VOC occurrence, status, and distribution in ground water focuses on major aquifers of the United States. Occurrence describes the presence or absence of VOCs, their frequency of occurrence, and their ranges of concentrations. Status compares the concentrations of VOCs detected in relation to water-quality regulations or advisories, such as Maximum Contaminant Levels, Proposed Maximum Contaminant Levels, Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, and Health Advisories. Distribution describes the variability of VOCs in ground water, areally and by depth. This report describes the study design for conducting such an assessment. The assessment focuses on aquifers, or parts of

  14. Determination of one-dimensional distribution of 14C-labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rexa, R.; Kron, I.; Kralik, P.; Tykva, R.

    1988-01-01

    Three methods used for the determination of one-dimensional distribution of 14 C-labelled compounds are compared: measurement with position-sensitive detector (LB 282/511), liquid scintillation counting (LSC), and autoradiography with densitometric quantification. For a mutual comparison of these methods samples of blood serum were used, in which the fractional esterification rate (FER) was determined by means of LCAT Test. The agreement of the methods of FER determination on the basis of the measurement with LB 282/511 or LSC was checked. In the case of autoradiography a correction for non-linearity between the blackening and the number of β-particles striking the area unit was necessary. (author) 5 refs.; 5 figs

  15. [Determination of flavor compounds in foxtail millet wine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with headspace solid phase microextraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingke; Zhang, Aixia; Li, Shaohui; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yuzong; Xing, Guosheng

    2017-11-08

    To comprehensively understand flavor compounds and aroma characteristics of foxtail millet wine, extraction conditions were optimized with 85 μm polyacrylate (PA), 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), 75 μm carboxen (CAR)/PDMS and 50/30 μm divinylbenzene (DVB)/CAR/PDMS fibers. The flavor compounds in foxtail millet wine were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and the odor characteristics and intensity were analyzed by odor active values (OAVs). The samples of 8 mL were placed in headspace vials with 1.5 g NaCl, then the headspace vials were heated at 60℃ for 40 min. Using HS-SPME with different fibers, a total of 55 flavor compounds were identified from the samples, including alcohols, esters, benzene derivatives, hydrocarbons, acids, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes, phenols and heterocycle compounds. The main flavor compounds were alcohols compounds. According to their OAVs, phenylethyl alcohol, styrene, 1-methyl-naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde and 2-methoxy-phenol were established to be odor-active compounds. Phenylethyl alcohol and benzeneacetaldehyde were the most prominent odor-active compounds. PA and PDMS fibers had good extraction effect for polar and nonpolar compounds, respectively. CAR/PDMS and DVB/CAR/PDMS provided a similar compounds profile for moderate polar compounds. This research comprehensively determined flavor compounds of foxtail millet wine, and provided theoretical basis for product development and quality control.

  16. COST EFFECTIVE VOC EMISSION CONTROL STARTEGIES FOR MILITARY, AEROSPACE,AND INDUSTRIAL PAINT SPRAY BOOTH OPERATIONS: COMBINING IMPROVED VENTILATION SYSTEMS WITH INNOVATIVE, LOW COST EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes a full-scale demonstration program in which several paint booths were modified for recirculation ventilation; the booth exhaust streams are vented to an innovative volatile organic compound (VOC) emission control system having extremely low operating costs. ...

  17. Personal exposure to mixtures of volatile organic compounds: modeling and further analysis of the RIOPA data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart; Su, Feng-Chiao; Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Jia, Chunrong

    2014-06-01

    Emission sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs*) are numerous and widespread in both indoor and outdoor environments. Concentrations of VOCs indoors typically exceed outdoor levels, and most people spend nearly 90% of their time indoors. Thus, indoor sources generally contribute the majority of VOC exposures for most people. VOC exposure has been associated with a wide range of acute and chronic health effects; for example, asthma, respiratory diseases, liver and kidney dysfunction, neurologic impairment, and cancer. Although exposures to most VOCs for most persons fall below health-based guidelines, and long-term trends show decreases in ambient emissions and concentrations, a subset of individuals experience much higher exposures that exceed guidelines. Thus, exposure to VOCs remains an important environmental health concern. The present understanding of VOC exposures is incomplete. With the exception of a few compounds, concentration and especially exposure data are limited; and like other environmental data, VOC exposure data can show multiple modes, low and high extreme values, and sometimes a large portion of data below method detection limits (MDLs). Field data also show considerable spatial or interpersonal variability, and although evidence is limited, temporal variability seems high. These characteristics can complicate modeling and other analyses aimed at risk assessment, policy actions, and exposure management. In addition to these analytic and statistical issues, exposure typically occurs as a mixture, and mixture components may interact or jointly contribute to adverse effects. However most pollutant regulations, guidelines, and studies remain focused on single compounds, and thus may underestimate cumulative exposures and risks arising from coexposures. In addition, the composition of VOC mixtures has not been thoroughly investigated, and mixture components show varying and complex dependencies. Finally, although many factors are known to

  18. Ordered silica particles made by nonionic surfactant for VOCs sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Difallah, Oumaima; Hamaizi, Hadj, E-mail: hamaizimizou@yahoo.fr [University of Oran, OranMenaouer (Algeria); Amate, Maria Dolores Urena; Socias-Viciana, Maria Del Mar [University of Almeria (Spain)

    2017-07-15

    Adsorption of light organic compounds such acetone, 1-propanol and carbon dioxide was tested by using mesoporous silica materials made from non ionic surfactant with long chain and silica sources as tetraethyl orthosilicate TEOS and modified Na-X and Li-A Zeolites. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to characterize the silica particles of a variety prepared samples. Acetone, 1-propanol and CO{sub 2} adsorption at 298K was evaluated by a volumetric method and indicate a high sorption capacity of organic compounds depending essentially on the porous texture of adsorbents. An adsorption kinetic model was proposed to describe the adsorption of VOCs over template-free mesoporous silica materials. A good agreement with experimental data was found. (author)

  19. Analytical applications of oscillatory chemical reactions: determination of some pharmaceuticaly and biologically important compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Nataša D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel analytical methods for quantitive determination of analytes based on perturbations of oscillatory chemical reactions realized under open reactor conditions (continuosly fed well stirred tank reactor, CSTR, have been developed in the past twenty years. The proposed kinetic methods are generally based on the ability of the analyzed substances to change the kinetics of the chemical reactions matrix. The unambiguous correlation of quantitative characteristics of perturbations, and the amount (concentration of analyte expressed as a regression equation, or its graphics (calibration curve, enable the determination of the unknown analyte concentration. Attention is given to the development of these methods because of their simple experimental procedures, broad range of linear regression ( 10-7 10-4 mol L-1 and low limits of detection of analytes ( 10-6 10-8 mol L1, in some cases even lower than 10-12 mol L-1. Therefore, their application is very convenient for routine analysis of various inorganic and organic compounds as well as gases. This review summarizes progress made in the past 5 years on quantitative determination of pharmaceutically and biologically important compounds.

  20. Determination of the number of and classification of two-component ionic-covalent chemical compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigdorovich, V.N.; Dzhuraev, T.D.; Khanin, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the number of and to classify two-component compounds corresponding to the four-electron and full-valence concepts and characterized by the ionic-covalent type of bond, on which the metallic bond is superimposed to a greater lesser degree. At the same time it was proposed to verify the position of the axes in the periodic system. The presence of numerous compound analogs for the element prototypes of one axis of the Mendeleev periodic system [the group of noble (inert) gases] was confirmed by computer experiments. However, the other axis (the carbon group) is not so obvious and is evidently due, on account of the superimposition of the effect of noncharacteristic (possible) valences, to the elements of various groups (boron, aluminum, germanium, antimony, bismuth). In addition, the compound analogs for the element prototypes of the d block are numerous, i.e., the copper-silver-gold, manganese-technetium-rhenium, and iron and platinum families

  1. Quantitative Determination of Compounds from Akebia quinata by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, Nguyen; Thu, Nguyen; Zhao, Bing Tian; Woo, Mi Hee; Min, Byung Sun; Lee, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jeong Ah; Son, Jong Keun; Choi, Jae Sui; Woo, Eun Rhan

    2014-01-01

    To provide the scientific corroboration of the traditional uses of Akebia quinata (Thunb.) Decne., a detailed analytical examination of A. quinata stems was carried out using a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method coupled to photodiode array detector (PDA) for the simultaneous determination of four phenolic substances; cuneataside D, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3-caffeoylquinic acid and calceolarioside B. Particular attention was focused on the main compound, 3-caffeoylquinic acid, which has a range of biological functions. In addition, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside was considered as a discernible marker of A. quinata from its easy confuse plants. The contents of compounds 2 and 3 ranged from 0.72 to 2.68 mg/g and from 1.66 to 5.64 mg/g, respectively. The validation data indicated that this HPLC/PDA assay was used successfully to quantify the four phenolic compounds in A. quinata from different locations using relatively simple conditions and procedures. The pattern-recognition analysis data from 53 samples classified them into two groups, allowing discrimination between A. quinata and comparable herbs. The results suggest that the established HPLC/PDA method is suitable for quantitation and pattern-recognition analyses for a quality evaluation of this medicinal herb

  2. Quantitative Determination of Compounds from Akebia quinata by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Nguyen; Thu, Nguyen; Zhao, Bing Tian; Woo, Mi Hee; Min, Byung Sun [Catholic Univ. of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hyun [Dongguk Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Ah [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Son, Jong Keun [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Sui [Pukyung National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Eun Rhan [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    To provide the scientific corroboration of the traditional uses of Akebia quinata (Thunb.) Decne., a detailed analytical examination of A. quinata stems was carried out using a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method coupled to photodiode array detector (PDA) for the simultaneous determination of four phenolic substances; cuneataside D, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3-caffeoylquinic acid and calceolarioside B. Particular attention was focused on the main compound, 3-caffeoylquinic acid, which has a range of biological functions. In addition, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside was considered as a discernible marker of A. quinata from its easy confuse plants. The contents of compounds 2 and 3 ranged from 0.72 to 2.68 mg/g and from 1.66 to 5.64 mg/g, respectively. The validation data indicated that this HPLC/PDA assay was used successfully to quantify the four phenolic compounds in A. quinata from different locations using relatively simple conditions and procedures. The pattern-recognition analysis data from 53 samples classified them into two groups, allowing discrimination between A. quinata and comparable herbs. The results suggest that the established HPLC/PDA method is suitable for quantitation and pattern-recognition analyses for a quality evaluation of this medicinal herb.

  3. A comparative study of fungal and bacterial biofiltration treating a VOC mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, José M.; Hernández, Sergio; Muñoz, Raúl; Revah, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bacterial biofilter showed better EC and ΔP than fungal biofilter. ► The preferential biodegradation order was: propanal > hexanol > MIBK > toluene. ► Propanal partially inhibited the biodegradation of the rest of VOCs. ► The two-stage biofilter showed a higher stability than the individual units. -- Abstract: Bacterial biofilters usually exhibit a high microbial diversity and robustness, while fungal biofilters have been claimed to better withstand low moisture contents and pH values, and to be more efficient coping with hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, there are only few systematic evaluations of both biofiltration technologies. The present study compared fungal and bacterial biofiltration for the treatment of a VOC mixture (propanal, methyl isobutyl ketone-MIBK, toluene and hexanol) under the same operating conditions. Overall, fungal biofiltration supported lower elimination capacities than its bacterial counterpart (27.7 ± 8.9 vs 40.2 ± 5.4 g C m −3 reactor h −1 ), which exhibited a final pressure drop 60% higher than that of the bacterial biofilter due to mycelial growth. The VOC mineralization ratio was also higher in the bacterial bed (≈63% vs ≈43%). However, the substrate biodegradation preference order was similar for both biofilters (propanal > hexanol > MIBK > toluene) with propanal partially inhibiting the consumption of the rest of the VOCs. Both systems supported an excellent robustness versus 24 h VOC starvation episodes. The implementation of a fungal/bacterial coupled system did not significantly improve the VOC removal performance compared to the individual biofilter performances

  4. A comparative study of fungal and bacterial biofiltration treating a VOC mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, José M. [Departamento de Procesos y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40, Col. Miguel Hidalgo, Delegación Álvaro Obregón (Mexico); Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Tecnología del Medio Ambiente – Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid (Spain); Hernández, Sergio [Departmento de Procesos e Hidráulica – Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana – Iztapalapa Mexico D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Muñoz, Raúl [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Tecnología del Medio Ambiente – Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid (Spain); Revah, Sergio, E-mail: srevah@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Procesos y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40, Col. Miguel Hidalgo, Delegación Álvaro Obregón (Mexico)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Bacterial biofilter showed better EC and ΔP than fungal biofilter. ► The preferential biodegradation order was: propanal > hexanol > MIBK > toluene. ► Propanal partially inhibited the biodegradation of the rest of VOCs. ► The two-stage biofilter showed a higher stability than the individual units. -- Abstract: Bacterial biofilters usually exhibit a high microbial diversity and robustness, while fungal biofilters have been claimed to better withstand low moisture contents and pH values, and to be more efficient coping with hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, there are only few systematic evaluations of both biofiltration technologies. The present study compared fungal and bacterial biofiltration for the treatment of a VOC mixture (propanal, methyl isobutyl ketone-MIBK, toluene and hexanol) under the same operating conditions. Overall, fungal biofiltration supported lower elimination capacities than its bacterial counterpart (27.7 ± 8.9 vs 40.2 ± 5.4 g C m{sup −3} reactor h{sup −1}), which exhibited a final pressure drop 60% higher than that of the bacterial biofilter due to mycelial growth. The VOC mineralization ratio was also higher in the bacterial bed (≈63% vs ≈43%). However, the substrate biodegradation preference order was similar for both biofilters (propanal > hexanol > MIBK > toluene) with propanal partially inhibiting the consumption of the rest of the VOCs. Both systems supported an excellent robustness versus 24 h VOC starvation episodes. The implementation of a fungal/bacterial coupled system did not significantly improve the VOC removal performance compared to the individual biofilter performances.

  5. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Elizabeth Barksdale; Viet, Susan M; Wright, David J; Merrill, Lori S; Alwis, K Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C; Mortensen, Mary E; Moye, John; Dellarco, Michael

    2016-03-29

    Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children's Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS) method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS). We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking) and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes). We found several significant (p < 0.01) relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite N

  6. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children’s Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Elizabeth Barksdale; Viet, Susan M.; Wright, David J.; Merrill, Lori S.; Alwis, K. Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C.; Mortensen, Mary E.; Moye, John; Dellarco, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children’s Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS) method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS). We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking) and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes). We found several significant (p < 0.01) relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite N

  7. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children’s Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Barksdale Boyle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children’s Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS. We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes. We found several significant (p < 0.01 relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite

  8. Characterisation and treatment of VOCs in process water from upgrading facilities for compressed biogas (CBG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson Påledal, S; Arrhenius, K; Moestedt, J; Engelbrektsson, J; Stensen, K

    2016-02-01

    Compression and upgrading of biogas to vehicle fuel generates process water, which to varying degrees contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from the biogas. The compostion of this process water has not yet been studied and scientifically published and there is currently an uncertainty regarding content of VOCs and how the process water should be managed to minimise the impact on health and the environment. The aim of the study was to give an overview about general levels of VOCs in the process water. Characterisation of process water from amine and water scrubbers at plants digesting waste, sewage sludge or agricultural residues showed that both the average concentration and composition of particular VOCs varied depending on the substrate used at the biogas plant, but the divergence was high and the differences for total concentrations from the different substrate groups were only significant for samples from plants using waste compared to residues from agriculture. The characterisation also showed that the content of VOCs varied greatly between different sampling points for same main substrate and between sampling occasions at the same sampling point, indicating that site-specific conditions are important for the results which also indicates that a number of analyses at different times are required in order to make an more exact characterisation with low uncertainty. Inhibition of VOCs in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process was studied in biomethane potential tests, but no inhibition was observed during addition of synthetic process water at concentrations of 11.6 mg and 238 mg VOC/L. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Method for determining the composition of the sugar moiety of a sugar containing compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods of labeling sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds including glycopeptides. The compounds presented in the present invention facilitate reliable detection of sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds by a combination of spectroscopy methods...

  10. Spectrographic determination of zirconium, niobium, rhodium, ruthenium, tantalum, and tungsten in uranium and its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alduan, F.A.; Capdevila, C.

    1976-01-01

    The determination of Nb, Rh, Ru, Ta, W and Zr in uranium and its compounds has been studied, using the carrier distillation method with either AgCl or AgCl-SrF 2 (4:3) as carrier. In order to get the best sensitivity, the influence of the carrier concentration, the dc arc intensity and several controlled atmospheres on the variation of the line to background ratio of intensities has been considered. With the most suitable conditions, the sensitivities achieved for the considered elements are in the range 1-10 ppm. (author)

  11. Determination of carbonyl compounds in air by HPLC; Determinacion de compuestos carbonilicos en aire por HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, S; Perez, R M; Campos, A; Gonzalez, D

    1995-07-01

    A method for the determination of seven carbonyl compounds in air is presented. The procedure involve sampling of air by a Sep-Pak Cartridge impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Elution was done with 3 mL of acetonitrile and the eluate was diluted to 5 mL. The analysis was done by HPLC with UV detection and external standard method quantification. It has been achieved relative standard deviations about 5% and detection limits of 80 ng/cartridge for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetoacetonitrile. Three different types of samples (rural, urban, petrol emission) were successfully analyzed. (Author) 12 refs.

  12. Chromatographic methods for determination of metals as chelate compounds with heterocyclic azo reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basova, E.M.; Bol'shova, T.A.; Shpigun, O.A.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    Methods for separation and concentration of transition metals as well as cadmium in form of chelates with heterocyclic azo compounds namely, PAN(1-(2-pyridylaso)-2-naphthol), PAR(4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcin), Br-PAAP (2-(5-bromine-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethyl aminophenol) are considered. The Br-PAAP reagent is the most sensitive and widely-applied one in extraction and highly-efficient liquid chromatography. Methods of sorption concentration with subsequent element determination directly on the sorbent without microelements separation or destruction are the most promissing ones

  13. DETERMINATION OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE MAIN DRAINAGE CHANNEL OF KONYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin AYDIN

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The main drainage channel of Konya collects drainage waters from farmlands of Konya and discharges to the salt lake. Since there is not any city municipal sewarage system in Konya sewage of the city also discharged to the main drainage channel. Along the channel, farmers use the channels water for irrigation purposes. Therefore a through examination of wastewater and determination of chlorinated compounds were necessary. In this research, analyses were carried by gas chromatography (GC on water samples collected hourly, daily and monthly from the channel.

  14. Flame photometric determination of Na, K and Li in uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabato, S.F.; Lordello, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    A flame photometric method for the determination of Na, K and Li in uranium compounds is described. The uranium is separated by solvent extraction from hydrochloric acid medium with tri-butyl phosphate. Amounts of uranium in order of 20 μg/ml don't cause any interference in the photometric results. The element Na presents a residual concentration due to the contamination of the reagents. The relative standard deviation is about 10% for the three elements. The relative error varies with the concentration of the element and it is between 1 and 24% for Na, between O and 12% for K and between O and 33% for Li. (Author) [pt

  15. Determination of chlorine in nuclear-grade uranium compounds by ion-selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chunqing; Liu Fuyun; Huang Dianfan.

    1989-01-01

    The determination of microamount chlorine in nuclear-grade uranium compounds is described. Chlorine is separated from uranium oxide pyrohydrolytically with stream of wet oxygen in a furnace at 800-900 deg C. Chlorine is volatilized as hydrochloric acid, which then is absorbed in a dilute alkaline solution and measured with chlorine selective electrode. This method covers the concentration range of 10-500 ppm chlorine in uranium oxide. The relative standard diviation is better than 10% and recovery of 85-108% has been reported

  16. Decrease of VOC emissions from vehicular emissions in Hong Kong from 2003 to 2015: Results from a tunnel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Long; Wang, Xiao Liang; Ho, Kin Fai; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Chang; Hang Ho, Steven Sai; Li, Hai Wei; Lee, Shun Cheng; Wang, Xin Ming; Jiang, Bo Qiong; Huang, Yu; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Chen, Lung-Wen

    2018-03-01

    Vehicular emissions are one of major anthropogenic sources of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Hong Kong. During the past twelve years, the government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region has undertaken a series of air pollution control measures to reduce vehicular emissions in Hong Kong. Vehicular emissions were characterized by repeated measurement in the same roadway tunnel in 2003 and 2015. The total net concentration of measured VOCs decreased by 44.7% from 2003 to 2015. The fleet-average VOC emission factor decreased from 107.1 ± 44.8 mg veh-1 km-1 in 2003 to 58.8 ± 50.7 mg veh-1 km-1 in 2015, and the total ozone (O3) formation potential of measured VOCs decreased from 474.1 mg O3 veh-1 km-1 to 190.8 mg O3 veh-1 km-1. The emission factor of ethene, which is one of the key tracers for diesel vehicular emissions, decreased by 67.3% from 2003 to 2015 as a result of the strict control measures on diesel vehicular emissions. Total road transport VOC emissions is estimated to be reduced by 40% as compared with 2010 by 2020, which will be an important contributor to achieve the goal of total VOC emission reduction in the Pearl River Delta region. The large decrease of VOC emissions from on-road vehicles demonstrates the effectiveness of past multi-vehicular emission control strategy in Hong Kong.

  17. Determination of arsenenic compounds in environmental and biological samples with LAMMA and HPLC-ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goessler, W.

    1997-07-01

    Different arsonium salts and alkyl- or aryl arsine sulfides were analyzed with a Laser-Microprobe-Mass-Analyzer (LAMMA-500). The positive-ion spectra of the arsonium salts showed clear signals for the (CH 3 ) 3 AsR + fragment. In the positive-ion spectra of alkyl- or arylarsine sulfides these arsenic compounds the molecular ions R 3 AsS + were never observed, but in most of the spectra the protonated parent compounds R 3 AsSH2 + were present. The negative-ion spectra showed mainly fragments S-n (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) and AsS n (n = 1, 2, 3). Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck var. vulgaris with a concentration of 13,000 mg As/kg dry mass were analyzed with the LAMMA-500 to identify arsenic compounds. Surprisingly, arsenic could not be detected by the LAMMA technique at these high arsenic concentrations. Electron microscopy of Chlorella cells reveals, that particles adhered at the surface of the cells. Scanning transmission electron microscopy showed a high correlation between the arsenic concentration and the iron concentration in these particles. Algae may protect themselves from high arsenic concentrations, by precipitating FeAsO 4 at the cell surface. Different Chlorella sp. were grown to investigate the arsenic tolerance of Chlorella strains. Chlorella Boehm and Chlorella Kessleri grew better in arsenic-containing than in arsenic-free media. The growth of Chlorella 108 was depressed in high-arsenic media. After harvesting, the algal biomass was extracted and arsenic compounds determined in the extracts with HPLC-ICP-MS. Approximately 98 % of the total arsenic were present as arsenic acid. A method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of arsenocholine, arsenous acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine, methylarsonic acid, and arsenic acid at concentrations below 1 μg/L was developed. The developed HPLC-MPN-ICP-MS system allows the determination of arsenic compounds in urine sample at concentrations of 0.5 μg As/L with a relative standard deviation of

  18. Investigations of VOCs in and around buildings close to service stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicklin, William; Farrugia, Pierre S.; Sinagra, Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    Gas service stations are one of the major sources of volatile organic compounds in urban environments. Their emissions are expected not only to affect the ambient air quality but also that in any nearby buildings. This is particularly the case in Malta where most service stations have been built within residential zones. For this reason, it is important to understand the dispersion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from service stations and their infiltration into nearby residences. Two models were considered; one to predict the dispersion of VOCs in the outdoor environment in the vicinity of the service station and another one to predict the filtration of the compounds indoors. The two models can be used in tandem to predict the concentration of indoor VOCs that originate from a service station in the vicinity. Outdoor and indoor concentrations of VOCs around a service station located in a street canyon were measured, and the results used to validate the models. Predictions made using the models were found to be in general agreement with the measured concentrations of the pollutants.

  19. How to tackle chemical communication? Relative proportions versus semiquantitative determination of compounds in lizard chemical secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Roa, Roberto; Sáiz, Jorge; Gómara, Belén; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2018-02-01

    Knowledge about chemical communication in some vertebrates is still relatively limited. Squamates are a glaring example of this, even when recent evidences indicate that scents are involved in social and sexual interactions. In lizards, where our understanding of chemical communication has considerably progressed in the last few years, many questions about chemical interactions remain unanswered. A potential reason for this is the inherent complexity and technical limitations that some methodologies embody when analyzing the compounds used to convey information. We provide here a straightforward procedure to analyze lizard chemical secretions based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry that uses an internal standard for the semiquantification of compounds. We compare the results of this method with those obtained by the traditional procedure of calculating relative proportions of compounds. For such purpose, we designed two experiments to investigate if these procedures allowed revealing changes in chemical secretions 1) when lizards received previously a vitamin dietary supplementation or 2) when the chemical secretions were exposed to high temperatures. Our results show that the procedure based on relative proportions is useful to describe the overall chemical profile, or changes in it, at population or species levels. On the other hand, the use of the procedure based on semiquantitative determination can be applied when the target of study is the variation in one or more particular compounds of the sample, as it has proved more accurate detecting quantitative variations in the secretions. This method would reveal new aspects produced by, for example, the effects of different physiological and climatic factors that the traditional method does not show.

  20. Ground-level ozone in the Pearl River Delta and the roles of VOC and NO(x) in its production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Min; Zhang, Yuanhang; Zeng, Limin; Tang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Liuju; Wang, Boguang

    2009-01-01

    In many regions of China, very rapid economic growth has been accompanied by air pollution caused by vehicle emissions. In one of these regions, the Pearl River Delta, the variations of ground-level ozone and its precursors were investigated. Overall, the ambient concentrations of NO(2) increased quickly between 1995 and 1996, but then slightly decreased due to stringent nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emission controls. Nonetheless, ambient NO(2) levels in the Pearl River Delta remained high. The regional average concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were 290 ppbC in summer and 190 ppbC in autumn. Local emissions and long-distance transportation of pollutants play important roles in the regional distribution of VOCs. Ambient O(3) production is significant in urban areas and also downwind of cities. The relative incremental reactivities (RIRs), determined by an observation-based model, showed that ground-level ozone formation in the Guangzhou urban area is generally limited by the concentrations of VOCs, but there are also measurable impacts of NO(x).

  1. The scent of colorectal cancer: detection by volatile organic compound analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Nanne K. H.; de Meij, Tim G. J.; Oort, Frank A.; Ben Larbi, Ilhame; Mulder, Chris J. J.; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A.; van der Schee, Marc P.

    2014-01-01

    The overall metabolic state of an individual is reflected by emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are gaseous carbon-based chemicals. In this review, we will describe the potential of VOCs as fully noninvasive markers for the detection of neoplastic lesions of the colon. VOCs are

  2. Signals of speciation: Volatile organic compounds resolve closely related sagebrush taxa, suggesting their importance in evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deidre M. Jaeger; Justin B. Runyon; Bryce A. Richardson

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in the environmental adaptation and fitness of plants. Comparison of the qualitative and quantitative differences in VOCs among closely related taxa and assessing the effects of environment on their emissions are important steps to deducing VOC function and evolutionary importance.

  3. A Review of Photocatalysts Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for VOCs Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Ke Tseng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel process is a wet-chemical technique (chemical solution deposition, which has been widely used in the fields of materials science, ceramic engineering, and especially in the preparation of photocatalysts. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are prevalent components of indoor air pollution. Among the approaches to remove VOCs from indoor air, photocatalytic oxidation (PCO is regarded as a promising method. This paper is a review of the status of research on the sol-gel method for photocatalyst preparation and for the PCO purification of VOCs. The review and discussion will focus on the preparation and coating of various photocatalysts, operational parameters, and will provide an overview of general PCO models described in the literature.

  4. New photocatalytic process provides 99.9+% reduction of VOC at Superfund site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-03-01

    A new photocatalytic process, dubbed the A-I-R-2000 Process, is described. The process is said to offer marked economic advantages, while providing consistent 99.9+% reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soil vapours and groundwater at the Stamina Mills Superfund site in North Smithfield, Rhode Island. The A-I-R-2000 process has been developed by KSE Inc., of Amherst, Massachusetts, and has been licensed exclusively worldwide to Trojan Technologies, Inc., of London, Ontario. The process consists essentially of adsorption of VOCs onto a UV light-activated proprietary catalysts, for breakdown to carbon dioxide and water, and also to hydrochloric acid and a small amount of chlorine gas when the VOCs are chlorinated. With a maximum internal operating temperature of 125 degrees F, it is a low-energy system when compared to other catalytic technologies that feature thermal catalytic equipment. 1 photo.

  5. [Evaluation and selection of VOCs treatment technologies in packaging and printing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Jun-Hui; Zhu, Chun-Lei; Nie, Lei; Hao, Zheng-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in urban air pollution. Activities of industries including the packaging and printing industries are regarded as the major sources. How to select the suitable treating techniques is the major problem for emission control. In this article, based on the VOCs emission characteristics of the packaging and printing industry and the existing treatment technologies, using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model, an evaluation system for VOCs selection was established and all the technologies used for treatment were assessed. It showed that the priority selection was in the following order: Carbon Fiber Adsorption-Desorption > Granular Carbon Adsorption-Desorption > Thermal Combustion > Regenerative Combustion > Catalytic combustion > Rotary adsorption-concentration and combustion > Granular Carbon adsorption-concentration and combustion. Carbon Fiber Adsorption-Desorption was selected as the best available technology due to its highest weight among those technologies.

  6. Airborne VOC measurements on board the Zeppelin NT during the PEGASOS campaigns in 2012 deploying the improvement Fast-GC-MSD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Julia Elisabeth

    2014-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise a large number of different species, estimated to 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6}. They are emitted on the Earth's surface from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources. VOCs are removed by multiple pathways from the atmosphere, by oxidation and finally by dry or wet deposition. Most primary emitted VOCs are non-polar and therefore have a low solubility in water. Oxidation facilitates efficient VOC removal by wet deposition. In the atmosphere the main photochemical VOC oxidation agent is the OH radical. As a consequence the polarity of the VOCs is increased and they can be removed faster. The oxidation of VOCs proceeds in several steps until the VOCs are deposited or are eventually oxidized to carbon dioxide. A downside of the VOCs oxidation process lies in the production of significant amounts ozone if nitrogen oxide is present which is a serious health hazard. Most of the VOC oxidation takes place in lower part of the atmosphere between the altitudes of 100 to 1000 m, which is only sparsely analyzed. Therefore, fast VOCs measurements by GC-MSD on board the Zeppelin NT offered new important insights in the distribution of VOCs. The measurements were performed within the PEAGSOS campaigns in the Netherlands and in Italy in 2012. For the implementation of the GC-MSD system (HCG) on board the Zeppelin it was reconstructed to enhance its performance and to meet aviation requirements. The system was optimized to measure VOCs ranging from C4 to C10 as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) with a detection limit below 10 ppt. The analyzed VOCs for both parts of the campaigns showed low mean concentration below 5 ppb for all VOCs. Especially, the mixing ratios of the primary emitted VOCs were very low with mean values lower than 200 ppt. Higher concentrations could be observed for the OVOCs with mean concentrations up to 5 ppb. The most abundant OVOCs apart from formaldehyde were methanol, ethanol, acetone and acetaldehyde.

  7. Airborne VOC measurements on board the Zeppelin NT during the PEGASOS campaigns in 2012 deploying the improvement Fast-GC-MSD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Julia Elisabeth

    2014-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise a large number of different species, estimated to 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6}. They are emitted on the Earth's surface from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources. VOCs are removed by multiple pathways from the atmosphere, by oxidation and finally by dry or wet deposition. Most primary emitted VOCs are non-polar and therefore have a low solubility in water. Oxidation facilitates efficient VOC removal by wet deposition. In the atmosphere the main photochemical VOC oxidation agent is the OH radical. As a consequence the polarity of the VOCs is increased and they can be removed faster. The oxidation of VOCs proceeds in several steps until the VOCs are deposited or are eventually oxidized to carbon dioxide. A downside of the VOCs oxidation process lies in the production of significant amounts ozone if nitrogen oxide is present which is a serious health hazard. Most of the VOC oxidation takes place in lower part of the atmosphere between the altitudes of 100 to 1000 m, which is only sparsely analyzed. Therefore, fast VOCs measurements by GC-MSD on board the Zeppelin NT offered new important insights in the distribution of VOCs. The measurements were performed within the PEAGSOS campaigns in the Netherlands and in Italy in 2012. For the implementation of the GC-MSD system (HCG) on board the Zeppelin it was reconstructed to enhance its performance and to meet aviation requirements. The system was optimized to measure VOCs ranging from C4 to C10 as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) with a detection limit below 10 ppt. The analyzed VOCs for both parts of the campaigns showed low mean concentration below 5 ppb for all VOCs. Especially, the mixing ratios of the primary emitted VOCs were very low with mean values lower than 200 ppt. Higher concentrations could be observed for the OVOCs with mean concentrations up to 5 ppb. The most abundant OVOCs apart from formaldehyde were methanol, ethanol, acetone and acetaldehyde.

  8. Urinary Volatile Organic Compounds for the Detection of Prostate Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzeela Khalid

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate volatile organic compounds (VOCs emanating from urine samples to determine whether they can be used to classify samples into those from prostate cancer and non-cancer groups. Participants were men referred for a trans-rectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy because of an elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA level or abnormal findings on digital rectal examination. Urine samples were collected from patients with prostate cancer (n = 59 and cancer-free controls (n = 43, on the day of their biopsy, prior to their procedure. VOCs from the headspace of basified urine samples were extracted using solid-phase micro-extraction and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Classifiers were developed using Random Forest (RF and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA classification techniques. PSA alone had an accuracy of 62-64% in these samples. A model based on 4 VOCs, 2,6-dimethyl-7-octen-2-ol, pentanal, 3-octanone, and 2-octanone, was marginally more accurate 63-65%. When combined, PSA level and these four VOCs had mean accuracies of 74% and 65%, using RF and LDA, respectively. With repeated double cross-validation, the mean accuracies fell to 71% and 65%, using RF and LDA, respectively. Results from VOC profiling of urine headspace are encouraging and suggest that there are other metabolomic avenues worth exploring which could help improve the stratification of men at risk of prostate cancer. This study also adds to our knowledge on the profile of compounds found in basified urine, from controls and cancer patients, which is useful information for future studies comparing the urine from patients with other disease states.

  9. Measurement of in-vehicle volatile organic compounds under static conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ke-wei; Ge, Yun-shan; Hu, Bin; Ning, Zhan-wu; Zhao, Shou-tang; Zhang, Yan-ni; Xie, Peng

    2007-01-01

    The types and quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inside vehicles have been determined in one new vehicle and two old vehicles under static conditions using the Thermodesorber-Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (TD-GC/MS). Air sampling and analysis was conducted under the requirement of USEPA Method TO-17. A room-size, environment test chamber was utilized to provide stable and accurate control of the required environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, horizontal and vertical airflow velocity, and background VOCs concentration). Static vehicle testing demonstrated that although the amount of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) detected within each vehicle was relatively distinct (4940 microg/m3 in the new vehicle A, 1240 microg/m3 in used vehicle B, and 132 microg/m3 in used vehicle C), toluene, xylene, some aromatic compounds, and various C7-C12 alkanes were among the predominant VOC species in all three vehicles tested. In addition, tetramethyl succinonitrile, possibly derived from foam cushions was detected in vehicle B. The types and quantities of VOCs varied considerably according to various kinds of factors, such as, vehicle age, vehicle model, temperature, air exchange rate, and environment airflow velocity. For example, if the airflow velocity increases from 0.1 m/s to 0.7 m/s, the vehicle's air exchange rate increases from 0.15 h(-1) to 0.67 h(-1), and in-vehicle TVOC concentration decreases from 1780 to 1201 microg/m3.

  10. Building materials. VOC emissions, diffusion behaviour and implications from their use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Leva, Paolo; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Five cement- and five lime-based building materials were examined in an environmental chamber for their emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Typical VOCs were below detection limits, whereas not routinely analysed VOCs, like neopentyl glycol (NPG), dominated the cement-based products emissions, where, after 72 h, it was found to occur, in levels as high as 1400 μg m −3 , accounting for up to 93% of total VOCs. The concentrations of NPG were not considerably changed between the 24 and 72 h of sampling. The permeability of building materials was assessed through experiments with a dual environmental chamber; it was shown that building materials facilitate the diffusion of chemicals through their pores, reaching equilibrium relatively fast (6 h). - Highlights: ► Neopentyl glycol is reported in emissions from building materials for the first time. ► Neopentyl glycol dominates the VOC emissions from cement-based building materials. ► A dual chamber was developed to control diffusion through building materials. ► Building materials facilitate diffusion of indoor air pollutants through their pores. - Neopentyl glycol was detected in high concentrations in emissions from building materials.

  11. Factors influencing pollutant gas emissions of VOC recuperative incinerators-Large-scale parametric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, S.; Commandre, J.-M.; Kara, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This work establishes quantitative links between the operation parameters-plus one geometrical parameter-and the gas pollutant emissions of a recuperative incinerator (RI) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Using experimental design methodology, and based on a large number of experiments carried out on a half-industrial-scale pilot unit, mathematical expressions are established to calculate each of the pollutant emissions from the value of all the operation and design parameters. The gas emissions concerned are total hydrocarbons, and CO and NO x emissions, while the control parameters are the flow rate of the treated air flow, the concentration of VOCs in the air flow, the preheating temperature of the flow, and the temperature at the exit of the combustion chamber. One design parameter-the aperture of the diaphragms-is also considered. We show that the constraining emissions are only that of CO and NO x . Polynomials to predict them with a high accuracy are established. The air preheating temperature has an effect on the natural gas consumption, but not on CO and NO x emissions. There is an optimal value for the aperture of the diaphragms, and this value is quantitatively established. If the concentration of VOCs in the air flow is high, CO and NO x emissions both decrease and a high rate of efficiency in VOC destruction is attained. This demonstrates that a pre-concentration of VOCs in the air flow prior to treatment by RI is recommended. (author)

  12. Comparison of mild extraction procedures for determination of plant-available arsenic compounds in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szakova, Jirina; Tlustos, Pavel; Pavlikova, Daniela; Balik, Jiri [Czech University of Agriculture, Department of Agrochemistry and Plant Nutrition, Prague (Czech Republic); Goessler, Walter; Schlagenhaufen, Claudia [Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Institute of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Graz (Austria)

    2005-05-01

    In this work three mild extraction agents for determination of plant-available fractions of elements in soil were evaluated for arsenic speciation in soil samples. Pepper (Capsicum annum, L.) var. California Wonder was cultivated in pots, and aqueous solutions of arsenite, arsenate, methylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid, at a concentration of 15 mg As kg{sup -1} soil, were added at the beginning of the experiment. Control pots (untreated) were also included. Deionized water, 0.01 mol L{sup -1} CaCl{sub 2}, and 0.05 mol L{sup -1} (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} were used to extract the plant-available fraction of the arsenic compounds in soil samples collected during the vegetation period of the plants. Whereas in control samples the extractable arsenic fraction did not exceed 1% of total arsenic content, soil amendment by arsenic compounds resulted in extraction of larger amounts, which varied between 1.4 and 8.1% of total arsenic content, depending on soil treatment and on the extracting agent applied. Among arsenic compounds determined by HPLC-ICPMS arsenate was predominant, followed by small amounts of arsenite, methylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid, depending on the individual soil treatment. In all the experiments in which methylarsonic acid was added to the soil methylarsonous acid was detected in the extracts, suggesting that the soil bacteria are capable of reducing methylarsonic acid before a further methylation occurs. No significant differences were observed between analytical data obtained by using different extraction procedures. (orig.)

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Florfenicol and Diclazuril in Compound Powder by RP-HPLC-UV Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A RP-HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of florfenicol and diclazuril in compound powder. The separation involved using a SinoChoom ODS-BP C18 (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 250 mm analytical column. The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile-0.2% phosphoric acid (pH was adjusted to 3.0 with triethylamine. The ratio of acetonitrile and 0.2% phosphoric acid in the mobile phase was 60 : 40 (v/v from 0 minutes to 6 minutes and 70 : 30 (v/v from 6.1 minutes to 15 minutes. The flow rate was 1 mL/min. The temperature of the analytical column was maintained at 30°C. The detection was monitored at 225 nm and 277 nm for florfenicol and diclazuril, respectively. The excipients in the compound powder did not interfere with the drug peaks. The calibration curves of florfenicol and diclazuril were fairly linear over the concentration ranges between 50.0–500.0 μg/mL (r=0.9995 and 10.0–100.0 μg/mL (r=0.9992, respectively. The RSD of both the intraday and interday variations was below 2.1% for florfenicol and diclazuril. The method was successfully validated according to International Conference on Harmonisation and proved to be suitable for the simultaneous determination of florfenicol and diclazuril in compound powder.

  14. Preliminary measurements of aromatic VOCs in public transportation modes in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L Y; Lau, W L; Wang, X M; Tang, J H

    2003-07-01

    This study examined the exposure level of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in public transportation modes in Guangzhou, China. A total of 40 VOC samples were conducted in four popular public commuting modes (subway, taxis, non-air-conditioned buses and air-conditioned buses) while traversing in urban areas of Guangzhou. Traffic-related VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene) were collected on adsorbent tubes and analyzed by thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography/mass-selective detector (GC/MSD) technique. The results indicate that commuter exposure to VOCs is greatly influenced by the choice of public transport. For the benzene measured, the mean exposure level in taxis (33.6 microg/m(3)) was the highest and was followed by air-conditioned buses (13.5 microg/m(3)) and non-air-conditioned buses (11.3 microg/m(3)). The exposure level in the subway (7.6 microg/m(3)) is clearly lower than that in roadway transports. The inter-microenvironment variations of other target compounds were similar to that of benzene. The target VOCs were well correlated to each other in all the measured transports. The concentration profile of the measured transport was also investigated and was found to be similar to each other. Based on the experiment results, the average B/T/E/X found in this study was about (1.0/4.3/0.7/1.4). In this study, the VOC levels measured in evening peak hours were only slightly higher than those in afternoon non-peak hours. This is due to the insignificant change of traffic volume on the measured routes between these two set times. The out-dated vehicle emission controls and slow-moving traffic conditions may be the major reasons leading elevated in-vehicle exposure level in some public commuting journeys.

  15. Socioeconomic and personal behavioral factors affecting children's exposure to VOCs in urban areas in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Hyaejeong; Ryu, Kyongnam; Jang, Kyungjo; Bae, Hyunjoo; Kim, Dongjin; Shin, Hosung; Chu, Jangmin; Yoon, Chungsik

    2010-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to cause adverse health effects. We investigated the relationships between children's VOC exposure and socioeconomic and human activity factors with passive personal samplers, questionnaires, and time-activity diaries (TAD). Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS 9.1, and the results were organized using SigmaPlot 8.0 software. Chemicals such as benzene, toluene, 2-butanone, ethylbenzene, xylene, chloroform, n-hexane, heptane, and some kinds of decanes, which are known to adversely affect public health, were identified in measured samples. These were mainly emitted from outdoor sources (e.g., vehicular traffic) or indoor sources (e.g., household activities such as cooking and cleaning) or both. We concluded that region was the most important socioeconomic factor affecting children's VOC exposure, and the significant compounds were n-hexane (p = 0.006), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (p = 0.001), benzene (p = 0.003), toluene (p = 0.002), ethylbenzene (p = 0.020), m-, p-xylene (p = 0.014), dodecane (p = 0.003), and hexadecane (p = 0.001). Parental education, year of home construction and type of housing were also slightly correlated with personal VOC exposure. Only the concentration of o-xylene (p = 0.027) was significantly affected by the parental education, and the concentrations of benzene (p = 0.030) and 2-butanone (p = 0.049) by the type of housing. Also, tridecane (p = 0.049) and n-hexane (p = 0.033) were significantly associated with the year of home construction. When household activities such as cooking were performed indoors, children's VOC concentrations tended to be higher, especially for n-hexane, chloroform, heptane, toluene (p factors simultaneously, socioeconomic factors such as region had a greater effect on children's VOC exposures than indoor activities. From this study, we can suggest that socioeconomic factors as well as environmental factors should be considered when formulating environmental policy to

  16. Spectral determination of individual rare earths in different classes of inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, L.I.; Fadeeva, L.A.; Shevchenko, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    The conditions are found allowing to analyze various inorganic compounds for rare-earth elements without separation from non-rare-earth components. The influence of the plasma composition on the intensity of spectral lines of rare-earth elements is studied. The relative intensity of homologous spectral lines of various rare-earth elements remains constant regardless of the plasma composition. The conditions are found for the determination of individual rare-earth elements acting as both alloying additives (Csub(n) -- n x 10 -1 -n x 10 -3 %), and basic components (up to tens of per cent) in different classes of inorganic compounds of 1-7 elements. The general method is developed for the determination of individual rare-earth elements in mixtures of oxides of rare-earth elements, complex fluorides of rare-earth elements and elements of group 2, gallates, borates, germanates, vanadates of rare-earth elements and aluminium; zirconates-titanates of lead and barium, containing modifying additives of rare-earth elements, complex chalcogenides of rare-earth elements and elements of group 5

  17. Hard cap espresso extraction and liquid chromatography determination of bioactive compounds in vegetables and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sena, María Teresa; de la Guardia, Miguel; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A; Armenta, Sergio

    2017-12-15

    A new analytical procedure, based on liquid chromatography with diode array and fluorescence detection, has been proposed for the determination of bioactive compounds in vegetables and spices after hard cap espresso extraction. This novel extraction system has been tested for the determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin from fresh chilli and sweet pepper, piperine from ground pepper, curcumin from turmeric and curry, and myristicin from nutmeg. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by using acetonitrile:water and ethanol:water mixtures. The proposed method allows the extraction of samples with 100mL of 60% (v/v) ethanol in water. The obtained limits of quantification for the proposed procedure ranged from 0.07 to 0.30mgg -1 and results were statistically comparable with those obtained by ultrasound assisted extraction. Hard cap espresso machines offer a fast, effective and quantitative tool for the extraction of bioactive compounds from food samples with an extraction time lower than 30s, using a global available and low cost equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of volatile organic compounds responsible for flavour in cooked river buffalo meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Luccia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Flavour is an important consumer attractive that directly influences the success of food products on the market. The determination of odorous molecules and their identification allows to useful knowledge for producers to valorise their own products. Buffalo meat has a different chemical composition from pork and beef and requires some cautions in cooking and processing. This work aims at the identification of volatile molecules responsible for flavours in river buffalo meat. The determination was carried out by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME technique and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The most relevant results were the higher odorous impact of buffalo meat and the higher content of sulphide compounds responsible for wild aroma respect to pork and beef. These results were obtained comparing the total area of peaks detected in every chromatogram. We have also found significant differences concerning the contents of pentadecane, 1-hexanol-2 ethyl, butanoic acid, furano-2-penthyl. The origin of volatile organic compounds and their influence on the river buffalo aromas were discussed.

  19. Levels, trends and determinants of organohalogen compounds in breast milk in the netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houweling, D. A.; Steentjes, G. M.; Van Dekken, A.; Baumann, R. A.; Hoogerbrugge, R.; Zeilmaker, M. J.

    2002-07-01

    Since 1968, human milk surveys have been performed in the Netherlands at five year intervals to study trends in human exposure to polychlorinated organic compounds (POCs). From 1988 onwards dioxin-like congeners were analysed. The most recent campaign was carried out in 1998. In the campaign of 1998, in addition to the levels and trends of POCs in breast milk, potential determinants of the levels of POXCs in breast milk (such as the age of the mother, body mass index (BMI) of the mother, smoking behaviour and dietary habits) were also studied. Previously we presented preliminary results of the analysis of 36 breast milk samples. here we present the results of the analysis of 193 breast milk samples and the analysis of potential determinants of POC levels in breast milk. (Author) 8 refs.

  20. Determination of phenolic compounds and evaluation of antioxidant capacity of Campomanesia adamantium leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, I.D.; Coelho, R.G.; Honda, N.K.; Silva, J.R.M.; Cardoso, C.A.L. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: claudia@uems.br; Kataoka, V.M.F. [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Dourados, MS (Brazil). Curso de Quimica; Vilegas, W. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2008-10-15

    Five flavanones and three chalcones were isolated from Campomanesia adamantium Berg. (Myrtaceae) leaves. The contents of these compounds were determined by HPLC. The phenolic contents were also determined. The monitoring of the antioxidant activity was carried out by inhibition of peroxidation using the linoleic acid system and radical-scavenging (DPPH). The plants were collected from 4 distinct cities of the Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The different samples exhibited a range of 4.67-232.35 mg/g chalcones and 15.62-50.71 mg/g flavanones and phenolic contents of the 7.24-21.19 mg/g gallic acid. All extracts showed high antioxidant activity with a wide range of the radical-scavenging (DPPH) from 52.0 to 92.2 % and inhibition oxidation of linoleic acid from 14.6 to 94.2%. (author)

  1. Determination of phenolic compounds and evaluation of antioxidant capacity of Campomanesia adamantium leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, I.D.; Coelho, R.G.; Honda, N.K.; Silva, J.R.M.; Cardoso, C.A.L.; Kataoka, V.M.F.; Vilegas, W.

    2008-01-01

    Five flavanones and three chalcones were isolated from Campomanesia adamantium Berg. (Myrtaceae) leaves. The contents of these compounds were determined by HPLC. The phenolic contents were also determined. The monitoring of the antioxidant activity was carried out by inhibition of peroxidation using the linoleic acid system and radical-scavenging (DPPH). The plants were collected from 4 distinct cities of the Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The different samples exhibited a range of 4.67-232.35 mg/g chalcones and 15.62-50.71 mg/g flavanones and phenolic contents of the 7.24-21.19 mg/g gallic acid. All extracts showed high antioxidant activity with a wide range of the radical-scavenging (DPPH) from 52.0 to 92.2 % and inhibition oxidation of linoleic acid from 14.6 to 94.2%. (author)

  2. Determination of the n-octanol/water partition coefficients of weakly ionizable basic compounds by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with neutral model compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chao; Han, Shu-ying; Qiao, Jun-qin; Lian, Hong-zhen; Ge, Xin

    2014-11-01

    A strategy to utilize neutral model compounds for lipophilicity measurement of ionizable basic compounds by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography is proposed in this paper. The applicability of the novel protocol was justified by theoretical derivation. Meanwhile, the linear relationships between logarithm of apparent n-octanol/water partition coefficients (logKow '') and logarithm of retention factors corresponding to the 100% aqueous fraction of mobile phase (logkw ) were established for a basic training set, a neutral training set and a mixed training set of these two. As proved in theory, the good linearity and external validation results indicated that the logKow ''-logkw relationships obtained from a neutral model training set were always reliable regardless of mobile phase pH. Afterwards, the above relationships were adopted to determine the logKow of harmaline, a weakly dissociable alkaloid. As far as we know, this is the first report on experimental logKow data for harmaline (logKow = 2.28 ± 0.08). Introducing neutral compounds into a basic model training set or using neutral model compounds alone is recommended to measure the lipophilicity of weakly ionizable basic compounds especially those with high hydrophobicity for the advantages of more suitable model compound choices and convenient mobile phase pH control. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Migration rates of volatile organic compounds in an unconsolidated sand and gravel aquifer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, J.R.; Paquette, D.E.; Porcelli, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The movement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an aquifer is dictated by its solubility, attenuation characteristics, recharge volume, and ground-water movement (velocity and direction). At Brookhaven National Laboratory, past handling and disposal practices at the Hazardous Waste Management Facility and current landfill have resulted in the release of VOCs and the radioisotope tritium to the underlying upper glacial aquifer which characterized by unconsolidated sands and gravel. The rate of VOC migration from these source areas was examined using the following parameters: (1) distribution of VOCs and tritium; (2) tritium/helium ratios, which provide an estimate of the age of the water, and hence the rate of ground-water movement; (3) ground-water flow velocities within the upper glacial aquifer utilizing conductivity, porosity, and gradient data. Preliminary results indicate that whereas the comparison of the calculated ground-water flow gradient to tritium/helium age determinations are fairly consistent, application to VOC movement is inconclusive, and will require additional monitoring which would also focus on the vertical component as well

  4. Analysis and evaluation of VOC removal technologies demonstrated at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnut, D.A.; Wagoner, J.; Nitao, J.J.; Boyd, S.; Shaffer, R.J.; Kansa, E.J.; Buscheck, T.A.; Pruess, K.; Falta, R.W.

    1993-09-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds, or VOCs, are u