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Sample records for compound nucleus effect

  1. Compound nucleus effects in spin-spin cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    By comparison with recent data, it is shown that spin-spin cross sections for low-energy neutrons may be dominated by a simple compound-elastic level-density effect, independent of spin-spin terms in the nucleon-nucleus optical-model potential. (Auth.)

  2. Hyperon compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1987-11-01

    The formation of various hypernuclei from K - absorption at rest is discussed from the viewpoints of compound decay of highly excited hypernuclei in contrast to the direct reaction mechanism. Recent (stopped K - , π) experiments at KEK as well as old data of emulsion and bubble chamber experiments are discussed. Some future direction of hypernuclear spectroscopy is suggested. (author)

  3. Dynamic effects in the decay of the 59Cu compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornal, B.; Natositz, J.B.; Nebbia, G.; Prete, G.; Viesti, G.

    1990-01-01

    In the last few years a number of light particle emission measurements were performed to study angular momentum effects in the decay of light mass compound nuclei at excitation energies ∼100 MeV formed in heavy ion induced complete fusion reactions. A general observation in these kind of experiments is that for spin ranges where the rotating liquid drop model (RLDM) predicts near spherical shapes the deexcitation of 59 Cu compound nucleus is well described by the standard statistical model calculations. However, as the angular momentum increases to values for which the RLDM predicts significant deformations, important differences between the experimental and calculated spectra are observed. The statistical calculations using standard parameters: RLDM yrast line, Lang level density formula and transmission coefficients from the optical model, lead to the more high energy α-particles then experimentally observed. The situation is illustrated in this paper where the experimental and calculated spectra are compared for α-emission from 59 Cu nuclei produced in the reaction of 150 MeV 32 S with 27 Al. The experiments were performed at the Tandem XTU in Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro. A subtraction technique was used to isolate spectra corresponding to compound nucleus angular moments 27 ℎ max /F min = 1.2 at J = 27ℎ to R max /R min = 2.0 at J = 39ℎ. It was recognized that the fitting of the α-spectra required a level density enhancement estimated to be ∼ 100 times then that calculated using the Lang formula in the case of 59 Cu at J = 34 ℎ and E x = 60 MeV

  4. Semi classical model of the neutron resonance compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Makio

    1995-01-01

    A Semi-classical model of compound nucleus is developed, where time evolution and recurrence for many degrees of freedom (oscillators) excited simultaneously are explicitly considered. The effective number of oscillators plays the role in the compound nucleus, and the nuclear temperatures are derived, which are in good agreement with the traditional values. Time structures of the compound nucleus at resonance are considered, from which equidistant level series with an envelope of strength function of giant resonance nature is obtained. S-matrix formulation for fine structure resonance is derived. (author)

  5. Compound nucleus studies withy reverse kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1985-06-01

    Reverse kinematics reactions are used to demonstrate the compound nucleus origin of intermediate mass particles at low energies and the extension of the same mechanism at higher energies. No evidence has appeared in our energy range for liquid-vapor equilibrium or cold fragmentation mechanisms. 11 refs., 12 figs

  6. Nuclear alignment following compound nucleus reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, P.A.; Nolan, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for calculating the alignment of a nuclear state populated by a compound nucleus reaction is given and used to investigate how alignment varies for different types of population mechanisms. The calculations are compared to both predictions of Gaussian models for the state population distribution and to experimental data, for a variety of types of nuclear reactions. The treatment of alignment in the analysis of γ-ray angular distribution is discussed. (orig.)

  7. Parity violation in the compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G. E.; Crawford, B. E.; Grossmann, C. A.; Lowie, L. Y.; Bowman, J. D.; Knudson, J.; Penttilae, S.; Seestrom, S. J.; Smith, D. A.; Yen, Yi-Fen; Yuan, V. W.; Delheij, P. P. J.; Haseyama, T.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Postma, H.; Roberson, N. R.; Sharapov, E. I.; Stephenson, S. L.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements have been performed on the helicity dependence of the neutron resonance cross section for many nuclei by our TRIPLE Collaboration. A large number of parity violations are observed. Generic enhancements amplify the signal for symmetry breaking and the stochastic properties of the compound nucleus permit the strength of the symmetry-breaking interaction to be determined without knowledge of the wave functions of individual states. A total of 15 nuclei have been analyzed with this statistical approach. The results are summarized

  8. Parity violation in the compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.D.; Frankle, C.M.; Green, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The status of parity violation in the compound nucleus is reviewed. The results of previous experimental results obtained by scattering polarized epithermal neutrons from heavy nuclei in the 3-p and 4-p p-wave strength function peaks are presented. Experimental techniques are presented. The extraction of the mean squared matrix element of the parity-violating interaction, M 2 , between compound-nuclear levels and the relationship of M 2 to the coupling strengths in the meson exchange weak nucleon-nucleon potential are discussed. The tendency of measured asymmetries to have a common sign and theoretical implications are discussed. New experimental results are presented that show that the common sign phenomenon is not universal, as theoretical models developed up to now would predict

  9. Effect of excitation energy and angular momentum on the characteristics of 208Po and 210Po compound nucleus fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itkis, M.G.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Okolovich, V.N.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.; Tolstikov, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    To study characteristics of fissioning nucleus fragments, investigated were reactiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiH8Pt+ 12 C → 210 Po in the 12 C ion energy range of 86-110.5 MeV, of 192 Os+ 16 O → 208 Po in 90-131 MeV range, 204 Pb+ 3 He → 207 Po, 206 Pb+ 3 He → 209 Po, 207 Pb+ 3 He → 210 Po with 60 MeV 3 He ion energy. Using a correlation technique for measuring energies of two fragments mass and energy distributions of fission fragments of 208 Po and 210 Po compound nuclei produced in the reactions have been studied. Mass and energy distributions of fragments from fission of 208 Po and 210 Po in the reactions with ions 16 O, 12 C and 3 He were investigated in an ample energy range, using the correlational techniques for measurement of energies of two fragments. An increase in the total kinetic energy with rise of the angular momentum was observed, the fact indicating a weak coupling of one-particle and collective modes of motion in the fissile nucleus resulting in that the rolational energy is transfered mainly to translation energies of the fragments

  10. Statistical emission of complex fragments from highly excited compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuse, T.

    1991-01-01

    A full statistical analysis has been given in terms of the Extended Hauser-Feshbach method. The charge and kinetic energy distributions of 35 Cl+ 12 C reaction at E lab = 180, 200 MeV and 23 Na+ 24 Mg reaction at E lab = 89 MeV which form the 47 V compound nucleus are investigated as a prototype of the light mass system. The measured kinetic energy distributions of the complex fragments are shown to be well reproduced by the Extended Hauser-Feshbach method, so the observed complex fragment production is understood as the statistical binary decay from the compound nucleus induced by heavy-ion reaction. Next, this method is applied to the study of the complex production from the 111 In compound nucleus which is formed by the 84 Kr+ 27 Al reaction at E lab = 890 MeV. (K.A.) 18 refs., 10 figs

  11. Formation and decay of a hot compound nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlson B.V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The compound nucleus plays an important role in nuclear reactions over a wide range of projectile-target combinations and energies. The limits that angular momentum places on its formation and existence are, for the most part, well understood. The limits on its excitation energy are not as clear. Here we first analyze general geometrical and thermodynamical features of a hot compound nucleus. We then discuss the manners by which it can decay and close by speculating on the high energy limit to its formation and existence.

  12. Failure of the statistical hypothesis for compound nucleus decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    In the past five years, conclusive evidence has accumulated that channel correlations are important in resonance reactions. Experiments showing the failure of the statistical hypothesis for compound nucleus decay are described. The emphasis is on the radiative neutron capture reaction, where much detailed work has been done. A short summary of the theory of the (n,γ) reaction is presented; it is demonstrated that this reaction is a sensitive probe of the wave functions for highly excited nuclear states. Various experimental techniques using reactor and accelerator-based neutron sources are presented. The experiments have shown that both resonant and non-resonant reactions can show single particle effects where the external part of configuration space is dominant. In the non-resonant case, hard sphere capture is important; on resonances, valence particle motion and the contributions of 1 and 3 quasi-particle doorway states make up a significant fraction of the radiative width

  13. Monte Carlo Simulation for Statistical Decay of Compound Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick M.B.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We perform Monte Carlo simulations for neutron and γ-ray emissions from a compound nucleus based on the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory. This Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshbach (MCHF method calculation, which gives us correlated information between emitted particles and γ-rays. It will be a powerful tool in many applications, as nuclear reactions can be probed in a more microscopic way. We have been developing the MCHF code, CGM, which solves the Hauser-Feshbach theory with the Monte Carlo method. The code includes all the standard models that used in a standard Hauser-Feshbach code, namely the particle transmission generator, the level density module, interface to the discrete level database, and so on. CGM can emit multiple neutrons, as long as the excitation energy of the compound nucleus is larger than the neutron separation energy. The γ-ray competition is always included at each compound decay stage, and the angular momentum and parity are conserved. Some calculations for a fission fragment 140Xe are shown as examples of the MCHF method, and the correlation between the neutron and γ-ray is discussed.

  14. New quasibound states of the compound nucleus in α -particle capture by the nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P.; Zhang, Peng-Ming; Zou, Li-Ping

    2017-07-01

    We generalize the theory of nuclear decay and capture of Gamow that is based on tunneling through the barrier and internal oscillations inside the nucleus. In our formalism an additional factor is obtained, which describes distribution of the wave function of the the α particle inside the nuclear region. We discover new most stable states (called quasibound states) of the compound nucleus (CN) formed during the capture of α particle by the nucleus. With a simple example, we explain why these states cannot appear in traditional calculations of the α capture cross sections based on monotonic penetrabilities of a barrier, but they appear in a complete description of the evolution of the CN. Our result is obtained by a complete description of the CN evolution, which has the advantages of (1) a clear picture of the formation of the CN and its disintegration, (2) a detailed quantum description of the CN, (3) tests of the calculated amplitudes based on quantum mechanics (not realized in other approaches), and (4) high accuracy of calculations (not achieved in other approaches). These peculiarities are shown with the capture reaction of α +44Ca . We predict quasibound energy levels and determine fusion probabilities for this reaction. The difference between our approach and theory of quasistationary states with complex energies applied for the α capture is also discussed. We show (1) that theory does not provide calculations for the cross section of α capture (according to modern models of the α capture), in contrast with our formalism, and (2) these two approaches describe different states of the α capture (for the same α -nucleus potential).

  15. Likelihood analysis of parity violation in the compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, D.; Sharapov, E.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss the determination of the root mean-squared matrix element of the parity-violating interaction between compound-nuclear states using likelihood analysis. We briefly review the relevant features of the statistical model of the compound nucleus and the formalism of likelihood analysis. We then discuss the application of likelihood analysis to data on panty-violating longitudinal asymmetries. The reliability of the extracted value of the matrix element and errors assigned to the matrix element is stressed. We treat the situations where the spins of the p-wave resonances are not known and known using experimental data and Monte Carlo techniques. We conclude that likelihood analysis provides a reliable way to determine M and its confidence interval. We briefly discuss some problems associated with the normalization of the likelihood function

  16. Non-compound nucleus fission in actinide and pre-actinide regions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... In this article, some of our recent results on fission fragment/product angular distributions are discussed in the context of non-compound nucleus fission. Measurement of fission fragment angular distribution in 28Si+176Yb reaction did not show a large contribution from the non-compound nucleus fission.

  17. Dynamical hindrance to compound nucleus formation in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocki, J.; Feldmeier, H.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    A large number of dynamical trajectories corresponding to colliding nuclei, as represented by an idealized, sharp-surfaced liquid-drop model with one-body dissipation are examined. The objective was to delineate quantitatively, within this model, the behaviour of the extra-extra-push energy E XX in its dependence on the mass /or charge/ numbers of the colliding nuclei. Qualitatively, the results are as anticipated on the basis of earlier studies: the appearance of a dynamical limitation on compound nucleus formation beyond a certain threshold locus in the A 1 . A 2 plane, with the energy E XX rising smoothly but rapidly beyond the threshold. The reduction of the two-dimensional function E XX /A 1 ,A 2 / to a one-dimensional function of a mean fissility x m appears possible as a rough approximation. As expected, the mean fissility x and the entrance channel fissility x 0 . The optimum choice appears to be one in which x is given about twice the weight of x 0

  18. Model for fusion and cool compound nucleus formation based on the fragmentation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, N.; Aroumougame, R.; Saroha, D.R.; Gupta, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Collective potential energy surfaces are calculated in both the adiabatic and sudden approximations by using the asymmetric two-center shell model in the Strutinsky method. It is shown that fusion of two colliding heavy ions occurs by their crossing over of the adiabatic interaction barrier. The adiabatic scattering potentials present two barriers, whereas no barrier is shown to occur in sudden scattering potentials. The first barrier is obtained just past the saddle shape but is too low, such that a deep inelastic process is expected. The other, inner, barrier is high enough to let the system fall into the fusion well, whose excitation energy then determines whether a cool compound nucleus is produced or the fusion-fission process occurs. For a given compound nucleus, the excitation energy is found to be small for only a few target-projectile combinations, which increase as their mass asymmetry increases. Such target-projectile combinations which refer to a cool compound nucleus can be identified by a simple calculation of the fragmentation potential based on the ground state binding energies with Coulomb and proximity effects calculated at a constant relative separation of the two nuclei. Our calculations are made for the composite systems with 102 < or =Z < or =114

  19. Model for fusion and cool compound nucleus formation based on the fragmentation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, N.; Aroumougame, R.; Saroha, D.R.; Gupta, R.K.

    1985-07-01

    The collective potential energy surfaces are calculated in both the adiabatic and sudden approximations by using the asymmetric two centre shell model in Strutinsky method. It is shown that fusion of two colliding heavy ions occur by their crossing over of the adiabatic interaction barrier. The adiabatic scattering potentials present two barriers whereas no barrier is shown to occur in sudden scattering potentials. The first barrier is obtained just past the saddle shape but is too low, such that a deep inelastic process is expected. The other, inner, barrier is high enough to let the system fall into the fusion well, whose excitation energy then determine whether a cool compound nucleus is produced or the fusion-fission process occurs. For a given compound nucleus, the excitation energy is found to be small for only a few target-projectile combinations, which increase as their mass asymmetry increases. Such target-projectile combinations which refer to a cool compound nucleus, can be identified by a simple calculation of the fragmentation potential based on the ground state binding energies with Couloumb and proximity effects calculated at a constant relative separation of the two nuclei. Our calculations are made for the composite systems with 102<=Z<=114. (author)

  20. Various processes occurring in strong interactions between heavy ions: Compound nucleus formation, incomplete fusion, and quasifission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefort, M.

    1975-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of various deep processes occurring when two complex nuclei enter in collision. It is suggested that very deep inelastic processes may lead to either a compound nucleus or a composite system which shortly decays into two fission fragments (quasifission process). Particularly for heavy projectiles and targets, the predominant Coulomb potential inhibits the compound nucleus formation for low l waves. Then a critical angular momentum can be defined as the limit below which both processes (quasifission and compound nucleus formation) occur. For the heaviest nuclei, nearly all l waves below l) contribute to the quasifission phenomenon

  1. Data on parity violation in the compound nucleus and its interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.D.; Frankle, C.M.; Knudson, J.N.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses the measurement of parity-violating asymmetries in the compound nucleus; summary of data on this process; theories of the random asymmetry, M 2 ; and theories of the constant asymmetry

  2. Dynamical hindrance to compound-nucleus formation in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocki, J.P.; Swiatecki, W.J.; Feldmeier, H.

    1986-05-01

    The model of a sharp-surfaced drop with one-body dissipation is used to map out the extra-extra push energy Esub(xx)(A 1 ,A 2 ) (i.e. the excess bombarding energy above the Coulomb barrier required to form a compound nucleus) in its dependence on the mass numbers A 1 , A 2 of the colliding nuclei. The calculated two-dimensional function Esub(xx)(A 1 ,A 2 ) may be scaled approximately to a one-dimensional dependence on a mean fissility parameter xsub(m) = (2/3)x + (1/3)xsub(e), where x is the total system's fissility and xsub(e) is the entrance channel 'effective' fissility. Apart from indications of possible nuclear structure effects, the theoretical predictions seem consistent with experimental data on evaporation residue measurements for system with A 1 =A 2 . For asymmetric systems the relation to experiment is unclear. A by-product is the calculation of nucleus-nucleus sticking times, which are generally found to be in the range around a few times 10 -21 s, but could be longer in special cases. (orig.)

  3. Oriented heavy ions and the choice of a cool compound nucleus reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aroumougame, R.; Gupta, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    Potential energy surfaces are calculated within the mechanism of fragmentation theory with a view to selecting the target-projectile combinations for producing new elements through cool compound nucleus formation. The orientation of the colliding nuclei is also included. It is shown that both the reaction partners of a cool compound nucleus, formed in either a central or a nearly central collision, should preferably be spherical and either nearly symmetric or extremely asymmetric. For reactions with deformed nuclei, it is suggested that polarised targets should be used. The calculations are illustrated for the compound nuclei 258 104 and 260 106. (author)

  4. Odd-Z Transactinide Compound Nucleus Reactions Including the Discovery of 260Bh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Sarah L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Several reactions producing odd-Z transactinide compound nuclei were studiedwith the 88-Inch Cyclotron and the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The goal was to produce the same compound nucleus ator near the same excitation energy with similar values of angular momentum via differentnuclear reactions. In doing so, it can be determined if there is a preference in entrancechannel, because under these experimental conditions the survival portion of Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilcznska, and Wilczynski's"Fusion By Diffusion" model is nearly identical forthe two reactions. Additionally, because the same compound nucleus is produced, theexit channel is the same. Four compound nuclei were examined in this study: 258Db, 262Bh, 266Mt, and 272Rg. These nuclei were produced by using very similar heavy-ion induced-fusion reactions which differ only by one proton in the projectile or target nucleus (e.g.: 50Ti + 209Bi vs. 51V + 208Pb). Peak 1n exit channel cross sections were determined for each reaction in each pair, and three of the four pairs' cross sections were identical within statistical uncertainties. This indicates there is not an obvious preference of entrancechannel in these paired reactions. Charge equilibration immediately prior to fusionleading to a decreased fusion barrier is the likely cause of this phenomenon. In addition to this systematic study, the lightest isotope of element 107, bohrium, was discovered in the 209Bi(52Cr,n) reaction. 260Bh was found to decay by emission of a 10.16 MeV alpha particle with a half-life of 35$+19\\atop{-9}$ ms. The cross section is 59 pb at an excitation energy of 15.0 MeV. The effect of the N = 152 shell is also seen in this isotope's alpha particle energy, the first evidence of such an effect in Bh. All reactions studied are also compared to model predictions by Swiatecki

  5. Odd-Z Transactinide Compound Nucleus Reactions Including the Discovery of 260Bh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Sarah L; Nelson, Sarah L

    2008-01-01

    Several reactions producing odd-Z transactinide compound nuclei were studied with the 88-Inch Cyclotron and the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The goal was to produce the same compound nucleus at or near the same excitation energy with similar values of angular momentum via different nuclear reactions. In doing so, it can be determined if there is a preference in entrance channel, because under these experimental conditions the survival portion of Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilcznska, and Wilczynski's 'Fusion By Diffusion' model is nearly identical for the two reactions. Additionally, because the same compound nucleus is produced, the exit channel is the same. Four compound nuclei were examined in this study: 258Db, 262Bh, 266Mt, and 272Rg. These nuclei were produced by using very similar heavy-ion induced-fusion reactions which differ only by one proton in the projectile or target nucleus (e.g.: 50Ti + 209Bi vs. 51V + 208Pb). Peak 1n exit channel cross sections were determined for each reaction in each pair, and three of the four pairs; cross sections were identical within statistical uncertainties. This indicates there is not an obvious preference of entrance channel in these paired reactions. Charge equilibration immediately prior to fusion leading to a decreased fusion barrier is the likely cause of this phenomenon. In addition to this systematic study, the lightest isotope of element 107, bohrium, was discovered in the 209Bi(52Cr,n) reaction. 260Bh was found to decay by emission of a 10.16 MeV alpha particle with a half-life of 35 ms. The cross section is 59 pb at an excitation energy of 15.0 MeV. The effect of the N = 152 shell is also seen in this isotope's alpha particle energy, the first evidence of such an effect in Bh. All reactions studied are also compared to model predictions by Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilcznska, and Wilczynski's 'Fusion By Diffusion' theory

  6. A study of compound particles in pion-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Tufail

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the phenomenon of multiparticle production has been studied using the nuclear emulsion technique. Nuclear emulsion is a material which memorises the tracks of charged particles. When an incident particle interacts with the nuclei of the emulsion, secondary particles are produced. These secondary particles are classified into three categories viz., shower (Ns), grey (Ng) and black (Nb) particles. The investigation of particle-nucleus collisions is fundamental for understanding the nature of the interaction process. In such studies most of the attention was paid to the relativistic charged particles that is showers (1-3). From the survey of literature it is found that slow particles (grey and black) are less studied in comparison to charged shower particles. Grey particles may provide some valuable information and it may be taken as good measure of number of collisions made by the incident particle

  7. Centrifugal fragmentation of a dinuclear system in the process of its evolution to the compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    The physical content of centrifugal fragmentation is discussed. It is a specific nuclear process which is realized in the evolution of a dinuclear system into a compound nucleus at large angular momenta and large mass asymmetry of the system. The dinuclear system concept which describes the process of the compound nucleus formation in heavy ion reactions predicts the possibility of centrifugal fragmentation. Experimental data giving evidence of the realization of this nuclear process are given. A possible scheme of the centrifugal fragmentation model is discussed

  8. Centrifugal Fragmentation of a Dinuclear System in the Process of Its Evolution to the Compound Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Volkov, V V

    2005-01-01

    The physical content of centrifugal fragmentation is discussed. It is a specific nuclear process which is realized in the evolution of a dinuclear system into a compound nucleus at large angular momenta and large mass asymmetry of the system. The dinuclear system concept which describes the process of the compound nucleus formation in heavy ion reactions predicts the possibility of centrifugal fragmentation. Experimental data giving evidence of the realization of this nuclear process are given. A possible scheme of the centrifugal fragmentation model is discussed.

  9. Compound nucleus in Livsic open-system theory: Factorization of the S matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishai, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The compound-nucleus system fits into a mathematical theory of open systems in physics developed by the mathematician M. Livsic [Translations of Mathematical Monographs (American Mathematical Society, Providence, Rhode Island, 1973), Vol. 34]. In this article we review some basic concepts of the above theory and apply it to study the structure of the compound-nucleus S matrix. One of the results is a factorization of the S matrix in the form S(ω) = S +iA/sub k//(tau/sub k/-ω)], where A/sub k/ are known matrices and tau/sub k/ are the complex resonance energies

  10. Non-compound nucleus fission in actinide and pre-actinide regions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Data on the evaporation residue cross-sections, in addition to those on mass and angular distributions, are necessary for better understanding of the contribution from non-compound nucleus fission in the pre-actinide region. Measurement of mass-resolved angular distribution of fission products in 20Ne+232Th reaction ...

  11. Compound Nucleus Reactions in LENR, Analogy to Uranium Fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, Heinrich; Miley, George; Philberth, Karl

    2008-03-01

    The discovery of nuclear fission by Hahn and Strassmann was based on a very rare microanalytical result that could not initially indicate the very complicated details of this most important process. A similarity is discussed for the low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) with analogies to the yield structure found in measurements of uranium fission. The LENR product distribution measured earlier in a reproducible way in experiments with thin film electrodes and a high density deuteron concentration in palladium has several striking similarities with the uranium fission fragment yield curve.ootnotetextG.H. Miley and J.A. Patterson, J. New Energy 1, 11 (1996); G.H. Miley et al, Proc ICCF6, p. 629 (1997).This comparison is specifically focussed to the Maruhn-Greiner local maximum of the distribution within the large-scale minimum when the fission nuclei are excited. Implications for uranium fission are discussed in comparison with LENR relative to the identification of fission a hypothetical compound nuclear reaction via a element ^306X126 with double magic numbers.

  12. Memory effects in dissipative nucleus-nucleus collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, H.L.; Agarwal, K.C.

    2002-01-01

    A macroscopic dynamical model within the framework of a multidimensional Fokker-Planck equation is employed for a theoretical description of low-energy dissipative collisions between two heavy nuclei. The effect of two-body collisions leading to intrinsic equilibrium has been treated phenomenologically using the basic concepts of dissipative diabatic dynamics. The heavy-ion reaction 86 Kr(8.18 MeV/u) + 166 Er has been as a prototype to study and demonstrate the memory effects for dissipation and diffusion processes. Our calculated results for the deflection angle, angular distributions dσ/dθ cm , energy distributions dσ/dΔΕ, and element distributions dσ/dΖ illustrate a remarkable dependence on the memory effects and are consistent with the experimental data

  13. Memory effects in dissipative nucleus-nucleus collision

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, H L

    2002-01-01

    A macroscopic dynamical model within the framework of a multidimensional Fokker-Planck equation is employed for a theoretical description of low-energy dissipative collisions between two heavy nuclei. The effect of two-body collisions leading to intrinsic equilibrium has been treated phenomenologically using the basic concepts of dissipative diabatic dynamics. The heavy-ion reaction sup 8 sup 6 Kr(8.18 MeV/u) + sup 1 sup 6 sup 6 Er has been as a prototype to study and demonstrate the memory effects for dissipation and diffusion processes. Our calculated results for the deflection angle, angular distributions d sigma/d theta sub c sub m , energy distributions d sigma/d DELTA EPSILON, and element distributions d sigma/d ZETA illustrate a remarkable dependence on the memory effects and are consistent with the experimental data

  14. Dissipative nucleus-nucleus collisions: study of memory effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, K.C.; Yadav, H.L.

    2002-01-01

    Dissipative collisions between two heavy nuclei are described in terms of a macroscopic dynamical model within the framework of a multi-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation. The reaction 86 Kr(8.18 MeV/u) + 166 Er has been used as a prototype to study and demonstrate the memory effects for dissipation and diffusion processes

  15. Effective nucleus-nucleus potentials derived from the generator coordinate method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, H; Canto, L F [Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics

    1977-11-07

    The equivalence of the generator coordinate method (GCM) and the resonating group method (RGM) and the formal equivalence of the RGM and the orthogonality condition model (OCM) lead to a relation connecting the effective nucleus-nucleus potentials of the OCM with matrix elements of the GCM. This relation may be used to derive effective nucleus-nucleus potentials directly from GCM matrix elements without explicit reference to the potentials of the RGM. In a first application local and l-independent effective potentials are derived from diagonal GCM matrix elements which represent the energy surfaces of a two-centre shell model. Using these potentials the OCM can reproduce the results of a full RGM calculation very well for the elastic scattering of two ..cap alpha..-particles and fairly well for elastic /sup 16/O-/sup 16/O scattering.

  16. Centrifugal fragmentation of a dinuclear system in the process of its evolution toward a compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V. V.

    2007-01-01

    The centrifugal fragmentation of a dinuclear system in the process of evolution toward a compound nucleus is examined. If the angular momentum in the collision of primary nuclei is quite high, centrifugal forces become dominant at the final stage of the evolution of the dinuclear system formed, causing the decay of this dinuclear system to two strongly asymmetric nuclear fragments. Experimental data in which this specific nuclear process manifests itself are presented. Centrifugal fragmentation makes it possible to reveal the cluster facet of the evolution of a dinuclear system toward a compound nucleus. The possibility of this fragmentation process is a logical consequence of the concept of a dinuclear system for the complete fusion of nuclei

  17. Dependence of compound nucleus formation probability on K equilibration time in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, C.; Thomas, R.G.; Mohanty, A.K.; Kapoor, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we have carried out the analysis of fragment anisotropy data of various systems selected for cases Z 1 Z 2 < 1600 and Z CN < 96 so that both QF and FF are absent and the anomalous anisotropies are only due to PEF. It may also be noted that in such cases J cr (the J above which the fusion pocket vanishes) is less than J Bf = 0 (the J at which the liquid drop fission barrier vanishes) so that all J's will be contributing to PEF as well. According to PEF model, the observed angular anisotropy of fission fragments in heavy-ion induced reactions can be written as an admixture of two components: the anisotropy from compound nucleus fission (CN) and anisotropy due to non-compound nucleus fission (NCN)

  18. X detection in heavy ion induced reactions. Application to the lifetime measurement of a compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liatard, E.

    1984-01-01

    The ionization of inner electronic shells can be used to determine the lifetime of a compound nucleus formed in a nuclear reaction. The principle of the measure is based on the comparison between the unknown lifetime of the nuclear process and the known lifetime of a K-shell vacancy created during the collision. Besides testing this method, which we call the ''atomic-clok'' method with the compound nucleus 112 Te formed by the reaction 20 Ne (205 MeV) + 92 Mo, the work in this thesis basically consists of a description and a study of the problems presented by the use of X-ray spectroscopy in nuclear-decay-time measurements and Z-identification of heavy nuclear products [fr

  19. Fast fission phenomenon, deep inelastic reactions and compound nucleus formation described within a dynamical macroscopic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, C.; Ngo, C.; Remaud, B.

    1982-01-01

    We present a dynamical model to describe dissipative heavy ion reactions. It treats explicitly the relative motion of the two ions, the mass asymmetry of the system and the projection of the isospin of each ion. The deformations, which are induced during the collision, are simulated with a time-dependent interaction potential. This is done by a time-dependent transition between a sudden interaction potential in the entrance channel and an adiabatic potential in the exit channel. The model allows us to compute the compound-nucleus cross section and multidifferential cross-sections for deep inelastic reactions. In addition, for some systems, and under certain conditions which are discussed in detail, a new dissipative heavy ion collision appears: fast-fission phenomenon which has intermediate properties between deep inelastic and compound nucleus reactions. The calculated properties concerning fast fission are compared with experimental results and reproduce some of those which could not be understood as belonging to deep inelastic or compound-nucleus reactions. (orig.)

  20. Theory of and effects from elastoplasticity in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noerenberg, W.; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt

    1985-02-01

    Elastoplasticity of finite Fermi systems results from a coherent coupling between collective and intrinsic degrees of freedom and subsequent equilibration essentially due to two-body collisions. Within a non-markovian transport-theoretical approach referred to as dissipative diabatic dynamics (DDD), elastoplastical forms the link between giant vibrations and overdamped motion of nuclear. Obersvable effects resulting from this non-markovian behaviour in nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. (orig.)

  1. On the criterion for the optimum choice of a compound nucleus reaction for producing superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aroumougame, R.; Gupta, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    The possible reaction partners of a cool compound nucleus reaction for the synthesis of the elements Z = 104, 106 and 108 are studied in terms of the potential energy surfaces, interaction barriers and the nuclear shapes calculated within the frame work of the Fragmentation theory based on two centre shell model. An estimate of the total reaction cross-section suggests that for larger fusion probabilities, the mass and charge asymmetries are the only essential criterion for the optimum choice of a cooler compound nuclear reaction. Larger the mass and charge asymmetries, larger is the fusion cross-section. (auth.)

  2. A systematics of optical model compound nucleus formation cross sections for neutrons, proton, deuteron, 3He and alpha particle incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Toru

    2000-01-01

    Simple formulae to reproduce the optical model compound nucleus formation cross sections for neutron, proton, deuteron, triton, 3 He and alpha particles are presented for target nuclei of light to medium weight mass region. (author)

  3. Producing a compound Nucleus via Inelastic Scattering: The 90Zr(alpha,alpha')90Zr* Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S

    2008-05-23

    In a Surrogate reaction a compound nucleus is produced via a direct reaction (pickup, stripping, or inelastic scattering). For a proper application of the Surrogate approach it is necessary to predict the resulting angular momentum and parity distribution in the compound nucleus. A model for determining these distributions is developed for the case of inelastic alpha scattering off a spherical nucleus. The focus is on obtaining a first, simple description of the direct-reaction process that produces the compound nucleus and on providing the basis for a more complete treatment of the problem. The approximations employed in the present description are discussed and the extensions required for a more rigorous treatment of the problem are outlined. To illustrate the formalism, an application to {sup 90}Zr({alpha},{alpha}{prime}){sup 90}Zr* is presented.

  4. Neutron resonances in the compound nucleus: Parity nonconservation to dynamic temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, V.W.

    1997-08-01

    Experiments using epithermal neutrons that interact to form compound-nuclear resonances serve a wide range of scientific applications. Changes in transmission which are correlated to polarization reversal in incident neutrons have been used to study parity nonconservation in the compound nucleus for a wide range of targets. The ensemble of measured parity asymmetries provides statistical information for the extraction of the rms parity-violating mean-square matrix element as a function of mass. Parity nonconservation in neutron resonances can also be used to determine the polarization of neutron beams. Finally the motion of target atoms results in an observed temperature-dependent Doppler broadening of resonance line widths. This broadening can be used to determine temperatures on a fast time scale of one microsecond or less

  5. Binary fragmentation based studies for the near super-heavy compound nucleus {sup 256}Rf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Meenu; Behera, B.R.; Mahajan, Ruchi; Kaur, Gurpreet; Sharma, Priya; Kapoor, Kushal; Rani, Kavita [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (India); Saneesh, N.; Dubey, R.; Yadav, A.; Sugathan, P.; Jhingan, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Chatterjee, M.B. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi (India); Kumar, Neeraj; Mandal, S. [University of Delhi, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Delhi (India); Kumar, S. [Andhra University, Department of Nuclear Physics, Visakhapatnam (India); Saxena, A.; Kailas, S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Physics Division, Mumbai (India); Pal, Santanu [CS, Kolkata (India); Nasirov, Avazbek [JINR, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); National University, Department of Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Kayumov, Bakhodir [National University, Department of Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan)

    2017-06-15

    Binary fragmentation of the near super-heavy compound nucleus {sup 256}Rf has been studied through the reaction {sup 48}Ti + {sup 208}Pb at a bombarding energy well above the Coulomb barrier. For a better understanding of its reaction dynamics, the mass distribution, mass-energy distribution and mass-angle distribution of the fission fragments produced from {sup 256}Rf have been investigated thoroughly. The masses and kinetic energies of the fission fragments were reconstructed event-by-event from their measured velocities and emission angles. From the mass-energy analysis, a sizeable contribution from the asymmetric fission was observed on the edges of symmetric mass distribution. Evidence of asymmetric fission was also clued from the observed correlation between the masses and emission angles of the fission fragments. Contribution of the quasi-fission products has also been estimated by performing the theoretical dinuclear system calculations. (orig.)

  6. Final State Interactions Effects in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan, Tomasz [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Juszczak, Cezary [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Sobczyk, Jan T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Final State Interactions effects are discussed in the context of Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-nucleus interactions. A role of Formation Time is explained and several models describing this effect are compared. Various observables which are sensitive to FSI effects are reviewed including pion-nucleus interaction and hadron yields in backward hemisphere. NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generator is described and its ability to understand neutral current $\\pi^0$ production data in $\\sim 1$ GeV neutrino flux experiments is demonstrated.

  7. Proton decay in a nucleus: Nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.A.; Alvarez-Estrada, R.F.; Sanchez-Gomez, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, proton decay in a large nucleus is studied in the framework of SU(5) grand unification theory (GUT). By using a method based upon the Green's-function technique of many-body physics, nuclear effects on spectator and pole terms are computed. The decay width in the nucleus is found to be practically the same as in free space. However, nuclear effects are of considerable importance concerning the positron spectrum. A density-correlation expansion is introduced which is useful for carrying out a systematic study of nuclear effects in proton decay in a large nucleus. The method presented here can be easily extended to other GUT's or supersymmetric GUT's

  8. Parity non-conserving effects in neutron-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desplanques, B.

    1990-01-01

    The present lecture reviews the motivations which led to study the contribution of the neutron-nucleus component to parity-non-conserving effects observed in medium-heavy nuclei and considers its present status. It is shown that it cannot account for those experimental data. The order interpretation of these effects, which cannot lead to precise statements, is schematically described

  9. Survival and compound nucleus probability of super heavy element Z = 117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjunatha, H.C. [Government College for Women, Department of Physics, Kolar, Karnataka (India); Sridhar, K.N. [Government First grade College, Department of Physics, Kolar, Karnataka (India)

    2017-05-15

    As a part of a systematic study for predicting the most suitable projectile-target combinations for heavy-ion fusion experiments in the synthesis of {sup 289-297}Ts, we have calculated the transmission probability (T{sub l}), compound nucleus formation probabilities (P{sub CN}) and survival probability (P{sub sur}) of possible projectile-target combinations. We have also studied the fusion cross section, survival cross section and fission cross sections for different projectile-target combination of {sup 289-297}Ts. These theoretical parameters are required before the synthesis of the super heavy element. The calculated probabilities and cross sections show that the production of isotopes of the super heavy element with Z = 117 is strongly dependent on the reaction systems. The most probable reactions to synthetize the super heavy nuclei {sup 289-297}Ts are worked out and listed explicitly. We have also studied the variation of P{sub CN} and P{sub sur} with the mass number of projectile and target nuclei. This work is useful in the synthesis of the super heavy element Z = 117. (orig.)

  10. Survival and compound nucleus probability of super heavy element Z = 117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunatha, H.C.; Sridhar, K.N.

    2017-01-01

    As a part of a systematic study for predicting the most suitable projectile-target combinations for heavy-ion fusion experiments in the synthesis of "2"8"9"-"2"9"7Ts, we have calculated the transmission probability (T_l), compound nucleus formation probabilities (P_C_N) and survival probability (P_s_u_r) of possible projectile-target combinations. We have also studied the fusion cross section, survival cross section and fission cross sections for different projectile-target combination of "2"8"9"-"2"9"7Ts. These theoretical parameters are required before the synthesis of the super heavy element. The calculated probabilities and cross sections show that the production of isotopes of the super heavy element with Z = 117 is strongly dependent on the reaction systems. The most probable reactions to synthetize the super heavy nuclei "2"8"9"-"2"9"7Ts are worked out and listed explicitly. We have also studied the variation of P_C_N and P_s_u_r with the mass number of projectile and target nuclei. This work is useful in the synthesis of the super heavy element Z = 117. (orig.)

  11. Effective number of inelastically interacting nucleons in rare nucleus-nucleus production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkikh, V.L.; Lokhtin, I.P.

    1992-01-01

    A model of nucleus-nucleus interaction using one inelastic NN-interaction is suggested for the exclusive production processes with small cross-section. A-dependence nuclear coherent and incoherent production cross-section are predicted. 20 refs.; 4 figs

  12. Quest for consistent modelling of statistical decay of the compound nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tathagata; Nath, S.; Pal, Santanu

    2018-01-01

    A statistical model description of heavy ion induced fusion-fission reactions is presented where shell effects, collective enhancement of level density, tilting away effect of compound nuclear spin and dissipation are included. It is shown that the inclusion of all these effects provides a consistent picture of fission where fission hindrance is required to explain the experimental values of both pre-scission neutron multiplicities and evaporation residue cross-sections in contrast to some of the earlier works where a fission hindrance is required for pre-scission neutrons but a fission enhancement for evaporation residue cross-sections.

  13. Multi-quark effects in high energy nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besliu, C.; Caraciuc, I.; Jipa, A.; Olariu, A.; Topor-Pop, R.; Cotorobai, F.; Pantea, D.; Popa, L.; Popa, V.; Topor-Pop, V.

    1988-02-01

    Recent data obtained in two experiments performed in the framework of the Bucharest-Dubna collaboration are presented, i.e.: the observation of narrow dibaryonic resonances is neutron-proton interactions in 1mHBC at different momenta of incident neutrons in the range 1-5 GeV/c, and the cumulative production of negative pions in nucleus-nucleus interactions in SKM-200 streamer chamber at 4.5 GeV/c. (authors)

  14. WIMP-nucleus scattering in chiral effective theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Graesser, Michael L.; Ovanesyan, Grigory

    2012-10-01

    We discuss long-distance QCD corrections to the WIMP-nucleon(s) interactions in the framework of chiral effective theory. For scalar-mediated WIMP-quark interactions, we calculate all the next-to-leading-order corrections to the WIMP-nucleus elastic cross-section, including two-nucleon amplitudes and recoil-energy dependent shifts to the single-nucleon scalar form factors. As a consequence, the scalar-mediated WIMP-nucleus cross-section cannot be parameterized in terms of just two quantities, namely the neutron and proton scalar form factors at zero momentum transfer, but additional parameters appear, depending on the short-distance WIMP-quark interaction. Moreover, multiplicative factorization of the cross-section into particle, nuclear and astro-particle parts is violated. In practice, while the new effects are of the natural size expected by chiral power counting, they become very important in those regions of parameter space where the leading order WIMP-nucleus amplitude is suppressed, including the so-called "isospin-violating dark matter" regime. In these regions of parameter space we find order-of-magnitude corrections to the total scattering rates and qualitative changes to the shape of recoil spectra.

  15. Synthesis of superheavy elements and dinuclear-system concept of compound-nucleus formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonenko, N.V.; Adamian, G.G.; Cherepanov, E.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Dinuclear system concept is applied to the analysis of reactions used for the synthesis of elements with Z = 110, 112, 114, and 116. The inner fusion barriers obtained for these reactions are in good agreement with the experimental estimations resulted from the excitation energies of compound nuclei. A model is suggested for the calculation of the competition between complete fusion and quasifission in reactions with heavy nuclei. The fusion rate through the inner fusion barrier in mass asymmetry is found by using the multidimensional Kramers-type stationary solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. The influence of dissipative effects on the dynamics of nuclear fusion is considered.

  16. K+ nucleus total cross section experiment and nuclear medium effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Ruth.

    1992-11-01

    The low momentum K + is the weakest of the available strongly interacting particles. It has a mean bee path in nuclear matter of about 6 fm which makes it a good probe for studying properties of the nuclear interior. It allows one to build a good microscopic optical potential which can be used to calculate K + nucleus elastic and total cross sections. In the latter case the calculated ratio R T =[σ tot (K + A)/A]/[σ tot (K + d)/2] can be expected to be more reliable because some uncertainties in K + N phase shifts will cancel. This ratio can also be measured more reliably than the total cross sections themselves because of cancellation of some systematic errors. We measured the total cross sections of K + on D, 6 Li, 12 C, 28 Si and 40 Ca from 488 to 714 MeV/c. The emphasis was placed on extracting values of R T with a precision of better than 2 percent. The total cross section ratios are found to lie significantly above those predicted by optical potential calculations with the usual nuclear medium corrections. This suggests that novel phenomena are taking place within the nucleus. Several models which incorporate such phenomena are discussed, including nucleon 'swelling', mass rescaling, nuclear pions, and relativistic effects. (author) 31 refs., 27 figs., 21 tabs.,

  17. Atomic inner shell ionization: a new method of nuclear interaction lifetimes in the range 10-16-10-18 second. Lifetime measurement of the compound nucleus in the reaction 106Cd+p (Ep=10 and 12 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemin, J.-F.

    1978-01-01

    A new method to measure the lifetime of the compound nucleus formed in the reaction 106 Cd+p at Ep=10 and 12 MeV is described. The nuclear lifetime is compared to the known lifetime of an atomic inner shell vacancy created in the entrance channel of the nuclear reaction. If the ionization probability in he way-in of the nuclear reaction is kown the compound nucleus lifetime is deduced by a simple relation from the number of compound X-rays measured in coincidence with one of the reaction products. A large number of ionization probability values measured in very small impact parameter collisions induced by H + , He + , D + on Al, Cu, S, Ti, Si, Ag, Cd are reported. The data are interpreted in terms of the corrected SCA theory of ionization. New effects such as angular dependence and trajectory effect (hair-pin-curve effect) are shown experimentally. The influence of a nuclear delay time on the ionization probability value is considered; the effect on a nuclear reaction of the energy losses by the projectile during the ionization process is analysed in detail. The yield curve of the resonant nuclear reaction 27 Al(p,γ) 28 Si is taken as an example. A detailed analysis of the compound nucleus 107 In lifetimes is given. Attention has been paid to competitive processes leading to X ray emission of same energy as the compound X rays. Extensions of the method to measure compound nucleus lifetimes in collision induced by heavy ions and to separate the shape elastic and compound elastic mechanisms are presented [fr

  18. Distinct effect of orphanin FQ in nucleus raphe magnus and nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis on the rat tail flick reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Zhang, Y; Wu, G

    2001-06-22

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of orphanin FQ (OFQ) microinjected into the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NGC) on pain modulation. The tail-flick latency (TFL) was used as a behavioral index of nociceptive responsiveness. The result showed microinjection of OFQ into the NRM significantly increased the TFL, whereas microinjection of OFQ into the NGC decreased the TFL, suggesting the analgesic effect of OFQ in the NRM and the hyperalgesic effect of OFQ in the NGC. As there are three classes of putative pain modulating neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), the hyperalgesic or analgesic effect of OFQ in the RVM might depend upon the different class of the neurons being acted.

  19. Width and strength of the hot giant dipole resonance. The role of the life time of the compound nucleus and the transition from order to chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, P.

    1996-01-01

    A bump in the γ decay spectrum is observed at high energies which is due to the excitation of the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) in the compound nucleus. The fact is discussed that the total width of the γ-ray spectrum of the GDR transitions must contain twice the width of the compound nucleus levels. This implies that one must except a rapid increase of the width of the GDR. This increase contributes to the observed saturation of the photon multiplicity. A new suppression factor due to the lost of collectivity induced by the fast particle emission is proposed. (K.A.)

  20. Cascade γ-decay of a heavy nucleus compound state: the experimental picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhovoj, A.M.; Khitrov, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    Peculiarities of excitation and decay (for assigned final state of excited levels of 35 nuclei from 114 Cd to 200 Hg in energy range, equal approximately to the neutron binding energy, were studied in experiments with the use of the method of summation of amplitudes of coinciding pulses from Ge-detectors. Main features of the process of cascade γ-decay of compound states (neutron resonances) of the most complex nuclei were revealed in the whole range of levels dictating this process

  1. Nucleus--nucleus potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaqaman, H.R.

    1977-01-01

    The nucleus--nucleus interaction is studied within the framework of the generator coordinate method that permits an easy incorporation of the full effects of antisymmetrization. It is found that the interaction, as far as the elastic scattering problem is concerned, can be described by a simple effective potential that is equivalent to the original many-body (and hence non-local) problem. The potential is obtained by dividing the wavefunction into a long-range part and a short-range part and requiring the former to satisfy a Schroedinger equation. This enables avoiding dealing with the troublesome short-range part of the wavefunction and provides a direct link with the optical model so that the potential obtained here is equivalent to the real part of the optical potential (the imaginary part is not investigated). The effective potential is found to consist of three parts: an interaction term between the nucleons belonging to different nuclei, a kinetic energy term due to the change in the intrinsic kinetic energy of the system as a result of the antisymmetrization, and finally an l-dependent part. The kinetic energy term is found to be very repulsive and effectively gives a hard core, and is calculated for the α--α and 16 O-- 16 O cases. The full potential is calculated for the α--α case for the S, D, and G partial waves and then used to calculate the corresponding phase shifts that are then compared with experimental results and other microscopic calculations. Finally, some recent results and analyses of fusion and deep inelastic reactions are reviewed that seem to indicate the presence of a hard core in the nucleus--nucleus potential. Such a hard core is present in the potential obtained in the sudden approximation

  2. Effect of cochlear nerve electrocautery on the adult cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseli, Claire E; Merwin, William H; Klatt-Cromwell, Cristine; Hutson, Kendall A; Ewend, Matthew G; Adunka, Oliver F; Fitzpatrick, Douglas C; Buchman, Craig A

    2015-04-01

    Electrocauterization and subsequent transection of the cochlear nerve induce greater injury to the cochlear nucleus than sharp transection alone. Some studies show that neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) patients fit with auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) fail to achieve speech perception abilities similar to ABI recipients without NF2. Reasons for these differences remain speculative. One hypothesis posits poorer performance to surgically induced trauma to the cochlear nucleus from electrocautery. Sustained electrosurgical depolarization of the cochlear nerve may cause excitotoxic-induced postsynaptic nuclear injury. Equally plausible is that cautery in the vicinity of the cochlear nucleus induces necrosis. The cochlear nerve was transected in anesthetized adult gerbils sharply with or without bipolar electrocautery at varying intensities. Gerbils were perfused at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days postoperatively; their brainstem and cochleas were embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 10 μm. Alternate sections were stained with flourescent markers for neuronal injury or Nissl substance. In additional experiments, anterograde tracers were applied directly to a sectioned eighth nerve to verify that fluorescent-labeled profiles seen were terminating auditory nerve fibers. Cochlear nerve injury was observed from 72 hours postoperatively and was identical across cases regardless of surgical technique. Postsynaptic cochlear nucleus injury was not seen after distal transection of the nerve. By contrast, proximal transection was associated with trauma to the cochlear nucleus. Distal application of bipolar electrocautery seems safe for the cochlear nucleus. Application near the root entry zone must be used cautiously because this may compromise nuclear viability needed to support ABI stimulation.

  3. Pion inelastic scattering and the pion-nucleus effective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This work examines pion inelastic scattering with the primary purpose of gaining a better understanding of the properties of the pion-nucleus interaction. The main conclusion of the work is that an effective interaction which incorporates the most obvious theoretical corrections to the impulse approximation does a good job of explaining pion elastic and inelastic scattering from zero to 200 MeV without significant adjustments to the strength parameters of the force. Watson's multiple scattering theory is used to develop a theoretical interaction starting from the free pion-nucleon interaction. Elastic scattering was used to calibrate the isoscalar central interaction. It was found that the impulse approximation did poorly at low energy, while the multiple scattering corrections gave good agreement with all of the data after a few minor adjustments in the force. The distorted wave approximation for the inelastic transition matrix elements are evaluated for both natural and unnatural parity excitations. The isoscalar natural parity transitions are used to test the reaction theory, and it is found that the effective interaction calibrated by elastic scattering produces good agreement with the inelastic data. Calculations are also shown for other inelastic and charge exchange reactions. It appears that the isovector central interaction is reasonable, but the importance of medium corrections cannot be determined. The unnatural parity transitions are also reasonably described by the theoretical estimate of the spin-orbit interaction, but not enough systematic data exists to reach a firm conclusion

  4. [Analysis of the Effect of Non-phacoemulsification Cataract Operation on Corneal Endothelial Cell Nucleus Division].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zufeng; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effect of non-phacoemulsification cataract operation in two different patterns of nucleus delivery on the quantity and morphology of corneal endothelial cells and postoperative visual acuity. Forty patients diagnosed with cataract underwent cataract surgery and were assigned into the direct nuclear delivery and semi-nuclear delivery groups. Lens density was measured and divided into the hard and soft lenses according to Emery-little lens nucleus grading system. Non-phacoemulsification cataract operation was performed. At 3 d after surgery, the quantity and morphology of corneal endothelium were counted and observed under corneal endothelial microscope. During 3-month postoperative follow-up, the endothelial cell loss rate, morphological changes and visual acuity were compared among four groups. Corneal endothelial cell loss rate in the direct delivery of hard nucleus group significantly differed from those in the other three groups before and 3 months after operation (P nucleus, semi-delivery of hard nucleus and semi-delivery soft nucleus groups (all P > 0.05). Preoperative and postoperative 2-d visual acuity did not differ between the semi-delivery of hard nucleus and direct delivery of soft nucleus groups (P = 0.49), significantly differed from those in the semi-delivery of soft nucleus (P = 0.03) and direct delivery of hard nucleus groups (P = 0.14). Visual acuity at postoperative four months did not differ among four groups (P = 0.067). During non-phacoemulsification cataract surgery, direct delivery of hard nucleus caused severe injury to corneal endothelium and semi-delivery of soft nucleus yielded mild corneal endothelial injury. Slight corneal endothelial injury exerted no apparent effect upon visual acuity and corneal endothelial morphology at three months after surgery.

  5. Effects of VPAC1 activation in nucleus ambiguus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherghina, Florin Liviu; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Deliu, Elena; Abood, Mary E; Brailoiu, G Cristina; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2017-02-15

    The pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its G protein-coupled receptors, PAC1, VPAC1 and VPAC2 form a system involved in a variety of biological processes. Although some sympathetic stimulatory effects of this system have been reported, its central cardiovascular regulatory properties are poorly characterized. VPAC1 receptors are expressed in the nucleus ambiguus (nAmb), a key center controlling cardiac parasympathetic tone. In this study, we report that selective VPAC1 activation in rhodamine-labeled cardiac vagal preganglionic neurons of the rat nAmb produces inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-mediated Ca 2+ mobilization, membrane depolarization and activation of P/Q-type Ca 2+ channels. In vivo, this pathway converges onto transient reduction in heart rate of conscious rats. Therefore we demonstrate a VPAC1-dependent mechanism in the central parasympathetic regulation of the heart rate, adding to the complexity of PACAP-mediated cardiovascular modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Normative findings of electrically evoked compound action potential measurements using the neural response telemetry of the Nucleus CI24M cochlear implant system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cafarelli-Dees, D.; Dillier, N.; Lai, W.K.; Wallenberg, E. von; Dijk, B. van; Akdas, F.; Aksit, M.; Batman, C.; Beynon, A.J.; Burdo, S.; Chanal, J.M.; Collet, L.; Conway, M.; Coudert, C.; Craddock, L.; Cullington, H.; Deggouj, N.; Fraysse, B.; Grabel, S.; Kiefer, J.; Kiss, J.G.; Lenarz, T.; Mair, A.; Maune, S.; Muller-Deile, J.; Piron, J.P.; Razza, S.; Tasche, C.; Thai-Van, H.; Toth, F.; Truy, E.; Uziel, A.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    One hundred and forty-seven adult recipients of the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system, from 13 different European countries, were tested using neural response telemetry to measure the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP), according to a standardised postoperative measurement

  7. The effect of background absorption on the compound cross-section in resonance scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, A.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of channel-channel correlations in the compound cross-section is studied in a model of a resonance above a compound background characterized by equal absorption in all open channels. A general rule which cannot be derived from unitarity alone is proved for the fluctuating cross-section. It provides new understanding of level-level correlations in scattering through compound nucleus states. (author)

  8. Nuclear re-interaction effects in quasi-elastic neutrino nucleus scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Co, G.; Bleve, C.; De Mitri, I.; Martello, D

    2002-11-01

    The quasi-elastic {nu}-nucleus cross section has been calculated by using a Fermi gas model corrected to consider the re-scattering between the emitted nucleon and the rest nucleus. As an example of the relevance of this effect we show results for the muon production cross section on {sup 16}O target.

  9. The Stimulatory Effect of Notochordal-Cell Conditioned Medium in a Nucleus Pulposus Explant Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Stefan; Doeselaar, Marina van; Meij, Björn; Tryfonidou, M; Ito, Keita

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Notochordal cell-conditioned medium (NCCM) has previously shown to have a stimulatory effect on nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in alginate and pellet cultures. These culture methods provide a different environment than the nucleus pulposus (NP)

  10. The Stimulatory Effect of Notochordal Cell-Conditioned Medium in a Nucleus Pulposus Explant Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Stefan A H; van Doeselaar, Marina; Meij, Björn P; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Ito, K

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Notochordal cell-conditioned medium (NCCM) has previously shown to have a stimulatory effect on nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in alginate and pellet cultures. These culture methods provide a different environment than the nucleus pulposus (NP)

  11. Visual discrimination in the pigeon (Columba livia): effects of selective lesions of the nucleus rotundus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverghetta, A. V.; Shimizu, T.

    1999-01-01

    The nucleus rotundus is a large thalamic nucleus in birds and plays a critical role in many visual discrimination tasks. In order to test the hypothesis that there are functionally distinct subdivisions in the nucleus rotundus, effects of selective lesions of the nucleus were studied in pigeons. The birds were trained to discriminate between different types of stationary objects and between different directions of moving objects. Multiple regression analyses revealed that lesions in the anterior, but not posterior, division caused deficits in discrimination of small stationary stimuli. Lesions in neither the anterior nor posterior divisions predicted effects in discrimination of moving stimuli. These results are consistent with a prediction led from the hypothesis that the nucleus is composed of functional subdivisions.

  12. The Spectator-Induced Electromagnetic Effect on Meson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at SPS Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybicki Andrzej

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic interaction between the spectator system and the charged mesons produced in the course of the high energy heavy ion collision was studied experimentally and theoretically in earlier works [1,2]. This effect was found to result in very large distortions of the final state spectra of the produced mesons [3] and to bring new information on the space-time evolution of the non-perturbative meson production process [4]. In this paper a more extended analysis of this effect will be presented, including a comparative study between charged meson spectra produced in Pb+Pb collisions as well as collisions of Pb ions with smaller nuclei. The experimental results will be compared with Monte Carlo simulations, giving a fair overall understanding of the interplay between the strong and the electromagnetic interaction in the heavy ion collision. A universal behaviour of charged meson spectra emerges from the above comparative study. This gives a unique chance of using the spectator charge as a tool to study the space-time evolution of the high energy nucleus-nucleus reaction.

  13. Coulomb effects in the deuteron-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'michev, V.E.; Peresypkin, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    The authors develop a consistent theory for calculation of the potential of the deuteron interaction with the Coulomb field of a nucleus. They study the properties of this potential at large distances and give its explicit form at the deuteron-breakup threshold. In the limit of low energies they derive the potential, which includes intermediate off-energy-shell states, and explain the physical nature of its constants. The accuracy of the transition to the polarization interaction is estimated

  14. Genetic effects of organic mercury compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramel, C

    1967-01-01

    Studies on the genetic and developmental effects of organic mercury compounds on lilies, drosophila, and ice were carried out. It was found that chromosomal and developmental abnormalities were correlated with the administration of mercury compounds.

  15. Stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus area in Parkinson's disease: effects on speech and intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Serge; Ferraye, Murielle; Espesser, Robert; Fraix, Valérie; Maillet, Audrey; Guirchoum, Jennifer; Layani-Zemour, Deborah; Ghio, Alain; Chabardès, Stéphan; Pollak, Pierre; Debû, Bettina

    2014-10-01

    Improvement of gait disorders following pedunculopontine nucleus area stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease has previously been reported and led us to propose this surgical treatment to patients who progressively developed severe gait disorders and freezing despite optimal dopaminergic drug treatment and subthalamic nucleus stimulation. The outcome of our prospective study on the first six patients was somewhat mitigated, as freezing of gait and falls related to freezing were improved by low frequency electrical stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus area in some, but not all, patients. Here, we report the speech data prospectively collected in these patients with Parkinson's disease. Indeed, because subthalamic nucleus surgery may lead to speech impairment and a worsening of dysarthria in some patients with Parkinson's disease, we felt it was important to precisely examine any possible modulations of speech for a novel target for deep brain stimulation. Our results suggested a trend towards speech degradation related to the pedunculopontine nucleus area surgery (off stimulation) for aero-phonatory control (maximum phonation time), phono-articulatory coordination (oral diadochokinesis) and speech intelligibility. Possibly, the observed speech degradation may also be linked to the clinical characteristics of the group of patients. The influence of pedunculopontine nucleus area stimulation per se was more complex, depending on the nature of the task: it had a deleterious effect on maximum phonation time and oral diadochokinesis, and mixed effects on speech intelligibility. Whereas levodopa intake and subthalamic nucleus stimulation alone had no and positive effects on speech dimensions, respectively, a negative interaction between the two treatments was observed both before and after pedunculopontine nucleus area surgery. This combination effect did not seem to be modulated by pedunculopontine nucleus area stimulation. Although limited in our group of

  16. Genetic effects of organic mercury compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramel, C

    1967-01-01

    Organic mercury compounds have a c-mitotic effect on plant cells that cause polyploidi. Studies were performed on Allium root cells. These investigations involved methyl mercury dicyandiamide, methyl mercury hydroxide, and phenyl mercury hydroxide. The lowest concentration necessary for a cytologically observable effect was about 0.05 ppM Hg for the methyl compounds. For the phenyl compound, the value was lower. Experiments were performed on Drosophila melanogaster. The question was whether the mercury would reach the gonads. Experimental data with mercury treated larvae indicated a chromosome disjunction. Data indicated a preferential segregation at the meiotic division might be involved. Experiments are being performed on mice inbred (CBA) in order to investigate teratogenic effects and dominant lethality caused by organic mercury compounds. The mutagenic effects of these compounds are studied on Neurospora Drosophila. No conclusive data is now available.

  17. 1-3 Nuclear In-medium Effects of Strange Particles in Proton-nucleus Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng; Zhaoqing[1

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of the in-medium properties of strange particles from heavy-ion collisions is very complicated, since he nuclear density varies in the evolution of nucleus-nucleus collisions. To avoid the uncertainties of the baryon ensities during the stage of strange particle production, one can investigate proton-nucleus collisions where the uclear density is definite around the saturation density. Dynamics of strange particles produced in the protoninduced uclear the reactions near the threshold energies has been investigated within the Lanzhou quantum olecular dynamics (LQMD) transport model. The in-medium modifications on particle production in densenuclear matter are considered through the corrections to the elementary cross sections via the effective mass and he mean-field potentials[1].

  18. Disease progression continues in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and effective subthalamic nucleus stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, R; Portman, AT; Voges, J; Staal, MJ; Burghaus, L; van Laar, T; Koulousakis, A; Maguire, RP; Pruim, J; de Jong, BM; Herholz, K; Sturm, [No Value; Heiss, WD; Leenders, KL

    Objectives: Glutamate mediated excitotoxicity of the hyperactive subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been reported to contribute to nigral degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Deep brain stimulation of the STN (STN DBS), in its role as a highly effective treatment of severe PD motor complications,

  19. Direct effect of nicotine on mesolimbic dopamine release in rat nucleus accumbens shell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, J.; Folgering, J. H. A.; van der Hart, M. C. G.; Rollema, H.; Cremers, T. I. F. H.; Westerink, B. H. C.

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine stimulates dopamine (DA) cell firing via a local action at somatodendritic sites in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), increasing DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Additionally, nicotine may also modulate DA release via a direct effect in the NAcc. This study examined the

  20. Intracellular Physiology of the Rat Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: Electrical Properties, Neurotransmission, and Effects of Neuromodulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-10

    Physiology of the Rat Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: Electrical Properties, Neurotransmission, and Effects of Neuromodulators . I-f 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) F...interplay between intrinsic electrophysiological properties, amino-acid-mediated synaptic transmission, and neuromodulation . We have continued to study the

  1. The effects of nicotine injection in rat nucleus accumbens on anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani Yekta B

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous reports showed that nucleus accumbens involved in the etiology and pathophysiology of major depression, anxiety and addiction. It is not clear that how these mechanisms occur in the brain. In the present study, the influence of direct nicotine injection in the nucleus accumbens in rats’ anxiety-related behavior was investigated. Methods: Wistar rats were used in this study. Male Wistar rats bred in an animal house, in a temperature-controlled (22±2 ◦C room with a 12 hour light/darkcycle. Rats were anesthetized using intraperitoneal injection of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine, then placed in an stereotactic instrument for microinjection cannula implantation The stainless steel guide cannula was implanted bilaterally in the right and left dorsal the nucleus accumbens shell according to Paxinos and Watson atlas. After recovery, anxiety behavior and locomotor activity were tested. We used the elevated plus maze to test anxiety. This apparatus has widely been employed to test parameters of anxiety-related behaviors including the open armtime percentage (%OAT, open arm entries percentage (%OAE, locomotor activity and we record effect of drugs after injection directly in the nucleus accumbens on anxiety-related behavior.Results: Experiments showed that bilateral injections into the nucleus accumbens Nicotine, acetylcholine receptor agonist, dose 0.1 of the dose (0.05 and 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 microgram per rat caused a significant increase in the percentage of time spent in the open arms (%OAT, compared to the control group. We did not record any significant change locomotor activity and open arm entries percentage (%OAE in rats.Conclusion: Nicotinic receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell involved to anxiety-like behavior in male rats.

  2. Ethanol injected into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus induces behavioral stimulation in rats: an effect prevented by catalase inhibition and naltrexone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Raúl; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2008-10-01

    It is suggested that some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including its psychomotor properties, are mediated by beta-endorphin and opioid receptors. Ethanol-induced increases in the release of hypothalamic beta-endorphin depend on the catalasemic conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Here, we evaluated the locomotor activity in rats microinjected with ethanol directly into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ArcN), the main site of beta-endorphin synthesis in the brain and a region with high levels of catalase expression. Intra-ArcN ethanol-induced changes in motor activity were also investigated in rats pretreated with the opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone (0-2 mg/kg) or the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT; 0-1 g/kg). We found that ethanol microinjections of 64 or 128, but not 256 microg, produced locomotor stimulation. Intra-ArcN ethanol (128 microg)-induced activation was prevented by naltrexone and AT, whereas these compounds did not affect spontaneous activity. The present results support earlier evidence indicating that the ArcN and the beta-endorphinic neurons of this nucleus are necessary for ethanol to induce stimulation. In addition, our data suggest that brain structures that, as the ArcN, are rich in catalase may support the formation of ethanol-derived pharmacologically relevant concentrations of acetaldehyde and, thus be of particular importance for the behavioral effects of ethanol.

  3. Analgesia induced by morphine microinjected into the nucleus raphe magnus: effects on tonic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dualé, Christian; Sierralta, Fernando; Dallel, Radhouane

    2007-07-01

    One of the possible sites of action of the analgesic effect of morphine is the Nucleus Raphe Magnus, as morphine injected into this structure induces analgesia in transient pain models. In order to test if morphine in the Nucleus Raphe Magnus is also analgesic in a tonic pain model, 5 microg of morphine or saline (control) were microinjected into the Nucleus Raphe Magnus of the rat. Analgesic effects were assessed following nociceptive stimulation using transient heating of the tail (phasic pain) and subcutaneous orofacial injection of 1.5 % formalin (tonic pain). While morphine was strongly analgesic for the tail-flick response (p <0.0001 compared to control), analgesia on the response to formalin was also observed for both early (p = 0.007) and late responses (p = 0.02). However, the response to formalin was not completely blunted. These results suggest that the Nucleus Raphe Magnus is not the exclusive site of action of morphine-induced analgesia in clinical conditions.

  4. Gentiopicroside attenuates morphine rewarding effect through downregulation of GluN2B receptors in nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shui-Bing; Ma, Lan; Guo, Hong-Ju; Feng, Bin; Guo, Yan-Yan; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Sun, Wen-Ji; Zheng, Lian-He; Zhao, Ming-Gao

    2012-08-01

    Gentiopicroside (Gent) is one of the secoiridoid compound isolated from Gentiana lutea. This compound exhibits analgesic activities and inhibits the expression of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex in mice. Nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a forebrain structure known for its role in drug addiction. However, little is known about the role of Gent on morphine dependence and synaptic transmission changes in the NAc. Conditioned place preference (CPP) test and behavioral sensitization of locomotor activity were used to investigate drug-seeking related behaviors. Brain slices containing NAc were prepared, and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed to record the excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Expression of proteins was detected by Western blot analysis. Systemic administration of Gent attenuated the CPP effect induced by morphine, but had no effect on morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Gent significantly reversed overexpression of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors and dopamine D2 receptors in NAc during the first week of morphine withdrawal. However, the compound did not affect the overexpression of GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors, GluA1, and dopamine D1 receptors. Lastly, Gent significantly reduced NMDA receptors-mediated EPSCs in the NAc. Our study provides strong evidence that Gent inhibits morphine dependence through downregulation of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in the NAc. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Relativistic effects in ab initio electron-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Noemi; Leidemann, Winfried; Lovato, Alessandro; Orlandini, Giuseppina

    2018-05-01

    The electromagnetic responses obtained from Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC) calculations are based on realistic treatments of nuclear interactions and currents. The main limitations of this method comes from its nonrelativistic nature and its computational cost, the latter hampering the direct evaluation of the inclusive cross sections as measured by experiments. We extend the applicability of GFMC in the quasielastic region to intermediate momentum transfers by performing the calculations in a reference frame that minimizes nucleon momenta. Additional relativistic effects in the kinematics are accounted for employing the two-fragment model. In addition, we developed a novel algorithm, based on the concept of first-kind scaling, to compute the inclusive electromagnetic cross section of 4He through an accurate and reliable interpolation of the response functions. A very good agreement is obtained between theoretical and experimental cross sections for a variety of kinematical setups. This offers a promising prospect for the data analysis of neutrino-oscillation experiments that requires an accurate description of nuclear dynamics in which relativistic effects are fully accounted for.

  6. [Effects of stimulation of dorso-medial area of nucleus facialis on respiration related units in ventro-lateral region of nucleus tractus solitaris in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J X; Liu, L

    1990-10-01

    In urethane-anesthetized, vagotomized and paralyzed rabbits, effects of electrical stimulation of the dorso-medial area of the nucleus facialis (DMNF) on the respiration-related units (RRUs) in ventro-lateral region of nucleus tractus solitaris (VLNTS) were observed. The experimental results showed that during electrical stimulation of DMNF the majority of the inspiratory (I) neurons (64.4%) were increased in frequency and duration of discharge, some to a marked extent. During electrical stimulation of DMNF the expiratory neurons (35%) were decreased in their frequency and duration of discharge, some to a marked extent too. The responses of RRUs in ipsilateral and contralateral VLNTS to stimulation of DMNF was not statistically significant (P greater than 0.05). It is suggested that DMNF may have a facilitating effect on the inspiratory neurons and an inhibiting effect on the expiratory neurons in VLNTS.

  7. Spontaneous magnetoelastic effects in gadolinium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindbaum, A.; Rotter, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This poster is a short summary of a recently published handbook chapter, where the spontaneous magnetoelastic effects in Gd compounds are reviewed showing that the strain dependence of the magnetic exchange interactions leads to significant effects. These effects are equal in magnitude to well established single ion contributions in other rare earth compounds with non vanishing orbital momentum (coming from the strain dependence of the crystal field). In some cases the exchange contribution can produce giant magnetostriction (GMS) or induce structural phase transitions. In order to extract the influence of the Gd- Gd exchange interactions, we consider only Gd compounds with partner elements showing no or only weak induced magnetic moments. The current status of the theory is presented and compared to measurements performed by temperature dependent x-ray diffraction and results of dilatometric measurements. (author)

  8. Role of higher-multipole deformations and noncoplanarity in the decay of the compound nucleus *220Th within the dynamical cluster-decay model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdeep, Chopra, Sahila; Kaur, Arshdeep; Kaushal, Pooja; Gupta, Raj K.

    2018-04-01

    Background: The formation and decay of the *220Th compound nucleus (CN) formed via some entrance channels (16O+204Pb,40Ar+180Hf,48Ca+172Yb,82Se+138Ba ) at near barrier energies has been studied within the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) [Hemdeep et al. Phys. Rev. C 95, 014609 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevC.95.044603], for quadrupole deformations (β2 i) and "optimum" orientations (θopt) of the two nuclei or decay fragments lying in the same plane (coplanar nuclei, Φ =0∘ ). Purpose: We aim to investigate the role of higher-multipole deformations, the octupole (β3 i) and hexadecupole (β4 i), and "compact" orientations (θc i) together with the noncoplanarity degree of freedom (Φc) in the noncompound nucleus (nCN) cross section, already observed in the above mentioned study with quadrupole deformations (β2 i) alone, the Φ =0∘ case. Methods: The dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM), based on the quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT), is used to analyze the decay channel cross sections σx n for various experimentally studied entrance channels. The parameter Ra (equivalently, the neck length Δ R in Ra=R1+R2+Δ R ), which fixes both the preformation and penetration paths, is used to best fit both unobserved (1 n ,2 n ) and observed (3 n -5 n ) decay channel cross sections, keeping the root-mean-square (r.m.s) deviation to the minimum, which allows us to predict the nCN effects, if any, and fusion-fission (ff) cross sections in various reactions at different CN excitation energies E*. Results: For the decay of CN *220Th, the mass fragmentation potential V (Ai ) and preformation yields P0( Ai ) show an asymmetric fission mass distribution, in agreement with one observed in experiments, independent of adding or not adding (β3 i,β4 i ), and irrespective of large changes (by 36° and 34°), respectively, in "compact" orientations θc i and noncoplanarity Φc, and also in the potential energy surface V (Ai ) in light mass (1 n -5 n ) decays. Whereas the 3 n

  9. Description of nuclear structure and cross sections for nucleon-nucleus scattering on the basis of effective Skyrme forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuprikov, V. I.; Pilipenko, V. V.; Soznik, A. P.; Tarasov, V. N.; Shlyakhov, N. A.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of constructing such new versions of effective nucleon-nucleon forces that would make it possible to describe simultaneously the cross sections for nucleon-nucleus scattering and quantities characterizing nuclear matter and the structure of finite even-even nuclei is investigated on the basis of a microscopic nucleon-nucleus optical potential that is calculated by using effective Skyrme interaction. A procedure for optimizing the parameters of Skyrme forces by employing fits to specific angular distributions for neutron-nucleus scattering and by simultaneously testing the features of nuclear matter, the binding energy of the target nucleus, and its proton root-mean-square radius is proposed. A number of versions of modified Skyrme forces that ensure a reasonable description of both nucleon-nucleus scattering and the properties of nuclear structure are found on the basis of this procedure.

  10. Hybridization and pressure effects in UTX compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alsmadi, A. M.; Sechovský, V.; Lacerda, A. H.; Prokes, K.; Kamarád, Jiří; Chang, S.; Jung, M. H.; Nakotte, H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 91, - (2002), s. 8123-8125 ISSN 0021-8979 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : UTX intermetallic compounds * pressure effects magnetoresistance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.281, year: 2002

  11. Reliability and radiation effects in compound semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Allan

    2010-01-01

    This book discusses reliability and radiation effects in compound semiconductors, which have evolved rapidly during the last 15 years. Johnston's perspective in the book focuses on high-reliability applications in space, but his discussion of reliability is applicable to high reliability terrestrial applications as well. The book is important because there are new reliability mechanisms present in compound semiconductors that have produced a great deal of confusion. They are complex, and appear to be major stumbling blocks in the application of these types of devices. Many of the reliability problems that were prominent research topics five to ten years ago have been solved, and the reliability of many of these devices has been improved to the level where they can be used for ten years or more with low failure rates. There is also considerable confusion about the way that space radiation affects compound semiconductors. Some optoelectronic devices are so sensitive to damage in space that they are very difficu...

  12. Projective multifragments break-up and the electromagnetic field effect of target nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabil Yasin, M.

    1994-12-01

    This work presents a special type of interactions produced in emulsion targets exposed to different incident beams of light ions at a few GeV per nucleon. The events characterised by multifragment break-up of the projectile nucleus which are produced via peripheral collisions or due to the effect of the Coulomb field of the target nucleus have been selected. The size of impact parameter must be considered for determining the type of the interaction. The results are compared with other collected data at energies (up to 200 GeV/nucleon). The dependence of electromagnetic dissociation cross section on the incident projectile energy is investigated. Also, a comparison of the experimental data with the assumed virtual photon spectrum using Weizsaecker-Williams (WW) method is made. (author). 34 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Dynamic nucleus deformability and its effect on the structure of photoabsorption cross section and photodisintegration characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhivopistsev, F.A.; Shitikova, K.V.

    1979-01-01

    Considered is a microscopic theory of specific highly excited states of atomic nuclei-gigantic dipole resonances. Special attention is paid to the effect of complex states of different nature on the structure of the gigantic resonance and characteristics of photodisintegration. The pinning process by more complex states (both of collective and noncollective nature) brings about a condition, when a number of quasiparticles is added to the filled shell, so that the spheric nucleus form would become unstable (to the change of surface properties, ect.). In this case the closed shell is broken, that causes an increase of deformability of the nucleus composition in a highly excited state. The statistical group of 2p2h, 3p3h, et. states is of great value in explanation of characteristics of atomic nuclei photodisintegration, for it provides a statistical, irreversible process of preequilibrium decomposition

  14. Effect of MK-801 on the development of nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens dopamine release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Soo Kyung; Choung, In Soon; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We have previously found that MK-801, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, prevents behavioral sensitization to nicotine. This study aimed to investigate the effect of MK-801 on a neurochemical component of nicotine sensitization by evaluating the effect of the drug on nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) release. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline 30 min before injection of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c., once daily) for 7 consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last drug injection, animals were challenged with local perfusion of 5 mM nicotine into the shell of nucleus accumbens and DA release was monitored using in vivo microdialysis. In rats pretreated with chronic nicotine, local nicotine challenge induced a greater increase of accumbal DA release than in saline-treated animals (maximal DA response 969 {+-} 235% (mean {+-} SEM) of basal level vs. 520 {+-} 93%, P < 0.05). Co-administration of MK-801 with nicotine attenuated an increase of DA release elicited by local nicotine challenge, compared with nicotine alone (maximal DA response 427 {+-} 83% of basal level vs. 969 {+-} 235%, P < 0.01). These results suggest that MK-801 blocks the development of nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens DA release, further supporting the involvement of NMDA receptors in the development of behavioral sensitization to nicotine.

  15. Effect of MK-801 on the development of nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens dopamine release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soo Kyung; Choung, In Soon; Kim, Sang Eun

    2005-01-01

    We have previously found that MK-801, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, prevents behavioral sensitization to nicotine. This study aimed to investigate the effect of MK-801 on a neurochemical component of nicotine sensitization by evaluating the effect of the drug on nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) release. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline 30 min before injection of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c., once daily) for 7 consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last drug injection, animals were challenged with local perfusion of 5 mM nicotine into the shell of nucleus accumbens and DA release was monitored using in vivo microdialysis. In rats pretreated with chronic nicotine, local nicotine challenge induced a greater increase of accumbal DA release than in saline-treated animals (maximal DA response 969 ± 235% (mean ± SEM) of basal level vs. 520 ± 93%, P < 0.05). Co-administration of MK-801 with nicotine attenuated an increase of DA release elicited by local nicotine challenge, compared with nicotine alone (maximal DA response 427 ± 83% of basal level vs. 969 ± 235%, P < 0.01). These results suggest that MK-801 blocks the development of nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens DA release, further supporting the involvement of NMDA receptors in the development of behavioral sensitization to nicotine

  16. Neuropeptide Y in the central nucleus of amygdala regulates the anxiolytic effect of agmatine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksande, Brijesh G; Kotagale, Nandkishor R; Gawande, Dinesh Y; Bharne, Ashish P; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, modulation of anxiolytic action of agmatine by neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) is evaluated employing Vogel's conflict test (VCT) in rats. The intra-CeA administration of agmatine (0.6 and 1.2µmol/rat), NPY (10 and 20pmol/rat) or NPY Y1/Y5 receptors agonist [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY (30 and 60pmol/rat) significantly increased the number of punished drinking licks following 15min of treatment. Combination treatment of subeffective dose of NPY (5pmol/rat) or [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY (15pmol/rat) and agmatine (0.3µmol/rat) produced synergistic anxiolytic-like effect. However, intra-CeA administration of selective NPY Y1 receptor antagonist, BIBP3226 (0.25 and 0.5mmol/rat) produced anxiogenic effect. In separate set of experiment, pretreatment with BIBP3226 (0.12mmol/rat) reversed the anxiolytic effect of agmatine (0.6µmol/rat). Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal injection of agmatine (40mg/kg) on NPY-immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), lateral part of bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNSTl) and CeA. While agmatine treatment significantly decreased the fibers density in BNSTl, increase was noticed in AcbSh. In addition, agmatine reduced NPY-immunoreactive cells in the AcbSh and CeA. Immunohistochemical data suggest the enhanced transmission of NPY from the AcbSh and CeA. Taken together, this study suggests that agmatine produced anxiolytic effect which might be regulated via modulation of NPYergic system particularly in the CeA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  17. Monte Carlo modeling of the net effects of coma scattering and thermal reradiation on the energy input to cometary nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, H.

    1988-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation method is presented that can, to an accuracy of a few percent, calculate the effects of a dusty coma on the total energy input to the cometary nucleus. This method treats nonconservative nonisotropic scattering, as well as the reflection from the nucleus surface. Results are presented as a function of the optical thickness of the dust column in the sun-comet axis. The total energy input to the nucleus appears to be only weakly dependent on the opacity of the coma, the radial distribution of the dust, or the details of the extinction processes. 18 references

  18. Dose enhancement effects to the nucleus and mitochondria from gold nanoparticles in the cytosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, AL; Kam, WW-Y; Scales, N; McMahon, SJ; Bennett, JW; Byrne, HL; Schuemann, J; Paganetti, H; Banati, R; Kuncic, Z

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have shown potential as dose enhancers for radiation therapy. Since damage to the genome affects the viability of a cell, it is generally assumed that GNPs have to localise within the cell nucleus. In practice, however, GNPs tend to localise in the cytoplasm yet still appear to have a dose enhancing effect on the cell. Whether this effect can be attributed to stress-induced biological mechanisms or to physical damage to extra-nuclear cellular targets is still unclear. There is however growing evidence to suggest that the cellular response to radiation can also be influenced by indirect processes induced when the nucleus is not directly targeted by radiation. The mitochondrion in particular may be an effective extra-nuclear radiation target given its many important functional roles in the cell. To more accurately predict the physical effect of radiation within different cell organelles, we measured the full chemical composition of a whole human lymphocytic JURKAT cell as well as two separate organelles; the cell nucleus and the mitochondrion. The experimental measurements found that all three biological materials had similar ionisation energies ~ 70 eV, substantially lower than that of liquid water ~ 78 eV. Monte Carlo simulations for 10 – 50 keV incident photons showed higher energy deposition and ionisation numbers in the cell and organelle materials compared to liquid water. Adding a 1% mass fraction of gold to each material increased the energy deposition by a factor of ~ 1.8 when averaged over all incident photon energies. Simulations of a realistic compartmentalised cell show that the presence of gold in the cytosol increases the energy deposition in the mitochondrial volume more than within the nuclear volume. We find this is due to sub-micron delocalisation of energy by photoelectrons, making the mitochondria a potentially viable indirect radiation target for GNPs that localise to the cytosol. PMID:27435339

  19. Electrolytic lesion of the nucleus raphe magnus reduced the antinociceptive effects of bilateral morphine microinjected into the nucleus cuneiformis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Abbas; Ordikhani-Seyedlar, Mehdi; Ziaei, Maryam

    2008-06-27

    Several lines of investigation show that the rostral ventromedial medulla is a critical relay for midbrain regions, including the nucleus cuneiformis (CnF), which control nociception at the spinal cord. There is some evidence that local stimulation or morphine administration into the CnF produces the effective analgesia through the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM). The present study tries to determine the effect of morphine-induced analgesia following microinjection into the CnF in the absence of NRM. Seven days after the cannulae implantation, morphine was microinjected bilaterally into the CnF at the doses of 0.25, 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 microg/0.3 microl saline per side. The morphine-induced antinociceptive effect measured by tail-flick test at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after microinjection. The results showed that bilateral microinjection of morphine into the CnF dose-dependently causes increase in tail-flick latency (TFL). The 50% effective dose of morphine was determined and microinjected into the CnF (2.5 microg/0.3 microl saline per side) in rats after NRM electrolytic lesion (1 mA, 30 s). Lesion of the NRM significantly decreased TFLs, 30 (Peffects through the opioid receptors in the CnF. It is also appeared that morphine-induced antinociception decreases following the NRM lesion but it seems that there are some other descending pain modulatory pathways that activate in the absence of NRM.

  20. Maruhn-Greiner Maximum for Confirmation of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) via a Compound Nucleus with Double Magic Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, Heinrich; Miley, George

    2007-03-01

    One of the most convincing facts about LENR due to deuterons (ds) or protons of very high concentration in host metals of palladium is the measurement of the large scale minimum in the reaction probability with product elements centered around the nucleon number A = 153. The local maximum was measured in this region is similar to fission of uranium at A = 119 where the local maximum follows the Maruhn-Greiner mechanism^1. We suggest this phenomenon can be explained by the strong screening of the Maxwellian ds on the degenerate rigid electron background within the swimming electrons at the metal surface or thin filem interfaces. The deuterons behave like neutrals at distances of above 2 picometers (pm) and form clusters due to soft attraction in the range of thermal energy; 10 pm diameter clusters can react over long time scales (10^6 s) with Pd leading to double magic number compound nuclei 306x126 decaying via fission to an A=153 element distribution. J. Maruhn et al, Phys. Rev. Letters 32, 548 (1974) H. Hora, G.H. Miley, CzechJ. Phys. 48, 1111 (1998)

  1. Study on irradiation effects of nucleus electromagnetic pulse on single chip computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Minsheng; Liu Shanghe; Wang Shuping

    2001-01-01

    Intense electromagnetic pulse, namely nucleus electromagnetic pulse (NEMP), lightning electromagnetic pulse (LEMP) and high power microwave (HPM), can disturb and destroy the single chip computer system. To study this issue, the authors made irradiation experiments by NEMPs generated by gigahertz transversal electromagnetic (GTEM) Cell. The experiments show that shutdown, restarting, communication errors of the single chip microcomputer system would occur when it was irradiated by the NEMPs. Based on the experiments, the cause on the effects on the single chip microcomputer system is discussed

  2. Rewarding and aversive effects of nicotine are segregated within the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellings, Laurie H L; Baharnouri, Golriz; McQuade, Lindsey E; Clarke, Paul B S

    2008-07-01

    Forebrain dopamine plays a critical role in motivated behavior. According to the classic view, mesolimbic dopamine selectively guides behavior motivated by positive reinforcers. However, this has been challenged in favor of a wider role encompassing aversively motivated behavior. This controversy is particularly striking in the case of nicotine, with opposing claims that either the rewarding or the aversive effect of nicotine is critically dependent on mesolimbic dopamine transmission. In the present study, the effects of 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of nucleus accumbens core vs. medial shell on intravenous nicotine conditioned place preference and conditioned taste aversion were examined in male adult rats. Dopaminergic denervation in accumbens medial shell was associated with decreased nicotine conditioned place preference. Conversely, denervation in accumbens core was associated with an increase in conditioned place preference. In addition, dopaminergic denervation of accumbens core but not medial shell abolished conditioned taste aversion for nicotine. We conclude that nucleus accumbens core and medial shell dopaminergic innervation exert segregated effects on rewarding and aversive effects of nicotine. More generally, our findings indicate that dopaminergic transmission may mediate or enable opposing motivational processes within functionally distinct domains of the accumbens.

  3. Protective effect of cannabidiol on hydrogen peroxide‑induced apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in nucleus pulposus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Hou, Chen; Chen, Xin; Wang, Dong; Yang, Pinglin; He, Xijing; Zhou, Jinsong; Li, Haopeng

    2016-09-01

    Cannabidiol, a major component of marijuana, protects nerves, and exerts antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and anti‑anxiety effects. In the current study, the protective effect of cannabidiol was observed to prevent hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‑induced apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in nucleus pulposus cells. Nucleus pulposus cells were isolated from rats and cultured in vitro, and H2O2 was used to construct the nucleus pulposus cell model. Cell viability of the nucleus pulposus cells was assessed using a 3‑(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The ratio of apoptotic cells, and caspase‑3 or cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) mRNA expression was analyzed by annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium‑iodide staining and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The quantities of interleukin (IL)‑1β and interleukin‑6 were measured using a series of assay kits. B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression levels were analyzed using western blotting. The present study identified that cannabidiol enhanced cell viability and reduced apoptosis in H2O2‑treated nucleus pulposus cells in vitro using a lumbar disc herniation (LDH) model. In addition, cannabidiol reduced caspase‑3 gene expression and augmented the Bcl‑2 protein expression levels in the nucleus pulposus cells following H2O2 exposure. Pre‑treatment with cannabidiol suppressed the promotion of COX‑2, iNOS, IL‑1β and IL‑6 expression in the nucleus pulposus cells following H2O2 exposure. Taken together, these results suggest that cannabidiol potentially exerts its protective effect on LDH via the suppression of anti‑apoptosis, anti‑inflammation and anti‑oxidative activities in nucleus pulposus cells.

  4. Catalase inhibition in the Arcuate nucleus blocks ethanol effects on the locomotor activity of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Segura, Carles; Correa, Mercé; Miquel, Marta; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2005-03-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that there is a bidirectional modulation of ethanol-induced locomotion produced by drugs that regulate brain catalase activity. In the present study we have assessed the effect in rats of intraperitoneal, intraventricular or intracraneal administration of the catalase inhibitor sodium azide in the locomotor changes observed after ethanol (1 g/kg) administration. Our results show that sodium azide prevents the effects of ethanol in rats locomotion not only when sodium azide was systemically administered but also when it was intraventricularly injected, then confirming that the interaction between catalase and ethanol takes place in Central Nervous System (CNS). Even more interestingly, the same results were observed when sodium azide administration was restricted to the hypothalamic Arcuate nucleus (ARC), a brain region which has one of the highest levels of expression of catalase. Therefore, the results of the present study not only confirm a role for brain catalase in the mediation of ethanol-induced locomotor changes in rodents but also point to the ARC as a major neuroanatomical location for this interaction. These results are in agreement with our reports showing that ethanol-induced locomotor changes are clearly dependent of the ARC integrity and, especially of the POMc-synthesising neurons of this nucleus. According to these data we propose a model in which ethanol oxidation via catalase could produce acetaldehyde into the ARC and to promote a release of beta-endorphins that would activate opioid receptors to produce locomotion and other ethanol-induced neurobehavioural changes.

  5. Maruhn-Greiner Maximum of Uranium Fission for Confirmation of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions LENR via a Compound Nucleus with Double Magic Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, H.; Miley, G. H.

    2007-12-01

    One of the most convincing facts about LENR due to deuterons of very high concentration in host metals as palladium is the measurement of the large scale minimum of the reaction probability depending on the nucleon number A of generated elements at A = 153 where a local maximum was measured. This is similar to the fission of uranium at A = 119 where the local maximum follows from the Maruhn-Greiner theory if the splitting nuclei are excited to about MeV energy. The LENR generated elements can be documented any time after the reaction by SIMS or K-shell X-ray excitation to show the very unique distribution with the local maximum. An explanation is based on the strong Debye screening of the Maxwellian deuterons within the degenerate rigid electron background especially within the swimming electron layer at the metal surface or at interfaces. The deuterons behave like neutrals at distances of about 2 picometers. They may form clusters due to soft attraction in the range above thermal energy. Clusters of 10 pm diameter may react over long time probabilities (megaseconds) with Pd nuclei leading to a double magic number compound nucleus which splits like in fission to the A = 153 element distribution.

  6. Effects of selective excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus accumbens core, anterior cingulate cortex, and central nucleus of the amygdala on autoshaping performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Rudolf N; Parkinson, John A; Lachenal, Guillaume; Halkerston, Katherine M; Rudarakanchana, Nung; Hall, Jeremy; Morrison, Caroline H; Howes, Simon R; Robbins, Trevor W; Everitt, Barry J

    2002-08-01

    The nucleus accumbens core (AcbC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) are required for normal acquisition of tasks based on stimulus-reward associations. However, it is not known whether they are involved purely in the learning process or are required for behavioral expression of a learned response. Rats were trained preoperatively on a Pavlovian autoshaping task in which pairing a visual conditioned stimulus (CS+) with food causes subjects to approach the CS+ while not approaching an unpaired stimulus (CS-). Subjects then received lesions of the AcbC, ACC, or CeA before being retested. AcbC lesions severely impaired performance; lesioned subjects approached the CS+ significantly less often than controls, failing to discriminate between the CS+ and CS-. ACC lesions also impaired performance but did not abolish discrimination entirely. CeA lesions had no effect on performance. Thus, the CeA is required for learning, but not expression, of a conditioned approach response, implying that it makes a specific contribution to the learning of stimulus-reward associations.

  7. [Health effects of fluorine and its compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, K

    1994-12-01

    Fluoride, the ionic form of fluorine, is a natural component of the biosphere and 13th most abundant element in the crust of the earth. It is, therefore, found in a wide range of concentrations in virtually all inanimate and living things. Many trace elements perform a definite function in human metabolism and the question of the value of fluoride, always found in the body, has been raised. Much evidence suggesting that the inclusion of fluoride in drinking water has beneficial as well as adverse effects on human health was obtained. Either alone or in combination with calcium and/or vitamin D, it is used in high daily doses for the treatment of osteoporosis. Although organic fluorine compounds are used in medicine and commerce, the inorganic fluorine compounds are of greater importance toxicologically because they are more readily available. The major pathway of fluoride elimination from the human body is via the kidney. When renal function deteriorates, the ability to excrete fluoride markedly decreases, possibly resulting in greater retention of fluoride in the body. At this point, more research is needed to evaluate the effects of physiological variables on the fluoride metabolism in humans.

  8. Effects of nitric oxide on magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus involve multiple mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Physiological evidence indicates that the supraoptic nucleus (SON is an important region for integrating information related to homeostasis of body fluids. Located bilaterally to the optic chiasm, this nucleus is composed of magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs responsible for the synthesis and release of vasopressin and oxytocin to the neurohypophysis. At the cellular level, the control of vasopressin and oxytocin release is directly linked to the firing frequency of MNCs. In general, we can say that the excitability of these cells can be controlled via two distinct mechanisms: 1 the intrinsic membrane properties of the MNCs themselves and 2 synaptic input from circumventricular organs that contain osmosensitive neurons. It has also been demonstrated that MNCs are sensitive to osmotic stimuli in the physiological range. Therefore, the study of their intrinsic membrane properties became imperative to explain the osmosensitivity of MNCs. In addition to this, the discovery that several neurotransmitters and neuropeptides can modulate their electrical activity greatly increased our knowledge about the role played by the MNCs in fluid homeostasis. In particular, nitric oxide (NO may be an important player in fluid balance homeostasis, because it has been demonstrated that the enzyme responsible for its production has an increased activity following a hypertonic stimulation of the system. At the cellular level, NO has been shown to change the electrical excitability of MNCs. Therefore, in this review, we focus on some important points concerning nitrergic modulation of the neuroendocrine system, particularly the effects of NO on the SON.

  9. First Search for the EMC Effect and Nuclear Shadowing in Neutrino Nucleus Deep Inelastic Scattering at MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, Joel A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research in electron-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS) have provided a clear picture of nuclear physics at high momentum transfer. While these effects have been clearly demonstrated by experiment, the theoretical explanation of their origin in some kinematic regions has been lacking. Particularly, the effects in the intermediate regions of Bjorken-x, anti-shadowing and the EMC effect have no universally accepted quantum mechanical explanation. In addition, these effects have not been measured systematically with neutrino-nucleus deep inelastic scattering, due to experiments lacking multiple heavy targets.

  10. Mechanisms of High Energy Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collision Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Mechanisms of high energy hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collision processes are depicted qualitatively, as prompted experimentally. In hadron-nucleus collisions the interaction of the incident hadron in intranuclear matter is localized in small cylindrical volume, with the radius as large as the strong interaction range is, centered on the hadron course in the nucleus. The nucleon emission is induced by the hadron in its passing through the nucleus; particles are produced via intermediate objects produced in 2 → 2 endoergic reactions of the hadron and its successors with downstream nucleons. In nucleus-nucleus collisions, the outcome of the reaction appears as the composition of statistically independent hadron-nucleus collision outcomes at various impact parameters. Observable effects supporting such mechanisms are discussed. 51 refs

  11. Disorder effects in strongly correlated uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suellow, S.; Maple, M.B.; Tomuta, D.; Nieuwenhuys, G.J.; Menovsky, A.A.; Mydosh, J.A.; Chau, R.

    2001-01-01

    Moderate levels of crystallographic disorder can dramatically affect the ground-state properties of heavy fermion compounds. In particular, the role of disorder close to a quantum critical point has been investigated in detail. However, crystallographic disorder is equally effective in altering the properties of magnetically ordered heavy fermion compounds like URh 2 Ge 2 , where disorder-induced spin-glass behavior has been observed. In this system, moreover, the magnetic ground state can be tuned from a spin-glass to a long-range ordered antiferromagnetic one by means of an annealing treatment. The transformation of the magnetic state is accompanied by a transition in the transport properties from 'quasi-insulating' (dρ/dT 2 Ge 2 will be discussed. Of particular interest is the resistivity of as-grown URh 2 Ge 2 , which resembles the Non-Fermi-liquid system UCu 4 Pd, suggesting that a common mechanism - the crystallographic disorder - controls the transport properties of these materials

  12. Effect of arginine vasopressin in the nucleus raphe magnus on antinociception in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Chen, Jian-Min; Liu, Wen-Yan; Song, Cao-You; Wang, Cheng-Hai; Lin, Bao-Cheng

    2006-09-01

    Previous work has shown that arginine vasopressin (AVP) regulates antinociception through brain nuclei rather than the spinal cord and peripheral organs. The present study investigated the nociceptive effect of AVP in the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) of the rat. Microinjection of AVP into the NRM increased pain threshold in a dose-dependent manner, while local administration of AVP-receptor antagonist-d(CH2)5Tyr(Et)DAVP decreased the pain threshold. Pain stimulation elevated AVP concentration in the NRM perfuse liquid. NRM pretreatment with AVP-receptor antagonist completely reversed AVP's effect on pain threshold in the NRM. The data suggest that AVP in the NRM is involved in antinociception.

  13. Kinds of nucleus for effective pearl cultivation of the pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata

    OpenAIRE

    Kanjanachatree, K.; Piyathamrongrut, K.; Inthoncharoen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Seeding is the most important aspect of pearl cultivation, and appropriate nucleus can determine the quality of a pearl : nacre secretion and accumulation around the nucleus. This affects harvest time, nucleus extrusion, survival rate of the pearl oysters and the production cost. In order to provide nuclei to substitute for those imported from China which are made from freshwater pearl oyster-shells, 3 kinds of the local shells of Pinctada fucata, Pteria penguin and Pinctada maxima were selec...

  14. Effect of ginseng saponina on nicotine-induced dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens and striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Eun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, In Sop [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    We investigated the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis technique. Systemic pretreatment with GTS decreased striatal DA release induced by local infusion of nicotine into the striatum. However, GTS had no effect on the resting levels of extracellular DA in the striatum. GTS also blocked nicotine-induced DA release in the nucleus accumbens. The results of the present study suggest that GTS acts on the DA terminals to prevent DA release induced by nicotine. This may reflect the blocking effect of GTS on behavioral hyperactivity induced by psychostimulants.

  15. Effect of ginseng saponina on nicotine-induced dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens and striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Eun; Shim, In Sop; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis technique. Systemic pretreatment with GTS decreased striatal DA release induced by local infusion of nicotine into the striatum. However, GTS had no effect on the resting levels of extracellular DA in the striatum. GTS also blocked nicotine-induced DA release in the nucleus accumbens. The results of the present study suggest that GTS acts on the DA terminals to prevent DA release induced by nicotine. This may reflect the blocking effect of GTS on behavioral hyperactivity induced by psychostimulants

  16. Role of glutamatergic receptors located in the nucleus raphe magnus on antinociceptive effect of morphine microinjected into the nucleus cuneiformis of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Abbas; Soltani-Hekmat, Ava; Khani, Abbas; Komaki, Alireza

    2007-10-29

    Neurons in the nucleus cuneiformis (CnF), located just ventrolateral to the periaqueductal gray, project to medullary nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), which is a key medullary relay for descending pain modulation and is critically involved in opioid-induced analgesia. Previous studies have shown that antinociceptive response of CnF-microinjected morphine can be modulated by the specific subtypes of glutamatergic receptors within the CnF. In this study, we evaluated the role of NMDA and kainate/AMPA receptors that are widely distributed within the NRM on morphine-induced antinociception elicited from the CnF. Hundred and five male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. Morphine (10, 20 and 40 microg) and NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (10 microg) or kainate/AMPA receptor antagonist, DNQX (0.5 microg) in 0.5 microl saline were stereotaxically microinjected into the CnF and NRM, respectively. The latency of tail-flick response was measured at set intervals (2, 7, 12, 17, 22, 27 min after microinjection) by using an automated tail-flick analgesiometer. The results showed that morphine microinjection into the CnF dose-dependently causes increase in tail-flick latency (TFL). MK-801 microinjected into the NRM, just 1 min before morphine injection into the CnF, significantly attenuated antinociceptive effects of morphine. On the other hand, DNQX microinjected into the NRM, significantly increased TFL after local application of morphine into the CnF. We suggest that morphine related antinociceptive effect elicited from the CnF is mediated, in part, by NMDA receptor at the level of the NRM whereas kainite/AMPA receptor has a net inhibitory influence at the same pathway.

  17. Oxalic acid as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in the upper troposphere and its indirect aerosol effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zobrist

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous ice freezing points of aqueous solutions containing various immersed solid dicarboxylic acids (oxalic, adipic, succinic, phthalic and fumaric have been measured with a differential scanning calorimeter. The results show that only the dihydrate of oxalic acid (OAD acts as a heterogeneous ice nucleus, with an increase in freezing temperature between 2 and 5 K depending on solution composition. In several field campaigns, oxalic acid enriched particles have been detected in the upper troposphere with single particle aerosol mass spectrometry. Simulations with a microphysical box model indicate that the presence of OAD may reduce the ice particle number density in cirrus clouds by up to ~50% when compared to exclusively homogeneous cirrus formation without OAD. Using the ECHAM4 climate model we estimate the global net radiative effect caused by this heterogeneous freezing to result in a cooling as high as −0.3 Wm−2.

  18. Separating form factor and nuclear model effects in quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieske, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    When studying neutrino oscillations an understanding of charged current quasielastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleus scattering is imperative. This interaction depends on a nuclear model as well as knowledge of form factors. In the past, CCQE data from the MiniBooNE experiment was analyzed assuming the Relativistic Fermi Gas (RFG) nuclear model, an axial dipole form factor in, and using the the z-expansion for the axial form factor in. We present the first analysis that combines a non-RFG nuclear model, in particular the Correlated Fermi Gas nuclear model (CFG) of, and the z expansion for the axial form factor. This will allow us to separate form factor and nuclear model effects in CCQE scattering. This project was supported through the Wayne State University REU program under NSF Grant PHY-1460853 and by the DOE Grant DE-SC0007983.

  19. Herbicide effects on freshwater benthic diatoms: Induction of nucleus alterations and silica cell wall abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debenest, T.; Silvestre, J.; Coste, M.; Delmas, F.; Pinelli, E.

    2008-01-01

    Benthic diatoms are well known bio-indicators of river pollution by nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). Biological indexes, based on diatom sensitivity for non-toxic pollution, have been developed to assess the water quality. Nevertheless, they are not reliable tools to detect pollution by pesticides. Many authors have suggested that toxic agents, like pesticides, induce abnormalities of the diatom cell wall (frustule). High abnormal frustule abundances have been reported in natural diatom communities sampled in streams contaminated by pesticides. However, no direct link was found between the abundances of abnormal frustules in these communities and the pesticide concentrations in stream water. In the present study, a freshwater benthic diatom community, isolated from natural biofilm and cultured under controlled conditions, was treated with a known genotoxic herbicide, maleic hydrazide (MH). Cells were exposed to three concentrations of MH (5 x 10 -6 , 10 -6 , 10 -7 M) for 6 h followed by a 24 h-recovery time. After MH treatments, nucleus alterations were observed: abnormal nucleus location, micronucleus, multinuclear cell or disruption of the nuclear membrane. A dose-dependent increase of nuclear alterations was observed. The difference between the control (9.65 nuclear alterations per 1000 cells observed (9.65 per mille ), S.D. = 4.23) and the highest concentrations (29.40 per mille , S.D. = 8.49 for 10 -6 M and 35.96 per mille , S.D. = 3.71 for 5 x 10 -6 M) was statistically significant (Tukey test, P -6 and 5 x 10 -6 M; Tukey test, P < 0.05). These two parameters tended to increase together (Pearson correlation = 0.702, P < 0.05). The results suggest that the induction of abnormal frustules could be associated with the genotoxic effects of MH. The alterations observed could be related to the effects of MH on the synthesis of the proteins involved in frustule formation or in the regulation of the cytoskeleton of the diatom cells

  20. Direct and resonance processes of nucleus disintegration by hadrons at intermediate energies (Doppler effect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashov, V.V.; Dolinov, V.K.; Korotkikh, V.L.; Lanskoj, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    The possibilities to use coincidence method of scattered particle and daughter nucleus γ-quantum in A+a → a'+b+B[Jπ) B[Jπ) → B(J'π')+γ reaction with doppler line shape measurement to study nucleus disintegration mechanism are investigated. The main idea of the method resides in the fact that if B* state lifetime is small as compared to nucleus slowing-down time in target substance, all changes in emitted particle distributions are directly manifested in respective changes of Doppler line shape corresponding to γ-transition B[Jπ) → γ+B(J'π') in a daughter nucleus. It is concluded that investigation into Doppler line shape may become sensitive method of studying angular distribution of nucleus disintegration products and in solving problem on correlation between direct and resonance processes of nuclei disinegration

  1. Effects of surgical and chemical lesions on neurotransmitter candidates in the nucleus accumbens of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walaas, I; Fonnum, F

    1979-01-01

    The origin of fibers containing different neurotransmitter candidates in the nucleus accumbens of rat brain has been studied with surgical and chemical lesion techniques. Destruction of the medial forebrain bundle decreased the activity of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase by 80% in the nucleus. Cutting of the fornix or a hemitransection decreased the high affinity uptake of glutamate by 45% and the endogenous level of glutamate by 33%. The high affinity uptake of glutamate was concentrated in the synaptosomal fraction and the decrease after the lesion was most pronounced in this fraction. Restricted lesions indicated that fibers in the fimbria/fornix coming from the subiculum were responsible for this part of the glutamate uptake in the nucleus. Local injection of kainic acid into the nucleus was accompanied by a 75% decrease in choline acetyltransferase and a 35% decrease in acetylcholineserase activities, a 70% decrease in glutamate decarboxylase activity and a 60% decrease in the high affinity uptake of ..gamma..-aminobutyrate, a 45% decrease in high affinity glutamate uptake, and no change in aromatic amino acid decarboxylase activity. Performing a lesion of the fornix after kainic acid injection led to an 85% decrease in high affinity glutamate uptake, without further affecting the other neuronal markers. The results indicate that all aminergic fibers to the nucleus accumbens are ascending in the medial forebrain bundle, that the subiculum-accumbens fibers are glutamergic and the nucleus also contains intrinsic glutamergic or aspartergic cells. Cholinergic and ..gamma..-aminobutyrate-containing cells are wholly intrinsic to the nucleus.

  2. Pitch Variability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; van Doorn, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) pitch characteristics of connected speech in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The authors evaluated 16 patients preoperatively and 12 months after DBS surgery. Eight…

  3. Effects of virtual isobar admixtures on the low-energy spectrum of a complex nucleus - model calculations for 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecksch, E.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of a detailed analysis of the excitation spectrum of a complex nucleus in the framework of the conventional shell model theory, the paper extends this concept by adding nucleonic degrees of freedom (isobars) and by model investigations and a realistic assessment of their effects on the excited states of the low-energy spectrum. (AH) [de

  4. Effects of amphetamine on dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens shell region depend on cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, J.; Wiskerke, J.; Cremers, T.I.F.H.; Schoffelmeer, A.N.M.; Westerink, B.H.C.; Pattij, T.

    2012-01-01

    The psychostimulant drug amphetamine is often prescribed to treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. The behavioral effects of the psychostimulant drug amphetamine depend on its ability to increase monoamine neurotransmission in brain regions such as the nucleus accumbens (NAC) and medial

  5. Herbicide effects on freshwater benthic diatoms: Induction of nucleus alterations and silica cell wall abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debenest, T. [Ecolab UMR 5245 (INP ENSAT, CNRS, UPS), Equipe ECOGEN, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole - BP 32607 Auzeville Tolosane, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex (France); Cemagref, 50 avenue de Verdun, 33612 Cestas Cedex (France); Silvestre, J. [Ecolab UMR 5245 (INP ENSAT, CNRS, UPS), Equipe ECOGEN, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole - BP 32607 Auzeville Tolosane, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex (France); Coste, M.; Delmas, F. [Cemagref, 50 avenue de Verdun, 33612 Cestas Cedex (France); Pinelli, E. [Ecolab UMR 5245 (INP ENSAT, CNRS, UPS), Equipe ECOGEN, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole - BP 32607 Auzeville Tolosane, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex (France)], E-mail: pinelli@ensat.fr

    2008-06-02

    Benthic diatoms are well known bio-indicators of river pollution by nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). Biological indexes, based on diatom sensitivity for non-toxic pollution, have been developed to assess the water quality. Nevertheless, they are not reliable tools to detect pollution by pesticides. Many authors have suggested that toxic agents, like pesticides, induce abnormalities of the diatom cell wall (frustule). High abnormal frustule abundances have been reported in natural diatom communities sampled in streams contaminated by pesticides. However, no direct link was found between the abundances of abnormal frustules in these communities and the pesticide concentrations in stream water. In the present study, a freshwater benthic diatom community, isolated from natural biofilm and cultured under controlled conditions, was treated with a known genotoxic herbicide, maleic hydrazide (MH). Cells were exposed to three concentrations of MH (5 x 10{sup -6}, 10{sup -6}, 10{sup -7} M) for 6 h followed by a 24 h-recovery time. After MH treatments, nucleus alterations were observed: abnormal nucleus location, micronucleus, multinuclear cell or disruption of the nuclear membrane. A dose-dependent increase of nuclear alterations was observed. The difference between the control (9.65 nuclear alterations per 1000 cells observed (9.65 per mille), S.D. = 4.23) and the highest concentrations (29.40 per mille, S.D. = 8.49 for 10{sup -6} M and 35.96 per mille , S.D. = 3.71 for 5 x 10{sup -6} M) was statistically significant (Tukey test, P < 0.05). Diatoms also exhibited frustules with deformed morphology and abnormal ornamentation. Significantly increased abundances of abnormal frustules were observed for the highest concentrations (10{sup -6} and 5 x 10{sup -6} M; Tukey test, P < 0.05). These two parameters tended to increase together (Pearson correlation = 0.702, P < 0.05). The results suggest that the induction of abnormal frustules could be associated with the genotoxic

  6. Effects of lesions of the amygdala central nucleus on autoshaped lever pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephen E.; Wheeler, Daniel S.; Holland, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Neutral cues paired with rewards often appear to acquire motivational significance, as if the incentive motivational value of the reward is transferred to the cue. Such cues have been reported to modulate the performance of instrumental action (Pavlovian-instrumental transfer, PIT), serve as conditioned reinforcers in the establishment of new learning, and be the targets of approach and other cue-directed behaviors. Here we examined the effects of lesions of the amygdala central nucleus (CeA) on the acquisition of discriminative autoshaped lever-pressing. Insertion of one lever into the experimental chamber was reinforced by sucrose delivery, but insertion of another lever was not reinforced. Although sucrose delivery was not contingent on lever pressing, both CeA- and sham-lesioned rats rapidly came to press the reinforced but not the nonreinforced lever. Despite their showing little evidence of impairments in autoshaped lever pressing, these same CeA-lesioned rats showed significant deficits in the expression of PIT in a subsequent phase of the experiment. The lack of impaired autoshaping in CeA-lesioned rats contrasts with effects previously reported for conditioned orienting responses (ORs) and for other putative measures of incentive learning including PIT and conditioned approach to visual cues. PMID:22386516

  7. Effects of nucleus accumbens core and shell lesions on autoshaped lever-pressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephen E; Holland, Peter C

    2013-11-01

    Certain Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CSs) paired with food unconditioned stimuli (USs) come to elicit approach and even consumption-like behaviors in rats (sign-tracking). We investigated the effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core (ACbC) or shell (ACbS) on the acquisition of sign-tracking in a discriminative autoshaping procedure in which presentation of one lever CS was followed by delivery of sucrose, and another was not. Although we previously found that bilateral lesions of the whole ACb disrupted the initial acquisition of sign-tracking, neither ACbC or ACbS lesions affected the rate or percentage of trials in which rats pressed the CS+. In addition, detailed video analysis showed no effect of either lesion on the topography of the sign-tracking conditioned response (CR). These and other results from lesion studies of autoshaping contrast with those from previous sign-tracking experiments that used purely visual cues (Parkinson et al., 2000a,b), suggesting that the neural circuitry involved in assigning incentive value depends upon the nature of the CS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Temperature effects in the valence fluctuation of europium intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, O.L.T. de; Troper, A.; Gomes, A.A.

    1978-03-01

    A previously reported model for valence fluctuations in europium compound in order to account for thermal occupation effect. Experimental results are critically discussed and new experiments are suggested

  9. Kinds of nucleus for effective pearl cultivation of the pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjanachatree, K.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Seeding is the most important aspect of pearl cultivation, and appropriate nucleus can determine the quality of a pearl : nacre secretion and accumulation around the nucleus. This affects harvest time, nucleus extrusion, survival rate of the pearl oysters and the production cost. In order to provide nuclei to substitute for those imported from China which are made from freshwater pearl oyster-shells, 3 kinds of the local shells of Pinctada fucata, Pteria penguin and Pinctada maxima were selected for seed production. The obtained nuclei have various diameters depend on the shell width at the hinge region. The average diameters are 5.44, 6.78, 7.54 and 6.10 mm, while their production costs are 5, 7.7, 18.5 and 7.5 baht per 1 nucleus, respectively, for Pinctada fucata, Pteria penguin, Pinctada maxima and freshwater pearl oysters (control group. After nucleus implantation into the gonad of culture pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata, and rearing in the sea, the obtained pearls using nuclei made from the shells of Pinctada fucata and Pinctada maxima (both belong to the same genus as the implanted culture pearl oysters have as good nacre formation as that from freshwater pearl oysters. In contrast, the pearl production using nuclei made from Pteria penguin-shells have significantly worse nacre formation. Survival rate of the culture oysters seeded with nuclei made from Pinctada fucata-shells is highest at 47%, nucleus extrusion 8% only, and harvest rate 31%; while with Pinctada maxima-shells, these values are 38%, 17.5% and 14%, respectively. So the nuclei made from local Pinctada fucata-shells are appropriate for pearl cultivation and are comparable to imported nuclei. Although the obtained pearls are small, the nuclei made from Pinctada fucata-shells have low cost, low nucleus extrusion and high productivity.

  10. Effect of unilateral versus bilateral electrostimulation in subthalamic nucleus on speech in Parkinsons disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Emily; Verhagen Metman, Leo; Bakay, Roy; Arzbaecher, Jean; Bernard, Bryan

    2004-05-01

    Previously, it was found that 16 right-handed patients with idiopathic Parkinsons disease who underwent unilateral implantation of deep brain stimulator in subthalamic nucleus (STN) showed significant improvement in their nonspeech motor functions. Eight of the 16 patients had stimulator in the left STN and eight in the right STN. In contrast, their speech function showed very mild improvement that was limited to the respiratory/phonotory subsystems. Further, there seemed a trend that the patients with right STN stimulation did better than those with left STN stimulation. It was speculated that the difference might be due to a micro lesion caused by the surgical procedure to the corticobulbar fibers run in the left internal capsule. This paper reports speech changes associated with bilateral DBS in STN in four of the 16 subjects who elected to have deep brain stimulator implanted in STN on the opposite side of the brain at a later time. Results show negative changes in speech after bilateral DBS in STN. The changes were not limited to the micro lesion effect due to the surgery itself, but also related to the active stimulation on the dominant hemisphere for speech processing. [Work supported by NIH.

  11. Shell and isotopic effects in neutron interaction with nuclei. [Optical model and nucleus asymmetry correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasechnik, M V

    1978-01-01

    Major results of investigations into the shell structure of deformed nuclei with the number of neutrons of approximately 100, as well as new isotopic effects in the inelastic scattering of fast neutrons with nuclei are reported. The experiments conducted at the WWR-M research reactor have shown a substantial dependence of the nuclear excited energy-level density on the mass number and the number of neutrons. The fact resulted in a conclusion that the deformed nuclei possess filled shells, that was an incentive to revise the whole nuclear shell concept. In particular it was established that the property of magicity rests not only on the sphericity of nuclei but it may be also observed in strongly deformed nuclei. The isotope-spin dependence of the nuclear potential was studied at the AG-5 pulse electrostatic generator. The parameters of the potential were determined by comparing the experimental data on inelastic scattering and polarization of fast neutrons by nuclei from /sup 48/Ti to /sup 209/Bi with the calculations in terms of the optical model. Simple correlations were established between the optical potential and the nucleus asymmetry parameter ..cap alpha..=N-Z/A in wide ranges of mass numbers and neutron energy.

  12. Effects of uranium compounds on skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, B.M. de

    1982-12-01

    The following uranium compounds were topically applied to the dorsal skin of 35 day-old Wistar rats (60 g, male): uranium dioxide, uranyl nitrate, uranyl acetate, ammonium uranyl tricarbonate and ammonium diuranate. Percutaneous absorption was mediated with the aid of a vehicle and known quantities of various particle-sized batches of uranium compounds were directly implanted in the subcutaneous tissue. Animals were sacrificed 3, 6, 24 and 48 hours after implantation. Subcutaneous tissue and muscle underneath the implantation site were anlaysed by light and electron microscopy. A Cameca 322 X-ray microanalyzer was used to analyze uranium traces in calcified tissue (bones and teeth) and kidneys. A steady loss in body weight was observed in animals given high concentration of uranyl nitrate and ammonium uranyl tricarbonate. All animals died five days after the onset of the experiment due to renal failure. Slightly soluble compounds, ammonium diuranate and uranyl acetate, caused only a slight decrease in body weight. Uranium dioxide, the most insoluble compound used, induced only a transitory slight body weight decrease. Histopathological study revealed damages to the tissues of topicated skin, hair follicles and adnexal glands. High concentration of uranium was indicated in bone, teeth and kidneys by X-ray scanning

  13. Effects of cevimeline on excitability of parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in the superior salivatory nucleus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Hirotaka; Ichikawa, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Masako; Kobashi, Motoi; Matsuo, Ryuji

    2017-09-01

    The superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) contains parasympathetic preganglionic neurons innervating the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands. Cevimeline, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist, is a sialogogue that possibly stimulates SSN neurons in addition to the salivary glands themselves because it can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the present study, we examined immunoreactivities for mAChR subtypes in SSN neurons retrogradely labeled with a fluorescent tracer in neonatal rats. Additionally, we examined the effects of cevimeline in labeled SSN neurons of brainstem slices using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Mainly M1 and M3 receptors were detected by immunohistochemical staining, with low-level detection of M4 and M5 receptors and absence of M2 receptors. Most (110 of 129) SSN neurons exhibited excitatory responses to application of cevimeline. In responding neurons, voltage-clamp recordings showed that 84% (101/120) of the neurons exhibited inward currents. In the neurons displaying inward currents, the effects of the mAChR antagonists were examined. A mixture of M1 and M3 receptor antagonists most effectively reduced the peak amplitude of inward currents, suggesting that the excitatory effects of cevimeline on SSN neurons were mainly mediated by M1 and M3 receptors. Current-clamp recordings showed that application of cevimeline induced membrane depolarization (9/9 neurons). These results suggest that most SSN neurons are excited by cevimeline via M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct and specific effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on rat Per2 expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Anzai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our previous studies revealed that application of the inhalation anesthetic, sevoflurane, reversibly repressed the expression of Per2 in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN. We aimed to examine whether sevoflurane directly affects the SCN. METHODS: We performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to investigate rat Per2 expression under sevoflurane-treatment. The in vivo effects of sevoflurane on rPer2 expression were examined by quantitative in situ hybridization with a radioactively-labeled cRNA probe. Additionally, we examined the effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on rest/activity rhythms in the rat. In the in vitro experiments, we applied sevoflurane to SCN explant cultures from Per2-dLuc transgenic rats, and monitored luciferase bioluminescence, representing Per2 promoter activity. Bioluminescence from two peripheral organs, the kidney cortex and the anterior pituitary gland, were also analyzed. RESULTS: Application of sevoflurane in rats significantly suppressed Per2 expression in the SCN compared with untreated animals. We observed no sevoflurane-induced phase-shift in the rest/activity rhythms. In the in vitro experiments, the intermittent application of sevoflurane repressed the increase of Per2-dLuc luminescence and led to a phase delay in the Per2-dLuc luminescence rhythm. Sevoflurane treatment did not suppress bioluminescence in the kidney cortex or the anterior pituitary gland. CONCLUSION: The suppression of Per2-dLuc luminescence by sevoflurane in in vitro SCN cultures isolated from peripheral inputs and other nuclei suggest a direct action of sevoflurane on the SCN itself. That sevoflurane has no such effect on peripheral organs suggests that this action might be mediated through a neuron-specific cellular mechanism or a regulation of the signal transduction between neurons.

  15. Effects of bilateral vestibular nucleus lesions on cardiovascular regulation in conscious cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, R L; Cotter, L A; Arendt, H E; Olsheski, C J; Yates, B J

    2005-02-01

    The vestibular system participates in cardiovascular regulation during postural changes. In prior studies (Holmes MJ, Cotter LA, Arendt HE, Cas SP, and Yates BJ. Brain Res 938: 62-72, 2002, and Jian BJ, Cotter LA, Emanuel BA, Cass SP, and Yates BJ. J Appl Physiol 86: 1552-1560, 1999), transection of the vestibular nerves resulted in instability in blood pressure during nose-up body tilts, particularly when no visual information reflecting body position in space was available. However, recovery of orthostatic tolerance occurred within 1 wk, presumably because the vestibular nuclei integrate a variety of sensory inputs reflecting body location. The present study tested the hypothesis that lesions of the vestibular nuclei result in persistent cardiovascular deficits during orthostatic challenges. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in five conscious cats during nose-up tilts of varying amplitude, both before and after chemical lesions of the vestibular nuclei. Before lesions, blood pressure remained relatively stable during tilts. In all animals, the blood pressure responses to nose-up tilts were altered by damage to the medial and inferior vestibular nuclei; these effects were noted both when animals were tested in the presence and absence of visual feedback. In four of the five animals, the lesions also resulted in augmented heart rate increases from baseline values during 60 degrees nose-up tilts. These effects persisted for longer than 1 wk, but they gradually resolved over time, except in the animal with the worst deficits. These observations suggest that recovery of compensatory cardiovascular responses after loss of vestibular inputs is accomplished at least in part through plastic changes in the vestibular nuclei and the enhancement of the ability of vestibular nucleus neurons to discriminate body position in space by employing nonlabyrinthine signals.

  16. The nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, S.

    1998-01-01

    In 1911 E.Rutherford discovered the nucleus. Since then the nucleus has been investigated with more and more powerful tools but it remains the main field of study of nuclear physics. As it is impossible to take into account the interaction of all the nucleons, a theory based on the hypothesis that each nucleon undergoes an average interaction force has been set up. 2 representations have emerged: the Skyrme force and the Gogny force. Both representations match experimental results but are unable to describe fission yields or the multi-fragmentation of very hot nuclei. The mean-field theory can predict the shape of the nuclei according to its energy level. An experimental program involving the Vivitron accelerator and the Euroball detector is due to begin to validate it. By bombarding targets with exotic nuclei nuclear physicists detect new structures and test their collision models. About ten years ago nuclear halos were observed with lithium 11 nuclei. In this nucleus 2 neutrons move in a space larger than the nucleus itself. This discovery has triggered the elaboration of new theories based on nuclear clusters. At very high temperatures the mean-field theory predicts that nuclear matter acts as a fluid. Following the nuclei temperature different ways of decay appear: first evaporation then multi-fragmentation and vaporization. This ultimate stage occurs around 100 milliard celsius degree temperature when the nuclei decays in a multitude of light particles. Isomeric states are studied and could be seen as a way of storing energy. In a very pedagogical way this article gives information to understand the challenges that face nuclear physics today and highlights the contributions of Cea in this field. (A.C.)

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON THE GROWTH OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Min-Su; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Ciotti, Luca

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how environmental effects by gas stripping alter the growth of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) and its host galaxy evolution, by means of one-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations that include both mechanical and radiative active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback effects. By changing the truncation radius of the gas distribution (R t ), beyond which gas stripping is assumed to be effective, we simulate possible environments for satellite and central galaxies in galaxy clusters and groups. The continuous escape of gas outside the truncation radius strongly suppresses star formation, while the growth of the SMBH is less affected by gas stripping because the SMBH accretion is primarily ruled by the density of the central region. As we allow for increasing environmental effects—the truncation radius decreasing from about 410 to 50 kpc—we find that the final SMBH mass declines from about 10 9 to 8 × 10 8 M ☉ , but the outflowing mass is roughly constant at about 2 × 10 10 M ☉ . There are larger changes in the mass of stars formed, which declines from about 2 × 10 10 to 2 × 10 9 M ☉ , and the final thermal X-ray gas, which declines from about 10 9 to 5 × 10 8 M ☉ , with increasing environmental stripping. Most dramatic is the decline in the total time that the objects would be seen as quasars, which declines from 52 Myr (for R t = 377 kpc) to 7.9 Myr (for R t = 51 kpc). The typical case might be interpreted as a red and dead galaxy having episodic cooling flows followed by AGN feedback effects resulting in temporary transitions of the overall galaxy color from red to green or to blue, with (cluster) central galaxies spending a much larger fraction of their time in the elevated state than do satellite galaxies. Our results imply that various scaling relations for elliptical galaxies, in particular, the mass ratio between the SMBH and its host galaxy, can have dispersions due to environmental effects such as gas stripping. In addition, the

  18. Effect of Extracts and Isolated Pure Compounds of Spondias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , with the pharmacological mechanisms responsible for these effects have remained largely unexplored. This study elucidated the neurotransmitter systems and receptors involved in the effects of extracts, and isolated compounds of Spondias ...

  19. Circadian modulation of GABA function in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus: excitatory effects during the night phase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jeu, M.T.G.; Pennartz, C.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Gramicidin-perforated patch-clamp recordings were made from slices of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of adult rats to characterize the role of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) in the circadian timing system. During the day, activation of GABA(A) receptors hyperpolarized the membrane of SCN

  20. The effects of osmotic stress on the structure and function of the cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, John D; Guilak, Farshid

    2010-02-15

    Osmotic stress is a potent regulator of the normal function of cells that are exposed to osmotically active environments under physiologic or pathologic conditions. The ability of cells to alter gene expression and metabolic activity in response to changes in the osmotic environment provides an additional regulatory mechanism for a diverse array of tissues and organs in the human body. In addition to the activation of various osmotically- or volume-activated ion channels, osmotic stress may also act on the genome via a direct biophysical pathway. Changes in extracellular osmolality alter cell volume, and therefore, the concentration of intracellular macromolecules. In turn, intracellular macromolecule concentration is a key physical parameter affecting the spatial organization and pressurization of the nucleus. Hyper-osmotic stress shrinks the nucleus and causes it to assume a convoluted shape, whereas hypo-osmotic stress swells the nucleus to a size that is limited by stretch of the nuclear lamina and induces a smooth, round shape of the nucleus. These behaviors are consistent with a model of the nucleus as a charged core/shell structure pressurized by uneven partition of macromolecules between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm. These osmotically-induced alterations in the internal structure and arrangement of chromatin, as well as potential changes in the nuclear membrane and pores are hypothesized to influence gene transcription and/or nucleocytoplasmic transport. A further understanding of the biophysical and biochemical mechanisms involved in these processes would have important ramifications for a range of fields including differentiation, migration, mechanotransduction, DNA repair, and tumorigenesis. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savina, M.V.; Shmatov, S.V.; Slavin, N.V.; Zarubin, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    HIJING generator simulation of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies is presented. It is shown that the global characteristics of nucleus-nucleus collisions, such as distribution of a charged multiplicity, total and electromagnetic transverse energy over pseudorapidity are rather sensitive to some predictions of models of high-exited nuclear medium formation, namely parton energy losses in dense nuclear matter. These losses result in appearance of a broad maximum in global variable distributions over pseudorapidity. The most profound of this effect occurs at central heavy ion collisions at LHC energy

  2. Probing the effect of neutron excess on the dynamics of Hf compound system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ishita; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2018-05-01

    The reaction dynamics of 170Hf* and 174Hf* compound systems formed in 46,50Ti +124Sn reactions have been analyzed within the framework of Dynamical Cluster-decay Model (DCM) over an energy range of Ec.m.=115-156 MeV. The experimental data of fusion evaporation cross sections for 170,174Hf* systems is successfully addressed by optimizing the value of neck length ΔR. It is to be noted that calculations are performed by taking quadrupole deformations β2 with the optimum orientation of decaying fragments. Here, the effect of neutron excess has been examined on the structural properties of decaying fragments via fragmentation potential and preformation probability. The observation depicts that the isotopic effect prevails at fission region and as we move from lighter nucleus i.e. 170Hf* to heavier nucleus i.e. 174Hf*, the heavy mass fragments (HMF) start contributing along with fission fragments which are equally evident for 170Hf* as well. The ΔR values so obtained are compared at center of mass-energies which consequently provides information regarding the relative time scale of decaying fragments.

  3. Nucleus-nucleus total reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVries, R.M.; Peng, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    We compare sigma/sub R/(E) for nucleus-nucleus systems (obtained from existing direct measurements and derived from elastic scattering data) with nucleon-nucleon and nucleon-nucleus data. The energy dependence of sigma/sub R/(E) for nucleus-nucleus systems is found to be quite rapid; there appears to be no evidence for an energy independent, geometric sigma/sub R/. Simple parameter free microscopic calculations are able to quantitatively reproduce the data and thus, emphasize the dominance of nucleon-nucleon interactions in medium energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

  4. Effect of Temporary Inactivation of Nucleus Accumbens on Chronic Stress Induced by Electric Shock to the Sole of the Foot in Female NMRI Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Nicaeili

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Activity changes in the neurons of nucleus accumbens during stress have been previously identified. However, the role of nucleus accumbens in diminishing stress-induced side-effects is not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of temporary inactivation of nucleus accumbens on stress-induced metabolic changes in female mice. METHODS: This experimental study was performed on 48 female NMRI mice with an average 27±3 g. The nucleus accumbens was unilaterally and bilaterally cannulated. After one week of recovery, 2% lidocaine or saline was administered in mice for four consecutive days (5 min per day before inducing electric shock to the sole of the foot. Plasma corticosterone level, food and water intake, and delay in eating were assessed as stress-induced metabolic parameters. FINDINGS: Stress lonely, caused an increase in plasma corticosterone (17±0.8 compared with the control group (4.5±0.3 (p<0.001. It also, caused an increase delay in eating (%218±9.8, p<0.01 and, decrease water (%80±4.5 and food (%84±5.5 intake (p<0.05. Temporary inactivation of nucleus accumbens did not affect the stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone, and it suppressed the effect of stress on the amount of water intake; inactivation of the left nucleus accumbens was more effective (%195±7.6, p<0.01. Temporary inactivation of nucleus accumbens neutralized the effect of stress on the amount of food intake. Temporary inactivation of the right nucleus accumbens augmented the effect of stress on delay in eating (%264±10.8, p<0.01, and inactivation of the left nucleus accumbens could suppress this effect. CONCLUSION: It seems that temporary inactivation of nucleus accumbens can be effective in diminishing stress-induced metabolic changes. However, this influence is indicative of asymmetry in the function of right and left nucleus accumbens. 

  5. Superlattice Effects in Graphite Intercalation Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-15

    away from ;le[ Isy.st,.mns (r lin( nl :; atars ) and look for nonlinear dynamical effects -. m,,5,: U~ i,: ,1 : s y’t, rns, a3iioh m i Josephson...Intercalation Coaanm, Chemistry Dept., Northeast(.rn,, February 25, 1935. ( iv) "Giant Magnetic Interaction and Domain Dynamics in Twe -. "Dimensions," hoston

  6. Effects of polycationic compounds on mitogen stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heron, I; Larsen, B; Hokland, M

    1981-01-01

    The effects of polycations added to phytomitogen stimulated human lymphocyte cultures have been studied. Within certain dose ranges all polycations tested gave rise to augmented thymidine uptake in mitogen stimulated cultures. The optimum enhancing concentrations of polycations was depending on t...

  7. Effect of quinolinic acid in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis on cortical high-affinity choline uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, R.H.; Boegman, R.J.; Quirion, R.; Riopelle, R.J.; Ludwin, S.K.

    1987-08-01

    A transient 45% increase in cortical high-affinity choline uptake (HACU) was observed after an injection of quinolinic acid (QUIN) into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nbM) of the rat. This was followed by a steady decline in choline uptake, which resulted in a 46% decrease by day 7. Specific (/sup 3/H)hemicholinium-3 binding to coronal brain sections showed a similar pattern following injections of QUIN into the nbM. The increase in cortical HACU elicited by QUIN appeared to be dose dependent.

  8. The Effects of Histaminergic Agents in the Nucleus ccumbens of Rats in the Elevated Plus-Maze Test of Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Rezayof

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n The nucleus accumbens (NAc receive histaminergic neurons from tuberomammillary nuclei. There are reports indicating that central histamine systems are involved in many physiological behavioral processes, including anxiety. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the histaminergic system of the NAc is involved in anxiety-related behaviors. Methods: Rats were anesthetized with intra-peritoneal injection of ketamine hydrochloride, plus xylazine and then were placed in a stereotaxic apparatus. In addition, two stainless-steel cannuale were placed 2 mm above the nucleus accumbens shell. Seven days after recovery from surgery, the behavioral testing was started. As a model of anxiety, the elevated plus maze which is a useful test to investigate the effects of anxiogenic or anxiolytic drugs in rodents, was used in male Wistar rats.  "nResults: Intra-NAc administration of histamine (0.01, 0.1 and 1 µg/rat increased the percentage of open arm time (%OAT and open arm entries (%OAE ,but not locomotor activity, indicating an anxiolytic response. Furthermore, bilateral  microinjections of different doses of the H1 receptor  antagonist pyrilamine (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 µg/rat or the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 µg/rat into the NAc increased %OAT and %OAE , but not locomotor activity. However, both histamine and histamine receptor antagonists showed an anxiolytic-like effect ; the antagonists (1 µg/rat also decreased the histamine response. "n "n Conclusion: The results may indicate a modulatory effect for the H1 and H2 histamine receptors of nucleus accumbens in the anxiety behavior of rats.

  9. Effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on the cochlear nucleus in cats deafened as neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandathil, Cherian K; Stakhovskaya, Olga; Leake, Patricia A

    2016-12-01

    Many previous studies have shown significant neurotrophic effects of intracochlear delivery of BDNF in preventing degeneration of cochlear spiral ganglion (SG) neurons after deafness in rodents and our laboratory has shown similar results in developing cats deafened prior to hearing onset. This study examined the morphology of the cochlear nucleus (CN) in a group of neonatally deafened cats from a previous study in which infusion of BDNF elicited a significant improvement in survival of the SG neurons. Five cats were deafened by systemic injections of neomycin sulfate (60 mg/kg, SQ, SID) starting one day after birth, and continuing for 16-18 days until auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing demonstrated profound bilateral hearing loss. The animals were implanted unilaterally at about 1 month of age using custom-designed electrodes with a drug-delivery cannula connected to an osmotic pump. BDNF (94 μg/ml; 0.25 μl/hr) was delivered for 10 weeks. The animals were euthanized and studied at 14-23 weeks of age. Consistent with the neurotrophic effects of BDNF on SG survival, the total CN volume in these animals was significantly larger on the BDNF-treated side than on the contralateral side. However, total CN volume, both ipsi- and contralateral to the implants in these deafened juvenile animals, was markedly smaller than the CN in normal adult animals, reflecting the severe effects of deafness on the central auditory system during development. Data from the individual major CN subdivisions (DCN, Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus; PVCN, Posteroventral Cochlear Nucleus; AVCN, Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus) also were analyzed. A significant difference was observed between the BDNF-treated and control sides only in the AVCN. Measurements of the cross-sectional areas of spherical cells showed that cells were significantly larger in the AVCN ipsilateral to the implant than on the contralateral side. Further, the numerical density of spherical cells was significantly lower in

  10. Effect of g-boson on spectra of high-spin states in 100Pd nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xingzhi; Ni Shaoyong; Tong Hong; Shi Zhuyi; Second Northwest Inst. for Minority, Yinchuan; Shi Zhuya

    2007-01-01

    By using a microscopic sdgIBM-2 approach which is the accomplishment of the phenomenological sdgIBM theory and the experimental single-particle energies, the levels of the more complex ground-state band and the high-angular momentum states of y-band on 100 Pd nucleus are successfully reproduced. The ground-state band and γ-band are described well up to J π =16 + and E x =7.00 MeV, and that is larger than that J π 6 + -8 + , E x =2.00 MeV can be successfully reproduced in IBM theory. It has been proved that its yrast states up to the 16 + state are ground states, there may not exist any broken pair quasi-particle state by boson in yrast states. Theoretical analysis and numerical calculation show that to describe successfully spectra on 100 Pd nucleus under the boson approach in IBM theory, it is impossible that the g-boson has been not considered in one. According to the microscopic sdgIBM-2 approach, the 14 1 + state is understood as a result that a neutron g-boson transites into a neutron d-boson and a pair of photos is radiated at same time, and the 14 2 + state is the decoupling state of the 16 1 + state, while the 14 3 + state is the actual ground state. (authors)

  11. Irradiation effects on polymer-model compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguchi, Tadao; Hayakawa, Naohiro; Tamura, Naoyuki; Katsumura, Yosuke; Hayashi, Nariyuki; Tabata, Yoneho

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation effects on n-paraffins and squalane, used as models of polymers, were investigated by product analysis. Four n-paraffins, C 20 H 42 , C 21 H 44 , C 23 H 48 and C 24 H 50 , and squalane (C 30 H 62 ) were γ-irradiated under vacuum in liquid, crystalline and glassy states. The evolved gases were analyzed by gas chromatography and changes in molecular weight were analyzed by liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy. G-values for crosslinking of n-paraffins were 1.2 for crystalline states (at 25 0 C) and 1.7 for liquid states (at 55 0 C), and showed no difference between odd and even carbon numbers. The G-value of liquid squalane was 1.7; it was 1.3 for the glassy state at low temperature (-77 0 C). Double bonds were common in the crosslinked products, especially after liquid-phase irradiation. The probability of chain scission was estimated as being negligible, though a small number of chain-scission products (which were products of scission at chain-ends or side chains) were observed by gas analysis. (author)

  12. Theory of the isotope effect in superconducting compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culetto, F.J.; Rainer, D.

    1978-05-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the isotope effect on the superconducting transition temperature. Our method is to calculate via formal perturbation theory the response of the transition temperature to small changes of the masses of the various constituents of the compound. We discuss the relation between the isotope effect and various more fundamental parameters in strong coupling superconductors. As illustrative examples, we consider the systems Pd-H(D) alloys and the binary Chevrel phase superconductor Mo 6 Se 8 , and show that analysis of the isotope effect can yield useful information concerning interaction mechanisms in these compounds. (orig.)

  13. Characterization of the effects of serotonin on the release of [3H]dopamine from rat nucleus accumbens and striatal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurse, B.; Russell, V.A.; Taljaard, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of serotonin agonists on the depolarization (K+)-induced, calcium-dependent, release of [ 3 H]dopamine (DA) from rat nucleus accumbens and striatal slices was investigated. Serotonin enhanced basal 3 H overflow and reduced K+-induced release of [ 3 H]DA from nucleus accumbens slices. The effect of serotonin on basal 3 H overflow was not altered by the serotonin antagonist, methysergide, or the serotonin re-uptake blocker, chlorimipramine, but was reversed by the DA re-uptake carrier inhibitors nomifensine and benztropine. With the effect on basal overflow blocked, serotonin did not modulate K+-induced release of [ 3 H]DA in the nucleus accumbens or striatum. The serotonin agonists, quipazine (in the presence of nomifensine) and 5-methoxytryptamine, did not significantly affect K+-induced release of [ 3 H]DA in the nucleus accumbens. This study does not support suggestions that serotonin receptors inhibit the depolarization-induced release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens or striatum of the rat brain. The present results do not preclude the possibility that serotonin may affect the mesolimbic reward system at a site which is post-synaptic to dopaminergic terminals in the nucleus accumbens

  14. SU-E-T-494: Influence of Proton Track-Cell Nucleus Incidence Angle On Relative Biological Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, P; Backstrom, G; Enger, S; Seuntjens, J; El Naqa, I [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Villegas, F; Ahnesjo, A [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To explain a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation artifact whereby differences in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the induction of initial double strand breaks are observed as a function of the proton track incidence angles in a geometric cell nucleus model. Secondly, to offer an alternative isotropic irradiation procedure to mitigate this effect. Methods: MC tracks of 1 MeV protons were generated in an event-by-event mode. They were overlaid on a cylindrical model of a cell nucleus containing 6×109 nucleotide base pairs. The tracks incidence angle θ with respect to the cell nucleus’s axis was varied in 10 degrees intervals, each time generating one hundred fractions of ∼2 Gy. Strand breaks were scored in the modeled DNA sugar-phosphate groups and further sub-classified into single or double strand breaks (ssbs or dsbs). For each angle, an RBE for the induction of initial dsbs with reference to Co-60 was calculated. Results: Our results show significant angular dependencies of RBE, with maximum values for incidence angles parallel to the nucleus central axis. Further examination shows that the higher cross-sections for the creation of dsbs is due to the preferential alignment of tracks with geometrical sub-parts of the cell nucleus model, especially the nucleosomes containing the sugar-phosphate groups. To alleviate the impact of this simulation artifact, an average RBE was calculated with a procedure based on a weighted sampling of the angular data. Conclusion: This work demonstrates a possible numerical artifact in estimated RBE if the influence of the particle incidence angle is not correctly taken into account. A correction procedure is presented to better conform the simulations to real-life experimental conditions. We would like to acknowledge support from the Fonds de recherche du Quebec Sante (FRQS), from the CREATE Medical Physics Research Training Network grant (number 432290) of NSERC, support from NSERC under grants RGPIN 397711-11 and

  15. The effect of instantaneous input dynamic range setting on the speech perception of children with the nucleus 24 implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lisa S; Skinner, Margaret W; Holstad, Beth A; Fears, Beverly T; Richter, Marie K; Matusofsky, Margaret; Brenner, Christine; Holden, Timothy; Birath, Amy; Kettel, Jerrica L; Scollie, Susan

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a wider instantaneous input dynamic range (IIDR) setting on speech perception and comfort in quiet and noise for children wearing the Nucleus 24 implant system and the Freedom speech processor. In addition, children's ability to understand soft and conversational level speech in relation to aided sound-field thresholds was examined. Thirty children (age, 7 to 17 years) with the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system and the Freedom speech processor with two different IIDR settings (30 versus 40 dB) were tested on the Consonant Nucleus Consonant (CNC) word test at 50 and 60 dB SPL, the Bamford-Kowal-Bench Speech in Noise Test, and a loudness rating task for four-talker speech noise. Aided thresholds for frequency-modulated tones, narrowband noise, and recorded Ling sounds were obtained with the two IIDRs and examined in relation to CNC scores at 50 dB SPL. Speech Intelligibility Indices were calculated using the long-term average speech spectrum of the CNC words at 50 dB SPL measured at each test site and aided thresholds. Group mean CNC scores at 50 dB SPL with the 40 IIDR were significantly higher (p Speech in Noise Test were not significantly different for the two IIDRs. Significantly improved aided thresholds at 250 to 6000 Hz as well as higher Speech Intelligibility Indices afforded improved audibility for speech presented at soft levels (50 dB SPL). These results indicate that an increased IIDR provides improved word recognition for soft levels of speech without compromising comfort of higher levels of speech sounds or sentence recognition in noise.

  16. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on microtubule organization and nucleus changes in gynogenetically activated eggs of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhengmei; Zhu, Xiangping; Zhang, Tingrong; You, Feng; Wu, Zhihao; Cao, Yuanshui

    2016-06-01

    Fluorescent double-labeled technique was used to investigate the effects of hydrostatic pressure on microtubule organization and nucleus in gynogenetically activated eggs of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The parameter of hydrostatic pressure treatment was 600 kg/cm(2) for 6 minutes at prometaphase of the first mitosis. The data showed that nucleus and microtubule changes of the diploid control were basically similar to those of the haploid one (5 minutes behind those of the diploid control). Nuclear diameter of the haploid embryo was significantly smaller than that of the diploid one (P pressure treatment. Centrosome renucleated microtubule, and a bipolar spindle reassembled 15 minutes after treatment, leading to occurrence of the first cleavage. During the second cell cycle, about 80% treated embryo had a single centrosome and formed a unipolar spindle in both blastomeres. After prometaphase, chromosomes spread around for about 20 minutes instead of aligning on the equatorial plane, then assembled and formed one large nucleus without anaphase separation. The second cleavage was inhibited, and the chromosome set was doubled. The data indicated that the chromosome set doubling of mitogynogenetic diploid induced by hydrostatic pressure treatment, which performed at prometaphase of the first mitosis, mainly resulted from the inhibition of the second cleavage rather than the first one. This study is the first to adapt fluorescent double-labeled technique to investigate the mechanism on chromosome set doubling of mitotic gynogenesis induction. This study will offer theoretical support for mitogynogenetic diploid induction in marine fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of harmane (1-methyl-beta-carboline) on neurons in the nucleus accumbens of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergene, E; Schoener, E P

    1993-04-01

    Harmane, a beta-carboline alkaloid reported to exert locomotor and psychoactive effects, is found in certain plants and also has been shown to exist in the mammalian brain as an endogenous substance. In this study, the effects of locally perfused harmane were examined on spontaneous neuronal activity in the nucleus accumbens of urethane-anesthetized rats. Extracellular single-unit recording, coupled with push-pull perfusion, enabled the discrimination of specific, dose-related effects of harmane across a wide concentration range. At lower concentrations (10(-9)-10(-11) M), excitation prevailed, while at higher concentrations (10(-8)-10(-6) M) depression was most pronounced. These findings suggest a neuromodulatory role for harmane in the forebrain reward system.

  18. A Vivens Ex Vivo Study on the Synergistic Effect of Electrolysis and Freezing on the Cell Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugnani, Franco; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Marcuzzo, Thomas; Bottin, Cristina; Mikus, Paul; Guenther, Enric; Klein, Nina; Rubinsky, Liel; Stehling, Michael K; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Freezing-cryosurgery, and electrolysis-electrochemical therapy (EChT), are two important minimally invasive surgery tissue ablation technologies. Despite major advantages they also have some disadvantages. Cryosurgery cannot induce cell death at high subzero freezing temperatures and requires multiple freeze thaw cycles, while EChT requires high concentrations of electrolytic products-which makes it a lengthy procedure. Based on the observation that freezing increases the concentration of solutes (including products of electrolysis) in the frozen region and permeabilizes the cell membrane to these products, this study examines the hypothesis that there could be a synergistic effect between freezing and electrolysis in their use together for tissue ablation. Using an animal model we refer to as vivens ex vivo, which may be of value in reducing the use of animals for experiments, combined with a Hematoxylin stain of the nucleus, we show that there are clinically relevant protocols in which the cell nucleus appears intact when electrolysis and freezing are used separately but is affected by certain combinations of electrolysis and freezing.

  19. Effect of phenolic compounds released during degradation of Coir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    www.bioline.org.br/ja. Effect of phenolic compounds released during degradation of Coir pith by ... of the culture filtrate appears to be non toxic in the tested animals @ JASEM. Coir pith is a highly ... degradation of coir pith by fungi and bacteria were already reported, ... no.1 filter paper and used as feed for the experimental ...

  20. Antifoaming effect of chemical compounds in manure biogas reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan

    2013-01-01

    A precise and efficient antifoaming control strategy in bioprocesses is a challenging task as foaming is a very complex phenomenon. Nevertheless, foam control is necessary, as foam is a major operational problem in biogas reactors. In the present study, the effect of 14 chemical compounds on foam......), siloxanes (polydimethylsiloxane) and ester (tributylphosphate) were found to be the most efficient compounds to suppress foam. The efficiency of antifoamers was dependant on their physicochemical properties and greatly correlated to their chemical characteristics for dissolving foam. The antifoamers were...... more efficient in reducing foam when added directly into the liquid phase rather than added in the headspace of the reactor....

  1. Effects of kainic acid lesions in lateral geniculate nucleus: activity dependence of retrograde axonal transport of fluorescent dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, W R; Coull, B M

    1988-06-28

    Kainic acid lesions in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of rats block the retrograde axonal transport of fluorescent dyes in corticogeniculate neurons without affecting the retrograde transport of D-aspartate or the orthograde transport of radiolabelled proteins in these neurons. This blocking of dye transport does not appear to be a consequence of kainic acid-induced damage to axon terminals in the geniculate since retinal ganglion cells are still able to transport dyes retrograde. A more likely explanation for these results is that fluorescent dye transport requires electrical activity in neurons, and elimination of the geniculate afferents to visual cortex reduces impulse traffic in cortical output fibers to a level below that required to support detectable dye transport. This interpretation is supported by the observation that kainic acid lesions also reduce retrograde transport of dyes in cortical neurons which project to the superior colliculus. Electrical stimulation in the subcortical white matter restores the transport of dye compounds in corticogeniculate neurons: evidence consistent with an activity-dependent mechanism of retrograde transport for these substances. These results provide evidence that axon terminals of retinal ganglion cells and corticogeniculate neurons survive in kainate-lesioned geniculates and are capable of normal neuronal function.

  2. An effective potential for electron-nucleus scattering in neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung in neutron star crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofengeim, D D; Kaminker, A D; Yakovlev, D G

    2015-01-01

    We derive an analytic approximation for the emissivity of neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung (NPB) due to scattering of electrons by atomic nuclei in a neutron star (NS) crust of any realistic composition. The emissivity is expressed through generalized Coulomb logarithm by introducing an effective potential of electron-nucleus scattering. In addition, we study the conditions at which NPB in the crust is affected by strong magnetic fields and outline the main effects of the fields on neutrino emission in NSs. The results can be used for modelling of many phenomena in NSs, such as cooling of young isolated NSs, thermal relaxation of accreting NSs with overheated crust in soft X-ray transients and evolution of magnetars. (paper)

  3. Nucleus accumbens core and shell are necessary for reinforcer devaluation effects on Pavlovian conditioned responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teghpal eSingh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens (NA has been hypothesized to be part of a circuit in which cue-evoked information about expected outcomes is mobilized to guide behavior. Here we tested this hypothesis using a Pavlovian reinforcer devaluation task, previously applied to assess outcome-guided behavior after damage to regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala that send projections to NA. Rats with sham lesions or neurotoxic lesions of either the core or shell subdivision of NA were trained to associate a 10 sec CS+ with delivery of three food pellets. After training, half of the rats in each lesion group received food paired with illness induced by LiCl injections; the remaining rats received food and illness unpaired. Subsequently, responding to the CS+ was assessed in an extinction probe test. Both sham and lesioned rats conditioned to the CS+ and formed a conditioned taste aversion. However only sham rats reduced their conditioned responding as a result of reinforcer devaluation; devalued rats with lesions of either core or shell showed levels of responding that were similar to lesioned, non-devalued rats. This impairment was not due to the loss of motivational salience conferred to the CS+ in lesioned rats as both groups responded similarly for the cue in conditioned reinforcement testing. These data suggest that NA core and shell are part of a circuit necessary for the use of cue-evoked information about expected outcomes to guide behavior.

  4. Radiation effects on n-hexane-urea inclusion compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Nobuaki; Ozasa, Senichi; Ichikawa, Takahisa

    1987-01-01

    n-hexane-urea inclusion compounds were γ-irradiated at room temperature and dimers from n-hexane were found to form. Additive effects of 1-hexene, 1-chloropentane, and n-hexylamine to the formation of the dimers have been studied. For the comparison liquid n-hexane systems were also γ-irradiated under the same conditions. The radiation-induced reactions in the inclusion compounds are discussed together with the reactions in the liquid n-hexane systems. The dimers from n-hexane in the inclusion compounds are presumably formed by dimerization of hexyl radicals; the hexyl radicals are possibly produced by hydrogen abstraction of hydrogen atom and/or urea radicals from n-hexane included in urea. (author)

  5. The effect of high pressure on nitrogen compounds of milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielczewska, Katarzyna; Czerniewicz, Maria; Michalak, Joanna; Brandt, Waldemar

    2004-01-01

    The effect of pressurization at different pressures (from 200 to 1000 MPa, at 200 MPa intervals, t const. = 15 min) and periods of time (from 15 to 35 min, at 10 min intervals, p const. = 800 MPa) on the changes of proteins and nitrogen compounds of skimmed milk was studied. The pressurization caused an increase in the amount of soluble casein and denaturation of whey proteins. The level of nonprotein nitrogen compounds and proteoso-peptone nitrogen compounds increased as a result of the high-pressure treatment. These changes increased with an increase in pressure and exposure time. High-pressure treatment considerably affected the changes in the conformation of milk proteins, which was reflected in the changes in the content of proteins sedimenting and an increase in their degree of hydration

  6. Effects of Medication and Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation on Tongue Movements in Speakers with Parkinson's Disease Using Electropalatography: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartinger, Mariam; Tripoliti, Elina; Hardcastle, William J.; Limousin, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) affects speech in the majority of patients. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is particularly effective in reducing tremor and rigidity. However, its effect on speech is variable. The aim of this pilot study was to quantify the effects of bilateral STN-DBS and medication on articulation, using…

  7. Anti-Candida albicans biofilm effect of novel heterocyclic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Sarah; Jabbour, Adel; Sionov, Edward; Alquntar, Abed A; Steinberg, Doron; Srebnik, Morris; Nir-Paz, Ran; Weiss, Aryeh; Polacheck, Itzhack

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to develop new anti-biofilm drugs, examine their activity against Candida albicans biofilm and investigate their structure-activity relationship and mechanism of action. A series of thiazolidinedione and succinimide derivatives were synthesized and their ability to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation and destroy pre-formed biofilm was tested. The biofilms' structure, metabolic activity and viability were determined by XTT assay and propidium iodide and SYTO 9 live/dead stains combined with confocal microscopic analysis. The effect of the most active compounds on cell morphology, sterol distribution and cell wall morphology and composition was then determined by specific fluorescent stains and transmission electron microscopy. Most of the compounds were active at sub-MICs. Elongation of the aliphatic side chain resulted in reduced anti-biofilm activity and the sulphur atom contributed to biofilm killing, indicating a structure-activity relationship. The compounds differed in their effects on biofilm viability, yeast-to-hyphal form transition, hyphal morphology, cell wall morphology and composition, and sterol distribution. The most effective anti-biofilm compounds were the thiazolidinedione S8H and the succinimide NA8. We developed novel anti-biofilm agents that both inhibited and destroyed C. albicans biofilm. With some further development, these agents might be suitable for therapeutic purposes.

  8. Bisulfite compounds as metabolic inhibitors: nonspecific effects on membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luettge, U; Osmond, C B; Ball, E; Brinckmann, E; Kinze, G

    1972-01-01

    Bisulfite compounds are shown to be nonspecific inhibitors of photosynthetic processes and of ion transport in green tissues. CO/sub 2/ fixation and light-dependent transient changes in external pH are inhibited about 50% by 5 x 10/sup -4/M glyoxal-Na-bisulfite. Chloride uptake in the light and in the dark is inhibited to the same extent at this concentration. At 5 x 10/sup -3/M the inhibitor reduces ATP levels in the light and in the dark, and the effects on glycolate oxidase and PEP carboxylase are observed. The extent of inhibition is dependent on time of treatment with glyoxal-Na-bisulfite and freshly prepared NaHSO/sub 3/ is equally as effective as the addition compound. Possible explanations of the bisulfite effects and the relationships to SO/sub 2/ effects on photosynthesis are discussed.

  9. Nucleus Z=126 with magic neutron number N=184 may be related to the measured Maruhn–Greiner maximum at A/2=155 from compound nuclei at low energy nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prelas, M.A. [University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Hora, H. [University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Miley, G.H. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States)

    2014-07-04

    Evaluation of nuclear binding energies from theory close to available measurements of a very high number of superheavy elements (SHE) based on α-decay energies Q{sub α}, arrived at a closing shell with a significant neutron number 184. Within the option of several discussed magic numbers for protons of around 120, Bagge's numbers 126 and 184 fit well and are supported by the element generation measurements by low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) discovered in deuterium loaded host metals. These measurements were showing a Maruhn–Greiner maximum from fission of compound nuclei in an excited state with double magic numbers for mutual confirmation. - Highlights: • Use of Bagge procedure confirmed that Z=126 and N=184 are proper magic numbers. • Elements are generated by low energy nuclear reactions in deuterium loaded metal. • Postulated from measured distribution that a compound nucleus {sup 310}X{sub 126} was formed. • Formation of 164 deuterons in Bose–Einstein state clusters with 2 pm spacing.

  10. Nucleus Z=126 with magic neutron number N=184 may be related to the measured Maruhn–Greiner maximum at A/2=155 from compound nuclei at low energy nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelas, M.A.; Hora, H.; Miley, G.H.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of nuclear binding energies from theory close to available measurements of a very high number of superheavy elements (SHE) based on α-decay energies Q α , arrived at a closing shell with a significant neutron number 184. Within the option of several discussed magic numbers for protons of around 120, Bagge's numbers 126 and 184 fit well and are supported by the element generation measurements by low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) discovered in deuterium loaded host metals. These measurements were showing a Maruhn–Greiner maximum from fission of compound nuclei in an excited state with double magic numbers for mutual confirmation. - Highlights: • Use of Bagge procedure confirmed that Z=126 and N=184 are proper magic numbers. • Elements are generated by low energy nuclear reactions in deuterium loaded metal. • Postulated from measured distribution that a compound nucleus 310 X 126 was formed. • Formation of 164 deuterons in Bose–Einstein state clusters with 2 pm spacing

  11. Contribution of DIAMANT and EUROGAM detectors association to the study of heavy ion-induced fusion-evaporation reactions. Application to the de-excitation study of 90Ru compound nucleus formed in the 32S + 58Ni reaction at 120 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgine, Frederic

    1996-01-01

    For the first time, the sensitivity of statistical evaporation model has been established in detail from 1 H and 4 He energy distributions analysis for different exit channels. The association of the light charged particle multidetector DIAMANT and the γ-spectrometer EUROGAM II shows that precise study of the compound nucleus high spin states deexcitation can be done for small particle channels. These channels are fed by the biggest angular momentum values of the compound nucleus. The analysis of pα channel in 32 S + 58 Ni at 120 MeV reaction exhibits that a particles have an energy distribution which leads to an entry region of the residual nucleus 85 Nb parallel to the yrast line. (author) [fr

  12. Effect of chronic smoking on lens nucleus as assessed by Pentacam HR lens densitometry in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekel, Gökhan; Cetin, Ebru Nevin; Acer, Semra; Yagci, Ramazan; Altintas, Seher; Ongun, Gülin Tugba

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of chronic tobacco smoking on lens nucleus by Pentacam HR lens densitometry (LD) in young adults. Prospective cross-sectional case series. Thirty subjects (23 M, 7 F) who were chronic cigarette smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day for at least 2 years) (group 1) and another 30 subjects (23 M, 7 F) who did not smoke (group 2), were included in this study. The patients were matched for age and sex between the groups. The exclusion criteria were any history of ocular surgery, any systemic disorders and any ocular diseases except for mild refractive disorders. Lens densitometry measurements were done with the Pentacam HR (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany). The Schirmer test and pachymetry measurements were also performed. Mean age of the patients for both groups was 28.90 ± 8.20 years (range: 18-40 years). Mean lens densitometry (LD) measurements of Group 1 (chronic cigarette smoking group) were higher than those of Group 2 (control group) in all LD techniques; however only mean "peak" LD measurements showed a statistically significant difference between these two groups (Group 1: 8.67 ± 0.61, Group 2: 8.44 ± 0.70, p = 0.04). The mean Schirmer test value was 12.43 ± 5.60 mm in Group 1 and 13.00 ± 4.26 mm in Group 2 (p = 0.55). The mean central corneal thickness (CCT) value was 564.23 ± 34.61 µm in Group 1 and 550.47 ± 32.94 µm in Group 2 (p = 0.03). The Pentacam HR LD seems to be an important option for the evaluation of lens nucleus in young adults, because it gives objective and quantitative data. Although chronic smoking increases lens nucleus density in young adults, the effect is not statistically significant when compared with the control group.

  13. Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Polyphenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Tafesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols or phenolic compounds are groups of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants and found in olive mill wastewater (OMW. Phenolic compounds as well as OMW extracts were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Most of the tested phenols were not effective against the four bacterial strains when tested as single compounds at concentrations of up to 1000 μg mL−1. Hydroxytyrosol at 400 μg mL−1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. Gallic acid was effective at 200, and 400 μg mL−1 against S. aureus, and S. pyogenes, respectively, but not against the gram negative bacteria. An OMW fraction called AntiSolvent was obtained after the addition of ethanol to the crude OMW. HPLC analysis of AntiSolvent fraction revealed that this fraction contains mainly hydroxytyrosol (10.3%, verbascoside (7.4%, and tyrosol (2.6%. The combinations of AntiSolvent/gallic acid were tested using the low minimal inhibitory concentrations which revealed that 50/100–100/100 μg mL−1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. These results suggest that OMW specific fractions augmented with natural phenolic ingredients may be utilized as a source of bioactive compounds to control pathogenic bacteria.

  14. A compilation of information on the {sup 31}P(p,{alpha}){sup 28}Si reaction and properties of excited levels in the compound nucleus {sup 32}S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.E.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Technology Development Div.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents a survey of the literature, and provides a compilation of data contained therein, for the {sup 31}P(p,{alpha}){sup 28}Si reaction. Attention is paid here to resonance states in the compound-nuclear system {sup 32}S formed by {sup 31}P + p, with emphasis on the alpha-particle decay channels, {sup 28}Si + {alpha} which populate specific levels in {sup 28}Si. The energy region near the proton separation energy for {sup 32}S is especially important in this context for applications in nuclear astrophysics. Properties of the excited states in {sup 28}Si are also considered. Summaries of all the located references are provided and numerical data contained in them are compiled in EXFOR format where applicable.

  15. The correlation between the transverse polarization and transverse momentum of lambda produced in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yunxiu; Zhou Xin; Ji Gang; Su Shufang; Zhu Guohuai

    1996-01-01

    The transverse polarization of lambda produced in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is determined. The effect from the interaction between spin moment and magnetic field is corrected. The near zero transverse polarization and non-correlation between transverse polarization and transverse momentum are obtained and compared to ones obtained from the nucleus-nucleus interactions at lower energies. This comparison shows that the production mechanism of lambdas in the relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is different from one in the nucleus-nucleus reactions at lower energies

  16. Effects of cocaine combined with a social cue on conditioned place preference and nucleus accumbens monoamines after isolation rearing in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotewold, Susan K.; Wall, Vanessa L.; Goodell, Dayton J.; Hayter, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Social interaction during drug exposure can potentiate cocaine reward. Isolation rearing (ISO) during adolescence increases social interaction and may amplify this potentiation. Objectives The objectives of this study are to determine whether ISO alters conditioned place preference (CPP) for cocaine when combined with a social cue and to determine whether ISO alters the effects of cocaine when combined with social cue on nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS) dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT). Methods Male and female rats were either ISO or group (GRP) reared for 4 weeks during adolescence. CPP was performed using a low dose of cocaine (2 mg/kg or saline) with or without exposure to a novel same-sex conspecific during conditioning. In vivo microdialysis was performed using the same parameters. Results ISO rats engaged in more social and aggressive behaviors during conditioning relative to GRP. Cocaine reduced social and aggressive behaviors in all rats. CPP was not influenced by rearing condition. Cocaine produced significant CPP, and a social cue produced CPP only in males. In contrast, the interaction of cocaine and a social cue on NAcS DA and 5-HT differed depending upon rearing condition. In isolates, cocaine-induced DA was attenuated, while cocaine plus a social cue produced potentiated DA and 5-HT. Conclusions Exposure to a low dose of cocaine in the presence of a social cue produced additive effects on CPP while producing synergistic effects on DA and 5-HT in the NAcS of ISO rats. The aversive effects of this compound stimulus may negate the rewarding effects in isolates. PMID:24553577

  17. Evidence for motivational effects elicited by activation of GABA-A or dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtshafter, David; Stratford, Thomas R

    2010-09-01

    Microinjections of the inhibitory GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol into the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh) have been reported to induce large increases in food intake, but the effect of these injections on motivational processes is less clear. In the current study, bilateral injections of saline, muscimol (50ng/side) or d-amphetamine (10mug/side) were made into the AcbSh of rats trained to lever press on a progressive ratio schedule for food reward. Injections of both muscimol and amphetamine were found to produce a large increase in the breaking point relative to saline injections. This result suggests that inactivation of the AcbSh does not simply drive ingestive behavior, but also affects motivational processes assessed by the progressive ratio schedule. Breaking points were also increased by injections of amphetamine into the AcbSh. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. FDG-PET study of the bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation effects on the regional cerebral metabolism in advanced Parkinson disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Shen, J.; Zan, S.; Sun, B.; Zuo, C.; Guan, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRGIu) induced by bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET data obtained before and one month after stimulation were analyzed with statistical parametric mapping (SPM). As a result of clinically effective bilateral STN stimulation, rCMRGIu increased in lateral globus pallidus (GP), upper brain stem, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and posterior parietal-occipital cortex, and decreased in the orbital frontal cortex and parahippocampus gyrus (p <0.001). We conclude that the alleviation of clinical symptoms in advanced PD by bilateral STN stimulation may be the result of activation of both ascending and descending pathways from STN and of restoration of the impaired higher-order cortex functions. (author)

  19. Choreatic Side Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anteromedial Subthalamic Nucleus for Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, Anne E P; Leentjens, Albert F G; Schruers, Koen; Duits, Annelien; Ackermans, Linda; Temel, Yasin

    2017-08-01

    Patients with treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are potential candidates for deep brain stimulation (DBS). The anteromedial subthalamic nucleus (STN) is among the most commonly used targets for DBS in OCD. We present a patient with a 30-year history of treatment-resistant OCD who underwent anteromedial STN-DBS. Despite a clear mood-enhancing effect, stimulation caused motor side effects, including bilateral hyperkinesia, dyskinesias, and sudden large amplitude choreatic movements of arms and legs when stimulating at voltages greater than approximately 1.5 V. DBS at lower amplitudes and at other contact points failed to result in a significant reduction of obsessions and compulsions without inducing motor side effects. Because of this limitation in programming options, we decided to reoperate and target the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS), which resulted in a substantial reduction in key obsessive and compulsive symptoms without serious side effects. Choreatic movements and hemiballismus have previously been linked to STN dysfunction and have been incidentally reported as side effects of DBS of the dorsolateral STN in Parkinson disease (PD). However, in PD, these side effects were usually transient, and they rarely interfered with DBS programming. In our patient, the motor side effects were persistent, and they made optimal DBS programming impossible. To our knowledge, such severe and persistent motor side effects have not been described previously for anteromedial STN-DBS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Morphine treatment enhances glutamatergic input onto neurons of the nucleus accumbens via both disinhibitory and stimulating effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kejing; Sheng, Huan; Song, Jiaojiao; Yang, Li; Cui, Dongyang; Ma, Qianqian; Zhang, Wen; Lai, Bin; Chen, Ming; Zheng, Ping

    2017-11-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic brain disorder characterized by the compulsive repeated use of drugs. The reinforcing effect of repeated use of drugs on reward plays an important role in morphine-induced addictive behaviors. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is an important site where morphine treatment produces its reinforcing effect on reward. However, how morphine treatment produces its reinforcing effect on reward in the NAc remains to be clarified. In the present study, we studied the influence of morphine treatment on the effects of DA and observed whether morphine treatment could directly change glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the NAc. We also explored the functional significance of morphine-induced potentiation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the NAc at behavioral level. Our results show that (1) morphine treatment removes the inhibitory effect of DA on glutamatergic input onto NAc neurons; (2) morphine treatment potentiates glutamatergic input onto NAc neurons, especially the one from the basolateral amygdala (BLA) to the NAc; (3) blockade of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the NAc or ablation of projection neurons from BLA to NAc significantly decreases morphine treatment-induced increase in locomotor activity. These results suggest that morphine treatment enhances glutamatergic input onto neurons of the NAc via both disinhibitory and stimulating effect and therefore increases locomotor activity. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Effect of vanadium compounds on acid phosphatase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Vescina, Cecilia M.; Sálice, Viviana C.; Cortizo, Ana María; Etcheverry, Susana B.

    1996-01-01

    The direct effect of different vanadium compounds on acid phosphatase (ACP) activity was investigated. Vanadate and vanadyl but not pervanadate inhibited the wheat germ ACP activity. These vanadium derivatives did not alter the fibroblast Swiss 3T3 soluble fraction ACP activity. Using inhibitors of tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), the wheat germ ACP was partially characterized as a PTPase. This study suggests that the inhibitory ability of different vanadium derivatives to modulate ACP activi...

  2. Thalamic VPM nucleus in the behaving monkey. III. Effects of reversible inactivation by lidocaine on thermal and mechanical discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, G H; Bushnell, M C; Oliveras, J L; Bastrash, N; Tremblay, N

    1993-11-01

    1. The present study evaluates the necessity of the ventroposterior medial thalamic nucleus (VPM) for discrimination of the intensity of noxious heating, innocuous cooling, and innocuous tactile (airpuff) stimulation of the maxillary skin. 2. Two rhesus monkeys were trained to detect small differences (Lidocaine hydrochloride (2%) was microinjected into regions of thalamus where single-unit recordings had identified neuronal responses to the noxious heating and/or cooling stimuli. The effectiveness of the anesthetic blockade was monitored by multiunit recordings using microelectrodes positioned 1-3 mm from the orifice of the injection cannula. The monkey's ability to detect near-threshold changes in stimulus intensity was compared before and after each injection. 3. During six experimental sessions, single injections of 1-4 microliters lidocaine near the dorsomedial border of VPM did not significantly alter the monkey's ability to detect small changes in the intensity of noxious heat, cool, airpuff, or visual stimuli despite neurophysiological evidence that spontaneous neuronal activity was blocked within parts of VPM. 4. During three experiments, dual simultaneous microinjections of lidocaine (delivered through 2 microcannulae separated by approximately 1 mm) resulted in profound deficits in noxious heat discrimination, with lesser deficits in cool and airpuff discrimination; visual discrimination was never altered. Monitoring of adjacent microelectrodes revealed that although activity ventral to the injection sites was blocked, activity in medial thalamic nuclei, implicated in nociceptive processing, was probably not altered by these injections. 5. These data suggest that VPM is important for the perception of noxious and innocuous thermal stimuli as well as for the perception of tactile stimuli. However, considering the ineffectiveness of small single microinjections of lidocaine, it appears that some critical proportion of VPM must be inactivated to disrupt

  3. Effects of GABA microinjection into dorsal raphe nucleus on behavior and activity of lateral habenular neurons in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jinyu; Song, Meiying; Li, Fengdan; Liu, Xiaofeng; Anwar, Alinur; Zhao, Hua

    2017-12-01

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is a key site for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) synthesis and release. DRN dysfunction has been implicated in several stress-related disorders, including depression and anxiety. The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) has been shown to inhibit the activity of DRN 5-HT neurons, and thus the LHb-DRN pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. Although it is known that the LHb also receives the projection from the 5-HT neuron in the DRN, whether 5-HT neurons in the DRN can influence activity of the LHb in vivo and whether this effect is related to the induced behavioral changes have not been investigated. In the current study, we determined how injecting γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) into the DRN to inhibit 5-HT neurons affected behavior and the changes in the activity of LHb neurons in mice. We found that GABA injection into the DRN induced depression-like behavior in mice, as indicated by increased immobility time, and decreased climbing time in the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test, decreased time spent in the center and total distance moved in the open field test. Using extracellular single unit recording, we showed that the firing rate of LHb neurons decreased after GABA microinjection into the DRN. Further, c-Fos expression in LHb neurons was inhibited. Together our results indicate that inhibition of DRN 5-HT neurons can cause decreased LHb activity and depression-like behavior in mice, however this depression-like behavior could be independent of the LHb activity. The observed decrease in LHb activity is probably due to the presence of a negative feedback loop between the DRN and the LHb, which may play a role in maintaining emotional homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors predicting the instant effect of motor function after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xin-Ling; Luo, Xiao-Guang; Lv, Hong; Wang, Jun; Ren, Yan; He, Zhi-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), the predictive effect of levodopa responsiveness on surgical outcomes was confirmed by some studies, however there were different conclusions about that through long- and short-term follow-ups. We aimed to investigate the factors which influence the predictive value of levodopa responsiveness, and discover more predictive factors of surgical outcomes. Twenty-three PD patients underwent bilateral STN-DBS and completed our follow-up. Clinical evaluations were performed 1 week before and 3 months after surgery. STN-DBS significantly improved motor function of PD patients after 3 months; preoperative levodopa responsiveness and disease subtype predicted the effect of DBS on motor function; gender, disease duration and duration of motor fluctuations modified the predictive effect of levodopa responsiveness on motor improvement; the duration of motor fluctuations and severity of preoperative motor symptoms modified the predictive effect of disease subtype on motor improvement. The intensity of levodopa responsiveness served as a predictor of motor improvement more accurately in female patients, patients with shorter disease duration or shorter motor fluctuations; PD patients with dominant axial symptoms benefit less from STN-DBS compared to those with limb-predominant symptoms, especially in their later disease stage.

  5. Perspective of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the lectures given at the International School of nuclear physics, Erice, 1985, which survey the expectations for the field of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The primary motivation for the field, the organization of the lectures, and a description of the NA 34 experiment, are all briefly given. (U.K.)

  6. Photoproduction of lepton pairs in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, B. D.; Goncalves, V. P.; De Santana Amaral, J. T. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Instituto de Fisica e Matematica (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    In this contribution we study coherent interactions as a probe of the nonlinear effects in the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED). In particular, we study the multiphoton effects in the production of leptons pairs for proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions for heavy nuclei. In the proton-nucleus we assume the ultrarelativistic proton as a source of photons and estimate the photoproduction of lepton pairs on nuclei at RHIC and LHC energies considering the multiphoton effects associated to multiple rescattering of the projectile photon on the proton of the nucleus. In nucleus - nucleus colllisions we consider the two nuclei as a source of photons. As each scattering contributes with a factor {alpha}Z to the cross section, this contribution must be taken into account for heavy nuclei. We consider the Coulomb corrections to calculate themultiple scatterings and estimate the total cross section for muon and tau pair production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies.

  7. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain nucleus-nucleus collisions based on nuclear emulsion experiments. Peripheral and central collisions are described in detail. Assuming the fireball model, the concepts of geometry, kinematics and thermodynamics in this model are discussed. Projectile and target fragmentations are studied. The advantages of using nuclear emulsions as detectors, are mentioned. Proton-nucleus collisions and nucleus-nucleus collisions are compared. Interactions, of projectiles such as Ca, B and C on targets such as Pb, Ag, Br etc. at very high energies (approximately 300 to 1700 Gev) are listed. A comparison of the near multiplicities in these interactions is given. A generalized explanation is given on the processes involved in these interactions. (A.K.)

  8. Kinetic isotope effects and aliphatic diazo-compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albery, W.J.; Conway, C.W.; Hall, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for the variation of the rate of decomposition of ethyl diazomalonate (EDM) and diazomalonate anions with pH and for the deuterium solvent isotope effect for EDM. The shape of the pH profile is explained by successive protonations of the anions. Ethyl diazoacetate is observed as an intermediate in the decomposition of EDM. The degree of proton transfer in the EDM transition state is deduced from the solvent isotope effect and the results together with those for other aliphatic diazo-compounds are discussed in terms of the Marcus theory. (author)

  9. Differential effects of recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated neuropeptide Y overexpression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and lateral hypothalamus on feeding behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiesjema, Birgitte; Adan, Roger A. H.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Kalsbeek, Andries; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that neuropeptide Y (NPY) increases food intake. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the lateral hypothalamus (LH) are both involved in the acute, hyperphagic effects of NPY. Although it is obvious that increased energy intake may lead to obesity, it is less

  10. Effects of (Des-Tyr1)-γ-endorphin and α-endorphin as compared to haloperidol and amphetamine on nucleus accumbens self-stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, J.M. van; Otte, A.P.

    The β-endorphin fragment (Des-Tyr1)-γ-endorphin (DTγE, β-LPH 62–77) attenuated self-stimulation behaviour associated with electrical stimulation of the nucleus accumbens area of rats. This effect was observed after subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of 2.5 and 25 μg of the neuropeptide and appeared to be

  11. Interleaving subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation to avoid side effects while achieving satisfactory motor benefits in Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizhen; Zhou, Peizhi; Jiang, Shu; Wang, Wei; Li, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for advanced Parkinson disease (PD). However, achieving ideal outcomes by conventional programming can be difficult in some patients, resulting in suboptimal control of PD symptoms and stimulation-induced adverse effects. Interleaving stimulation (ILS) is a newer programming technique that can individually optimize the stimulation area, thereby improving control of PD symptoms while alleviating stimulation-induced side effects after conventional programming fails to achieve the desired results. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed PD patients who received DBS programming during the previous 4 years in our hospital. We collected clinical and demographic data from 12 patients who received ILS because of incomplete alleviation of PD symptoms or stimulation-induced adverse effects after conventional programming had proven ineffective or intolerable. Appropriate lead location was confirmed with postoperative reconstruction images. The rationale and clinical efficacy of ILS was analyzed. Results: We divided our patients into 4 groups based on the following symptoms: stimulation-induced dysarthria and choreoathetoid dyskinesias, gait disturbance, and incomplete control of parkinsonism. After treatment with ILS, patients showed satisfactory improvement in PD symptoms and alleviation of stimulation-induced side effects, with a mean improvement in Unified PD Rating Scale motor scores of 26.9%. Conclusions: ILS is a newer choice and effective programming strategy to maximize symptom control in PD while decreasing stimulation-induced adverse effects when conventional programming fails to achieve satisfactory outcome. However, we should keep in mind that most DBS patients are routinely treated with conventional stimulation and that not all patients benefit from ILS. ILS is not recommended as the first choice of programming, and it is recommended only when patients have

  12. The effects of unilateral versus bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on prosaccades and antisaccades in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goelz, Lisa C; David, Fabian J; Sweeney, John A; Vaillancourt, David E; Poizner, Howard; Metman, Leonard Verhagen; Corcos, Daniel M

    2017-02-01

    Unilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with Parkinson's disease improves skeletomotor function assessed clinically, and bilateral STN DBS improves motor function to a significantly greater extent. It is unknown whether unilateral STN DBS improves oculomotor function and whether bilateral STN DBS improves it to a greater extent. Further, it has also been shown that bilateral, but not unilateral, STN DBS is associated with some impaired cognitive-motor functions. The current study compared the effect of unilateral and bilateral STN DBS on sensorimotor and cognitive aspects of oculomotor control. Patients performed prosaccade and antisaccade tasks during no stimulation, unilateral stimulation, and bilateral stimulation. There were three sets of findings. First, for the prosaccade task, unilateral STN DBS had no effect on prosaccade latency and it reduced prosaccade gain; bilateral STN DBS reduced prosaccade latency and increased prosaccade gain. Second, for the antisaccade task, neither unilateral nor bilateral stimulation had an effect on antisaccade latency, unilateral STN DBS increased antisaccade gain, and bilateral STN DBS increased antisaccade gain to a greater extent. Third, bilateral STN DBS induced an increase in prosaccade errors in the antisaccade task. These findings suggest that while bilateral STN DBS benefits spatiotemporal aspects of oculomotor control, it may not be as beneficial for more complex cognitive aspects of oculomotor control. Our findings are discussed considering the strategic role the STN plays in modulating information in the basal ganglia oculomotor circuit.

  13. Effect of Electroacupuncture at ST36 on Gastric-Related Neurons in Spinal Dorsal Horn and Nucleus Tractus Solitarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA at the ST36 acupoint on the firing rate of gastric-related neurons in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. There were different effects of gastric distention in SDH and NTS in 46 male Sprague-Dawley rats. In 10 excitatory neurons in SDH, most of the neurons were inhibited by homolateral EA. The firing rates decreased significantly (P<0.05 in 10 excitatory gastric-related neurons in NTS; the firing rates of 6 neurons were further excited by homolateral EA, with a significant increase of the firing rates (P<0.05; all inhibitory gastric-related neurons in NTS were excited by EA. The inhibition rate of homolateral EA was significantly increased in comparison with contralateral EA in gastric-related neurons of SDH (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between homolateral and contralateral EA in gastric-related neurons of NTS. EA at ST36 changes the firing rate of gastric-related neurons in SDH and NTS. However, there are some differences in responsive mode in these neurons. The existence of these differences could be one of the physiological foundations of diversity and complexity in EA effects.

  14. Onuf's nucleus X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D

    1981-01-01

    in the length of the nucleus was observed. Based on the cytoarchitecture the nucleus could be divided in three parts, a cranial, a dorsomedial and a ventrolateral. All parts of the nucleus consisted of chromatin-rich medium-sized neurons, and apparent direct appositions between different cells bodies as well...

  15. The Effect of Novel Heterocyclic Compounds on Cryptococcal Biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korem, Maya; Kagan, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm formation by microorganisms depends on their communication by quorum sensing, which is mediated by small diffusible signaling molecules that accumulate in the extracellular environment. During human infection, the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans can form biofilm on medical devices, which protects the organism and increases its resistance to antifungal agents. The aim of this study was to test two novel heterocyclic compounds, S-8 (thiazolidinedione derivative, TZD) and NA-8 (succinimide derivative, SI), for their anti-biofilm activity against strains of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Biofilms were formed in a defined medium in 96-well polystyrene plates and 8-well micro-slides. The effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations of S-8 and NA-8 on biofilm formation was measured after 48 h by a metabolic reduction assay and by confocal laser microscopy analysis using fluorescent staining. The formation and development of cryptococcal biofilms was inhibited significantly by these compounds in concentrations below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. These compounds may have a potential role in preventing fungal biofilm development on indwelling medical devices or even as a therapeutic measure after the establishment of biofilm. PMID:29371559

  16. Large magnetocaloric effect of GdNiAl2 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dembele, S.N.; Ma, Z.; Shang, Y.F.; Fu, H.; Balfour, E.A.; Hadimani, R.L.; Jiles, D.C.; Teng, B.H.; Luo, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the structure, magnetic properties, and magnetocaloric effect of the polycrystalline compound GdNiAl 2 . Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement and Rietveld refinement revealed that GdNiAl 2 alloy is CuMgAl 2 -type phase structure with about 1 wt% GdNi 2 Al 3 secondary phase. Magnetic measurements suggest that the compound is ferromagnetic and undergoes a second-order phase transition near 28 K. The maximum value of magnetic entropy change reaches 16.0 J/kg K for an applied magnetic field change of 0–50 kOe and the relative cooling power was 6.4×10 2 J/kg. It is a promising candidate as a magnetocaloric material working near liquid hydrogen temperature (~20 K) exhibiting large relative cooling power. - Highlights: • Preferred orientation with axis of [010] was found in the GdNiAl 2 compound. • The ΔS Mmax and the RCP are 16.0 J/kg K and 640 J/kg, respectively, for ΔH=50 kOe. • Relative low rare earth content in GdNiAl 2 comparing with other candidates

  17. Effects of organic compounds on actinoid transfer in natural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Keizo; Nakaguchi, Yuzuru; Suzuki, Yasuhiro [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Senoo, Muneaki; Nagao, Seiya; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki

    1996-01-01

    For safety evaluation of geological disposal of radioactive wastes, it seems necessary to elucidate the geological transfer of radioactive nuclides in the soil and the undersea sediments. It has been known that there exist various organic compounds highly potential to form a complex with TRU elements, uranium, copper etc. in the soil and the sediments and those compounds may play an important role for geological transfer of nuclides. In this study, fluorescent substances contained in underground and river water were focused as the measures to identify the molecular species of organic compounds in natural water and their interactions with radionuclides and minor metals, and their geological transfers were investigated. Spectrophotometric properties of humic acid obtained in the market were examined. Its fluorescent intensity was strongest at pH 10 and stable for 2 weeks or more. Then, highly polluted river water was taken from Yamato river to determine the contents of humic acid and other fluorescent substances. Further, the effects of the additions of Cu and Fe on the fluorescent intensity were examined. (M.N.)

  18. The evolution time of nucleon spectrum in residual excited nucleus and calculation of the non-linear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenzhebaev, Sh.K.; Djuraev, Sh.H.; Mannanov, D.E.; Khugaev, A.V.

    1994-01-01

    The investigation of nonstationary fermi-gas thermalization of nucleons in the residual excited nucleus as an open nonlinearize system and analytical methods of calculation are presented. (author). 9 refs

  19. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus: effectiveness in advanced Parkinson's disease patients previously reliant on apomorphine

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, T; Fox, S; Eldridge, P; Littlechild, P; Byrne, P; Forster, A; Marshall, A; Cameron, H; McIver, K; Fletcher, N; Steiger, M

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the efficacy of bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease previously reliant on apomorphine as their main antiparkinsonian medication.

  20. Effects of trace volatile organic compounds on methane oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiemchaisri Wilai

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs on methane oxidation in landfill cover soils were examined. The batch experiments were conducted using single and mixed VOCs, such as, dichloromethane (DCM, trichloroethylene (TCE, tetrachloroethylene (PCE, and benzene. The results from all combinations showed a decrease in methane oxidation rate with increase in VOC concentrations. Moreover, inhibition effects of TCE and DCM were found higher than benzene and PCE. The reduction of methane oxidation by benzene and PCE could be attributed to the toxicity effect, whereas TCE and DCM were found to exhibit the competitive-inhibition effect. When the soil was mixed with DCM, no methane oxidation was found. Damage to the cell's internal membrane was found in a methanotrophic culture exposed to VOC gases which is the attachment site of a key enzyme needed for methane oxidation

  1. Investigation on the magnetocaloric effect in TbN compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranke, P.J. von, E-mail: von.ranke@uol.com.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro—UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Alvarenga, T.S.T.; Nóbrega, E.P.; Alho, B.P.; Ribeiro, P.O. [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro—UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, A. Magnus G. [Divisão de Metrologia de Materiais (DIMAT), Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ 25250-020 (Brazil); Sousa, V.S.R. de; Caldas, A.; Oliveira, N.A. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro—UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    One of the biggest challenges in materials science is to understand the microscopic mechanisms responsible in storage and release material entropy. TbN compound, which presents non-degeneracy in ground state, was studied and the calculated magnetocaloric effect is in good agreement with the recent experimental data. Also inverse magnetocaloric effect and spin reorientation transition were predicted in TbN. The theoretical investigations were carried out using a Hamiltonian, which includes the crystalline electrical field, Zeeman and exchange interactions. - Highlights: • Theoretical description of the magnetocaloric effect in TbN. • Influence of the crystalline electrical field anisotropy on TbN. • Predictions of inverse and anomalous magnetocaloric effect in TbN.

  2. Pion production in nucleus--nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1975-06-01

    Current work on pion production in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is reviewed. The majority of existing data are of the inclusive variety in which a single final state pion is detected. Experimental data are compared and their possible contributions to obtaining new information on nuclear structure is discussed. Various models which attempt to explain the observed single-inclusive-pion spectra either on the basis of a nucleon-nucleus interaction in which Fermi motion is included or on some type of cooperative model are examined. Other areas of interest involving pion production include tests of charge symmetry and pion multiplicities. (9 figures, 1 table) (U.S.)

  3. Effect of subthalamic nucleus or globus pallidus interna stimulation on oculomotor function in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridley, Jared; Adams, Gareth; Sun, Ping; York, Michelle; Atassi, Farah; Lai, Eugene; Simpson, Richard; Viswanathan, Ashwin; Yoshor, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of either the globus pallidus interna (GPi) or subthalamic nucleus (STN) is similarly effective for treating somatomotor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD), but differences in how stimulation of each target affects oculomotor function are poorly understood. We sought to determine if stimulation of the STN, but not the GPi, affects oculomotor function in PD patients. Nineteen PD patients with DBS implants (8 bilateral GPi, 9 bilateral STN and 2 unilateral STN) were studied. Testing was performed with stimulation on, then off. Somatomotor function was tested using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor exam. For oculomotor testing, patients performed pro- and antisaccade tasks while monitored with an infrared eye tracker. Saccadic latency, saccadic intrusions, and square-wave jerks (SWJs) were measured for each trial. As expected, UPDRS motor scores improved with both GPi and STN stimulation. With GPi stimulation, there was no significant difference in oculomotor function with stimulation on or off. However, with STN stimulation on, there was a significant increase in the mean number of SWJs/s, as well as a significant decrease in latency for both pro- and antisaccade tasks. Stimulation of either GPi or STN had similar effects on somatomotor function, but only STN stimulation significantly altered oculomotor function. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Neural Segregation of Concurrent Speech: Effects of Background Noise and Reverberation on Auditory Scene Analysis in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayles, Mark; Stasiak, Arkadiusz; Winter, Ian M

    2016-01-01

    Concurrent complex sounds (e.g., two voices speaking at once) are perceptually disentangled into separate "auditory objects". This neural processing often occurs in the presence of acoustic-signal distortions from noise and reverberation (e.g., in a busy restaurant). A difference in periodicity between sounds is a strong segregation cue under quiet, anechoic conditions. However, noise and reverberation exert differential effects on speech intelligibility under "cocktail-party" listening conditions. Previous neurophysiological studies have concentrated on understanding auditory scene analysis under ideal listening conditions. Here, we examine the effects of noise and reverberation on periodicity-based neural segregation of concurrent vowels /a/ and /i/, in the responses of single units in the guinea-pig ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN): the first processing station of the auditory brain stem. In line with human psychoacoustic data, we find reverberation significantly impairs segregation when vowels have an intonated pitch contour, but not when they are spoken on a monotone. In contrast, noise impairs segregation independent of intonation pattern. These results are informative for models of speech processing under ecologically valid listening conditions, where noise and reverberation abound.

  5. Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects on Voice Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Lundgren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD affects speech inconsistently. Recently, stimulation of the caudal zona incerta (cZi-DBS has shown superior motor outcomes for PD patients, but effects on speech have not been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cZi-DBS and STN-DBS on voice intensity in PD patients. Mean intensity during reading and intensity decay during rapid syllable repetition were measured for STN-DBS and cZi-DBS patients (eight patients per group, before- and 12 months after-surgery on- and off-stimulation. For mean intensity, there were small significant differences on- versus off-stimulation in each group: 74.2 (2.0 dB contra 72.1 (2.2 dB (=.002 for STN-DBS, and 71.6 (4.1 dB contra 72.8 (3.4 dB (=.03 for cZi-DBS, with significant interaction (<.001. Intensity decay showed no significant changes. The subtle differences found for mean intensity suggest that STN-DBS and cZi-DBS may influence voice intensity differently.

  6. Effects of irradiation on the circadian rhythm in the release of peptides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kimihiko [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-03-01

    Mammalian circadian rhythms are regulated by the circadian clock which is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In the present study, we examined the effect of irradiation on the circadian rhythm in the release of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in slice cultures of the rat SCN. The effect of irradiation on the glial cell proliferation in the SCN culture was also examined by the immunohistochemical method. In SCN cultures which received irradiation, circadian rhythms in the release of AVP and VIP were detected, as observed in the SCN culture not irradiated. However, the AVP and VIP rhythms showed various phase angle differences in some cultures irradiated, which suggested that irradiation caused a looseness of coupling between AVP and VIP oscillators. On the other hand, the number of glial cells was decreased by irradiation. These results suggested that the dissociation of the two peptide rhythms after irradiation might be due to the inhibition of glial cell proliferation. Furthermore, the radiation changed the amplitude of AVP and VIP rhythms, suggesting that couplings within both AVP and VIP oscillators were influenced by irradiation. (author)

  7. Effects of irradiation on the circadian rhythm in the release of peptides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimihiko

    2000-01-01

    Mammalian circadian rhythms are regulated by the circadian clock which is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In the present study, we examined the effect of irradiation on the circadian rhythm in the release of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in slice cultures of the rat SCN. The effect of irradiation on the glial cell proliferation in the SCN culture was also examined by the immunohistochemical method. In SCN cultures which received irradiation, circadian rhythms in the release of AVP and VIP were detected, as observed in the SCN culture not irradiated. However, the AVP and VIP rhythms showed various phase angle differences in some cultures irradiated, which suggested that irradiation caused a looseness of coupling between AVP and VIP oscillators. On the other hand, the number of glial cells was decreased by irradiation. These results suggested that the dissociation of the two peptide rhythms after irradiation might be due to the inhibition of glial cell proliferation. Furthermore, the radiation changed the amplitude of AVP and VIP rhythms, suggesting that couplings within both AVP and VIP oscillators were influenced by irradiation. (author)

  8. Mechanisms of Neuroplasticity and Ethanol’s Effects on Plasticity in the Striatum and Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovinger, David M.; Kash, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Long-lasting changes in synaptic function (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have long been thought to contribute to information storage in the nervous system. Although synaptic plasticity mainly has adaptive functions that allow the organism to function in complex environments, it is now clear that certain events or exposure to various substances can produce plasticity that has negative consequences for organisms. Exposure to drugs of abuse, in particular ethanol, is a life experience that can activate or alter synaptic plasticity, often resulting in increased drug seeking and taking and in many cases addiction. Two brain regions subject to alcohol’s effects on synaptic plasticity are the striatum and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), both of which have key roles in alcohol’s actions and control of intake. The specific effects depend on both the brain region analyzed (e.g., specific subregions of the striatum and BNST) and the duration of ethanol exposure (i.e., acute vs. chronic). Plastic changes in synaptic transmission in these two brain regions following prolonged ethanol exposure are thought to contribute to excessive alcohol drinking and relapse to drinking. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this plasticity may lead to new therapies for treatment of these and other aspects of alcohol use disorder. PMID:26259092

  9. Kondo effect and heavy fermions in Yb compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonville, P.

    1987-01-01

    The Kondo properties of Yb dilute alloys and intermetallics have been investigated using Moessbauer spectroscopy on 170 Yb. In the dilute alloys AuYb and LaBe 13 Yb, the Kondo logarithmic anomaly of the impurity relaxation rate has been detected, and in the concentrated Yb compounds YbBe 13 , YbP and YbAs, and YbCuAl, the manifestations of the interplay between the Kondo effect and the magnetic ordering due to the RKKY interaction have been characterized

  10. Effect of vanadium compounds on acid phosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescina, C M; Sálice, V C; Cortizo, A M; Etcheverry, S B

    1996-01-01

    The direct effect of different vanadium compounds on acid phosphatase (ACP) activity was investigated. Vanadate and vanadyl but not pervanadate inhibited the wheat germ ACP activity. These vanadium derivatives did not alter the fibroblast Swiss 3T3 soluble fraction ACP activity. Using inhibitors of tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), the wheat germ ACP was partially characterized as a PTPase. This study suggests that the inhibitory ability of different vanadium derivatives to modulate ACP activity seems to depend on the geometry around the vanadium atom more than on the oxidation state. Our results indicate a correlation between the PTPase activity and the sensitivity to vanadate and vanadyl cation.

  11. Phenomenological pictures on the cumulative effect in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the incident kinetic energy of 3.65 A GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besliu, Calin; Jipa, Alexandru; Zaharia, Radu; Tugulea, Mircea; Iosif, Maria; Argintaru, Dan; Argintaru, Cristina

    1996-01-01

    In this work new experimental results on the cumulative production of the negative pions are reported. Eight central and peripheral (inelastic) collisions at 4.5 A GeV/c incident momentum are taken into account comparisons with experimental results on the cumulative effects obtained in n-p collisions at 4.53 GeV/c and O-Ne, O-Pb collisions at 4.5 A GeV/c are included in this work. A significant cumulative production of negative pions is observed. The non-equilibrium mechanisms can be considered for cumulative effect. The experiments have been performed at the Synchrophasotron from JINR Dubna in the frame of the SKM 200 Collaboration. (authors)

  12. Effects of inactivation of the anterior interpositus nucleus on the kinematic and dynamic control of multijoint movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S E; Martin, J H; Ghez, C

    2000-10-01

    We previously showed that inactivating the anterior interpositus nucleus in cats disrupts prehension; paw paths, normally straight and accurate, become curved, hypometric, and more variable. In the present study, we determined the joint kinematic and dynamic origins of this impairment. Animals were restrained in a hammock and trained to reach and grasp a cube of meat from a narrow food well at varied heights; movements were monitored using the MacReflex analysis system. The anterior interpositus nucleus was inactivated by microinjection of the GABA agonist muscimol (0.25-0.5 microgram in 0.5 microliter saline). For each joint, we computed the torque due to gravity, inertial resistance (termed self torque), interjoint interactions (termed interaction torque), and the combined effects of active muscle contraction and passive soft tissue stretch (termed generalized muscle torque). Inactivation produced significant reductions in the amplitude, velocity, and acceleration of elbow flexion. However, these movements continued to scale normally with target height. Shoulder extension was reduced by inactivation but wrist angular displacement and velocity were not. Inactivation also produced changes in the temporal coordination between elbow, shoulder, and wrist kinematics. Dynamic analysis showed that elbow flexion both before and during inactivation was produced by the combined action of muscle and interaction torque, but that the timing depended on muscle torque. Elbow interaction and muscle torques were scaled to target height both before and during inactivation. Inactivation produced significant reductions in elbow flexor interaction and muscle torques. The duration of elbow flexor muscle torque was prolonged to compensate for the reduction in flexor interaction torque. Shoulder extension was produced by extensor interaction and muscle torques both before and during inactivation. Inactivation produced a reduction in shoulder extension, primarily by reduced interaction

  13. Somatostatin in the rat periventricular nucleus: sex differences and effect of gonadal steroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van H.H.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.; Beek, van der E.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the rat, the sexual dimorphism in growth hormone release is driven by sex steroids, and is suggested to result mainly from differences in somatostatin (SOM) release patterns from the median eminence. We studied the effect of gonadal steroids on SOM peptide-containing cells in the periventricular

  14. Antiproton-nucleus interaction and nuclear E2 resonance effect in molybdenum and neodymium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanert, W.

    1986-01-01

    Antiprotonix X-radiation from 92 Mo, 94 Mo, 95 Mo, 98 Mo, 100 Mo and 146 Nd, 148 Nd was measured with Ge detectors at the LEAR (CERN). The nuclear E2 resonance effect (configuration mixing by dynamic electric quadrupole interaction) was for the first time observed in antiprotonic atoms. It effects in 94 Mo, 95 Mo, and 98 Mo a mixing of the atomic levels (7,6) and (5,4). From the resulting weakening of the antiprotonic X-ray line (7→6) in comparison with the nonresonant isotope 92 Mo information on the effects of the strong interaction in the (5,4) level was obtained which is in Mo not directly observable. The absorption widths by strong interactions in the level (6,5) resulted for 92 Mo, 94 Mo, 95 Mo, and 98 Mo to 1.4±0.3 keV, 2.3±0.9 keV, 1.9±0.4 keV, and 2.3±0.7 keV, the energy shifts by strong interactions to 0.46±0.08 keV, 0.64±0.22 keV, 0.74±0.12 keV, and 0.55±0.16 keV. In the nonresonant isotope 92 Mo the absorption width of the level (7,6) to 19.5±1.2 eV. A fit of the effective scattering length to the data for 92 Mo resulted anti a = (0.25+3.05i) fm. In 100 Mo the predicted case of strong coupling could be experimentally established by the nearly complete extinction of the line (8→7) and the broadening of the line (9→8). In 148 Nd the nuclear E2 resonance effect effects a mixing of the levels (9,8) and (8,6) and by this a reduction of the line (9→8) in comparison to 146 Nd. For this isotope information on the effects of the strong interaction could be extracted separately for the fine structure components. (orig.) [de

  15. Hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Qualitative picture of high energy hadron-nucleus collision process, emerging from the analysis of experimental data, is presented. Appropriate description procedure giving a possibility of reproducing various characteristics of this process in terms of the data on elementary hadron-nucleon interaction is proposed. Formula reproducing hadron-nucleus collision cross sections is derived. Inelastic collision cross sections for pion-nucleus and proton-nucleus reactions at wide energy interval are calculated for Pb, Ag, and Al targets. A-dependence of cross sections for pion-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions at nearly 50 GeV/c momentum were calculated and compared with existing experimental data. Energy dependence of cross sections for hadron-nucleus collisions is determined simply by energy dependence of corresponding cross sections for hadron-nucleon collisions; A-dependence is determined simply by nuclear sizes and nucleon density distributions in nuclei

  16. Effects of materials containing antimicrobial compounds on food hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møretrø, Trond; Langsrud, Solveig

    2011-07-01

    Surfaces with microorganisms may transfer unwanted microorganisms to food through cross-contamination during processing and preparation. A high hygienic status of surfaces that come in contact with food is important in order to reduce the risk of cross-contamination. During the last decade, products containing antimicrobial compounds, such as cutting boards, knives, countertops, kitchen utensils, refrigerators, and conveyor belts, have been introduced to the market, claiming hygienic effects. Such products are often referred to as "treated articles." Here we review various aspects related to treated articles intended for use during preparation and processing of food. Regulatory issues and methods to assess antibacterial effects are covered. Different concepts for treated articles as well as their antibacterial activity are reviewed. The effects of products with antimicrobials on food hygiene and safety are discussed. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  17. Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects on Diadochokinetic Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Karlsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypokinetic dysarthria observed in Parkinson's disease (PD affects the range, speed, and accuracy of articulatory gestures in patients, reducing the perceived quality of speech acoustic output in continuous speech. Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS and of the caudal zona incerta (cZi-DBS are current surgical treatment options for PD. This study aimed at investigating the outcome of STN-DBS (7 patients and cZi-DBS (7 patients in two articulatory diadochokinesis tasks (AMR and SMR using measurements of articulation rate and quality of the plosive consonants (using the percent measurable VOT metric. The results indicate that patients receiving STN-DBS increased in articulation rate in the Stim-ON condition in the AMR task only, with no effect on production quality. Patients receiving cZi-DBS decreased in articulation rate in the Stim-ON condition and further showed a reduction in production quality. The data therefore suggest that cZi-DBS is more detrimental for extended articulatory movements than STN-DBS.

  18. Effect of Mefloquine, a Gap Junction Blocker, on Circadian Period2 Gene Oscillation in the Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinmi Koo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn mammals, the master circadian pacemaker is localized in an area of the ventral hypothalamus known as the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN. Previous studies have shown that pacemaker neurons in the SCN are highly coupled to one another, and this coupling is crucial for intrinsic self-sustainability of the SCN central clock, which is distinguished from peripheral oscillators. One plausible mechanism underlying the intercellular communication may involve direct electrical connections mediated by gap junctions.MethodsWe examined the effect of mefloquine, a neuronal gap junction blocker, on circadian Period 2 (Per2 gene oscillation in SCN slice cultures prepared from Per2::luciferase (PER2::LUC knock-in mice using a real-time bioluminescence measurement system.ResultsAdministration of mefloquine causes instability in the pulse period and a slight reduction of amplitude in cyclic PER2::LUC expression. Blockade of gap junctions uncouples PER2::LUC-expressing cells, in terms of phase transition, which weakens synchrony among individual cellular rhythms.ConclusionThese findings suggest that neuronal gap junctions play an important role in synchronizing the central pacemaker neurons and contribute to the distinct self-sustainability of the SCN master clock.

  19. PGC-1α may associated with the anti-obesity effect of taurine on rats induced by arcuate nucleus lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peng-juan; Jin, Yong-jun; Li, Ming-e; Zhou, Rong; Yang, Mei-zi

    2016-01-01

    To observe the effect of taurine treatment in rats with monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity. Rats with MSG-induced obesity were administered taurine for five weeks. The Lee's index, food intake, blood pressure, body temperature, body mass index (BMI), fat weight, and triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were compared. The PGC-1α expression levels in white and brown adipose were measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, and pathological changes in the arcuate nucleus and liver were examined. Compared with the model group, BMI, TG, and LDL in the high and low taurine dose groups were significantly lower, while HDL was higher. Body temperature in the taurine treatment groups was higher, and blood pressure was lower. The weight of brown fat in the taurine treatment groups was significantly higher than in the model group, while the white fat weight was significantly lower. Compared with the control group, the PGC-1α levels in white and brown adipose were higher in the taurine treatment groups and more significantly up-regulated in brown adipose. This study suggests that taurine prevents obesity in MSG-treated rats and may be closely associated with energy metabolism.

  20. Effects of lidocaine injections into the lateral parabrachial nucleus on dipsogenic and pressor response to central angiotensin 2 in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menani, Jose Vanderlei; Beltz, Terry G.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bilateral injections of the local anesthetic, lidocaine, into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) on the dipsogenic and pressor responses induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of angiotensin 2 (ANG 2). Centrally injected ANG 2 (50 ng/1 microliter) induced water intake ( IO.2 +/- 0.8 ml/h) and pressor responses (22 +/- 1 mmHg). Prior bilateral injection of 10% lidocaine (200 nl) into the LPBN increased the water intake (14.2 +/- 1.4 ml/h), but did not change the pressor response (17 +/- 1 mmHg) to i.c.v. ANG 2. Lidocaine alone injected into the LPBN also induced a pressor response (23 +/- 3 mmHg). These results showing that bilateral LPBN injection of lidocaine increase water intake induced bv i.c.v. ANG 2 are consistent with electrolytic and neurotoxic lesion studies and suggest that the LPBN is associated with inhibitory mechanisms controlling water intake induced by ANG 2. These results also provide evidence that it is feasible to reversibly anesthetize this brain area to facilitate fluid-related ingestive behavior.

  1. Effects physiopathological of secondary compounds in monogastric feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozada-Salcedo Euclides Efraín

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The high nutritious value which they contribute to the originating products nonconventional of legumes in the nutrition animal cannot be used in their totality due to the compound presence secondary also denominated antinutricionales factors, such that structurally contain a great variety of biologically active substances that according to its nature and concentration is those that limits their use due to the injurious effects that produce in the monogastric animals since they do not count on the protection that offers the ruminal bacterial flora as in the case of the ruminants. With this investigation one looks for to analyze in detailed form the adverse effects that cause tannins, inhibitors of protease, lectins, vicina and convicina, oligosaccharides, saponins, fítico acid, L-Drug, in the diverse physiological, metabolic processes and enzymatic since they interfere in the digestibility of the nutrients, block the mineral use, they promote the lost one of endogenous protein, exacerbate the neurotransmission in the nervous system, alter the immunological system, digestive upheavals, produces anatomical damages and structural, they slow down the growth of the animals specially when its consumption is in intensive form, by such reason is essential to know the dynamics of these compounds to be able to a great extent take advantage of the nutritious quality the seeds in the different production systems when including them in balanced diets.

  2. Arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus is involved in mediating the satiety effect of electroacupuncture in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei Wang; Tian, De Run; Tso, Patrick; Han, Ji Sheng

    2011-12-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in the world. Since effective remedies are rare, researchers are trying to discover new therapies for obesity, and acupuncture is among the most popular alternative approaches. This study investigated the anti-obesity mechanisms of EA, using a rat model of diet-induced obesity. After feeding with a high-fat diet for 9 weeks, a number of rats who gained weight that surpassed the maximal body weight of rats in the chow-fed group were considered obese and employed in the study. A 2 Hz EA treatment at the acupoints ST36/SP6 with the intensity increasing stepwise from 0.5-1-1.5 mA was given once a day for 30 min. Rats treated with EA showed significantly decreased food intake and reduced body weight compared with the rats in DIO and restraint group. EA treatment increased peptide levels of α-MSH and mRNA levels of its precursor POMC in the arcuate nuclear of hypothalamus (ARH) neurons. In addition, the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) content of α-MSH was elevated by EA application. ARH lesions by monosodium glutamate abolished the inhibition effect of EA on food intake and body weight. A non-acupoint stimulation did not show the benefit effect on food intake inhibition and body weight reduction compared with restraint and ST36/SP6 EA treatment. We concluded that EA treatment at ST36/SP6 acted through ARH to significantly inhibit food intake and body weight gain when fed a high-fat diet and that the stimulation of α-MSH expression and release might be involved in the mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. On-resonance deformation effect measurements: A probe of order within chaos in the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.D.; Gould, C.R.; Gould, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    The statistics of on-resonance measurements of the deformation effect cross section σ 02 in unpolarized neutron transmission through an aligned 165 Ho target is discussed. Under the standard Porter-Thomas assumption about reduced partial width amplitudes, the sign of σ 02 is random at s-wave resonances with d-wave admixtures. Motivated by the observation of sign correlations in epithermal parity-violation studies, conditions under which a doorway state will give rise to σ 02 close-quote s of nonrandom sign are identified. Oblate shape isomers lying at excitation energies in the isolated resonance regime could meet these conditions. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  4. Nucleus-nucleus potential with repulsive core and elastic scattering. Part 1. Nucleus-nucleus interaction potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovs'ka, O.Yi.; Denisov, V.Yu.; Nesterov, V.O.

    2010-01-01

    Various approaches for nucleus-nucleus interaction potential evaluation are discussed in details. It is shown that the antisymmetrization of nucleons belonging to different nuclei and the Pauli principle give the essential contribution into the nucleus-nucleus potential at distances, when nuclei are strongly overlapping, and lead to appearance of the repulsive core of nucleus nucleus interaction at small distances between nuclei.

  5. Generalized spin-dependent WIMP-nucleus interactions and the DAMA modulation effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scopel, Stefano; Yoon, Kook-Hyun; Yoon, Jong-Hyun, E-mail: scopel@sogang.ac.kr, E-mail: koreasds@naver.com, E-mail: pledge200@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    Guided by non-relativistic Effective Field Theory (EFT) we classify the most general spin-dependent interactions between a fermionic Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) and nuclei, and within this class of models we discuss the viability of an interpretation of the DAMA modulation result in terms of a signal from WIMP elastic scatterings using a halo-independent approach. We find that, although several relativistic EFT's can lead to a spin-dependent cross section, in some cases with an explicit, non-negligible dependence on the WIMP incoming velocity, three main scenarios can be singled out in the non-relativistic limit which approximately encompass them all, and that only differ by their dependence on the transferred momentum. For two of them compatibility between DAMA and other constraints is possible for a WIMP mass below 30 GeV, but only for a WIMP velocity distribution in the halo of our Galaxy which departs from a Maxwellian. This is achieved by combining a suppression of the WIMP effective coupling to neutrons (to evade constraints from xenon and germanium detectors) to an explicit quadratic or quartic dependence of the cross section on the transferred momentum (that leads to a relative enhancement of the expected rate off sodium in DAMA compared to that off fluorine in droplet detectors and bubble chambers). For larger WIMP masses the same scenarios are excluded by scatterings off iodine in COUPP.

  6. A Multiplexed Assay That Monitors Effects of Multiple Compound Treatment Times Reveals Candidate Immune-Enhancing Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziyan; Henowitz, Liza; Zweifach, Adam

    2018-05-01

    We previously developed a flow cytometry assay that monitored lytic granule exocytosis in cytotoxic T lymphocytes stimulated by contacting beads coated with activating anti-CD3 antibodies. That assay was multiplexed in that responses of cells that did or did not receive the activating stimulus were distinguished via changes in light scatter accompanying binding of cells to beads, allowing us to discriminate compounds that activate responses on their own from compounds that enhance responses in cells that received the activating stimulus, all within a single sample. Here we add a second dimension of multiplexing by developing means to assess in a single sample the effects of treating cells with test compounds for different times. Bar-coding cells before adding them to test wells lets us determine compound treatment time while also monitoring activation status and response amplitude at the point of interrogation. This multiplexed assay is suitable for screening 96-well plates. We used it to screen compounds from the National Cancer Institute, identifying several compounds that enhance anti-LAMP1 responses. Multiple-treatment-time (MTT) screening enabled by bar-coding and read via high-throughput flow cytometry may be a generally useful method for facilitating the discovery of compounds of interest.

  7. Effects of elastic anisotropy on mechanical behavior of intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of the deformation and fracture behavior of ordered intermetallic compounds are examined within the framework of linear anisotropic elasticity theory of dislocations and cracks. The orientation dependence and the tension/compression asymmetry of yield stress are explained in terms of the anisotropic coupling effect of non-glide stresses to the glide strain. The anomalous yield behavior is related to the disparity (edge/screw) of dislocation mobility and the critical stress required for the dislocation multiplication mechanism of Frank-Read type. The slip-twin conjugate relationship, extensive faulting, and pseudo-twinning (martensitic transformation) at a crack tip can be enhanced also by the anisotropic coupling effect, which may lead to transformation toughening of shear type

  8. The effects of bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on heart rate variability in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kang-Du; Shan, Din-E; Kuo, Terry B J; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2013-07-01

    The beneficial effects of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on motor symptoms and quality of life in Parkinson's disease (PD) are well known, but little is known of the effects on autonomic function. Diffusion of current during stimulation of the STN may simultaneously involve the motor and nonmotor, limbic and associative areas of the STN. The aims of this study were to examine whether STN stimulation affects functions of the autonomic nervous system and, if so, to correlate the effects with the active contacts of electrodes in the STN. Eight PD patients with good motor control and quality of sleep after STN-DBS surgery were recruited. All patients had two days of recordings with portable polysomnography (PSG) (first night with stimulation "on" and second night "off"). From the PSG data, the first sleep cycle of each recording night was defined. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed between the same uninterrupted periods of the two sleep nights. In addition, the optimal electrode positions were defined from postoperative MRI studies, and the coordinates of active contacts were confirmed. HRV spectral analysis showed that only low-frequency (LF)/high-frequency (HF) power was significantly activated in the stimulation "on" groups (P = 0.011). There was a significant negative correlation between power change of LF/HF and electrode position lateral to the midcommissural point (ρ = 0.857, P = 0.007) These results demonstrate that STN-DBS can enhance sympathetic regulation; the autonomic response may be due to electrical signals being distributed to limbic components of the STN or descending sympathetic pathways in the zona incerta.

  9. Effects of Repeated Stress on Age-Dependent GABAergic Regulation of the Lateral Nucleus of the Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rosenkranz, J Amiel

    2016-08-01

    The adolescent age is associated with lability of mood and emotion. The onset of depression and anxiety disorders peaks during adolescence and there are differences in symptomology during adolescence. This points to differences in the adolescent neural circuitry that underlies mood and emotion, such as the amygdala. The human adolescent amygdala is more responsive to evocative stimuli, hinting to less local inhibitory regulation of the amygdala, but this has not been explored in adolescents. The amygdala, including the lateral nucleus (LAT) of the basolateral amygdala complex, is sensitive to stress. The amygdala undergoes maturational processes during adolescence, and therefore may be more vulnerable to harmful effects of stress during this time period. However, little is known about the effects of stress on the LAT during adolescence. GABAergic inhibition is a key regulator of LAT activity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test whether there are differences in the local GABAergic regulation of the rat adolescent LAT, and differences in its sensitivity to repeated stress. We found that LAT projection neurons are subjected to weaker GABAergic inhibition during adolescence. Repeated stress reduced in vivo endogenous and exogenous GABAergic inhibition of LAT projection neurons in adolescent rats. Furthermore, repeated stress decreased measures of presynaptic GABA function and interneuron activity in adolescent rats. In contrast, repeated stress enhanced glutamatergic drive of LAT projection neurons in adult rats. These results demonstrate age differences in GABAergic regulation of the LAT, and age differences in the mechanism for the effects of repeated stress on LAT neuron activity. These findings provide a substrate for increased mood lability in adolescents, and provide a substrate by which adolescent repeated stress can induce distinct behavioral outcomes and psychiatric symptoms.

  10. Antiproton production in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN-SPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadija, K.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.

    1996-01-01

    A model for antiproton production in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon, based on the wounded nucleon model is developed. The predictions are compared to published nucleon-nucleus and sulphur-nucleus data. The results suggest the presence of similar antiproton production processes in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions near midrapidity. (orig.)

  11. Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Quintero-Fabián, Saray; López-Roa, Rocío Ivette; Flores-Gutiérrez, Enrique Octavio; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects. PMID:25961060

  12. Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arreola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects.

  13. K+-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The K + -nucleus system is reviewed and comparison with data is made. The principal conclusions are that the theoretical uncertainties in relating the K + -nucleus interaction to the K + -nucleon interaction are very small and hence the positive kaon makes an excellent probe of the nucleus. It is suggested that this particle may be more sensitive to non-nucleonic degrees of freedom (especially quarks) than classical probes

  14. Studies on the biological effects of deuteriated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh-Nguyen, Nguyen; Vincent, J.

    1976-01-01

    The antifungal activity of some perdeuterated fatty acids with a normal chain of 11 to 18 carbon atoms was investigated on common dermatophytes Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum under in vitro conditions. A perdeuterated compound is one in which most of the hydrogen atoms in the molecule are replaced by deuterium. These studies were performed by the dilution technique with respiratory measurements. Perdeuteration of of some fatty acids increases their inhibitory effect on the dermatophyte growth. Perdeuterated n-hendecanoic acid proved to be the most active of the substances tested. Possible mechanisms behind the enhanced antifungal activity due to the perdeuteration of fatty acids are discussed. The present study investigates the antifungal properties of some perdeuterated fatty acids on dermatophytes in vitro

  15. Effect of Flux onto Intermetallic Compound Formation and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Siti Rabiatull Aisha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of different composition of no-clean flux onto intermetallic compound (IMC formation and growth was investigated. The solder joint between Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder alloy and printed circuit board (PCB was made through reflow soldering. They were further aged at 125°C and 150°C for up to 1000 hours. Results showed that fluxes significantly affect the IMC thickness and growth. In addition, during aging, the scallop and columnar morphology of IMC changed to a more planar type for both type of flux during isothermal aging. It was observed that the growth behavior of IMC was closely related to initial soldering condition.

  16. Estrogenic effects of marijuana smoke condensate and cannabinoid compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Yeun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2006-01-01

    Chronic exposure to marijuana produces adverse effects on the endocrine and reproductive systems in humans; however, the experimental evidence for this presented thus far has not been without controversy. In this study, the estrogenic effect of marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) was evaluated using in vitro bioassays, viz., the cell proliferation assay, the reporter gene assay, and the ER competitive binding assay. The results of these assays were compared with those of three major cannabinoids, i.e., THC, CBD, and CBN. The estrogenic effect of MSC was further confirmed by the immature female rat uterotrophic assay. MSC stimulated the estrogenicity related to the ER-mediated pathway, while neither THC, CBD, nor CBN did. Moreover, treatment with 10 and 25 mg/kg MSC induced significant uterine response, and 10 mg/kg MSC resulted in an obvious change in the uterine epithelial cell appearance. MSC also enhanced the IGFBP-1 gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. To identify the constituents of MSC responsible for its estrogenicity, the MSC fractionated samples were examined using another cell proliferation assay, and the estrogenic active fraction was analyzed using GC-MS. In the organic acid fraction that showed the strongest estrogenic activity among the seven fractions of MSC, phenols were identified. Our results suggest that marijuana abuse is considered an endocrine-disrupting factor. Furthermore, these results suggest that the phenolic compounds contained in MSC play a role in its estrogenic effect

  17. Degrading radiation effects on properties of bromobutyl rubber compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elisabeth C.L.; Pozenato, Cristina A.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: srscagliusi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The understanding of chemistry involved in degradation induced radiation is becoming more and more relevant in the re-use of polymeric materials, as well in beneficial radiation uses. Degrading radiation effects have been considered from viewpoint of controlled degradation for isoprene/isobutene in rubbers for recycling purposes. Bromobutyl rubber (BIIR) is an isobutylene/isoprene copolymer comprising 1.9 to 2.1% bromine and has a lot of applications including in tires air-chambers. In this work there were evaluated gamma-irradiation effects for re-use or recycling objectives in elastomeric bromobutyl compositions irradiated at 5, 15, 25, 50, 100,150 and 200 kGy. Mechanical properties, hardness and swelling were assessed in non-vulcanized and vulcanized rubber, non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses. The major gamma radiation effect in butyl rubber is the generation of free radicals along changes in mechanical properties. Irradiation effects in bromobutyl rubber compounds were comprehensively investigated, demonstrated and discussed. (author)

  18. Degrading radiation effects on properties of bromobutyl rubber compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elisabeth C.L.; Pozenato, Cristina A.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of chemistry involved in degradation induced radiation is becoming more and more relevant in the re-use of polymeric materials, as well in beneficial radiation uses. Degrading radiation effects have been considered from viewpoint of controlled degradation for isoprene/isobutene in rubbers for recycling purposes. Bromobutyl rubber (BIIR) is an isobutylene/isoprene copolymer comprising 1.9 to 2.1% bromine and has a lot of applications including in tires air-chambers. In this work there were evaluated gamma-irradiation effects for re-use or recycling objectives in elastomeric bromobutyl compositions irradiated at 5, 15, 25, 50, 100,150 and 200 kGy. Mechanical properties, hardness and swelling were assessed in non-vulcanized and vulcanized rubber, non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses. The major gamma radiation effect in butyl rubber is the generation of free radicals along changes in mechanical properties. Irradiation effects in bromobutyl rubber compounds were comprehensively investigated, demonstrated and discussed. (author)

  19. Ethanol and phencyclidine interact with respect to nucleus accumbens dopamine release: differential effects of administration order and pretreatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Pickering

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Executive dysfunction is a common symptom among alcohol-dependent individuals. Phencyclidine (PCP injection induces dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex of animals but little is known about how PCP affects the response to ethanol. Using the in vivo microdialysis technique in male Wistar rats, we investigated how systemic injection of 5 mg/kg PCP would affect the dopamine release induced by local infusion of 300 mM ethanol into the nucleus accumbens. PCP given 60 min before ethanol entirely blocked ethanol-induced dopamine release. However, when ethanol was administered 60 min before PCP, both drugs induced dopamine release and PCP’s effect was potentiated by ethanol (180% increase vs 150%. To test the role of prefrontal cortex dysfunction in ethanol reinforcement, animals were pre-treated for 5 days with 2.58 mg/kg PCP according to previously used ‘PFC hypofunction protocols’. This, however, did not change the relative response to PCP or ethanol compared to saline-treated controls. qPCR illustrated that this PCP dose did not significantly change expression of glucose transporters Glut1 (SLC2A1 or Glut3 (SLC2A3, monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 (SLC16A7, glutamate transporters GLT-1 (SLC1A2 or GLAST (SLC1A3, the immediate early gene Arc (Arg3.1 or GABAergic neuron markers GAT-1 (SLC6A1 and parvalbumin. Therefore, we concluded that PCP at a dose of 2.58 mg/kg for 5 days did not induce hypofunction in Wistar rats. However, PCP and ethanol do have overlapping mechanisms of action and these drugs differentially affect mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission depending on the order of administration.

  20. The effects of baryon physics, black holes and active galactic nucleus feedback on the mass distribution in clusters of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martizzi, Davide; Teyssier, Romain; Moore, Ben; Wentz, Tina

    2012-06-01

    The spatial distribution of matter in clusters of galaxies is mainly determined by the dominant dark matter component; however, physical processes involving baryonic matter are able to modify it significantly. We analyse a set of 500 pc resolution cosmological simulations of a cluster of galaxies with mass comparable to Virgo, performed with the AMR code RAMSES. We compare the mass density profiles of the dark, stellar and gaseous matter components of the cluster that result from different assumptions for the subgrid baryonic physics and galaxy formation processes. First, the prediction of a gravity-only N-body simulation is compared to that of a hydrodynamical simulation with standard galaxy formation recipes, and then all results are compared to a hydrodynamical simulation which includes thermal active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback from supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We find the usual effects of overcooling and adiabatic contraction in the run with standard galaxy formation physics, but very different results are found when implementing SMBHs and AGN feedback. Star formation is strongly quenched, producing lower stellar densities throughout the cluster, and much less cold gas is available for star formation at low redshifts. At redshift z= 0 we find a flat density core of radius 10 kpc in both the dark and stellar matter density profiles. We speculate on the possible formation mechanisms able to produce such cores and we conclude that they can be produced through the coupling of different processes: (I) dynamical friction from the decay of black hole orbits during galaxy mergers; (II) AGN-driven gas outflows producing fluctuations of the gravitational potential causing the removal of collisionless matter from the central region of the cluster; (III) adiabatic expansion in response to the slow expulsion of gas from the central region of the cluster during the quiescent mode of AGN activity.

  1. Multiple Coulomb excitation effects in heavy ion compound and fusion cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, B.V.; Hussein, M.S.

    1981-11-01

    A simple model for the average S-matrix that describes heavy ion direct processes in the presence of absorption due to compound nucleus formation is developed. The fluctuation cross section and the fusion cross section are then calculated for deformed heavy ion systems where multiple Coulomb excitation is important. A simple expression for the fusion cross section valid for above-barrier energies is then obtained. The formula clearly displays the modification, due to Coulomb excitation, in the usual geometrical expression. (Author) [pt

  2. Effects of Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus on Naming and Reading Nouns and Verbs in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Maria Caterina; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta; Baldonero, Eleonora; Piano, Carla; Zinno, Massimiliano; Soleti, Francesco; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Albanese, Alberto; Daniele, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    An impairment for verbs has been described in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting that a disruption of frontal-subcortical circuits may result in dysfunction of the neural systems involved in action-verb processing. A previous study suggested that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) during verb generation…

  3. Antimutagenic effect of isocyanates and related compounds in escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawazoe, Yutaka; Kato, Masanari

    1982-01-01

    Isocyanates and isothiocyanates have been suggested to inactivate enzymes involved in the metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens and the repair of DNA damage. These compounds decrease the mutability of a tester strain of Escherichia coli B under UV irradiation. This paper deals with the antimutagenicity of acylating agents, including isocyanates and isothiocyanates, and some anti-oxidants which are suspected to be anticarcinogenic. The results can be summarized as follows. (1) The antimutagenic effect observed in the present study operates on UV-induced mutagenesis but not on X-ray-induced mutagenesis. (2) This effect operates only on the wild-type strain, H/r30R, but not on Hs30R deficient in the excision repair system. (3) This effect may function through giving the irradiated cells a greater chance to carry out excision repair by prolonging the lag-period before entry into the S-phase. (4) The carbamoylating ability of isocyanates and isothiocyanates may be responsible for the antimutagenicity, but other type of reactivities may also be involved. These antimutagens also participate in inactivating enzymes relevant to the metabolic activation of mutagens, resulting in a decrease in the frequency of chemically induced mutagenesis. (author)

  4. Determination of an Effective Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs) Oxidation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardena, D. P.; Crimi, M.; Holsen, T.; Bellona, C.

    2014-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a stable synthetic class of chemicals ubiquitously spread in environmental media (i.e. air, soil, biota, surface water and groundwater). The substances' strong polar carbon-fluorine bonds and their high thermal and chemical stability make them resistant to biological, chemical, and physical degradation. The purpose of this research is to identify the most effective oxidation method to treat perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and their by-products that is suitable for in situ application. The laboratory oxidation study focuses on the more commonly detected and studied long-chain (C-8) PFAS; perfluorooctanoic acids (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). Existing research evaluating oxidizing treatment effectiveness on perfluoroalkyl sulfoinoic acids (PFSAs) is limited. A review of the literature and results from preliminary studies indicate that activated persulfate and catalyzed hydrogen peroxide propagation (CHP) reactions appear to be promising oxidants for PFOA. It has been demonstrated that the reactivity of superoxide in water increases in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and solids. Superoxide generated in CHP reactions degrades PFOA seemingly similar to superoxide-mediated destruction of the perhalogenated compounds.The goal of this study is to look at conditions that promote generation of superoxide and look at PFASs treatment effectiveness and byproduct generation. CHP reactions are conducted with varying amount of H2O2 and Fe(III) to determine the optimum conditions for PFC degradation. Results will be compared to those of another experiment using manganese dioxide as a CHP catalyst with varied H2O2 concentration to generate superoxide to degrade PFASs. Activated persulfate conditions to be compared include alkaline pH activation, heat activation, and dual oxidation (combined H2O2 and persulfate ). This presentation will focus on a comparison of oxidation effectiveness under the

  5. New effective chemically synthesized anti-smallpox compound NIOCH-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurkov, Oleg Yu; Kabanov, Alexey S; Shishkina, Larisa N; Sergeev, Alexander A; Skarnovich, Maksim O; Bormotov, Nikolay I; Skarnovich, Maria A; Ovchinnikova, Alena S; Titova, Ksenya A; Galahova, Darya O; Bulychev, Leonid E; Sergeev, Artemiy A; Taranov, Oleg S; Selivanov, Boris A; Tikhonov, Alexey Ya; Zavjalov, Evgenii L; Agafonov, Alexander P; Sergeev, Alexander N

    2016-05-01

    Antiviral activity of the new chemically synthesized compound NIOCH-14 (a derivative of tricyclodicarboxylic acid) in comparison with ST-246 (the condensed derivative of pyrroledione) was observed in experiments in vitro and in vivo using orthopoxviruses including highly pathogenic ones. After oral administration of NIOCH-14 to outbred ICR mice infected intranasally with 100 % lethal dose of ectromelia virus, it was shown that 50 % effective doses of NIOCH-14 and ST-246 did not significantly differ. The 'therapeutic window' varied from 1 day before infection to 6 days post-infection (p.i.) to achieve 100-60 % survival rate. The administration of NIOCH-14 and ST-246 to mice resulted in a significant reduction of ectromelia virus titres in organs examined as compared with the control and also reduced pathological changes in the lungs 6 days p.i. Oral administration of NIOCH-14 and ST-246 to ICR mice and marmots challenged with monkeypox virus as compared with the control resulted in a significant reduction of virus production in the lungs and the proportion of infected mice 7 days p.i. as well as the absence of disease in marmots. Significantly lower proportions of infected mice and virus production levels in the lungs as compared with the control were demonstrated in experiments after oral administration of NIOCH-14 and ST-246 to ICR mice and immunodeficient SCID mice challenged with variola virus 3 and 4 days p.i., respectively. The results obtained suggest good prospects for further study of the chemical compound NIOCH-14 to create a new smallpox drug on its basis.

  6. Correlated effective field theory in transition metal compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis; Chatterjee, Ibha

    2004-01-01

    Mean field theory is good enough to study the physical properties at higher temperatures and in higher dimensions. It explains the critical phenomena in a restricted sense. Near the critical temperatures, when fluctuations become important, it may not give the correct results. Similarly in low dimensions, the correlations become important and the mean field theory seems to be inadequate to explain the physical phenomena. At low-temperatures too, the quantum correlations become important and these effects are to be treated in an appropriate way. In 1974, Prof. M.E. Lines of Bell Laboratories, developed a theory which goes beyond the mean field theory and is known as the correlated effective field (CEF) theory. It takes into account the fluctuations in a semiempirical way. Lines and his collaborators used this theory to explain the short-range correlations and their anisotropy in the paramagnetic phase. Later Suzuki et al., Chatterjee and Desai, Mukhopadhyay and Chatterjee applied this theory to the magnetically ordered phase and a tremendous success of the theory has been found in real systems. The success of the CEF theory is discussed in this review. In order to highlight the success of this theory, earlier effective field theories and their improvements over mean field theories e.g., Bethe-Peierls-Weiss method, reaction field approximation, etc., are also discussed in this review for completeness. The beauty of the CEF theory is that it is mean field-like, but captures the essential physics of real systems to a great extent. However, this is a weak correlated theory and as a result is inappropriate for the metallic phase when strong correlations become important. In recent times, transition metal oxides become important due to the discovery of the high-temperature superconductivity and the colossal magnetoresistance phenomena. These oxides seem to be Mott insulators and undergo an insulator to metal transition by applying magnetic field, pressure and by changing

  7. Investigation of the role of the rho-meson exchange in spin-isospin strength distribution effects in a finite nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.

    1984-01-01

    We present a unified study of the role of the rho-exchange interaction in spin-isospin strength distribution effects in a finite nuclear system. We study both the longitudinal (sigma-arrow-rightxqtau/sub lambda/, where q is the momentum transfer to the nucleus) and the transverse (sigma-arrow-right x qtau/sub lambda/) spin channels for a large range of momentum transfer (qapprox.0--600 MeV/c). We examine a number of effective rho-coupling schemes used in the literature. Using the finite-nucleus formalism of Toki and Weise, we examine in detail the response function in the presence of the rho-meson exchange term. The renormalization of matrix elements of spin-isospin sensitive probes is given for the J/sup P/ = 1 + , T = 1 level of 12 C. We analyze the results, gaining some insight into the nature of the longitudinal versus transverse channels and into approximations suggested in the past for handling finite-nucleus calculations. A comparison with local density approximation and infinite nuclear matter with a constant density results is presented for a variety of cases

  8. Effect of different drying techniques on the volatile compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the volatile compounds, thermal stability and morphological characteristics of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) leaves after sun, oven and microwave drying. Methods: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a spectral analysis manager was used to separate the volatile compounds. Dried stevia ...

  9. Microscopic model of nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, B.G.

    1986-04-01

    The collision of two nuclei is treated as a collection of collisions between the nucleons of the projectile and those of the target nucleus. The primary projectile fragments contain only those nucleons that did not undergo a collision. The inclusive and coincidence cross sections result from the decay of the excited primary fragments. 15 refs., 5 figs

  10. [Protective effects of compound shenhua tablet on diabetic nephropathy rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Wen-Jia; Wei, Ri-Bao; Mao, Wei

    2012-03-01

    To observe the renal protection effects of Compound Shenhua Tablet (CST) on diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats. DN rats were given a normal diet for 9 months after they were induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ at the dose of 65 mg/kg after uninephrectomized. They were randomly divided into 4 groups, i. e., the normal control group, the model control group, the CST group, and the Irbesartan group. The intervention was given by gastrogavage for 6 weeks. The general state, 24 h urine protein, urine micro-albumin (mAlb), serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose (GLU), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), total protein (TP), and albumin (ALB) levels were observed before and after intervention. Renal pathological changes were observed by PAS staining and transmission electron microscope. After 6 weeks of drug intervention, when compared with the model control group, the general state was improved in the CST group and the Irbesartan group. The levels of 24 h urine protein, urine mAlb, SCr, BUN, GLU, TG, and TC were obviously lower in the CST group and the Irbesartan group than in the model group as well as in the same group before treatment (P0.05). The renal pathological changes and the renal ultrastructure were improved to some degree in the two groups when compared with those in the model control group. CST could attenuate the renal damage of diabetes and delay renal deterioration process. Its effectiveness was equivalent to that of Irbesartan.

  11. Applying the elastic model for various nucleus-nucleus fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSAN, G.S.; RAGAB, H.S.; SEDDEEK, M.K.

    2000-01-01

    The Elastic Model of two free parameters m,d given by Scalia has been used for wider energy regions to fit the available experimental data for potential barriers and cross sections. In order to generalize Scalia's formula in both sub- and above-barrier regions, we calculated m, d for pairs rather than those given by Scalia and compared the calculated cross sections with the experimental data. This makes a generalization of the Elastic Model in describing fusion process. On the other hand, Scalia's range of interacting systems was 24 ≤ A ≤194 where A is the compound nucleus mass number. Our extension of that model includes an example of the pairs of A larger than his final limit aiming to make it as a general formula for any type of reactants: light, intermediate or heavy systems. A significant point is the comparison of Elastic Model calculations with the well known methods studying complete fusion and compound nucleus formation, namely with the resultants of using Proximity potential with either Sharp or Smooth cut-off approximations

  12. Effects of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on emotional working memory capacity and mood in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkl A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela Merkl,1,2 Eva Röck,1 Tanja Schmitz-Hübsch,1,3 Gerd-Helge Schneider,4 Andrea A Kühn1,3,5 1Department of Neurology, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, 3NeuroCure, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, 5Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany Background: In Parkinson’s disease (PD, cognitive symptoms and mood changes may be even more distressing for the patient than motor symptoms.Objective: Our aim was to determine the effects of bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS on working memory (WM and mood.Methods: Sixteen patients with PD were assessed with STN-DBS switched on (DBS-ON and with dopaminergic treatment (Med-ON compared to switched off (DBS-OFF and without dopaminergic treatment (Med-OFF. The primary outcome measures were a Visual Analog Mood Scale (VAMS and an emotional 2-back WM task at 12 months after DBS in the optimal DBS-ON/Med-ON setting compared to DBS-OFF/Med-OFF.Results: Comparison of DBS-OFF/Med-OFF to DBS-ON/Med-ON revealed a significant increase in alertness (meanoff/off =51.59±24.54; meanon/on =72.75; P=0.016 and contentedness (meanoff/off =38.73±24.41; meanon/on =79.01±17.66; P=0.001, n=16, and a trend for reduction in sedation (P=0.060, which was related to stimulation as shown in a subgroup of seven patients. The N-back task revealed a significant increase in accuracy with DBS-ON/Med-ON compared to DBS-OFF/Med-OFF (82.0% vs 76.0%, respectively (P=0.044, regardless of stimulus valence.Conclusion: In line with previous studies, we found that patients rated themselves subjectively as more alert, content, and less sedated during short-term DBS-ON. Accuracy in the WM task increased with the combination of

  13. Effects of airborne volatile organic compounds on plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cape, J.N.

    2003-01-01

    Possible adverse effects of VOCs on vegetation in urban areas cannot be rejected. - Routine measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air have shown that average concentrations are very much smaller than those used in laboratory experiments designed to study the effects of VOCs on plants. However, maximum hourly concentrations of some VOCs can be 100 times larger than the average, even in rural air. Experimental studies have rarely extended for longer than a few days, so there is little information on potential long-term effects of exposure to small concentrations. This review considers the available evidence for long-term effects, based on laboratory and field data. Previous reviews of the literature from Germany and the USA are cited, prior to an assessment of the effects of individual VOCs. Although hydrocarbons from vehicle exhausts have been implicated in the observed effects on roadside vegetation, the evidence suggests that it is the nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gases that are mostly responsible. There is evidence that aromatic hydrocarbons can be metabolised in plants, although the fate of the metabolites is not known. There is a large literature on the effects of ethylene, because of its role as a plant hormone. Effects have been reported in the field, in response to industrial emissions, and dose-response experiments over several weeks in laboratory studies have clearly identified the potential for effects at ambient concentrations. The main responses are morphological (e.g. epinasty), which may be reversible, and on the development of flowers and fruit. Effects on seed production may be positive or negative, depending on the exposure concentration. Chlorinated hydrocarbons have been identified as potentially harmful to vegetation, but only one long-term experiment has studied dose-response relationships. As for ethylene, the most sensitive indication of effect was on seed production, although long-term accumulation of trichloroacetic acid in

  14. Effect of microRNA-21 on the proliferation of human degenerated nucleus pulposus by targeting programmed cell death 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the effect of microRNA-21 (miR-21 on the proliferation of human degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP by targeting programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4 tumor suppressor. NP tissues were collected from 20 intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD patients, and from 5 patients with traumatic spine fracture. MiR-21 expressions were tested. NP cells from IDD patients were collected and divided into blank control group, negative control group (transfected with miR-21 negative sequences, miR-21 inhibitor group (transfected with miR-21 inhibitors, miR-21 mimics group (transfected with miR-21 mimics and PDCD4 siRNA group (transfected with PDCD4 siRNAs. Cell growth was estimated by Cell Counting Kit-8; PDCD4, MMP-2,MMP-9 mRNA expressions were evaluated by qRT-PCR; PDCD4, c-Jun and p-c-Jun expressions were tested using western blot. In IDD patients, the expressions of miR-21 and PDCD4 mRNA were respectively elevated and decreased (both P<0.05. The miR-21 expressions were positively correlated with Pfirrmann grades, but negatively correlated with PDCD4 mRNA (both P<0.001. In miR-21 inhibitor group, cell growth, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA expressions, and p-c-Jun protein expressions were significantly lower, while PDCD4 mRNA and protein expressions were higher than the other groups (all P<0.05. These expressions in the PDCD4 siRNA and miR-21 mimics groups was inverted compared to that in the miR-21 inhibitor group (all P<0.05. MiR-21 could promote the proliferation of human degenerated NP cells by targeting PDCD4, increasing phosphorylation of c-Jun protein, and activating AP-1-dependent transcription of MMPs, indicating that miR-21 may be a crucial biomarker in the pathogenesis of IDD.

  15. Effects of intrinsic aerobic capacity and ovariectomy on voluntary wheel running and nucleus accumbens dopamine receptor gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Min; Kanaley, Jill A; Padilla, Jaume; Zidon, Terese; Welly, Rebecca J; Will, Matthew J; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Booth, Frank W; Thyfault, John P; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J

    2016-10-01

    Rats selectively bred for high (HCR) and low (LCR) aerobic capacity show a stark divergence in wheel running behavior, which may be associated with the dopamine (DA) system in the brain. HCR possess greater motivation for voluntary running along with greater brain DA activity compared to LCR. We recently demonstrated that HCR are not immune to ovariectomy (OVX)-associated reductions in spontaneous cage (i.e. locomotor) activity. Whether HCR and LCR rats differ in their OVX-mediated voluntary wheel running response is unknown. To determine whether HCR are protected from OVX-associated reduction in voluntary wheel running. Forty female HCR and LCR rats (age ~27weeks) had either SHM or OVX operations, and given access to a running wheel for 11weeks. Weekly wheel running distance was monitored throughout the intervention. Nucleus accumbens (NAc) was assessed for mRNA expression of DA receptors at sacrifice. Compared to LCR, HCR ran greater distance and had greater ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression (both line main effects, PWheel running distance was significantly, positively correlated with the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression across animals. In both lines, OVX reduced wheel running (Pwheel running, they had greater OVX-induced reduction in wheel running than LCR such that no differences were found 11weeks after OVX between HCROVX and LCROVX (interaction, Pwheel running in HCR was associated with an OVX-mediated reduction in the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression. The DA system in the NAc region may play a significant role in motivation to run in female rats. Compared to LCR, HCR rats run significantly more, which associates with greater ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression. However, despite greater inherent motivation to run and an associated brain DA mRNA expression profile, HCR rats are not protected against OVX-induced reduction in wheel running or OVX-mediated reduction in the ratio of excitatory

  16. Effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on choice between small certain rewards and large uncertain rewards in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howes Nathan J

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animals must frequently make choices between alternative courses of action, seeking to maximize the benefit obtained. They must therefore evaluate the magnitude and the likelihood of the available outcomes. Little is known of the neural basis of this process, or what might predispose individuals to be overly conservative or to take risks excessively (avoiding or preferring uncertainty, respectively. The nucleus accumbens core (AcbC is known to contribute to rats' ability to choose large, delayed rewards over small, immediate rewards; AcbC lesions cause impulsive choice and an impairment in learning with delayed reinforcement. However, it is not known how the AcbC contributes to choice involving probabilistic reinforcement, such as between a large, uncertain reward and a small, certain reward. We examined the effects of excitotoxic lesions of the AcbC on probabilistic choice in rats. Results Rats chose between a single food pellet delivered with certainty (p = 1 and four food pellets delivered with varying degrees of uncertainty (p = 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, and 0.0625 in a discrete-trial task, with the large-reinforcer probability decreasing or increasing across the session. Subjects were trained on this task and then received excitotoxic or sham lesions of the AcbC before being retested. After a transient period during which AcbC-lesioned rats exhibited relative indifference between the two alternatives compared to controls, AcbC-lesioned rats came to exhibit risk-averse choice, choosing the large reinforcer less often than controls when it was uncertain, to the extent that they obtained less food as a result. Rats behaved as if indifferent between a single certain pellet and four pellets at p = 0.32 (sham-operated or at p = 0.70 (AcbC-lesioned by the end of testing. When the probabilities did not vary across the session, AcbC-lesioned rats and controls strongly preferred the large reinforcer when it was certain, and strongly

  17. Radiation effects on II-VI compound-based detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cavallini, A; Dusi, W; Auricchio, N; Chirco, P; Zanarini, M; Siffert, P; Fougeres, P

    2002-01-01

    The performance of room temperature CdTe and CdZnTe detectors exposed to a radiation source can be strongly altered by the interaction of the ionizing particles and the material. Up to now, few experimental data are available on the response of II-VI compound detectors to different types of radiation sources. We have carried out a thorough investigation on the effects of gamma-rays, neutrons and electron irradiation both on CdTe : Cl and Cd sub 0 sub . sub 9 Zn sub 0 sub . sub 1 Te detectors. We have studied the detector response after radiation exposure by means of dark current measurements and of quantitative spectroscopic analyses at low and medium energies. The deep traps present in the material have been characterized by means of PICTS (photo-induced current transient spectroscopy) analyses, which allow to determine the trap apparent activation energy and capture cross-section. The evolution of the trap parameters with increasing irradiation doses has been monitored for all the different types of radiati...

  18. Atmospheric emissions in metropolitan France: compounds related to the increase of the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report presents and comments statistical data and indicators on emissions of compounds involved in the greenhouse effect: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), hydro-fluorocarbon compounds (HFCs), per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ). For these compounds, the report indicates and comments world and French emission data, their evolution, and the shares of different sectors and their evolutions. It also comments the evolution of the global warming potential (GWP)

  19. Nucleus Ruber of Actinopterygians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tomoya; Miyajima, Satoshi; Nishino, Hirotaka; Narita, Junya; Abe, Hideki; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Nucleus ruber is known as an important supraspinal center that controls forelimb movements in tetrapods, and the rubral homologue may serve similar functions in fishes (motor control of pectoral fin). However, two apparently different structures have been identified as 'nucleus ruber' in actinopterygians. One is nucleus ruber of Goldstein (1905) (NRg), and the other nucleus ruber of Nieuwenhuys and Pouwels (1983) (NRnp). It remains unclear whether one of these nuclei (or perhaps both) is homologous to tetrapod nucleus ruber. To resolve this issue from a phylogenetic point of view, we have investigated the distribution of tegmental neurons retrogradely labeled from the spinal cord in eight actinopterygian species. We also investigated the presence/absence of the two nuclei with Nissl- or Bodian-stained brain section series of an additional 28 actinopterygian species by comparing the morphological features of candidate rubral neurons with those of neurons revealed by the tracer studies. Based on these analyses, the NRg was identified in all actinopterygians investigated in the present study, while the NRnp appears to be absent in basal actinopterygians. The phylogenetic distribution pattern indicates that the NRg is the more likely homologue of nucleus ruber, and the NRnp may be a derived nucleus that emerged during the course of actinopterygian evolution. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The effect of growing conditions on phenolic compounds and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arid and is widely used for anti-inflammatory and healing properties. This study evaluates the level of phenolic compounds and the antimicrobial activity in extracts of M. urundeuva obtained from greenhouse seedlings grown from seeds that ...

  1. The Role of Nucleus Accumbens Shell in Learning about Neutral versus Excitatory Stimuli during Pavlovian Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, Laura A.; McNally, Gavan P.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the role of nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) in Pavlovian fear conditioning. Rats were trained to fear conditioned stimulus A (CSA) in Stage I, which was then presented in compound with a neutral stimulus and paired with shock in Stage II. AcbSh lesions had no effect on fear-learning to CSA in Stage I, but selectively prevented learning…

  2. Effect of volatile compounds on excimer laser power delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Stewart D; Hovanesian, John A; Maloney, Robert K

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether vapors from perfume, hairspray, oil-based paint, or water-based paint affect excimer laser beam power delivery at the corneal surface. We measured the power delivery of an Apex Plus laser before, during, and after exposure to vapors from the following volatile compounds: three types of perfume, hair spray, an oil-based paint, and a water-based paint. A digital calorimeter was used to measure the steady-state beam power of the laser during laser discharge at the corneal plane. Multiple trials were run with each compound, and the change in laser energy over time was examined to determine if any of the compounds caused degradation of the laser optics. The presence of a volatile compound in the room caused no change in mean laser energy in comparison to before and after the compound was present. However, perfumes caused a progressive decline in laser beam power throughout the trials. Controlling for this progressive decline, there was no significant difference from perfume to perfume. None of the compounds tested caused a decline in laser beam power while present in the room. However, the presence of any perfume caused a deterioration in beam power over time, suggesting a degradation of the laser optics for all perfumes. Laser centers should consider advising their patients and staff to not wear perfumes in the laser suite.

  3. Deconfinement of quarks and gluons in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The energy dependence of hadron production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions reveals the anomalies. They were predicted as the signals of the deconfinement phase transition and observed by NA49 collaboration in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. This indicates the onset of the deconfinement in central nucleus-nucleus collisions at about 30 AGeV.

  4. Diffractive ''semioptical'' model for nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Musulmanbekov, Zh.Zh.

    1979-01-01

    Diffraction Glauber theory for nucleus-nucleus collisions is considered in approximation when the initial nucleus interacts as a whole with nucleons of the target nucleus. Such an approach, being intermediate between precise Glauber theory and its optical limit, essentially simplifies numerical calculations and gives a good agreement with experiments as well. (author)

  5. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) studies of returned comet nucleus samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, Fundow; Kim, S.S.; Liang, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    The most important objective of the Comet Nucleus Sample Returm Mission is to return samples which could reflect formation conditions and evolutionary processes in the early solar nebula. It is expected that the returned samples will consist of fine-grained silicate materials mixed with ices composed of simple molecules such as H 2 O, NH 3 , CH 4 as well as organics and/or more complex compounds. Because of the exposure to ionizing radiation from cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, and solar wind protons at low temperature, free radicals are expected to be formed and trapped in the solid ice matrices. The kind of trapped radical species together with their concentration and thermal stability can be used as a dosimeter as well as a geothermometer to determine thermal and radiation histories as well as outgassing and other possible alternation effects since the nucleus material was formed. Since free radicals that are known to contain unpaired electrons are all paramagnetic in nature, they can be readily detected and characterized in their native form by the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) method. In fact, ESR has been shown to be a non-destructive, highly sensitive tool for the detection and characterization of paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, and radiation damage centers in terrestrial and extraterrestrial geological samples. The potential use of ESR as an effective method in the study of returned comet nucleus samples, in particular, in the analysis of fine-grained solid state icy samples is discussed

  6. Control Effect and Possible Mechanism of the Natural Compound Phenazine-1-Carboxamide against Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Zhang

    Full Text Available To develop new agents against strawberry grey mould and to aid in the development of biological pesticides, we investigated the inhibitory effect of a natural compound, phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN, against Botrytis cinerea using a growth rate assay. Additionally, indoor toxicity and the in vitro control effect of PCN were further studied to determine its potential mechanisms of action on B. cinerea. PCN was inhibitory against B. cinerea with a 50% effective concentration (EC50 of 108.12 μg/mL; the toxicity of PCN was equivalent to that of carbendazim (CBM. The best in vitro control effect of PCN against grey mould in strawberry (fruit reached 75.32%, which was slightly higher than that of CBM. The field control effect of PCN against grey mould reached a maximum of 72.31% at a PCN concentration of 700 μg/mL, which was 1.02 times higher than that of CBM. Fungistatic activity was observed at low concentrations of PCN, while high concentrations of PCN resulted in fungicidal activity against B. cinerea. This natural compound strongly inhibited both spore and sclerotium germination of B. cinerea, with the best relative inhibition rates of 77.03% and 82.11%, respectively. The inhibitory effect of PCN on mycelial growth of B. cinerea was significant and reached levels of 87.32%. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that after 48 h of PCN treatment, the mycelia appeared loose, locally twisted, and folded, with exudation of contents; the mycelia was withered and twisted, with edge burrs, deformations, ruptures and a sheet-like structure. Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that after 48 h of PCN treatment, the structure of the cell nucleus was unclear and the vacuoles had ruptured; additionally, various organelles exhibited disordered structures, there were substantial non-membrane transparent inclusions, the cells were plasmolysed, the cell walls were collapsed in some cases, and the hyphal tissue was essentially

  7. Evaluation of the combination effect of different antiviral compounds against HIV in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A M; Nielsen, C; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1993-01-01

    3'-azido-3'deoxythymidine (AZT), a clinically used anti-HIV compound, was evaluated for antiviral effect on HIV infection in combination with other antiviral compounds in vitro. Interactions were evaluated by the median-effect principle and the isobologram technique. Synergistic effect was obtained...... by combining many evaluated antiviral agents with AZT. We observed a difference in the degree of synergism depending on the evaluated compound; the results indicate that compounds with the same target in the viral replicative cycle (ddI: 2',3'-dideoxyinosine, didanosine; d4T: 2',3'-dideoxy-2...

  8. Effect of head irradiation with X-rays on neuroendocrine in male rats of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Shouliang; Li Xiuyi; Wei Jun; Liu Shuzheng

    1992-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that neonatal administration of monosodium glutamine (MSG) results in clearly defined lesions of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. The present study showed that neuroendocrine function changed significantly in adulthood when baby rats were injected with MSG (4 mg/g BW, ip) 2 and 4 days after their birth. The serum LH, FSH, TSH and GH and serum and urine testosterone (TS) levels and pituitary cAMP content were lower in MSG treated rats than those of intact rats, but the serum PRL level increased significantly and the testicular cAMP content did not change. Forty eight hours after head irradiation with 10 Gy X-rays in the male rats treated with MSG, the serum LH, FSH, TSH and GH and serum and urine TS levels tended to decrease, while the serum PRL level tended to increase and the pituitary and testicular cAMP contents didn't change. The results suggest that the functional irregularity of neuroendocrine system in MSG treated rats with extensive lesions of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus were not so significant as those of intact rats in response to irradiation

  9. Effect of some metal-containing compounds and fertilizers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA, BDH Ltd, UK 39 g/l) medium, maintained on PDA medium and stored at 4°C for further use. In this experiment, the mycelia growth capability of the Trichoderma isolates against some metal-containing compounds and fertilizers, consist of MgSO4.7H2O (containing ...

  10. Sublexical Ambiguity Effect in Reading Chinese Disyllabic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsu-Wen; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tsai, Jie-Li; Tzeng, Ovid J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    For Chinese compounds, neighbors can share either both orthographic forms and meanings, or orthographic forms only. In this study, central presentation and visual half-field (VF) presentation methods were used in conjunction with ERP measures to investigate how readers solve the sublexical semantic ambiguity of the first constituent character in…

  11. On the epoxy moulding compound aging effect on package reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noijen, S.P.M.; Engelen, R.A.B.; Martens, J.; Opran, A.; Sluis, van der O.

    2009-01-01

    Most semi-conductor devices are encapsulated by epoxy moulding compound (EMC) material. Even after curing at the prescribed temperature and time in accordance with the supplier's curing specifications often the product is not yet 100% fully cured. As a consequence, the curing process of a product

  12. [Effect of compound hypertonic saline solution on septic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fang; Xu, Liang; Xu, Gang; Wang, Huabing; Lu, Huizhi; Cai, Liping

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of compound hypertonic saline solution ( HSD ) on sepsis. 133 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, sham operation group ( n = 15 ), cecal ligation and puncture ( CLP ) group ( n = 45 ), CLP plus normal saline ( NS ) group ( n = 45 ), and CLP plus HSD group ( n = 28 ). A rat model of sepsis was reproduced by CLP, and the rats in sham operation group received celiotomy without ligation and puncture. All rats in four groups received subcutaneous injection of 30 mL/kg 0.9% sodium chloride after laparotomy. The rats in CLP plus NS group and CLP plus HSD group received infusion of 5 mL/kg 0.9% sodium chloride or 7.5% sodium chloride/6% dextran post CLP via jugular vein for 3 hours, with the infusion rate of 0.4 mL×kg(-1)×min(-1). The survival rate of each group was observed 9 hours and 18 hours after laparotomy. Mean arterial pressure ( MAP ) at 0, 9, 18 hours were monitored. Blood specimens were collected from all rats 0, 9 and 18 hours after laparotomy, respectively, for measurement of the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α ( TNF-α), interleukin-1β ( IL-1β ), and procalcitonin ( PCT ). The rats were all sacrificed, and their lung tissues were harvested for the neutrophil count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ( BALF ), myeloperoxidase ( MPO ) activity in lung tissue, wet/dry weight ratio ( W/D ) of lung, and pathological changes in lung tissue. There was no death in the sham operation group. The survival rates at 9 hours and 18 hours were 62.2% and 31.1% in the CLP group, 57.8% and 35.6% in the CLP plus NS group, 85.7% and 64.3% in the CLP plus HSD group, and they were all significantly higher compared with those of the CLP group and the CLP plus NS group ( Pmicroscope, no pathobiological changes were found in sham operation group. The lung tissues in the CLP group and the CLP plus NS group showed congestion, edema, infiltrating inflammatory changes, while the inflammatory changes in the lung tissue in the CLP plus HSD group

  13. The effect of GABA A receptor antagonist - bicucullin - administration on the number of multiform neurons in the brain parabrachial nucleus due to pain induction of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Kamali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim:  A lot of biological investigations are aimed to find pain decreasing or relieving substances that appear in various diseases. Parabrachial nucleus plays an important role in cognitive and emotional aspects of pain. The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of bicuculine- as a GABA A receptor antagonist- on the number of multiform neurons in Parabrachial region of adult male rats in tonic pain model. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was carried out on 40 Wistar male rats. Based on the pain induction, the animals were divided into 8 groups (n=5. Bicuculine was administrated in doses of  50, 100, and 200 ng/rat.  Using stereotaxic method, Bicuculine was administrated to the rats` brain parabrachial area. The present study utilized Formalin test as a standard method for pain stimulations. Thereafter, Gimsa staining method was applied for histological determination of multiform cells. The obtained data was analyzed using statistical testsincluding Student-t and  one-way ANOVA. Results: Our data showed no significant changes in the number of multiform cells in Parabrachial nucleus between the animals administrated by bicuculine at the dose of 50   compared  with the controls (P>0.05. Nevertheless, the number of these cells was decreased significantly in the animals administrated by bicuculine at the doses of 100 and 200   when compared to the controls (p<0.05. Conclusion:  It was found that nociceptive stimulations cause changes in the number of multiform neurons in para- brachial nucleus. Nevertheless, higher dose administration of GABA A receptor antagonist has preventive effects on neuronal dysmorphogenesis at this brain area.

  14. Anti-nociceptive effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide in nucleus raphe magnus of rats: an effect attenuated by naloxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Brodda-Jansen, G; Lundeberg, T; Yu, L C

    2000-08-04

    The present study investigated the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on nociception in nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and the interaction between CGRP and opioid peptides in NRM of rats. CGRP-like immunoreactivity was found at a concentration of 6.0+/-0. 77 pmol/g in NRM tissue of ten samples of rats, suggesting that it may contribute to physiological responses orchestrated by the NRM. The hindpaw withdrawal latency (HWL) to thermal and mechanical stimulation increased significantly after intra-NRM administration of 0.5 or 1 nmol of CGRP in rats, but not 0.25 nmol. The anti-nociceptive effect induced by CGRP was antagonized by following intra-NRM injection of 1 nmol of the CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP8-37. Furthermore, the CGRP-induced anti-nociceptive effect was attenuated by following intra-NRM administration of 6 nmol of naloxone. The results indicate that CGRP and its receptors play an important role in anti-nociception, and there is a possible interaction between CGRP and opioid peptides in NRM of rats.

  15. Effects of electroacupuncture on orphanin FQ immunoreactivity and preproorphanin FQ mRNA in nucleus of raphe magnus in the neuropathic pain rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Xie, Hong; Dong, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Yan-Qing; Wu, Gen-Cheng

    2004-07-15

    Orphanin FQ (OFQ) is an endogenous ligand for opioid receptor-like-1 (ORL1) receptor. Previous studies have shown that both OFQ immunoreactivity and preproorphanin FQ (ppOFQ) mRNA expression could be observed in the brain regions involved in pain modulation, e.g., nucleus of raphe magnus (NRM), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). It was reported that electroacupuncture (EA) has analgesic effect on neuropathic pain, and the analgesic effect was mediated by the endogenous opioid peptides. In the present study, we investigated the effects of EA on the changes of OFQ in the neuropathic pain rats. In the sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model, we investigated the changes of ppOFQ mRNA and OFQ immunoreactivity in NRM after EA by in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry methods, respectively. Then, the ppOFQ mRNA-positive and OFQ immunoreactive cells were counted under a computerized image analysis system. The results showed that expression of ppOFQ mRNA decreased and OFQ immunoreactivity increased after EA treatment in the neuropathic pain rats. These results indicated that EA modulated OFQ synthesis and OFQ peptide level in NRM of the neuropathic pain rats. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  16. Conductive Hearing Loss Has Long-Lasting Structural and Molecular Effects on Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Structures of Auditory Nerve Synapses in the Cochlear Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Cheryl; Antunes, Flora M; Rubio, Maria E

    2016-09-28

    Sound deprivation by conductive hearing loss increases hearing thresholds, but little is known about the response of the auditory brainstem during and after conductive hearing loss. Here, we show in young adult rats that 10 d of monaural conductive hearing loss (i.e., earplugging) leads to hearing deficits that persist after sound levels are restored. Hearing thresholds in response to clicks and frequencies higher than 8 kHz remain increased after a 10 d recovery period. Neural output from the cochlear nucleus measured at 10 dB above threshold is reduced and followed by an overcompensation at the level of the lateral lemniscus. We assessed whether structural and molecular substrates at auditory nerve (endbulb of Held) synapses in the cochlear nucleus could explain these long-lasting changes in hearing processing. During earplugging, vGluT1 expression in the presynaptic terminal decreased and synaptic vesicles were smaller. Together, there was an increase in postsynaptic density (PSD) thickness and an upregulation of GluA3 AMPA receptor subunits on bushy cells. After earplug removal and a 10 d recovery period, the density of synaptic vesicles increased, vesicles were also larger, and the PSD of endbulb synapses was larger and thicker. The upregulation of the GluA3 AMPAR subunit observed during earplugging was maintained after the recovery period. This suggests that GluA3 plays a role in plasticity in the cochlear nucleus. Our study demonstrates that sound deprivation has long-lasting alterations on structural and molecular presynaptic and postsynaptic components at the level of the first auditory nerve synapse in the auditory brainstem. Despite being the second most prevalent form of hearing loss, conductive hearing loss and its effects on central synapses have received relatively little attention. Here, we show that 10 d of monaural conductive hearing loss leads to an increase in hearing thresholds, to an increased central gain upstream of the cochlear nucleus at

  17. Acute physical and psychological stress effects on visceral hypersensitivity in male rat: role of central nucleus of the amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Afzali

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute physical and psychological stress and temporary central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA block on stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. Methods: Forty two male Wistar rats were used in this study. Animals were divided into 7 groups (n = 6; 1 – Control, 2 – physical stress, 3 – psychological stress, 4 – sham, 5 – lidocaine, 6 – lidocaine + physical stress and 7 – lidocaine + psychological stress. Stress induction was done using a communication box. Results: Abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR score was monitored one hour after stress exposure. AWR score significantly heightened at 20, 40 and 60 mmHg in the psychological stress group compared with control (p < 0.05, while, it was almost unchanged in other groups. This score was strikingly decreased at 20, 40 and 60 mmHg in lidocaine + psychological stress group compared with psychological stress with no tangible response on physical stress. Total stool weight was significantly increased in psychological stress group compared with control (0.72 ± 0.15, 0.1 ± 0.06 g (p < 0.05, but it did not change in physical stress compared to control group (0.16 ± 0.12, 0.1 ± 0.06 g (p < 0.05. Concomitant use of lidocaine with stress followed the same results in psychological groups (0.18 ± 0.2, 0.72 ± 0.15 g (p < 0.05, while it did not have any effect on physical stress group (0.25 ± 0.1, 0.16 ± 0.12 g (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Psychological stress could strongly affect visceral hypersensitivity. This effect is statistically comparable with physical stress. Temporary CeA block could also reduce visceral hypersensitivity post-acute psychological stress. Resumen: Objetivo: O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar os efeitos do estresse físico e psicológico agudo e bloqueio temporário do núcleo central da amídala (CeA na hipersensibilidade visceral induzida por estresse. M

  18. Dissipation in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santanu Pal

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with the mechanism of one- and two-body dissipations in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The average energy transferred to nuclear excitations is calculated using a time-dependent density matrix approach with lowest-order approximations. Considering the nuclei as Fermi gases, and using a gaussian-type NN interaction as the basic perturbation, simplified expressions are obtained for energy dissipations. These expressions are quite instructive to follow a number of interesting aspects of one- and two-body dissipations. It is theoretically observed that the memory time for the two-body dissipation is significantly smaller than that of one-body dissipation. A threshold-type dependence of the transferred energy on the relative velocity between the two nuclei is also observed. This threshold velocity is found to be related with the intrinsic nucleon kinetic energy for two-body dissipation and with the nuclear size for the one-body case. This observation further suggests that the total dissipated energy is shared between the two nuclei approximately in the ratio of their masses. The physical origin of these observations is also explained. Numerical calculations further illustrate some characteristic features of one- and two-body dissipations. (orig.)

  19. The effect of low frequency stimulation of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus on basal ganglia in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunkyoung; Song, Inho; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, In Young

    2014-08-08

    The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has recently been introduced as an alternative target to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus pallidus internus (GPi) for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease with severe and medically intractable axial symptoms such as gait and postural impairment. However, it is little known about how electrical stimulation of the PPN affects control of neuronal activities between the PPN and basal ganglia. We examined how low frequency stimulation of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) affects control of neuronal activities between the PPN and basal ganglia in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. In order to identify the effect of low frequency stimulation on the PPTg, neuronal activity in both the STN and substantia nigra par reticulata (SNr) were recorded and subjected to quantitative analysis, including analysis of firing rates and firing patterns. In this study, we found that the firing rates of the STN and SNr were suppressed during low frequency stimulation of the PPTg. However, the firing pattern, in contrast to the firing rate, did not exhibit significant changes in either the STN or SNr of 6-OHDA lesioned rats during low frequency stimulation of the PPTg. In addition, we also found that the firing rate of STN and SNr neurons displaying burst and random pattern were decreased by low frequency stimulation of PPTg, while the neurons displaying regular pattern were not affected. These results indicate that low frequency stimulation of the PPTg affects neuronal activity in both the STN and SNr, and may represent electrophysiological efficacy of low frequency PPN stimulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Effects of electric stimulation at the cerebellar fastigial nucleus on astrocytes in the hippocampus of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Li; Jia, Tian-Ming; Luan, Bin; Liu, Tao; Yuan, Yan

    2011-04-01

    To study the effects of electric stimulation at the cerebellar fastigial nucleus on astrocytes in the hippocampus of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) and the possible mechanism. One hundred and eighty 7-day-old neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operation (control group) and HIBD with and without electric stimulation (n=60 each). The HIBD model of neonatal rats was prepared by the Rice-Vennucci method. Electric stimulation at the cerebellar fastigial nucleus was given 24 hrs after the operation in the electric stimulation group once daily and lasted for 30 minutes each time. The other two groups were not subjected to electric stimulation but captured to fix in corresponding periods. Rats were sacrificed 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after stimulations to observe the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression by immunohistochemisty and the ultrastructural changes of astrocytes in the hippocampus under an electron microscope. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the expression of GFAP in the HIBD groups with and without electric stimulation increased significantly compared with the control group on day 3, reached the peak on day 7, and the increased expression remained till to day 21. The GFAP expression in the electric stimulation group was significantly lower than that in the untreated HIBD group at all time points. Under the electron microscope, the astrocytes in the untreated HIBD group were swollen and the amount of organelles was reduced, while the swelling of astrocytes was alleviated and the organelles remained in integrity in the electric stimulation group. The electric stimulation at the cerebellar fastigial nucleus can inhibit the excessive proliferation of astrocytes and relieve the structural damage of astrocytes in neonatal rats following HIBD.

  1. High energy nucleus-nucleus scattering and matter radius of unstable nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, H.; Okuhara, Y.

    1985-07-01

    The interaction cross sections of high energy nucleus-nucleus scattering have been studied with the Glauber Model and Hartree-Fock like variational calculation for the nuclear structure. It is found that the experimental interaction cross sections of the light unstable nucleus-stable nucleus scatterings measured by INS-LBL collaboration are well reproduceable. (author)

  2. Acute inflammation reduces kisspeptin immunoreactivity at the arcuate nucleus and decreases responsiveness to kisspeptin independently of its anorectic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, J M; Bentsen, A H; Romero, M

    2010-01-01

    -IR in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) that was not observed under conditions of metabolic stress induced by 48-h fasting. In addition, absolute responses to kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10), in terms of LH and testosterone secretion, were significantly attenuated in LPS-treated males that also displayed a decrease in food intake...... and body weight. Yet pair-fed males did not show similar alterations in LH and testosterone secretory responses to Kp-10, whose magnitude was preserved, if not augmented, during food restriction. In summary, our data document the impact of acute inflammation on kisspeptin content at the ARC as key center......Severe inflammatory challenges are frequently coupled to decreased food intake and disruption of reproductive function, the latter via deregulation of different signaling pathways that impinge onto GnRH neurons. Recently, the hypothalamic Kiss1 system, a major gatekeeper of GnRH function...

  3. Acute inflammation reduces kisspeptin immunoreactivity at the arcuate nucleus and decreases responsiveness to kisspeptin independently of its anorectic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, J M; Bentsen, A H; Romero, M

    2010-01-01

    , was suggested as potential target for transmitting immune-mediated repression of the gonadotropic axis during acute inflammation, and yet key facets of such a phenomenon remain ill defined. Using lipopolysaccharide S (LPS)-treated male rats as model of inflammation, we document herein the pattern......-IR in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) that was not observed under conditions of metabolic stress induced by 48-h fasting. In addition, absolute responses to kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10), in terms of LH and testosterone secretion, were significantly attenuated in LPS-treated males that also displayed a decrease in food intake...... and body weight. Yet pair-fed males did not show similar alterations in LH and testosterone secretory responses to Kp-10, whose magnitude was preserved, if not augmented, during food restriction. In summary, our data document the impact of acute inflammation on kisspeptin content at the ARC as key center...

  4. Effect of γ-lactones and γ-lactams compounds on Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Beatriz Sordi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Considering oral diseases, antibiofilm compounds can decrease the accumulation of pathogenic species such as Streptococcus mutans at micro-areas of teeth, dental restorations or implant-supported prostheses. Objective To assess the effect of thirteen different novel lactam-based compounds on the inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation. Material and methods We synthesized compounds based on γ-lactones analogues from rubrolides by a mucochloric acid process and converted them into their corresponding γ-hydroxy-γ-lactams by a reaction with isobutylamine and propylamine. Compounds concentrations ranging from 0.17 up to 87.5 μg mL-1 were tested against S. mutans. We diluted the exponential cultures in TSB and incubated them (37°C in the presence of different γ-lactones or γ-lactams dilutions. Afterwards, we measured the planktonic growth by optical density at 630 nm and therefore assessed the biofilm density by the crystal violet staining method. Results Twelve compounds were active against biofilm formation, showing no effect on bacterial viability. Only one compound was inactive against both planktonic and biofilm growth. The highest biofilm inhibition (inhibition rate above 60% was obtained for two compounds while three other compounds revealed an inhibition rate above 40%. Conclusions Twelve of the thirteen compounds revealed effective inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation, with eight of them showing a specific antibiofilm effect.

  5. Polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant potential and neuro-protective effect from Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz.) Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rulan; Zhao, Ying; Zhao, Yudan; Zhou, Wanrong; Lv, Chongning; Lu, Jincai

    2016-12-01

    Three new phenolic compounds (1-3), along with five known compounds (4-8) were isolated from the rhizome of Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz.) Maxim. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR and HR-MS techniques. DPPH method and protective effect on PC12 cells against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative damage model were carried to evaluate the antioxidant capability of these compounds. Compound 5 showed significant antioxidant activity with IC 50 values 9.33μM in DPPH assay and compound 2 displayed marked neuro-protective effect with 87.65% cell viability at the concentration of 10μM. Additionally, the possible structure-activity relationships of these phenolic compounds were tentatively discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. MnFe(PGe) compounds: Preparation, structural evolution, and magnetocaloric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Ming; Zhang Hong-Guo; Zhang Jiu-Xing; Liu Dan-Min

    2015-01-01

    The interdependences of preparation conditions, magnetic and crystal structures, and magnetocaloric effects (MCE) of the MnFePGe-based compounds are reviewed. Based upon those findings, a new method for the evaluation of the MCE in these compounds, based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), is proposed. The MnFePGe-based compounds are a group of magnetic refrigerants with giant magnetocaloric effect (GMCE), and as such, have drawn tremendous attention, especially due to their many advantages for practical applications. Structural evolution and phase transformation in the compounds as functions of temperature, pressure, and magnetic field are reported. Influences of preparation conditions upon the homogeneity of the compounds’ chemical composition and microstructure, both of which play a key role in the MCE and thermal hysteresis of the compounds, are introduced. Lastly, the origin of the “virgin effect” in the MnFePGe-based compounds is discussed. (paper)

  7. Low molecular weight compounds as effective dispersing agents in the formation of colloidal silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsuki, Jun; Natsuki, Toshiaki, E-mail: natsuki@shinshu-u.ac.jp; Abe, Takao [Shinshu University, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    A convenient method to synthesize uniform, well-dispersed colloidal silver nanoparticles is described. Aldonic acid or {alpha}-hydroxy acid compounds of low molecular weight are used instead of polymeric compounds as dispersing agents to prepare silver nanoparticles. The size, conformation, and electrical conductivity of the silver nanoparticles, and the effect and function of the dispersing agents are investigated in detail. Using these low molecular weight compounds as dispersing agents, silver nanoparticles with a diameter of 10 nm or less and high electrical conductivity can be obtained. In addition, this procedure allows silver nanoparticles to be sintered at 150 Degree-Sign C, which is lower than that required for silver nanoparticle formulation using polymeric compounds (200 Degree-Sign C). The silver nanoparticles produced by this process can be used to prepare various inks and to manufacture electronic circuits. It is found that low molecular weight compounds are more effective dispersing agents than polymeric compounds in the formation of silver nanoparticles.

  8. Investigating the synergistic antioxidant effects of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hajimehdipoor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic and flavonoid compounds are secondary metabolites of plants which possess various activities such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetes and anticancer effects. It has been established that these compounds can scavenge free radicals produced in the body. Because of this ability, not only the plants containing phenolic and flavonoid compounds but also, the pure compounds are used in medicinal products for prevention and treatment of many disorders. Considering that the golden aim of the pharmaceutical industries is using the most effective compounds with lower concentrations, determination of the best combination of the compounds with synergistic effects is important. In the present study, synergistic antioxidant effects of four phenolic compounds including caffeic acid, gallic acid, rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid and two flavonoids,  rutin and quercetin, have been investigated by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power method. The synergistic effect was assessed by comparing the experimental antioxidant activity of the mixtures with calculated theoretical values and the interactions of the compounds were determined. The results showed that combination of gallic acid and caffeic acid demonstrated considerable synergistic effects (137.8% while other combinations were less potent. Among examined substances, rutin was the only one which had no effect on the other compounds. The results of ternary combinations of compounds demonstrated antagonistic effects in some cases. This was more considerable in mixture of rutin, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid (-21.8%, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid (-20%, rutin, rosmarinic acid, gallic acid (-18.5% and rutin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid (-15.8%, while, combination of quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid (59.4% and quercetin, gallic acid, rutin (55.2% showed the most synergistic effects. It was concluded that binary and ternary combination of quercetin, rutin, caffeic acid

  9. Particle correlations in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Sh.

    1981-01-01

    Particle correlations in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies of 1-2 GeV/nucleon are investigated. The problems of measurement of the mean free path lambda of protons inside the nucleus and the interaction radius of nucleus-nucleus collisions is considered. The value of lambda has been determined in two-proton coincidence experiment in proton-nucleus interaction at 800 MeV. The observed value of lambda is slightly longer than the expected from free nucleon-nucleon collisions. Some preliminary results on proton emission beyond free nucleon-nucleon kinemaics are given

  10. Some experimental results of the investigation of hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimov, S.A.; Gulamov, K.G.; Chernov, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    Recent experimental data on the hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus inelastic interactions are analyzed. A particular attention is paid to the description of the leading hadron spectra and of the spectra of nucleon recoils in hadron-nucleus interactions. Some of the results of the experimental studies of correlations between secondary particles are discussed. This discussion demonstrates that an analysis of the multiparticle phenomena is very promising regarding the discrimination between the different models for the hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions. It is pointed out that the actual mechanism of the hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions is a rather complex one and can be described comprehensively by none of the existing models

  11. Advances in hard nucleus cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Security and perfect vision and fewer complications are our goals in cataract surgery, and hard-nucleus cataract surgery is always a difficulty one. Many new studies indicate that micro-incision phacoemulsification in treating hard nucleus cataract is obviously effective. This article reviews the evolution process of hard nuclear cataract surgery, the new progress in the research of artificial intraocular lens for microincision, and analyse advantages and disadvantages of various surgical methods.

  12. Antioxidant synergistic effects of Osmanthus fragrans flowers with green tea and their major contributed antioxidant compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Shuqin; Wang, Kaidi; Lei, Yukun; Yao, Shuting; Lu, Baiyi; Huang, Weisu

    2017-01-01

    The antioxidant synergistic effects of Osmanthus fragrans flowers with green tea were evaluated, and their major antioxidant compounds contributed to the total amount of synergy were determined. The antioxidant compounds in O. fragrans flowers with green tea were identified by LC-MS and quantified by UPLC-PDA. The synergistic antioxidant interactions between O. fragrans flowers with green tea and their antioxidant compounds were tested using the Prieto?s model after the simulated digestion. T...

  13. Metabolism of the intervertebral disc: effects of low levels of oxygen, glucose, and pH on rates of energy metabolism of bovine nucleus pulposus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, Susan R S; Jones, Deborah A; Ripley, Ruth M; Urban, Jill P G

    2005-03-01

    In vitro measurements of metabolic rates of isolated bovine nucleus pulposus cells at varying levels of oxygen, glucose, and pH. To obtain quantitative information on the interactions between oxygen and glucose concentrations and pH, and the rates of oxygen and glucose consumption and lactic acid production, for disc nucleus cells. Disc cells depend on diffusion from blood vessels at the disc margins for supply of nutrients. Loss of supply is thought to lead to disc degeneration, but how loss of supply affects nutrient concentrations in the disc is not known; nutrient concentrations within discs can normally only be calculated, because concentration measurements are invasive. However, realistic predictions cannot be made until there are data from measurements of metabolic rates at conditions found in the disc in vivo, i.e., at low levels of oxygen, glucose, and pH. A metabolism chamber was designed to allow simultaneous recording of oxygen and glucose concentrations and of pH. These concentrations were measured electrochemically with custom-built glucose and oxygen sensors; lactic acid was measured biochemically. Bovine nucleus pulposus cells were isolated and inserted into the chamber, and simultaneous rates of oxygen and glucose consumption and of lactic acid production were measured over a range of glucose, oxygen, and pH levels. There were strong interactions between rates of metabolism and oxygen consumption and pH. At atmospheric oxygen levels, oxygen consumption rate at pH 6.2 was 32% of that at pH 7.4. The rate fell by 60% as oxygen concentration was decreased from 21 to 5% at pH 7.4, but only by 20% at pH 6.2. Similar interactions were seen for lactic acid production and glucose consumption rates; we found that glycolysis rates fell at low oxygen and glucose concentrations and low pH. Equations were derived that satisfactorily predict the effect of nutrient and metabolite concentrations on rates of lactic acid production rate and oxygen consumption. Disc

  14. What is a cometary nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyttleton, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Descriptions of actual observed comets associate a range of ill-defined meanings with the term nucleus. In recent years use of the word has been even further extended (or contracted) to mean a postulated solid core constituting the permanent element of a comet and necessarily of size far below resolution and measurability. It is maintained by the postulants that this core, acted upon by solar radiation and the solar wind, is the fount and origin of practically the whole great variety of observed cometary physical phenomena. In order that this micro-nucleus shall 'explain' observed properties, it is endowed with a large number of entirely ad-hoc qualities specially devised to produce the very effects it is wished to explain, but the processes so proffered rely almost entirely on purely verbal asseverations that they will work in the way required. No source or mechanism of origin for the imaginary micro-nucleus, of which there would need to be myriads, is in sight, nor can the assumption explain the dynamical properties of long-period comets and their association with the galactic plane and the solar apex. The postulate is in any event ruled out by Occam's principle as having no basis in fact or theory and is not required to explain the observed properties of comets. The large number of additional special assumptions introduced mean that the structure as a whole does not constitute a proper scientific theory. (author)

  15. [Effect of stimulation of GABA-ergic structures of the substantia nigra and caudate nucleus on food-getting behavior in the cat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugalev, N P

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of the functional significance of GABA-ergic structures of the substantia nigra (SN) and the caudate nucleus (CN) and their role in food-procuring behaviour of cats. Analysis was made of behavioral and EEG-effects of local GABA and the GABA antagonist, picrotoxin, microinjections into the studied brain structures. Stimulation of the GABA-ergic structures of the SN produced a sedative effect and depression of the cat food-procuring behaviour. Effects of stimulation of the CN GABA-ergic structures were to a great degree reverse. The conclusion has been made that GABA-ergic structures of the SN and the CN play different roles in controlling the CN inhibitory influence upon food-procuring behaviour.

  16. The Effect of Excipients on the Permeability of BCS Class III Compounds and Implications for Biowaivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alan; Hidalgo, Ismael J; Bode, Chris; Brown, William; Yazdanian, Mehran; Gonzalez, Mario A; Sagawa, Kazuko; Miller, Kevin; Jiang, Wenlei; Stippler, Erika S

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the FDA allows biowaivers for Class I (high solubility and high permeability) and Class III (high solubility and low permeability) compounds of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). Scientific evidence should be provided to support biowaivers for BCS Class I and Class III (high solubility and low permeability) compounds. Data on the effects of excipients on drug permeability are needed to demonstrate that commonly used excipients do not affect the permeability of BCS Class III compounds, which would support the application of biowaivers to Class III compounds. This study was designed to generate such data by assessing the permeability of four BCS Class III compounds and one Class I compound in the presence and absence of five commonly used excipients. The permeability of each of the compounds was assessed, at three to five concentrations, with each excipient in two different models: Caco-2 cell monolayers, and in situ rat intestinal perfusion. No substantial increases in the permeability of any of the compounds were observed in the presence of any of the tested excipients in either of the models, with the exception of disruption of Caco-2 cell monolayer integrity by sodium lauryl sulfate at 0.1 mg/ml and higher. The results suggest that the absorption of these four BCS Class III compounds would not be greatly affected by the tested excipients. This may have implications in supporting biowaivers for BCS Class III compounds in general.

  17. Hypocretin-1 (orexin A) prevents the effects of hypoxia/hypercapnia and enhances the GABAergic pathway from the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergacheva, O; Philbin, K; Bateman, R; Mendelowitz, D

    2011-02-23

    Hypocretins (orexins) are hypothalamic neuropeptides that play a crucial role in regulating sleep/wake states and autonomic functions including parasympathetic cardiac activity. We have recently demonstrated stimulation of the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus (LPGi), the nucleus which is thought to play a role in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep control, activates an inhibitory pathway to preganglionic cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus (NA). In this study we test the hypothesis that hypocretin-1 modulates the inhibitory neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons evoked by stimulation of the LPGi using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in an in vitro brain slice preparation from rats. Activation of hypocretin-1 receptors produced a dose-dependent and long-term facilitation of GABAergic postsynaptic currents evoked by electrical stimulation of the LPGi. Hypoxia/hypercapnia diminished LPGi-evoked GABAergic current in cardiac vagal neurons and this inhibition by hypoxia/hypercapnia was prevented by pre-application of hypocretin-1. The action of hypocretin-1 was blocked by the hypocretin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867. Facilitation of LPGi-evoked GABAergic current in cardiac vagal neurons under both normal condition and during hypoxia/hypercapnia could be the mechanism by which hypocretin-1 affects parasympathetic cardiac function and heart rate during REM sleep. Furthermore, our findings indicate a new potential mechanism that might be involved in the cardiac arrhythmias, bradycardia, and sudden cardiac death that can occur during sleep. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Multifragmentation in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trautmann, W.; Adloff, J.C.; Bouissou, P.; Hubele, J.; Imme, G.; Iori, I.; Kreutz, P.; Leray, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Liu, Z.; Lynen, U.; Meijer, R.J.; Milkau, U.; Moroni, A.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Ngo, C.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Pochodzalla, J.; Raciti, G.; Rudolf, G.; Schuettauf, A.; Stuttge, L.

    1993-10-01

    The complete fragmentation of highly excited nuclear systems into fragments of intermediate mass is observed in heavy-ion reactions at relativistic bombarding energies in the range of several hundreds of MeV per nucleon. Similar features are found for peripheral collisions between heavy nuclei and for more central collisions between a heavy and a light nucleus. The partition space explored in multifragment decays is well described by the statistical multifragmentation models. The expansion before breakup is confirmed by the analysis of the measured fragment energies of ternary events in their own rest frame. Collective radial flow is confined to rather small values in these peripheral-type reactions. Many conceptually different models seem to be capable of reproducing the charge correlations measured for the multifragment decays. (orig.)

  19. The effects of acute morphine treatment on the incorporation of [3H]L-lysine by normal and regenerating facial nucleus neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinatra, R.S.; Ford, D.H.; Rhines, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of morphine on the incorporation of [ 3 H]L-lysine into proteins of facial nucleus neurons was examined by light microscopic radioautography. Silver grains present within various compartments of normal and regenerating (3-, 7-. 14- and 21 days post-axotomy) neurons from saline-treated Wistar rats were compared with the amount present in similar cells from animals receiving 40 mg/kg morphine sulfate i.v. At 14- and 21-days post-axotomy, regenerating neurons were larger and the grain count in the emulsion over these cells was greater than that observed in normal (unoperated) neurons. In normal facial neurons, the accumulation of lysine into the nucleus and nucleolus was significantly lower 60 min after morphine adminstration. However, morphine's inhibition of lysine incorporation was even more pronounced in regenerating neurons. In these cells, nuclear lysine uptake was depressed at 3 and 7 days, while maximum inhibition of cytoplasmic incorporation occurred at 14-days post-axotomy. Morphine adminstration decreased nucleolar lysine incorporation at all survival intervals. (Auth.)

  20. Use of Limiting Dilution Method for Isolation of Nucleus Pulposus Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells and Effects of Plating Density on Biological Characteristics and Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghan Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the effects of the limiting dilution method and plating density in rat nucleus pulposus mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (NPMSCs. Materials and Methods. Nucleus pulposus tissues were isolated from 12-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats and NPMSCs were isolated using limiting dilution method. Cells were then classified into 3 groups according to plating density. Cell morphologies were observed, and colony-forming units, migration abilities, proliferative capacities, cell cycle percentages, multilineage differentiation capacities, stem cell biomarker expression levels, and immunophenotyping were also examined in each group. Results. Low density group (LD had higher morphological homogeneity, stronger colony-forming ability, higher cell proliferation capacity, and enhanced cell migration ability relative to the other two groups (p<0.05. Moreover, LD had more cells entering S phase, with fewer cells arrested in G0/G1 phase (p<0.05. While all three density groups showed a multilineage differentiation potential, LD showed a higher degree of observed and semiquantified lineage specific staining (p<0.05. Furthermore, LD displayed higher expression levels of stem cell biomarkers (Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2 and showed higher percentages of CD29+, CD44+, and CD90+ cells (p<0.05 following flow cytometry analysis. Conclusions. Limiting dilution method is suggested when isolating NPMSCs as a means of improving cell activity and plasticity.

  1. Resonant parametric interference effect in spontaneous bremsstrahlung of an electron in the field of a nucleus and two pulsed laser waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebed', A. A.; Padusenko, E. A.; Roshchupkin, S. P.; Dubov, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    Electron-nucleus bremsstrahlung in the field of two moderately strong pulsed laser waves in the case of incommensurate frequencies is theoretically studied under resonant conditions. The process is studied in detail in a special kinematic region, where stimulated processes with correlated emission and absorption of photons of the first and second waves become predominant (parametric interference effect). The availability of this region is caused by interference of the first and second laser waves. The correspondence between the emission angle and the final-electron energy is established in this interference kinematic. In this case, the cross-sectional properties are determined by the multiphoton quantum interference parameter, which is proportional to the product of intensities of the first and second waves. The resonant differential cross section of electron-nucleus spontaneous bremsstrahlung with simultaneous registration of both emission angles of the spontaneous photon and the scattered electron can exceed by four or five orders of magnitude the corresponding cross section in the absence of an external field. It was shown for nonrelativistic electrons that the resonant cross section of the studied process in the field of two pulsed laser waves within the interference region in two order of magnitude may exceed corresponding cross sections at other scattering kinematics. The obtained results may be experimentally verified, for example, by scientific facilities at sources of pulsed laser radiation (such as SLAC, FAIR, XFEL, ELI).

  2. Electronic effects of substituents in o-hydroxyazo compounds and azoquinone-hydrazone tautomerism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raikhshtat, M.M.; Zhogina, V.V.; Savvin, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have investigated the electronic structure of p-substituted phenylazonaphthol and some o-hydroxyazo compounds of the general structure X-N=N-Y. The influence of structural changes of the X and Y radicals on the electronic structure of the o-hydroxyazo group was studied. The results are compared with experimental data, obtained by NMR 13 C, by tautomerism of these compounds in solution in CDCl 3 . The electronic structure of o-hydroxyazo compounds was calculated by the PPDP/2 method. This method satisfactorily describes the electronic structure of organic compounds and correctly reproduces electronic effects of the substituents

  3. Evaluation of the combination effect of different antiviral compounds against HIV in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A M; Nielsen, C; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1993-01-01

    by combining many evaluated antiviral agents with AZT. We observed a difference in the degree of synergism depending on the evaluated compound; the results indicate that compounds with the same target in the viral replicative cycle (ddI: 2',3'-dideoxyinosine, didanosine; d4T: 2',3'-dideoxy-2......3'-azido-3'deoxythymidine (AZT), a clinically used anti-HIV compound, was evaluated for antiviral effect on HIV infection in combination with other antiviral compounds in vitro. Interactions were evaluated by the median-effect principle and the isobologram technique. Synergistic effect was obtained...... with the adhesion/penetration process of virus (ConA: Concanavalin A; DS: dextran sulfate) were most potent with AZT when used in rather high concentrations. At this moment in the HIV epidemic, these observations suggest that combinations of antiviral compounds should be evaluated in clinical trials, with the major...

  4. Nucleus accumbens corticotropin-releasing factor increases cue-triggered motivation for sucrose reward: paradoxical positive incentive effects in stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulkin Jay

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF is typically considered to mediate aversive aspects of stress, fear and anxiety. However, CRF release in the brain is also elicited by natural rewards and incentive cues, raising the possibility that some CRF systems in the brain mediate an independent function of positive incentive motivation, such as amplifying incentive salience. Here we asked whether activation of a limbic CRF subsystem magnifies the increase in positive motivation for reward elicited by incentive cues previously associated with that reward, in a way that might exacerbate cue-triggered binge pursuit of food or other incentives? We assessed the impact of CRF microinjections into the medial shell of nucleus accumbens using a pure incentive version of Pavlovian-Instrumental transfer, a measure specifically sensitive to the incentive salience of reward cues (which it separates from influences of aversive stress, stress reduction, frustration and other traditional explanations for stress-increased behavior. Rats were first trained to press one of two levers to obtain sucrose pellets, and then separately conditioned to associate a Pavlovian cue with free sucrose pellets. On test days, rats received microinjections of vehicle, CRF (250 or 500 ng/0.2 μl or amphetamine (20 μg/0.2 μl. Lever pressing was assessed in the presence or absence of the Pavlovian cues during a half-hour test. Results Microinjections of the highest dose of CRF (500 ng or amphetamine (20 μg selectively enhanced the ability of Pavlovian reward cues to trigger phasic peaks of increased instrumental performance for a sucrose reward, each peak lasting a minute or so before decaying after the cue. Lever pressing was not enhanced by CRF microinjections in the baseline absence of the Pavlovian cue or during the presentation without a cue, showing that the CRF enhancement could not be explained as a result of generalized motor arousal, frustration or stress

  5. Nucleus accumbens corticotropin-releasing factor increases cue-triggered motivation for sucrose reward: paradoxical positive incentive effects in stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peciña, Susana; Schulkin, Jay; Berridge, Kent C

    2006-04-13

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is typically considered to mediate aversive aspects of stress, fear and anxiety. However, CRF release in the brain is also elicited by natural rewards and incentive cues, raising the possibility that some CRF systems in the brain mediate an independent function of positive incentive motivation, such as amplifying incentive salience. Here we asked whether activation of a limbic CRF subsystem magnifies the increase in positive motivation for reward elicited by incentive cues previously associated with that reward, in a way that might exacerbate cue-triggered binge pursuit of food or other incentives? We assessed the impact of CRF microinjections into the medial shell of nucleus accumbens using a pure incentive version of Pavlovian-Instrumental transfer, a measure specifically sensitive to the incentive salience of reward cues (which it separates from influences of aversive stress, stress reduction, frustration and other traditional explanations for stress-increased behavior). Rats were first trained to press one of two levers to obtain sucrose pellets, and then separately conditioned to associate a Pavlovian cue with free sucrose pellets. On test days, rats received microinjections of vehicle, CRF (250 or 500 ng/0.2 microl) or amphetamine (20 microg/0.2 microl). Lever pressing was assessed in the presence or absence of the Pavlovian cues during a half-hour test. Microinjections of the highest dose of CRF (500 ng) or amphetamine (20 microg) selectively enhanced the ability of Pavlovian reward cues to trigger phasic peaks of increased instrumental performance for a sucrose reward, each peak lasting a minute or so before decaying after the cue. Lever pressing was not enhanced by CRF microinjections in the baseline absence of the Pavlovian cue or during the presentation without a cue, showing that the CRF enhancement could not be explained as a result of generalized motor arousal, frustration or stress, or by persistent attempts to

  6. Effects of furan derivatives and phenolic compounds on electricity generation in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catal, Tunc [Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, 116 Gilmore Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 102 97331, Corvallis, OR (United States); Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Istanbul Technical University, 34469-Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Fan, Yanzhen; Liu, Hong [Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, 116 Gilmore Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Li, Kaichang [Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 102 97331, Corvallis, OR (United States); Bermek, Hakan [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Istanbul Technical University, 34469-Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-05-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive fuel source for MFCs due to its renewable nature and ready availability. Furan derivatives and phenolic compounds could be potentially formed during the pre-treatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, voltage generation from these compounds and the effects of these compounds on voltage generation from glucose in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were examined. Except for 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), all the other compounds tested were unable to be utilized directly for electricity production in MFCs in the absence of other electron donors. One furan derivate, 5-HMF and two phenolic compounds, trans-cinnamic acid and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid did not affect electricity generation from glucose at a concentration up to 10 mM. Four phenolic compounds, including syringaldeyhde, vanillin, trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy, and 4-hydroxy cinnamic acids inhibited electricity generation at concentrations above 5 mM. Other compounds, including 2-furaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and acetophenone, inhibited the electricity generation even at concentrations less than 0.2 mM. This study suggests that effective electricity generation from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass in MFCs may require the employment of the hydrolysis methods with low furan derivatives and phenolic compounds production, or the removal of some strong inhibitors prior to the MFC operation, or the improvement of bacterial tolerance against these compounds through the enrichment of new bacterial cultures or genetic modification of the bacterial strains. (author)

  7. Effects of furan derivatives and phenolic compounds on electricity generation in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catal, Tunc; Fan, Yanzhen; Li, Kaichang; Bermek, Hakan; Liu, Hong

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive fuel source for MFCs due to its renewable nature and ready availability. Furan derivatives and phenolic compounds could be potentially formed during the pre-treatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, voltage generation from these compounds and the effects of these compounds on voltage generation from glucose in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were examined. Except for 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), all the other compounds tested were unable to be utilized directly for electricity production in MFCs in the absence of other electron donors. One furan derivate, 5-HMF and two phenolic compounds, trans-cinnamic acid and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid did not affect electricity generation from glucose at a concentration up to 10 mM. Four phenolic compounds, including syringaldeyhde, vanillin, trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy, and 4-hydroxy cinnamic acids inhibited electricity generation at concentrations above 5 mM. Other compounds, including 2-furaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and acetophenone, inhibited the electricity generation even at concentrations less than 0.2 mM. This study suggests that effective electricity generation from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass in MFCs may require the employment of the hydrolysis methods with low furan derivatives and phenolic compounds production, or the removal of some strong inhibitors prior to the MFC operation, or the improvement of bacterial tolerance against these compounds through the enrichment of new bacterial cultures or genetic modification of the bacterial strains.

  8. The normal and inverse magnetocaloric effect in RCu2 (R=Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, X.Q.; Xu, Z.Y.; Zhang, B.; Hu, F.X.; Shen, B.G.

    2017-01-01

    Orthorhombic polycrystalline RCu 2 (R=Tb, Dy, Ho and Er) compounds were synthesized and the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) were investigated in detail. All of the RCu 2 compounds are antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordered. As temperature increases, RCu 2 compounds undergo an AFM to AFM transition at T t and an AFM to paramagnetic (PM) transition at T N . Besides of the normal MCE around T N , large inverse MCE around T t was found in TbCu 2 compound. Under a field change of 0–7 T, the maximal value of inverse MCE is even larger than the value of normal MCE around T N for TbCu 2 compound. Considering of the normal and inverse MCE, TbCu 2 shows the largest refrigerant capacity among the RCu 2 (R=Tb, Dy, Ho and Er) compounds indicating its potential applications in low temperature multistage refrigeration. - Highlights: • Large inverse magnetocaloric effect is observed in TbCu 2 compound. • The AFM to AFM transition is observed in RCu 2 (R=Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) compounds. • The MCE performance of TbCu 2 compound is evaluated in a more comprehensively way.

  9. Antiproton-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Several facets of antinucleon-nucleus interactions are explored. The topics treated are: coherent interactions, production of unusual states and particles in the nuclear medium, and the creation of extreme states of matter by antimatter annihilation. It is found that temperatures of the magnitude necessary to achieve the predicted quark-gluon phase transition are obtained. 20 references

  10. Nucleus accumbens and impulsivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basar, K.; Sesia, T.; Groenewegen, H.J.; Steinbusch, H.W.; Visser-vandewalle, V.; Temel, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The multifaceted concept of impulsivity implies that different impulsivity aspects, mediated by different neural processes, influence behavior at different levels. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key component of the neural processes regulating impulsivity. In this review, we discuss the findings

  11. Quasi-elastic shadowing in nucleus-nucleus elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dymarz, R; Malecki, A [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Gluski, K [Institute of Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Picchi, P [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica)

    1979-01-06

    The complete evaluation of the Glauber multiple-scattering series for nucleus-nucleus collisions is a very difficult task and that is why various approximate formulae were proposed. In this work some of these approximations are discussed.

  12. Study of fragmentation reactions of light nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toneli, David Arruda; Carlson, Brett Vern

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The decay of the compound nucleus is traditionally calculated using a sequential emission model, such as the Weisskopf-Ewing or Hauser-Feshbach ones, in which the compound nucleus decays through a series of residual nuclei by emitting one particle at a time until there is no longer sufficient energy for further emission. In light compound nucleus, however, the excitation energy necessary to fully disintegrate the system is relatively easy to attain. In such cases, decay by simultaneous emission of two or more particles becomes important. A model which takes into account all these decay is the Fermi fragmentation model. Recently, the equivalence between the Fermi fragmentation model and statistical multifragmentation model used to describe the decay for highly excited fragments for reactions of heavy ions was demonstrated. Due the simplicity of the thermodynamic treatment used in the multifragmentation model, we have adapted it to the calculation of Fermi breakup of light nuclei. The ultimate goal of this study is to calculate the distribution of isotopes produced in proton-induced reactions on light nuclei of biological interest, such as C, O e Ca. Although most of these residual nuclei possess extremely short half-lives and thus represent little long-term danger, they tend to be deficient in neutrons and to decay by positron emission, which allows the monitoring of proton radiotherapy by PET (Positron Emission Tomography). (author)

  13. Effect of applied mechanical stress on absorption coefficient of compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: mkgupta.sliet@gmail.com [Department of Applied Sciences, Bhai Gurdas Institute of Engineering and Technology, Sangrur (India); Singh, Gurinderjeet; Dhaliwal, A. S.; Kahlon, K. S. [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering & Technology Deemed University, Longowal (Sangrur) India-148106 (India)

    2015-08-28

    The absorption coefficient of given materials is the parameter required for the basic information. The measurement of absorption coefficient of compounds Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaCO{sub 3}, ZnO{sub 2}, SmO{sub 2} and PbO has been taken at different incident photon energies 26, 59.54, 112, 1173, 1332keV. The studies involve the measurements of absorption coefficient of the self supporting samples prepared under different mechanical stress. This mechanical stress is render in terms of pressure up to 0-6 ton by using hydraulic press. Measurements shows that absorption coefficient of a material is directly proportional to applied mechanical stress on it up to some extent then become independent. Experimentally measured results are in fairly good agreement with in theoretical values obtained from WinXCOM.

  14. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  15. Decline in verbal fluency after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a microlesion effect of the electrode trajectory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Floriane; Derrey, Stéphane; Lefaucheur, Romain; Borden, Alaina; Fetter, Damien; Jan, Maryvonne; Wallon, David; Maltête, David

    2015-01-01

    Decline in verbal fluency (VF) is frequently reported after chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in Parkinson disease (PD). We investigated whether the trajectory of the implanted electrode correlate with the VF decline 6 months after surgery. We retrospectively analysed 59 PD patients (mean age, 61.9 ± 7; mean disease duration, 13 ± 4.6) who underwent bilateral STN-DBS. The percentage of VF decline 6 months after STN-DBS in the on-drug/on-stimulation condition was determined in respect of the preoperative on-drug condition. The patients were categorised into two groups (decline and stable) for each VF. Cortical entry angles, intersection with deep grey nuclei (caudate, thalamic or pallidum), and anatomical extent of the STN affected by the electrode pathway, were compared between groups. A significant decline of both semantic and phonemic VF was found after surgery, respectively 14.9% ± 22.1 (P < 0.05) and 14.2% ± 30.3 (P < 0.05). Patients who declined in semantic VF (n = 44) had a left trajectory with a more anterior cortical entry point (56 ± 53 versus 60 ± 55 degree, P = 0.01) passing less frequently trough the thalamus (P = 0.03). Microlesion of left brain regions may contribute to subtle cognitive impairment following STN-DBS in PD.

  16. Effects of tetra hydro cannabinol to the dendritc tree and synapses of the accumbens nucleus of wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the most widely used intoxicants; almost half of all 18 year olds in the USA and in most European countries admit to having tried it at least once, and ~10% of that age group are regular users. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the principal psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, produces euphoria and relaxation and impairs motor coordination, time sense, and short term memory. In the hippocampus, CBs inhibit GABA release from a subset of interneurons and inhibit glutamate release from principal neurons. Cannabinoids are reported to produce both rapid and long-term changes in synaptic transmission. Our study was carried out on ten male rats out of which brains of six of them were used as the representative sample for electron microscope analysis, while 4 were used for light microspcopy performed by Golgi method. Three were exposed to THC and 3 were controls. Axodendric synapses in the core and shell of the accumbens nucleus (AN were studied under electron microscope. The results have shown widening of the synaptic cleft in the shell of AN. This result is a leading point to our further investigations which are going to involve a behavioral component, and different aspects of morphological studies. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41020

  17. Effects of salicylate on the inflammatory genes expression and synaptic ultrastructure in the cochlear nucleus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shou-Sen; Mei, Ling; Chen, Jian-Yong; Huang, Zhi-Wu; Wu, Hao

    2014-04-01

    Aspirin (salicylate), as a common drug that is frequently used for long-term treatment in a clinical setting, has the potential to cause reversible tinnitus. However, few reports have examined the inflammatory cytokines expression and alteration of synaptic ultrastructure in the cochlear nucleus (CN) in a rat model of tinnitus. The tinnitus-like behavior of rats were detected by the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS) paradigm. We investigated the expression levels of the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2A (NR2A) mRNA and protein in the CN and compared synapses ultrastructure in the CN of tinnitus rats with normal ones. GPIAS showed that rats with long-term administration of salicylate were experiencing tinnitus, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of TNF-α and NR2A were up-regulated in chronic treatment groups, and they returned to baseline 14 days after cessation of treatment. Furthermore, compared to normal rats, repetitive salicylate-treated rats showed a greater number of presynaptic vesicles, thicker and longer postsynaptic densities, increased synaptic interface curvature. These data revealed that chronic salicylate administration markedly, but reversibly, induces tinnitus possibly via augmentation of the expression of TNF-α and NR2A and cause changes in synaptic ultrastructure in the CN. Long-term administration of salicylate causes neural plasticity changes at the CN level.

  18. Effect of Sirtuin-1 on Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens in a Rat Model of Heroin Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Baijuan; Li, Yixin; Li, Rongrong; Yin, Dan; Chen, Xingqiang; Li, Jie; Liang, Wenmei

    2018-06-05

    BACKGROUND Synaptic plasticity plays an important role in the process of addiction. This study investigated the relationship between synaptic plasticity and changes in addictive behavior and examined the expression of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins and genes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) region in different rat models. MATERIAL AND METHODS Heroin addiction, SIRT1-overexpression, and SIRT1-silenced rat models were established. Polymerase chain reaction gene chip technology, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and transmission electron microscopy were used to detect changes in synaptic plasticity-related gene and protein expression, and changes in the ultrastructure of synapses, in the NAc. RESULTS Naloxone withdrawal symptoms appeared in the SIRT1-overexpression group. In the SIRT1-silenced group the symptoms were reduced. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting results showed that FOXO1 expression decreased in the heroin addiction (HA) group but increased in the SIRT1-silenced group (paddiction. SIRT1 overexpression can increase behavioral sensitization in the NAc of rats, and SIRT1 silencing might ease withdrawal symptoms and reduce conditioned place preferences.

  19. Study of antimicrobial effect of novel Quaternary Ammonium Compounds on bacteria and fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadrnia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quarterly Ammonium Compounds (QuAC are the more effective antimicrobial agents in medicine and industry. It needs to produce the new compounds with the wider spectrum and less toxicity, because of microbial resistance. Aim of this study was microbiological Evaluation of the new Quarterly Ammonium Compounds produced by Structural modifications on some bacteria, yeast and fungi. Material and Methods: 16 Quat salts were designed and made in Ethanol or Aceto Nitril. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was determined by standard method on Nutrient Broth and Minimal agar culture media for bacteria , Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA for fungi and Nutrient Agar and Saboro Dextrose Agar (SDA for yeasts . Results: Compounds 2,7,8,9,12,13 has the more antimicrobial effect ( minimum of MIC. Furthermore, it was shown that MIC was unrelated to culture compounds. In yeast culture it must to increases the concentration in enriched media. Compounds 9,12 and 13 has the more antibacterial effect as well as antifungal effect. Conclusion: In comparison of structure of produced compounds and results of the study, it was revealed that radical R3 has the most important role in antimicrobial properties of Quats and it could to be substitute any suitable group related to increasing anti microbial effects.

  20. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Interaction with the Arcuate Nucleus; Essential for Organizing Physiological Rhythms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Frederik N.; Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara; León-Mercado, Luis; Basualdo, Mari Carmen; Escobar, Carolina; Kalsbeek, Andries; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2017-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is generally considered the master clock, independently driving all circadian rhythms. We recently demonstrated the SCN receives metabolic and cardiovascular feedback adeptly altering its neuronal activity. In the present study, we show that microcuts effectively

  1. Immunomodulatory Effects of Soybeans and Processed Soy Food Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Hiroyuki; Imai, Shinjiro

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is an immune response against both internal and external antigens in organisms, particularly in mammals, and includes both uncontrolled chronic and low-grade inflammations. Uncontrolled chronic inflammation often leads to severe diseases such as vascular disease, arthritis, cancer, diabete, allergy, and autoimmunity. On the other hand, low-grade inflammation is recognized as a relationship between obesity and risk of metabolic syndrome. Elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators is commonly observed in patients with uncontrolled or low-grade inflammation-associated diseases. Plants have been generated phytochemicals to overcome inflammations and infections through evolution. Phytochemicals belong to alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, and terpenoids. The consumption of soybeans plays a role in immune modulation through their components such as isoflavones, saponins, and anthocyanins. Recently, it was reported that the application of phytochemicals into patients with inflammatory diseases improves their symptoms. Therefore, it is important to identify novel phytochemicals with immunomodulatory activities. This review introduces and discusses recent advances and patents regarding soybean or processed soy food compounds which exhibit immunomodulatory activity in immune diseases, particularly allergy, by mediating the suppression of inflammatory pathways.

  2. An ultrastructural analysis of the effects of ethanol self-administration on the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Anne Jimenez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A bidirectional relationship between stress and alcohol exists whereby stressful events are comorbid with problematic alcohol use and prolonged alcohol exposure results in adaptations of the physiological stress response. Endocrine response to stress is initiated in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN with the synthesis and release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH and arginine-vasopressin (AVP. Alterations in CRH and AVP following long-term alcohol exposure in rodents is well demonstrated, however little is known about the response to alcohol in primates or the mechanisms of adaptation. We hypothesized that long-term alcohol self-administration in nonhuman primates would lead to ultrastructural changes in the PVN underlying adaptation to chronic alcohol. Double-label immunogold electron microscopy was used to measure presynaptic GABA and glutamate density within synaptic terminals contacting CRH- and AVP-immunoreactive dendrites. Additionally, pituitary-adrenal hormones (ACTH, cortisol, DHEA-s and aldosterone under two conditions (low and mild stress were compared before and after self-administration. All hormones were elevated in response to the mild stressor independent of alcohol consumption. The presynaptic glutamate density in recurrent (i.e., intra-hypothalamic CRH terminals was highly related to alcohol intake, and may be a permissive factor in increased drinking due to stress. Conversely, glutamate density within recurrent AVP terminals showed a trend-level increase following alcohol, but was not related to average daily consumption. Glutamate density in non-recurrent AVP terminals was related to aldosterone under the low stress condition while GABAergic density in this terminal population was related to water consumption. The results reveal distinct populations of presynaptic terminals whose glutamatergic or GABAergic density were uniquely related to water and alcohol consumption and circulating hormones.

  3. Further studies of the effects of aging on arginine metabolites in the rat vestibular nucleus and cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P; Gupta, N; Jing, Y; Collie, N D; Zhang, H; Smith, P F

    2017-04-21

    Some studies have demonstrated that aging is associated with impaired vestibular reflexes, especially otolithic reflexes, resulting in postural instability. However, the neurochemical basis of these age-related changes is still poorly understood. The l-arginine metabolic system has been implicated in changes in the brain associated with aging. In the current study, we examined the levels of l-arginine and its metabolizing enzymes and downstream metabolites in the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC) and cerebellum (CE) of rats with and without behavioral testing which were young (4months old), middle-aged (12months old) or aged (24months old). We found that aging was associated with lower nitric oxide synthase activity in the CE of animals with testing and increased arginase in the VNC and CE of animals with testing. l-citrulline and l-ornithine were lower in the VNC of aged animals irrespective of testing, while l-arginine and l-citrulline were lower in the CE with and without testing, respectively. In the VNC and CE, aging was associated with lower levels of glutamate in the VNC, irrespective of testing. In the VNC it was associated with higher levels of agmatine and putrescine, irrespective of testing. In the CE, aging was associated with higher levels of putrescine in animals without testing and with higher levels of spermine in animals with testing, and spermidine, irrespective of testing. Multivariate analyses indicated significant predictive relationships between the different variables, and there were correlations between some of the neurochemical variables and behavioral measurements. Cluster analyses revealed that aging altered the relationships between l-arginine and its metabolites. The results of this study demonstrate that there are major changes occurring in l-arginine metabolism in the VNC and CE as a result of age, as well as behavioral activity. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect injection of Ginger Extract on Development and Nucleus position of “Sangkuriang” Catfish Clarias sp. eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zairin Junior

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available One of methods could be applied to continuously meet the need of fish fry including catfish (Clarias sp. is artificial propagation by inducing ovulation and spawning.   As an alternative of existing method, in this study, ginger extract was intramuscularly injected to induce development of catfish eggs.  Ginger is known as an important regulator of the balance of arachidonat cycle.  The dose of ginger extract injected was 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mL/kg broodstock.  The results of study showed that injection 100% of ginger extracts in all doses was insignificantly inducing development of egg diameter and its nucleus position of catfish.  Other chemicals exist in ginger extract might be functions as an obstacle for egg development of catfish. Keywords: catfish, Clarias sp., ginger, ovulation, egg   ABSTRAK Salah satu cara untuk memenuhi kebutuhan benih ikan termasuk lele (Clarias sp. secara kontinyu adalah penggunaan teknologi pembiakan buatan melalui perangsangan ovulasi dan pemijahan. Sebagai alternatif teknik yang sudah ada, dicobakan perangsangan perkembangan telur ikan lele menggunakan bahan ekstrak jahe yang dilakukan melalui penyuntikan secara intramuskular. Jahe telah dikenal sebagai suatu pengatur penting atas keseimbangan siklus arakidonat. Dosis ekstrak jahe yang disuntikkan adalah 0, 0,5, 1 dan 1,5 mL/kg induk. Penyuntikan 100% ekstrak jahe pada semua dosis perlakuan belum dapat merangsang perkembangan diameter dan posisi inti sel telur ikan lele sangkuriang. Adanya bahan lain yang terdapat pada jahe diduga sebagai penghambat bagi perkembangan telur ikan lele. Kata kunci: Ikan lele, Clarias sp., jahe, ovulasi,  sel telur

  5. Neuroprotective and Cognition-Enhancing Effects of Compound K Isolated from Red Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Ju, Sung Hee; Oh, Jisun; Lee, Seung Kwon; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2016-04-13

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the effect of compound K derived from red ginseng on memory function in mouse model and glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Compound K induced antioxidant enzymes in nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-mediated manner, and effectively attenuated cytotoxicity and mitochondrial damage induced by glutamate in HT22 cells. However, the cytoprotective effect by compound K was abolished by heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor, tin protophorphyrin IX, suggesting that neuroprotective effect of compound K was caused by its Nrf2-mediated induction of antioxidant enzymes. Further, memory deficit induced by scopolamine was restored by compound K, which did not inhibit acetylcholine esterase, in C57BL/6 mice but not in Nrf2 knockout mice as assessed by passive avoidance test, Y-maze and water maze tests, suggesting that scopolamine-induced memory impairment was overcome by the induction of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes by the compound K. Overall, our data indicate that compound K could be useful in prevention and treatment of reactive oxygen species-induced neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Genetic effects of organic mercury compounds. II. Chromosome segregation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramel, C; Magnusson, J

    1969-01-01

    The genetic effect of organic mercury compounds on the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster was investigated. Treatments of larvae with methyl and phenyl mercury gave rise to development disturbances. Chromosomal abnormalities were noted.

  7. Study of Relativistic Nucleus - Nucleus Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment is to survey the reaction mechanisms involved in the collision of 60~GeV/nucleon and 200~GeV/nucleon light ions ($^{16}$0 and $^{32}$S provided by a new GSI-LBL injector) with different nuclei, to determine the stopping power of nuclear matter and to search for evidence of the formation of quark matter by comparison to hadron-nucleus reactions at the same incident energies. \\\\ The experimental set-up consists of a 2 m Streamer Chamber in the Vertex Magnet used to detect all the charged particles emerging from the interaction as well as the neutral strange particles that decay inside the chamber. The high energy of the forward-going particles are detected by four sets of calorimeters. A highly segmented Photon Position Detector (PPD) backed up by a 240 segment Ring Calorimeter will cover one unit of rapidity around mid-rapidity. An Intermediate Calorimeter will cover the rest of the forward phase space except for the region around beam rapidity, where a Veto Calorimeter will detect be...

  8. Hormone and glucose metabolic effects of compound cyproterone acetate in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba Ya; Zhao Jinping; Halike, A.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy of compound cyproterone acetate(CPY) in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS) and study hormone and glucose metabolic effects, thirty-five PCOS patients were treated by compound cyproterone acetate for 3 cycles. The serum LH, FSH and T levels, fasting glucose and fasting insulin were determined before and after 3 cycle's treatment. The results showed that 34 patients had regular menses during CPY therapy. The hirsute and acne score decreased significantly(P 0.05). The results indicate that the compound cyproterone acetate had anti-androgenic effects on PCOS patients and improved their endocrine function and clinical syndrome. (authors)

  9. The effect of oleander glycosides on the germination of pollen grains and the mitosis of the generative nucleus in Tradescantia bracteata Small and Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tarkowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water solution of a mixture of glycosides from oleander (Nerium oleander L. on the germination of pollen grains and on the mitosis of the generative nucleus in Tradescantia bracteata Small and Allium cepa L. has been studied. An inhibition of the germination and of the growth of pollen tubes was observed, proportionally to the concentration of glycosides. The pollen grains of A. cepa are more sensitive. The disturbances in mitosis lead to the formation of two or more uneven-sized doughter nuclei, or to the formation of restitution nuclei. These anomalies are more numerous in T. bracteata. From these results d t appears that pollen grains of A. cepa are characterized by a generally high physiological sensitivity and a small mitotic sensitivity, wheras for T. bracteata the opposite is true.

  10. Infusions of allopregnanolone into the hippocampus and amygdala, but not into the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, produce antidepressant effects on the learned helplessness rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirayama, Yukihiko; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Fukumoto, Makoto; Tadokoro, Shigenori; Fukami, Goro; Hashimoto, Kenji; Iyo, Masaomi

    2011-10-01

    Patients with depression showed a decrease in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid allopregnanolone (ALLO). But antidepressants increased the contents of ALLO in the rat brain. We examined the antidepressant-like effects of infusion of ALLO into the cerebral ventricle, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, or prefrontal cortex of learned helplessness (LH) rats (an animal model of depression). Of these regions, infusions of ALLO into the cerebral ventricle, the CA3 region of hippocampus, or the central region of amygdala exerted antidepressant-like effects. Infusion of ALLO into the hippocampal CA3 region or the central amygdala did not produce memory deficits or locomotor activation in the passive avoidance and open field tests. It is well documented that ALLO exerts its effects through GABA receptors. Therefore, we examined the antagonistic effects of flumazenil (a GABA receptor antagonist) on the antidepressant-like effects of ALLO. Coinfusion of flumazenil with ALLO into the hippocampal CA3 region, but not into the central amygdala, blocked the antidepressant-like effects of ALLO. However, coinfusion of (+)MK801 (an NMDA receptor antagonist), but not cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor), blocked the antidepressant-like effects of ALLO in the central amygdala. These results suggest that ALLO exerts antidepressant-like effects in the CA3 region of hippocampus through the GABA system and in the central region of amygdala, dependently on the activation of the glutamatergic mechanisms. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Study of alkylphenols, indol and pyridinic nucleus of HPAN compounds by SPE/SI and SPE/C{sub 18}/NEC: application of SPE/Si phase to oils from the Alagoas sub-basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboucas, L.M.C.; Nogueira, F.A.R.; Sabino, A.R.; Araujo, O.R.P.; Sant' Ana, A.E.G. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (LABIS/UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia. Lab. de Analise de Biomarcadores e Semioquimicos], E-mail: lmcr@qui.ufal.br

    2008-10-15

    Alkylphenols (AP) and hydrocarbon polycyclic aromatic nitrogen (HPAN) compounds are important to study secondary migrations of petroleum. The behavior of AP and HPAN standards was investigated by solid phase extraction (SPE) on silica gel (SPE/Si) and C{sub 18}/NEC (SPE/C{sub 18}) stationary phases. The AP standards were eluted with dichloromethane (DCM) in the F2 fraction, on both SPE/Si and SPE/C{sub 18} phases. The basic and neutral HPAN compounds were eluted together with DCM, in F2 fraction, when a SPE/C18 column was used. However in the SPE/Si column the HPAN compounds were separated by their basic and neutral character in two different fractions. The neutral HPAN compounds were eluted with DCM, F2 fraction, and the HPAN basic compounds were eluted with the mixture DCM:isopropanol 5%, F3 fraction. In general, the quantity of recovered AP and HPAN compounds was higher with SPE/Si than SPE/C{sub 18}. The nine oil samples were analyzed by SPE/Si and the saturated and aromatic hydrocarbon were separated from the polar AP and HPAN. (author)

  12. Effect of Lignocellulose Related Compounds on Microalgae Growth and Product Biosynthesis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystian Miazek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae contain valuable compounds that can be harnessed for industrial applications. Lignocellulose biomass is a plant material containing in abundance organic substances such as carbohydrates, phenolics, organic acids and other secondary compounds. As growth of microalgae on organic substances was confirmed during heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultivation, lignocellulose derived compounds can become a feedstock to cultivate microalgae and produce target compounds. In this review, different treatment methods to hydrolyse lignocellulose into organic substrates are presented first. Secondly, the effect of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, organic substances typically present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as well as minor co-products, on growth and accumulation of target compounds in microalgae cultures is described. Finally, the possibilities of using lignocellulose hydrolysates as a common feedstock for microalgae cultures are evaluated.

  13. The Effects of Smartphone Use on Organic Chemical Compound Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Nuray

    2015-01-01

    As a result of rapid technological advances, smartphones have recently enjoyed widespread use. The basic purpose of this study is to examine the effects of smartphones when they are used as educational tools in learning environments. To assess the effects of smartphone use on learning, this study uses smartphones as educational tools in a…

  14. The effect of α-cellulose fiber on the properties of melamine-formaldehyde molding compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatibi, M. A.; Beheshti, M. A.; Morshedian, J.

    2001-01-01

    Melamine-formaldehyde molding compounds have found different industrial applications. This is due to their good mechanical properties such as hardness, gloss and high modulus and strength. One of the major components of these compounds is α-cellulose fiber and has a major effect on the mechanical properties. Although this fiber is being used in these compounds for a long time, there is not much data available of α-cellulose fibers on the physical and mechanical properties of melamine-formaldehyde molding compounds being investigated. Results show that although the microstructures of these two fibers are quite different from each other, but they do not have any effect on the mechanical properties of the molding. Whereas, it has a significant effect on the wettability (processing condition) and glossiness of the mol dings. Since this latter property is very important in house wares applications, the darker mol dings can not be used in domestic applications

  15. Interacting gluon model for hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions in the central rapidity region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, G.N.; Navarra, F.S.; Plumer, M.; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, California 94720); Vourdas, A.; Weiner, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The interacting gluon model developed to describe the inelasticity distribution in hadron-nucleon collisions has been generalized and applied to hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions. Leading particle spectra and energy distributions in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are calculated

  16. Anti-trypanosomal effects of some compounds isolated from the extracts of Warburgia ugandensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioy, D W; Murilla, G; Kofi-Tsekpo, M W; Mukhongo, M; Okwara, J

    1998-02-01

    The plant kingdom has been used as a source of compounds employed in the treatment of many disease conditions for many years. Even with the new technology in synthetic chemistry, plants are still being used as a source of lead compounds in drug development. In the treatment of trypanosomiasis, the drugs that are currently in the market were developed between 1950-1960's. These drugs are expensive and associated with a number of toxic effects, therefore there is still need to develop newer drugs in the management of trypanosomiasis. The plant Warburgia ugandansis is a common plant that has been used traditionally to treat many disease conditions. The crude and pure compounds from this plant were tested against trypanosomes: T. congolense, T. evansi and T. bruceL In vitro tests using tissue culture method and in vivo tests using mice were carried out The results of the in vitro method indicated that the pure compound was more active than the crude extract The in vivo method indicated that the total extract was not effective, while one of the pure compounds was too toxic, and the other one showed activity. The two compounds investigated were basically of the same structure type with a slight difference on the functional groups. These preliminary results indicate that there is a possibility of finding active compounds against Trypanosomes in plants.

  17. Effect of γ-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok; Seo, Hye-young; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2009-01-01

    A study was carried out to find the effect of γ-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of γ-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  18. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye-young [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Yeon [Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    A study was carried out to find the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  19. The effects of bioactive compounds on Alzheimer’s disease and Mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McAnany

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As the prevalence and rate of Alzheimer’s disease are increasing around world, identifying effective treatments to manage cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration has become a global health priority. Decades of scientific research have led to a more comprehensive understanding of Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, a transitional stage of accelerated cognitive decline. This understanding has enabled researchers to envision and develop novel Alzheimer’s Disease therapies, including the use of bioactive compounds found in plants and animals. Within the past 15 years, a significant amount of clinical research has been published documenting the effects specific bioactive compounds have on patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and MCI. This article reviews the results of this research, along with relevant epidemiological studies, measures of cognition, and disease pathologies to discuss whether sufficient evidence exists to support the use of specific bioactive compounds by individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease and MCI. The results of clinical trials within the last 15 years do not conclusively prove that the studied quantities of vitamin B, Omega-3 fatty acids, or bioactive compounds within Fortasyn Connect are beneficial for use in the management of Alzheimer’s Disease or MCI. Additionally, the documented effects of these bioactive compounds do not warrant development of a functional food product to help manage AD or MCI. Conclusion: The results of clinical trials within the last 15 years do not conclusively prove that the specified quantities of vitamin B, Omega-3 fatty acids, or bioactive compounds within Fortasyn Connect, are beneficial for use in the management of AD or MCI. Additionally, the documented effects of these bioactive compounds do not warrant development of a functional food product utilizing the previously specified quantities to help manage AD or MCI. The effects bioactive compound

  20. Effect of Gamma-Irradiation on the Volatile Flavor Compounds from Dried Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, K.M.; Seo, H.Y.; Gyawali, Rajendra; Shim, S.L.; Yang, S.H.; Lee, S.J.; Kim, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on volatile components of Korean dried ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) was studied and compared with non-irradiated sample. Volatile compounds from non- and irradiated samples were extracted using simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC/MS). A total of 83 and 71 compounds were identified and quantified from non-and irradiated dried ginger at dose of 10 kGy. Identified components were hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones and miscellaneous compounds

  1. Effects of extraction methods of phenolic compounds from Xanthium strumarium L. and their antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scherer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extraction methods and solvents on overall yield, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and the composition of the phenolic compounds in Xanthium strumarium extracts were studied. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH, and the composition of the phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD and LC/MS. All results were affected by the extraction method, especially by the solvent used, and the best results were obtained with the methanol extract. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity, and the chlorogenic and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in the extracts.

  2. EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF HYPOALLERGENIC COMPOUND, ENRICHED WITH PREBIOTICS, FOR THE PROPHYLACTICS OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Dzhumagaziyev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a study of prophylactic effectiveness of hypoallergenic compound «Nutrilon Hypoallergenic 1», fortified with prebiotics «IMMUNOFORTIS», in children from group of risk of development of atopic dermatitis. Anthropometric rates of children after 8 weeks of observation corresponded with average age rates; their physical development was estimated as harmonious. The compound was well-tolerated. Its use resulted in increase of bifido- and lactobacteria of intestinal micro flora and decrease of acute respiratory infections in infants.Key words: infants, alimentary allergy, atopic dermatitis, artificial feeding, prebiotics, hypoallergenic compound.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:37-43

  3. Differential effects of organic compounds on cucumber damping-off and biocontrol activity of antagonistic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Ravnskov, Sabine; Guanlin, X.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the organic compounds tryptic soy broth, cellulose, glucose and chitosan on cucumber damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and biocontrol efficacy of the biocontrol agents (BCAs) Paenibacillus macerans and P. polymyxa were examined in a seedling emergence bioassay. Results...... showed that the organic compounds differentially affected both pathogen and BCAs. Tryptic soy broth, glucose and chitosan increased Pythium damping-off of cucumber, compared to the control treatment without organic compounds, whereas cellulose had no effect. Both Paenibacillus species had biocontrol...

  4. Mixture effects of endocrine disrupting compounds in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj; Taxvig, Camilla; Andersen, H. R.

    2010-01-01

    inhibitors of androgen biosynthesis and in the steroid synthesis assay using H295R cells, the inhibition of testosterone production was close to additive, whereas the inhibition of oestradiol production was over-estimated for the mixture of azole fungicides, when compared with the effect predicted when...

  5. A Method for Effective Conversion of Saccharides to Furfural Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for the effective conversion of one or more mono-, di-, oligo- or polysaccharides to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), in an ionic liquid by means of a chromium catalyst mixture comprising chromium (II) and chromium (III) species. The invention also provides a...

  6. Anticancer Effect of AntiMalarial Artemisinin Compounds | Das ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A PubMed search of about 127 papers on anti‑cancer effects of antimalarials has revealed that this class of drug, including other antimalarials, have several biological characteristics that include anticancer properties. ... Keywords: Anticancer agents, Antimalarials, Antitumor activity, Artemisinins, Novel chemotherapy ...

  7. Evaluation of a screening system for obesogenic compounds: screening of endocrine disrupting compounds and evaluation of the PPAR dependency of the effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pereira-Fernandes

    Full Text Available Recently the environmental obesogen hypothesis has been formulated, proposing a role for endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs in the development of obesity. To evaluate this hypothesis, a screening system for obesogenic compounds is urgently needed. In this study, we suggest a standardised protocol for obesogen screening based on the 3T3-L1 cell line, a well-characterised adipogenesis model, and direct fluorescent measurement using Nile red lipid staining technique. In a first phase, we characterised the assay using the acknowledged obesogens rosiglitazone and tributyltin. Based on the obtained dose-response curves for these model compounds, a lipid accumulation threshold value was calculated to ensure the biological relevance and reliability of statistically significant effects. This threshold based method was combined with the well described strictly standardized mean difference (SSMD method for classification of non-, weak- or strong obesogenic compounds. In the next step, a range of EDCs, used in personal and household care products (parabens, musks, phthalates and alkylphenol compounds, were tested to further evaluate the obesogenicity screening assay for its discriminative power and sensitivity. Additionally, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ dependency of the positive compounds was evaluated using PPARγ activation and antagonist experiments. Our results showed the adipogenic potential of all tested parabens, several musks and phthalate compounds and bisphenol A (BPA. PPARγ activation was associated with adipogenesis for parabens, phthalates and BPA, however not required for obesogenic effects induced by Tonalide, indicating the role of other obesogenic mechanisms for this compound.

  8. Bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus has differential effects on reactive and proactive inhibition and conflict-induced slowing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeso, Ignacio; Wilkinson, Leonora; Rodríguez-Oroz, Maria-Cruz; Obeso, Jose A; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2013-05-01

    It has been proposed that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) mediates response inhibition and conflict resolution through the fronto-basal ganglia pathways. Our aim was to compare the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN on reactive and proactive inhibition and conflict resolution in Parkinson's disease using a single task. We used the conditional Stop signal reaction time task that provides the Stop signal reaction time (SSRT) as a measure of reactive inhibition, the response delay effect (RDE) as a measure of proactive inhibition and conflict-induced slowing (CIS) as a measure of conflict resolution. DBS of the STN significantly prolonged SSRT relative to stimulation off. However, while the RDE measure of proactive inhibition was not significantly altered by DBS of the STN, relative to healthy controls, RDE was significantly lower with DBS off but not DBS on. DBS of the STN did not alter the mean CIS but produced a significant differential effect on the slowest and fastest RTs on conflict trials, further prolonging the slowest RTs on the conflict trials relative to DBS off and to controls. These results are the first demonstration, using a single task in the same patient sample, that DBS of the STN produces differential effects on reactive and proactive inhibition and on conflict resolution, suggesting that these effects are likely to be mediated through the impact of STN stimulation on different fronto-basal ganglia pathways: hyperdirect, direct and indirect.

  9. Inhibitory effect of Sphagnum palustre extract and its bioactive compounds on aromatase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jeong Eom

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sphagnum palustre (a moss has been traditionally used in Korea for the cure of several diseases such as cardiac pain and stroke. In this research, the inhibitory effect of S. palustre on aromatase (cytochrome P450 19, CYP19 activity was studied. [1β-3H] androstenedione was used as a substrate and incubated with S. palustre extract and recombinant human CYP19 in the presence of NADPH. S. palustre extract inhibited aromatase in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 value: 36.4 ± 8.1 µg/mL. To elucidate the major compounds responsible for the aromatase inhibitory effects of S. palustre extract, nine compounds were isolated from the extract and tested for their inhibition of aromatase activity. Compounds 1, 6, and 7 displayed aromatase inhibition, while the inhibition by the other compounds was negligible.

  10. Interface magnetization effect in heterojunctions based on semimagnetic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkova, N.

    1998-07-01

    The electronic states of stressed heterojunctions formed from narrow-gap semimagnetic semiconductors showing antiferromagnetic ordering are studies. The model Hamiltonian is constructed in the framework of the two-band envelope function approximation including far-band corrections. Heterojunctions both with normal and inverted band arrangements in the initial semiconductors are investigated. The interface Tamm-like states have been shown recently toe appear in these heterojunctions and they are spin-split with the magnetic axis perpendicular to the interface plane. The effect of far-band corrections is shown to be conditioned by the mutual movement of the constituent bands, resulting in changes and in some cases in full disappearance of the energy interval in which the interface state exists. The interface magnetization effect is expected when the Fermi level lies in one of the spin-polarized interface bands. Using the appropriate parameters, the value of the relative interface magnetization is calculated. (author)

  11. Study of various models of nuclear interaction potentials: nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, H.

    1984-01-01

    Several models, performed within a mean field theory, are developed for the calculation of nucleon-nucleus interaction potentials. The first part of the thesis deals with the nucleon-nucleus average interaction. It is mainly devoted to the calculation of dynamical corrections to the Hartree-Fock approximation. Two approaches are used: a microscopic model performed in the framework of the nuclear structure approach and a semi-phenomenological one, based on the application of the dispersion relations to the empirical imaginary potential. Both models take into account finite size effects like collectivity or threshold effects which are important at low energy. The Green's function properties are used for both models. The second part of this work is devoted to the interaction potential between two heavy ions. This calculation, which is performed in the framework of the sudden approximation, uses the energy density formalism (Thomas-Fermi approximation). It has been extended to finite temperature. At T=0 the experimental fusion barriers of heavy systems are reproduced within 4%. Their temperature dependence is studied. The proximity scaling is checked and a universal function is obtained at T=0 and at finite temperature. It is found that the proximity theorem is well satisfied on the average. The dispersion around the mean behaviour increases with increasing temperature. At last, P+A* and α+A* interaction potentials are calculated within a double folding model using a schematic effective interaction [fr

  12. Effect of antimony substitution in iron pnictide compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, D.; Braun, H. F.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we have examined the effect of negative chemical pressure in iron pnictides. We have synthesized substitution series replacing arsenic by antimony in a number of 1111- and 122-iron arsenides and present their crystallographic and physical properties. The SDW transition temperature in LaFeAs$_{\\mathrm{1-x}}$Sb$_{\\mathrm{x}}$O decreases with increasing antimony content, while the superconducting transition temperature in LaFeAs$_{\\mathrm{1-x}}$Sb$_{\\mathrm{x}}$O$_{\\mathrm{0...

  13. Nucleus-nucleus collision as superposition of nucleon-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlova, G.I.; Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in 16 O and 32 S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter b NA , that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus. (orig.)

  14. Nucleus-Nucleus Collision as Superposition of Nucleon-Nucleus Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlova, G.I.; Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Andreeva, N.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Basova, E.S.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhasin, A.; Bhatia, V.S.; Bradnova, V.; Bubnov, V.I.; Cai, X.; Chasnikov, I.Y.; Chen, G.M.; Chernova, L.P.; Chernyavsky, M.M.; Dhamija, S.; Chenawi, K.El; Felea, D.; Feng, S.Q.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Ganssauge, E.R.; Garpman, S.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Grote, J.; Gulamov, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, V.K.; Henjes, U.; Jakobsson, B.; Kanygina, E.K.; Karabova, M.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Krasnov, S.A.; Kumar, V.; Larionova, V.G.; Li, Y.X.; Liu, L.S.; Lokanathan, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Lu, Y.; Luo, S.B.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manhas, I.; Mittra, I.S.; Musaeva, A.K.; Nasyrov, S.Z.; Navotny, V.S.; Nystrand, J.; Otterlund, I.; Peresadko, N.G.; Qian, W.Y.; Qin, Y.M.; Raniwala, R.; Rao, N.K.; Roeper, M.; Rusakova, V.V.; Saidkhanov, N.; Salmanova, N.A.; Seitimbetov, A.M.; Sethi, R.; Singh, B.; Skelding, D.; Soderstrem, K.; Stenlund, E.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Svensson, T.; Tawfik, A.M.; Tothova, M.; Tretyakova, M.I.; Trofimova, T.P.; Tuleeva, U.I.; Vashisht, Vani; Vokal, S.; Vrlakova, J.; Wang, H.Q.; Wang, X.R.; Weng, Z.Q.; Wilkes, R.J.; Yang, C.B.; Yin, Z.B.; Yu, L.Z.; Zhang, D.H.; Zheng, P.Y.; Zhokhova, S.I.; Zhou, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in 16 O and 32 S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter b NA , that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus

  15. Nucleus-Nucleus Collision as Superposition of Nucleon-Nucleus Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlova, G I; Adamovich, M I; Aggarwal, M M; Alexandrov, Y A; Andreeva, N P; Badyal, S K; Basova, E S; Bhalla, K B; Bhasin, A; Bhatia, V S; Bradnova, V; Bubnov, V I; Cai, X; Chasnikov, I Y; Chen, G M; Chernova, L P; Chernyavsky, M M; Dhamija, S; Chenawi, K El; Felea, D; Feng, S Q; Gaitinov, A S; Ganssauge, E R; Garpman, S; Gerassimov, S G; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Grote, J; Gulamov, K G; Gupta, S K; Gupta, V K; Henjes, U; Jakobsson, B; Kanygina, E K; Karabova, M; Kharlamov, S P; Kovalenko, A D; Krasnov, S A; Kumar, V; Larionova, V G; Li, Y X; Liu, L S; Lokanathan, S; Lord, J J; Lukicheva, N S; Lu, Y; Luo, S B; Mangotra, L K; Manhas, I; Mittra, I S; Musaeva, A K; Nasyrov, S Z; Navotny, V S; Nystrand, J; Otterlund, I; Peresadko, N G; Qian, W Y; Qin, Y M; Raniwala, R; Rao, N K; Roeper, M; Rusakova, V V; Saidkhanov, N; Salmanova, N A; Seitimbetov, A M; Sethi, R; Singh, B; Skelding, D; Soderstrem, K; Stenlund, E; Svechnikova, L N; Svensson, T; Tawfik, A M; Tothova, M; Tretyakova, M I; Trofimova, T P; Tuleeva, U I; Vashisht, Vani; Vokal, S; Vrlakova, J; Wang, H Q; Wang, X R; Weng, Z Q; Wilkes, R J; Yang, C B; Yin, Z B; Yu, L Z; Zhang, D H; Zheng, P Y; Zhokhova, S I; Zhou, D C

    1999-03-01

    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in {sup 16}O and {sup 32}S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter b{sub NA}, that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus.

  16. Effect of X- and gamma-rays on phenolic compounds from Maytenus aquifolium Martius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, P.; Yariwake, J.H.; Lancas, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of irradiation using several doses of X- and γ-rays (10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 kGy), upon total phenolic compounds contained in the leaves of Maytenus aquifolium Martius (Celastraceae) 'espinheira santa', was investigated. The content of phenolic compounds (measured by the Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method) was unaffected by X- or γ-ray irradiation, at any dose. (author)

  17. The Effect of Excipients on the Permeability of BCS Class III Compounds and Implications for Biowaivers

    OpenAIRE

    Parr, Alan; Hidalgo, Ismael J.; Bode, Chris; Brown, William; Yazdanian, Mehran; Gonzalez, Mario A.; Sagawa, Kazuko; Miller, Kevin; Jiang, Wenlei; Stippler, Erika S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Currently, the FDA allows biowaivers for Class I (high solubility and high permeability) and Class III (high solubility and low permeability) compounds of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). Scientific evidence should be provided to support biowaivers for BCS Class I and Class III (high solubility and low permeability) compounds. Methods Data on the effects of excipients on drug permeability are needed to demonstrate that commonly used excipients do not affect the permea...

  18. Study of the angular momentum distribution of compound nuclei obtained from fusion reactions close to the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romain, P.

    1990-03-01

    The effect of the mass asymmetry of the input channel on the compound nuclei spin distribution. The 16 O + 144 Nd and 80 Se + 80 Se reactions produce the same 160 Er compound nucleus in the 38 to 68 MeV energy range. In certain cases, the incident energies required to form the compound nucleus, at the same excitation energies, are very close to the Coulomb barrier. In the experimental device, the 'Chateau de Cristal' multidetector and additional sensors are used. The angular momentum distribution of the different evaporation products are measured by gamma spectrometry techniques. The fusion cross sections are measured by the time-of-flight technique. Theoretical predictions and experimental results concerning the distribution of the compound nucleus angular momentum are compared [fr

  19. Therapeutic effects of compound hypertonic saline on rats with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Dong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is one of the major causes of death and is the biggest obstacle preventing improvement of the success rate in curing critical illnesses. Currently, isotonic solutions are used in fluid resuscitation technique. Several studies have shown that hypertonic saline applied in hemorrhagic shock can rapidly increase the plasma osmotic pressure, facilitate the rapid return of interstitial fluid into the blood vessels, and restore the effective circulating blood volume. Here, we established a rat model of sepsis by using the cecal ligation and puncture approach. We found that intravenous injection of hypertonic saline dextran (7.5% NaCl/6% dextran after cecal ligation and puncture can improve circulatory failure at the onset of sepsis. We found that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in the lung tissue of cecal ligation and puncture rats treated with hypertonic saline dextran were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group. We inferred that hypertonic saline dextran has a positive immunoregulatory effect and inhibits the overexpression of the inflammatory response in the treatment of sepsis. The percentage of neutrophils, lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet to dry weight ratio of lung tissues, histopathological changes in lung tissues, and indicators of arterial blood gas analysis was significantly better in the hypertonic saline dextran-treated group than in the other groups in this study. Hypertonic saline dextran-treated rats had significantly improved survival rates at 9 and 18 h compared to the control group. Our results suggest that hypertonic saline dextran plays a protective role in acute lung injury caused after cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutions have beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of an animal model of sepsis.

  20. Distinct Effects of Nalmefene on Dopamine Uptake Rates and Kappa Opioid Receptor Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens Following Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie H. Rose

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of pharmacotherapeutics that reduce relapse to alcohol drinking in patients with alcohol dependence is of considerable research interest. Preclinical data support a role for nucleus accumbens (NAc κ opioid receptors (KOR in chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE exposure-induced increases in ethanol intake. Nalmefene, a high-affinity KOR partial agonist, reduces drinking in at-risk patients and relapse drinking in rodents, potentially due to its effects on NAc KORs. However, the effects of nalmefene on accumbal dopamine transmission and KOR function are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of nalmefene on dopamine transmission and KORs using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in NAc brain slices from male C57BL/6J mice following five weeks of CIE or air exposure. Nalmefene concentration-dependently reduced dopamine release similarly in air and CIE groups, suggesting that dynorphin tone may not be present in brain slices. Further, nalmefene attenuated dopamine uptake rates to a greater extent in brain slices from CIE-exposed mice, suggesting that dopamine transporter-KOR interactions may be fundamentally altered following CIE. Additionally, nalmefene reversed the dopamine-decreasing effects of a maximal concentration of a KOR agonist selectively in brain slices of CIE-exposed mice. It is possible that nalmefene may attenuate withdrawal-induced increases in ethanol consumption by modulation of dopamine transmission through KORs.

  1. Distinct Effects of Nalmefene on Dopamine Uptake Rates and Kappa Opioid Receptor Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens Following Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jamie H.; Karkhanis, Anushree N.; Steiniger-Brach, Björn; Jones, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    The development of pharmacotherapeutics that reduce relapse to alcohol drinking in patients with alcohol dependence is of considerable research interest. Preclinical data support a role for nucleus accumbens (NAc) κ opioid receptors (KOR) in chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure-induced increases in ethanol intake. Nalmefene, a high-affinity KOR partial agonist, reduces drinking in at-risk patients and relapse drinking in rodents, potentially due to its effects on NAc KORs. However, the effects of nalmefene on accumbal dopamine transmission and KOR function are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of nalmefene on dopamine transmission and KORs using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in NAc brain slices from male C57BL/6J mice following five weeks of CIE or air exposure. Nalmefene concentration-dependently reduced dopamine release similarly in air and CIE groups, suggesting that dynorphin tone may not be present in brain slices. Further, nalmefene attenuated dopamine uptake rates to a greater extent in brain slices from CIE-exposed mice, suggesting that dopamine transporter-KOR interactions may be fundamentally altered following CIE. Additionally, nalmefene reversed the dopamine-decreasing effects of a maximal concentration of a KOR agonist selectively in brain slices of CIE-exposed mice. It is possible that nalmefene may attenuate withdrawal-induced increases in ethanol consumption by modulation of dopamine transmission through KORs. PMID:27472317

  2. Effect of morphine-induced antinociception is altered by AF64A-induced lesions on cholinergic neurons in rat nucleus raphe magnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kenji; Ishida, Kota; Kato, Masatoshi; Shigenaga, Toshiro; Taguchi, Kyoji; Miyatake, Tadashi

    2002-11-01

    To examine the role of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) in noxious heat stimulation and in the effects of morphine-induced antinociception by rats. After the cholinergic neuron selective toxin, AF64A, was microinjected into the NRM, we examined changes in the antinociceptive threshold and effects of morphine (5 mg/kg, ip) using the hot-plate (HP) and tail-flick (TF) tests. Systemic administration of morphine inhibited HP and TF responses in control rats. Microinjection of AF64A (2 nmol/site) into the NRM significantly decreased the threshold of HP response after 14 d, whereas the TF response was not affected. Morphine-induced antinociception was significantly attenuated in rats administered AF64A. Extracellular acetylcholine was attenuated after 14 d to below detectable levels in rats given AF64A. Naloxone (1 microg/site) microinjected into control rat NRM also antagonized the antinociceptive effect of systemic morphine. These findings suggest that cholinergic neuron activation in the NRM modulates the antinociceptive effect of morphine simultaneously with the opiate system.

  3. Effects of chronic social defeat on social behaviors in adult female mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus): Involvement of the oxytocin system in the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Hou, Wenjuan; He, Zhixiong; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Jinfeng; Yang, Yang; Jia, Rui; Zhu, Zhenxiang; Zhou, Yue; Tai, Fadao

    2018-03-02

    Chronic social defeat affects many aspects of behavior. Most previous studies have focused on effects on males and defeat during adolescence. The extents to which chronic social defeat can impact female social behavior in adulthood and the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. Using highly social and aggressive female mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus), the present study found that chronic social defeat reduced social preference in adult females, and that the defeated voles exhibited a high level of freeze, self-grooming and defensive behavior, as well as reduced exploration, intimacy and aggression during social interactions. Furthermore, chronic social defeat reduced levels of oxytocin (OT) and OT receptors (OTR) in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (NACC). Intra-NACC shell OT microinjections reversed alterations in social behavior induced by chronic social defeat, whereas injections of an OTR antagonist (OTR-A) blocked the effects of OT. Taken together, our data demonstrate that chronic social defeat suppresses measures of sociability, and that these effects are mediated by the action of OT on the OTR in the NACC. NACC OT may be a promising target to treat socio-emotional disorders induced by chronic social stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiation effects in x-irradiated hydroxy compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzinski, E.E.; Potter, W.R.; Box, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation effects are compared in single crystals of xylitol, sorbitol, and dulcitol x-irradiated at 4.2 0 K. In xylitol and dulcitol, but not in sorbitol, a primary oxidation product is identified as an alkoxy radical. ENDOR measurements detected three proton hyperfine couplings associated with the alkoxy ESR absorption, one of which is attributed to a proton three bond lengths removed from the seat of unpaired spin density. Intermolecular trapping of electrons is observed in all three crystals. ENDOR measurements were made of the hyperfine couplings between the trapped electron and the hydroxy protons forming the trap

  5. Molecular orbitals of nucleons in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, B.; Oertzen, W. von.

    1986-05-01

    A formalism for the dynamical treatment of the molecular orbitals of valence nucleons in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low bombarding energy is developed with the use of the coupled-reaction-channel (CRC) method. The Coriolis coupling effects as well as the finite mass effects of the nucleon are taken into account in this model, of rotating molecular orbitals, RMO. First, the validity of the concept is examined from the view point of the multi-step processes in a standard CRC calculation for systems containing two identical [core] nuclei. The calculations show strong CRC effects particularly in the case where the mixing of different l-parity orbitals - called hybridization in atomic physics - occurs. Then, the RMO representation for active nucleons is applied to the same systems and compared to the CRC results. Its validity is investigated with respect to the radial motion (adiabaticity) and the rotation of the molecular axis (radial and rotational coupling). Characteristic molecular orbitals of covalent molecules appear as rotationally stable states (K = 1/2) with good adiabaticity. Using the RMO's we obtain a new interpretation of various scattering phenomena. Dynamically induced changes in the effective Q-values (or scaling of energies), dynamically induced moments of inertia and an dynamically induced effective (L · S) interaction are obtained as a result of the molecular orbital formation. Various experimental data on transfer and subbarrier fusion reactions are understood in terms of the RMO's and their adiabatic potentials. Landau-Zener transitions, which strongly depend on the total angular momentum of the system, definitely predict the observation of characteristic changes in the cross sections for the inelastic scattering 13 C( 12 C, 12 C) 13 C* (3.086 MeV, 1/2 + ) with the change of the bombarding energy. (author)

  6. Studies on the biological effects of deuteriated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellgren, L.; Liljemark, A.; Vincent, J.

    1976-01-01

    In order to visualise the morphological changes of Epidermophyton floccosum associated with exposure to perdeuteriated n-hendecanoic acid, the architecture of the dermatophyte was investigated by means of interference contrast and scanning electron microscopy. The mortphology of mycelia grown on substrate containing perdeuteriated n-hendecnoic acid, or the unlabelled analogue, was compared. The perdeuteriated n-hendecanoic acid produced a characteristic undulant effect of the hyphae. The characteristic wave-lake appearance of the mycelia looked similar to the curling effect occurring after treatment of dermatophytes with griseofulvin, but was not so pronounced. Perdeuteriated n-hendecanoic acid, unlike the unlabelled analogue, also seems to cause a reduction of the number of chlamydospores perforations of the macroconidia. The changes in the morphological structure of Epidermophyton floccosum exposed to perdeuteriated n-hendecanoic acid have been investigated. Morphological examination of mycelia exposed to this substance by interference contrast microscopy demonstrated a picture of defect hyphae and macroconidia. By the aid of scanning electron microscopy an attempt was made to obtain a better visualization of these changes at ultrastructural level

  7. Effect of zinc compounds on Fusarium verticillioides growth, hyphae alterations, conidia, and fumonisin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Vitorino, Vinícius; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Scussel, Vildes M

    2013-10-01

    Several strategies are used to eliminate toxigenic fungi that produce fumonisins in grains. Fusarium verticillioides can be controlled by the application of synthetic fungicides in the field or during storage. However, there may also be residuals, which may remain in the foods. Inorganic compounds such as zinc are cheap, stable and could present strong antifungal activity. Some Zn compounds can be utilized as dietary supplements and are authorized for the fortification of foods. Knowing the advantages and that low concentrations of Zn can have antimicrobial activity, our objective was to evaluate the effects of Zn compounds on the growth of F. verticillioides and the production of fumonisin and conidia. In addition, we aimed to verify that Zn compounds cause morphological alterations of the hyphae, mortality and production of reactive oxygen species. Zn compounds efficiently reduced fungal growth and fumonisin production. Treatment using zinc perchlorate gave the best results. All treatments inhibited conidia production and caused morphological alterations of the hyphae. It was possible to observe cell death and production of reactive oxygen species. Zn compounds have advantages compared to other antifungal compounds. In particular, they are non-toxic for the organism in appropriate amounts. They could be studied further as potential fungicides in agriculture. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. The effect of the controlled oxygen on the incineration of radio contaminated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahata, Taneaki; Abe, Jiro; Hoshino, Akira.

    1982-02-01

    It is very important to resolve the method of safety storage and the reduction of volume of radio contaminated waste for utilization of atomic energies. Presently, the amounts of radio contaminated organic compounds such as ion exchange resin, vinyl chloride resin and so on are increased year by year. These compounds are very difficult to burning because of the occurrence of soot or flying ash, so that the waste are solidified using with cement or asphalt. But the burning of these compounds are most efficient method for reduction of volume of the wastes. The present work is an attempt to evaluate the effect of controlled oxygen on the incineration of these compounds, using by differential thermoelectrobalance. The given off gas from these compounds are mixture of hydrocarbon and free carbon examined by mass spectrography. As the result of this study, these compounds are decomposed perfectly under 5 - 10% of oxygen gas flow at about 650 0 C and the off gas from the compounds is disappeared contact with heated copper oxide without soot or flying ash. (author)

  9. Phytotoxic effects of phenylmercuric compounds upon certain pear varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, A H.M.; Bennett, M

    1963-01-01

    In trials at East Malling Research Station, extending over the years 1952 to 1959, chlorotic spotting, associated with loss of chlorophyll, and distortion of leaves occurred following post-blossom application to four pear varieties of phenylmercuric salts at 0.003% elemental mercury concentration. In the light of rainfall and temperature conditions recorded on the days following each post-blossom application in each year, crop loss must be expected following post-blossom application of sufficient organomercurial for scab control in any season on Conference and Doyenne du Comice; on Conference, reduction of fruit-bud formation may also occur. Although pear leaves are obviously damaged by phenylmercuric salts, it is likely that the effects on cropping are largely due to direct absorption and/or translocation of some form of mercury into fruit-buds and fruitlets.

  10. The imaginary part of the nucleus - nucleus optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phatak, S.C.; Sinha, B.

    1978-01-01

    The contribution to the imaginary nucleus - nucleus optical potential has been estimated by evaluating the energy - conserving seocond-order term in the perturbation series. The incoming nuclear field is supposed to excite nucleons in a nucleus in this calculation and the nuclear excitations are approximated by particle-hole excitations in a Fermi gas. The resulting imaginary potential compares favourably with phenomenological potentials. (author)

  11. Interleaving subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation to avoid side effects while achieving satisfactory motor benefits in Parkinson disease: A report of 12 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizhen; Zhou, Peizhi; Jiang, Shu; Wang, Wei; Li, Peng

    2016-12-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for advanced Parkinson disease (PD). However, achieving ideal outcomes by conventional programming can be difficult in some patients, resulting in suboptimal control of PD symptoms and stimulation-induced adverse effects. Interleaving stimulation (ILS) is a newer programming technique that can individually optimize the stimulation area, thereby improving control of PD symptoms while alleviating stimulation-induced side effects after conventional programming fails to achieve the desired results. We retrospectively reviewed PD patients who received DBS programming during the previous 4 years in our hospital. We collected clinical and demographic data from 12 patients who received ILS because of incomplete alleviation of PD symptoms or stimulation-induced adverse effects after conventional programming had proven ineffective or intolerable. Appropriate lead location was confirmed with postoperative reconstruction images. The rationale and clinical efficacy of ILS was analyzed. We divided our patients into 4 groups based on the following symptoms: stimulation-induced dysarthria and choreoathetoid dyskinesias, gait disturbance, and incomplete control of parkinsonism. After treatment with ILS, patients showed satisfactory improvement in PD symptoms and alleviation of stimulation-induced side effects, with a mean improvement in Unified PD Rating Scale motor scores of 26.9%. ILS is a newer choice and effective programming strategy to maximize symptom control in PD while decreasing stimulation-induced adverse effects when conventional programming fails to achieve satisfactory outcome. However, we should keep in mind that most DBS patients are routinely treated with conventional stimulation and that not all patients benefit from ILS. ILS is not recommended as the first choice of programming, and it is recommended only when patients have unsatisfactory control of PD symptoms or stimulation

  12. Effect of organic complexing compounds and surfactants on coprecipitation of cesium radionuclides with nickel ferrocyanide precipitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyutin, V.V.; Gelis, V.M.; Ershov, B.G.; Seliverstov, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    One studied the effect of the organic complexing compounds and of the surfactants on the coprecipitation of Cs trace amounts with the nickel ferrocyanide precipitate. The presence of the oxalate- and ethylenediamin-tetraacetate-ions in the solutions is shown to result in the abrupt reduction of Cs coprecipitation degree. The effect of the various surfactants manifested itself not so explicitly. To reduce the negative effect of the organic compounds on the intimacy of Cs coprecipitation one tried out the procedure of their chemical destruction by ozon. Pre-ozonization of the solutions enabled to prevent the negative effect of the organic complexing compounds and of the surfactants on Cs coprecipitation with nickel ferrocyanide precipitate [ru

  13. Radioprotective effect of a metalloporphyrin compound in rat eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X W; Crapo, J D; Mekonnen, T; Lindsey, N; Martinez, P; Gridley, D S; Slater, J M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the antioxidant Mn (III) tetrakis (N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl) porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP) in protecting ocular tissue and retinal microvasculature from radiation damage. 75 rats were treated with Mn TE-2-PyP at 2.5 micro g/injection into one eye an hour before proton irradiation. The radiation was delivered in a single fraction to total doses of 8 Gray (Gy) or 28 Gy; Rats were sacrificed 3 days and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months thereafter for histology and quantification of photoreceptor cell populations and retinal capillary changes. By 6 months following radiation, there was significant loss of retinal outer and inner nuclear layers in eyes receiving radiation only (8 and 28 Gy) (p eyes of rats treated with radiation plus metalloporphyrin. Retinal microvessel length density decreased significantly 6 months following 28 Gy (p eyes showed extensive damage to the photoreceptor layer, whereas the eyes of animals receiving radiation plus MnTE-2-PyP showed almost no morphological damage. MnTE-2-PyP treatment also suppressed radiation-induced apoptosis in our study. These results demonstrated that MnTE-2-PyP protected both photoreceptors and retinal capillaries from radiation damage, suggesting that this metalloporphyrin antioxidant is effective in regulating the damage induced by proton radiation.

  14. Higgs-boson production in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider

  15. Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  16. On the possible detection of quantum-mechanical interferences between gravitational forces and nucleus-nucleus Coulomb forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, R. da

    1996-07-01

    Possible effects of quantum-mechanical interferences between gravitational forces and the nucleus-nucleus Coulomb interaction are discussed. It is shown that, although very small, these effects could be measured using low energy scattering between identical heavy nuclei, e.g. for the system 208 Pb + 208 Pb (E L = 5 MeV). (author)

  17. Synthesis of Chlorinated Tetracyclic Compounds and Testing for Their Potential Antidepressant Effect in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Karama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the tetracyclic compounds 1-(4,5-dichloro-9,10-dihydro-9,10-ethanoanthracen-11-yl-N-methylmethanamine (5 and 1-(1,8-dichloro-9,10-dihydro-9,10-ethanoanthracen-11-yl-N-methylmethanamine (6 as a homologue of the anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs benzoctamine and maprotiline were described. The key intermediate aldehydes (3 and (4 were successfully synthesized via a [4 + 2] cycloaddition between acrolein and 1,8-dichloroanthracene. The synthesized compounds were investigated for antidepressant activity using the forced swimming test. Compounds (5, (6 and (3 showed significant reduction in the mice immobility indicating significant antidepressant effects. These compounds significantly reduced the immobility times at a dose 80 mg/kg by 84.0%, 86.7% and 71.1% respectively.

  18. Antimicrobial compounds targeting Gram-negative bacteria in food: Their mode of action and combinational effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    compromising food shelf-life or safety. Natural antimicrobial compounds have therefore gained increased interest as a label-friendly alternative that can be added directly to food products. Although natural antimicrobials constitute an interesting source of compounds, it is often not understood how...... they interact with bacterial cells to exert their mechanism of inhibition or killing. Furthermore, natural antimicrobials are often not potent enough as single compounds, and may cause unwanted sensory side-effects, which limit the quantities that can be applied to food. These problems might be circumvented...... by combining antimicrobials to decrease the concentrations needed without compromising their antimicrobial activity. The work described in this dissertation presents two projects concerning the mechanism of action of selected natural antimicrobial compounds primarily against Gram-negative bacteria, and two...

  19. Effect of processing and storage time on the contents of organosulfur compounds in pickled blanched garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Victor Manuel; Sánchez, Antonio Higinio; de Castro, Antonio; Montaño, Alfredo

    2012-04-04

    The influence of processing, with and without fermentation, on the contents of organosulfur compounds, namely, γ-glutamyl peptides, S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides (ACSOs), and S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC), in pickled blanched garlic was evaluated. For each processing type, the effect of the preservation method and storage time was also analyzed. Blanching in hot water (90 °C for 5 min) hardly affected the individual organosulfur compound content. The fermentation and packing steps negatively affected the levels of all compounds except for SAC. The content of this compound increased during storage at room temperature whereas γ-glutamyl peptides and ACSOs were degraded to various extents. The pasteurization treatment itself had no significant effect on the concentrations of organosulfur compounds. Use of the corresponding fermentation brine in the case of the fermented product in conjunction with refrigerated storage was found to be the best method to preserve the levels of organosulfur compounds in pickled garlic stored for up to one year.

  20. Drug Repurposing Screening Identifies Novel Compounds That Effectively Inhibit Toxoplasma gondii Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Ashley J.; Drozda, Allison A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The urgent need to develop new antimicrobial therapies has spawned the development of repurposing screens in which well-studied drugs and other types of compounds are tested for potential off-label uses. As a proof-of-principle screen to identify compounds effective against Toxoplasma gondii, we screened a collection of 1,120 compounds for the ability to significantly reduce Toxoplasma replication. A total of 94 compounds blocked parasite replication with 50% inhibitory concentrations of parasite invasion and replication but did so independently of inhibition of dopamine or other neurotransmitter receptor signaling. Tamoxifen, which is an established inhibitor of the estrogen receptor, also reduced parasite invasion and replication. Even though Toxoplasma can activate the estrogen receptor, tamoxifen inhibits parasite growth independently of this transcription factor. Tamoxifen is also a potent inducer of autophagy, and we find that the drug stimulates recruitment of the autophagy marker light chain 3-green fluorescent protein onto the membrane of the vacuolar compartment in which the parasite resides and replicates. In contrast to other antiparasitic drugs, including pimozide, tamoxifen treatment of infected cells leads to a time-dependent elimination of intracellular parasites. Taken together, these data suggest that tamoxifen restricts Toxoplasma growth by inducing xenophagy or autophagic destruction of this obligate intracellular parasite. IMPORTANCE There is an urgent need to develop new therapies to treat microbial infections, and the repurposing of well-characterized compounds is emerging as one approach to achieving this goal. Using the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, we screened a library of 1,120 compounds and identified several compounds with significant antiparasitic activities. Among these were pimozide and tamoxifen, which are well-characterized drugs prescribed to treat patients with psychiatric disorders and breast cancer

  1. Effects of melatonin on 2-deoxy-[1-14C]glucose uptake within rat suprachiasmatic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassone, V.M.; Roberts, M.H.; Moore, R.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that metabolic activity, shown by autoradiographic determination of 2-deoxy-[1- 14 C]glucose (2-DG) uptake, within the rat hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) was inhibited by subcutaneous injection of 1 mg/kg melatonin. To determine whether this effect was specific to a particular time of day, the effects of melatonin on 2-DG uptake were studied in several hypothalamic areas, including the SCN, supraoptic nuclei (SON), lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), and anterior hypothalamic area (AHA) every 4 h throughout the circadian day. In a second experiment, the effects of different melatonin doses were studied at the time of day at which melatonin had its maximal effect to determine the dose-response relationship of melatonin-induced inhibition of SCN 2-DG uptake. The data indicate that melatonin inhibited 2-DG uptake in the SCN alone at one time of day, primarily at circadian time (CT) 6 and CT10, 2-6 h before subjective dusk, and secondarily at CT22, just before subjective dawn. This effect was dose dependent with a 50% effective dose of 1.49 +/- 2.30 micrograms/kg. The temporal and dose-response characteristics of these effects are similar to those characterizing the entraining effects of melatonin on circadian patterns of locomotion and drinking

  2. The Evaluation and Utilization of Marine-derived Bioactive Compounds with Anti-obesity Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qiu; Yu, Huahua; Li, Pengcheng

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic throughout the world. There is thus increasing interest in searching for natural bioactive compounds with anti-obesity effect. A number of marine compounds have been regarded as potential sources of bioactive compounds and are associated with an anti-obesity effect. Marine-derived compounds with anti-obesity effect and their current applications, methods and indicators for the evaluation of anti-obesity activity are summarized in this review. in order to make contributions to the development of marine-derived functional food against obesity. In this review, an overview of marine-derived compounds with anti-obesity effect, including marine polysaccharides, marine lipid, marine peptides, marine carotenoids is intensively made with an emphasis on their efficacy and mechanism of action. Meanwhile, methods and indicators for the evaluation of anti-obesity activity are discussed. We summarize these methods into three categories: in vitro assay (including adsorption experiments and enzyme inhibitory assay), cell line study, animal experiments and clinical experiments. In addition, a brief introduction of the current applications of marine bioactive compounds with anti-obesity activity is discussed. Marine environment is a rich source of both biological and chemical diversity. In the past decades, numerous novel compounds with anti-obesity activity have been obtained from marine organisms, and many of them have been applied to industrial production such as functional foods and pharmaceuticals. Further studies are needed to explore the above-mentioned facts. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Dynamics of hadron-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    Recent progress in diffraction theory shows that proton-nucleus scattering at nonforward angles is dominated by the interference of waves from two or more bright spots. Analytic formulas based on asymptotic theories of diffraction yield valuable new insights into the scattering and these formulas can be readily extended to illuminate the role of dynamical ingredients, i.e., the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes. The governing parameters of the diffraction and some direct connections between the observed cross sections and the input dynamics are reviewed. New information regarding the nucleon-nucleon parameters based on recent phase shift analyses show some systematic differences from the effective NN amplitudes which produce fits to proton-nucleus diffraction data. Recent progress in understanding the role of Δ-isobars in proton-nucleus dynamics is reviewed. 126 references

  4. Complex fragment emission from hot compound nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    The experimental evidence for compound nucleus emission of complex fragments at low energies is used to interpret the emission of the same fragments at higher energies. The resulting experimental picture is that of highly excited compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion processes which decay statistically. In particular, complex fragments appear to be produced mostly through compound nucleus decay. In the appendix a geometric-kinematic theory for incomplete fusion and the associated momentum transfer is outlined. 10 refs., 19 figs

  5. Effects of Compound K-Distributed Sea Clutter on Angle Measurement of Wideband Monopulse Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of compound K-distributed sea clutter on angle measurement of wideband monopulse radar are investigated in this paper. We apply the conditional probability density function (pdf of monopulse ratio (MR error to analyze these effects. Based on the angle measurement procedure of the wideband monopulse radar, this conditional pdf is first deduced in detail for the case of compound K-distributed sea clutter plus noise. Herein, the spatial correlation of the texture components for each channel clutter and the correlation of the texture components between the sum and difference channel clutters are considered, and two extreme situations for each of them are tackled. Referring to the measured sea clutter data, angle measurement performances in various K-distributed sea clutter plus noise circumstances are simulated, and the effects of compound K-distributed sea clutter on angle measurement are discussed.

  6. Opposing effects of 5,7-DHT lesions to the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens on the processing of irrelevant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew J D; Thur, Karen E; Marsden, Charles A; Cassaday, Helen J

    2012-05-01

    There is good evidence that forebrain serotonergic systems modulate cognitive flexibility. Latent inhibition (LI) is a cross-species phenomenon which manifests as poor conditioning to a stimulus that has previously been experienced without consequence and is widely considered an index of the ability to ignore irrelevant stimuli. While much research has focused on dopaminergic mechanisms underlying LI, there is also considerable evidence of serotonergic modulation. However, the neuroanatomical locus of these effects remains poorly understood. Previous work has identified the nucleus accumbens (NAc) as a key component of the neural circuit underpinning LI and furthermore, this work has shown that the core and shell subregions of the NAc contribute differentially to the expression of LI. To examine the role of the serotonergic input to NAc in LI, we tested animals with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) lesions to the core and shell subregions on LI assessed under experimental conditions that produce LI in shams and subsequently with weak stimulus pre-exposure designed to prevent the emergence of LI in shams. We found that serotonergic deafferentation of the core disrupted LI whereas 5,7-DHT lesions to the shell produced the opposite effect and potentiated LI.

  7. Effects of muscimol, amphetamine, and DAMGO injected into the nucleus accumbens shell on food-reinforced lever pressing by undeprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Thomas R; Wirtshafter, David

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that large increases in food intake in nondeprived animals can be induced by injections of both the GABA(A) agonist muscimol and the μ-opioid agonist DAMGO into the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), while injections of the catecholamine agonist amphetamine have little effect. In the current study we examined whether injections of these drugs are able to increase food-reinforced lever pressing in nondeprived rats. Twelve subjects were trained to lever press on a continuous reinforcement schedule while food deprived and were then tested after being placed back on ad libitum feeding. Under these conditions, responding was markedly increased by injections of either muscimol or DAMGO, although the onset of the effects of the latter drug was delayed by 30-40 min. In contrast, amphetamine injections failed to increase reinforced lever pressing, although they did enhance responding on a non-reinforced lever, presumably reflecting alterations in behavioral activation. These results demonstrate that stimulation of GABA(A) and μ-opioid receptors within the AcbSh is able to promote not only food intake, but also food-directed operant behavior. In contrast, stimulation of AcbSh dopamine receptors may enhance behavioral arousal, but does not appear to specifically potentiate behaviors directed toward food procurement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on executive functions: impaired verbal fluency and intact updating, planning and conflict resolution in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Gyula; Valálik, István; Pajkossy, Péter; Szőllősi, Ágnes; Lukács, Ágnes; Kemény, Ferenc; Racsmány, Mihály

    2017-04-24

    Although the improvement of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) after deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is well documented, there are open questions regarding its impact on cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bilateral DBS of the STN on executive functions in PD patients using a DBS wait-listed PD control group. Ten PD patients with DBS implantation (DBS group) and ten PD wait-listed patients (Clinical control group) participated in the study. Neuropsychological tasks were used to assess general mental ability and various executive functions. Each task was administered twice to each participant: before and after surgery (with the stimulators on) in the DBS group and with a matched delay between the two task administration points in the control group. There was no significant difference between the DBS and the control groups' performance in tasks measuring the updating of verbal, spatial or visual information (Digit span, Corsi and N-back tasks), planning and shifting (Trail Making B), and conflict resolution (Stroop task). However, the DBS group showed a significant decline on the semantic verbal fluency task after surgery compared to the control group, which is in line with findings of previous studies. Our results provide support for the relative cognitive safety of the STN DBS using a wait-listed PD control group. Differential effects of the STN DBS on frontostriatal networks are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Deleterious effect of salusin-β in paraventricular nucleus on sympathetic activity and blood pressure via NF-κB signaling in a rat model of obesity hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Wang, Yanchun; Ren, Kuang

    2015-08-01

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) has been shown to play a critical role in regulating blood pressure and sympathetic activity in obesity hypertension (OH). Salusin-β is a bioactive peptide with potential roles in mediating cardiovascular activity. The study was designed to test the hypothesis that salusin-β in the PVN can modulate sympathetic activity and blood pressure in OH. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to induce OH by a 12-week feeding of a high-fat diet (42% kcal as fat). Microinjection of salusin-β into the PVN increased the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in a dose-dependent manner, whereas salusin-β antibody elicited significant decreases in RSNA, MAP and HR, and abolished the effects of salusin-β only in the OH rats. As expected, the OH rats had a higher norepinephrine level, which was further increased by salusin-β. Furthermore, salusin-β in the PVN accelerated the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-KB) and the degradation of IKB-α (an endogenous inhibitor of NF-KB). Pretreatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (an exogenous inhibitor of NF-KB) decreased RSNA, MAP and HR, and abolished the effects of salusin-β in the PVN in the OH rats. We concluded that salusin-β in the PVN markedly increased sympathetic outflow and blood pressure in diet-induced OH rats via NF-κB signaling.

  10. Acute reversible inactivation of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis induces antidepressant-like effect in the rat forced swimming test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) is a limbic forebrain structure involved in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation and stress adaptation. Inappropriate adaptation to stress is thought to compromise the organism's coping mechanisms, which have been implicated in the neurobiology of depression. However, the studies aimed at investigating BNST involvement in depression pathophysiology have yielded contradictory results. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of temporary acute inactivation of synaptic transmission in the BNST by local microinjection of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) in rats subjected to the forced swimming test (FST). Methods Rats implanted with cannulae aimed at the BNST were submitted to 15 min of forced swimming (pretest). Twenty-four hours later immobility time was registered in a new 5 min forced swimming session (test). Independent groups of rats received bilateral microinjections of CoCl2 (1 mM/100 nL) before or immediately after pretest or before the test session. Additional groups received the same treatment and were submitted to the open field test to control for unspecific effects on locomotor behavior. Results CoCl2 injection into the BNST before either the pretest or test sessions reduced immobility in the FST, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect. No significant effect of CoCl2 was observed when it was injected into the BNST immediately after pretest. In addition, no effect of BNST inactivation was observed in the open field test. Conclusion These results suggest that acute reversible inactivation of synaptic transmission in the BNST facilitates adaptation to stress and induces antidepressant-like effects. PMID:20515458

  11. Acute reversible inactivation of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis induces antidepressant-like effect in the rat forced swimming test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joca Sâmia RL

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST is a limbic forebrain structure involved in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation and stress adaptation. Inappropriate adaptation to stress is thought to compromise the organism's coping mechanisms, which have been implicated in the neurobiology of depression. However, the studies aimed at investigating BNST involvement in depression pathophysiology have yielded contradictory results. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of temporary acute inactivation of synaptic transmission in the BNST by local microinjection of cobalt chloride (CoCl2 in rats subjected to the forced swimming test (FST. Methods Rats implanted with cannulae aimed at the BNST were submitted to 15 min of forced swimming (pretest. Twenty-four hours later immobility time was registered in a new 5 min forced swimming session (test. Independent groups of rats received bilateral microinjections of CoCl2 (1 mM/100 nL before or immediately after pretest or before the test session. Additional groups received the same treatment and were submitted to the open field test to control for unspecific effects on locomotor behavior. Results CoCl2 injection into the BNST before either the pretest or test sessions reduced immobility in the FST, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect. No significant effect of CoCl2 was observed when it was injected into the BNST immediately after pretest. In addition, no effect of BNST inactivation was observed in the open field test. Conclusion These results suggest that acute reversible inactivation of synaptic transmission in the BNST facilitates adaptation to stress and induces antidepressant-like effects.

  12. Protective effects of novel organic selenium compounds against oxidative stress in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Terra Stefanello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic selenium compounds possess numerous biological properties, including antioxidant activity. Yet, the high toxicity of some of them, such as diphenyl diselenide (DPDS, is a limiting factor in their current usage. Accordingly, we tested four novel organic selenium compounds in the non-parasite nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and compared their efficacy to DPDS. The novel organic selenium compounds are β-selenoamines 1-phenyl-3-(p-tolylselanylpropan-2-amine (C1 and 1-(2-methoxyphenylselanyl-3-phenylpropan-2-amine (C2 and analogs of DPDS 1,2-bis(2-methoxyphenyldiselenide (C3 and 1,2-bisp-tolyldiselenide (C4. Synchronized worms at the L4 larval stage were exposed for one hour in M9 buffer to these compounds. Oxidative stress conditions were induced by juglone (200 μM and heat shock (35 °C. Moreover, we evaluated C. elegans behavior, GST-4::GFP (glutathione S-transferase expression and the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE. All tested compounds efficiently restored viability in juglone stressed worms. However, DPDS, C2, C3 and C4 significantly decreased the defecation cycle time. Juglone-induced GST-4::GFP expression was not attenuated in worms pretreated with the novel compounds, except with C2. Finally, AChE activity was reduced by DPDS, C2, C3 and C4. To our knowledge, this is study firstly showed the effects of C1, C2, C3 and C4 selenium-derived compounds in C. elegans. Low toxic effects were noted, except for reduction in the defecation cycle, which is likely associated with AChE inhibition. The juglone-induced stress (reduced viability was fully reversed by compounds to control animal levels. C2 was also efficient in reducing the juglone-induced GST-4::GFP expression, suggesting the latter may mediate the stress induced by this compound. Future studies could be profitably directed at addressing additional molecular mechanisms that mediate the protective effects of these novel organic selenium compounds.

  13. A screening of multiple classes of pharmaceutical compounds for effect on preadult salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaen, S M; Horsberg, T E

    2016-10-01

    The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer, is the major obstacle facing a sustainable future for farmers of salmonids in the North Atlantic Ocean. Medicinal compounds have been the most utilized tool to prevent salmon lice infestation; however, the active compounds have become less effective or considered environmentally unfriendly in the past years. Novel medicinal compounds are thus highly desired. In two experiment series, 26 medicinal compounds were screened for their efficacy against salmon lice, in a 30-min exposure and 24-h exposure, respectively. Pyriprole, imidacloprid, cartap and spinetoram were effective at 50 mg L(-1) in the short-time exposure. In the 24-h exposure, pyriprole, propoxur, cartap, imidacloprid, fenoxycarb, pyriproxyfen, nitenpyram, spinetoram, spiromesifen and diflubenzuron induced a high level of immobilization at 5 mg L(-1) . The EC50 values of the effective compounds were calculated in further titration studies for both exposure periods. Several physiological and biochemical pathways were discovered as possible targets for medicinal intervention against the salmon louse. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effective anti-leishmanial activity of minimalist squaramide-based compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Clotilde; Ximenis, Marta; Ramirez-Macías, Inmaculada; Rotger, Carmen; Urbanova, Kristina; Olmo, Francisco; Martín-Escolano, Rubén; Rosales, María José; Cañas, Rocio; Gutierrez-Sánchez, Ramón; Costa, Antonio; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    In order to evaluate the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of N,N'-Squaramides derivatives, compounds that feature both hydrogen bond donor and acceptor groups and are capable of multiple interactions with complementary sites, against Leishmania infantum, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania donovani a series of 18compounds was prepared and assayed on extracellular and intracellular parasite forms. Infectivity and cytotoxicity tests were performed on J774.2 macrophage cells using meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) as the reference drug. Changes in metabolite excretion by 1 H-NMR and the ultrastructural alterations occurring in the parasites treated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), was analyzed. Compounds 1, 7, 11, 14 and 17 were the more active and less toxic. Infection rates showed that the order of effectiveness was 17 > 11 > 14 > 7 for both L. infantum and L. braziliensis and in the same way, the compound 1 for L. donovani. All these compounds have altered the typical structure of the promastigotes, glycosomes and mitochondria. These severe modifications by the compounds are the ultimate reasons for the alterations observed in the excretion products. The Squaramide 17 (3-(butylamino)-4-((3-(dimetilamino)propyl)(methyl)amino)cyclobut-3-en-1,2-dione) was clearly the most efficient of all compounds. The data appear to confirm that the severe modifications generated in organelles such as glycosomes or mitochondria by the compounds are the ultimate reasons for the alterations observed in the excretion products of all species. The activity, stability, low cost of starting materials, and straightforward synthesis make amino squaramides appropriate molecules for the development of an affordable anti-leishmanial agent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Scaling phenomenon in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.Y.; Blankenbecler, R.

    1980-01-01

    New scaling variables for proton and pion production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions are introduced which are the generalizations of the Feynmann scaling variable. They allow a simple description of the cross sections at forward and backward angles. 2 figures

  16. Momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, F.; Townsend, L.W.

    1993-12-01

    An optical model description, based on multiple scattering theory, of longitudinal momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. The crucial role of the imaginary component of the nucleon-nucleon transition matrix in accounting for longitudinal momentum transfer is demonstrated. Results obtained with this model are compared with Intranuclear Cascade (INC) calculations, as well as with predictions from Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (VUU) and quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations. Comparisons are also made with experimental data where available. These indicate that the present model is adequate to account for longitudinal momentum transfer in both proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions over a wide range of energies

  17. Pre-compound emission in low-energy heavy-ion interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sharma Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental studies have shown the presence of pre-compound emission component in heavy ion reactions at low projectile energy ranging from 4 to 7 MeV/nucleons. In earlier measurements strength of the pre-compound component has been estimated from the difference in forward-backward distributions of emitted particles. Present measurement is a part of an ongoing program on the study of reaction dynamics of heavy ion interactions at low energies aimed at investigating the effect of momentum transfer in compound, precompound, complete and incomplete fusion processes in heavy ion reactions. In the present work on the basis of momentum transfer the measurement of the recoil range distributions of heavy residues has been used to decipher the components of compound and pre-compound emission processes in the fusion of 16O projectile with 159Tb and 169Tm targets. The analysis of recoil range distribution measurements show two distinct linear momentum transfer components corresponding to pre-compound and compound nucleus processes are involved. In order to obtain the mean input angular momentum associated with compound and pre-compound emission processes, an online measurement of the spin distributions of the residues has been performed. The analysis of spin distribution indicate that the mean input angular momentum associated with pre-compound products is found to be relatively lower than that associated with compound nucleus process. The pre-compound components obtained from the present analysis are consistent with those obtained from the analysis of excitation functions.

  18. Pre-compound emission in low-energy heavy-ion interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Shuaib, Mohd.; Sharma, Vijay R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Singh, Devendra P.; Unnati; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2017-11-01

    Recent experimental studies have shown the presence of pre-compound emission component in heavy ion reactions at low projectile energy ranging from 4 to 7 MeV/nucleons. In earlier measurements strength of the pre-compound component has been estimated from the difference in forward-backward distributions of emitted particles. Present measurement is a part of an ongoing program on the study of reaction dynamics of heavy ion interactions at low energies aimed at investigating the effect of momentum transfer in compound, precompound, complete and incomplete fusion processes in heavy ion reactions. In the present work on the basis of momentum transfer the measurement of the recoil range distributions of heavy residues has been used to decipher the components of compound and pre-compound emission processes in the fusion of 16O projectile with 159Tb and 169Tm targets. The analysis of recoil range distribution measurements show two distinct linear momentum transfer components corresponding to pre-compound and compound nucleus processes are involved. In order to obtain the mean input angular momentum associated with compound and pre-compound emission processes, an online measurement of the spin distributions of the residues has been performed. The analysis of spin distribution indicate that the mean input angular momentum associated with pre-compound products is found to be relatively lower than that associated with compound nucleus process. The pre-compound components obtained from the present analysis are consistent with those obtained from the analysis of excitation functions.

  19. Autophagy attenuates the catabolic effect during inflammatory conditions in nucleus pulposus cells, as sustained by NF-κB and JNK inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, KANG; CHEN, WEIJIAN; WANG, XIAOFEI; PENG, YAN; LIANG, ANJING; HUANG, DONGSHENG; LI, CHUNHAI; YE, WEI

    2015-01-01

    Proteoglycan degradation contributing to the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is induced by inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Cell autophagy exists in degenerative diseases, including osteoarthritis and inter-vertebral disc degeneration. However, the autophagy induced by TNF-α and IL-1β and the corresponding molecular mechanism appear to be cell-type dependent. The effect and mechanism of autophagy regulated by TNF-α and IL-1β in IVDs remains unclear. Additionally, the impact of autophagy on the catabolic effect in inflammatory conditions also remains elusive. In the present study, autophagy activator and inhibitor were used to demonstrate the impact of autophagy on the catabolic effect induced by TNF-α. A critical role of autophagy was identified in rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells: Inhibition of autophagy suppresses, while activation of autophagy enhances, the catabolic effect of cytokines. Subsequently, the autophagy-related gene expression in rat NP cells following TNF-α and IL-1β treatment was observed using immunofluorescence, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis; however, no association was present. In addition, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors and TNF-α were used to determine the molecular mechanism of autophagy during the inflammatory conditions, and only the NF-κB and JNK inhibitor were found to enhance the autophagy of rat NP cells. Finally, IKKβ knockdown was used to further confirm the effect of the NF-κB signal on human NP cells autophagy, and the data showed that IKKβ knockdown upregulated the autophagy of NP cells during inflammatory conditions. PMID:26165348

  20. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2, but Not Mesenchymal Stromal Cells, Exert Regenerative Effects on Canine and Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, Frances C.; Miranda-Bedate, Alberto; Van Heel, Ferdi W M; Riemers, Frank M.; Müller, Margot C M E; Creemers, Laura B.; Ito, Keita; Benz, Karin; Meij, Björn P.; Tryfonidou, Marianna A.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic back pain is related to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and dogs are employed as animal models to develop growth factor- and cell-based regenerative treatments. In this respect, the differential effects of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2

  1. Bone morphogenetic protein-2, but not mesenchymal stromal cells, exert regenerative effects on canine and human nucleus pulposus cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, Frances; Miranda-Bedate, Alberto; van Heel, Ferdi; Riemers, Frank; Muller, Margot; Creemers, Laura; Ito, Keita; Benz, Karin; Meij, Björn; Tryfonidou, M

    2017-01-01

    Chronic back pain is related to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and dogs are employed as animal models to develop growth factor- and cell-based regenerative treatments. In this respect, the differential effects of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2

  2. Bone morphogenetic protein-2, but not mesenchymal stromal cells, exert regenerative effects on Canine and human nucleus pulposus cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, F.C.; Miranda-Bedate, A.; Van Heel, F.W.M.; Riemers, F.M.; Müller, M.C.M.E.; Creemers, L.B.; Ito, K.; Benz, K.; Meij, B.P.; Tryfonidou, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic back pain is related to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and dogs are employed as animal models to develop growth factor- and cell-based regenerative treatments. In this respect, the differential effects of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2

  3. From the nucleus discovery to DWBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, B.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents a brief review of the main events in the field of nuclear reactions that are acknowledged as milestones because of their importance due to either experimental setting or physical interpretation. It is shown that the pace of discoveries has been strongly dependent on the technical progress in detection means at the beginning of nuclear physics and now is linked to the development of simulation means. The discovery of the neutron, the development of the Geiger counter, the theory of the compound nucleus or the first direct reactions are among these milestones

  4. Grammatical-gender effects in noun-noun compound production: Evidence from German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Antje; Mädebach, Andreas; Jescheniak, Jörg D

    2018-05-01

    We examined how noun-noun compounds and their syntactic properties are lexically stored and processed in speech production. Using gender-marked determiner primes ( der masc , die fem , das neut [the]) in a picture naming task, we tested for specific effects from determiners congruent with either the modifier or the head of the compound target (e.g., Tee masc kanne fem [teapot]) to examine whether the constituents are processed independently at the syntactic level. Experiment 1 assessed effects of auditory gender-marked determiner primes in bare noun picture naming, and Experiment 2 assessed effects of visual gender-marked determiner primes in determiner-noun picture naming. Three prime conditions were implemented: (a) head-congruent determiner (e.g., die fem ), (b) modifier-congruent determiner (e.g., der masc ), and (c) incongruent determiner (e.g., das neuter ). We observed a facilitation effect of head congruency but no effect of modifier congruency. In Experiment 3, participants produced novel noun-noun compounds in response to two pictures, demanding independent processing of head and modifier at the syntactic level. Now, head and modifier congruency effects were obtained, demonstrating the general sensitivity of our task. Our data support the notion of a single-lemma representation of lexically stored compound nouns in the German production lexicon.

  5. Effects of iron on intermetallic compound formation in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@mail.kmutt.ac.th [Production Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Iron reduces the modification effects of scandium in Al–Si–Mg alloys. • Morphologies of Sc-rich intermetallic phases vary with Fe and Sc contents and the cooling rates. • Sc neutralizes effects of Fe by changing Fe-rich intermetallic phases from platelets to more cubic. - Abstract: In general, iron has a strong tendency to dissolve in molten aluminum. Iron has very low solid solubility in aluminum–silicon casting alloys, so it will form intermetallic compounds that cause detrimental effects on mechanical properties. In this work, the effects of iron on intermetallic compound formations in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg alloys were studied. There were two levels of iron addition (0.2 and 0.4 wt.%) and two levels of scandium addition (0.2 and 0.4 wt.%). We found that the effects of scandium modification decreased with increasing iron addition. The morphologies of the complex intermetallic compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. It was found that scandium changes the morphology of Fe-rich intermetallic compounds from β-phase (plate-like) to α-phase, which reduces the harmful effects of β-phase.

  6. Effects of chiral three-nucleon forces on 4He-nucleus scattering in a wide range of incident energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Masakazu; Yahiro, Masanobu; Matsumoto, Takuma; Kohno, Michio

    2018-02-01

    An important current subject is to clarify the properties of chiral three-nucleon forces (3NFs) not only in nuclear matter but also in scattering between finite-size nuclei. Particularly for elastic scattering, this study has just started and the properties are not understood for a wide range of incident energies (E_in). We investigate basic properties of chiral 3NFs in nuclear matter with positive energies by using the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method with chiral two-nucleon forces at N3LO and 3NFs at NNLO, and analyze the effects of chiral 3NFs on 4He elastic scattering from targets ^{208}Pb, ^{58}Ni, and ^{40}Ca over a wide range of 30 ≲ E_in/A_P ≲ 200 MeV by using the g-matrix folding model, where A_P is the mass number of the projectile. In symmetric nuclear matter with positive energies, chiral 3NFs make the single-particle potential less attractive and more absorptive. The effects mainly come from the Fujita-Miyazawa 2π-exchange 3NF and become slightly larger as E_in increases. These effects persist in the optical potentials of 4He scattering. As for the differential cross sections of 4He scattering, chiral-3NF effects are large for E_in/A_P ≳ 60 MeV and improve the agreement of the theoretical results with the measured ones. Particularly for E_in/A_P ≳ 100 MeV, the folding model reproduces measured differential cross sections pretty well. Cutoff (Λ) dependence is investigated for both nuclear matter and 4He scattering by considering two cases of Λ=450 and 550 MeV. The uncertainty coming from the dependence is smaller than chiral-3NF effects even at E_in/A_P=175 MeV.

  7. Model for nucleus-nucleus, hadron-nucleus and hadron-proton multiplicity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, C.P.; Shyam, M.; Tuli, S.K.

    1986-07-01

    A model relating hadron-proton, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus multiplicity distributions is proposed and some interesting consequences are derived. The values of the parameters are the same for all the processes and are given by the QCD hypothesis of ''universal'' hadronic multiplicities which are found to be asymptotically independent of target and beam in hadronic and current induced reactions in particle physics. (author)

  8. Nucleus Z=126 with magic neutron number N=184 may be related to the measured Maruhn-Greiner maximum at A/2=155 from compound nuclei at low energy nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelas, M. A.; Hora, H.; Miley, G. H.

    2014-07-01

    Evaluation of nuclear binding energies from theory close to available measurements of a very high number of superheavy elements (SHE) based on α-decay energies Qα, arrived at a closing shell with a significant neutron number 184. Within the option of several discussed magic numbers for protons of around 120, Bagge's numbers 126 and 184 fit well and are supported by the element generation measurements by low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) discovered in deuterium loaded host metals. These measurements were showing a Maruhn-Greiner maximum from fission of compound nuclei in an excited state with double magic numbers for mutual confirmation.

  9. Pressure effect on magnetic and magnetotransport properties of intermetallic and colossal magnetoresistance oxide compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Z; Ibarra, M R; Algarabel, P A; Marquina, C; Teresa, Jose MarIa de; Morellon, L; Blasco, J; Magen, C; Prokhnenko, O; Kamarad, J; Ritter, C

    2005-01-01

    The joint power of neutron diffraction and pressure techniques allows us to characterize under unique conditions the nature and different role of basic interactions in solids. We have covered a broad phenomenology in archetypical compounds: intermetallics and magnetic oxides. We have selected compounds in which the effect of moderate pressure is able to modify the electronic structure and bond angles that in turn are in the bases of magnetic and structural transitions. Complex magnetic and structural phase diagrams are reported for compounds with magnetic (Tb 1-X Y X Mn 2 ) and structural (RE 5 Si 4-X Ge X ) instabilities. Pressure-induced change of the magnetic structure in (R 2 Fe 17 ) intermetallics and the effect on the colossal magnetoresistance manganites are described

  10. Simple calculation of hybridization effects in UTX and U2T2X compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokes, K.; Brueck, E.; Nakotte, H.; De Chatel, P.F.; De Boer, F.R.

    1995-01-01

    The band widths of several UTX and U 2 T 2 X compounds (T: transition metal, X: p-metal) are evaluated by means of a tight-binding method. The magnetism in both groups of compounds is governed by the hybridization between U f-states and transition-metal d-states. Comparing the sum of all hybridization effects, we find approximately the same hybridization effects in both groups of compounds. We also observe a decrease of the band width with increasing atomic number Z within a transition-metal series. By comparing the band width with the theoretical critical energies for the f 3 and f 2 configurations, it is in some cases possible to predict whether the ground state is magnetically ordered or not. ((orig.))

  11. Observation of large magnetocaloric effect in equiatomic binary compound ErZn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingwei Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The magnetism, magnetocaloric effect and universal behaviour in rare earth Zinc binary compound of ErZn have been studied. The ErZn compound undergoes a second order paramagnetic (PM to ferromagnetic (FM transition at Curie temperature of TC ∼ 20 K. The ErZn compound exhibits a large reversible magnetocaloric effect (MCE around its own TC. The rescaled magnetic entropy change curves overlap with each other under various magnetic field changes, further confirming the ErZn with the second order phase transition. For the magnetic field change of 0-7 T, the maximum values of the magnetic entropy change (−ΔSMmax, relative cooling power (RCP and refrigerant capacity (RC for ErZn are 23.3 J/kg K, 581 J/kg and 437 J/kg, respectively.

  12. Uniform angular overlap model interpretation of the crystal field effect in U(5+) fluoride compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajek, Z.; Mulak, J. (W. Trzebiatowski Inst. of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland))

    1990-11-01

    The uniform interpretation of the crystal field effect in three different U(5+) fluoride compounds: CsUF{sub 6}, {alpha}-UF{sub 5} and {beta}-UF{sub 5} within the angular overlap model (AOM) is given. Some characteristic relations between the AOM parameters and their distance dependencies resulting from ab initio calculations are introduced and examined from a phenomenological point of view. The traditional simplest approach with only one independent parameter, i.e. e{sub {sigma}} with e{sub {pi}}:e{sub {sigma}} = 0.32 and e{sub {delta}} = 0, is shown to provide a consistent interpretation of the crystal field effect of the whole class of the compounds. The parameters obtained for one compound are easily and successfully extrapolated to others. The specificity and importance of the e{sub {delta}} parameter for 5f{sup 1} systems is discussed. (orig.).

  13. Immunohistochemical characterisation and localisation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor protein in the rat vestibular nucleus complex and the effects of unilateral vestibular deafferentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, John C; Zheng, Yiwen; Liu, Ping; Darlington, Cynthia L; Smith, Paul F

    2004-09-24

    CB1 receptor expression has been reported to be low in the brainstem compared with the forebrain, and low in the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC) compared with other regions in the brainstem. However, a frequent effect of cannabis is dizziness and loss of balance. This may be due to the activation of cannabinoid receptors in the central vestibular pathways. We used immunohistochemistry to study the distribution of CB1 receptor protein in the VNC, and Western blotting to measure CB1 receptor expression in the VNC following unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD); the hippocampal CA1, CA2/3 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions were also analysed for comparison. This study confirms a previous electrophysiological demonstration that CB1 receptors exist in significant densities in the VNC and are likely to contribute to the neurochemical control of the vestibular reflexes. Nonetheless, CB1 receptor expression did not change significantly in the VNC during vestibular compensation. In addition, despite some small but significant changes in CB1 receptor expression in the CA2/3 and the DG following UVD, in no case were these differences statistically significant in comparison to both control groups.

  14. Opposite long-term synaptic effects of 17β-estradiol and 5α-dihydrotestosterone and localization of their receptors in the medial vestibular nucleus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Silvarosa; Scarduzio, Mariangela; Panichi, Roberto; Dall'Aglio, Cecilia; Boiti, Cristiano; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2013-08-01

    In brainstem slices of male rats, we examined in single neurons of the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) the effect of exogenous administration of estrogenic (17β-estradiol, E2) and androgenic (5α-dihydrotestosterone, DHT) steroids on the synaptic response to vestibular afferent stimulation. By whole cell patch clamp recordings we showed that E2 induced synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) that was cancelled by the subsequent administration of DHT. Conversely, DHT induced synaptic long-term depression (LTD) that was partially reversed by E2. The electrophysiological findings were supported by immunohistochemical analysis showing the presence of estrogen (ER: α and β) and androgen receptors (AR) in the MVN neurons. We found that a large number of neurons were immunoreactive for ERα, ERβ, and AR and most of them co-localized ERβ and AR. We also showed the presence of P450-aromatase (ARO) in the MVN neurons, clearly proving that E2 can be locally synthesized in the MVN. On the whole, these results demonstrate a role of estrogenic and androgenic signals in modulating vestibular synaptic plasticity and suggest that the enhancement or depression of vestibular synaptic response may depend on the local conversion of T into E2 or DHT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of the MK 801 and (-) nicotine intracerebral administration on Glu and Gaba extracellular concentration in the pedunculopontine nucleus from rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Lezcano, Lisette; Lorigados Pedre, Lourdes del Carmen; Gonzalez Fraguela, Maria Elena and others

    2011-01-01

    Although the pharmacological manipulation of the glutamatergic and cholinergic systems have been studied in animal models of Parkinson's Disease (PD), only some authors have done work on this topic at the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN). The present work studied the changes in glutamate (Glu) and δ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) extracellular concentrations (EC) in the PPN from hemiparkinsonian rats by 6hydroxydopamine injection. The rats were locally perfused by MK-801 (10 μ mol/l) or (-) nicotine (10 mm) solutions by cerebral microdialysis. The biochemical studies were carried out through high performance liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescence detection. Mk-801 infusion induced a significant decrease of Glu (p< 0.01) and GABA (p< 0.01) EC in PPN. On the other hand (-) nicotine infusion induced a significant increase of Glu (p< 0.001) and GABA (p< 0.001) EC in PPN from hemiparkinsonian rats. The local blockade of NMDA receptors by MK-801 infusion facilitates the interaction between Glu and their metabotropic receptors that take part in presynaptic inhibition mechanisms and interfere with neurotransmitters release. Meanwhile, the nicotine infusion sums the effects of nicotinic receptor activation with the glutamatergic and gabaergic neurotransmission changes produced in the PPN in the parkinsonian condition. The cholinergic and glutamergic drug infusion in PPN impose a new adjustment to the neurotransmission at this level that is added to the neurochemical changes associated to dopaminergic denervation.

  16. Medicinal Plants, Effective Plant Compounds (Compositions) and their Effects on Stomach Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleebrahim-Dehkordy, Elahe; Nasri, Hamid; Baradaran, Azar; Nasri, Parto; Tamadon, Mohammad Reza; Hedaiaty, Mahrang; Beigrezaei, Sara; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants have special importance around the world. Further, they have been noticed for nutrition and illness treatment such as preparation of anticancer new drugs. Therefore, a wide range of studies have been done on different plants, and their anticancer effects have been investigated. Nowadays, cancer is the most important factor of death rate in the developed and developing countries. Among them, stomach cancer is one of the most common malignancies around the world. At present, it is recognized as the fourth common cancer and the second factor of death rate due to cancer. So far, there has been wide range of effort for cancer treatment; however, in most cases, the response to the treatment has been very weak and often accompanied improper subsidiary effects. The present problems as a consequence of chemical treatment and radiotherapy and many subsidiary problems created due to their use for patients, and also, the resistance to the current treatment has motivated researchers to apply new medicines with more effect and less toxicity. The secondary metabolisms existent in the plants have an important role in the treatment of several diseases such as cancer. This study was conducted to investigate and collect scientific results for stomach cancer and to clarify the role of medicinal plants and secondary plant compounds on its treatment.

  17. Inhibitory effect of organotin compounds on rat neuronal nitric oxide synthase through interaction with calmodulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Koji; Kominami, Shiro; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2004-01-01

    Organotin compounds, triphenyltin (TPT), tributyltin, dibutyltin, and monobutyltin (MBT), showed potent inhibitory effects on both L-arginine oxidation to nitric oxide and L-citrulline, and cytochrome c reduction catalyzed by recombinant rat neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). The two inhibitory effects were almost parallel. MBT and TPT showed the highest inhibitory effects, followed by tributyltin and dibutyltin; TPT and MBT showed inhibition constant (IC 50 ) values of around 10 μM. Cytochrome c reduction activity was markedly decreased by removal of calmodulin (CaM) from the complete mixture, and the decrease was similar to the extent of inhibition by TPT and MBT. The inhibitory effect of MBT on the cytochrome c reducing activity was rapidly attenuated upon dilution of the inhibitor, and addition of a high concentration of CaM reactivated the cytochrome c reduction activity inhibited by MBT. However, other cofactors such as FAD, FMN or tetrahydrobiopterin had no such ability. The inhibitory effect of organotin compounds (100 μM) on L-arginine oxidation of nNOS almost vanished when the amount of CaM was sufficiently increased (150-300 μM). It was confirmed by CaM-agarose column chromatography that the dissociation of nNOS-CaM complex was induced by organotin compounds. These results indicate that organotin compounds disturb the interaction between CaM and nNOS, thereby inhibiting electron transfer from the reductase domain to cytochrome c and the oxygenase domain

  18. Effect of Germination and Fermentation Process on the Antioxidant Compounds of Quinoa Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Galván-D'Alessandro, Leandro; Vandendriessche, Pierre; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seed has gained a great interest in the last years, mainly due to its nutritional properties and its content of antioxidant substances with health-promoting properties in humans. In this work, the effect of germination time and fermentation on the levels of antioxidant compounds (ascorbic acid, tocopherol isomers and phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity of quinoa seeds was evaluated. Fermentation was carried out naturally by the microorganisms present in the seeds or by inoculation with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (used for baking and brewing). Ascorbic acid and total tocopherols were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) after 72 h of germination process in comparison with raw quinoa seeds, whilst fermentation caused a decrease in both types of compounds. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were improved using both bioprocesses, being this effect more noticeable for germination process (101 % of increase after three days of germination). Germination and fermentation proved to be desirable procedures for producing enriched ingredients with health-promoting antioxidant compounds in a natural way.

  19. The opacities of 12C-12C reaction and effect of deformed target nucleus on abrasion and absorption cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, S.; Metawei, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The values of the opacities for 12 C- 12 C reaction are calculated at different incident ion kinetic energy. The exact multiple scattering series for the scattering of two heavy ions which was derived by wilson is used to calculate the abrasion and absorption cross sections of 16 O- 9 Be and 16 O- 16 O collisions, considering a harmonic oscillator matter density for both target and projectiles as spherical nuclei. The effect of including the pauli correlation is considered. The case of deformed target is also investigated. Our results are compared with other calculations as well as with the experimental results

  20. Ab-initio calculations of electric field gradient in Ru compounds and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S N Mishra

    2017-07-11

    Jul 11, 2017 ... with calculated electric field gradient (EFG) for a large number of Ru-based compounds. The ab-initio ... zz assumed to stem from geometric arrangement of ... tant nuclear probes for the measurements of quadrupole ... with the unit cell including the nucleus and no restriction is put on ..... The effect of on-site ...

  1. Effects of insulin and leptin in the ventral tegmental area and arcuate hypothalamic nucleus on food intake and brain reward function in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnzeel, Adrie W; Corrie, Lu W; Rogers, Jessica A; Yamada, Hidetaka

    2011-06-01

    There is evidence for a role of insulin and leptin in food intake, but the effects of these adiposity signals on the brain reward system are not well understood. Furthermore, the effects of insulin and leptin on food intake in females are underinvestigated. These studies investigated the role of insulin and leptin in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc) on food intake and brain reward function in female rats. The intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the effects of insulin and leptin on the reward system. Elevations in brain reward thresholds are indicative of a decrease in brain reward function. The bilateral administration of leptin into the VTA (15-500 ng/side) or Arc (15-150 ng/side) decreased food intake for 72 h. The infusion of leptin into the VTA or Arc resulted in weight loss during the first 48 (VTA) or 24 h (Arc) after the infusions. The administration of insulin (0.005-5 mU/side) into the VTA or Arc decreased food intake for 24 h but did not affect body weights. The bilateral administration of low, but not high, doses of leptin (15 ng/side) or insulin (0.005 mU/side) into the VTA elevated brain reward thresholds. Neither insulin nor leptin in the Arc affected brain reward thresholds. These studies suggest that a small increase in leptin or insulin levels in the VTA leads to a decrease in brain reward function. A relatively large increase in insulin or leptin levels in the VTA or Arc decreases food intake. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Nucleus accumbens neurotransmission and effort-related choice behavior in food motivation: effects of drugs acting on dopamine, adenosine, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Eric J; Randall, Patrick A; Podurgiel, Samantha; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2013-11-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Although nucleus accumbens (NAc) DA depletions or antagonism leave aspects of appetite and primary food motivation intact, rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. Previous work showed that adenosine A2A antagonists can reverse the effects of DA D2 antagonists on effort-related choice, and that stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors produces behavioral effects that are similar to those induced by DA antagonism. The present review summarizes the literature on the role of NAc DA and adenosine in effort-related processes, and also presents original data on the effects of local stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in NAc core. Local injections of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine directly into NAc core produces shifts in effort-related choice behavior similar to those induced by DA antagonism or A2A receptor stimulation, decreasing lever pressing but increasing chow intake in rats responding on a concurrent fixed ratio/chow feeding choice task. In contrast, injections into a neostriatal control site dorsal to the NAc were ineffective. The actions of pilocarpine on this task were attenuated by co-administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine. Thus, drugs that act on DA, adenosine A2A, and muscarinic receptors regulate effort-related choice behavior, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia that can be observed in depression and other disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of irradiation on the volatile compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.J.; Yang, J.S.; Liu, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of 0.15 kGy gamma irradiation on the content of volatile compounds in garlic bulbs during storage at room temperature were evaluated. The content of diallyl disulphide decreased immediately after irradiation. However, at the end of 8-month storage both irradiated and unirradiated samples showed a significant increase in diallyl disulphide

  4. Industrial processing effects on phenolic compounds in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The processed juice (or nectar) of the sour cherry, Prunus cerasus L., is widely consumed in the Balkan region and Turkey. Sour cherry is known to be rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and procyanidins. In this work, the effects of processing of sour cherry fruit to nectar on

  5. Protective effects of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and their bioactive compounds on oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong-Tsi; Chu, Heuy-Ling; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Chu, Chin-Chen; Duh, Pin-Der

    2012-12-15

    Protective effects of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and their bioactive compounds on oxidative stress were investigated. According to HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS analysis, hesperidin (HD), hesperetin (HT), nobiletin (NT), and tangeretin (TT) were present in water extracts of sweet orange peel (WESP). The cytotoxic effect in 0.2mM t-BHP-induced HepG2 cells was inhibited by WESP and their bioactive compounds. The protective effect of WESP and their bioactive compounds in 0.2mM t-BHP-induced HepG2 cells may be associated with positive regulation of GSH levels and antioxidant enzymes, decrease in ROS formation and TBARS generation, increase in the mitochondria membrane potential and Bcl-2/Bax ratio, as well as decrease in caspase-3 activation. Overall, WESP displayed a significant cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress, which may be most likely because of the phenolics-related bioactive compounds in WESP, leading to maintenance of the normal redox status of cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An evaluation of the RNase H inhibitory effects of Vietnamese medicinal plant extracts and natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Bui Huu; Nhut, Nguyen Duy; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Quang, Tran Hong; Thanh Ngan, Nguyen Thi; Thuy Luyen, Bui Thi; Huong, Tran Thu; Wilson, Jennifer; Beutler, John A; Ban, Ninh Khac; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Kim, Young Ho

    2011-10-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a severe pandemic disease especially prevalent in poor and developing countries. Thus, developing specific, potent antiviral drugs that restrain infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), a major cause of AIDS, remains an urgent priority. This study evaluated 32 extracts and 23 compounds from Vietnamese medicinal plants for their inhibitory effects against HIV-1 ribonuclease H (RNase H) and their role in reversing the cytopathic effects of HIV. The plants were air-dried and extracted in different solvent systems to produce plant extracts. Natural compounds were obtained as previously published. Samples were screened for RNase H inhibition followed by a cytopathic assay. Data were analyzed using the Microsoft Excel. At 50 μg/mL, 11 plant extracts and five compounds inhibited over 90% of RNase H enzymatic activity. Methanol extracts from Phyllanthus reticulatus and Aglaia aphanamixis leaves inhibited RNase H activity by 99 and 98%, respectively, whereas four extracts showed modest protection against the cytopathic effects of HIV. The screening results demonstrated that the butanol (BuOH) extract of Celastrus orbiculata leaves, methanol (MeOH) extracts of Glycosmis stenocarpa stems, Eurya ciliata leaves, and especially P. reticulatus leaves showed potential RNase H inhibition and protection against the viral cytopathic effects of HIV-1. Further chemical investigations should be carried out to find the active components of these extracts and compounds as potential anti-HIV drug candidates.

  7. Beneficial Effects of Bioactive Compounds in Mulberry Fruits against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahae Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry, the fruit of white mulberry tree (Morus alba L., Moraceae, is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicines as a sedative, tonic, laxative, and emetic. In our continuing research of the bioactive metabolites from mulberry, chemical analysis of the fruits led to the isolation of five compounds, 1–5. The compounds were identified as butyl pyroglutamate (1, quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (2, kaempferol 3-O-β-d-rutinoside (3, rutin (4, and 2-phenylethyl d-rutinoside (5 by spectroscopic data analysis, comparing their nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR data with those in published literature, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. The isolated compounds 1–5 were evaluated for their effects on anticancer drug-induced side effects by cell-based assays. Compound 1 exerted the highest protective effect against cisplatin-induced kidney cell damage. This effect was found to be mediated through the attenuation of phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and caspase-3 in cisplatin-induced kidney cell damage.

  8. Pressure effect on magnetic and magnetotransport properties of intermetallic and colossal magnetoresistance oxide compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arnold, Zdeněk; Ibarra, M. R.; Algarabel, P. A.; Marquina, C.; De Teresa, J. M.; Morellon, L.; Blasco, J.; Magen, C.; Prokhnenko, Olexandr; Kamarád, Jiří; Ritter, C.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2005), S3035-S3055 ISSN 0953-8984 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : pressure effect * intermetallic compounds * magnetic properties * magnetic phase transitions * magnetotransport properties * oxides Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.145, year: 2005

  9. The intercalatus nucleus of Staderini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Rutilio Staderini was one of the leading Italian anatomists of the twentieth century, together with some scientists, such as Giulio Chiarugi, Giovanni Vitali, and others. He was also a member of a new generation of anatomists. They had continued the tradition of the most famous Italian scientists, which started from the Renaissance up until the nineteenth century. Although he carried out important studies of neuroanatomy and comparative anatomy, as well as embryology, his name is rarely remembered by most medical historians. His name is linked to the nucleus he discovered: the Staderini nucleus or intercalated nucleus, a collection of nerve cells in the medulla oblongata located lateral to the hypoglossal nucleus. This article focuses on the biography of the neuroanatomist as well as the nucleus that carries his name and his other research, especially on comparative anatomy and embryology.

  10. Hoechst tagging: a modular strategy to design synthetic fluorescent probes for live-cell nucleus imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akinobu; Takigawa, Kazumasa; Kurishita, Yasutaka; Kuwata, Keiko; Ishida, Manabu; Shimoda, Yasushi; Hamachi, Itaru; Tsukiji, Shinya

    2014-06-11

    We report a general strategy to create small-molecule fluorescent probes for the nucleus in living cells. Our strategy is based on the attachment of the DNA-binding Hoechst compound to a fluorophore of interest. Using this approach, simple fluorescein, BODIPY, and rhodamine dyes were readily converted to novel turn-on fluorescent nucleus-imaging probes.

  11. Effect of triorganotin compounds on calcium transport mechanisms in rat cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.A.; Kodavanti, P.R.S.; Yallapragada, P.R.; Desaiah, D.

    1990-01-01

    Although organotin compounds, in general, are neurotoxicants, recent studies indicate that these tin compounds affect heme metabolism as well as cardiovascular system. Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium pump together with phosphorylation of phospholamban has an important role in myocardial contraction and relaxation. Since organotin compounds interfere with cardiovascular system, we have studied the in vitro as well as in vivo effects of tributyltin bromide (TBT), triethyltin bromide (TET) and trimethyltin chloride (TMT) on cardiac SR Ca 2+ -pump activity, in order to know the relative potency of these tin compounds. SR was isolated from heart ventricles of male Sprague-Dawley rats and used for in vitro studies. For in vivo studies, rats were treated orally in corn oil for 6 days with different doses of TET (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg/d), TMT (0.75, 1.5 and 2.5 mg/kg/d) and TBT (0.75, 1.5 and 2.5 mg/kg/d). Rats were sacrificed 24 hr after the last dosage and cardiac SR was prepared. Cardiac SR Ca 2+ -ATPase and 45 Ca-uptake were measured. All the three tin compounds inhibited Ca 2+ -ATPase and 45 Ca-uptake in vitro in a concentration dependent manner. The order of potency for Ca 2+ -ATPase as determined IC 50 , is TBT (2 uM) > TET (63 uM) > TMT (280 uM). For 45 Ca-uptake, if followed the same order i.e., TBT (0.35 uM) > TET (10 uM) > TMT (440 uM). In agreement with in vitro results, both SR Ca 2+ -ATPase and 45 Ca-uptake were significantly inhibited in rats treated with these tin compounds. These studies indicate that triorganotin compounds affect Ca 2+ -pumping mechanisms and thereby alter cardiac contraction-relaxation process

  12. Effect of acupuncture on Lipopolysaccharide-induced anxiety-like behavioral changes: involvement of serotonin system in dorsal Raphe nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tae Young; Jang, Eun Young; Ryu, Yeonhee; Lee, Gyu Won; Lee, Eun Byeol; Chang, Suchan; Lee, Jong Han; Koo, Jin Suk; Yang, Chae Ha; Kim, Hee Young

    2017-12-11

    Acupuncture has been used as a common therapeutic tool in many disorders including anxiety and depression. Serotonin transporter (SERT) plays an important role in the pathology of anxiety and other mood disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acupuncture on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety-like behaviors and SERT in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN). Rats were given acupuncture at ST41 (Jiexi), LI11 (Quchi) or SI3 (Houxi) acupoint in LPS-treated rats. Anxiety-like behaviors of elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT) were measured and expressions of SERT and/or c-Fos were also examined in the DRN using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that 1) acupuncture at ST41 acupoint, but neither LI11 nor SI3, significantly attenuated LPS-induced anxiety-like behaviors in EPM and OFT, 2) acupuncture at ST41 decreased SERT expression increased by LPS in the DRN. Our results suggest that acupuncture can ameliorate anxiety-like behaviors, possibly through regulation of SERT in the DRN.

  13. Effect of substrates and intermediate compounds on foaming in manure digestion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Kougias, Panagiotis; Pacheco, F.

    2012-01-01

    Manure contains several compounds that can potentially cause foaming during anaerobic digestion. Understanding the effect of substrates and intermediate compounds on foaming tendency and stability could facilitate strategies for foaming prevention and recovery of the process. In this study...... potential to create foam in a manure digester. Moreover, high organic loading of lipids and protein, and high concentrations of acetic and butyric acids also showed a strong tendency to create foaming during anaerobic digestion. Due to their great ability to stabilize foam, high organic loadings of Na...

  14. The effect of catalytic reaction conditions on the incorporation of tritium in unsaturated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchenko, V P; Nagayev, I Yu; Myasoedov, N F [AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Molekulyarnoj Genetiki

    1989-10-01

    We have obtained multiple-tritium-labelled 5-{alpha}-androstan-3-one, dihydropicrotoxin, dimethyl-propyl-3-chloro-butyl-ammonium chloride, 2,2-di(trifluoromethyl)-3,3-dicyanobicyclohept(2,2,1)ane, dihydroalprenolol, undecanoic acid, dihydro-m,m'-di-tert.-butyl-p-coumaric acid and dihydrofusicoccin. By varying the conditions for the hydrogenation of terminal double bonds, one can considerably increase the molar radioactivity of such compounds through isotopic exchange. We discuss some tentative explanations of the effect of the labelling reaction conditions upon the synthesis of compounds with desired properties. (author).

  15. The effect of catalytic reaction conditions on the incorporation of tritium in unsaturated compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.P.; Nagayev, I.Yu.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1989-01-01

    We have obtained multiple-tritium-labelled 5-α-androstan-3-one, dihydropicrotoxin, dimethyl-propyl-3-chloro-butyl-ammonium chloride, 2,2-di(trifluoromethyl)-3,3-dicyanobicyclohept[2,2,1]ane, dihydroalprenolol, undecanoic acid, dihydro-m,m'-di-tert.-butyl-p-coumaric acid and dihydrofusicoccin. By varying the conditions for the hydrogenation of terminal double bonds, one can considerably increase the molar radioactivity of such compounds through isotopic exchange. We discuss some tentative explanations of the effect of the labelling reaction conditions upon the synthesis of compounds with desired properties. (author)

  16. Effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile compounds of ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.J.; Yang, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Gingers were irradiated at a dose of 0.05 kGy to inhibit sprouting and conserve quality. Effects of gamma irradiation on the flavor compounds of ginger were studied. After 3 months of storage after irradiation, the quantities of some major volatile compounds such as alpha-zingiberene, alpha-bergamotene, neral, geranial, and alpha-curcumene were significantly lower in irradiated than in unirradiated ginger, although no difference was found immediately after irradiation. A triangle test showed no difference between irradiated and unirradiated gingers stored for 1 month at ambient temperature but showed significant difference after 5 months of storage

  17. Xenopus LAP2β protein knockdown affects location of lamin B and nucleoporins and has effect on assembly of cell nucleus and cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubińska-Magiera, Magda; Chmielewska, Magdalena; Kozioł, Katarzyna; Machowska, Magdalena; Hutchison, Christopher J; Goldberg, Martin W; Rzepecki, Ryszard

    2016-05-01

    Xenopus LAP2β protein is the single isoform expressed in XTC cells. The protein localizes on heterochromatin clusters both at the nuclear envelope and inside a cell nucleus. The majority of XLAP2β fraction neither colocalizes with TPX2 protein during interphase nor can be immunoprecipitated with XLAP2β antibody. Knockdown of the XLAP2β protein expression in XTC cells by synthetic siRNA and plasmid encoded siRNA resulted in nuclear abnormalities including changes in shape of nuclei, abnormal chromatin structure, loss of nuclear envelope, mislocalization of integral membrane proteins of INM such as lamin B2, mislocalization of nucleoporins, and cell death. Based on timing of cell death, we suggest mechanism associated with nucleus reassembly or with entry into mitosis. This confirms that Xenopus LAP2 protein is essential for the maintenance of cell nucleus integrity and the process of its reassembly after mitosis.

  18. Immunostimulatory effects of the phenolic compounds from lichens on nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracilda Z. Carlos

    Full Text Available The effects of isolated compounds from Brazilian lichens and their derivatives on H2O2 and NO production were studied using murine macrophages as a part of an attempt to understand their possible immunomodulatory properties. The compound cytotoxicity was studied using MTT assay. Macrophage stimulation was evaluated by the determination of NO (Griess assay and H2O2 (horseradish peroxidase/phenol red in supernatants of peritoneal macrophage cultures of Swiss mice. This research demonstrated stimulatory activities of some phenolic compounds isolated from lichens and their derivatives on H2O2 and NO production. Structure-activity relationships suggest several synthetic directions for further improvement of immunological activity.

  19. Great isotope effects in compounding of sodium isotopes by macrocyclic polyether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoechel, A.; Wilken, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Isotope effects appear in the compounding of the two sodium isotopes 24 Na + and 22 Na + with macrocyclic polyethers, whose value was determined for the 13 best known polyethers. A radiometric process was used for determining the different half life periods of the nuclides used. To separate the compound and non-compound types, these were distributed between water and chloroform. The isotope ratio in the chloroform phase was compared with the output isotope ratio and the separation facfor determined from this. When using crown ethers, there was enrichment of 24 Na + by a significant amount (large crown ether) up to 3.1 +- 0.4% for 18 crown 6. The remarkably high results can be correlated by Biegeleisen's theory with other chemical conditions. There is a report on the first results of transferring these conditions to the H + /T + system. (orig.) [de

  20. Does lipophilicity of toxic compounds determine effects on drought tolerance of the soil collembolan Folsomia candida?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skovlund, Gitte; Damgaard, Christian; Bayley, Mark; Holmstrup, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The ability of Collembola to survive drought stress is crucial for their distribution in the terrestrial environment. Previous studies have suggested that several toxic compounds affect the drought tolerance of Folsomia candida in a synergistic manner and that these compounds have the feature in common that they elicit their toxicity by causing membrane damage. We hypothesised that the detrimental effect of toxic chemicals on drought tolerance in F. candida depends on the lipophilicity (log K ow ) of the compound because a higher log K ow would mean a closer interaction with membranes. In this study the three chemicals 4-nonylphenol, pyrene and p,p'-DDE were tested. Surprisingly, 4-nonylphenol, with the lowest log K ow , was the most potent with respect to reducing drought tolerance followed by pyrene, suggesting that interactions between drought tolerance and chemical stress do not depend on lipophilicity alone. - Toxic stress may reduce drought tolerance of Collembola

  1. Seasonal Effects on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Six Economically Important Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A.S. Rosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L. as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total flavonoids of each sample. The climate seasons affected directly the concentration of bioactive components and the antioxidant activity. Broccoli inflorescences and Portuguese kale showed high antioxidant activity in Spring-Summer whilst turnip leaves did so in Summer-Winter. The Brassica vegetables can provide considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and thus may constitute an important natural source of dietary antioxidants.

  2. Complex magnetic properties and large magnetocaloric effects in RCoGe (R=Tb, Dy compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Complicated magnetic phase transitions and Large magnetocaloric effects (MCEs in RCoGe (R=Tb, Dy compounds have been reported in this paper. Results show that the TbCoGe compounds have a magnetic phase transition from antiferromagnetic to paramagnetic (AFM-PM at TN∼16 K, which is close to the value reported by neutron diffraction. The DyCoGe compound undergoes complicated phase changes from 2 K up to 300 K. The peak at 10 K displays a phase transition from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic (AFM-FM. In particular, a significant ferromagnetic to paramagnetic (FM-PM phase transition was found at the temperature as high as 175 K and the cusp becomes more abrupt with the magnetic field increasing from 0.01 T to 0.1 T. The maximum value of magnetic entropy change of TbCoGe and DyCoGe compounds achieve 14.5 J/kg K and 11.5 J/kg K respectively for a field change of 0-5 T. Additionally, the correspondingly considerable refrigerant capacity value of 260 J/kg and 242 J/kg are also obtained respectively, suggesting that both TbCoGe and DyCoGe compounds could be considered as good candidates for low temperature magnetic refrigerant.

  3. An examination of the effects of subthalamic nucleus inhibition or μ-opioid receptor stimulation on food-directed motivation in the non-deprived rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Wayne E.; Choi, Eugene; Guy, Elizabeth G.

    2012-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) serves important functions in regulating movement, cognition, and motivation and is connected with cortical and basal ganglia circuits that process reward and reinforcement. In order to further examine the role of the STN on motivation toward food in non-deprived rats, these experiments studied the effects of pharmacological inhibition or μ-opioid receptor stimulation of the STN on the 2-hr intake of a sweetened fat diet, the amount of work exerted to earn sucrose on a progressive ratio 2 (PR-2) schedule of reinforcement, and performance on a differential reinforcement of low-rate responding (DRL) schedule for sucrose reward. Separate behavioral groups (N = 6–9) were tested following bilateral inhibition of the STN with the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol (at 0–5 ng/0.5 μl/side) or following μ-opioid receptor stimulation with the agonist D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol-enkephalin (DAMGO; at 0, 0.025 or 0.25 μg/0.5 μl/side). Although STN inhibition increased ambulatory behavior during 2-hr feeding sessions, it did not significantly alter intake of the sweetened fat diet. STN inhibition also did not affect the breakpoint for sucrose pellets during a 1-hr PR-2 reinforcement schedule or impact the number of reinforcers earned on a 1-hr DRL-20 sec reinforcement schedule in non-deprived rats. In contrast, STN μ-opioid receptor stimulation significantly increased feeding on the palatable diet and reduced the reinforcers earned on a DRL-20 schedule, although DAMGO microinfusions had no effect on PR-2 performance. These data suggest that STN inhibition does not enhance incentive motivation for food in the absence of food restriction and that STN μ-opioid receptors play an important and unique role in motivational processes. PMID:22391117

  4. Effect of quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on performance on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement: implications for inter-temporal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzina, G; Body, S; Cheung, T H C; Hampson, C L; Deakin, J F W; Anderson, I M; Szabadi, E; Bradshaw, C M

    2008-04-01

    The nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) is believed to contribute to the control of operant behaviour by reinforcers. Recent evidence suggests that it is not crucial for determining the incentive value of immediately available reinforcers, but is important for maintaining the values of delayed reinforcers. This study aims to examine the effect of AcbC lesions on performance on a progressive-ratio schedule using a quantitative model that dissociates effects of interventions on motor and motivational processes (Killeen 1994 Mathematical principles of reinforcement. Behav Brain Sci 17:105-172). Rats with bilateral quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the AcbC (n = 15) or sham lesions (n = 14) were trained to lever-press for food-pellet reinforcers under a progressive-ratio schedule. In Phase 1 (90 sessions) the reinforcer was one pellet; in Phase 2 (30 sessions), it was two pellets; in Phase 3, (30 sessions) it was one pellet. The performance of both groups conformed to the model of progressive-ratio performance (group mean data: r2 > 0.92). The motor parameter, delta, was significantly higher in the AcbC-lesioned than the sham-lesioned group, reflecting lower overall response rates in the lesioned group. The motivational parameter, a, was sensitive to changes in reinforcer size, but did not differ significantly between the two groups. The AcbC-lesioned group showed longer post-reinforcement pauses and lower running response rates than the sham-lesioned group. The results suggest that destruction of the AcbC impairs response capacity but does not alter the efficacy of food reinforcers. The results are consistent with recent findings that AcbC lesions do not alter sensitivity to reinforcer size in inter-temporal choice schedules.

  5. The Effects of Maternal Separation on Adult Methamphetamine Self-Administration, Extinction, Reinstatement, and MeCP2 Immunoreactivity in the Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace R. Lewis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The maternal separation (MS paradigm is an animal model of early life stress. Animals subjected to MS during the first two weeks of life display altered behavioral and neuroendocrinological stress responses as adults. MS also produces altered responsiveness to and self-administration (SA of various drugs of abuse including cocaine, ethanol, opioids, and amphetamine. Methamphetamine (METH causes great harm to both the individual user and to society; yet, no studies have examined the effects of MS on METH SA. This study was performed to examine the effects of MS on the acquisition of METH SA, extinction, and reinstatement of METH-seeking behavior in adulthood. Given the known influence of early life stress and drug exposure on epigenetic processes, group differences in levels of the epigenetic marker methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc core were also investigated. Long-Evans pups and dams were separated on postnatal days (PND 2-14 for either 180 (MS180 or 15 min (MS15. Male offspring were allowed to acquire METH SA (0.05 mg/kg/infusion in 15 2-hr daily sessions starting at PND67, followed by extinction training and cue-induced reinstatement of METH-seeking behavior. Rats were then assessed for MeCP2 levels in the NAc core by immunohistochemistry. The MS180 group self-administered significantly more METH and acquired SA earlier than the MS15 group. No group differences in extinction or cue-induced reinstatement were observed. MS15 rats had significantly elevated MeCP2-immunoreactive cells in the NAc core as compared to MS180 rats. Together, these data suggest that MS has lasting influences on METH SA as well as epigenetic processes in the brain reward circuitry.

  6. Effect of l-DOPA on local field potential relationship between the pedunculopontine nucleus and primary motor cortex in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiwen; Wang, Xuenan; Xie, Jinlu; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Xiusong; Hou, Yabing; Lei, Chengdong; Li, Min; Han, Hongyu; Yao, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Qun; Wang, Min

    2016-12-15

    Levodopa (l-DOPA) has been proved to reverse the pathologic neuron activities in many brain regions related to Parkinson's disease (PD). But little is known about the effect of l-DOPA on the altered electrophysiological coherent activities between pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and motor cortex. To investigate this, local field potentials (LFPs) of PPN and primary motor cortex (M1) were recorded simultaneously in control, 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned and lesioned rats with l-DOPA chronic treatment. The results revealed that in resting state, chronic l-DOPA treatment could correct the suppressed power of LFPs in PPN and M1 in low-frequency band (1-7Hz) and the enhanced power in high-frequency band (7-70Hz in PPN and 12-70Hz in M1) of lesioned rats. In locomotor state, l-DOPA treatment could correct the alterations in most of frequency bands except the δ band in PPN and α band in M1. Moreover, l-DOPA could also reverse the altered coherent relationships caused by dopamine depletion in resting state between PPN and M1 in β band. And in locomotor state, l-DOPA had therapeutic effect on the alterations in δ and β bands but not in the α band. These findings provide evidence that l-DOPA can reverse the altered LFP activities in PPN and M1 and their relationships in a rat model of PD, which contributes to better understanding the electrophysiological mechanisms of the pathophysiology and therapy of PD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic compounds isolated from the fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Song-Chwan; Hsu, Chin-Lin; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2008-06-25

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam is a large evergreen tree cultivated throughout Southeast Asia for its fruits. Its leaves and roots have been used for medicinal purposes. The aim of this work was to study the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of the fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus. Three phenolic compounds were characterized as artocarpesin [5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-6-(3-methylbut-3-enyl) flavone] ( 1), norartocarpetin (5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) ( 2), and oxyresveratrol [ trans-2,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxystilbene] ( 3) by spectroscopic methods and through comparison with data reported in the literatures. The anti-inflammatory effects of the isolated compounds ( 1- 3) were evaluated by determining their inhibitory effects on the production of proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. These three compounds exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity. The results indicated that artocarpesin ( 1) suppressed the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2) through the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) protein expressions. Thus, artocarpesin ( 1) may provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammation-associated disorders.

  8. Effectiveness of an anti-algal compound in eliminating an aquatic unicellular harmful algal Phaeocystis globosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajun eZhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phaeocystis globosa blooms can have negative effects on higher trophic levels in the marine ecosystem and consequently influence human activities. Strain KA22, identified as the bacterium Hahella, was isolated from coastal surface water and used to control P. globosa growth. A methanol extract from the bacteral cells showed strong algicidal activity. After purification, the compound showed a similar structure to prodigiosin when identified with Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The compound showed algicidal activity against P. globosa with a 50% Lethal Dose (LD50 of 2.24 μg/mL. The prodigiosin was stable under heat and acid environment, and it could be degraded under alkaline environment and natural light condition. The growth rates of strain KA22 was fast in 2216E medium and the content of prodigiosin in this medium was more than 70 μg/mL after 16 h incubation. The compound showed particularly strong algicidal activity against Prorocentrum donghaiense, P. globosa and Heterosigma akashiwo, but having little effect on three other phytoplankton species tested. The results of our research could increase our knowledge on harmful algal bloom control compound and lead to further study on the mechanisms of the lysis effect on harmful algae.

  9. Compounds Released from Biomass Deconstruction: Understanding Their Effect on Cellulose Enzyme Hydrolysis and Their Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djioleu, Angele Mezindjou

    The effect of compounds produced during biomass pretreatment on cellulolytic enzyme was investigated. Liquid prehydrolyzates were prepared by pretreating switchgrass using 24 combinations of temperature, time, and sulfuric acid concentration based on a full factorial design. Temperature was varied from 140°C to 180°C; time ranged from 10 to 40 min; and the sulfuric acid concentrations were 0.5% or 1% (v/v). Identified products in the prehydrolyzates included xylose, glucose, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), furfural, acetic acid, formic acid, and phenolic compounds at concentration ranging from 0 to 21.4 g/L. Pretreatment conditions significantly affected the concentrations of compounds detected in prehydrolyzates. When assayed in the presence of switchgrass prehydrolyzates against model substrates, activities of cellulase, betaglucosidase, and exoglucanase, were significantly reduced by at least 16%, 31.8%, and 57.8%, respectively, as compared to the control. A strong positive correlation between inhibition of betaglucosidase and concentration of glucose, acetic acid, and furans in prehydrolyzate was established. Exoglucanase inhibition correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds and acetic acid. The prehydrolyzate, prepared at 160°C, 30 min, and 1% acid, was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) into six fractions; the inhibition effect of these fractions on betaglucosidase and exoglucanase was determined. The initial hydrolysis rate of cellobiose by betaglucosidase was significantly reduced by the CPC sugar-rich fraction; however, exoglucanase was deactivated by the CPC phenolic-rich fraction. Finally, biological activities of water-extracted compounds from sweetgum bark and their effect on cellulase was investigated. It was determined that 12% of solid content of the bark extract could be accounted by phenolic compounds with gallic acid identified as the most concentrated phytochemical. Sweetgum bark extract inhibited Staphylococcus

  10. Measurement of the effective atomic numbers of compounds with cerium near to the absorption edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polat, Recep; Icelli, Orhan

    2010-01-01

    In order to measure atomic, molecular and electronic cross-section; the effective atomic number, density of electron and absorption jump factor, we have first measured μ t values of compounds which are determined by mixture rule using transmission method. In order to measure experimentally the effective atomic number within absorption jump factors of compounds with Ce, the X-ray source used Am-241 whose gamma rays were stopped at secondary source (Sm), thus producing Kα and Kβ X-ray emission. The most crucial finding in this study is that measurement of the effective atomic number is not appropriate near to the absorption edge and the effective atomic number is affected by near to the absorption edge. The results obtained have been compared with theoretical values.

  11. Effects of surface polishing and annealing on the optical conductivity of intermetallic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, J Y

    1999-01-01

    The optical conductivity spectra of several intermetallic compounds were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Three spectra were measured for each compound; just after the sample was mechanically polished, at high temperature, and after the sample was annealed at 110 .deg. C for at least one day and cooled to room temperature. An equiatomic FeTi alloy showed the typical effects of annealing after mechanical polishing of surface. The spectrum after annealing had a larger magnitude and sharper structures than the spectrum before annealing. We also observed shifts of peaks in the spectrum. A relatively low-temperature annealing gave rise to unexpectedly substantial effects, and the effects were explained by recrystallization and/or a disorder -> order transition of the surface of the sample which was damaged and, hence, became highly disordered by mechanical polishing. Similar effects were also observed when the sample temperature was lowered. The observed changes upon annealing could partly be explained by p...

  12. Two new compounds from the fruits of Buddleja lindleyana with neuroprotective effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, De-Ling; Wang, Yang-Kui; Liu, Jing-Song; Wang, Xun-Cui; Zhang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Two new triterpenoid glycosides, mimengosides H (1) and I (2), were isolated from the fruits of Buddleja lindleyana Fort. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods. Neuroprotective effects of these isolates against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells were evaluated. Pretreatment with compound 1 had potential protective effect in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1 μmol l⁻¹.

  13. Effects on Tomato Bacterial Canker of Resistance Inducers and Copper Compounds in Greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Baştaş, Kubilay

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial canker of tomato caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis produces considerable economic losses in many countries because effective control measures are lacking. In this study, the effectiveness of some chemicals, a plant growth regulator (Prohexadione-Ca (PC)), two plant activators (hydrogen peroxide (HP)) and harpin protein (Hrp), fungicides, maneb+copper (MC), copper compounds (copper sulfate pentahydrate (CSP) copper hydroxide (CH) and copper oxychloride (CO)) an...

  14. Effects of selected bioactive food compounds on human white adipocyte function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björk, Christel; Wilhelm, Uta; Mandrup, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that intake of specific bioactive compounds may have beneficial clinical effects on adipose tissue partly due to their anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. With the overall aim to contribute to better understanding of the mechanisms of selecte...... uptake albeit only with the combination of DHA and AC. Taken together, our results may link the reported health benefits of the selected bioactives on metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia to effects on white adipocytes....

  15. Effect of different GRAS compounds in the control of apples blue mould.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, T; Cubaiu, L; Ladu, G; D'Hallewin, G

    2013-01-01

    The most important pathogen for apples is Penicillium expansum that is the causal organism of blue mould. Postharvest losses are controlled with chemical fungicides such as TBZ but a growing concern for human health and a greater awareness for environmental conservation have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. In the search of new environment and consumer friendly technologies that can reduce toxic residues, the use of GRAS compounds represent a valid alternative to the use of synthetic postharvest fungicides. The aims of the present work were: (1) To evaluate the effectiveness of different GRAS compounds in the control of P. expansum in artificially inoculated fruit; (2) To assess the capability of injured and treated fruit with GRAS compounds, used alone or combined, to heal the wounds in order to resist to infection. Fruit was injured with a steel rod and after 1 hour was (1) Inoculated with the pathogen and after 24 hours treated or (2) Treated and after 24 hours inoculated. Treatments were performed with the following compounds: sodium bicarbonate (SBC), boric acid (BA) and calcium chloride (CC) by using a 1% solution for all of them. After 9 or 14 days fruit lesion diameters were assessed. In the trial (1) the combined treatment with BA and SBC was the most effective reducing the lesion diameter by 86.5% with respect to untreated fruit, after 9 days from infection. A good pathogen control was also obtained with BA used alone or combined with CC. When the treatment was performed before infection the best results were achieved with the combination of SBC and CC, with 87% of reduction of the lesion diameter. The addition of CC also reduced the lesion if combined with BA (66.8%). These preliminary results showed that GRAS compounds can be effective in reducing blue mold by a direct effect on the pathogen, and by modulating fruit responses enhancing host resistance.

  16. Dynamics of hadronization in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friman, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    One of the main problems in the search for quark-gluon plasma in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is finding a reliable signature for deconfinement. Several signatures have been suggested, e.g., dileptons with a spectrum characteristic of the plasma, an increase in the number of strange particles and effects due to the hadronization of the plasma. In this talk I will describe some recent work on the effects of the hadronization transition in the central rapidity region within the hydrodynamic model of Bjorken, Kajantie and McLerran. (orig.)

  17. Effects of Processing Conditions During Manufacture on Retronasal-Aroma Compounds from a Milk Coffee Drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Michio; Akiyama, Masayuki; Hirano, Yuta; Miyazi, Kazuhiro; Kono, Masaya; Imayoshi, Yuriko; Iwabuchi, Hisakatsu; Onodera, Takeshi; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    To develop a ready-to-drink (RTD) milk coffee retaining the original coffee flavor, the effects of processing conditions during manufacture on retronasal-arma (RA) compounds from the milk coffee were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using an RA simulator (RAS). Thirteen of 46 detected compounds in the RAS effluent (RAS compounds) decreased significantly following pH adjustment of coffee (from pH 5.1 to 6.8) and 5 compounds increased. RAS compounds from coffee tended to decrease through the pH adjustment and subsequent sterilization. Significantly higher amounts of 13 RAS compounds were released from the milk coffee produced using a blending-after-sterilization (BAS) process without the pH adjustment than from that using a blending-before-sterilization (BBS) process with the pH adjustment. In BAS-processed milk coffee, significantly lower amounts of 8 high-volatility compounds and 1H-pyrrole were released from coffee containing infusion-sterilized (INF) milk than from coffee containing plate-sterilized (PLT) milk, whereas 3 low-volatility compounds were released significantly more from coffee using PLT milk. Principal component analysis revealed that the effect of the manufacturing process (BAS, BBS, or homemade (blending unsterilized coffee without pH adjustment with sterilized milk)) on milk coffee volatiles was larger than that of the sterilization method (INF or PLT) for milk, and that the sterilization method could result in different RAS volatile characteristics in BAS and homemade processes. In conclusion, a BAS process was found to be superior to a BBS process for the manufacture of an RTD milk coffee that retains volatile characteristics similar to that of a homemade milk coffee. Ready-to-drink (RTD) milk coffee manufactured using the conventional blending-before-sterilization process does not retain its original coffee flavor due to pH adjustment of the coffee during the process. The new blending-after-sterilization (BAS) process

  18. Non-opiate β-endorphin fragments and dopamine—VI Behavioural analysis of the interaction between γ-type endorphins and dopaminergic systems in the nucleus accumbens of rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, J.M. van; Király, I.

    1984-01-01

    Injection of small doses of apomorphine, bromocriptine and the new ergoline compound, GYKI-32887 into the nucleus accumbens decreased locomotor activity when rats were tested in a small open field. This effect was observed following injection of 1 pg of these substances; GYKI-32887 being more potent

  19. Formation of light particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagrebaev, V.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.

    1993-01-01

    The principal experimental results on the yield of the light charged particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the low and intermediate energies are reviewed. Inclusive spectra of light particles and their coincidences with the characteristic KX-rays, γ-rays, neutrons, projectile-like fragments, other light particles, fission fragments, and evaporation residues are analyzed. The main theoretical models used for the description of the light particle formation are briefly outlined together with their merits and shortcomings. The unsolved problems of fast light particle formation, in particular, and of nucleus-nucleus interaction dynamics, on the whole, are discussed with the outlooks of new experiments able to clear up some of these problems. (author) 144 refs., 40 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Factors Effecting the Total Volatile Organic Compound (TVOC Concentrations in Slovak Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Mečiarová

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Thirty five Slovak households were selected for an investigation of indoor environmental quality. Measuring of indoor air physical and chemical factors and a questionnaire survey was performed during May 2017. The range of permissible operative temperature was not met in 11% of objects. Relative humidity met the legislative requirements in all monitored homes. Concentrations of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs were significantly higher in the apartments than in the family houses. The average TVOC levels in the apartments and family houses were 519.7 µg/m3 and 330.2 µg/m3, respectively. Statistical analysis confirmed the effect of indoor air temperature, relative humidity and particulate matter (PM0.5 and PM1 on the levels of TVOCs. Higher TVOC levels were observed also in homes where it is not a common practice to open windows during cleaning activities. Other factors that had a statistically significant effect on concentrations of volatile organic compounds were heating type, attached garage, location of the apartment within residential building (the floor, as well as number of occupants. Higher TVOC concentrations were observed in indoor than outdoor environment, while further analysis showed the significant impact of indoor emission sources on the level of these compounds in buildings. The questionnaire study showed a discrepancy between objective measurement and subjective assessment in the household environment, and pointed to insufficient public awareness about volatile organic compounds (VOCs.

  1. Effect of fermentation conditions on content of phenolic compounds in red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškaš Vladimir S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The evidence of compounds that increase the nutritive value of red wines has been presented in a number of papers. These compounds include catechins and proanthocyanidins among others. Their protective effect on the cardiovascular system and anticarcinogenic properties has been proved. The effect of maceration conditions and increased solid grape parts content, seed in the first place, on the content of phenolic compounds of wine was investigated. Several micro-trials were performed with Cabernet sauvignon sort; in some variants time and temperature of maceration were varied, while the ratio of residual stem and content of seed was increased several times, resulting in a significant change of phenolic compounds content in the obtained wine samples. The presence of ripe stem yielded good results, but only during six days of maceration, while in the case of longer maceration, the change of colour quality was negative. Supplementary quantities of seeds during maceration resulted in an increase of total phenols and catechins. A significant influence on colour of wines was also observed, especially in wines obtained applying shorter maceration.

  2. EFFECTS OF SOME BORON COMPOUNDS ON THE LEACHABILITY OF EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Tan

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood preservation effectiveness of boron compounds against biological damagers and fire is well known. But these compounds are not widely used in preservation of wood because of their leachability from wood by rain water and making wood more hyroscopic than untreated wood in damp environments. Main aim of this study is; therefore, to improve the undesired leachability properties of some boron compounds by various water repellents (WRs. Aqueous solutions with polyethyleneglycole (PEG-400 of boric acid and sodium perborate were chosen as boron compounds. WRs were used as secondary treatment chemicals which were considered as dimensional stabilizer of wood and phsical bariers of boron retained at innerparts of treated wood. Results indicated that WRs were reduced leachability of boron from wood significantly (P<0.05. Boron salts applied with. PEG were more leachable than were of equeous solutions. WRs were not found effective on reducing the leachability of boron solved in PEG. Longer leaching time caused more leachant and reduction the phsical alleviation of WRs on boron leaching.

  3. Effects of GABA ligands injected into the nucleus accumbens shell on fear/anxiety-like and feeding behaviours in food-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Paula Fraga; Ganzer, Laís; Borges, Aline Caon; Kochenborger, Larissa; Januário, Ana Cláudia; Faria, Moacir Serralvo; Marino-Neto, José; Paschoalini, Marta Aparecida

    2012-03-01

    In an attempt to establish a relationship between food intake and fear/anxiety-related behaviours, the goal of this study was to investigate the effect of bilateral injections of GABAA (Muscimol, MUS, doses 25 and 50ng/side) and GABAB (Baclofen, BAC, doses 32 and 64ng/side) receptor agonists in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) on the level of fear/anxiety-like and feeding behaviours in 24h food-deprived rats. The antagonists of GABAA (Bicuculline, BIC, doses 75 and 150ng/side) and GABAB (Saclofen, SAC, doses 1.5 and 3μg/side) were also tested. The results indicated that the total number of risk assessment behaviour decreased after the injection of both doses of GABAA agonist (MUS) into the AcbSh of 24h food-deprived rats exposed to elevated plus maze. Similar results were obtained after treatment with both doses of GABAB (BAC) agonist in the AcbSh. These data indicated that the activation of both GABAA and GABAB receptors within the AcbSh caused anxiolysis in 24h food-deprived rats. In addition, feeding behaviour (food intake, feeding latency and feeding duration) remained unchanged after treatment with both GABA agonists. In contrast, both food intake and feeding duration decreased after injections of both doses of BIC (GABAA antagonist), while the feeding latency remained unchanged after treatment with both GABA antagonists in the AcbSh of 24h food-deprived rats. The treatment with SAC (GABAB antagonist) did not affect feeding behaviour. Collectively, these data suggest that emotional changes evoked by pharmacological manipulation of the GABA neurotransmission in the AcbSh are not linked with changes in food intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Betting on DBS: Effects of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on risk taking and decision making in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jason; Rogerson, Mark; Al-Joudi, Haya; Reckess, Gila; Shpritz, Barnett; Umeh, Chizoba C; Aljehani, Noha; Mills, Kelly; Mari, Zoltan

    2015-07-01

    Concerns persist that deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) increases impulsivity or induces excessive reward seeking. We report here the performance of PD patients with implanted subthalamic nucleus electrodes, with stimulation on and off, on 3 laboratory tasks of risk taking and decision making. They are compared with PD patients maintained on medication and healthy participants. In the Game of Dice Task, a test of "risky" decision making, PD patients with or without DBS made highest risk bets more often and ended up with less money than did healthy participants. There was a trend for DBS stimulation to ameliorate this effect. Deal or No-Deal is an "ambiguous" decision-making task that assessed preference for risk (holding on to one's briefcase) over a "sure thing" (accepting the banker's offer). Here, DBS patients were more conservative with stimulation on than with it off. They accepted smaller offers from the banker and won less money in the DBS-on condition. Overall, the 2 PD groups won less money than did healthy participants. The Framing Paradigm assessed willingness to gamble on a fixed (unambiguous) prize depending on whether the reward was "framed" as a loss or a gain. Nonsurgical PD patients tended to be more risk-averse than were healthy participants, whereas DBS patients were more willing to gamble for gains as well as losses both on and off stimulation. On risky decision-making tasks, DBS patients took more risks than did healthy participants, but stimulation may temper this tendency. In contrast, in an ambiguous-risk situation, DBS patients were more risk-averse (conservative) than were healthy participants, and this tendency was greatest with stimulation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Optimization of medium composition for the production of compounds effective against Xanthomonas campestris by bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Zorana Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biocontrol agents are a very promising alternative to synthetic pesticides that are presently used to control plant diseases caused by phytopathogenic microorganisms. Members of the Bacillus genera are soil bacteria that produce significant quantities of agriculturally important bioactive compounds. Production of these compounds can be improved by changing the nutritional and environmental conditions. The aim of this study was the optimization of medium composition, using response surface methodology, for the production of compounds effective against Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. To study the production of antimicrobial compounds by selected Bacillus strain, the producing microorganisms were cultivated on nutrient broth. The inhibition zone diameter of 18.0 mm obtained by the diffusion-disc method indicated that the used Bacillus subtilis strain produces compounds with antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951. To optimize the composition of the cultivation medium in terms of glycerol, sodium nitrite and phosphates content, experiments were carried out in accordance with Box-Behnken design, and optimization of multiple responses was performed using the concept of desirability function. The developed model predicted that the maximum inhibition zone diameter (26.23 mm against tested phytopathogen is achieved when the initial content of glycerol, sodium nitrite and phosphate were 50.00 g/L, 2.85 g/L and 11.00 g/L, respectively. To minimize the consumption of medium components and costs of effluents processing, additional optimization set was made. The techno-economic analysis of the obtained results has to be done to select optimal medium composition for industrial production of antimicrobial compounds.

  6. Nucleus-nucleus interactions in the transition energy regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volant, C.

    1985-02-01

    There are at least two ways for studying large interactions in nucleus-nucleus collisions. One way is to use the method of angular correlations between fission fragments. The aim of the experiments presented here was to make a survey on the role of the various experimental parameters. In that respect three targets have been studied and different projectiles and bombarding energies have been used. Results are presented and discussed

  7. Diabatic interaction potential for nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noerenberg, W.; Lukasiak, A.

    1984-01-01

    Within a refined method for the construction of diabatic states allowing for the treatment of the full spin-orbit coupling, characteristic features of the diabatic potential for nucleus-nucleus collisions are investigated. Approximately 90% of the strong repulsion results from diabatic particle-hole excitations, while only 10% is due to compression. The diabatic interaction potential describes a physical situation intermediate between adiabatic and sudden approximations. (orig.)

  8. Importance of elastic finite-size effects: Neutral defects in ionic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, P. A.; Cooper, M. W. D.

    2017-09-01

    Small system sizes are a well-known source of error in density functional theory (DFT) calculations, yet computational constraints frequently dictate the use of small supercells, often as small as 96 atoms in oxides and compound semiconductors. In ionic compounds, electrostatic finite-size effects have been well characterized, but self-interaction of charge-neutral defects is often discounted or assumed to follow an asymptotic behavior and thus easily corrected with linear elastic theory. Here we show that elastic effects are also important in the description of defects in ionic compounds and can lead to qualitatively incorrect conclusions if inadequately small supercells are used; moreover, the spurious self-interaction does not follow the behavior predicted by linear elastic theory. Considering the exemplar cases of metal oxides with fluorite structure, we show that numerous previous studies, employing 96-atom supercells, misidentify the ground-state structure of (charge-neutral) Schottky defects. We show that the error is eliminated by employing larger cells (324, 768, and 1500 atoms), and careful analysis determines that elastic, not electrostatic, effects are responsible. The spurious self-interaction was also observed in nonoxide ionic compounds irrespective of the computational method used, thereby resolving long-standing discrepancies between DFT and force-field methods, previously attributed to the level of theory. The surprising magnitude of the elastic effects is a cautionary tale for defect calculations in ionic materials, particularly when employing computationally expensive methods (e.g., hybrid functionals) or when modeling large defect clusters. We propose two computationally practicable methods to test the magnitude of the elastic self-interaction in any ionic system. In commonly studied oxides, where electrostatic effects would be expected to be dominant, it is the elastic effects that dictate the need for larger supercells: greater than 96 atoms.

  9. TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling and PPAR-γ within the paraventricular nucleus are involved in the effects of telmisartan in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong-Bao; Li, Xiang; Huo, Chan-Juan; Su, Qing; Guo, Jing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Yuan, Zu-Yi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Shi, Xiao-Lian, E-mail: shxl@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Liu, Jin-Jun, E-mail: jupet@163.com [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Previous findings from our laboratory and others indicate that the main therapeutic effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonists is to decrease blood pressure and exert anti-inflammatory effects in the cardiovascular system. In this study, we determined whether AT1-R antagonist telmisartan within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates hypertension and hypothalamic inflammation via both the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) in the PVN in hypertensive rats. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated for 4 weeks through bilateral PVN infusion with the AT1-R antagonist telmisartan (TEL, 10 μg/h), or losartan (LOS, 20 μg/h), or the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (GW, 100 μg/h), or vehicle via osmotic minipump. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded by a tail-cuff occlusion method. PVN tissue and blood were collected for the measurement of AT1-R, PPAR-γ, pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TLR4, MyD88, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity and plasma norepinephrine (NE), respectively. Hypertensive rats exhibited significantly higher level of AT1-R and lower level of PPAR-γ in the PVN. PVN treatment with TEL attenuated MAP, improved cardiac hypertrophy, reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS levels, and plasma NE in SHR but not in WKY rats. These results were associated with reduced TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB levels and increased PPAR-γ level in the PVN of hypertensive rats. Our findings suggest that TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling and PPAR-γ within the PVN are involved in the beneficial effects of telmisartan in hypertension. - Highlights: • PVN infusion of TEL in spontaneously hypertensive rats is reported. • PVN infusion of TEL attenuates hypertension and proinflammatory cytokines in PVN. • PVN blockade of AT1-R attenuates

  10. Cocaine and Caffeine Effects on the Conditioned Place Preference Test: Concomitant Changes on Early Genes within the Mouse Prefrontal Cortex and Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Muñiz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the world's most popular psychostimulant and is frequently used as an active adulterant in many illicit drugs including cocaine. Previous studies have shown that caffeine can potentiate the stimulant effects of cocaine and cocaine-induced drug seeking behavior. However, little is known about the effects of this drug combination on reward-related learning, a key process in the maintenance of addiction and vulnerability to relapse. The goal of the present study was thus to determine caffeine and cocaine combined effects on the Conditioned Place Preference (CPP test and to determine potential differential mRNA expression in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC of immediate-early genes (IEGs as well as dopamine and adenosine receptor subunits. Mice were treated with caffeine (5 mg/kg, CAF, cocaine (10 mg/kg, COC, or their combination (caffeine 5 mg/kg + cocaine 10 mg/kg, CAF-COC and trained in the CPP test or treated with repeated injections inside the home cage. NAc and mPFC tissues were dissected immediately after the CPP test, after a single conditioning session or following psychostimulant injection in the home cage for mRNA expression analysis. CAF-COC induced a marked change of preference to the drug conditioned side of the CPP and a significant increase in locomotion compared to COC. Gene expression analysis after CPP test revealed specific up-regulation in the CAF-COC group of Drd1a, cFos, and FosB in the NAc, and cFos, Egr1, and Npas4 in the mPFC. Importantly, none of these changes were observed when animals received same treatments in their home cage. With a single conditioning session, we found similar effects in both CAF and CAF-COC groups: increased Drd1a and decreased cFos in the NAc, and increased expression of Drd1a and Drd2, in the mPFC. Interestingly, we found that cFos and Npas4 gene expression were increased only in the mPFC of the CAF-COC. Our study provides evidence that caffeine acting as

  11. Effects of membrane composition on release of model hydrophilic compound from osmotic delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, N; Ozalp, Y; Ozkan, Y

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the effects of surface-active agents in different types and concentrations, added into the coating solution, on release of model hydrophilic compound have been examined. For this purpose, the tablets, prepared with the use of methylene blue as a model substance, were coated by spray coating technique with cellulose acetate solution containing polyethylene glycol 400 as a plasticizer. In addition, cetylpyridinium chloride as cationic surface-active agent and sodium lauryl sulphate as anionic surface-active agent were added into coating solution in different concentrations. After creating a delivery orifice by a microdrill on the tablets, release of model hydrophilic compound was tested by the USP paddle method. The data obtained were evaluated according to the different kinetics and the mechanism of release from the preparations was examined. The surface properties of the coating material were investigated by scanning electron microscope taken before and after the contact with medium fluid, as well as the mechanical properties by tensile tests. In conclusion, it has been found that the cationic surface active agent, cetylpyridinium chloride reduced the lag time, observed during the release of model hydrophilic compound, as a result of its enhancing effect on wettability of tablets by reducing the contact angle between the medium fluid and the coating material. On the other hand, the anionic surface active agent, sodium lauryl sulphate has been inactivated possibly due to the interaction with model hydrophilic compound that has cationic properties and/or substances contained in membrane composition; thus, the lag time has not decreased and furthermore, a significant decrease in the delivery rate of model hydrophilic compound has been observed.

  12. Adipogenic Effects of a Combination of the Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds Bisphenol A, Diethylhexylphthalate, and Tributyltin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Biemann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The food contaminants bisphenol A (BPA, diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP, and tributyltin (TBT are potent endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC known to interfere with adipogenesis. EDC usually act in mixtures and not as single compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a simultaneous exposure of BPA, DEHP, and TBT on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into adipocytes. Methods: Multipotent murine mesenchymal stem cells (C3H10T1/2 were exposed to EDC mixtures in high concentrations, i.e. MIX-high (10 µmol/l BPA, 100 µmol/l DEHP, 100 nmol/l TBT, and in environmentally relevant concentrations, i.e. MIX-low (10 nmol/l BPA, 100 nmol/l DEHP, 1 nmol/l TBT. The exposure was performed either for the entire culture time (0-12 days or at distinct stages of adipogenic differentiation. At day 12 of cell culture, the amount of adipocytes, triglyceride content (TG, and adipogenic marker gene expression were analyzed. Results: MIX-high increased the development of adipocytes and the expression of adipogenic marker genes independently of the exposure window. The total TG amount was not increased. The low-concentrated EDC mixture had no obvious impact on adipogenesis. Conclusion: In EDC mixtures, the adipogenic effect of TBT and DEHP predominates single effects of BPA. Mixture effects of EDC are not deducible from single compound experiments.

  13. Adipogenic Effects of a Combination of the Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds Bisphenol A, Diethylhexylphthalate, and Tributyltin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemann, Ronald; Fischer, Bernd; Navarrete Santos, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Objective The food contaminants bisphenol A (BPA), diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP), and tributyltin (TBT) are potent endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) known to interfere with adipogenesis. EDC usually act in mixtures and not as single compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a simultaneous exposure of BPA, DEHP, and TBT on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into adipocytes. Methods Multipotent murine mesenchymal stem cells (C3H10T1/2) were exposed to EDC mixtures in high concentrations, i.e. MIX-high (10 µmol/l BPA, 100 µmol/l DEHP, 100 nmol/l TBT), and in environmentally relevant concentrations, i.e. MIX-low (10 nmol/l BPA, 100 nmol/l DEHP, 1 nmol/l TBT). The exposure was performed either for the entire culture time (0-12 days) or at distinct stages of adipogenic differentiation. At day 12 of cell culture, the amount of adipocytes, triglyceride content (TG), and adipogenic marker gene expression were analyzed. Results MIX-high increased the development of adipocytes and the expression of adipogenic marker genes independently of the exposure window. The total TG amount was not increased. The low-concentrated EDC mixture had no obvious impact on adipogenesis. Conclusion In EDC mixtures, the adipogenic effect of TBT and DEHP predominates single effects of BPA. Mixture effects of EDC are not deducible from single compound experiments. PMID:24503497

  14. Structure Analysis of Effective Chemical Compounds against Dengue Viruses Isolated from Isatis tinctoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Zhang, Jianming; Xie, Lianhui

    2018-01-01

    The history of Chinese herb research can be traced back to thousands of years ago, and the abundant knowledge accumulated for these herbs makes them good candidates for developing new natural drugs. Isatis tinctoria is probably the most well-studied Chinese herb, which has been identified to be effective against dengue fever. However, the underlying biological mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we adopt combined methods of bioactive trace technology and phytochemical extraction and separation, to guide the isolation and purification of the effective chemical constituents on the water-soluble components of aerial parts of Isatis tinctoria . In addition, we apply polarimetry and 1D or 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to identify their structures, which lay a foundation for further study on the biological mechanisms underlying medicinal effects of Isatis tinctoria using in vitro and in vivo experiments. Specifically, we identify and infer the structures of 27 types of chemical compounds named GB-1, GB-2, …, GB-27, respectively, among which GB-7 is a novel compound. Further study of these compounds is critical to reveal the secrets behind the medicinal effects of Isatis tinctoria .

  15. Structure Analysis of Effective Chemical Compounds against Dengue Viruses Isolated from Isatis tinctoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of Chinese herb research can be traced back to thousands of years ago, and the abundant knowledge accumulated for these herbs makes them good candidates for developing new natural drugs. Isatis tinctoria is probably the most well-studied Chinese herb, which has been identified to be effective against dengue fever. However, the underlying biological mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we adopt combined methods of bioactive trace technology and phytochemical extraction and separation, to guide the isolation and purification of the effective chemical constituents on the water-soluble components of aerial parts of Isatis tinctoria. In addition, we apply polarimetry and 1D or 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy to identify their structures, which lay a foundation for further study on the biological mechanisms underlying medicinal effects of Isatis tinctoria using in vitro and in vivo experiments. Specifically, we identify and infer the structures of 27 types of chemical compounds named GB-1, GB-2, …, GB-27, respectively, among which GB-7 is a novel compound. Further study of these compounds is critical to reveal the secrets behind the medicinal effects of Isatis tinctoria.

  16. K+ nucleus total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawafta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of K + mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K + holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K + is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K + with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K + is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon

  17. Effects of flow depth and wall roughness on turbulence in compound channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinos, P.; Townsend, R.; Tavoularis, S.

    1985-01-01

    Current methods for estimating discharge in compound channels often lead to large errors. The error is largely due to momentum transfer mechanism (MTM) generated in the junction regions of the flow field (between adjacent deep and shallow zones). The MTM adversely affects system conveyance, particularly when the velocity differential between the deep and shallow zones is large. Improved prediction methods, therefore, will necessarily reflect the MTM's presence and its effect on the compound flow field. The mechanism's influence on system hydraulics is best examined by analysing the related turbulence characteristics in the junction zones of the compound section. Townsend reported increased turbulence levels in the junction region between a main channel and its shallower flood plain zone and Elsawy, McKee and McKeogh found that observed normal turbulent stresses in a similar region were of the same order of magnitude as the apparent shear stress on the junction's vertical interface plane. The objective of the present study is to measure turbulent stresses in the junction region of a symmetrical compound open channel and examine their dependence on relative depth and relative boundary roughness. Further details of this phase of the larger study are presented elsewhere. (author)

  18. Dihydrochalcone Compounds Isolated from Crabapple Leaves Showed Anticancer Effects on Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Qin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seven dihydrochalcone compounds were isolated from the leaves of Malus crabapples, cv. “Radiant”, and their chemical structures were elucidated by UV, IR, ESI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR analyses. These compounds, which include trilobatin (A1, phloretin (A2, 3-hydroxyphloretin (A3, phloretin rutinoside (A4, phlorizin (A5, 6′′-O-coumaroyl-4′-O-glucopyranosylphloretin (A6, and 3′′′-methoxy-6′′-O-feruloy-4′-O-glucopyranosyl-phloretin (A7, all belong to the phloretin class and its derivatives. Compounds A6 and A7 are two new rare dihydrochalcone compounds. The results of a MTT cancer cell growth inhibition assay demonstrated that phloretin and these derivatives showed significant positive anticancer activities against several human cancer cell lines, including the A549 human lung cancer cell line, Bel 7402 liver cancer cell line, HepG2 human ileocecal cancer cell line, and HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. A7 had significant effects on all cancer cell lines, suggesting potential applications for phloretin and its derivatives. Adding a methoxyl group to phloretin dramatically increases phloretin’s anticancer activity.

  19. Effect of Microwave-Assisted Extraction on the Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Blackthorn Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovrić, Vanja; Putnik, Predrag; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Jukić, Marijana; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2017-06-01

    This research was undertaken to investigate the influence of extraction parameters during microwave-assisted extraction on total phenolic content, total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols of blackthorn flowers as well as to evaluate the antioxidant capacity by two different methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays). The investigated extraction parameters were: solvent type and volume fraction of alcohol in solvent (50 and 70% aqueous solutions of ethanol and methanol), extraction time (5, 15 and 25 min) and extraction temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C) controlled by microwave power of 100, 200 and 300 W. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to evaluate the differences at a 95% confidence level (p≤0.05). The obtained results show that aqueous solution of ethanol was more appropriate solvent for extraction of phenolic compounds (total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols) than aqueous solution of methanol. The amount of phenolic compounds was higher in 70% aqueous solution of ethanol or methanol, while higher antioxidant capacity was observed in 50% aqueous solution of methanol. Higher temperature of extraction improved the amount of phenolic compounds and also antioxidant capacity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity assay. Extensive duration of extraction (15- to 25-minute interval) has a significant effect only on the increase of total phenolic content, while specific phenolic compound content and antioxidant capacity were the highest when microwave extraction time of 5 min was applied.

  20. Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Composition of Odorous Compounds and Bacterial Ecology in Pig Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungback Cho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary crude protein (CP on composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities in pig manure. A total of 48 male pigs (average initial body weight 45 kg fed diets containing three levels of dietary CP (20%, 17.5%, and 15% and their slurry samples were collected from the pits under the floor every week for one month. Changes in composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities were analyzed by gas chromatography and 454 FLX titanium pyrosequencing systems, respectively. Levels of phenols, indoles, short chain fatty acid and branched chain fatty acid were lowest (p<0.05 in CP 15% group among three CP levels. Relative abundance of Bacteroidetes phylum and bacterial genera including Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Atopostipes, Peptonphilus, Ruminococcaceae_uc, Bacteroides, and Pseudomonas was lower (p<0.05 in CP 15% than in CP 20% group. There was a positive correlation (p<0.05 between odorous compounds and bacterial genera: phenol, indole, iso-butyric acid, and iso-valeric acid with Atopostipes, p-cresol and skatole with Bacteroides, acetic acid and butyric acid with AM982595_g of Porphyromonadaceae family, and propionic acid with Tissierella. Taken together, administration of 15% CP showed less production of odorous compounds than 20% CP group and this result might be associated with the changes in bacterial communities especially whose roles in protein metabolism.

  1. Effects on concrete from borated water and boric compounds cast into the concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerlund, Goeran

    2010-06-01

    A study has been made of the effects on concrete of its exposure to external water containing boric acid, and the effects on concrete of boric compounds cast into the concrete during its manufacture. According to information in literature boric acid is a weak Lewis acid that has no effect on concrete. Reaction between calcium hydroxide existing in concrete and boric acid might occur at the concrete surface. The reaction product formed (calcium-metaboritehexahydrate) has lower solubility than calcium hydroxide itself. Therefore, the reaction is reasonably harmless. Accelerated and non-accelerated test methods exist by which quantitative information on the effect of boric acid can be obtained. The test principles are described. Boron-containing compounds might be mixed into concrete in order to increase its resistance to neutron radiation. Pure boron minerals, as well as boron-containing residual materials from processing of natural boron minerals, might be used. Concrete might be affected with regard to the following properties: - Workability of the fresh concrete; - Stiffening and hardening of the concrete; - Strength (compression, tension); - Deformation (E-modulus, creep); - Durability (chemical, steel corrosion. Information in literature indicates that the hardening process might be severely affected also when rather small amounts of certain boron-containing materials are used. The effect seems to be small, or none, however, if materials with low solubility are used. The effect on workability seems to be marginal. Test methods exist by which it is practical possible to develop acceptable concrete recipes. The effects on mechanical properties are not well clarified by research. However, effects seem to be small when boron materials with low solubility are used. In one study, in which part of the cement was replaced by a boron containing colemanite waste, it was found that the E-modulus was very much reduced. The significance of this result is unclear. The

  2. Effect of freeze-drying on the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of selected tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofian, Norshahida Mohamad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Osman, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Dek, Mohd Sabri Pak; Hairuddin, Muhammad Redzuan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested.

  3. Effects of binding metronidazole to a copper-acetate compound on radiosensitizer properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negron, Ana C. Valderrama; Silva, Denise de Oliveira; Cruz, Aurea S.

    2009-01-01

    Copper compounds exhibit interesting biological properties. Nitroimidazoles show radiosensitizer properties for radiotherapy tumor treatment. In the present work, the effect of binding metronidazole (1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole = MTZ) to copper-acetate on the radiosensitizer properties has been investigated. A compound of copper-acetate-MTZ was prepared and characterized. The experiments were carried out by gamma-irradiation of Hep2 (human larynx cancer) cells under hypoxic conditions. The radiation doses for 50% cell survival in the presence of radiosensitizer were about 8.2 Gy for CuAcMTZ or free MTZ. The effect of binding metronidazole to copper acetate on radiosensitizer properties is mainly related to the radiosensitizer process which involves two events for CuAcMTZ in contrast to one event observed for the MTZ free drug. (author)

  4. Effective compounds screening from Rabdosia serra (Maxim) Hara against HBV and tumor in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Chen, Yang; Zhu, Hongyuan; Xiao, Yiyun; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Zhao, Jingfeng; Chen, Yuxiang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen and investigate the anti-HBV and anti-tumor activities of separated compounds from Rabdosia serra (Maxim.) Hara to lay the basis for further isolate active entity. Three kinds of extractions from Rabdosia serra using different solvents (petroleum ether, acetidin, butyl alcohol) were prepared and used to analyze their anti-HBV activity in HepG2.2.15 cells for further separation. The cytotoxicity of each extraction was tested by MTT assay, the levels of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA in supernatants from HepG2.2.15 cells were detected by ELISA and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then, the most effective extraction was further separated, the anti-HBV activities of separated compounds were also tested by MTT and ELISA, and three compounds with highest cytotoxicity were selected to further identify their anti-tumor activities on MCF-7, BGC-823 and HepG2 cells. Acetidin extraction C2 had the most effective anti-HBV activity that was used to be further separated, it led to statistically significant reduction in HBsAg and HBeAg secretion and HBV DNA. The separation of C2 resulted in 14 compounds, A3 and A5 markedly inhibited HBsAg secretion, while A9 inhibited HBeAg secretion in a dose-dependent manner with higher TI comparing with C2. A6, A7, A11 had different anti-tumor activity against different tumor cells. These data showed that the extraction and their separated effective compounds had strong inhibitory effect on HBV replication so as to have anti-HBV activity, and further separation and purification could enhance anti-HBV activity. Meanwhile, some compounds have high cytotoxicities on different tumor cells. Our study could provide a theoretical basis for the next clinical use and the development of potential and efficient drugs for HBV and tumor therapy from Rabdosia serra.

  5. Diabatic emission of neutrons: A probe for the energy dissipation mechanism in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noerenberg, W.; Cassing, W.

    1984-05-01

    The precompound emission of neutrons in central nucleus-nucleus collisions is investigated within the framework of dissipative diabatic dynamics. For 92 Mo + 92 Mo at bombarding energies between 7.5 and 20 MeV/u the differential neutron multiplicities dMsub(n)/dEsub(n) are estimated from the decay of highly excited diabatic single-particle states. The energy spectra have an almost exponential high-energy tail with effective temperatures up to 10 MeV for 20 MeV/u bombarding energy. (orig.)

  6. Particle production in high energy nucleus--nucleus experiments at Berkeley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1976-09-01

    A review of high energy nucleus-nucleus experiments performed at the Berkeley Bevalac is presented. Earlier results on projectile and target fragmentation and pion production are briefly summarized. More recent results on Coulomb effects in projectile fragmentation, heavy ion total cross-sections, γ-ray production, and charged particle multiplicities are presented. Also, recent experiments which may shed light on phenomena arising from the central collision of two energetic nuclei, including recent evidence for and against the observation of nuclear shock waves, are reviewed

  7. Effect of training data size and noise level on support vector machines virtual screening of genotoxic compounds from large compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Ma, Xiaohua; Liu, Xianghui; Jia, Jia; Bucong, Han; Xue, Ying; Li, Ze Rong; Yang, Sheng Yong; Wei, Yu Quan; Chen, Yu Zong

    2011-05-01

    Various in vitro and in-silico methods have been used for drug genotoxicity tests, which show limited genotoxicity (GT+) and non-genotoxicity (GT-) identification rates. New methods and combinatorial approaches have been explored for enhanced collective identification capability. The rates of in-silco methods may be further improved by significantly diversified training data enriched by the large number of recently reported GT+ and GT- compounds, but a major concern is the increased noise levels arising from high false-positive rates of in vitro data. In this work, we evaluated the effect of training data size and noise level on the performance of support vector machines (SVM) method known to tolerate high noise levels in training data. Two SVMs of different diversity/noise levels were developed and tested. H-SVM trained by higher diversity higher noise data (GT+ in any in vivo or in vitro test) outperforms L-SVM trained by lower noise lower diversity data (GT+ in in vivo or Ames test only). H-SVM trained by 4,763 GT+ compounds reported before 2008 and 8,232 GT- compounds excluding clinical trial drugs correctly identified 81.6% of the 38 GT+ compounds reported since 2008, predicted 83.1% of the 2,008 clinical trial drugs as GT-, and 23.96% of 168 K MDDR and 27.23% of 17.86M PubChem compounds as GT+. These are comparable to the 43.1-51.9% GT+ and 75-93% GT- rates of existing in-silico methods, 58.8% GT+ and 79% GT- rates of Ames method, and the estimated percentages of 23% in vivo and 31-33% in vitro GT+ compounds in the "universe of chemicals". There is a substantial level of agreement between H-SVM and L-SVM predicted GT+ and GT- MDDR compounds and the prediction from TOPKAT. SVM showed good potential in identifying GT+ compounds from large compound libraries based on higher diversity and higher noise training data.

  8. Effect of boron compounds on physical, mechanical, and fire properties of injection molded wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Turgay Akbulut; Turker Dundar; Robert H. White; Fatih Mengeloglu; Zeki Candan; Umit Buyuksari; Erkan Avci

    2011-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the injection-molded wood flour/polypropylene composites (WPCs) incorporated with different levels of boron compounds, borax/boric acid (BX/BA) (0.5:0.5 wt %) and zinc borate (ZB) (4, 8, or 12 wt %) were investigated. The effect of the coupling agent loading (2, 4, or 6 wt %), maleic anhydride-grafted PP (MAPP), on the...

  9. The compounding effect of tariffs on medicines: Estimating the real cost of emerging markets' protectionism

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Even low import tariff rates have a significant compounding effect on the final retail price of medicines, which in turn impacts on affordability. While much of the "access to affordable medicines" debate is about intellectual property rights (IPRs) and business practices of pharmaceutical manufacturers, import duties and national protectionism are swept under the political rug. In this paper, we provide a synopsis of tariff barriers for exports of pharmaceutical products to the world's major...

  10. Effect of fungal infection on phenolic compounds during the storage of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This work was undertaken to study the effect of Aspergillus infection on phenolic compounds in beans from four cultivars of the coffee plant (Coffea arabica L.. The effects of storage conditions of the coffee beans were also examined. Methodology and results: Beans from four varieties of coffee were artificially infected with three species of Aspergillus: A. niger, A. melleus and A. alliacus, and stored at 0, 8 and 25 ± 2 °C. After 3, 6 and 9 months, the contents of phenolic compounds in the beans were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Conclusion, significance and impact study: The results of this study showed that phenolic compounds were qualitatively and quantitatively higher in the inoculated beans as compared with the uninfected control beans, reflecting a possible induced defense mechanism in the infected beans. Increased storage periods resulted in higher levels of phenols, but the average total, bound and free phenols did not differ between the cultivars tested. Effective control of Apergillus infection in coffee beans can prevent such changes in phenolics that may affect their commercial value.

  11. Chemopreventive effect of natural dietary compounds on xenobiotic-induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ching Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Contaminants (or pollutants that affect human health have become an important issue, spawning a myriad of studies on how to prevent harmful contaminant-induced effects. Recently, a variety of biological functions of natural dietary compounds derived from consumed foods and plants have been demonstrated in a number of studies. Natural dietary compounds exhibited several beneficial effects for the prevention of disease and the inhibition of chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Contaminant-induced toxicity and carcinogenesis are mostly attributed to the mutagenic activity of reactive metabolites and the disruption of normal biological functions. Therefore, the metabolic regulation of hazardous chemicals is key to reducing contaminant-induced adverse health effects. Moreover, promoting contaminant excretion from the body through Phase I and II metabolizing enzymes is also a useful strategy for reducing contaminant-induced toxicity. This review focuses on summarizing the natural dietary compounds derived from common dietary foods and plants and their possible mechanisms of action in the prevention/suppression of contaminant-induced toxicity.

  12. Cell Nucleus-Targeting Zwitterionic Carbon Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yun Kyung; Shin, Eeseul; Kim, Byeong-Su

    2015-12-22

    An innovative nucleus-targeting zwitterionic carbon dot (CD) vehicle has been developed for anticancer drug delivery and optical monitoring. The zwitterionic functional groups of the CDs introduced by a simple one-step synthesis using β-alanine as a passivating and zwitterionic ligand allow cytoplasmic uptake and subsequent nuclear translocation of the CDs. Moreover, multicolor fluorescence improves the accuracy of the CDs as an optical code. The CD-based drug delivery system constructed by non-covalent grafting of doxorubicin, exhibits superior antitumor efficacy owing to enhanced nuclear delivery in vitro and tumor accumulation in vivo, resulting in highly effective tumor growth inhibition. Since the zwitterionic CDs are highly biocompatible and effectively translocated into the nucleus, it provides a compelling solution to a multifunctional nanoparticle for substantially enhanced nuclear uptake of drugs and optical monitoring of translocation.

  13. Study on ionizing radiation effects in diesel and crude oil: organic compounds, hydrocarbon, sulfur and nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Luana dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum is the most important energy and pollution source in the world, nowadays. New technologies in petrochemical industry aim to minimize energy spending at the process and to reduce pollution products. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds generate environmental problems; the most relevant is air pollution that affects the population health directly. The nuclear technology has been used in environmental protection through pollutants removal by free radicals produced at action of the radiation in water molecule. The objective of this study is to evaluate the radiation effects on oil and diesel, mainly in the hydrocarbons, organic sulfur, and nitrogen compounds. It was studied a molecule model of sulfur, named benzothiophene, diesel and crude oil samples. The samples were irradiated using a Co-60 source, Gammacell type. The total sulfur concentration in the samples was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study of molecular model showed that 95% was degraded at 20 kGy dose rate. Irradiation at 15 kGy of absorbed dose showed some cracking in petrol hydrocarbons, however with higher doses it was observed polymerization and low efficiency of cracking. It was observed that the sulfur compounds from diesel and petroleum was efficiently reduced. The applied doses of 15 kGy and 30 kGy were the most efficient on desulfurization of petroleum, and for diesel the highest variation was observed with 30 kGy and 50 kGy of absorbed dose. The distillation and chromatographic separation using an open column with palladium chloride as stationary phase showed a preferential separation of organic sulfur compounds in petroleum. (author)

  14. synthesis and labelling of some nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.L.

    2002-01-01

    the imidazole nucleus has wide range of pharmaceutical activities . also , radioiodinated compounds are used in nuclear medicine. this thesis deals with the synthesis of 2-(iodophenyl)-4-oxazoline-5-ons e, which are used as starting materials in the synthesis of the corresponding imidazolinone derivatives. also, it deals with radioiodination f the synthesized compounds to evaluate their application in nuclear medicine. interaction of o- iodo hippuric acid (I) with aromatic aldehydes (i.e., benzaldehyde, p- methoxybenzaldehyde and p- nitrobenzaldehyde) in acetic anhydride and in the presence of fused sodium acetate effected cyclization to afford the corresponding 2-(2-iodophenyl)-4-arylidene- 2-oxazoline-5-ones(l l a-c )

  15. Nucleus accumbens opioid, GABaergic, and dopaminergic modulation of palatable food motivation: contrasting effects revealed by a progressive ratio study in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Balmadrid, Christian; Kelley, Ann E

    2003-04-01

    The current studies were designed to evaluate whether incentive motivation for palatable food is altered after manipulations of opioid, GABAergic, and dopaminergic transmission within the nucleus accumbens. A progressive ratio schedule was used to measure lever-pressing for sugar pellets after microinfusion of drugs into the nucleus accumbens in non-food-deprived rats. The mu opioid agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyo15-enkephalin and the indirect dopamine agonist amphetamine induced a marked increase in break point and correct lever-presses; the GABA(A) agonist muscimol did not affect breakpoint or lever-presses. The data suggest that opioid, dopaminergic, and GABAergic systems within the accumbens differentially modulate food-seeking behavior through mechanisms related to hedonic evaluation of food, incentive salience, and control of motor feeding circuits, respectively.

  16. The kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) cell population of the arcuate nucleus: sex differences and effects of prenatal testosterone in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guanliang; Coolen, Lique M; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Goodman, Robert L; Lehman, Michael N

    2010-01-01

    Recent work in sheep has identified a neuronal subpopulation in the arcuate nucleus that coexpresses kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (referred to here as KNDy cells) and that mediate the negative feedback influence of progesterone on GnRH secretion. We hypothesized that sex differences in progesterone negative feedback are due to sexual dimorphism of KNDy cells and compared neuropeptide and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in this subpopulation between male and female sheep. In addition, because sex differences in progesterone negative feedback and neurokinin B are due to the influence of testosterone (T) during fetal life, we determined whether prenatal T exposure would mimic sex differences in KNDy cells. Adult rams had nearly half the number of kisspeptin, neurokinin B, dynorphin, and progesterone receptor-positive cells in the arcuate nucleus as did females, but the percentage of KNDy cells colocalizing progesterone receptors remained high in both sexes. Prenatal T treatment also reduced the number of dynorphin, neurokinin B, and progesterone receptor-positive cells in the female arcuate nucleus; however, the number of kisspeptin cells remained high and at levels comparable to control females. Thus, sex differences in kisspeptin in the arcuate nucleus, unlike that of dynorphin and neurokinin B, are not due solely to exposure to prenatal T, suggesting the existence of different critical periods for multiple peptides coexpressed within the same neuron. In addition, the imbalance between inhibitory (dynorphin) and stimulatory (kisspeptin) neuropeptides in this subpopulation provides a potential explanation for the decreased ability of progesterone to inhibit GnRH neurons in prenatal T-treated ewes.

  17. The Kisspeptin/Neurokinin B/Dynorphin (KNDy) Cell Population of the Arcuate Nucleus: Sex Differences and Effects of Prenatal Testosterone in Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Guanliang; Coolen, Lique M.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Goodman, Robert L.; Lehman, Michael N.

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in sheep has identified a neuronal subpopulation in the arcuate nucleus that coexpresses kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (referred to here as KNDy cells) and that mediate the negative feedback influence of progesterone on GnRH secretion. We hypothesized that sex differences in progesterone negative feedback are due to sexual dimorphism of KNDy cells and compared neuropeptide and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in this subpopulation between male and female sheep. In ...

  18. The effects of dietary phenolic compounds on cytokine and antioxidant production by A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauliard, Benoit; Grieve, Douglas; Wilson, Rhoda; Crozier, Alan; Jenkins, Carol; Mullen, William D; Lean, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Levels of inflammatory cytokines are raised in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A diet rich in antioxidant vitamins may protect against the development of COPD. This study examined the effects of phenolic compounds and food sources on cytokine and antioxidant production by A549 cells. The effects of the following phenolic compounds on basal and interleukin (IL)-1-stimulated release of IL-8, IL-6, and reduced glutathione (GSH) were examined: resveratrol; Bouvrage, a commercially available raspberry juice (Ella Drinks Ltd., Alloa, Clacksmannanshire, UK); and quercetin 3'-sulfate. Purification of the raspberry juice by high-performance liquid chromatography gave three fractions: Fraction 1 contained phenolic acid and vitamin C, Fraction 2 contained flavonoids and ellagic acid, and Fraction 3 contained anthocyanins and ellagitannins. IL-8 production was increased in the presence of IL-1 (165 vs. 6,011 pg/mL, P or =50 micromol/mL significantly inhibited IL-8 and IL-6 production. Similar findings were made with raspberry juice at concentrations > or =25 microL/mL, and Fractions 1 and 3 were best able to inhibit IL-8 production. Quercetin 3'-sulfate, at 25 micromol/mL, inhibited IL-8 and IL-6 production. The changes observed in IL-8 were paralleled by changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Thus, phenolic compounds can significantly alter cytokine and antioxidant production.

  19. Effect of Freeze-Drying on the Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Tropical Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Redzuan Hairuddin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L., mango (Mangifera indica L., papaya (Carica papaya L., muskmelon (Cucumis melo L., and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb. were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05 differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC, were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05 change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05 higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05 but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested.

  20. Effect of aromatic compounds on radiation resistance of polymers studied by optical emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Shunichi; Hagiwara, Miyuki

    1987-10-01

    To clarify the effects of condensed bromoacenaphthylene (con-BACN) as a newly developed flame retardant on the radiation resistance of ethylene-propylene-diene-terpolymer (EPDM), optical emission behavior of aromatic compounds, acenaphthylene and acenaphthene as model compound of con-BACN was studied. The energy absorbed in polymer matrix is transferred to the aromatic molecules very fast within 1 ns, and introduces excited states of aromatic compound. The fluorescence from naphthalene units of the additives with peak at 337 and 350 nm (named AT emission band) was observed in EPDM containing acenaphthene or acenaphthylene. When aromatic peroxide was used as a crosslinking agent, another emission band (Xn band) was observed at 400 nm. It was found that these emission bands play a role in trapping sites in which a part of radiation energy release in the form of fluorescence. The energy level of the excited state was correlated to the radiation stability measured with coloration and oxidation reaction of the polymer. Furthermore, acenaphthylene having a reactive vinyl bond forms excimer emission band Ex whose level is lower than those of AT and Xn bands, and therefore, enhances radiation stability of matrix polymer by giving effective routes for energy release. (author)