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Sample records for compound fusion increases

  1. Estimating the melting point, entropy of fusion, and enthalpy of fusion of organic compounds via SPARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entropies of fusion, enthalies of fusion, and melting points of organic compounds can be estimated through three models developed using the SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) platform. The entropy of fusion is modeled through a combination of interaction ...

  2. Development of Lead Compounds as Fusion Inhibitors for Dengue Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Identification of antiviral agents is critical to the development of therapeutic treatments directed against dengue virus (DENV), for which there is no...infection and exposure of US military personnel to the disease might be offered by antiviral agents as a treatment strategy. The dengue virus...0285 TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF LEAD COMPOUNDS AS FUSION INHIBITORS FOR DENGUE VIRUS PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: TOMAS PEREZ-ACLE

  3. CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY INCREASE USING MULTISENSOR DATA FUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Makarau

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The practical use of very high resolution visible and near-infrared (VNIR data is still growing (IKONOS, Quickbird, GeoEye-1, etc. but for classification purposes the number of bands is limited in comparison to full spectral imaging. These limitations may lead to the confusion of materials such as different roofs, pavements, roads, etc. and therefore may provide wrong interpretation and use of classification products. Employment of hyperspectral data is another solution, but their low spatial resolution (comparing to multispectral data restrict their usage for many applications. Another improvement can be achieved by fusion approaches of multisensory data since this may increase the quality of scene classification. Integration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR and optical data is widely performed for automatic classification, interpretation, and change detection. In this paper we present an approach for very high resolution SAR and multispectral data fusion for automatic classification in urban areas. Single polarization TerraSAR-X (SpotLight mode and multispectral data are integrated using the INFOFUSE framework, consisting of feature extraction (information fission, unsupervised clustering (data representation on a finite domain and dimensionality reduction, and data aggregation (Bayesian or neural network. This framework allows a relevant way of multisource data combination following consensus theory. The classification is not influenced by the limitations of dimensionality, and the calculation complexity primarily depends on the step of dimensionality reduction. Fusion of single polarization TerraSAR-X, WorldView-2 (VNIR or full set, and Digital Surface Model (DSM data allow for different types of urban objects to be classified into predefined classes of interest with increased accuracy. The comparison to classification results of WorldView-2 multispectral data (8 spectral bands is provided and the numerical evaluation of the method in

  4. Potential ternary compounds for first wall fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D.J.; Kisi, E.; Riley, D.; Healy, M.

    2005-01-01

    The demands placed on a first wall in a fusion facility are both numerous and demanding. In most cases up till now, the materials considered have largely been elemental or two component alloys but so far none have met the demanding benchmarks for a practical solution for long term applications. A family of compounds, call MAX Phases, cover a broad range of elements and have very promising synthesis properties as well as physical properties which indicate that they are well placed to be considered as potential candidates. There are over 600 compounds in this family though only 50 known have been synthesised so far, so it is not yet possible to claim a thorough study has been undertaken of this class of material. An examination of the properties of just one compound, Ti 3 SiC 2 , shows the potential for this class of materials. Consideration of Ti 3 SiC 2 is based on the earlier work on TiC and SiC as potential first wall materials. As a three element material Ti 3 SiC 2 is essentially a machineable ceramic with exceptional properties and is suited to both mechanical and electrical applications. Ti 3 SiC 2 has the high temperature and chemical resistance of a ceramic combined with a degree of ductility and a higher electrical conductivity than pure Ti. Furthermore, the material has far higher thermal conductivity than commercial stainless steel or Ti alloys, and although it has a high fracture toughness at high temperatures, it can be machined using conventional hardened steel tools. It exhibits excellent damage tolerance and good thermal shock resistance. Ti 3 SiC 2 has the advantage that there are a number of synthesis processes established which provide the opportunity to tailor the synthesis to meet specialist needs. One form of manufacture, called Self-Propagation High-Temperature Synthesis (SHS) promises to both form large quantities relatively inexpensively but also, through the high temperatures generated, will facilitate bonding to a variety of surfaces

  5. Load Rate of Facet Joints at the Adjacent Segment Increased After Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hui; Pei, Bao-Qing; Yang, Jin-Cai; Hai, Yong; Li, De-Yu; Wu, Shu-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cause of the adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after fusion remains unknown. It is reported that adjacent facet joint stresses increase after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. This increase of stress rate may lead to tissue injury. Thus far, the load rate of the adjacent segment facet joint after fusion remains unclear. Methods: Six C2-C7 cadaveric spine specimens were loaded under four motion modes: Flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending, with a pure m...

  6. Structure?Activity Relationship Studies of Indole-Based Compounds as Small Molecule HIV-1 Fusion Inhibitors Targeting Glycoprotein 41

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Guangyan; Sofiyev, Vladimir; Kaur, Hardeep; Snyder, Beth A.; Mankowski, Marie K.; Hogan, Priscilla A.; Ptak, Roger G.; Gochin, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    We previously described indole-containing compounds with the potential to inhibit HIV-1 fusion by targeting the hydrophobic pocket of transmembrane glycoprotein gp41. Here we report optimization and structure?activity relationship studies on the basic scaffold, defining the role of shape, contact surface area, and molecular properties. Thirty new compounds were evaluated in binding, cell?cell fusion, and viral replication assays. Below a 1 ?M threshold, correlation between binding and biologi...

  7. Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.

    1976-01-01

    It is proposed that Iran as a world's potential supplier of fossile fuel should participate in fusion research and gain experience in this new field. Fusion, as an ultimate source of energy in future, and the problems concerned with the fusion reactors are reviewed. Furthermore; plasma heating, magnetic and inertial confinement in a fusion reactor are discussed. A brief description of tokamak, theta pinch and magnetic mirror reactors is also included

  8. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  9. Load Rate of Facet Joints at the Adjacent Segment Increased After Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cause of the adjacent segment degeneration (ASD after fusion remains unknown. It is reported that adjacent facet joint stresses increase after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. This increase of stress rate may lead to tissue injury. Thus far, the load rate of the adjacent segment facet joint after fusion remains unclear. Methods: Six C2-C7 cadaveric spine specimens were loaded under four motion modes: Flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending, with a pure moment using a 6° robot arm combined with an optical motion analysis system. The Tecscan pressure test system was used for testing facet joint pressure. Results: The contact mode of the facet joints and distributions of the force center during different motions were recorded. The adjacent segment facet joint forces increased faster after fusion, compared with intact conditions. While the magnitude of pressures increased, there was no difference in distribution modes before and after fusion. No pressures were detected during flexion. The average growth velocity during extension was the fastest and was significantly faster than lateral bending. Conclusions: One of the reasons for cartilage injury was the increasing stress rate of loading. This implies that ASD after fusion may be related to habitual movement before and after fusion. More and faster extension is disadvantageous for the facet joints and should be reduced as much as possible.

  10. Load rate of facet joints at the adjacent segment increased after fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Pei, Bao-Qing; Yang, Jin-Cai; Hai, Yong; Li, De-Yu; Wu, Shu-Qin

    2015-04-20

    The cause of the adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after fusion remains unknown. It is reported that adjacent facet joint stresses increase after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. This increase of stress rate may lead to tissue injury. Thus far, the load rate of the adjacent segment facet joint after fusion remains unclear. Six C2-C7 cadaveric spine specimens were loaded under four motion modes: Flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending, with a pure moment using a 6° robot arm combined with an optical motion analysis system. The Tecscan pressure test system was used for testing facet joint pressure. The contact mode of the facet joints and distributions of the force center during different motions were recorded. The adjacent segment facet joint forces increased faster after fusion, compared with intact conditions. While the magnitude of pressures increased, there was no difference in distribution modes before and after fusion. No pressures were detected during flexion. The average growth velocity during extension was the fastest and was significantly faster than lateral bending. One of the reasons for cartilage injury was the increasing stress rate of loading. This implies that ASD after fusion may be related to habitual movement before and after fusion. More and faster extension is disadvantageous for the facet joints and should be reduced as much as possible.

  11. Single-screw fixation for subtalar joint fusion does not increase nonunion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarbo, William T; Berlet, Gregory C; Hyer, Christopher F; Smith, W Bret

    2010-08-01

    A philosophical shift toward more joint-sparing procedures has led to increased use of isolated subtalar joint (STJ) versus triple arthrodesis. Union rates for STJ fusion range from 47% to 100%, leading to controversy regarding the optimal type, orientation, and amount of internal fixation. The purpose of this study was to determine if single-screw fixation is a predisposing factor to nonunion. Single-screw fixation is parallel to the STJ axis and may result in motion. It is hypothesized that higher nonunion rates will be observed in single-screw versus 2-screw fusions. Isolated STJ arthrodeses performed in 113 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Single screws were used in 89 (78.8%) fusions; 2 screws were used in 24 (21.2%) fusions. The mean follow-up was 11 months (range, 9-17 months). Nonunion occurred in 13 (14.6%) single-screw and 6 (25.0%) 2-screw fusions. Twenty (22.5%) single-screw and 3 (12.5%) 2-screw fusions required hardware removal. Revision surgery was performed in 6 (6.7%) single-screw and 3 (12.5%) 2-screw fusions. No significant differences in demographics were calculated between single and 2-screw fusions. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed in nonunion rate, postoperative complication incidence, or subsequent surgeries. The results from this study do not support the contention that single-screw fixation predisposes STJ fusions to nonunion. Comparable nonunion and complication incidences were observed between single and 2-screw fusions. These data suggest that the motion occurring from single-screw fixation may not be significant enough to directly affect the rate of union.

  12. Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  13. Intergenus Protoplast Fusion between Pichia manshurica and Rhodosporidium paludigenum to Increase the Production of Inulinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijanarka Wijanarka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study was to identify the optimum concentration of the lytic enzyme Glucanex for protoplast isolation and to conduct fusion for the purpose of increasing inulinase production. The study performs the protoplast fusion technique using Pichia manshurica and Rhodosporidium paludigenum. Protoplast fusion consists of a series of stages: protoplast isolation, protoplast fusion, protoplast regeneration, and analysis of hybrid fusion results. Protoplast isolation and fusion success rate are determined by various factors, including age of the culture, media type, and type of lytic enzymes used. Hybrid results were analyzed using a fungicide as a marker and measuring specific growth rate (μ of the hybrid compared with parental growth rates. Results demonstrated that a concentration of 4 mg/mL of Glucanex produces the greatest number of protoplasts, 7.2 x 1010 (cell/mL for P. manshurica and 8.8 x 1010 (cell/mL for Rh. paludigenum. The results of analysis of hybrid fusions indicate that the study has identified a new fusant, called fusant F4. Fusant F4 is capable of producing the highest inulinase, 0.6892 IU, compared with parentals P. manshurica, 0557 IU, and Rh. paludigenum, 0.3263 IU. Fusant F4 has specific growth rate (μ of 0.3360/h and generation time (g of 2.0629 h.

  14. Structure-activity relationship studies of indole-based compounds as small molecule HIV-1 fusion inhibitors targeting glycoprotein 41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangyan; Sofiyev, Vladimir; Kaur, Hardeep; Snyder, Beth A; Mankowski, Marie K; Hogan, Priscilla A; Ptak, Roger G; Gochin, Miriam

    2014-06-26

    We previously described indole-containing compounds with the potential to inhibit HIV-1 fusion by targeting the hydrophobic pocket of transmembrane glycoprotein gp41. Here we report optimization and structure-activity relationship studies on the basic scaffold, defining the role of shape, contact surface area, and molecular properties. Thirty new compounds were evaluated in binding, cell-cell fusion, and viral replication assays. Below a 1 μM threshold, correlation between binding and biological activity was diminished, indicating an amphipathic requirement for activity in cells. The most active inhibitor 6j exhibited 0.6 μM binding affinity and 0.2 μM EC50 against cell-cell fusion and live virus replication and was active against T20 resistant strains. Twenty-two compounds with the same connectivity displayed a consensus pose in docking calculations, with rank order matching the biological activity. The work provides insight into requirements for small molecule inhibition of HIV-1 fusion and demonstrates a potent low molecular weight fusion inhibitor.

  15. Structure–Activity Relationship Studies of Indole-Based Compounds as Small Molecule HIV-1 Fusion Inhibitors Targeting Glycoprotein 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We previously described indole-containing compounds with the potential to inhibit HIV-1 fusion by targeting the hydrophobic pocket of transmembrane glycoprotein gp41. Here we report optimization and structure–activity relationship studies on the basic scaffold, defining the role of shape, contact surface area, and molecular properties. Thirty new compounds were evaluated in binding, cell–cell fusion, and viral replication assays. Below a 1 μM threshold, correlation between binding and biological activity was diminished, indicating an amphipathic requirement for activity in cells. The most active inhibitor 6j exhibited 0.6 μM binding affinity and 0.2 μM EC50 against cell–cell fusion and live virus replication and was active against T20 resistant strains. Twenty-two compounds with the same connectivity displayed a consensus pose in docking calculations, with rank order matching the biological activity. The work provides insight into requirements for small molecule inhibition of HIV-1 fusion and demonstrates a potent low molecular weight fusion inhibitor. PMID:24856833

  16. Prediction of enthalpy of fusion of pure compounds using an Artificial Neural Network-Group Contribution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagheizi, Farhad, E-mail: fghara@ut.ac.ir [Saman Energy Giti Co., Postal Code 3331619636,Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salehi, Gholam Reza [Islamic Azad University Nowshahr Branch, Nowshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-10

    Highlights: {yields} An Artificial Neural Network-Group Contribution method is presented for prediction of enthalpy of fusion of pure compounds at their normal melting point. {yields} Validity of the model is confirmed using a large evaluated data set containing 4157 pure compounds. {yields} The average percent error of the model is equal to 2.65% in comparison with the experimental data. - Abstract: In this work, the Artificial Neural Network-Group Contribution (ANN-GC) method is applied to estimate the enthalpy of fusion of pure chemical compounds at their normal melting point. 4157 pure compounds from various chemical families are investigated to propose a comprehensive and predictive model. The obtained results show the Squared Correlation Coefficient (R{sup 2}) of 0.999, Root Mean Square Error of 0.82 kJ/mol, and average absolute deviation lower than 2.65% for the estimated properties from existing experimental values.

  17. Mitochondrial fusion is increased by the nuclear coactivator PGC-1beta.

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    Marc Liesa

    Full Text Available There is no evidence to date on whether transcriptional regulators are able to shift the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission events through selective control of gene expression.Here, we demonstrate that reduced mitochondrial size observed in knock-out mice for the transcriptional regulator PGC-1beta is associated with a selective reduction in Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2 expression, a mitochondrial fusion protein. This decrease in Mfn2 is specific since expression of the remaining components of mitochondrial fusion and fission machinery were not affected. Furthermore, PGC-1beta increases mitochondrial fusion and elongates mitochondrial tubules. This PGC-1beta-induced elongation specifically requires Mfn2 as this process is absent in Mfn2-ablated cells. Finally, we show that PGC-1beta increases Mfn2 promoter activity and transcription by coactivating the nuclear receptor Estrogen Related Receptor alpha (ERRalpha.Taken together, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which mammalian cells control mitochondrial fusion. In addition, we describe a novel role of PGC-1beta in mitochondrial physiology, namely the control of mitochondrial fusion mainly through Mfn2.

  18. Predictive approaches to increase absorption of compounds during lead optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valko, Klara; Butler, James; Eddershaw, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Complex physicochemical and biological processes influence the oral absorption of a drug molecule. Consideration of these processes is an important activity during the optimisation of potential candidate molecules. The authors review the applications of physicochemical and structural requirements for intestinal absorption. Furthermore, they provide examples of how to aid the lead optimisation process through improvement of solubility and permeability. The physicochemical requirements for absorption are solubility and permeability. Both are influenced by lipophilicity, but in the opposite way. The size of the molecule also affects both solubility and permeability. Several models can be used to estimate oral absorption from chemical structure or from measured physicochemical properties. Thus, logD-cMR model, the 'golden triangle' model, Abraham solvation equations and absorption potential can be used as tools in the lead optimisation process. Measured values of solubility and permeability greatly improve the estimation of in vivo oral absorption of compounds. However, it is important to appreciate that predictions of oral absorption may be confounded by the involvement of active transporters in the gut which may either increase (e.g., active uptake) or decrease (e.g., efflux) the absorption of drug molecules. To evaluate the first-pass metabolism, in vitro clearance measurements using liver microsomes can be used in physiologically based models for the estimation of bioavailability. The general tools discussed in this review are based on the physicochemical property assessment of compound libraries and they help design compounds that occupy desirable property space with increased likelihood of good oral absorption.

  19. Analyses of the activation of near term fusion reactor compound materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengar, I.

    2007-01-01

    One of the important questions that still have to be solved for the next generation fusion reactors is the choice of the material to be used for the first wall. An important criteria is low activation due to neutron bombardment from the plasma. One of the promising materials is the SiC/SiC composite. Its main elemental constituents, namely the C and Si, have very good activation characteristics. The main contribution to activity arises, however, from trace elements, which are needed in the sintering process and remain in the material afterwards. Before the preparation process of the material, the activation characteristics of individual constituents are needed. The activation properties of the whole sample could than be estimated by summing the weighted properties of individual constituents. The activity of a particular trace element is, however, not necessarily dependent only on the percentage of the element in the sample, but also on the presence of other elements in the compound due to the charge particle production and/or (n, 2n) reactions. The extension of this effect is investigated and to what extent individual calculations, performed for a single element, mimic the real situation. Further the activation characteristic for several possible sintering aid elements is theoretically investigated with the use of the FISPACT inventory code. (author)

  20. Increased Total Anesthetic Time Leads to Higher Rates of Surgical Site Infections in Spinal Fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Ross C; Murphy, Meghan; Maloney, Patrick; Kor, Daryl; Nassr, Ahmad; Freedman, Brett; Fogelson, Jeremy; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective review of a consecutive series of spinal fusions comparing patient and procedural characteristics of patients who developed surgical site infections (SSIs) after spinal fusion. It is known that increased surgical time (incision to closure) is associated with a higher rate of postoperative SSIs. We sought to determine whether increased total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) is a factor in the development of SSIs as well. In spine surgery for deformity and degenerative disease, SSI has been associated with operative time, revealing a nearly 10-fold increase in SSI rates in prolonged surgery. Surgical time is associated with infections in other surgical disciplines as well. No studies have reported whether total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) has an association with SSIs. Surgical records were searched in a retrospective fashion to identify all spine fusion procedures performed between January 2010 and July 2012. All SSIs during that timeframe were recorded and compared with the list of cases performed between 2010 and 2012 in a case-control design. There were 20 (1.7%) SSIs in this fusion cohort. On univariate analyses of operative factors, there was a significant association between total anesthetic time (Infection 7.6 ± 0.5 hrs vs. no infection -6.0 ± 0.1 hrs, P operative time (infection 5.5 ± 0.4 hrs vs. no infection - 4.4 ± 0.06 hrs, P infections, whereas level of pathology and emergent surgery were not significant. On multivariate logistic analysis, BMI and total anesthetic time remained independent predictors of SSI whereas ASA status and operative time did not. Increasing BMI and total anesthetic time were independent predictors of SSIs in this cohort of over 1000 consecutive spinal fusions. 3.

  1. Decisive factor in increase of loading at adjacent segments after lumbar fusion: operative technique, pedicle screws, or fusion itself: biomechanical analysis using finite element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon-Hee; Kim, Ho-Joong; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Kim, Ka-yeon; Chun, Heoung-Jae; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the change in biomechanical milieu following removal of pedicle screws or removal of spinous process with posterior ligament complex in instrumented single level lumbar arthrodesis. We developed and validated a finite element model (FEM) of the intact lumbar spine (L2-4). Four scenarios of L3-4 lumbar fusion were simulated: posterolateral fusion (PLF) at L3-4 using pedicle screw system with preservation of PLC (Pp WiP), L3-4 lumbar posterolateral fusion state after removal of pedicle screw system with preservation of PLC (Pp WoP), L3-4 using pedicle screw system without preservation PLC (Sp WiP), L3-4 lumbar posterolateral fusion state after removal of pedicle screw system without preservation of PLC (Sp WoP). For these models, we investigated the range of motion and maximal Von mises stress of disc in all segments under various moments. All fusion models demonstrated increase in range of motion at adjacent segments compared to the intact model.For the four fusion models, the WiP model s P had the largest increase in range of motion at each adjacent segment. This study demonstrated that removal of pedicle screw system and preservation of PLC after complete lumbar spinal fusion could reduce the stress of adjacent segments synergistically and might have beneficial effects in preventing ASD.

  2. Study of the angular momentum distribution of compound nuclei obtained from fusion reactions close to the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romain, P.

    1990-03-01

    The effect of the mass asymmetry of the input channel on the compound nuclei spin distribution. The 16 O + 144 Nd and 80 Se + 80 Se reactions produce the same 160 Er compound nucleus in the 38 to 68 MeV energy range. In certain cases, the incident energies required to form the compound nucleus, at the same excitation energies, are very close to the Coulomb barrier. In the experimental device, the 'Chateau de Cristal' multidetector and additional sensors are used. The angular momentum distribution of the different evaporation products are measured by gamma spectrometry techniques. The fusion cross sections are measured by the time-of-flight technique. Theoretical predictions and experimental results concerning the distribution of the compound nucleus angular momentum are compared [fr

  3. The enlarged lysosomes in beigej cells result from decreased lysosome fission and not increased lysosome fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durchfort, Nina; Verhoef, Shane; Vaughn, Michael B; Shrestha, Rishna; Adam, Dieter; Kaplan, Jerry; Ward, Diane McVey

    2011-01-01

    Chediak-Higashi Syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects vesicle morphology. The Chs1/Lyst protein is a member of the BEACH family of proteins. The absence of Chs1/Lyst gives rise to enlarged lysosomes. Lysosome size is regulated by a balance between vesicle fusion and fission and can be reversibly altered by acidifying the cytoplasm using Acetate Ringer’s or by incubating with the drug vacuolin-1. We took advantage of these procedures to determine rates of lysosome fusion and fission in the presence or absence of Chs1/Lyst. Here we show by microscopy, flow cytometry and in vitro fusion that the absence of the Chs1/Lyst protein does not increase the rate of lysosome fusion. Rather, our data indicate that loss of this protein decreases the rate of lysosome fission. We further show that overexpression of the Chs1/Lyst protein gives rise to a faster rate of lysosome fission. These results indicate that Chs1/Lyst regulates lysosome size by affecting fission. PMID:21985295

  4. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid increases reserve compounds and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro culture system for Senna spectabilis and to quantify contents of storage compounds and spectaline in induced calli in relation to exogenous auxin. Explants (cotyledon, hypocotyl, epicotyl, and leaf) were cultured on MS medium containing different concentrations of 2 ...

  5. Teriparatide increases the insertional torque of pedicle screws during fusion surgery in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Gen; Ueno, Masaki; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Imura, Takayuki; Saito, Wataru; Uchida, Kentaro; Ohtori, Seiji; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahira, Naonobu; Takaso, Masashi

    2014-09-01

    The object of this study was to examine the efficacy of preoperative teriparatide treatment for increasing the insertional torque of pedicle screws during fusion surgery in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Fusion surgery for the thoracic and/or lumbar spine was performed in 29 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis aged 65-82 years (mean 72.2 years). The patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether they were treated with teriparatide (n = 13) or not (n = 16) before the surgery. In the teriparatide-treated group, patients received preoperative teriparatide therapy as either a daily (20 μg/day, n = 7) or a weekly (56.5 μg/week, n = 6) injection for a mean of 61.4 days and a minimum of 31 days. During surgery, the insertional torque was measured in 212 screws inserted from T-7 to L-5 and compared between the 2 groups. The correlation between the insertional torque and the duration of preoperative teriparatide treatment was also investigated. The mean insertional torque value in the teriparatide group was 1.28 ± 0.42 Nm, which was significantly higher than in the control group (1.08 ± 0.52 Nm, p osteoporosis. Preoperative teriparatide treatment might be an option for maximizing the purchase of the pedicle screws to the bone at the time of fusion surgery.

  6. Increased Cell Fusion in Cerebral Cortex May Contribute to Poststroke Regeneration

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    Alexander Paltsyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used a model of a hemorrhagic stroke in a motor zone of the cortex in rats at the age of 3 months The report shows that cortical neurons can fuse with oligodendrocytes. In formed binuclear cells, the nucleus of an oligodendrocyte undergoes neuron specific reprogramming. It can be confirmed by changes in chromatin structure and in size of the second nucleus, by expression of specific neuronal markers and increasing total transcription rate. The nucleus of an oligodendrocyte likely transforms into a second neuronal nucleus. The number of binuclear neurons was validated with quantitative analysis. Fusion of neurons with oligodendrocytes might be a regenerative process in general and specifically following a stroke. The appearance of additional neuronal nuclei increases the functional outcome of the population of neurons. Participation of a certain number of binuclear cells in neuronal function might compensate for a functional deficit that arises from the death of a subset of neurons. After a stroke, the number of binuclear neurons increased in cortex around the lesion zone. In this case, the rate of recovery of stroke-damaged locomotor behavior also increased, which indicates the regenerative role of fusion.

  7. A fusion DNA vaccine that targets antigen-presenting cells increases protection from viral challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliyannis, Georgia; Boyle, Jefferey S.; Brady, Jamie L.; Brown, Lorena E.; Lew, Andrew M.

    2000-06-01

    Improving the immunological potency, particularly the Ab response, is a serious hurdle for the protective efficacy and hence broad application of DNA vaccines. We examined the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a hemagglutinin-based influenza DNA vaccine that was targeted to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) by fusion to CTLA4. The targeted vaccine was shown to induce an accelerated and increased Ab response (as compared with those receiving the nontargeted control) that was predominated by IgG1 and recognized conformationally dependent viral epitopes. Moreover, mice receiving the APC-targeted DNA vaccine had significantly reduced viral titers (100-fold) after a nonlethal virus challenge. The increased protective efficacy was most likely because of increased Ab responses, as cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses were not enhanced. Targeting was demonstrated by direct binding studies of CTLA4 fusion proteins to the cognate ligand (B7; expressed on APCs in vivo). In addition, a targeted protein was detected at 4-fold higher levels in draining lymph nodes within 2-24 h of administration. Therefore, this study demonstrates that targeting DNA-encoded antigen to APCs results in enhanced immunity and strongly suggests that this approach may be useful in improving the protective efficacy of DNA vaccines.

  8. Mitochondrial Fragmentation Due to Inhibition of Fusion Increases Cyclin B through Mitochondrial Superoxide Radicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas M Gupte

    Full Text Available During the cell cycle, mitochondria undergo regulated changes in morphology. Two particularly interesting events are first, mitochondrial hyperfusion during the G(1-S transition and second, fragmentation during entry into mitosis. The mitochondria remain fragmented between late G(2- and mitotic exit. This mitotic mitochondrial fragmentation constitutes a checkpoint in some cell types, of which little is known. We bypass the 'mitotic mitochondrial fragmentation' checkpoint by inducing fragmented mitochondrial morphology and then measure the effect on cell cycle progression. Using Drosophila larval hemocytes, Drosophila S2R(+ cell and cells in the pouch region of wing imaginal disc of Drosophila larvae we show that inhibiting mitochondrial fusion, thereby increasing fragmentation, causes cellular hyperproliferation and an increase in mitotic index. However, mitochondrial fragmentation due to over-expression of the mitochondrial fission machinery does not cause these changes. Our experiments suggest that the inhibition of mitochondrial fusion increases superoxide radical content and leads to the upregulation of cyclin B that culminates in the observed changes in the cell cycle. We provide evidence for the importance of mitochondrial superoxide in this process. Our results provide an insight into the need for mitofusin-degradation during mitosis and also help in understanding the mechanism by which mitofusins may function as tumor suppressors.

  9. Older literature review of increased risk of adjacent segment degeneration with instrumented lumbar fusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) following lumbar spine surgery occurs in up to 30% of cases, and descriptions of such changes are not new. Here, we review some of the older literature concerning the rate of ASD, typically more severe cephalad than caudad, and highly correlated with instrumented fusions. Therefore, for degenerative lumbar disease without frank instability, ASD would be markedly reduced by avoiding instrumented fusions. Methods: In a prior review, the newer literature regarding the frequency of ASD following lumbar instrumented fusions (e.g., transforaminal or posterior lumbar interbody fusions [TLIF/PLIF] fusions or occasionally, posterolateral fusions [PLFs]) was presented. Some studies cited an up to an 18.5% incidence of ASD following instrumented versus noninstrumented fusions/decompressions alone (5.6%). A review of the older literature similarly documents a higher rate of ASD following instrumented fusions performed for degenerative lumbar disease alone. Results: More frequent and more severe ASD follows instrumented lumbar fusions performed for degenerative lumbar disease without instability. Alternatively, this entity should be treated with decompressions alone or with noninstrumented fusions, without the addition of instrumentation. Conclusions: Too many studies assume that TLIF, PLIF, and even PLF instrumented fusions are the “gold standard of care” for dealing with degenerative disease of the lumbar spine without documented instability. It is time to correct that assumption, and reassess the older literature along with the new to confirm that decompression alone and noninstrumented fusion avoid significant morbidity and even potentially mortality attributed to unnecessary instrumentation. PMID:26904370

  10. Membrane fusion inducers, chloroquine and spermidine increase lipoplex-mediated gene transfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong-Baeza, Carlos; Bustos, Israel; Serna, Manuel; Tescucano, Alonso; Alcantara-Farfan, Veronica; Ibanez, Miguel; Montanez, Cecilia; Wong, Carlos; Baeza, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Gene transfection into mammalian cells can be achieved with viral and non-viral vectors. Non-viral vectors, such as cationic lipids that form lipoplexes with DNA, are safer and more stable than viral vectors, but their transfection efficiencies are lower. Here we describe that the simultaneous treatment with a membrane fusion inducer (chlorpromazine or procainamide) plus the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine increases lipoplex-mediated gene transfection in human (HEK293 and C-33 A) and rat (PC12) cell lines (up to 9.2-fold), as well as in situ in BALB/c mice spleens and livers (up to 6-fold); and that the polyamine spermidine increases lipoplex-mediated gene transfection and expression in cell cultures. The use of these four drugs provides a novel, safe and relatively inexpensive way to considerably increase lipoplex-mediated gene transfection efficiency.

  11. Investigations and calculations toward increasing the efficiency of muon catalyzed fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monkhorst, H.J.

    1989-11-01

    A brief summary of results during this report period is given. Some of the topics investigated includes: (1) calculations of sticking fractions and d-t fusion from dtμ(JV) states, (2) ddμ sticking fractions, (3) the reactivation coefficient in d-t fusion, (4) fusion rates for all XYμ(JV)(JV=0,1), (5) nuclear effects on energy shifts and fusion rates for (J=O) states of dtμ, (6) and some comments on cold fusion

  12. Safety handling procedures of beryllium intermetallic compound on fusion blanket study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibayama, Tamaki; Nakamichi, Masaru; Miyamoto, Mitsutaka; Kuga, Noriyoshi; Dorn, Christopher K.; Knudson, Theodore L.

    2011-01-01

    Beryllium generates neutrons through (n, 2n) reaction; therefore, it is the essential functional material in the nuclear engineering as neutron multiplier. In thermonuclear reactors, it is the important candidate for plasma-facing materials. In recent years, the development of Beryllium intermetallic compounds with improved thermal properties and safety in handling has made considerable progress especially in Japan. In the present review, the state-of-the-art studies on Beryllium intermetallic compounds are introduced. (J.P.N.)

  13. Just-in-Time Compound Pooling Increases Primary Screening Capacity without Compromising Screening Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, L L; Harden, D G; Saldanha, S; Ferguson, H; Cheney, D L; Pieniazek, S N; Maloney, D P; Zewinski, J; O'Connell, J; Banks, M

    2015-06-01

    Compound pooling, or multiplexing more than one compound per well during primary high-throughput screening (HTS), is a controversial approach with a long history of limited success. Many issues with this approach likely arise from long-term storage of library plates containing complex mixtures of compounds at high concentrations. Due to the historical difficulties with using multiplexed library plates, primary HTS often uses a one-compound-one-well approach. However, as compound collections grow, innovative strategies are required to increase the capacity of primary screening campaigns. Toward this goal, we have developed a novel compound pooling method that increases screening capacity without compromising data quality. This method circumvents issues related to the long-term storage of complex compound mixtures by using acoustic dispensing to enable "just-in-time" compound pooling directly in the assay well immediately prior to assay. Using this method, we can pool two compounds per well, effectively doubling the capacity of a primary screen. Here, we present data from pilot studies using just-in-time pooling, as well as data from a large >2-million-compound screen using this approach. These data suggest that, for many targets, this method can be used to vastly increase screening capacity without significant reduction in the ability to detect screening hits. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  14. Fusion-Fission like studies from medium heavy to light compound systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusch, B.

    1991-01-01

    It has been shown that for systems as light as A CN = 47 up to systems just above the Businaro Gallone point in the mass region of 100 to 110 the probability for a system to deexcite by the fission channel, is not negligible. As predicted, the asymmetrical separation becomes dominant when the A CN mass is decreasing but the symmetrical mode remains measurable. The ambiguities in the measured outgoing fragment distributions arise from the competition with IMF emissions as well as dynamical fission processes which depend strongly on the studied system. Fully relaxed DIC has also be used to interpret the results. I tried to show that precise checks on the behavior of two neighbouring systems as well as search for entrance channel effect and/or energy dependence bring evidence enough that the deexcitation of the compound nucleus can account for the symmetric and asymmetric fission channels as well as IMF emissions. This is strongly supported by different recent calculations all done in this frame. These all conclusions indicate also that the RLDM fails in the data interpretation. The strength of the fission channel depends strongly on the possibilities a system has to deexcite. For very light systems especially the number of open channels available determines directly the flux repartition between direct or compound processes and therefore very large differences in the general behaviour of two neighbouring systems can be observed. 15 figs

  15. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  16. HIV gp41 fusion peptide increases membrane ordering in a cholesterol-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Alex L; Freed, Jack H

    2014-01-07

    Fusion between viral envelopes and host cell membranes, which is mediated by special glycoproteins anchored on the viral membrane, is required for HIV viral entry and infection. The HIV gp41 fusion peptide (FP), which initiates membrane fusion, adopts either an α-helical or β-sheeted structure depending on the cholesterol concentration. We used phosphocholine spin labels on the lipid headgroup and different positions on the acyl chain to detect its perturbation on lipid bilayers containing different cholesterol concentrations by electron-spin resonance. Our findings were as follows. 1), gp41 FP affects the lipid order in the same manner as previously shown for influenza hemagglutinin FP, i.e., it has a cooperative effect versus the peptide/lipid ratio, supporting our hypothesis that membrane ordering is a common prerequisite for viral membrane fusion. 2), gp41 FP induces membrane ordering in all lipid compositions studied, whereas a nonfusion mutant FP perturbs lipid order to a significantly smaller extent. 3), In high-cholesterol-containing lipid bilayers, where gp41 FP is in the β-aggregation conformation, its effect on the lipid ordering reaches deeper into the bilayer. The different extent to which the two conformers perturb is correlated with their fusogenicity. The possible role of the two conformers in membrane fusion is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Post-fusion treatment with MG132 increases transcription factor expression in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jinyoung; Lee, Joohyeong; Kim, Jinyoung; Park, Junhong; Lee, Eunsong

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of post-fusion treatment of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) oocytes with the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 on maturation promoting factor (MPF) activity, nuclear remodeling, embryonic development, and gene expression of cloned pig embryos. Immediately after electrofusion, SCNT oocytes were treated with MG132 and/or caffeine for 2 hr, vanadate for 0.5 hr, or vanadate for 0.5 hr followed by MG132 for 1.5 hr. Of the MG132 concentrations tested (0-5 microM), the 1 microM concentration showed a higher rate of blastocyst formation (25.9%) than 0 (14.2%), 0.5 (16.9%), and 5 microM (16.9%). Post-fusion treatment with MG132, caffeine, and both MG132 and caffeine improved blastocyst formation (22.1%, 21.4%, and 24.4%, respectively), whereas vanadate treatment inhibited blastocyst formation (6.5%) compared to the control (11.1%). When examined 2 hr after fusion and 1 hr after activation, MPF activity remained at a higher (P fusion with caffeine and/or MG132, but it was decreased by vanadate. The rate of oocytes showing premature chromosome condensation was not altered by MG132 but was decreased by vanadate treatment. In addition, formation of single pronuclei was increased by MG132 compared to control and vanadate treatment. MG132-treated embryos showed increased expression of POU5F1, DPPA2, DPPA3, DPPA5, and NDP52l1 genes compared to control embryos. Our results demonstrate that post-fusion treatment of SCNT oocytes with MG132 prevents MPF degradation and increases expression of transcription factors in SCNT embryos, which are necessary for normal development of SCNT embryos. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. How bilateral iliolumbar fusion increases the stability of horizontal osteosynthesis in unstable pelvic ring injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzay, T; Sztrinkai, G; Gál, T; Simonovics, J; Váradi, K

    2013-07-01

    In type C pelvic ring injuries, the operative stabilization of the posterior ring is absolutely indicated. There exist four different types of operative methods: iliosacral screw fixation, transsacral plate synthesis, ventral plate fixation (primarily for sacroiliac luxations), and local plate synthesis performed on the dorsal cortex of the sacrum. In our current article, we analyzed the stability of fixation methods used together with bilateral iliolumbar techniques. We analyzed a finite element pelvic model attached to lumbar 4-5 vertebrae. By imitating a standing position on two feet, we measured the differences in tension and displacement in T1 and T2 thoracic vertebrae fractures with and without iliolumbar fusion in cases of iliosacral screw fixation, transsacral plate synthesis and KFI-H (small fragment-H) plate synthesis. The osteosynthesises reinforced via Galveston technique were rather stable; the amount of displacement measured in the fracture gap was significantly less than in the cases without iliolumbar fusion. The tension in the implants were below the allowed values, therefore they were capable of withstanding the imposed loads without permanent deformation. In unilateral pelvis injuries, if a non-weight bearing status cannot be achieved on the injured side, unilateral iliolumbar fusion reinforcement is justified, since the contralateral lower limb must also be non-weight bearing due to the pelvis injury itself. In the case of the most unstable sacrum fracture--"jumper's fracture", bilateral iliolumbar fusion is necessary, in which case the patient will be able to bear weight during the early postoperative period.

  19. Surgical fusion of early onset severe scoliosis increases survival in Rett syndrome: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Torode, Ian; Wong, Kingsley; Ellaway, Carolyn; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Izatt, Maree T; Askin, Geoffrey N; Mcphee, Bruce I; Cundy, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-06-01

    Scoliosis is a common comorbidity in Rett syndrome and spinal fusion may be recommended if severe. We investigated the impact of spinal fusion on survival and risk of severe lower respiratory tract infection in Rett syndrome. Data were ascertained from hospital medical records, the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, a longitudinal and population-based registry, and from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Death Index database. Cox regression and generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate the effects of spinal surgery on survival and severe respiratory infection respectively in 140 females who developed severe scoliosis (Cobb angle ≥45°) before adulthood. After adjusting for mutation type and age of scoliosis onset, the rate of death was lower in the surgery group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-0.74; p=0.009) compared to those without surgery. Rate of death was particularly reduced for those with early onset scoliosis (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.52; p=0.002). There was some evidence to suggest that spinal fusion was associated with a reduction in risk of severe respiratory infection among those with early onset scoliosis (risk ratio 0.41, 95% CI 0.16-1.03; p=0.06). With appropriate cautions, spinal fusion confers an advantage to life expectancy in Rett syndrome. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  20. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng

    2015-10-27

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46–212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130–160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28–48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  1. Central Sensitization Inventory as a Predictor of Worse Quality of Life Measures and Increased Length of Stay Following Spinal Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, E Emily; Walsh, Kevin M; Thompson, Nicolas R; Krishnaney, Ajit A

    2017-08-01

    Central sensitization is abnormal and intense enhancement of pain mechanism by the central nervous system. Patients with central sensitization may be at higher risk of poor outcomes after spinal fusion. The Central Sensitivity Inventory (CSI) was developed to identify and quantify key symptoms related to central sensitization. In 664 patients who underwent thoracic and/or lumbar fusion, we evaluated retrospectively pretreatment CSI as a predictor of postoperative quality of life measures, length of stay, and discharge status. Preoperative Pain Disability Questionnaire scores, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores, and EuroQol-5 Dimensions index scores were significantly worse in patients with preoperative CSI ≥40 compared with patients with preoperative CSI <40 (P < 0.0001 for all). After adjusting for demographic variables, operation duration, and preoperative health status, preoperative CSI was significantly associated with higher postoperative Pain Disability Questionnaire total score (unadjusted P < 0.001, adjusted P = 0.009), higher postoperative Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score (unadjusted P < 0.001, adjusted P = 0.001), and lower postoperative EuroQol-5 Dimensions index (unadjusted P < 0.001, adjusted P = 0.001). For each 10-unit increase in CSI, average length of stay increased by 6.4% (95% confidence interval 0.4%-12.6%, P = 0.035). The odds of being discharged home after adjusting for confounders was not statistically related to preoperative CSI (P = 0.0709). Preoperative CSI was associated with worse quality of life outcomes and increased length of stay after spinal fusions. CSI may be an additional measure in evaluating patients preoperatively to better predict successful spinal fusion outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lipopolysaccharide-induced multinuclear cells: Increased internalization of polystyrene beads and possible signals for cell fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi, E-mail: nakanim@iwate-med.ac.jp; Yano, Shio; Futai, Masamitsu

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •LPS induces multinuclear cells from murine macrophage-derived RAW264.7 cells. •Large beads are internalized by cells actively fusing to become multinuclear. •The multinuclear cell formation is inhibited by anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL10. •Signal transduction for cell fusion is different from that for inflammation. -- Abstract: A murine macrophage-derived line, RAW264.7, becomes multinuclear on stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria. These multinuclear cells internalized more polystyrene beads than mononuclear cells or osteoclasts (Nakanishi-Matsui, M., Yano, S., Matsumoto, N., and Futai, M., 2012). In this study, we analyzed the time courses of cell fusion in the presence of large beads. They were internalized into cells actively fusing to become multinuclear. However, the multinuclear cells once formed showed only low phagocytosis activity. These results suggest that formation of the multinuclear cells and bead internalization took place simultaneously. The formation of multinuclear cells was blocked by inhibitors for phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phospholipase C, calcineurin, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. In addition, interleukin 6 and 10 also exhibited inhibitory effects. These signaling molecules and cytokines may play a crucial role in the LPS-induced multinuclear cell formation.

  3. Aerobic Biofilms Grown from Athabasca Watershed Sediments Are Inhibited by Increasing Concentrations of Bituminous Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, John R.; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Roy, Julie L.; Swerhone, George D. W.; Korber, Darren R.; Greer, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Sediments from the Athabasca River and its tributaries naturally contain bitumen at various concentrations, but the impacts of this variation on the ecology of the river are unknown. Here, we used controlled rotating biofilm reactors in which we recirculated diluted sediments containing various concentrations of bituminous compounds taken from the Athabasca River and three tributaries. Biofilms exposed to sediments having low and high concentrations of bituminous compounds were compared. The latter were 29% thinner, had a different extracellular polysaccharide composition, 67% less bacterial biomass per μm2, 68% less cyanobacterial biomass per μm2, 64% less algal biomass per μm2, 13% fewer protozoa per cm2, were 21% less productive, and had a 33% reduced content in chlorophyll a per mm2 and a 20% reduction in the expression of photosynthetic genes, but they had a 23% increase in the expression of aromatic hydrocarbon degradation genes. Within the Bacteria, differences in community composition were also observed, with relatively more Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria and less Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes in biofilms exposed to high concentrations of bituminous compounds. Altogether, our results suggest that biofilms that develop in the presence of higher concentrations of bituminous compounds are less productive and have lower biomass, linked to a decrease in the activities and abundance of photosynthetic organisms likely due to inhibitory effects. However, within this general inhibition, some specific microbial taxa and functional genes are stimulated because they are less sensitive to the inhibitory effects of bituminous compounds or can degrade and utilize some bitumen-associated compounds. PMID:24056457

  4. Assessment of the Fusion Tags on Increasing Soluble Production of the Active TEV Protease Variant and Other Target Proteins in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuelian; Sun, Jiaqi; Wang, Weiyu; Jiang, Li; Cheng, Beijiu; Fan, Jun

    2017-06-01

    In this study, five fusion tags affecting soluble production and cleavage activity of the tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease (TEVp) variant in Escherichia coli strains BL21 (DE3) and Rosetta™ (DE3) are investigated. Combination of the augmenting rare transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and the fused expressivity tag (N-terminal seven amino acid residues of E. coli translation initiation factor II) promotes the soluble TEVp partner expressed at relatively high level. Attachment of the maltose-binding protein (MBP) tag increases soluble expression of the protease released from the fusion protein in E. coli cells, but the incorporated TEVp recognition sequence slightly decreases expressivity of the fusion construct. Except for the green fluorescent protein, the attached expressivity tag shows less efficiency than the MBP tag in enhancing expression levels of the selected five target proteins in the Rosetta™ (DE3) cells under different induction conditions. Our results identified that high-level production of the functional target protein as the fusion partner in E. coli is combined with the intrinsic property of fusion tag, fusion protein stability, inherent folding of target protein, rare tRNA abundance, and the incorporated linker. Purified TEVp fusion constructs with the N-terminal expressivity tag, as well as the MBP partner, are the ideal alternatives for removing fusion tag.

  5. Increasing the magnetic-field capability of the magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system using an inductively coupled coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnak, D. H.; Davies, J. R.; Fiksel, G.; Chang, P.-Y.; Zabir, E.; Betti, R.

    2018-03-01

    Magnetized high energy density physics (HEDP) is a very active and relatively unexplored field that has applications in inertial confinement fusion, astrophysical plasma science, and basic plasma physics. A self-contained device, the Magneto-Inertial Fusion Electrical Discharge System, MIFEDS [G. Fiksel et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 016105 (2015)], was developed at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics to conduct magnetized HEDP experiments on both the OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997)] and OMEGA EP [J. H. Kelly et al., J. Phys. IV France 133, 75 (2006) and L. J. Waxer et al., Opt. Photonics News 16, 30 (2005)] laser systems. Extremely high magnetic fields are a necessity for magnetized HEDP, and the need for stronger magnetic fields continues to drive the redevelopment of the MIFEDS device. It is proposed in this paper that a magnetic coil that is inductively coupled rather than directly connecting to the MIFEDS device can increase the overall strength of the magnetic field for HEDP experiments by increasing the efficiency of energy transfer while decreasing the effective magnetized volume. A brief explanation of the energy delivery of the MIFEDS device illustrates the benefit of inductive coupling and is compared to that of direct connection for varying coil size and geometry. A prototype was then constructed to demonstrate a 7-fold increase in energy delivery using inductive coupling.

  6. Increased Arctic Deposition of Persistent Compounds as a Result of the Montreal Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C.; Pickard, H. M.; De Silva, A. O.; Spencer, C.; Criscitiello, A. S.; Muir, D.; Sharp, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) are among the diverse groups of compounds characterized as persistent organic pollutants. They are toxic, resistant to environmental degradation, and adversely impact human and environmental health. PFCAs with four or fewer carbons, short-chain PFCAs (scPFCAs), are of particular interest because of their increasing levels in the environment, toxicity to plants, and potential for accumulation in some aquatic ecosystems, making them an emerging environmental concern. A minor source of scPFCAs to the Arctic has been shown to be atmospheric transformation of fluoropolymer precursors, followed by deposition. Additional potential sources of scPFCAs to the Arctic are chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-replacement compounds. Through analysis of an ice core from the Canadian High Arctic, we show that Montreal Protocol-mandated introduction of CFC-replacement compounds for the heat-transfer industry has led to increasing inputs of these scPFCAs to the remote environment. Flux measurements for scPFCAs as a class of contaminants have only been reported in a couple studies to date. Here, we provide the first multi-decadal temporal record of scPFCA deposition, demonstrating a dramatic increase in deposition resulting from emission of CFC-replacements. These results bring to the forefront a need for a holistic approach to environmental risk assessment that considers impacts of replacement substances and degradation products.

  7. A single amino acid substitution in the core protein of West Nile virus increases resistance to acidotropic compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Martín-Acebes

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a worldwide distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus that naturally cycles between birds and mosquitoes, although it can infect multiple vertebrate hosts including horses and humans. This virus is responsible for recurrent epidemics of febrile illness and encephalitis, and has recently become a global concern. WNV requires to transit through intracellular acidic compartments at two different steps to complete its infectious cycle. These include fusion between the viral envelope and the membrane of endosomes during viral entry, and virus maturation in the trans-Golgi network. In this study, we followed a genetic approach to study the connections between viral components and acidic pH. A WNV mutant with increased resistance to the acidotropic compound NH4Cl, which blocks organelle acidification and inhibits WNV infection, was selected. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that this mutant displayed a single amino acid substitution (Lys 3 to Glu on the highly basic internal capsid or core (C protein. The functional role of this replacement was confirmed by its introduction into a WNV infectious clone. This single amino acid substitution also increased resistance to other acidification inhibitor (concanamycin A and induced a reduction of the neurovirulence in mice. Interestingly, a naturally occurring accompanying mutation found on prM protein abolished the resistant phenotype, supporting the idea of a genetic crosstalk between the internal C protein and the external glycoproteins of the virion. The findings here reported unveil a non-previously assessed connection between the C viral protein and the acidic pH necessary for entry and proper exit of flaviviruses.

  8. A single amino acid substitution in the core protein of West Nile virus increases resistance to acidotropic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; de Oya, Nereida Jiménez; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Shi, Pei-Yong; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a worldwide distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus that naturally cycles between birds and mosquitoes, although it can infect multiple vertebrate hosts including horses and humans. This virus is responsible for recurrent epidemics of febrile illness and encephalitis, and has recently become a global concern. WNV requires to transit through intracellular acidic compartments at two different steps to complete its infectious cycle. These include fusion between the viral envelope and the membrane of endosomes during viral entry, and virus maturation in the trans-Golgi network. In this study, we followed a genetic approach to study the connections between viral components and acidic pH. A WNV mutant with increased resistance to the acidotropic compound NH4Cl, which blocks organelle acidification and inhibits WNV infection, was selected. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that this mutant displayed a single amino acid substitution (Lys 3 to Glu) on the highly basic internal capsid or core (C) protein. The functional role of this replacement was confirmed by its introduction into a WNV infectious clone. This single amino acid substitution also increased resistance to other acidification inhibitor (concanamycin A) and induced a reduction of the neurovirulence in mice. Interestingly, a naturally occurring accompanying mutation found on prM protein abolished the resistant phenotype, supporting the idea of a genetic crosstalk between the internal C protein and the external glycoproteins of the virion. The findings here reported unveil a non-previously assessed connection between the C viral protein and the acidic pH necessary for entry and proper exit of flaviviruses.

  9. Increasing risk of compound flooding from storm surge and rainfall for major US coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Thomas; Jain, Shaleen; Bender, Jens; Meyers, Steven; Luther, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk is a well-known facet of natural hazards along the US coastline where nearly 40% of the population resides in coastal counties. Given the heavy reliance on the coastal zone for natural resources and economic activity, flood preparedness and safety is a key element of long-term resilience. A clear understanding of the various flood types and changes in the frequency of their occurrence is critical towards reliable estimates of vulnerability and potential impacts in the near-term as well as into the future. When the two main flood drivers for coastal areas storm surge and heavy precipitation occur in tandem the potential for significant flooding is much greater than from either in isolation. Exploring the probability of these 'compound events' and understanding the processes driving them is essential to mitigate the associated high impact risks. For the contiguous US the likelihood of the joint occurrence of the two phenomena is largely unknown. Here we show - using storm surge and precipitation records spanning the last century - that the risk of compound flooding is higher for the US east and Gulf coasts, relative to the west coast. We also show that the number of compound events has increased significantly over the last century along large coastline stretches including many of the major coastal cities. For New York City - as an example - this increase is attributed to a shift towards storm surge weather patterns also favouring high precipitation. Preliminary analyses reveal that these synoptic scale changes are closely linked to large scale and low frequency climate variations. Our results demonstrate the importance of assessing the risk of compound flooding within the design process of coastal and urban infrastructure in a non-stationary framework and to explore the potential effects of climate change on these high impact events.

  10. Does low-dose aspirin increase blood loss after spinal fusion surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Bong; Cho, Kyu-Jung; Moon, Kyung-Ho; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Jung, Se-Jin

    2011-04-01

    Low-dose aspirin for the prevention of cardiovascular disease is recommended to be discontinued at least 7 days before spinal surgery. To determine the effect of stopping low-dose aspirin at least 7 days before surgery on the level of the perioperative blood loss or complications related to hemorrhage. Retrospective case study. Patients who underwent spinal fusion surgery for degenerative lumbar disease. Clinical outcome was measured by the Oswestry Disability Index. The aspirin group included 38 patients who had taken 100 mg aspirin for an average of 40.3 months. They stopped aspirin for at least 7 days before surgery (mean, 9.0 days). The control group included 38 patients who had not taken aspirin. Both groups were matched in terms of age, gender, number of fused segments, and surgical procedures. The diagnosis in all patients was degenerative spinal disease. The mean age in the aspirin and control groups was 68.5 and 69.1 years, respectively. The mean number of levels fused was 2.0 segments in both groups. During surgery, the estimated blood loss was 855.3 cc in the aspirin group and 840.8 cc in the control group with no significant difference (p=.84). However, there was a significant difference in blood drainage after surgery. The hemovac blood drainage after surgery was 864.4 cc in the aspirin group but only 458.4 cc in the control group (pdrainage after surgery was significantly higher in the aspirin group despite stopping aspirin 7 days before surgery. Hence, surgeons should pay careful attention to postoperative blood loss and complications related to hemorrhage in patients who have been taking low-dose aspirin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fusion of a xylan-binding module to gluco-oligosaccharide oxidase increases activity and promotes stable immobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu V Vuong

    Full Text Available The xylan-binding module Clostridium thermocellum CBM22A was successfully fused to a gluco-oligosaccharide oxidase, GOOX-VN, from Sarocladium strictum via a short TP linker, allowing the fused protein to effectively bind different xylans. The presence of the CtCBM22A at the N-terminal of GOOX-VN increased catalytic activity on mono- and oligo-saccharides by 2-3 fold while not affecting binding affinity to these substrates. Notably, both GOOX-VN and its CBM fusion also showed oxidation of xylo-oligosaccharides with degrees of polymerization greater than six. Whereas fusion to CtCBM22A did not alter the thermostability of GOOX-VN or reduce substrate inhibition, CtCBM22A_GOOX-VN could be immobilized to insoluble oat spelt xylan while retaining wild-type activity. QCM-D analysis showed that the fused enzyme remained bound during oxidation. These features could be harnessed to generate hemicellulose-based biosensors that detect and quantify the presence of different oligosaccharides.

  12. Synergism among volatile organic compounds resulting in increased antibiosis in Oidium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Gary A; Spang, Shanney; Kluck, Katreena; Hess, W M; Sears, Joe; Livinghouse, Tom

    2008-06-01

    Oidium sp. has been recovered as an endophyte in Terminalia catappa (tropical chestnut) in Costa Rica. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of this organism uniquely and primarily consist of esters of propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-, and butanoic acid, 3-methyl-. The VOCs of Oidium sp. are slightly inhibitory to many plant pathogenic fungi. Previous work on the VOCs of Muscodor albus demonstrated that besides esters of small organic acids, a small organic acid and a naphthalene derivative were needed to obtain maximum antibiotic activity. Thus, the addition of exogenous volatile compounds such as isobutyric acid and naphthalene, 1,1'-oxybis caused a dramatic synergistic increase in the antibiotic activity of the VOCs of Oidium sp. against Pythium ultimum. In fact, at elevated concentrations, there was not only 100% inhibition of P. ultimum but killing as well. In addition, a coculture of Muscodor vitigenus (making only naphthalene) and Oidium sp. plus isobutyric acid produced an additive antibiosis effect against P. ultimum. The biological implications of multiple volatile compounds acting to bring about antibiosis in nature are discussed.

  13. Elicitor Mixtures Significantly Increase Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, and Quality Parameters in Sweet Bell Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Garcia-Mier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet bell peppers are greatly appreciated for their taste, color, pungency, and aroma. Additionally, they are good sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be improved by the use of elicitors. Elicitors act as metabolite-inducing factors (MIF by mimic stress conditions. Since plants rarely experience a single stress condition one by one but are more likely to be exposed to simultaneous stresses, it is important to evaluate the effect of elicitors on plant secondary metabolism as mixtures. Jasmonic acid (JA, hydrogen peroxide (HP, and chitosan (CH were applied to fruits and plants of bell pepper as mixtures. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and quality parameters were evaluated. The assessed elicitor cocktail leads to an increase in the variables evaluated (P ≤ 0.05 when applied to mature fruits after harvest, whereas the lowest values were observed in the treatment applied to immature fruits. Therefore, the application of the elicitor cocktail to harvested mature fruits is recommended in order to improve bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of sweet bell peppers.

  14. Nuclear structure effects in fusion-fission of compound systems 20,21,22Ne formed in 10,11B+10,11B reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, BirBikram; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Varinderjit; Gupta, Raj K.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) of Gupta and collaborators has been successfully applied to the decay of number of hot and rotating compound nuclei in different mass regions, formed in low-energy heavy ion reactions. Recently, its application to the binary symmetric decay (BSD) of very light mass compound systems 20,21,22 Ne formed in 10,11 B+ 10,11 B reactions at E lab =48 MeV is extended, as the experimental data for σ BSD Expt . is available, namely, for 20 Ne (∼ 270 mb), 21 Ne ( 22 Ne ( BSD DCM for the BSD of the three Ne systems is calculated, comprising fusion-fission σ ff and deep inelastic scattering/orbiting σorb contributions (evaluated empirically here) from compound nucleus CN and non-compound nucleus nCN processes, respectively. The significant observation from this study is that, of the total σ BSD DCM , σ ff contribution is very strong for the decay of 20 Ne (=195.270 mb; >70%), followed by 21 Ne (=65.723 mb; ∼50%) and 22 Ne (=8.677 mb; almost 10%). This means that the process of collective clusterization within the DCM is playing very strong role for the decay of 20 Ne

  15. Changes in the volatile compound production of fermentations made from musts with increasing grape content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyzers, Robert A; Boss, Paul K

    2010-01-27

    Wine is a complex consumer product produced predominately by the action of yeast upon grape juice. Model must systems have proven to be ideal for studies into the effects of fermentation conditions on the production of certain wine volatiles. To clarify the contribution of grape juice to the production of wine volatiles, we have employed a model must system spiked with increasing amounts of grape juice (Riesling or Cabernet Sauvignon). The resulting fermented wines were analyzed by SPME-GC-MS and the data obtained grouped using ANOVA and cluster analyses to reveal those compounds that varied in concentration with reproducible trends relative to juice concentration. Such grouping highlights those compounds that are grape-dependent or for which production is modulated by grape composition. In some cases, increasing the proportion of grape juice in the fermentations stimulated the production of certain esters to levels between 2- and 140-fold higher than those seen in fermentations made with model grape juice media alone. The identification of the grape components responsible for the increased production of these wine volatiles will have implications for the impact of grape production and enology on wine flavor and aroma.

  16. Increased motor neuron resilience by small molecule compounds that regulate IGF-II expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Teresia M; Beagan, Jonathan; Isacson, Ole

    2018-02-01

    The selective vulnerability of motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is evident by sparing of a few subpopulations during this fast progressing and debilitating degenerative disease. By studying the gene expression profile of resilient vs. vulnerable motor neuron populations we can gain insight in what biomolecules and pathways may contribute to the resilience and vulnerability. Several genes have been found to be differentially expressed in the vulnerable motor neurons of the cervical spinal cord as compared to the spared motor neurons in CNIII/IV. One gene that is differentially expressed and present at higher levels in less vulnerable motor neurons is insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The motor neuron protective effect of IGF-II has been demonstrated both in vitro and in SOD1 transgenic mice. Here, we have screened a library of small molecule compounds and identified inducers of IGF-II mRNA and protein expression. Several identified compounds significantly protected motor neurons from glutamate excitotoxicity in vitro. One of the compounds, vardenafil, resulted in a complete motor neuron protection, an effect that was reversed by blocking receptors of IGF-II. When administered to naïve rats vardenafil was present in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased IGF-II mRNA expression in the spinal cord. When administered to SOD1 transgenic mice, there was a significant delay in motor symptom onset and prolonged survival. Vardenafil also increased IGF-II mRNA and protein levels in motor neurons derived from healthy subject and ALS patient iPSCs, activated a human IGF-II promoter and improved survival of ALS-patient derived motor neurons in culture. Our findings suggest that modulation of genes differentially expressed in vulnerable and resilient motor neurons may be a useful therapeutic approach for motor neuron disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Biofortification (Se: Does it increase the content of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil (VOO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto D'Amato

    Full Text Available Extra-Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO is a fundamental component of the Mediterranean diet and it may contain several anti-oxidant substances, such as phenols. Previous research has shown that this food may be enriched in phenols by spraying a sodium-selenate solution (100 mg L-1 Se onto the crop canopy before flowering. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of this Se-fertilization before flowering (cv. Leccino on the phenolic profile of EVOOs, and test to what extent such effects depend on the weather pattern, as observed in two contrasting experimental seasons (2013 and 2014. Results showed that Se-fertilisation enriched EVOOs both in selenium (up to 120 μg kg-1 and in phenols (up to 401 mg kg-1. This latter enrichment was related to an increase in PAL (L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase activities and it was largely independent on the climatic pattern. Considering the phenolic profile, oleacein, ligustroside, aglycone and oleocanthal were the most affected compounds and were increased by 57, 50 and 32%, respectively. All these compounds, especially oleacein, have been shown to exert a relevant anti-oxidant activity, contributing both to the shelf-life of EVOOs and to positive effects on human health. It is suggested that Se-fertilisation of olive trees before flowering may be an interesting practice, particularly with poor cultivars and cold and rainy weather patterns, which would normally lead to the production of EVOOs with unfavourable phenolic profile.

  18. Nitrogen Additions Increase the Diversity of Carbon Compounds Degraded by Fungi in Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, T. B.; Turner, K. M.; Treseder, K. K.

    2004-12-01

    Boreal forest soils in North America harbor a large reservoir of organic C, and this region is increasingly exposed to long-range atmospheric N transport from Eurasia. By examining the responses of decomposers to N deposition in these forests, we hope to improve predictions of the fate of boreal carbon pools under global change. We tested the hypothesis that the functional diversity of decomposer fungi would increase under N fertilization in boreal forests where fungal growth was otherwise N-limited, owing to a reduction in competitive exclusion of fungal groups. We collected soil and leaf litter from three Alaskan sites that represent different successional stages at 5, 17, or 80 years following severe forest fire. Each site had been exposed for two years to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization in a factorial design, with four plots per treatment. Nutrient limitation of fungal growth varied depending on successional stage. The standing hyphal length of decomposer fungi in soil (i.e. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) responded to neither N nor P in the 5-year old site, increased under N fertilization in the 17-year old site, and increased where N and P was added simultaneously in the 80-year old site (site x N x P interaction: P = 0.001). We used BIOLOG microplates for filamentous fungi to obtain an index of the diversity of carbon use by decomposer fungi; each of 95 wells of these plates contains a different carbon-based compound, as well as a dye that changes color upon metabolism of the compound. Saline leaf litter extracts were mixed with fungal growth medium and then added to the microplates. The number of wells displaying metabolic activity was counted following incubation for five days. We found that N fertilization raised the average number of positive wells per plate from 14 to 27 (P = 0.012), with no significant differences in responses among sites. Phosphorus additions did not alter functional diversity of fungi in any site. Since increases in functional

  19. Methods for increasing production of 3-methyl-2-butenol using fusion proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Howard; Keasling, Jay D.

    2017-04-25

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for increasing production of 3-methyl-2-butenol in a de novo synthetic pathway in a genetically modified host cell using isopentenyl disphosphate (IPP) as a substrate.

  20. Increase in the specific radioactivity of tritium-labeled compounds obtained by tritium thermal activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badun, G.A.; Chernysheva, M.G.; Ksenofontov, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    A method of tritium introduction into different types of organic molecules that is based on the interaction of atomic tritium with solid organic target is described. Tritium atoms are formed on the hot W-wire, which is heated by the electric current. Such an approach is called 'tritium thermal activation method'. Here we summarize the results of labeling globular proteins (lysozyme, human and bovine serum albumins); derivatives of pantothenic acid and amino acids; ionic surfactants (sodium dodecylsulfate and alkyltrimethylammonium bromides) and nonionic high-molecular weight surfactants - pluronics. For the first time it is observed that if the target-compound is fixed and its radicals are stable the specific radioactivity of the labeled product can be drastically increased (up to 400 times) when the target temperature is ca. 295 K compared with the results obtained at 77 K. The influence of labeling parameters as tritium gas pressure, exposure time and W-wire temperature was tested for each target temperature that results in the optimum labeling conditions with high specific radioactivity and chemical yield of the resulting compound. (orig.)

  1. Fusion energy using avalanche increased boron reactions for block-ignition by ultrahigh power picosecond laser pulses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hora, H.; Korn, Georg; Giuffrida, Lorenzo; Margarone, Daniele; Picciotto, A.; Krása, Josef; Jungwirth, Karel; Ullschmied, Jiří; Lalousis, P.; Eliezer, S.; Miley, G. H.; Moustaizis, S.; Mourou, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 4 (2015), s. 607-619 ISSN 0263-0346 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : fusion energy without radiation problem * boron fusion by lasers * non-linear force-driven block ignition Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers (UFP-V) Impact factor: 1.649, year: 2015

  2. Atmospheric emissions in metropolitan France: compounds related to the increase of the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report presents and comments statistical data and indicators on emissions of compounds involved in the greenhouse effect: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), hydro-fluorocarbon compounds (HFCs), per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ). For these compounds, the report indicates and comments world and French emission data, their evolution, and the shares of different sectors and their evolutions. It also comments the evolution of the global warming potential (GWP)

  3. Cooking processes increase bioactive compounds in organic and conventional green beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Costa, Sergio Marques; Monaco, Kamila de Almeida; Uliana, Maira Rodrigues; Fernandez, Roberto Morato; Correa, Camila Renata; Vianello, Fabio; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Minatel, Igor Otavio

    2017-12-01

    The influence of cooking methods on chlorophyl, carotenoids, polyamines, polyphenols contents and antioxidant capacity were analyzed in organic and conventional green beans. The initial raw material had a higher content of chlorophyl and total phenolics in conventional green beans, whereas organic cultive favored flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity. Polyamines and carotenoids were similar for the two crop systems. After the cooking process, carotenoids (β-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin) increased. Microwave heating favored the enhancement of some polar compounds, whereas pressure cooking favored carotenoids. When we used the estimation of the radical scavenging activity by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, a reduction of the DPPH radical signal in the presence of green bean extracts was observed, regardless of the mode of cultivation. The highest reduction of the ESR signal ocurred for microwave cooking in organic and conventional green beans, indicating a higher availability of antioxidants with this type of heat treatment.

  4. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik

    1995-02-01

    So called 'cold fusion phenomena' are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording 4 He, 3 He, 3 H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of 4 He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author)

  5. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  6. Mixed lactate and caffeine compound increases satellite cell activity and anabolic signals for muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Yoshimi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Yokokawa, Takumi; Hirotsu, Keisuke; Shimazu, Mariko; Uchida, Kenji; Tomi, Hironori; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2015-03-15

    We examined whether a mixed lactate and caffeine compound (LC) could effectively elicit proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells or activate anabolic signals in skeletal muscles. We cultured C2C12 cells with either lactate or LC for 6 h. We found that lactate significantly increased myogenin and follistatin protein levels and phosphorylation of P70S6K while decreasing the levels of myostatin relative to the control. LC significantly increased protein levels of Pax7, MyoD, and Ki67 in addition to myogenin, relative to control. LC also significantly increased follistatin expression relative to control and stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and P70S6K. In an in vivo study, male F344/DuCrlCrlj rats were assigned to control (Sed, n = 10), exercise (Ex, n = 12), and LC supplementation (LCEx, n = 13) groups. LC was orally administered daily. The LCEx and Ex groups were exercised on a treadmill, running for 30 min at low intensity every other day for 4 wk. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in the mass of the gastrocnemius (GA) and tibialis anterior (TA) relative to both the Sed and Ex groups. Furthermore, the LCEx group showed a significant increase in the total DNA content of TA compared with the Sed group. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in myogenin and follistatin expression of GA relative to the Ex group. These results suggest that administration of LC can effectively increase muscle mass concomitant with elevated numbers of myonuclei, even with low-intensity exercise training, via activated satellite cells and anabolic signals. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Cognac polyphenolic compounds increase bradykinin-induced nitric oxide production in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall Diallo, A; Sarr, M; Mostefai, H A; Carusio, N; Pricci, M; Andriantsitohaina, R

    2008-01-01

    We recently reported that in vitro Cognac polyphenolic compounds (CPC) induce NO-dependent vasorelaxant effects and stimulate cardiac function. In the present study, we aim to investigate the effect of CPC on both nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anions (O(2)(-)) production in cultured human endothelial cells. In addition, its effect on the bradykinin (BK)-induced NO production was also tested. The role and sources of O(2)(-) in the concomitant effect of BK plus CPC were pharmacologically determined. NO and O(2)(-) signals were measured using electron paramagnetic resonance technique using specific spin trappings. Both, CPC and BK induced an increase in NO production in human endothelial cells. The combination of both further enhanced NO release. The capacity of CPC plus BK to increase NO signal was blunted by the NO synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, and was enhanced in the presence either of superoxide dismutase or catalase. Moreover, CPC plus BK response was greater after inhibition of either NADPH oxidase by apocynin or xanthine oxidase by allopurinol but it was not affected by rotenone. CPC did not affect O(2)(-) level either alone or after its increase upon lipopolysaccharide treatment. Finally, the capacity of BK alone to increase NO was enhanced either by apocynin or allopurinol. Altogether, these data demonstrate that CPC is able to directly increase NO production without affecting O(2)(-) and enhances the BK-induced NO production in human endothelial cells. The data highlight the ability of BK to stimulate not only NADPH oxidase- but also xanthine oxidase-inhibitor sensitive mechanisms that reduce its efficiency in increasing NO either alone or in the presence of CPC. These results bring pharmacological evidence for vascular protection by CPC via its potentiating effect of BK response in terms of endothelial NO release.

  8. Increase Jc by Improving the Array of Nb3Sn strands for Fusion Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Xuan

    2012-12-17

    During Phase I, our efforts were focusing on improving the array of subelement in the tube type strands by hardening the Sn core and the subelement matrix to effectively increase the Jc of the strands. Below is a summary of the results. 1) We were unsuccessful in improving the array using a Cu-Sn matrix approach. 2) We slightly improved the array using Sn with 1.5at%Ti doped core, and a 217-subelement restacked strand was made and drawn down without any breakage. 3) We greatly improved the array using the Glidcop Al-15 to replace the pure Cu sheath in the subelement, and a 217-subelement restacked strand was made and drawn down. Both strands have very good drawability and the array showed good improvement. 4) We also improved the array using improved wire drawing techniques using Hyper Tech's new caterpillar wire drawing machines to enable straight wire drawing for the entire wire drawing process. 5) The 919-subelement restack strand shows its non-Cu Jc over 2100 A/mm2 at 12 T/4.2 K and AC loss of 508 mJ/cm3.

  9. Porous calcium carbonate as a carrier material to increase the dissolution rate of poorly soluble flavouring compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin Johnson, Maria; Noreland, David; Gane, Patrick; Schoelkopf, Joachim; Ridgway, Cathy; Millqvist Fureby, Anna

    2017-04-19

    Two different food grade functionalised porous calcium carbonates (FCC), with different pore size and pore size distributions, were characterised and used as carrier materials to increase the dissolution rate of poorly soluble flavouring compounds in aqueous solution. The loading level was varied between 1.3% by weight (wt%) and 35 wt%, where the upper limit of 35 wt% was the total maximum loading capacity of flavouring compound in FCC based on the fraction of the total weight of FCC plus flavouring compound. Flavouring compounds (l-carvone, vanillin, and curcumin) were selected based on their difference in hydrophilicity and capacity to crystallise. Release kinetic studies revealed that all flavouring compounds showed an accelerated release when loaded in FCC compared to dissolution of the flavouring compound itself in aqueous medium. The amorphous state and/or surface enlargement of the flavouring compound inside or on FCC explains the faster release. The flavouring compounds capable of crystallising (vanillin and curcumin) were almost exclusively amorphous within the porous FCC material as determined by X-ray powder diffraction one week after loading and after storing the loaded FCC material for up to 9 months at room temperature. A small amount of crystalline vanillin and curcumin was detected in the FCC material with large pores and high flavouring compound loading (≥30 wt%). Additionally, two different loading strategies were evaluated, loading by dissolving the flavouring compound in acetone or loading by a hot melt method. Porosimetry data showed that the melt method was more efficient in filling the smallest pores (<100 nm). The main factor influencing the release rate appears to be the amorphous state of the flavouring compound and the increase in exposed surface area. The confinement in small pores prevents crystallisation of the flavouring compounds during storage, providing a stable amorphous form retaining high release rate also after storage.

  10. Compounding Impacts of Climate Change and Increased Human Water Withdrawal on Urmia Lake Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alborzi, A.; Moftakhari, H.; Azaranfar, A.; Mallakpour, I.; Ashraf, B.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, climate change and increase in human water withdrawal, combined, have caused ecological degradation in several terminal lakes worldwide. Among them, the shallow and hyper-saline Urmia Lake in Iran has experienced about 6 meters drawdown in lake level and 80% reduction in surface area. Here, we assess the imposed stress on Urmia Basin's water availability and Lake's ecological condition in response to coupled climate change and human-induced water withdrawal. A generalized river basin decision support system model consisting network flow is developed to simulate the basin-lake interactions under a wide range of scenarios. This model explicitly includes water management infrastructure, reservoirs, and irrigation and municipal water use. Studied scenarios represent a wide range of historic climate and water use scenarios including a historical baseline, future increase in water demand, and also improved water efficiency. In this presentation, we show the lake's water level, as a measure of lake's ecological health, under the compounding effects of the climate condition (top-down) and water use (bottom-up) scenarios. This method illustrates what combinations lead to failure in meeting the lake's ecological level.

  11. Postmortem Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) binding increases with Alzheimer's disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Tina L; Webb, Robin L; Niedowicz, Dana M; Holler, Christopher J; Matveev, Sergey; Baig, Irfan; LeVine, Harry; Keller, Jeffrey N; Murphy, M Paul

    2012-01-01

    The development of imaging reagents is of considerable interest in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) field. Some of these, such as Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), were designed to bind to the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), the major component of amyloid deposits in the AD brain. Although these agents were designed for imaging amyloid deposits in vivo, a major avenue of evaluation relies on postmortem cross validation with established indices of AD pathology. In this study, we evaluated changes in the postmortem binding of PiB and its relationship to other aspects of Aβ-related pathology in a series of AD cases and age-matched controls. We also examined cases of preclinical AD (PCAD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), both considered early points in the AD continuum. PiB binding was found to increase with the progression of the disease and paralleled increases in the less soluble forms of Aβ, including SDS-stable Aβ oligomers. Increased PiB binding and its relationship to Aβ was only significant in a brain region vulnerable to the development of AD pathology (the superior and middle temporal gyri) but not in an unaffected region (cerebellum). This implies that the amyloid deposited in disease-affected regions may possess fundamental, brain region specific characteristics that may not as yet be fully appreciated. These data support the idea that PiB is a useful diagnostic tool for AD, particularly in the early stage of the disease, and also show that PiB could be a useful agent for the discovery of novel disease-related properties of amyloid.

  12. Identification of cancer fusion drivers using network fusion centrality

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chia-Chin; Kannan, Kalpana; Lin, Steven; Yen, Laising; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Gene fusions are being discovered at an increasing rate using massively parallel sequencing technologies. Prioritization of cancer fusion drivers for validation cannot be performed using traditional single-gene based methods because fusions involve portions of two partner genes. To address this problem, we propose a novel network analysis method called fusion centrality that is specifically tailored for prioritizing gene fusions. We first propose a domain-based fusion model built on ...

  13. Feeding recombinant E. coli with GST-mBmKTX fusion protein increases the fecundity and lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Jiang, Yajie; Wan, Lu; Wang, Qi; Huang, Zebo; Liu, Yongmei; Wu, Yingliang; Chen, Zongyun; Liu, Xin

    2017-03-01

    Scorpion venom could be a useful treatment for a variety of diseases, such as cancer, epilepsy and analgesia. BmKTX is a polypeptide extracts from scorpion venom (PESV), which have attracted much attention from researchers in recent years. mBmKTX is a mutant polypeptide according to the amino acid sequence of BmKTX. We expressed it with the vector pGEX-4T-1 in Escherichia coli, and Caenorhabditis elegans were used as the animal model and fed with the strains. In this study, the expression of pGEX-mBmKTX was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, and GST-mBmKTX purified from pGEX-mBmKTX as a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged fusion protein is approximately 30kDa. The secondary structure prediction shows that mBmKTX is mainly composed of approximately 13% β-sheet and 86% loop. A food clearance assay and brood size assay indicated that the worms fed pGEX-mBmKTX ate more and had greater fecundity than those fed the empty vector. A lifespan analysis demonstrated that mBmKTX could significantly prolong the lifespan of C. elegans, with an increase of 22.5% compared with the control. Behavioral assays confirmed that mBmKTX had no influence on the locomotion of C. elegans. In addition, microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that there are 320 differentially expressed genes, 182 of which are related to reproduction, growth and lifespan. In conclusion, the data suggested that mBmKTX has potential utility for increasing fecundity and animal survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Increase in volatilization of organic compounds using air sparging through addition in alcohol in a soil-water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Huan-Ping; Hsieh, Lin-Han Chiang; Tran, Hai Nguyen

    2018-02-15

    This study developed a novel method to promote the remediation efficiency of air sparging. According to the enhanced-volatilization theory presented in this study, selected alcohols added to groundwater can highly enhance the volatilization amounts of organic compounds with high Henry's law constants. In this study, the target organic compounds consisted of n-hexane, n-heptane, benzene, toluene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and tetrachloroethene. n-pentanol, n-hexanol, and n-heptanol were used to examine the changes in the volatilization amounts of organic compounds in the given period. Two types of soils with high and low organic matter were applied to evaluate the transport of organic compounds in the soil-water system. The volatilization amounts of the organic compounds increased with increasing alcohol concentrations. The volatilization amounts of the test organic compounds exhibited a decreasing order: n-heptanol>n-hexanol>n-pentanol. When 10mg/L n-heptanol was added to the system, the maximum volatilization enhancement rate was 18-fold higher than that in distilled water. Samples of soil with high organic matter might reduce the volatilization amounts by a factor of 5-10. In the present study, the optimal removal efficiency for aromatic compounds was approximately 98%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Active Hexose Correlated Compound Extends the Lifespan and Increases the Thermotolerance of Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Okuyama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC is the extract from cultured mycelia of Lentinula edodes, a species of Basidiomycetes mushroom. AHCC contains various polysaccharides, including partially acylated -1,4-glucan, which is one of its major constituents. The application of AHCC has been markedly increased in complementary and alternative medicine as a functional food because AHCC improved the prognosis of postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma patients. AHCC has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, such as the suppression of nitric oxide production in hepatocytes. AHCC might affect resistance to environmental stress, which is assumed to play a pivotal role in the longevity of many organisms.Objective: To investigate the effect of AHCC on longevity, we measured the lifespan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a model animal that is widely used to assess longevity. We also examined the effect of AHCC on resistance to heat stress, i.e., thermotolerance.Methods: The lifespan of C. elegans animals grown on media in the absence or presence of AHCC at 20°C was evaluated. Thermotolerance assays were performed at 35°C, the restrictive temperature of the animals. The effects of AHCC on lifespan and thermotolerance were analyzed with longevity mutants. Expression levels of stress-related genes, including heat shock genes, were measured by strand-specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction after heat shock.Results: Wild-type C. elegans animals exhibited a longer mean lifespan by up to 10% in the presence of AHCC in the growth media than animals in the absence of AHCC. Furthermore, AHCC markedly increased thermotolerance at 35°C. Epistasis analyses showed that lifespan extension by AHCC at least partly required two longevity-promoting transcription factors: DAF-16 (C. elegans homolog of FOXO and HSF-1 (C. elegans homolog of heat shock transcription factor 1. After heat shock, AHCC activated the transcription

  16. Fusion Canada issue 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  17. Some Phenolic Compounds Increase the Nitric Oxide Level in Endothelial Cells in Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appeldoorn, M.M.; Venema, D.P.; Peters, T.H.F.; Koenen, M.E.; Arts, I.C.W.; Vincken, J.P.; Gruppen, H.; Keijer, J.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    The vasorelaxing properties of chocolate and wine might relate to the presence of phenolic compounds. One of the potential mechanisms involved is stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production, as NO is a major regulator of vasodilatation. This study aimed to develop an in vitro assay using

  18. Some phenolic compounds increase the nitric oxide level in endothelial cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appeldoorn, M.M.; Venema, D.P.; Peters, T.H.F.; Koenen, M.E.; Arts, I.C.W.; Vincken, J.-P.; Gruppen, H.; Keuer, J.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    The vasorelaxing properties of chocolate and wine might relate to the presence of phenolic compounds. One of the potential mechanisms involved is stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production, as NO is a major regulator of vasodilatation. This study aimed to develop an in vitro assay using

  19. Phosphomimetic mutation of cysteine string protein-α increases the rate of regulated exocytosis by modulating fusion pore dynamics in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cysteine string protein-α (CSPα is a chaperone to ensure protein folding. Loss of CSPα function associates with many neurological diseases. However, its function in modulating regulated exocytosis remains elusive. Although cspα-knockouts exhibit impaired synaptic transmission, overexpression of CSPα in neuroendocrine cells inhibits secretion. These seemingly conflicting results lead to a hypothesis that CSPα may undergo a modification that switches its function in regulating neurotransmitter and hormone secretion. Previous studies implied that CSPα undergoes phosphorylation at Ser10 that may influence exocytosis by altering fusion pore dynamics. However, direct evidence is missing up to date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using amperometry, we investigated how phosphorylation at Ser10 of CSPα (CSPα-Ser10 modulates regulated exocytosis and if this modulation involves regulating a specific kinetic step of fusion pore dynamics. The real-time exocytosis of single vesicles was detected in PC12 cells overexpressing control vector, wild-type CSPα (WT, the CSPα phosphodeficient mutant (S10A, or the CSPα phosphomimetic mutants (S10D and S10E. The shapes of amperometric signals were used to distinguish the full-fusion events (i.e., prespike feet followed by spikes and the kiss-and-run events (i.e., square-shaped flickers. We found that the secretion rate was significantly increased in cells overexpressing S10D or S10E compared to WT or S10A. Further analysis showed that overexpression of S10D or S10E prolonged fusion pore lifetime compared to WT or S10A. The fraction of kiss-and-run events was significantly lower but the frequency of full-fusion events was higher in cells overexpressing S10D or S10E compared to WT or S10A. Advanced kinetic analysis suggests that overexpression of S10D or S10E may stabilize open fusion pores mainly by inhibiting them from closing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CSPα may modulate fusion pore dynamics

  20. Mechanical Stimulation of C2C12 Cells Increases m-Calpain Expression and Activity, Focal Adhesion Plaque Degradation and Cell Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Karlsson, Anders H; Lawson, Moira Ann

    2005-01-01

    to stretch- or load-induced signaling is now beginning to be understood as a factor which affects gene sequences, protein synthesis and an increase in Ca2+ infux in myocytes. Evidence of the involvement of Ca2+ dependent activity in myoblast fusion, cell membrane and cytoskeleton component reorganization due......Abstract Mechanical Stimulation of C2C12 Cells Increases m-calpain Expression and Activity, Focal Adhesion Plaque Degradation and Cell Fusion A. Grossi, A. H. Karlsson, M. A. Lawson; Department of Dairy and Food Science, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg C, Denmark...... to the activity of ubiquitous proteolytic enzymes known as calpains has been reported. Whether there is a link between stretch- or load induced signaling and calpain expression and activation is not known. Using a magnetic bead stimulation assay and C2C12 mouse myoblasts cell population, we have demonstrated...

  1. Sulfonamides identified as plant immune-priming compounds in high-throughput chemical screening increase disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Ikeda, Mika; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Plant activators are agrochemicals that protect crops from diseases by activating the plant immune system. To isolate lead compounds for use as practical plant activators, we screened two different chemical libraries composed of various bioactive substances by using an established screening procedure that can selectively identify immune-priming compounds. We identified and characterized a group of sulfonamide compounds - sulfameter, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfabenzamide, and sulfachloropyridazine - among the various isolated candidate molecules. These sulfonamide compounds enhanced the avirulent Pseudomonas-induced cell death of Arabidopsis suspension cell cultures and increased disease resistance in Arabidopsis plants against both avirulent and virulent strains of the bacterium. These compounds did not prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria in minimal liquid media at 200 μM. They also did not induce the expression of defense-related genes in Arabidopsis seedlings, at least not at 24 and 48 h after treatment, suggesting that they do not act as salicylic acid analogs. In addition, although sulfonamides are known to be folate biosynthesis inhibitors, the application of folate did not restore the potentiation effects of the sulfonamides on pathogen-induced cell death. Our data suggest that sulfonamides potentiate Arabidopsis disease resistance by their novel chemical properties.

  2. Spinal fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Herniated disk - fusion; Spinal stenosis - fusion; Laminectomy - fusion Patient Instructions Bathroom safety - adults Preventing falls Preventing falls - what to ask your doctor Spine surgery - discharge Surgical wound care - open Images Scoliosis Spinal ...

  3. The M-T hook structure increases the potency of HIV-1 fusion inhibitor sifuvirtide and overcomes drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Huihui; Yao, Xue; Qiu, Zonglin; Sun, Jianping; Qiao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Meitian; Cui, Sheng; He, Yuxian

    2014-10-01

    Peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) of HIV-1 gp41 are potent fusion inhibitors. We have recently demonstrated that the unique M-T hook structure preceding the pocket-binding motif of CHR peptide-based inhibitors can greatly improve their antiviral activity. In this study, we applied the M-T hook structure to optimize sifuvirtide (SFT), a potent CHR-derived inhibitor currently under Phase III clinical trials in China. The peptide MT-SFT was generated by incorporating two M-T hook residues (Met-Thr) into the N-terminus of sifuvirtide. Multiple structural and functional approaches were used to determine the biophysical properties and antiviral activity of MT-SFT. The high-resolution crystal structure of MT-SFT reveals a highly conserved M-T hook conformation. Compared with sifuvirtide, MT-SFT exhibited a significant improvement in the ability to bind to the N-terminal heptad repeat, to block the formation of the six helix bundle and to inhibit HIV-1 Env-mediated cell fusion, viral entry and infection. Importantly, MT-SFT was fully active against sifuvirtide- and enfuvirtide (T20)-resistant HIV-1 variants and displayed a high genetic barrier to developing drug resistance. Our studies have verified that the M-T hook structure offers a general strategy for designing novel HIV-1 fusion inhibitors and provide new insights into viral entry and inhibition. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Assessing a new direction for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waganer, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    The principal application proposed for fusion for the past 40 years has been the central station, electrical power generation plant. However, the sizable increases that were forecast for future electrical power demands have not been realized to date. Only coal power plants have been increasing (3%/year) generating capacity (Annual Energy Outlook, 1998) . Likewise, the ability of fusion to deliver economical electrical power has not been credibly postulated, much less demonstrated. Together these two factors have stagnated the commercialization of fusion power. It is now time for a reassessment of what fusion can best do for the world. Fusion, with a practically inexhaustible energy supply, has many unique properties that enable a wide variety of useful products. A study by the ARIES team is underway to review possible fusion applications and assess those with the potential to provide useful and worthwhile new products. A roadmap of possible applications has been developed to assess the utilization of the unique properties of the fusion process. The potential product categories are energy production (fuel, electricity, heat), space propulsion, altered or transmuted material properties (transmutation, waste treatment, tritium production), chemical compound dissociation (waste treatment, ore reduction, refining), and direct use of fusion nuclear products (radiography, lithography, radiotherapy, activation analyses). An evaluation methodology based on the success and failure of previous large, national and international technology development projects was developed to assess and recommend encouraging fusion product applications. A list of significant attributes was defined to describe and characterize projects that are likely to succeed or fail in the global marketplace. These attributes were assigned weights according to their perceived value to the national or global enterprise. An additive utility theory methodology was used to qualitatively evaluate the proposed

  5. Fusion technology 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, C.; Gasparatto, M.; Knoepfel, H.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the biennial series of symposia on the title subject, organized by the European Fusion Laboratories, is the exchange of information on the design, construction and operation of fusion experiments and on the technology being developed for the next step devices and fusion reactors. The coverage of the volume includes the technological aspects of fusion reactors in relation to new developments, this forming a guideline for the definition of future work. These proceedings comprise three volumes and contain both the invited lectures and contributed papers presented at the symposium which was attended by 569 participants from around the globe. The 343 papers, including 12 invited papers, characterize the increasing interest of industry in the fusion programme, giving a broad and current overview on the progress and trends fusion technology is experiencing now, as well as indicating the future for fusion devices

  6. Fusion facility siting considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussell, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. A critically important consideration in this regard is site selection. The purpose of this paper is to examine major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion

  7. p-Glycoprotein ABCB5 and YB-1 expression plays a role in increased heterogeneity of breast cancer cells: correlations with cell fusion and doxorubicin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ji Yeon; Ha, Seon-Ah; Yang, Yun-Sik; Kim, Jin Woo

    2010-01-01

    Cancer cells recurrently develop into acquired resistance to the administered drugs. The iatrogenic mechanisms of induced chemotherapy-resistance remain elusive and the degree of drug resistance did not exclusively correlate with reductions of drug accumulation, suggesting that drug resistance may involve additional mechanisms. Our aim is to define the potential targets, that makes drug-sensitive MCF-7 breast cancer cells turn to drug-resistant, for the anti-cancer drug development against drug resistant breast cancer cells. Doxorubicin resistant human breast MCF-7 clones were generated. The doxorubicin-induced cell fusion events were examined. Heterokaryons were identified and sorted by FACS. In the development of doxorubicin resistance, cell-fusion associated genes, from the previous results of microarray, were verified using dot blot array and quantitative RT-PCR. The doxorubicin-induced expression patterns of pro-survival and pro-apoptotic genes were validated. YB-1 and ABCB5 were up regulated in the doxorubicin treated MCF-7 cells that resulted in certain degree of genomic instability that accompanied by the drug resistance phenotype. Cell fusion increased diversity within the cell population and doxorubicin resistant MCF-7 cells emerged probably through clonal selection. Most of the drug resistant hybrid cells were anchorage independent. But some of the anchorage dependent MCF-7 cells exhibited several unique morphological appearances suggesting minor population of the fused cells maybe de-differentiated and have progenitor cell like characteristics. Our work provides valuable insight into the drug induced cell fusion event and outcome, and suggests YB-1, GST, ABCB5 and ERK3 could be potential targets for the anti-cancer drug development against drug resistant breast cancer cells. Especially, the ERK-3 serine/threonine kinase is specifically up-regulated in the resistant cells and known to be susceptible to synthetic antagonists

  8. Fusion of the BCL9 HD2 domain to E1A increases the cytopathic effect of an oncolytic adenovirus that targets colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pittet Anne-Laure

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Wnt signaling pathway is activated by mutations in the APC and β-catenin genes in many types of human cancer. β-catenin is stabilized by these mutations and activates transcription in part by acting as a bridge between Tcf/LEF proteins and the HD2 domain of the BCL9 coactivator. We have previously described oncolytic adenoviruses with binding sites for Tcf/LEF transcription factors inserted into the early viral promoters. These viruses replicate selectively in cells with activation of the Wnt pathway. To increase the activity of these viruses we have fused the viral transactivator E1A to the BCL9 HD2 domain. Methods Luciferase assays, co-immunoprecipitation and Western blotting, immunofluorescent cell staining and cytopathic effect assays were used to characterize the E1A-HD2 fusion protein and virus in vitro. Growth curves of subcutaneous SW620 colon cancer xenografts were used to characterize the virus in vivo. Results The E1A-HD2 fusion protein binds to β-catenin in vivo and activates a Tcf-regulated luciferase reporter better than wild-type E1A in cells with activated Wnt signaling. Expression of the E1A-HD2 protein promotes nuclear import of β-catenin, mediated by the strong nuclear localization signal in E1A. Tcf-regulated viruses expressing the fusion protein show increased expression of viral proteins and a five-fold increase in cytopathic effect (CPE in colorectal cancer cell lines. There was no change in viral protein expression or CPE in HeLa cells, indicating that E1A-HD2 viruses retain selectivity for cells with activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Despite increasing the cytopathic effect of the virus in vitro, fusion of the HD2 domain to E1A did not increase the burst size of the virus in vitro or the anti-tumor effect of the virus in an SW620 xenograft model in vivo. Conclusion Despite an increase in the nuclear pool of β-catenin, the effects on viral activity in colon cancer cells were small

  9. Sulfonamides identified as plant immune-priming compounds in high-throughput chemical screening increase disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiteru eNoutoshi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant activators are agrochemicals that protect crops from diseases by activating the plant immune system. To isolate lead compounds for use as practical plant activators, we screened 2 different chemical libraries composed of various bioactive substances by using an established screening procedure that can selectively identify immune-priming compounds. We identified and characterized a group of sulfonamide compounds—sulfameter, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfabenzamide, and sulfachloropyridazine—among the various isolated candidate molecules. These sulfonamide compounds enhanced the avirulent Pseudomonas-induced cell death of Arabidopsis suspension cell cultures and increased disease resistance in Arabidopsis plants against both avirulent and virulent strains of the bacterium. These compounds did not prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria in minimal liquid media at 200 µM. They also did not induce the expression of defense-related genes in Arabidopsis seedlings, at least not at 24 and 48 h after treatment, suggesting that they do not act as salicylic acid analogs. In addition, although sulfonamides are known to be folate biosynthesis inhibitors, the application of folate did not restore the potentiation effects of the sulfonamides on pathogen-induced cell death. Our data suggest that sulfonamides potentiate Arabidopsis disease resistance by their novel chemical properties.

  10. Fusion of Nonionic Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, Sanja; Oskolkova, M. Z.; Schweins, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present an experimental study of vesicle fusion using light and neutron scattering to monitor fusion events. Vesicles are reproducibly formed with an extrusion procedure using an single amphiphile triethylene glycol mono-n-decyl ether in water. They show long-term stability for temperatures...... around 20 C, but at temperatures above 26 C we observe an increase in the scattered intensity due to fusion. The system is unusually well suited for the study of basic mechanisms of vesicle fusion. The vesicles are flexible with a bending rigidity of only a few k(H)T. The monolayer spontaneous curvature......, Ho, depends strongly on temperature in a known way and is thus tunable. For temperatures where H-0 > 0 vesicles tyre long-term stable, while in the range H-0 fusion rate increases the more negative the Spontaneous curvature Through a quantitative;analysis of the fusion rate we arrive tit...

  11. Intrarenal transfer of an intracellular fluorescent fusion of angiotensin II selectively in proximal tubules increases blood pressure in rats and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao C.; Cook, Julia L.; Rubera, Isabelle; Tauc, Michel; Zhang, Fan

    2011-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that intrarenal adenoviral transfer of an intracellular cyan fluorescent fusion of angiotensin II (ECFP/ANG II) selectively in proximal tubules of the kidney increases blood pressure by activating AT1 (AT1a) receptors. Intrarenal transfer of ECFP/ANG II was induced in the superficial cortex of rat and mouse kidneys, and the sodium and glucose cotransporter 2 (sglt2) promoter was used to drive ECFP/ANG II expression selectively in proximal tubules. Intrarenal transfer of ECFP/ANG II induced a time-dependent, proximal tubule-selective expression of ECFP/ANG II in the cortex, which peaked at 2 wk and was sustained for 4 wk. ECFP/ANG II expression was low in the glomeruli and the entire medulla and was absent in the contralateral kidney or extrarenal tissues. At its peak of expression in proximal tubules at day 14, ANG II was increased by twofold in the kidney (P tubules (P kidney, and proximal tubule ANG II, or sodium excretion. These results provide evidence that proximal tubule-selective transfer of an intracellular ANG II fusion protein increases blood pressure by activating AT1a receptors and increasing sodium reabsorption in proximal tubules. PMID:21307128

  12. Grape yield, and must compounds of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevine in sandy soil with potassium contents increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise Nara Ciotta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Content of exchangeable potassium (K in t soil may influence on its content in grapevines leaves, grape yield, as well as, in must composition. The study aimed to assess the interference of exchangeable K content in the soil on its leaf content, production and must composition of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' cultivar. In September 2011, in Santana do Livramento (RS five vineyards with increasing levels of exchangeable K in the soil were selected. In the 2012/13 and 2013/14 harvests, the grape yield, yield components, total K content in the leaves in full bloom and berries veraison were evaluated. Values of total soluble sugar (TSS, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA, total polyphenols and anthocyanins were evaluated in the must. Exchangeable K content increase in soil with sandy surface texture increased its content in leaves collected during full flowering and in berries and must pH; however, it did not affect production of the 'Cabernet Sauvignon'.

  13. Characterization of Grape and Apple Peel Wastes’ Bioactive Compounds and Their Increased Bioavailability After Exposure to Thermal Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Florina CĂLINOIU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available 80% of the grape harvest is used in the winemaking industry, resulting in huge amounts of waste which are still rich in phenolic compounds, while the same percentage of polyphenols are found in apple peel, whose total antioxidant capacity is five-to-six-fold higher than that of apple flesh. The aim of this research is the characterization of grape and apple peels waste, before and after the thermal treatment (10 minutes, 80°C, with respect to its bioactive compounds to evaluate their potential enhancement with respect to bioavailability. Based on the obtained results, the highest antioxidant activity and phenolic content was exhibited by thermally processed red-grape waste. After the thermal treatment, the caffeic acid 4-O-glucoside increased with a 27% in apple waste. As a conclusion, the grape and apple peels waste can be exploited for their bioactive compounds after the thermal process, whose bioavailability increased and can be added in food formulations as health promoting products.

  14. Natural thioallyl compounds increase oxidative stress resistance and lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans by modulating SKN-1/Nrf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Takahiro; Kodera, Yukihiro; Hirata, Dai; Blackwell, T Keith; Mizunuma, Masaki

    2016-02-22

    Identification of biologically active natural compounds that promote health and longevity, and understanding how they act, will provide insights into aging and metabolism, and strategies for developing agents that prevent chronic disease. The garlic-derived thioallyl compounds S-allylcysteine (SAC) and S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) have been shown to have multiple biological activities. Here we show that SAC and SAMC increase lifespan and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans and reduce accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These compounds do not appear to activate DAF-16 (FOXO orthologue) or mimic dietary restriction (DR) effects, but selectively induce SKN-1 (Nrf1/2/3 orthologue) targets involved in oxidative stress defense. Interestingly, their treatments do not facilitate SKN-1 nuclear accumulation, but slightly increased intracellular SKN-1 levels. Our data also indicate that thioallyl structure and the number of sulfur atoms are important for SKN-1 target induction. Our results indicate that SAC and SAMC may serve as potential agents that slow aging.

  15. EMP Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    KUNTAY, Isık

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel fusion scheme, called EMP Fusion, which has the promise of achieving breakeven and realizing commercial fusion power. The method is based on harnessing the power of an electromagnetic pulse generated by the now well-developed flux compression technology. The electromagnetic pulse acts as a means of both heating up the plasma and confining the plasma, eliminating intermediate steps. The EMP Fusion device is simpler compared to other fusion devices and this reduces...

  16. The alkaloid compound harmane increases the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans during bacterial infection, by modulating the nematode's innate immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Henrik; Bojer, Martin Saxtorph; Marinus, Martin G.

    2013-01-01

    pathway; however, intriguingly the lifespan extension resulting from Harmane was higher in p38 MAPK-deficient nematodes. This indicates that Harmane has a complex effect on the innate immune system of C. elegans. Harmane could therefore be a useful tool in the further research into C. elegans immunity....... Since the innate immunity of C. elegans has a high degree of evolutionary conservation, drugs such as Harmane could also be possible alternatives to classic antibiotics. The C. elegans model could prove to be useful for selection and development of such drugs.......The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has in recent years been proven to be a powerful in vivo model for testing antimicrobial compounds. We report here that the alkaloid compound Harmane (2-methyl-β-carboline) increases the lifespan of nematodes infected with a human pathogen, the Shiga toxin...

  17. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Increase the Phenolic Compounds Concentration in the Bark of the Stem of Libidibia Ferrea in Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Emanuela Lima; Alves da Silva, Francineyde; Barbosa da Silva, Fábio Sérgio

    2017-01-01

    Libidibia ferrea is a species particular to the caatinga presenting medicinal properties for containing bioactive compounds. The use of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) can increase the production of biomolecules in the legume leaves; however, no light has been shed on the role of symbiosis in maximizing metabolites production in the bark of L. ferrea stem. The aim was to select AMF that are efficient at increasing the production of phenolic compounds with medicinal properties in the bark of the L. ferrea stem. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks with four inoculation treatments (plants pre-inoculated with Claroideoglomus etunicatum , with Gigaspora albida , with Acaulospora longula , and non-inoculated plants - control) with six repetitions. Thirteen months after the transplanting, the plants were pruned and the bark of the stem was collected; subsequently, this plant material was dried in a chamber. After the drying process, fractions of the bark of the stem were macerated in methanol. The extracts were further used for analyses of the biomolecules. The flavonoids concentration had an increase of, respectively, 236% and 186% in relation to the control for the treatments with A. longula and C. etunicatum ; plants inoculated with A. longula had an increase of 47% in total tannins concentration compared with the non-inoculated control - a benefit that the proanthocyanidins did not present. Applying inoculation with A. longula may be an alternative to increase the production of biomolecules of the secondary metabolism in the bark of the L. ferrea stem in field conditions.

  18. A botanical compound, Padma 28, increases walking distance in stable intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabaek, H; Mehlsen, J; Himmelstrup, H

    1993-01-01

    and by measurements of the pain-free and the maximal walking distance on a treadmill. The ankle pressure index (ankle systolic pressure/arm systolic pressure) was calculated. The group randomized to active treatment received two tablets bid containing 340 mg of a dried herbal mixture composed according to an ancient...... lamaistic preparation (Padma 28). After active treatments, administered over a period of four months in a double-blinded, randomized design, the patients allocated to this group attained a significant increase in the pain-free walking distance from 52 m (20-106) to 86 m (24-164; P ...Thirty-six patients with a median age of sixty-seven years and a median duration of intermittent claudication of five years were randomized to either active treatment with Padma 28 or placebo. The effect of treatment was quantified by measurements of systemic and peripheral systolic blood pressures...

  19. Transgenic plants expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein show increased resistance and toxicity to both chewing and sucking pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Min; Li, Jie; Zhu, Jin-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Shu; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Xue-Xin; Li, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield losses and decrease pesticide use has been successful. To achieve the goal of controlling both chewing and sucking pests in a given transgenic plant, we generated transgenic tobacco, Arabidopsis, and rice plants expressing the fusion protein, AaIT/GNA, in which an insecticidal scorpion venom neurotoxin (Androctonus australis toxin, AaIT) is fused to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA). Compared with transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing AaIT or GNA, transgenic plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited increased resistance and toxicity to one chewing pest, the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Transgenic tobacco and rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA showed increased resistance and toxicity to two sucking pests, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, respectively. Moreover, in the field, transgenic rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited a significant improvement in grain yield when infested with N. lugens. This study shows that expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein in transgenic plants can be a useful approach for controlling pests, particularly sucking pests which are not susceptible to the toxin in Bt crops. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Khz (fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia induces apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels and activating JNK and NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hwan Kim

    Full Text Available Khz is a compound derived from the fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia that inhibits the growth of cancer cells. The results of the present study show that Khz induced apoptosis preferentially in transformed cells and had only minimal effects on non-transformed cells. Furthermore, Khz induced apoptosis by increasing the intracellular Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](i and activating JNK to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS via NADPH oxidase and the mitochondria. Khz-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent and occurred via a mitochondrial pathway. ROS generation by NADPH oxidase was critical for Khz-induced apoptosis, and although mitochondrial ROS production was also required, it appeared to occur secondary to ROS generation by NADPH oxidase. Activation of NADPH oxidase was demonstrated by the translocation of regulatory subunits p47(phox and p67(phox to the cell membrane and was necessary for ROS generation by Khz. Khz triggered a rapid and sustained increase in [Ca(2+](i, which activated JNK. JNK plays a key role in the activation of NADPH oxidase because inhibition of its expression or activity abrogated membrane translocation of the p47(phox and p67(phox subunits and ROS generation. In summary, these data indicate that Khz preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells, and the signaling mechanisms involve an increase in [Ca(2+](i, JNK activation, and ROS generation via NADPH oxidase and mitochondria.

  1. Climate change-induced vegetation change as a driver of increased subarctic biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valolahti, Hanna Maritta; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Faubert, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) have been earlier shown to be highly temperature sensi-tive in subarctic ecosystems. As these ecosystems experience rapidly advancing pronounced climate warming, weaimed to investigate how warming affects the BVOC emissions in the long term...... (up to 13 treatment years). We alsoaimed to assess whether the increased litterfall resulting from the vegetation changes in the warming subarctic wouldaffect the emissions. The study was conducted in a field experiment with factorial open-top chamber warming andannual litter addition treatments......-trometry. Plant species coverage in the plots was analyzed by the point intercept method. Warming by 2 °C caused a2-fold increase in monoterpene and 5-fold increase in sesquiterpene emissions, averaged over all measurements.When the momentary effect of temperature was diminished by standardization of emissions...

  2. Increasing and decreasing trends of the atmospheric deposition of organochlorine compounds in European remote areas during the last decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, L.; Fernández, P.; Fonts, R.; Rose, N. L.; Nickus, U.; Thies, H.; Stuchlík, E.; Camarero, L.; Catalan, J.; Grimalt, J. O.

    2015-06-01

    Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected between 2004 and 2007 at four high-altitude European sites encompassing east (Skalnaté Pleso), west (Lochnagar), central (Gossenköllesee) and south (Redòn) regions, and analysed for legacy and current-use organochlorine compounds (OCs). Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) generally showed the highest deposition fluxes in the four sites, between 112 and 488 ng m-2 mo-1, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) the lowest, a few ng m-2 mo-1. Among pesticides, endosulfans were found at higher deposition fluxes (11-177 ng m-2 mo-1) than hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (17-66 ng m-2 mo-1) in all sites except Lochnagar that was characterized by very low fluxes of this insecticide. Comparison of the present measurements with previous determinations in Redòn (1997-1998 and 2001-2002) and Gossenköllesee (1996-1998) provided for the first time an assessment of the long-term temporal trends in OC atmospheric deposition in the European background areas. PCBs showed increasing deposition trends while HCB deposition fluxes remained nearly constant. Re-emission of PCBs from soils or as a consequence of glacier melting and subsequent precipitation and trapping of the volatilized compounds may explain the observed PCB trends. This process does not occur for HCB due to its high volatility which keeps most of this pollutant in the gas phase. A significant decline of pesticide deposition was observed during this studied decade (1996-2006) which is consistent with the restriction in the use of these compounds in most of the European countries. In any case, degassing of HCHs or endosulfans from ice melting to the atmosphere should be limited because of the low Henry's law constants of these compounds that will retain them dissolved in the melted water. Investigation of the relationship between air mass trajectories arriving at each site and OC deposition fluxes showed no correlation for PCBs, which is consistent with diffuse pollution from unspecific

  3. Increase of content and bioactivity of total phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds through solid state fermentation by Bacillus clausii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochín-Medina, Jesús J; Ramírez, Karina; Rangel-Peraza, Jesús G; Bustos-Terrones, Yaneth A

    2018-03-01

    Spent coffee grounds are waste material generated during coffee beverage preparation. This by-product disposal causes a negative environmental impact, in addition to the loss of a rich source of nutrients and bioactive compounds. A rotating central composition design was used to determine the optimal conditions for the bioactivity of phenolic compounds obtained after the solid state fermentation of spent coffee grounds by Bacillus clausii . To achieve this, temperature and fermentation time were varied according to the experimental design and the total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity were determined. Surface response methodology showed that optimum bioprocessing conditions were a temperature of 37 °C and a fermentation time of 39 h. Under these conditions, total phenolic and flavonoid contents increased by 36 and 13%, respectively, in fermented extracts as compared to non-fermented. In addition, the antioxidant activity was increased by 15% and higher antimicrobial activity was observed against Gram positive and negative bacteria. These data demonstrated that bioprocessing optimization of spent coffee grounds using the surface response methodology was an important tool to improve phenolic extraction, which could be used as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents incorporated into different types of food products.

  4. Magnetic fusion reactor economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission → fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ''burner'' far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ''implementation-by-default'' plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant

  5. Fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of fusion power, and its advantages and disadvantages, are outlined. Present research programmes and future plans directed towards the development of a fusion power reactor, are summarized. (U.K.)

  6. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...... by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum...

  7. Growth of ligand-target interaction data in ChEMBL is associated with increasing and activity measurement-dependent compound promiscuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2012-10-22

    Compounds with high-confidence target annotations and activity measurements in the original and current release of the ChEMBL database have been compared to better understand how the growth of compound activity data might influence the spectrum of ligand-target interactions and the degree of target promiscuity among active compounds. Compared to the original ChEMBL release, a significant increase in the proportion of target promiscuous compounds was observed in the current version. The presence of these compounds led to large-magnitude changes in compound activity-based target and target family relationships and to a reorganization of major target communities. Surprisingly, however, this strong trend toward increasing target promiscuity was largely caused by growth of compounds with exclusive IC(50) measurements. By contrast, compounds with available equilibrium constants, which were also added in large amounts, did not substantially alter compound-based target relationships and notably contribute to increasing target promiscuity. These findings suggest that apparent compound promiscuity is much dependent on experimental conditions under which activities are determined and that care should be taken when evaluating promiscuity and polypharmacology on the basis of assay-dependent activity measurements.

  8. Fusion: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2006-01-01

    The article gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's research programme on fusion. The decision to construct the ITER international nuclear fusion experiment in Cadarache is highlighted. A summary of the Belgian contributions to fusion research is given with particular emphasis on studies of radiation effects on diagnostics systems, radiation effects on remote handling sensing systems, fusion waste management and socio-economic studies

  9. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  10. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  11. Fusion barrier characteristics of actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, H. C.; Sridhar, K. N.

    2018-03-01

    We have studied fusion barrier characteristics of actinide compound nuclei with atomic number range 89 ≤ Z ≤ 103 for all projectile target combinations. After the calculation of fusion barrier heights and positions, we have searched for their parameterization. We have achieved the empirical formula for fusion barrier heights (VB), positions (RB), curvature of the inverted parabola (ħω) of actinide compound nuclei with atomic number range 89 ≤ Z ≤ 103 for all projectile target combinations (6 actinides with the simple inputs of mass number (A) and atomic number (Z) of projectile-targets.

  12. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries.

  13. Identification of cancer fusion drivers using network fusion centrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chin; Kannan, Kalpana; Lin, Steven; Yen, Laising; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Gene fusions are being discovered at an increasing rate using massively parallel sequencing technologies. Prioritization of cancer fusion drivers for validation cannot be performed using traditional single-gene based methods because fusions involve portions of two partner genes. To address this problem, we propose a novel network analysis method called fusion centrality that is specifically tailored for prioritizing gene fusions. We first propose a domain-based fusion model built on the theory of exon/domain shuffling. The model leads to a hypothesis that a fusion is more likely to be an oncogenic driver if its partner genes act like hubs in a network because the fusion mutation can deregulate normal functions of many other genes and their pathways. The hypothesis is supported by the observation that for most known cancer fusion genes, at least one of the fusion partners appears to be a hub in a network, and even for many fusions both partners appear to be hubs. Based on this model, we construct fusion centrality, a multi-gene-based network metric, and use it to score fusion drivers. We show that the fusion centrality outperforms other single gene-based methods. Specifically, the method successfully predicts most of 38 newly discovered fusions that had validated oncogenic importance. To our best knowledge, this is the first network-based approach for identifying fusion drivers. Availability: Matlab code implementing the fusion centrality method is available upon request from the corresponding authors. Contact: perwu777@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23505294

  14. Climate change-induced vegetation change as a driver of increased subarctic biogenic volatile organic compound emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valolahti, Hanna; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Faubert, Patrick; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka

    2015-09-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) have been earlier shown to be highly temperature sensitive in subarctic ecosystems. As these ecosystems experience rapidly advancing pronounced climate warming, we aimed to investigate how warming affects the BVOC emissions in the long term (up to 13 treatment years). We also aimed to assess whether the increased litterfall resulting from the vegetation changes in the warming subarctic would affect the emissions. The study was conducted in a field experiment with factorial open-top chamber warming and annual litter addition treatments on subarctic heath in Abisko, northern Sweden. After 11 and 13 treatment years, BVOCs were sampled from plant communities in the experimental plots using a push-pull enclosure technique and collection into adsorbent cartridges during the growing season and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plant species coverage in the plots was analyzed by the point intercept method. Warming by 2 °C caused a 2-fold increase in monoterpene and 5-fold increase in sesquiterpene emissions, averaged over all measurements. When the momentary effect of temperature was diminished by standardization of emissions to a fixed temperature, warming still had a significant effect suggesting that emissions were also indirectly increased. This indirect increase appeared to result from increased plant coverage and changes in vegetation composition. The litter addition treatment also caused significant increases in the emission rates of some BVOC groups, especially when combined with warming. The combined treatment had both the largest vegetation changes and the highest BVOC emissions. The increased emissions under litter addition were probably a result of a changed vegetation composition due to alleviated nutrient limitation and stimulated microbial production of BVOCs. We suggest that the changes in the subarctic vegetation composition induced by climate warming will be the major factor

  15. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  16. Micelle swelling agent derived cavities for increasing hydrophobic organic compound removal efficiency by mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yifeng

    2012-06-01

    Mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials with 2D hexagonal mesostructures were synthesized as reusable sorbents for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) removal by a facile one-step aqueous solution synthesis using 3-(trimethoxysily)propyl-octadecyldimethyl-ammonium chloride (TPODAC) as a structure directing agent. The mesopores were generated by adding micelle swelling agent, 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene, during the synthesis and removing it afterward, which was demonstrated to greatly increase the HOC removal efficiency. In this material, TPODAC surfactant is directly anchored on the pore surface of mesoporous silica via SiOSi covalent bond after the synthesis due to its reactive Si(OCH 3) 3 head group, and thus makes the synthesized materials can be easily regenerated for reuse. The obtained materials show great potential in water treatment as pollutants sorbents. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fruit-localized photoreceptors increase phenolic compounds in berry skins of field-grown Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carina Verónica; Fanzone, Martín Leandro; Cortés, Leandro Emanuel; Bottini, Rubén; Lijavetzky, Diego Claudio; Ballaré, Carlos Luis; Boccalandro, Hernán Esteban

    2015-02-01

    Sunlight exposure has multiple effect on fruits, as it affects the light climate perceived by fruit photoreceptors and fruit tissue temperature. In grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), light exposure can have a strong effect on fruit quality and commercial value; however, the mechanisms of light action are not well understood. The role of fruit-localized photoreceptors in the control of berry quality traits was evaluated under field conditions in a commercial vineyard in Mendoza (Argentina). Characterization of the diurnal dynamics of the fruit light environment in a vertical trellis system indicated that clusters were shaded by leaves during most of the photoperiod. Supplementation of the fruit light environment from 20 days before veraison until technological harvest showed that red (R, 660 nm) and blue (B, 470 nm) light strongly increased total phenolic compound levels at harvest in the berry skins without affecting sugar content, acidity or berry size. Far-red (FR, 730 nm) and green (G, 560 nm) light supplementation had relatively small effects. The stimulation of berry phytochromes and cryptochromes favored accumulation of flavonoid and non-flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, phenolic acids and stilbenes. These results demonstrate that the chemical composition of grape berries is modulated by the light quality received by the clusters under field conditions, and that fruit photoreceptors are not saturated even in areas of high insolation and under management systems that are considered to result in a relatively high exposure of fruits to solar radiation. Therefore, manipulation of the light environment or the light sensitivity of fruits could have significant effects on critical grape quality traits. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Priming in permafrost soils: High vulnerability of arctic soil organic carbon to increased input of plant-derived compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Birgit; Gentsch, Norman; Capek, Petr; Diakova, Katerina; Alves, Ricardo; Barta, Jiri; Gittel, Antje; Guggenberger, Georg; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Knoltsch, Anna; Mikutta, Robert; Santruckova, Hana; Schnecker, Jörg; Shibistova, Olga; Takriti, Mounir; Urich, Tim; Watzka, Margarete; Richter, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Arctic ecosystems are warming rapidly, resulting in a stimulation of both plant primary production and soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition. In addition to this direct stimulation, SOM decomposition might also be indirectly affected by rising temperatures mediated by the increase in plant productivity. Higher root litter production for instance might decrease SOM decomposition by providing soil microorganisms with alternative C and N sources ("negative priming"), or might increase SOM decomposition by facilitating microbial growth and enzyme production ("positive priming"). With about 1,700 Pg of organic C stored in arctic soils, and 88% of that in horizons deeper than 30 cm, it is crucial to understand the controls on SOM decomposition in different horizons of arctic permafrost soils, and thus the vulnerability of SOM to changes in C and N availability in a future climate. We here report on the vulnerability of SOM in arctic permafrost soils to an increased input of plant-derived organic compounds, and on its variability across soil horizons and sites. We simulated an increased input of plant-derived compounds by amending soil samples with 13C-labelled cellulose or protein, and compared the mineralization of native, unlabelled soil organic C (SOC) to unamended control samples. Our experiment included 119 individual samples of arctic permafrost soils, covering four sites across the Siberian Arctic, and five soil horizons, i.e., organic topsoil, mineral topsoil, mineral subsoil and cryoturbated material (topsoil material buried in the subsoil by freeze-thaw processes) from the active layer, as well as thawed material from the upper permafrost. Our findings suggest that changes in C and N availability in Arctic soils, such as mediated by plants, have a high potential to alter the decomposition of SOM, but also point at fundamental differences between soil horizons. In the organic topsoil, SOC mineralization increased by 51% after addition of protein, but was not

  19. Fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs

  20. Increased root exudation of /sup 14/C-compounds by sorghum seedlings inoculated with nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.J. (Institute of Forest Genetics, Suweon (Republic of Korea)); Gaskins, M.H. (Florida Univ., Gainesville (USA). Dept. of Agriculture)

    1982-01-01

    Organic components leaked from Sorghum bicolor seedlings ('root exudates') were examined by recovering /sup 14/C labelled compounds from root solutions of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter vinelandii or Klebsiella pneumoniae nif-. Up to 3.5% of the total /sup 14/C recovered from shoots, roots, and nutrient solutions was found in the root solutions. Inoculation with Azospirillum and Azotobacter increased the amounts of /sup 14/C and decreased the amounts of carbohydrates in the root solutions. When sucrose was added as a carbon source for the bacteria, the increase of /sup 14/C in the solutions did not occur. Quantities of /sup 14/C found in the root solutions were proportional to amounts of mineral nitrogen supplied to the plants. Bacterial growth also was proportional to nitrogen levels. When sorghum plants were grown in soil and labelled with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, about 15% of the total /sup 14/C recovered within 48 hours exposure was found in soil leachates.

  1. Antioxidative activity of red wine with the in-creased share of phenolic compounds from solid parts of grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA TUMBAS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and amount of phenolic compounds in the wine depend on the grapevine variety, agroecologic conditions and a way of vinification. The influence of pomace enrichment with solid parts of grape (stem and grape seeds during maceration on the antioxidative activity of red wines was investigated. The antioxidative activity of red wines towards DPPH• and hydroxyl (•OH radicals was determined by the electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The addition of stem to the pomace had no significant influence on the antioxidative wine activity increase, whereas enriching of pomace with 120 g seeds/kg of pomace resulted in the increase of antioxidative capacity of a wine. In the wine enriched with tannins and flavan-3-ols from the seeds, the antioxidative activity towards DPPH• (AADPPH• was 100%. None of the applied clarifiers showed a significant influence on the antioxidative activity of these wine samples. The antioxidative activity, measured as DPPH• scavenging activity, of the wine supplemented by seeds remained unchanged, showing 100% efficiency after the treatment by all tested fining agents. A significant difference in antioxidative activities towards hydroxyl radicals (AA•OH between the two wines was found. The antioxidative activity of the wine Merlot was higher than the antioxidative activity of the wine Cabernet sauvignon.

  2. Changes in salivary microbiota increase volatile sulfur compounds production in healthy male subjects with academic-related chronic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dias Nani

    Full Text Available To investigate the associations among salivary bacteria, oral emanations of volatile sulfur compounds, and academic-related chronic stress in healthy male subjects.Seventy-eight healthy male undergraduate dental students were classified as stressed or not by evaluation of burnout, a syndrome attributed to academic-related chronic stress. This evaluation was carried out using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey questionnaire. Oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide were measured using an Oral Chroma™ portable gas chromatograph. The amounts in saliva of total bacteria and seven bacteria associated with halitosis were quantified by qPCR. The in vitro production of H2S by S. moorei and/or F. nucleatum was also measured with the Oral Chroma™ instrument.The stressed students group showed increased oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide, together with higher salivary Solobacterium moorei levels (p < 0.05, Mann Whitney test. There were moderate positive correlations between the following pairs of variables: Fusobacterium nucleatum and S. moorei; F. nucleatum and hydrogen sulfide; Tannerella forsythia and F. nucleatum; T. forsythia and S. moorei. These correlations only occurred for the stressed group (p < 0.05, Spearman correlation. The in vitro experiment demonstrated that S. moorei increased H2S production by F. nucleatum (p < 0.05, ANOVA and Tukey's test.The increased amount of S. moorei in saliva, and its coexistence with F. nucleatum and T. forsythia, seemed to be responsible for increased oral hydrogen sulfide in the healthy male stressed subjects.

  3. Increased production of wax esters in transgenic tobacco plants by expression of a fatty acid reductase:wax synthase gene fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sun, Chuanxin; Sitbon, Folke

    2015-12-01

    Wax esters are hydrophobic lipids consisting of a fatty acid moiety linked to a fatty alcohol with an ester bond. Plant-derived wax esters are today of particular concern for their potential as cost-effective and sustainable sources of lubricants. However, this aspect is hampered by the fact that the level of wax esters in plants generally is too low to allow commercial exploitation. To investigate whether wax ester biosynthesis can be increased in plants using transgenic approaches, we have here exploited a fusion between two bacterial genes together encoding a single wax ester-forming enzyme, and targeted the resulting protein to chloroplasts in stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants. Compared to wild-type controls, transgenic plants showed both in leaves and stems a significant increase in the total level of wax esters, being eight-fold at the whole plant level. The profiles of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty alcohol in wax esters were related, and C16 and C18 molecules constituted predominant forms. Strong transformants displayed certain developmental aberrations, such as stunted growth and chlorotic leaves and stems. These negative effects were associated with an accumulation of fatty alcohols, suggesting that an adequate balance between formation and esterification of fatty alcohols is crucial for a high wax ester production. The results show that wax ester engineering in transgenic plants is feasible, and suggest that higher yields may become achieved in the near future.

  4. Controlled fusion; La fusion controlee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobin, J.L

    2005-07-01

    During the last fifty years the researches on controlled thermonuclear fusion reached great performance in the magnetic confinement (tokamaks) as in the inertial confinement (lasers). But the state of the art is not in favor of the apparition of the fusion in the energy market before the second half of the 21 century. To explain this opinion the author presents the fusion reactions of light nuclei and the problems bound to the magnetic confinement. (A.L.B.)

  5. Fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of thermonuclear fusion devices currently under development are reviewed for an electric utilities management audience. Overall design features of laser fusion, tokamak, and magnetic mirror type reactors are described and illustrated. Thrusts and trends in current research on these devices that promise to improve performance are briefly reviewed. Twenty photographs and drawings are included

  6. Osteoclast Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie Julie Møller, Anaïs; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Investigations addressing the molecular keys of osteoclast fusion are primarily based on end-point analyses. No matter if investigations are performed in vivo or in vitro the impact of a given factor is predominantly analyzed by counting the number of multi-nucleated cells, the number of nuclei per...... multinucleated cell or TRAcP activity. But end-point analyses do not show how the fusion came about. This would not be a problem if fusion of osteoclasts was a random process and occurred by the same molecular mechanism from beginning to end. However, we and others have in the recent period published data...... suggesting that fusion partners may specifically select each other and that heterogeneity between the partners seems to play a role. Therefore, we set out to directly test the hypothesis that fusion factors have a heterogenic involvement at different stages of nuclearity. Therefore, we have analyzed...

  7. Fusion physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lackner, Karl; Tran, Minh Quang

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a comprehensive reference for graduate students and an invaluable guide for more experienced researchers. It provides an introduction to nuclear fusion and its status and prospects, and features specialized chapters written by leaders in the field, presenting the main research and development concepts in fusion physics. It starts with an introduction to the case for the development of fusion as an energy source. Magnetic and inertial confinement are addressed. Dedicated chapters focus on the physics of confinement, the equilibrium and stability of tokamaks, diagnostics, heating and current drive by neutral beam and radiofrequency waves, and plasma–wall interactions. While the tokamak is a leading concept for the realization of fusion, other concepts (helical confinement and, in a broader sense, other magnetic and inertial configurations) are also addressed in the book. At over 1100 pages, this publication provides an unparalleled resource for fusion physicists and engineers.

  8. Bringing together fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiser, M.

    1982-01-01

    The increasing involvement of the IAEA in fusion, together with the growing efforts devoted to this area, are described. The author puts forward the idea that one of the most important aspects of this involvement is in providing a world-wide forum for scientists. The functions of the IFRC (International Fusion Research Council) as an advisory group are outlined, and the role played by IFRC in the definition and objectives of INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) are briefly described

  9. Impact of Increasing Levels of Oxygen Consumption on the Evolution of Color, Phenolic, and Volatile Compounds of Nebbiolo Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Petrozziello

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the last century, many works have been carried out to verify the effect of controlled oxygen intake on the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of red wines. In spite of the large number of studies on this subject, oxygen remains a cutting-edge research topic in oenology. Oxygen consumption leads to complex and not univocal changes in wine composition, sometimes positive such as color stabilization, softening of mouthfeel, increase of aroma complexity. However, the variability of these effects, which depend both on the oxygenation conditions and the composition of the wine, require more efforts in this research field to effectively manage wine oxygen exposure. The present study is focused on the evolution of the chemical composition of four different Nebbiolo wines, each of them added with 4 different doses of oxygen (7, 14, 21, and 28 mg/L total intake during the first month of storage. In this perspective, the evolution over time of wine color and polyphenols was studied. Acetaldehyde, glyceraldehyde and glyoxylic acid were quantified by HPLC. These compounds can play a role in wine aging creating condensed colored and stable products involving anthocyanins with or without tannins. Moreover, some volatile aldehydes correlated with oxidized olfactory notes, including methional and (E-2-alkenals, have been quantified by GC-MS. Overall, during storage a decrease of color intensity, total and free anthocyanins and an increase in polymeric pigments (in particular the contribution to the red color of pigments not-bleachable by SO2 or dTAT% and some minor aldehydes was observed. Nevertheless, the differences in color parameters between the samples with different doses of oxygen were modest. These evidences were in contrast with an evident and detectable increase of free acetaldehyde content at increasing doses of oxygen measured after 60 days of storage. The effect of oxygen on color and production of SO2 non-bleachable pigments

  10. Increases thermal stability and cellulose-binding capacity of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 lipase by fusion of cellulose binding domain derived from Trichoderma reesei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongekkaew, Jantaporn; Ikeda, Hiroko; Iefuji, Haruyuki

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The CSLP and fusion enzyme were successfully expressed in the Pichia pastoris. ► The fusion enzyme was stable at 80 °C for 120-min. ► The fusion enzyme was responsible for cellulose-binding capacity. ► The fusion enzyme has an attractive applicant for enzyme immobilization. -- Abstract: To improve the thermal stability and cellulose-binding capacity of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 lipase (CSLP), the cellulose-binding domain originates from Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I was engineered into C-terminal region of the CSLP (CSLP-CBD). The CSLP and CSLP-CBD were successfully expressed in the Pichia pastoris using the strong methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter and the secretion signal sequence from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (α factor). The recombinant CSLP and CSLP-CBD were secreted into culture medium and estimated by SDS–PAGE to be 22 and 27 kDa, respectively. The fusion enzyme was stable at 80 °C and retained more than 80% of its activity after 120-min incubation at this temperature. Our results also found that the fusion of fungal exoglucanase cellulose-binding domain to CSLP is responsible for cellulose-binding capacity. This attribute should make it an attractive applicant for enzyme immobilization.

  11. Increases thermal stability and cellulose-binding capacity of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 lipase by fusion of cellulose binding domain derived from Trichoderma reesei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thongekkaew, Jantaporn, E-mail: jantaporn_25@yahoo.com [Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Ubon-Ratchathani University, Warinchumrab, Ubon-Ratchathani 34190 (Thailand); Ikeda, Hiroko; Iefuji, Haruyuki [Application Research Division, National Research Institute of Brewing, 3-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CSLP and fusion enzyme were successfully expressed in the Pichia pastoris. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion enzyme was stable at 80 Degree-Sign C for 120-min. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion enzyme was responsible for cellulose-binding capacity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion enzyme has an attractive applicant for enzyme immobilization. -- Abstract: To improve the thermal stability and cellulose-binding capacity of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 lipase (CSLP), the cellulose-binding domain originates from Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I was engineered into C-terminal region of the CSLP (CSLP-CBD). The CSLP and CSLP-CBD were successfully expressed in the Pichia pastoris using the strong methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter and the secretion signal sequence from Saccharomyces cerevisiae ({alpha} factor). The recombinant CSLP and CSLP-CBD were secreted into culture medium and estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 22 and 27 kDa, respectively. The fusion enzyme was stable at 80 Degree-Sign C and retained more than 80% of its activity after 120-min incubation at this temperature. Our results also found that the fusion of fungal exoglucanase cellulose-binding domain to CSLP is responsible for cellulose-binding capacity. This attribute should make it an attractive applicant for enzyme immobilization.

  12. There is no increased risk of adjacent segment disease at the cervicothoracic junction following an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion to C7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Philip K; Presciutti, Steven M; Iantorno, Stephanie E; Bohl, Daniel D; Shah, Kevin; Shifflett, Grant D; An, Howard S

    2017-09-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a very common operative intervention for the treatment of cervical spine degenerative disease in those who have failed non-operative measures. However, studies examining long-term follow-up on patients who underwent ACDF reveal evidence of radiographic and clinical degenerative disc disease at the levels adjacent to the fusion construct. Consistent with other junctional regions of the spine, the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) has significant morphologic variations. As a result, the CTJ undergoes significant static and dynamic stress. Given these findings, there has been some thought that ACDF down to C7 may experience additional risks for adjacent segment degeneration/disease (ASD) when compared with ASDFs that are cephalad to C7. The goal of this study is to evaluate the rate of radiographic and clinical ASD in patients who have undergone single- or multilevel ACDF, down to C7. This is a retrospective cohort study. The sample included consecutive patients from a single orthopedic surgeon at one quaternary referral medical center who underwent an ACDF between January 2008 and November 2014. Indications for surgery included radiculopathy, myelopathy, or myeloradiculopathy in the setting of failed conservative treatments. Patients were excluded if they had an ACDF of which the caudal level was cephalad to C7 or if they had undergone a previous cervical fusion. Radiographic diagnosis of ASD was determined by the presence of disc space narrowing >50%, new or enlarged osteophytes, end plate sclerosis, or increased calcification of the anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL). Postoperatively, data were collected on the presence of new radicular or myelopathic symptoms indicative of pathology at C7-T1, indicating a diagnosis of clinical ASD. Demographic information was collected for all patients, which included age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, and Charleston Comorbidity Index (CCI). Several radiographic parameters

  13. Investigating the potential of selected natural compounds to increase the potency of pyrethrum against houseflies Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, Tanya; Gunning, Robin V; Allen, Geoff R

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of seven natural compounds compared with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) in synergising pyrethrum, with the intention of formulating an effective natural synergist with pyrethrum for use in the organic crop market. RESULTS: Discriminating dose...... bioassays showed PBO to be significantly more effective at synergising pyrethrum in houseflies than the seven natural compounds tested, causing 100% mortality in insecticide-susceptible WHO and resistant 381zb strains of housefly. The most effective natural synergists against WHO houseflies were dillapiole...... oil, grapefruit oil and parsley seed oil, with 59, 50 and 41% mortality respectively, compared with 18% mortality with unsynergised pyrethrum. Against 381zb houseflies, the most effective natural synergists were parsley seed oil and dillapiole oil. Esterase inhibition by the natural compounds and PBO...

  14. Fusion Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob Balslev; Milosevic, Ira

    2015-01-01

    SNARE proteins constitute the minimal machinery needed for membrane fusion. SNAREs operate by forming a complex, which pulls the lipid bilayers into close contact and provides the mechanical force needed for lipid bilayer fusion. At the chemical synapse, SNARE-complex formation between...... the vesicular SNARE VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2 and the target (plasma membrane) SNAREs SNAP25 and syntaxin-1 results in fusion and release of neurotransmitter, synchronized to the electrical activity of the cell by calcium influx and binding to synaptotagmin. Formation of the SNARE complex is tightly regulated...... and appears to start with syntaxin-1 bound to an SM (Sec1/Munc18-like) protein. Proteins of the Munc13-family are responsible for opening up syntaxin and allowing sequential binding of SNAP-25 and VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2. N- to C-terminal “zippering” of the SNARE domains leads to membrane fusion...

  15. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The efforts of the Chemical Technology Division in fusion energy include the areas of fuel handling, processing, and containment. Current studies are concerned largely with the development of vacuum pumps for fusion reactors and experiments and with development and evaluation of techniques for recovering tritium from solid or liquid breeding blankets. In addition, a small effort is devoted to support of the ORNL design of a major Tokamak experiment, The Next Step (TNS)

  16. Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 produces hypoacetylated PEFA compounds with increased surface activity compared to Rhodotorula babjevae MD1169

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinfeld, Bonnee; Leif, Roald; Mulcahy, Heather; Dugan, Lawrence; Souza, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Biosurfactants have several desirable characteristics in the industrial sector: detergency, antimicrobial effects, skin hydration, and emulsibility. Several yeast glycolipids are currently being utilized in these capacities: sophorolipids, ustilagic acid, and mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs). An emerging class of glycolipids, termed polyol esters of fatty acids (PEFA), have recently been reported for Rhodotorula babjevae, a basidiomycetous yeast species that secretes hyperacetylated congeners of PEFA (typically with 3–6 acetylation modifications). While screening Rhodotorula species for surfactant production, we identified a new environmental isolate identified as Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 that dropped the surface tension of the liquid medium, indicating that it produced a potent biosurfactant. Acid depolymerization of the purified biosurfactants, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the biosurfactants were composed of PEFA compounds composed mainly of mannitol and arabitol esters of 3-hydroxy fatty acid, 3-methoxy fatty acid, and fatty acids with a single double bond; chain lengths were mainly C16 and C18. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) confirmed the predicted accurate mass of these compounds. Interestingly, PEFA compounds produced by Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 were more surface active due to their hypoacetylation profile (0–4 acetylation modifications) compared to Rhodotorula babjevae MD1169. These disparate surface active properties, based on acetylation, change the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of these compounds, and their potential utility within industrial applications. PMID:29293588

  17. Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 produces hypoacetylated PEFA compounds with increased surface activity compared to Rhodotorula babjevae MD1169.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Mathew; Rubinfeld, Bonnee; Leif, Roald; Mulcahy, Heather; Dugan, Lawrence; Souza, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Biosurfactants have several desirable characteristics in the industrial sector: detergency, antimicrobial effects, skin hydration, and emulsibility. Several yeast glycolipids are currently being utilized in these capacities: sophorolipids, ustilagic acid, and mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs). An emerging class of glycolipids, termed polyol esters of fatty acids (PEFA), have recently been reported for Rhodotorula babjevae, a basidiomycetous yeast species that secretes hyperacetylated congeners of PEFA (typically with 3-6 acetylation modifications). While screening Rhodotorula species for surfactant production, we identified a new environmental isolate identified as Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 that dropped the surface tension of the liquid medium, indicating that it produced a potent biosurfactant. Acid depolymerization of the purified biosurfactants, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the biosurfactants were composed of PEFA compounds composed mainly of mannitol and arabitol esters of 3-hydroxy fatty acid, 3-methoxy fatty acid, and fatty acids with a single double bond; chain lengths were mainly C16 and C18. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) confirmed the predicted accurate mass of these compounds. Interestingly, PEFA compounds produced by Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149 were more surface active due to their hypoacetylation profile (0-4 acetylation modifications) compared to Rhodotorula babjevae MD1169. These disparate surface active properties, based on acetylation, change the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of these compounds, and their potential utility within industrial applications.

  18. Gas-shell-encapsulation of Activated Carbon to Reduce Fouling and Increase the Efficacy of Volatile Organic Compound Removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, Albert T.; Rijn, van Cees J.M.

    2017-01-01

    A method to encapsulate activated carbon particles is presented that reduces fouling of these particles with Natural Organic Matter (NOM) to preserve their adsorption capacity for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from water in the presence of NOM. The encapsulation method uses an oil-in-water

  19. Status of fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Ashok

    1978-01-01

    The current status of fusion technology is surveyed. Limited reserves of fossil fuel and dangers of proliferation from nuclear reactors have brought into focus the need to develop an optional energy source. Fusion is being looked upon as an optional energy source which is free from environmental hazards unlike fossil fuels and nuclear reactors. Investments in R and D of fusion energy have increased rapidly in USA, Japan, USSR and European countries. Out of the various fusion fuels known, a mixture of D and T is widely chosen. The main problem in fusion technology is the confinement of plasma for a time sufficient to start the fusion reaction. This can be done magnetically or inertially. The three approaches to magnetic confinement are : (1) tokamak, (2) mirror and (3) pinch. Inertial confinement makes use of lasers or electron beams or ion beams. Both the methods of confinement i.e. magnetic and inertial have problems which are identified and their nature is discussed. (M.G.B.)

  20. On the production of heavy elements by cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armbruster, P.

    1985-01-01

    After a short historical introduction (Section 1), this article presents new insights into the mechanism limiting the fusion of heavy nuclides (Section 2). Fusion is finally limited by the increasing Coulomb forces in the formation process of a compound system, as well as in its deexcitation. Moreover, nuclear structure effects in all stages of evaporation residue (EVR) formation are shown to be of importance. The wide field of fusion reaction studies and possible experimental techniques is projected onto the task of element synthesis, and only those aspects that are of relevance here are covered. The better understanding of EVR formation (Section 2) and the new experimental techniques (Section 3) that enabled the production of elements 107-109 (Section 4) are also discussed. In Section 5 ground-state properties and the nuclear structure of the heaviest isotopes, together with their production cross sections, are discussed. Finally, an outlook on how eventually to go beyond Z = 109 is given

  1. Moderate Partially Reduplicated Conditioned Stimuli as Retrieval Cue Can Increase Effect on Preventing Relapse of Fear to Compound Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junjiao; Chen, Wei; Caoyang, Jingwen; Wu, Wenli; Jie, Jing; Xu, Liang; Zheng, Xifu

    2017-01-01

    The theory of memory reconsolidation argues that consolidated memory is not unchangeable. Once a memory is reactivated it may go back into an unstable state and need new protein synthesis to be consolidated again, which is called "memory reconsolidation". Boundary studies have shown that interfering with reconsolidation through pharmacologic or behavioral intervention can lead to the updating of the initial memory, for example, erasing undesired memories. Behavioral procedures based on memory reconsolidation interference have been shown to be an effective way to inhibit fear memory relapse after extinction. However, the effectiveness of retrieval-extinction differs by subtle differences in the protocol of the reactivation session. This represents a challenge with regard to finding an optimal operational model to facilitate its clinical use for patients suffering from pathogenic memories such as those associated with post-traumatic stress disorder. Most of the laboratory models for fear learning have used a single conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US). This has simplified the real situation of traumatic events to an excessive degree, and thus, limits the clinical application of the findings based on these models. Here, we used a basic visual compound CS model as the CS to ascertain whether partial repetition of the compound CSs in conditioning can reactivate memory into reconsolidation. The results showed that the no retrieval group or the 1/3 ratio retrieval group failed to open the memory reconsolidation time window. The 2/3 repetition retrieval group and the whole repetition retrieval group were able to prevent fear reinstatement, whereas only a 2/3 ratio repetition of the initial compound CS as a reminder could inhibit spontaneous recovery. We inferred that a retrieval-extinction paradigm was also effective in a more complex model of fear if a sufficient prediction error (PE) could be generated in the reactivation period. In

  2. Moderate Partially Reduplicated Conditioned Stimuli as Retrieval Cue Can Increase Effect on Preventing Relapse of Fear to Compound Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjiao Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory of memory reconsolidation argues that consolidated memory is not unchangeable. Once a memory is reactivated it may go back into an unstable state and need new protein synthesis to be consolidated again, which is called “memory reconsolidation”. Boundary studies have shown that interfering with reconsolidation through pharmacologic or behavioral intervention can lead to the updating of the initial memory, for example, erasing undesired memories. Behavioral procedures based on memory reconsolidation interference have been shown to be an effective way to inhibit fear memory relapse after extinction. However, the effectiveness of retrieval–extinction differs by subtle differences in the protocol of the reactivation session. This represents a challenge with regard to finding an optimal operational model to facilitate its clinical use for patients suffering from pathogenic memories such as those associated with post-traumatic stress disorder. Most of the laboratory models for fear learning have used a single conditioned stimulus (CS paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US. This has simplified the real situation of traumatic events to an excessive degree, and thus, limits the clinical application of the findings based on these models. Here, we used a basic visual compound CS model as the CS to ascertain whether partial repetition of the compound CSs in conditioning can reactivate memory into reconsolidation. The results showed that the no retrieval group or the 1/3 ratio retrieval group failed to open the memory reconsolidation time window. The 2/3 repetition retrieval group and the whole repetition retrieval group were able to prevent fear reinstatement, whereas only a 2/3 ratio repetition of the initial compound CS as a reminder could inhibit spontaneous recovery. We inferred that a retrieval–extinction paradigm was also effective in a more complex model of fear if a sufficient prediction error (PE could be generated in the

  3. Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, F.P.

    1977-01-01

    On October 1, 1977 work began at LLL on the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF), an advanced experimental fusion device. Scheduled for operation in late 1981, MFTF is designed as an intermediate step between present mirror machines, such as 2XIIB, and an experimental fusion reactor. This design incorporates improved technology and a better theoretical understanding of how neutral beam injection, plasma guns, and gas injection into the plasma region compensate for cooling and particle losses. With the new facility, we expect to achieve a confinement factor (n tau) of 10 12 particles . sm/cm 3 --a tenfold increase over 2XIIB n tau values--and to increase plasma temperature to over 500 million K. The following article describes this new facility and reports on progress in some of the R and D projects that are providing the technological base for its construction

  4. Destination fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivakumar, B.; Shapira, D.; Stelson, P.H.; Beckerman, M.; Harmon, B.A.; Teh, K.; Ayik, S.

    1986-01-01

    The orbiting yields of reaction products from the 28 Si + 14 N interaction have been measured. The relative magnitudes of the orbiting yields indicate that the dinuclear complex (DNCs) formed in such interactions live sufficiently long to permit the equilibration of charge and mass. Since both the 16 O and the 12 C orbiting yields exceed the 14 N, it appears that there is no preferred directions for mass flow between the interacting nuclei. Since the orbiting yields are typically 10% of the fusion yield, and we believe the orbiting process reflects how the DNCs formed in such collisions evolve towards fusion, it seems apt to conclude that fusion occurs not through a process of continual particle exchange whereby one nucleus is gradually consumed by the other, but by a dinuclear system that retains it mass asymmetry. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Comparative studies on compounds occluded inside asphaltenes hierarchically released by increasing amounts of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/CH{sub 3}COOH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Jing [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)] [Laboratoire des Fluides Complexes, UMR 5150 TOTAL-CNRS-UPPA, BP 1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France); Liao Zewen, E-mail: liaozw@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Luehui [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Creux, Patrice [Laboratoire des Fluides Complexes, UMR 5150 TOTAL-CNRS-UPPA, BP 1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France); Yang Chupeng [Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey, Ministry of Land and Resources, Guangzhou 510760 (China); Chrostowska, Anna [Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Materiaux, UMR CNRS 5254, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Av. de l' Universite, BP 1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France); Zhang Haizu [Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Tarim Oilfield Company, Korla 841000 (China); Graciaa, Alain [Laboratoire des Fluides Complexes, UMR 5150 TOTAL-CNRS-UPPA, BP 1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France)

    2010-09-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Some other molecules are occluded inside asphaltenes {yields} These occluded molecules can be released from asphaltenes by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/CH{sub 3}COOH oxidation {yields} These occluded molecules are representatives of the original oils from kerogens - Abstract: Being the heaviest fraction of crude oils, asphaltenes are liable to aggregate, and other molecules in the oils can be steadily adsorbed onto, and even occluded inside the macromolecular structures of the asphaltenes. These occluded compounds inside the asphaltenes can survive over geological time in oil reservoirs owing to effective protection by the macromolecular structures of the asphaltenes. The asphaltenes of a crude oil (ZG31) from the central Tarim Basin, NW China, were hierarchically degraded by increasing the amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/CH{sub 3}COOH to release the occluded compounds. Besides the common components, series of even numbered n-alk-1-enes and 3-ethylalkanes were detected among the occluded compounds. Comparison of the biomarker distributions and the compound-specific C isotopic results between the compounds from the maltenes and those from the occluded fraction, the ZG31 reservoir was suggested to have been charged multiple times, with different charges being derived from different strata of source rocks.

  6. Increased acetone exhalation induced by metabolites of halogenated C/sub 1/ and C/sub 2/ compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filser, J.G.; Jung, P.; Bolt, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    Rats were exposed, in a closed desiccator jar chamber, to concentrations of various halogenated C/sub 1/ and C/sub 2/ compounds at which the metabolizing capacities were saturated (Vsub(m)sub(a)sub(x) conditions). Within the exposure period of 50 h concentrations of the xenobiotic and of exhaled acetone were monitored in the gas phase of the system. The quantitative extent of acetone exhalation was dependent on the individual compound examined. Acetone exhalatio was stimulated in presence of vinyl chloride, vinyl bromide, vinyl fluoride, vinylidene fluoride, cis- and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, methylene chloride, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and 1,1,2-trichloroethane. No stimulation of acetone exhalation occured with 1,1,1-trichloroethane and with the reference hydrocarbon n-hexane. Also, acetone exhalation was evoked by infusions of either fluoroacetate or chloroacetate, two anticipated or proven metabolites of some haloethylenes; the infusion rates of which were based on calculations of the metabolic rates of vinylidene fluoride and of vinyl chloride, respectively.

  7. Anti-aphrodisiac compounds of male butterflies increase the risk of egg parasitoid attack by inducing plant synomone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatouros, Nina E; Pashalidou, Foteini G; Aponte Cordero, Wilma V; van Loon, Joop J A; Mumm, Roland; Dicke, Marcel; Hilker, Monika; Huigens, Martinus E

    2009-11-01

    During mating in many butterfly species, males transfer spermatophores that contain anti-aphrodisiacs to females that repel conspecific males. For example, males of the large cabbage white, Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), transfer the anti-aphrodisiac, benzyl cyanide (BC) to females. Accessory reproductive gland (ARG) secretion of a mated female P. brassicae that is deposited with an egg clutch contains traces of BC, inducing Brussels sprouts plants (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) to arrest certain Trichogramma egg parasitoids. Here, we assessed whether deposition of one egg at a time by the closely related small cabbage white, Pieris rapae, induced B. oleracea var. gemmifera to arrest Trichogramma wasps, and whether this plant synomone is triggered by substances originating from male P. rapae seminal fluid. We showed that plants induced by singly laid eggs of P. rapae arrest T. brassicae wasps three days after butterfly egg deposition. Elicitor activity was present in ARG secretion of mated female butterflies, whereas the secretion of virgin females was inactive. Pieris rapae used a mixture of methyl salicylate (MeSA) and indole as an anti-aphrodisiac. We detected traces of both anti-aphrodisiacal compounds in the ARG secretion of mated female P. rapae, whereas indole was lacking in the secretion of virgin female P. rapae. When applied onto the leaf, indole induced changes in the foliar chemistry that arrested T. brassicae wasps. This study shows that compounds of male seminal fluid incur possible fitness costs for Pieris butterflies by indirectly promoting egg parasitoid attack.

  8. Economic potential of inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1984-04-01

    Beyond the achievement of scientific feasibility, the key question for fusion energy is: does it have the economic potential to be significantly cheaper than fission and coal energy. If fusion has this high economic potential then there are compelling commercial and geopolitical incentives to accelerate the pace of the fusion program in the near term, and to install a global fusion energy system in the long term. Without this high economic potential, fusion's success depends on the failure of all alternatives, and there is no real incentive to accelerate the program. If my conjectures on the economic potential of inertial fusion are approximately correct, then inertial fusion energy's ultimate costs may be only half to two-thirds those of advanced fission and coal energy systems. Relative cost escalation is not assumed and could increase this advantage. Both magnetic and inertial approaches to fusion potentially have a two-fold economic advantage which derives from two fundamental properties: negligible fuel costs and high quality energy which makes possible more efficient generation of electricity. The wining approach to fusion may excel in three areas: electrical generating efficiency, minimum material costs, and adaptability to manufacture in automated factories. The winning approach must also rate highly in environmental potential, safety, availability factor, lifetime, small 0 and M costs, and no possibility of utility-disabling accidents

  9. Fusion protein strategy to increase expression and solubility of hypervariable region of VP2 protein of infectious bursal disease virus in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighzadeh, Sahar Sadat; Shamsara, Mehdi; Shahpiri, Azar

    2012-10-01

    Infectious bursal disease is one of the most important viral diseases in the young chickens. VP2 protein is the major host protective immunogen of the virus. A hypervariable region is present in VP2 protein (hvVP2) that contains immunodominant epitops. The high hydrophobicity of hvVP2 region causes protein aggregation in Escherichia coli (E. coli). The objective of the present study was to improve the expression and the solubility of the hvVP2 protein in E. coli. The effects of fusion partners on the solubility of hvVP2 protein were studied. The protein was expressed in forms of unfused and N-terminally fused to GST and NusA. The results showed that the unfused hvVP2 protein was expressed in very low level. But, N-terminally fused hvVP2 protein to GST (glutathione-S-transferase) and NusA (N utilization substance A) showed significantly enhanced protein expression. The fusion of GST and hvVP2 was produced in aggregated form while in the presence of NusA, the hvVP2 protein was expressed in a soluble form. The NusA-hvVP2 protein was detected by a neutralizing monoclonal antibody, 1A6, in antigen-capture ELISA. In conclusion, the NusA protein is a suitable fusion partner to improve expression and solubility of the hvVP2 protein in E. coli.

  10. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1986-05-01

    In 1982, KfK joined the fusion programme of EURATOM as a further association introducing its experience in nuclear technology. KfK closely cooperates with IPP Garching, the two institutions forming a research unit aiming at planning and realization of future development steps of fusion. KfK has combined its forces in the Nuclear Fusion Project (PKF) with participation of several KfK departments to the project tasks. Previous work of KfK in magnetic fusion has addressed mainly superconducting magnets, plasma heating by cluster ions and studies on structural materials. At present, emphasis of our work has concentrated increasingly on the nuclear part, i.e. the first wall and blanket structures and the elements of the tritium extraction and purification system. Associated to this component development are studies of remote maintenance and safety. Most of the actual work addresses NET, the next step to a demonstration of fusion feasibility. NET is supposed to follow JET, the operating plasma physics experiment of Euratom, on the 1990's. Detailed progress of the work in the past half year is described in this report. (orig./GG)

  11. Fusion cuisine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    define the culinary tradition of journalism studies in the first place. In so doing, we offer a recipe for journalism studies fusion cooking that: 1) considers technological change (audiences’ diets); 2) analyses institutional change (audiences’ supermarket of information); and 3) evaluates journalism...

  12. Magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project

  13. Fusion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aschbacher, Michael; Oliver, Bob

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey article on the theory of fusion systems, a relatively new area of mathematics with connections to local finite group theory, algebraic topology, and modular representation theory. We first describe the general theory and then look separately at these connections.

  14. Phenolic Compounds from Fermented Berry Beverages Modulated Gene and Protein Expression To Increase Insulin Secretion from Pancreatic β-Cells in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michelle H; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2016-03-30

    Berries are a rich source of bioactive phenolic compounds that are able to bind and inhibit the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), a current target for type-2 diabetes therapy. The objectives were to determine the role of berry phenolic compounds to modulate incretin-cleaving DPP-IV and its substrate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, and genes and proteins involved in the insulin secretion pathway using cell culture. Anthocyanins (ANC) from 50% blueberry-50% blackberry (Blu-Bla) and 100% blackberry (Bla) fermented beverages at 50 μM cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents increased (p together, anthocyanins, predominantly delphinidin-3-arabinoside, from fermented berry beverages have the potential to modulate DPP-IV and its substrate GLP-1, to increase insulin secretion, and to upregulate expression of mRNA of insulin-receptor associated genes and proteins in pancreatic β-cells.

  15. Fusion energy and nuclear liability considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fork, William E.; Peterson, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    For over 60 years, fusion energy has been recognised as a promising technology for safe, secure and environmentally-sustainable commercial electrical power generation. Over the past decade, research and development programmes across the globe have shown progress in developing critical underlying technologies. Approaches ranging from high-temperature plasma magnetic confinement fusion to inertial confinement fusion are increasingly better understood. As scientific research progresses in its aim to achieve fusion 'ignition', where nuclear fusion becomes self-sustaining, the international legal community should consider how fusion power technologies fit within the current nuclear liability legal framework. An understanding of the history of the civil nuclear liability regimes, along with the different risks associated with fusion power, will enable nations to consider the proper legal conditions needed to deploy and commercialise fusion technologies for civil power generation. This note is divided into three substantive parts. It first provides background regarding fusion power and describes the relatively limited risks of fusion technologies when compared with traditional nuclear fission technologies. It then describes the international nuclear liability regime and analyses how fusion power fits within the text of the three leading conventions. Finally, it examines how fusion power may fall within the international nuclear liability framework in the future, a discussion that includes possible amendments to the relevant international liability conventions. It concludes that the unique nature of the current civil nuclear liability regime points towards the development of a more tailored liability solution because of the reduced risks associated with fusion power. (authors)

  16. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D 2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D 2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into 4 He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; 3 He to 4 He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of 3 He/ 4 He

  17. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  18. Magnetic fusion; La fusion magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project.

  19. Olive oil bioactive compounds increase body weight, and improve gut health and integrity in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, Enric; Andree, Karl B; Quintela, José C; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio R; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2017-02-01

    An olive oil bioactive extract (OBE) rich in bioactive compounds like polyphenols, triterpenic acids, long-chain fatty alcohols, unsaturated hydrocarbons, tocopherols and sterols was tested (0, 0·08, 0·17, 0·42 and 0·73 % OBE) in diets fed to sea bream (Sparus aurata) (initial weight: 5·4 (sd 1·2) g) during a 90-d trial (four replicates). Fish fed diets containing 0·17 and 0·42 % OBE were 5 % heavier (61·1 (sd 1·6) and 60·3 (sd 1·1) g, respectively) than those of the control group (57·0 (sd 0·7) g), although feed conversion ratio and specific feed intake did not vary. There were no differences in lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities in the intestine and liver, although there was a tendency of lower intestinal and hepatic LPO levels in fish fed OBE diets. No differences in villus size were found among treatments, whereas goblet cell density in the control group was on average14·3 % lower than in fish fed OBE diets. The transcriptomic profiling of intestinal markers, covering different biological functions like (i) cell differentiation and proliferation, (ii) intestinal permeability, (iii) enterocyte mass and epithelial damage, (iv) IL and cytokines, (v) pathogen recognition receptors and (vi) mitochondria function, indicated that among the eighty-eight evaluated genes, twenty-nine were differentially expressed (0·17 % OBE diet), suggesting that the additive has the potential of improving the condition and defensive role of the intestine by enhancing the maturation of enterocytes, reducing oxidative stress, improving the integrity of the intestinal epithelium and enhancing the intestinal innate immune function, as gene expression data indicated.

  20. Magnetic fusion energy and computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    1982-01-01

    The application of computers to magnetic fusion energy research is essential. In the last several years the use of computers in the numerical modeling of fusion systems has increased substantially. There are several categories of computer models used to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies are also in use. To meet the needs of the fusion program, the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computer centers at each of the major MFE laboratories by a communication network. In addition to providing cost effective computing services, the NMFECC environment stimulates collaboration and the sharing of computer codes among the various fusion research groups

  1. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels, supplement to: Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan (2015): Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels. Nature Communications, 6, 8714

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46-212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130-160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28-48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  2. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, S.

    1982-02-01

    In this paper, the physics of laser fusion is described on an elementary level. The irradiated matter consists of a dense inner core surrounded by a less dense plasma corona. The laser radiation is mainly absorbed in the outer periphery of the plasma. The absorbed energy is transported inward to the ablation surface where plasma flow is created. Due to this plasma flow, a sequence of inward going shock waves and heat waves are created, resulting in the compression and heating of the core to high density and temperature. The interaction physics between laser and matter leading to thermonuclear burn is summarized by the following sequence of events: Laser absorption → Energy transport → Compression → Nuclear Fusion. This scenario is shown in particular for a Nd:laser with a wavelength of 1 μm. The wavelength scaling of the physical processes is also discussed. In addition to the laser-plasma physics, the Nd high power pulsed laser is described. We give a very brief description of the oscillator, the amplifiers, the spatial filters, the isolators and the diagnostics involved. Last, but not least, the concept of reactors for laser fusion and the necessary laser system are discussed. (author)

  3. Bi- and polydentate organophosphorous compounds as extractants for actinides from liquid waste (use of effect of anomalous aryl stability increase)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozen, A.M.; Nikolotova, Z.I.; Kartasheva, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    Extraction of actinides (Am) and lanthanides (Eu) from nitric acid liquid wastes by bi-, tri- and polydentate organophosphoric extractants, characteristic of purex-process, and effect of more electronegative aryl groups substitution for alkyl groups in the latter have been studied. The observed increase in distribution factors are explained from the viewpoint of molecular and electronic structure extractants. 10 refs.; 6 figs

  4. Molecular Stress-inducing Compounds Increase Osteoclast Formation in a Heat Shock Factor 1 Protein-dependent Manner*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ryan C.; Kouspou, Michelle M.; Lang, Benjamin J.; Nguyen, Chau H.; van der Kraan, A. Gabrielle J.; Vieusseux, Jessica L.; Lim, Reece C.; Gillespie, Matthew T.; Benjamin, Ivor J.; Quinn, Julian M. W.; Price, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Many anticancer therapeutic agents cause bone loss, which increases the risk of fractures that severely reduce quality of life. Thus, in drug development, it is critical to identify and understand such effects. Anticancer therapeutic and HSP90 inhibitor 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) causes bone loss by increasing osteoclast formation, but the mechanism underlying this is not understood. 17-AAG activates heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1), the master transcriptional regulator of heat shock/cell stress responses, which may be involved in this negative action of 17-AAG upon bone. Using mouse bone marrow and RAW264.7 osteoclast differentiation models we found that HSP90 inhibitors that induced a heat shock response also enhanced osteoclast formation, whereas HSP90 inhibitors that did not (including coumermycin A1 and novobiocin) did not affect osteoclast formation. Pharmacological inhibition or shRNAmir knockdown of Hsf1 in RAW264.7 cells as well as the use of Hsf1 null mouse bone marrow cells demonstrated that 17-AAG-enhanced osteoclast formation was Hsf1-dependent. Moreover, ectopic overexpression of Hsf1 enhanced 17-AAG effects upon osteoclast formation. Consistent with these findings, protein levels of the essential osteoclast transcription factor microphthalmia-associated transcription factor were increased by 17-AAG in an Hsf1-dependent manner. In addition to HSP90 inhibitors, we also identified that other agents that induced cellular stress, such as ethanol, doxorubicin, and methotrexate, also directly increased osteoclast formation, potentially in an Hsf1-dependent manner. These results, therefore, indicate that cellular stress can enhance osteoclast differentiation via Hsf1-dependent mechanisms and may significantly contribute to pathological and therapeutic related bone loss. PMID:24692538

  5. Increase in the penetration of tracer compounds into the rat brain during 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elo, H.A.; Ylitalo, P.; Kyoettilae, J.; Hervonen, H. (Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland)

    1982-01-01

    The penetration of different intravenous tracer molecules such as /sup 14/C-labelled 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (/sup 14/C-MCPA), /sup 14/C-p-aminobenzoic acid (/sup 14/C-PABA), /sup 14/C-sucrose, /sup 14/C-antipyrine and iodinated (/sup 125/I) human albumin (/sup 125/I-HA) into the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was studied in MCPA-intoxicated and control rats. Toxic subcutaneous doses of sodium salt of MCPA (200-500 mg/kg) increased highly the brain/plasma and CSF/plasma ratios of /sup 14/C-MCPA and /sup 14/C-PABA, as compared to the muscle/plasma ratio. Probenecid (200 mg/kg) did not affect the cerebral MCPA concentration in the intoxicated animals. The tissue/plasma ratios of /sup 14/C-sucrose, /sup 14/C-antipyrine and /sup 125/I-HA were also increased in the brain and CSF of intoxicated animals, but the increases were less pronounced than those of /sup 14/C-MCPA or /sup 14/C-PABA. The results indicate that MCPA intoxication caused a selective damage of the blood-brain barrier in the brain areas studied.

  6. Radioactivity and fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, H.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is expected to give an ultimate solution to energy problems over the long term. From recent progress in developing technology for fusion reactors, we can anticipate a prototype fusion reactor by 2030. This review article describes the present status of nuclear fusion research, including muon catalyzed fusion (μCF) which attracts quite new physical interest. Tritium is an essential component of fusion reactors, because the first-stage fusion reactors will utilize a mixture of deuterium and tritium as their fuel. The knowledge about tritium as well as the fusion-neutron induced radioactivity is summarized in terms of nuclear fusion research. (orig.)

  7. On fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aagren, O; Moiseenko, V.E.; Noack, K.

    2008-10-01

    This report gives a brief description of ongoing activities on fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation of the long-lived radioactive isotopes in the spent nuclear waste from fission reactors. Driven subcritical systems appears to be the only option for efficient minor actinide burning. Driven systems offer a possibility to increase reactor safety margins. A comparatively simple fusion device could be sufficient for a fusion-fission machine, and transmutation may become the first industrial application of fusion. Some alternative schemes to create strong fusion neutron fluxes are presented

  8. On fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagren, O (Uppsala Univ., Aangstroem laboratory, div. of electricity, Uppsala (Sweden)); Moiseenko, V.E. (Inst. of Plasma Physics, National Science Center, Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Noack, K. (Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany))

    2008-10-15

    This report gives a brief description of ongoing activities on fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation of the long-lived radioactive isotopes in the spent nuclear waste from fission reactors. Driven subcritical systems appears to be the only option for efficient minor actinide burning. Driven systems offer a possibility to increase reactor safety margins. A comparatively simple fusion device could be sufficient for a fusion-fission machine, and transmutation may become the first industrial application of fusion. Some alternative schemes to create strong fusion neutron fluxes are presented

  9. Increasing the bio-active compounds contents by optimizing the germination conditions of Southern Thai Brown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiraporn Banchuen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Three Thailand rice varieties (cv. Niaw Dam Peuak Dam, Sangyod Phatthalung and Chiang Phatthalung were germinatedand their -aminobutyric acid (GABA content was monitored. Optimum germination conditions to maximize GABAcontent in brown rice were determined. The brown rice was first soaked in various solutions (buffer solution pH 2, 3, 5, and 7and distilled water at room temperature (30±2°C for 5 hours, followed by germinating in either open or closed vessel for 12,24, 36, and 48 hours. Results indicated that the highest GABA content was obtained when the rice was soaked in a citratebuffer with pH 3 and germinated in closed vessel for 36 hours, Sangyod Phatthalung and Chiang Phatthalung, and for 48hours, Niaw Dam Peuak Dam. Compared to regular brown rice, the GABA content in germinated brown rice increased 9.43-16.74 times. Germination also increased the ferulic acid 1.12-1.43 times and significantly decreased the phytate content whilethe -oryzanol content was in the same level for both un-germinated and germinated brown rice.

  10. Canadian fusion fuels technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project was launched in 1982 to coordinate Canada's provision of fusion fuels technology to international fusion power development programs. The project has a mandate to extend and adapt existing Canadian tritium technologies for use in international fusion power development programs. 1985-86 represents the fourth year of the first five-year term of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP). This reporting period coincides with an increasing trend in global fusion R and D to direct more effort towards the management of tritium. This has resulted in an increased linking of CFFTP activities and objectives with those of facilities abroad. In this way there has been a continuing achievement resulting from CFFTP efforts to have cooperative R and D and service activities with organizations abroad. All of this is aided by the cooperative international atmosphere within the fusion community. This report summarizes our past year and provides some highlights of the upcoming year 1986/87, which is the final year of the first five-year phase of the program. AECL (representing the Federal Government), the Ministry of Energy (representing Ontario) and Ontario Hydro, have given formal indication of their intent to continue with a second five-year program. Plans for the second phase will continue to emphasize tritium technology and remote handling

  11. Estimating the melting point, entropy of fusion, and enthalpy of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entropies of fusion, enthalies of fusion, and melting points of organic compounds can be estimated through three models developed using the SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) platform. The entropy of fusion is modeled through a combination of interaction terms and physical descriptors. The enthalpy of fusion is modeled as a function of the entropy of fusion, boiling point, and fexibility of the molecule. The melting point model is the enthlapy of fusion divided by the entropy of fusion. These models were developed in part to improve SPARC's vapor pressure and solubility models. These models have been tested on 904 unique compounds. The entropy model has a RMS of 12.5 J mol-1K-1. The enthalpy model has a RMS of 4.87 kJ mol-1. The melting point model has a RMS of 54.4°C. Published in the journal, SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research

  12. Increased toxicity of a trinuclear Pt-compound in a human squamous carcinoma cell line by polyamine depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjellström Johan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mononuclear platinum anticancer agents hold a pivotal place in the treatment of many forms of cancers, however, there is a potential to improve response to evade resistance development and toxic side effects. BBR3464 is a promising trinuclear platinum anticancer agent, which is a polyamine mimic. The aim was to investigate the influence of polyamine pool reduction on the cytotoxic effects of the trinuclear platinum complex BBR3464 and cisplatin. Polyamine pool reduction was achieved by treating cells with either the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO or the polyamine analogue N1,N11-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM. Methods A human squamous cell carcinoma cell line, LU-HNSCC-4, established from a primary head and neck tumour was used to evaluate cellular effects of each drug alone or combinations thereof. High-performance liquid-chromatography was used to quantify intracellular polyamine contents. Inductively coupled mass spectroscopy was used to quantify intracellular platinum uptake. Cells were exposed to DFMO or DENSPM during 48 h at concentrations ranging from 0 to 5 mM or 0 to 10 μM, respectively. Thereafter, non-treated and treated cells were exposed to cisplatin or BBR3464 during 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 μM. A 96-well assay was used to determine cytotoxicity after five days after treatment. Results The cytotoxic effect of BBR3464 on LU-HNSCC-4 cells was increased after cells were pre-treated with DENSPM or DFMO, and the interaction was found to be synergistic. In contrast, the interaction between cisplatin and DFMO or DENSPM was near-additive to antagonistic. The intracellular levels of the polyamines putrescine and spermidine were decreased after treatment with DFMO, and treatment with DENSPM resulted in an increase in putrescine level and concomitant decrease in spermidine and spermine levels. The uptake of BBR3464 was significantly increased after pre

  13. ISSLS Prize winner: Long-term follow-up suggests spinal fusion is associated with increased adjacent segment disc degeneration but without influence on clinical outcome: results of a combined follow-up from 4 randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Anne F; Leivseth, Gunnar; Brox, Jens-Ivar; Fritzell, Peter; Hägg, Olle; Fairbank, Jeremy C T

    2014-08-01

    Cross-sectional analysis of long-term follow-up (LTFU) data from 4 randomized controlled trials of operative versus nonoperative treatment for chronic low back pain. To examine the influence of spinal fusion on adjacent segment disc space height as an indicator of disc degeneration at LTFU. There is ongoing debate as to whether adjacent segment disc degeneration results from the increased mechanical stress of fusion. Plain standing lateral radiographs were obtained at LTFU (mean, 13 ± 4 yr postrandomization) in 229 of 464 (49%) patients randomized to surgery and 140 of 303 (46%), to nonoperative care. Disc space height and posteroanterior displacement were measured for each lumbar segment using a validated computer-assisted distortion compensated roentgen analysis technique. Values were reported in units of standard deviations above or below age and sex-adjusted normal values. Patient-rated outcomes included the Oswestry Disability Index and pain scales. Radiographs were usable in 355 of 369 (96%) patients (259 fusion and 96 nonoperative treatment). Both treatment groups showed significantly lower values for disc space height of the adjacent segment than norm values. There was a significant difference between treatment groups for the disc space height of the cranial adjacent segment (in both as-treated and intention-to-treat analyses). The mean treatment effect of fusion on adjacent segment disc space height was -0.44 SDs (95% CI, -0.77 to -0.11; P = 0.01; as-treated analysis); there was no group difference for posteroanterior displacement (0.18 SDs, 95% confidence interval, -0.28 to 0.64, P = 0.45). Adjacent level disc space height and posteroanterior displacement were not correlated with Oswestry Disability Index or pain scores at LTFU (r = 0.010-0.05; P > 0.33). Fusion was associated with lower disc space height at the adjacent segment after an average of 13 years of FU. The reduced disc space height had no influence on patient self-rated outcomes (pain or

  14. A Facile Route toward the Increase of Oxygen Content in Nanosized Zeolite by Insertion of Cerium and Fluorinated Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Komaty

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Enriching oxygen content within nanosized zeolite X (as synthesized Na-X by insertion of cerium (ion exchanged Ce-X and functionalization with bromoperfluoro-n-octane (fluorinated F-X is reported. The materials were fully characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, dynamic light scattering (DLS, zeta potential, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, nitrogen adsorption, and nuclear magnetic resonance (19F NMR. The O2 adsorption in the zeolite samples at various concentrations (0 to 165 Torr at −196 °C was studied by in situ FTIR. The modification of nanosized zeolites did not alter their colloidal stability, crystallinity, porosity, and particle size distribution. The inclusion of cerium and bromoperfluoro-n-octane considerably increase the oxygen capacity by 33% for samples Ce-X and F-X in comparison to the as-synthesized Na-X zeolite. Further, toxicity tests revealed that these materials are safe, which opens the door for their implementation in medical applications, where controlled delivery of oxygen is highly desirable.

  15. Increased Na+/K(+)-pump activity and adenosine triphosphate utilization after compound 48/80-induced histamine secretion from rat mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben; Praetorius, Birger Hans

    1994-01-01

    The Na+/K(+)-pump activity and the utilization of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were studied in rat peritoneal mast cells after histamine secretion induced by compound 48/80. We measured the ouabain-sensitive K(+)-uptake by a radioactive technique (86Rb+). The ATP content and the glycolytic ATP...... was the limiting factor for the activity of the Na+/K(+)-pump following histamine secretion under these conditions. It is concluded that the large increase in Na+/K(+)-pump activity after a secretory response is a likely explanation for the long lasting ATP-decrease in mast cells that follows histamine secretion....

  16. Increased Na+/K(+)-pump activity and adenosine triphosphate utilization after compound 48/80-induced histamine secretion from rat mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben; Praetorius, Birger Hans

    1994-01-01

    The Na+/K(+)-pump activity and the utilization of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were studied in rat peritoneal mast cells after histamine secretion induced by compound 48/80. We measured the ouabain-sensitive K(+)-uptake by a radioactive technique (86Rb+). The ATP content and the glycolytic ATP......-production were measured by the bioluminescence technique (firefly lantern) and by measurement of the lactate production under anaerobic conditions (antimycin A, oligomycin), respectively. There was an increased requirement for ATP after the secretory response associated with an increased activity of the Na+/K(+)-pump....... The anaerobic, but not the aerobic, pathway for ATP-synthesis was able to respond to the increased ATP-requirement. The ATP-requirement of the Na+/K(+)-pump was only partly satisfied when ATP was supplied from either the glycolytic or the oxidative pathway. This may indicate that the availability of ATP...

  17. Fusion of hIgG1-Fc to 111In-anti-amyloid single domain antibody fragment VHH-pa2H prolongs blood residential time in APP/PS1 mice but does not increase brain uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotman, Maarten; Welling, Mick M.; Boogaard, Marlinde L. van den; Moursel, Laure Grand; Graaf, Linda M. van der; Buchem, Mark A. van; Maarel, Silvère M. van der; Weerd, Louise van der

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Llama single domain antibody fragments (VHH), which can pass endothelial barriers, are being investigated for targeting amyloid plaque load in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Contrary to conventional human or murine antibodies consisting of IgG or F(ab′)2 antibody fragments, VHH are able to effectively pass the blood brain barrier (BBB) in vitro. However, in earlier in vivo studies, anti-amyloid VHH showed poor BBB passage due to their short serum half-lives. It would be of interest to develop a VHH based protein with elongated serum half-life to enhance BBB passage, allowing the VHH to more easily reach the cerebral amyloid deposits. Methods: To increase serum persistence, the Fc portion of the human IgG1 antibody (hinge plus CH2 and CH3 domains) was fused to the C-terminus of the VHH (VHH-pa2H-Fc). To determine the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution profile of the fusion protein, the chelator p-SCN-Bz-DTPA was linked to the protein and thereafter labeled with radioactive indium-111 ( 111 In). Double transgenic APPswe/PS1dE9 and wild type littermates were injected with 20 μg VHH-pa2H-Fc-DTPA- 111 In (10-20 MBq). Pharmacokinetics of the tracer was determined in blood samples at 10 intervals after injection and imaging using microSPECT was performed. The biodistribution of the radioactivity in various excised tissues was measured at 48 h after injection. Results: We succeeded in the expression of the fusion protein VHH-pa2H-Fc in HEK293T cells with a yield of 50 mg/L growth medium. The fusion protein showed homodimerization – necessary for successful Fc neonatal receptor recycling. Compared to VHH-pa2H, the Fc tailed protein retained high affinity for amyloid beta on human AD patient brain tissue sections, and significantly improved serum retention of the VHH. However, at 48 h after systemic injection of the non-fused VHH-DTPA- 111 In and the VHH-Fc-DTPA- 111 In fusion protein in transgenic mice, the specific brain uptake of VHH-Fc-DTPA- 111 In

  18. Fission-fusion neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinnan; Yu, Gang

    2009-04-01

    In order to meet the requirements of fusion power reactors and nuclear waste treatment, a concept of fission-fusion neutron source is proposed, which consists of a LiD assembly located in the heavy water region of the China Advanced Research Reactor. This assembly of LiD fuel rods will be irradiated with slow neutrons and will produce fusion neutrons in the central hole via the reaction 6Li(n, α). More precisely, tritium ions with a high energy of 2.739 MeV will be produced in LiD by the impinging slow neutrons. The tritium ions will in turn bombard the deuterium ions present in the LiD assembly, which will induce fusion reaction and then the production of 14 MeV neutrons. The fusion reaction rate will increase with the accumulation of tritium in LiD by the reaction between tritium and deuteron recoils produced by the 14 MeV neutrons. When the concentration of tritium reaches 0.5 · 10 22 and the fraction of fusion reactions between tritium and deuteron recoils approaches 1, the 14 MeV neutron flux is doubled and redoubled, an so forth, approaching saturation in which the tritium produced at a time t is exhausted by the fusion reactions to keep constant the tritium concentration in LiD.

  19. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with these modifications, it is likely that the primary use of DNA vaccines may be as primers for viral-vectored vaccines, rather than as single agents. This review discusses the approaches used to enhance DNA vaccine immunogenicity, with a primary focus on fusion strategies that enhance antigen presentation....

  20. Fusion gene microarray reveals cancer type-specificity among fusion genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvf, Marthe; Thomassen, Gard O S; Bakken, Anne Cathrine; Celestino, Ricardo; Fioretos, Thoas; Lind, Guro E; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2011-05-01

    Detection of fusion genes for diagnostic purposes and as a guide to treatment is well-established in hematological malignancies, and the prevalence of fusion genes in epithelial cancers is also increasingly appreciated. To study whether established fusion genes are present within additional cancer types, we have used an updated version of our fusion gene microarray in a systematic survey of reported fusion genes in multiple cancer types. We assembled a comprehensive database of published fusion genes, including those reported only in individual studies and samples, and fusion genes resulting from deep sequencing of cancer genomes and transcriptomes. From the total set of 548 fusion genes, we designed 599,839 oligonucleotides, targeting both chimeric transcript junctions as well as sequences internal to each of the fusion gene partners. We investigated the presence of fusion genes in a series of 67 cell lines representing 15 different cancer types. Data from ten leukemia cell lines with known fusion gene status were used to develop an automated scoring algorithm, and in five cell lines the correct fusion gene was the top scoring hit, and one came second. Two additional fusion genes, BCAS4-BCAS3 in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and CCDC6-RET in the TPC-1 thyroid cancer cell line were validated as true positive fusion transcripts. However, these fusion genes were not new to these cancer types, and none of 548 fusion genes were identified from a novel cancer type. We therefore find it unlikely that the assayed fusion genes are commonly present across multiple cancer types. 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. A Novel Human TGF-β1 Fusion Protein in Combination with rhBMP-2 Increases Chondro-Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Claros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β is involved in processes related to the differentiation and maturation of osteoprogenitor cells into osteoblasts. Rat bone marrow (BM cells were cultured in a collagen-gel containing 0.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS for 10 days in the presence of rhTGF (recombinant human TGF-β1-F2, a fusion protein engineered to include a high-affinity collagen-binding decapeptide derived from von Willebrand factor. Subsequently, cells were moderately expanded in medium with 10% FBS for 4 days and treated with a short pulse of rhBMP (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for 4 h. During the last 2 days, dexamethasone and β-glycerophosphate were added to potentiate osteoinduction. Concomitant with an up-regulation of cell proliferation, DNA synthesis levels were determined. Polymerase chain reaction was performed to reveal the possible stemness of these cells. Osteogenic differentiation was evaluated in terms of alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized matrix formation as well as by mRNA expression of osteogenic marker genes. Moreover, cells were placed inside diffusion chambers and implanted subcutaneously into the backs of adult rats for 4 weeks. Histological study provided evidence of cartilage and bone-like tissue formation. This experimental procedure is capable of selecting cell populations from BM that, in the presence of rhTGF-β1-F2 and rhBMP-2, achieve skeletogenic potential in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Conjugation of the CRM197-inulin conjugate significantly increases the immunogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis CFP10-TB10.4 fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shun; Yu, Weili; Hu, Chunyang; Wei, Dong; Shen, Lijuan; Hu, Tao; Yi, Youjin

    2017-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a serious fatal pathogen that causes tuberculosis (TB). Effective vaccination is urgently needed to deal with the serious threat from TB. Mtb-secreted protein antigens are important virulence determinants of Mtb with poor immunogenicity. Adjuvants and antigen delivery systems are thus highly desired to improve the immunogenicity of protein antigens. Inulin is a biocompatible polysaccharide (PS) adjuvant that can stimulate a strong cellular and humoral immunity. Bacterial capsular PS and haptens have been conjugated with cross-reacting material 197 (CRM 197 ) to improve their immunogenicity. CFP10 and TB10.4 were two Mtb-secreted immunodominant protein antigens. A CFP10-TB10.4 fusion protein (CT) was used as the antigen for covalent conjugation with the CRM 197 -inulin conjugate (CRM-inu). The resultant conjugate (CT-CRM-inu) elicited high CT-specific IgG titers, stimulated splenocyte proliferation and provoked the secretion of Th1-type and Th2-type cytokines. Conjugation with CRM-inu significantly prolonged the systemic circulation of CT and exposure to the immune system. Moreover, CT-CRM-inu showed no apparent toxicity to cardiac, hepatic and renal functions. Thus, conjugation of CT with CRM-inu provided an effective strategy for development of protein-based vaccines against Mtb infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pre-harvest treatments of pepper plants with nitrophenolates increase crop yield and enhance nutritive and bioactive compounds in fruits at harvest and during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, D; Zapata, P J; Martínez-Romero, D; Guillén, F; Castillo, S; Serrano, M

    2014-06-01

    Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv Lamuyo) were treated with a mix of nitrophenolates either by foliar spray or in the irrigation system, and its effect on crop yield and the content of nutritive and bioactive compounds in fruit were analysed at harvest and after post-harvest storage. Treatments were applied at 2-week intervals from the development of first floral bunch (1 March) to end of August. Pepper fruits were harvested at commercial ripening stage (red surface colour) along the growth cycle (from May to September). Total yield (cumulative kilogram per plant) was increased ( 4.5% more) by nitrophenolate treatments due to significant increases in fruit mass, although the number of fruits per plant was unaffected. Pepper fruit quality (weight, firmness and pericarp thickness), its content in nutritive (sugars and organic acids) and bioactive compounds (vitamin C and total phenolics) and antioxidant activity were also enhanced by nitrophenolate treatments at the three harvested dates assayed (end May, mid July and end August). In addition, all these parameters were maintained at higher levels in treated peppers during storage, while diminutions in these parameters occurred generally in control fruit. Thus, nitrophenolate treatments were able to improve crop yield as well as the nutritional value and antioxidant properties of peppers at harvest and after fruit storage.

  4. Engineering issues in muon-catalyzed fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    Negative muons (elementary particles having a mean life of 2.2 microseconds) have been used to induce nuclear fusion reactions of the type: μ- + d + t → 4 He + n + μ-. Behaving like a very heavy electron, a muon forms a tightly bound deuteron-triton-muon (dtμ) molecule. Fusion then ensues, typically in picoseconds, as the nuclei tunnel through the Coulomb repulsive barrier. Up to 160 fusions per muon (average) have been observed in cold deuterium-tritium mixtures. Thus, the process may be called muon-catalyzed fusion, or ''cold'' fusion. The fusion energy thus released is twenty times the total energy of the muon driving the fusion reaction. However, the energy needed to produce the muon catalysts is currently much larger than the fusion energy released. In preparing for muon-catalyzed fusion experiments, a number of engineering challenges were encountered and successfully resolved. Similar challenges would be faced in a (hypothetical) cold fusion reactor. High-temperature plasmas and many associated difficulties are of course circumvented. However, the gaseous d-t fuel must be contained at elevated temperatures (about 400 0 C) and near-liquid density. (Experiments show that increasing either parameter enhances the fusion yield.) This translates into high gas pressures (about 10 8 Pa) and a new class of engineering challenges. Material strength and fabricability, hydrogen permeation and material embrittlement, tritium inventory and safety concerns, muon beam scattering and degradation, and reaction vessel geometries are among critical engineering considerations

  5. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M.; Hogan, J.T.; Porkolab, M.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995

  6. Catalysed fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Farley, Francis

    2012-01-01

    A sizzling romance and a romp with subatomic particles at CERN. Love, discovery and adventure in the city where nations meet and beams collide. Life in a large laboratory. As always, the challenges are the same. Who leads? Who follows? Who succeeds? Who gets the credit? Who gets the women or the men? Young Jeremy arrives in CERN and joins the quest for green energy. Coping with baffling jargon and manifold dangers, he is distracted by radioactive rats, lovely ladies and an unscrupulous rival. Full of doubts and hesitations, he falls for a dazzling Danish girl, who leads him astray. His brilliant idea leads to a discovery and a new route to cold fusion. But his personal life is scrambled. Does it bring fame or failure? Tragedy or triumph?

  7. Polyether ether ketone implants achieve increased bone fusion when coated with nano-sized hydroxyapatite: a histomorphometric study in rabbit bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson P

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pär Johansson,1 Ryo Jimbo,1 Yoshihito Naito,2 Per Kjellin,3 Fredrik Currie,3 Ann Wennerberg1 1Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden; 2Oral Implant Center, Tokushima University Hospital, Tokushima, Japan; 3Promimic AB, Stena Center, Göteborg, Sweden Abstract: Polyether ether ketone (PEEK possesses excellent mechanical properties similar to those of human bone and is considered the best alternative material other than titanium for orthopedic spine and trauma implants. However, the deficient osteogenic properties and the bioinertness of PEEK limit its fields of application. The aim of this study was to limit these drawbacks by coating the surface of PEEK with nano-scaled hydroxyapatite (HA minerals. In the study, the biological response to PEEK, with and without HA coating, was investigated. Twenty-four screw-like and apically perforated implants in the rabbit femur were histologically evaluated at 3 weeks and 12 weeks after surgery. Twelve of the 24 implants were HA coated (test, and the remaining 12 served as uncoated PEEK controls. At 3 weeks and 12 weeks, the mean bone–implant contact was higher for test compared to control (P<0.05. The bone area inside the threads was comparable in the two groups, but the perforating hole showed more bone area for the HA-coated implants at both healing points (P<0.01. With these results, we conclude that nano-sized HA coating on PEEK implants significantly improved the osteogenic properties, and in a clinical situation this material composition may serve as an implant where a rapid bone fusion is essential. Keywords: HA, PEEK, osseointegration, histology, orthopedics, in vivo

  8. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1984-10-01

    The KfK-Association has continued work on 17 R and D contracts of the Fusion Technology Programme. An effort of 94 manyears per year is at present contributed by 10 KfK departments, covering all aereas defined in the Fusion Technology Programme. The dominant part of the work is directed towards the need of the NET design or supporting experiments. Some additional effort addresses long term technological issues and system studies relevant to DEMO or confinement schemes alternative to tokamaks. Direct contribution to the NET team has increased by augmentation of NET study contracts and delegation of personnel, three KfK delegates being at present members of the NET team. In reverse, specifications and design guidelines worked out by NET have started to have an impact on the current R and D-work in the laboratory. (orig./GG)

  9. The economic value of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Clarke, J.; Edmonds, J.

    1996-01-01

    The potential economic benefit of fusion energy technology is significant and could dwarf the world's total expenditure on fusion energy research and development. However, the realization of these benefits will depend on the economic competitiveness of electricity generation from fusion energy technologies relative to that from other existing fossil fueled and renewable technologies, as well as the time in which fusion energy technologies are available for commercial operation. Utilizing the Second Generation Model, a long-term energy/economics model, the potential economic benefit of fusion energy technology for the United States was assessed. Model scenarios with hypothetical fusion power technologies based on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design with varying cost and time of availability showed that significant economic benefit exists from a competitive fusion technology with cost of electricity (COE) of 0.06 $/kWhr and available in the year 2025. The fusion technology with these characteristics resulted in a total discounted GDP benefit of $105 billion from the year 1995 to 2100. On the other hand, uncompetitive fusion technologies with higher COE of 0.12 and 0.09 $/kWhr had little economic benefits. Moreover, delaying the introduction of all fusion technologies from 2025 to 2050 reduced the economic benefits of fusion technologies by more than 60 percent. Aside from the economic benefit of fusion technologies operating in the United States, the potential economic value of international trade in fusion technologies is likely to be even greater. If the United States could capture just a portion of the global electricity market, the export value of the fusion technology could amount to hundreds of billions of dollars, whereas the cost of importing the technology to the United States will erase any benefits derived from GDP increases

  10. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Summaries of research are included for each of the following topics: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) the MACK/MACKLIB system for nuclear response functions, and (5) energy storage and power supply systems for fusion reactors

  11. Towards nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The results of nuclear fusion researches in JAERI are summarized. In this report, following themes are collected: the concept of fusion reactor (including ITER), fusion reactor safety, plasma confinement, fusion reactor equipment, and so on. Includes glossary. (J.P.N.)

  12. Fusion fuel and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entler, Slavomir

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that fusion fuel meets all aspects applied when defining renewables. A table of definitions of renewables is presented. The sections of the paper are as follows: An industrial renewable source; Nuclear fusion; Current situation in research; Definitions of renewable sources; Energy concept of nuclear fusion; Fusion fuel; Natural energy flow; Environmental impacts; Fusion fuel assessment; Sustainable power; and Energy mix from renewables. (P.A.)

  13. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Research during this report period has covered the following areas: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) MACKLIB-IV, a new library of nuclear response functions, (5) energy storage and power supply requirements for commercial fusion reactors, (6) blanket/shield design evaluation for commercial fusion reactors, and (7) cross section measurements, evaluations, and techniques

  14. Inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Wood, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    Edward Teller has been a strong proponent of harnessing nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes. There are two approaches: Plowshare, which utilizes macro- explosions, and inertial confinement fusion, which utilizes microexplosions. The development of practical fusion power plants is a principal goal of the inertial program. It is remarkable that Teller's original thermonuclear problem, how to make super high yield nuclear explosions, and the opposite problem, how to make ultra low yield nuclear explosions, may both be solved by Teller's radiation implosion scheme. This paper reports on the essential physics of these two thermonuclear domains, which are separated by nine orders of magnitude in yield, provided by Teller's similarity theorem and its exceptions. Higher density makes possible thermonuclear burn of smaller masses of fuel. The leverage is high: the scale of the explosion diminishes with the square of the increase in density. The extraordinary compressibility of matter, first noticed by Teller during the Los Alamos atomic bomb program, provides an almost incredible opportunity to harness fusion. The energy density of thermonuclear fuels isentropically compressed to super high-- -densities---even to ten thousand times solid density---is small compared to the energy density at thermonuclear ignition temperatures. In small masses of fuel imploded to these super high matter densities, the energy required to achieve ignition may be greatly reduced by exploiting thermonuclear propagation from a relatively small hot spot

  15. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R ampersand D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R ampersand D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase

  16. Effects of fining on phenolic compounds and colour of red wine obtained with addition of increased amounts of grape solid phase in pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškaš Vladimir S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to study the effect of grape pomace enrichment in solid phase (stems and seeds on phenolic compounds and colour stability of obtained red wines, before and after use of different fining agents. Results have shown increase in total phenols and flavan-3-ols content after grape solid phase addition. On the other hand, decrease in anthocyanins content has generally been recorded in all wine samples except in wines obtained with addition of 40 g/l of seeds during maceration. Stems addition caused decrease in colour intensity while addition of seeds has increased this colour parameter. The use of four fining agents (albumin, gelatine, bentonite and PVPP has been investigated and compared, especially in terms of their influence on potential stabilization effect of grape solid phase on wine colour. Fined wines tended to have considerably lower anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol levels, especially in the case of gelatine and PVPP treatment (decrease up to 60 and 70%, respectively. In the case of chromatic parameters, used fining agents caused colour intensity decrease but it is important to emphasize that their values, after fining, are still as high as expected from red wine. This can be explained by the stabilization effect of increased flavan-3-ols content.

  17. Investigation of structural, electronic and anisotropic elastic properties of Ru-doped WB{sub 2} compound by increased valence electron concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surucu, Gokhan, E-mail: g_surucu@yahoo.com [Ahi Evran University, Department of Electric and Energy, 40100, Kirsehir (Turkey); Gazi University, Photonics Application and Research Center, 06500, Ankara (Turkey); Kaderoglu, Cagil [Ankara University, Department of Engineering Physics, 06100, Ankara (Turkey); Deligoz, Engin; Ozisik, Haci [Aksaray University, Department of Physics, 68100, Aksaray (Turkey)

    2017-03-01

    First principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to investigate the structural, anisotropic elastic and electronic properties of ruthenium doped tungsten-diboride ternary compounds (W{sub 1−x}Ru{sub x}B{sub 2}) for an increasing molar fraction of Ru atom from 0.1 to 0.9 by 0.1. Among the nine different compositions, W{sub 0.3}Ru{sub 0.7}B{sub 2} has been found as the most stable one due to the formation energy and band filling theory calculations. Moreover, the band structures and partial density of states (PDOS) have been computed for each x composition. After obtaining the elastic constants for all x compositions, the secondary results such as Bulk modulus, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, Shear modulus, and Vickers Hardness of polycrystalline aggregates have been derived and the relevant mechanical properties have been discussed. In addition, the elastic anisotropy has been visualized in detail by plotting the directional dependence of compressibility, Poisson ratio, Young’s and Shear moduli. - Highlights: • Effects of Ru substitution in WB{sub 2} using increased valence electron concentration. • Structural, electronic, mechanic and elastic properties for increasing Ru content. • Considered alloys are incompressible, brittle, stiffer and high hard materials.

  18. Retroconversion is a minor contributor to increases in eicosapentaenoic acid following docosahexaenoic acid feeding as determined by compound specific isotope analysis in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Chouinard-Watkins, Raphaël; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Lacombe, R J Scott; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-01-01

    Dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) not only increases blood and tissue levels of DHA, but also eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3). It is generally believed that this increase is due to DHA retroconversion to EPA, however, a slower conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) derived EPA to downstream metabolic products (i.e. slower turnover of EPA) is equally plausible. In this study, 21-day old Long Evans rats were weaned onto an ALA only or DHA + ALA diet for 12 weeks. Afterwards, livers were collected and the natural abundance 13 C-enrichment was determined by compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of liver EPA by isotope ratio mass-spectrometry and compared to dietary ALA and DHA 13 C-enrichment. Isotopic signatures (per mil, ‰) for liver EPA were not different ( p  > 0.05) between the ALA only diet (-25.89 ± 0.39 ‰, mean ± SEM) and the DHA + ALA diet (-26.26 ± 0.40 ‰), suggesting the relative contribution from dietary ALA and DHA to liver EPA did not change. However, with DHA feeding estimates of absolute EPA contribution from ALA increased 4.4-fold (147 ± 22 to 788 ± 153 nmol/g) compared to 3.2-fold from DHA (91 ± 14 to 382 ± 13 nmol/g), respectively. In conclusion, CSIA of liver EPA in rats following 12-weeks of dietary DHA suggests that retroconversion of DHA to EPA is a relatively small contributor to increases in EPA, and that this increase in EPA is largely coming from elongation/desaturation of ALA.

  19. Advancing Fusion by Innovations: Smaller, Quicker, Cheaper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryaznevich, Mikhail; Chuyanov, V. A.; Kingham, D.

    2015-01-01

    On the path to Fusion power, the construction of ITER is on-going, however there is not much progress in performance improvements of tokamaks in the last 15 years, Fig.1. One possible reason for this stagnation is the lack of innovations in physics and technology that could be implemented...... with this approach in which progress is expected mainly from the increase in the size of a Fusion device. Such innovations could be easier to test and use in much smaller (and so cheaper and quicker to build) compact Fusion devices. In this paper we propose a new path to Fusion energy based on a compact high field...

  20. Atmospheric emissions in metropolitan France: compounds related to the increase of the greenhouse effect; Substances relatives a l'accroissement de l'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report presents and comments statistical data and indicators on emissions of compounds involved in the greenhouse effect: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), hydro-fluorocarbon compounds (HFCs), per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). For these compounds, the report indicates and comments world and French emission data, their evolution, and the shares of different sectors and their evolutions. It also comments the evolution of the global warming potential (GWP)

  1. Review of fusion synfuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion

  2. Cold nuclear fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganov, E.N., E-mail: edward.tsyganov@coldfusion-power.com [Cold Fusion Power, International (United States); Bavizhev, M.D. [LLC “Radium”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Buryakov, M.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Dabagov, S.B. [RAS P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Golovatyuk, V.M.; Lobastov, S.P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction’s theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300–700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of {sup 4}He{sup ∗}.

  3. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsrud, Russell M.; Furth, Harold P.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Goldhaber, Maurice

    1988-01-01

    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  4. Interlaminar toughness of fusion bonded thermoplastic composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacchetti, Francisco R.

    2017-01-01

    Thermoplastic composites are of increasing interest to the aerospace industry. The melt-processability of the thermoplastic matrix allows for fast manufacturing and assembling techniques, such as thermoforming and fusion bonding, which are also highly suitable for process automation. Fusion bonding

  5. Fusion of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1-derived glycine-alanine repeat to trans-dominant HIV-1 Gag increases inhibitory activities and survival of transduced cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Diana; Wild, Jens; Ludwig, Christine; Asbach, Benedikt; Notka, Frank; Wagner, Ralf

    2008-06-01

    Trans-dominant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag derivatives have been shown to efficiently inhibit late steps of HIV-1 replication in vitro by interfering with Gag precursor assembly, thus ranking among the interesting candidates for gene therapy approaches. However, efficient antiviral activities of corresponding transgenes are likely to be counteracted in particular by cell-mediated host immune responses toward the transgene-expressing cells. To decrease this potential immunogenicity, a 24-amino acid Gly-Ala (GA) stretch derived from Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) and known to overcome proteasomal degradation was fused to a trans-dominant Gag variant (sgD1). To determine the capacity of this fusion polypeptide to repress viral replication, PM-1 cells were transduced with sgD1 and GAsgD1 transgenes, using retroviral gene transfer. Challenge of stably transfected permissive cell lines with various viral strains indicated that N-terminal GA fusion even enhanced the inhibitory properties of sgD1. Further studies revealed that the GA stretch increased protein stability by blocking proteasomal degradation of Gag proteins. Immunization of BALB/c mice with a DNA vaccine vector expressing sgD1 induced substantial Gag-specific immune responses that were, however, clearly diminished in the presence of GA. Furthermore, recognition of cells expressing the GA-fused transgene by CD8(+) T cells was drastically reduced, both in vitro and in vivo, resulting in prolonged survival of the transduced cells in recipient mice.

  6. Proceedings of the symposium on the many facets of heavy ion fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The topics of the symposium are sub- and near-barrier fusion, limitations to fusion, compound nucleus decay and spectroscopy, incomplete fusion processes, and fragmentation and liquid-gas phase transition. Separate abstracts were prepared for 54 papers in these proceedings

  7. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program

  8. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

  9. Fusion plasma theory project summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at U.S. government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the U.S. Fusion Energy Program.

  10. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  11. Laser fusion: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, K.

    1975-01-01

    The laser fusion concept is described along with developments in neodymium and carbon dioxide lasers. Fuel design and fabrication are reviewed. Some spin-offs of the laser fusion program are discussed. (U.S.)

  12. Fusion reactor design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Santarius, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the ARIES tokamak: systems; plasma power balance; impurity control and fusion ash removal; fusion product ripple loss; energy conversion; reactor fueling; first wall design; shield design; reactor safety; and fuel cost and resources

  13. Canada's Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

  14. Fusion Canada issue 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue ITER reactor siting, a major upgrade for TdeV tokamak, Ceramic Breeders: new tritium mapping technique and Joint Fusion Symposium. 2 figs

  15. Volatile organic compounds characterized from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec) berries increase at pre-harvest and in response to UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mariana; Bottini, Rubén; Berli, Federico; Pontin, Mariela; Silva, María Fernanda; Piccoli, Patricia

    2013-12-01

    Ultraviolet-B solar radiation (UV-B) is an environmental signal with biological effects in plant tissues. Recent investigations have assigned a protective role of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in plant tissues submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study investigated VOCs in berries at three developmental stages (veraison, pre-harvest and harvest) of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec exposed (or not) to UV-B both, in in vitro and field experiments. By Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-EIMS) analysis, 10 VOCs were identified at all developmental stages: four monoterpenes, three aldehydes, two alcohols and one ketone. Monoterpenes increased at pre-harvest and in response to UV-B in both, in vitro and field conditions. UV-B also augmented levels of some aldehydes, alcohols and ketones. These results along with others from the literature suggest that UV-B induce grape berries to produce VOCs (mainly monoterpenes) that protect the tissues from UV-B itself and other abiotic and biotic stresses, and could affect the wine flavor. Higher emission of monoterpenes was observed in the field experiments as compared in vitro, suggesting the UV-B/PAR ratio is not a signal in itself. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Potential Benefits of Ultrasonically Assisted Fusion Welding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many of the processes in which ultrasonic oscillations have been beneficial are similar to fusion welding process where the quality of welds depends on porosity, crystallisation rate, inclusions, inter-metallic compounds, depth of penetration, heat affected zone, etc. Some preliminary tests were performed to assess the effects ...

  17. Promotion of anagen, increased hair density and reduction of hair fall in a clinical setting following identification of FGF5-inhibiting compounds via a novel 2-stage process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burg D

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dominic Burg,1 Masakuni Yamamoto,2 Masato Namekata,2 Joseph Haklani,1 Koichiro Koike,2 Maria Halasz1 1Cellmid Limited, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Hair Gene Research Laboratory, Advangen Inc. Kashiwanoha, Chiba-ken, Japan Background: There are very few effective, scientifically validated treatments with known mechanisms of action for treatment of hair loss in both men and women. Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5 is an important factor in the irreversible transition from anagen to catagen, and inhibition of FGF5 prolongs anagen phase and reduces hair loss. Objective: We aimed to screen botanically derived molecules for FGF5 inhibitory activity in vitro and assess efficacy in a clinical setting. Methods: We screened for FGF5 inhibitory efficacy via a novel 2-step in vitro pipeline consisting of an engineered FGF5 responsive cell line, followed by an activated dermal papillae (DP cell method. Efficacy in a clinical setting was assessed in a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial against early- to mid-stage pattern hair loss in men and women. Results: We observed FGF5 inhibitory activity for a number of compounds from the monoterpenoid family, many showing greater inhibitory efficacy than our previously reported crude plant extracts. Evaluation of a lead candidate in a clinical study over 112 days showed a significant improvement in anagen:telogen (AT ratio (p = 0.002, reduced hair fall (p = 0.007 and improved visual grading (p = 0.004. Scientifically matched photography on a subgroup of randomly chosen participants highlighted significant improvement in hair density, with increases evident in all tested participants compared to baseline. Conclusion: Isolates from the monoterpenoid family displayed efficacy in FGF5 inhibition in vitro. A topical formulation containing a leading isolate significantly improved AT ratio, reduced hair fall and increased apparent hair density in the tested population of men and women. Keywords: hair growth, hair

  18. Cold fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy

  19. User's perspective on fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    The need in fusion, from the electric utilities viewpoint, is for fusion to be a real option, not huge, complicated nuclear plants costing $10 billion each and requiring restructuring the energy industry to provide and use them. A course for future fusion reactor work in order to be a real option is discussed. The advantages of alternate concepts to the tokamak are presented

  20. Fusion Canada issue 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs

  1. Zipping into fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    Fusion of lipid bilayers in cells facilitates the active transport of chemicals. Non-viral membrane fusion is regulated by a cascade of proteins as the process is highly regulated both in space and time. In eukaryotic cells, the so-called SNARE protein complex is at the heart of fusion. However,

  2. The UKAEA's fusion programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweetman, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    D.R. Sweetman, director of the UKAEA fusion programme, reviews the current state of the work being performed on the UK-Euratom fusion programme. The JET programme, Tokamak programme, reversed field pinch programme, fusion technology and funding are all discussed. (author)

  3. Normal temperature nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hiroshige.

    1991-01-01

    In a normal temperature nuclear fusion device, electromagnetic waves such as laser beams are irradiated to nuclear fusion fuels made of specific material to which heavy water, etc. are impregnated or adsorbed. That is, nuclear fusion fuels in the form of high pressure gas are sealed in a high pressure vessel and the specific material such as of palladium is made into a small spherical shape. Further, a storage vessel capable of supplying the specific material is provided and cooled if required. Lasers at a wavelength longer than that of sub-millimeter waves are used for the irradiation of the electromagnetic waves. If lasers are irradiated to the deuterium-adsorbing specific material, deuterium is rapidly applied with a kinetic energy to increase the cross sectional area of the nuclear fusion reaction. The adsorbing efficiency of deuterism to the specific material is improved by placing the specific material in the atmosphere of the nuclear fusion fuels in the form of the high pressure gas and making it into the small spherical shape. Further, cooling also improves the adsorbing efficiency of deuterium. In view of the above, continuous combustion can be conducted. (I.S.)

  4. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    property has been used to determine whether a compound is aromatic or not. Mesoionic compounds are structurally very different from ben- zenoid compounds, but they fulfill most of the criteria of aroma- ticity and form a part of a variety of aromatic compounds, which can be classified as follows. A) Benzenoid Compounds.

  5. Fusion technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elen, J.D.

    1985-10-01

    For the water-cooled liquid lithium INTOR/NET blanket concept, a computational analysis was made of the shock wave loading and the dynamic response of the canister type module after sudden rupture of an internal coolant tube. A start was made, by definition of format and contents, for the compilation of an 'European Fusion File', as a basic tool for neutronics calculations on fusion reactor concepts and plasma physics experiments. To enable a better modelling of the JET torus in the calculations performed for neutron diagnostics, the code system FURNACE has been extended to handle three dimensional geometries. Tensile specimens of V-5%Ti alloy were exposed to liquid sodium during a five month period at 487, 572 and 664 deg C, in parallel to a 5 dpa irradiation also in liquid sodium in the HFR reactor. Tensile testing indicated a slight increase in UTS and yield strength and a lower ductility for the 664 deg C exposure. The radiation damage studies on the reference heat of ss 316L for the European fusion programme are extended towards weldings. In a preparative step, the microstructure of laser beam weldings in 6 mm plate was analysed. Progress on the feasibility study for an in-pile crack growth measurement rig is reported. A subsized prototype forced flow cooled niobium-tin superconductor for a 12 Tesla insert coil for the SULTAN test facility at Villigen was manufactured and tested. A study on upscaling towards the requirements of the NET toroidal field coils commenced. Progress towards a first irradiation experiment on tritium extraction from ceramic breeder material (lithium-aluminate and lithium-silicate) for the joint ECN/SCK/SNL project is reported

  6. Driver Fusions and Their Implications in the Development and Treatment of Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Gao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Gene fusions represent an important class of somatic alterations in cancer. We systematically investigated fusions in 9,624 tumors across 33 cancer types using multiple fusion calling tools. We identified a total of 25,664 fusions, with a 63% validation rate. Integration of gene expression, copy number, and fusion annotation data revealed that fusions involving oncogenes tend to exhibit increased expression, whereas fusions involving tumor suppressors have the opposite effect. For fusions involving kinases, we found 1,275 with an intact kinase domain, the proportion of which varied significantly across cancer types. Our study suggests that fusions drive the development of 16.5% of cancer cases and function as the sole driver in more than 1% of them. Finally, we identified druggable fusions involving genes such as TMPRSS2, RET, FGFR3, ALK, and ESR1 in 6.0% of cases, and we predicted immunogenic peptides, suggesting that fusions may provide leads for targeted drug and immune therapy. : Gao et al. analyze a 9,624 sample TCGA cohort with 33 cancer types to detect gene fusion events. They provide a landscape of fusion events detected, relate fusions to gene expression, focus on kinase fusion structures, examine mutually exclusive mutation and fusion patterns, and highlight fusion druggability. Keywords: fusion, cancer, RNA, translocation, gene fusions

  7. Material synergism fusion-fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankara Rao, K.B.; Raj, B.; Cook, I.; Kohyama, A.; Dudarev, S.

    2007-01-01

    In fission and fusion reactors the common features such as operating temperatures and neutron exposures will have the greatest impact on materials performance and component lifetimes. Developing fast neutron irradiation resisting materials is a common issue for both fission and fusion reactors. The high neutron flux levels in both these systems lead to unique materials problems like void swelling, irradiation creep and helium embitterment. Both fission and fusion rely on ferritic-martensitic steels based on 9%Cr compositions for achieving the highest swelling resistance but their creep strength sharply decreases above ∝ 823K. The use of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys is envisaged to increase the operating temperature of blanket systems in the fusion reactors and fuel clad tubes in fast breeder reactors. In view of high operating temperatures, cyclic and steady load conditions and the long service life, properties like creep, low cycle fatigue,fracture toughness and creepfatigue interaction are major considerations in the selection of structural materials and design of components for fission and fusion reactors. Currently, materials selection for fusion systems has to be based upon incomplete experimental database on mechanical properties. The usage of fairly well developed databases, in fission programmes on similar materials, is of great help in the initial design of fusion reactor components. Significant opportunities exist for sharing information on technology of irradiation testing, specimen miniaturization, advanced methods of property measurement, safe windows for metal forming, and development of common materials property data base system. Both fusion and fission programs are being directed to development of clean steels with very low trace and tramp elements, characterization of microstructure and phase stability under irradiation, assessment of irradiation creep and swelling behaviour, studies on compatibility with helium and developing

  8. Increased potential for wound activated production of Prostaglandin E2and related toxic compounds in non-native populations of Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammann, Mareike; Rempt, Martin; Pohnert, Georg; Wang, Gaoge; Boo, Sung Min; Weinberger, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of the East Asian seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla ("Ogonori") for production of prostaglandin E 2 from arachidonic acid occasionally causes food poisoning after ingestion. During the last two decades the alga has been introduced to Europe and North America. Non-native populations have been shown to be generally less palatable to marine herbivores than native populations. We hypothesized that the difference in palatability among populations could be due to differences in the algal content of prostaglandins. We therefore compared the capacity for wound-activated production of prostaglandins and other eicosatetraenoid oxylipins among five native populations in East Asia and seven non-native populations in Europe and NW Mexico, using a targeted metabolomics approach. In two independent experiments non-native populations exhibited a significant tendency to produce more eicosatetraenoids than native populations after acclimation to identical conditions and subsequent artificial wounding. Fourteen out of 15 eicosatetraenoids that were detected in experiment I and all 19 eicosatetraenoids that were detected in experiment II reached higher mean concentrations in non-native than in native specimens. Wounding of non-native specimens resulted on average in 390% more 15-keto-PGE 2 , in 90% more PGE 2 , in 37% more PGA 2 and in 96% more 7,8-di-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid than wounding of native specimens. Not only PGE 2 , but also PGA 2 and dihydroxylated eicosatetraenoic acid are known to deter various biological enemies of G. vermiculophylla that cause tissue or cell wounding, and in the present study the latter two compounds also repelled the mesograzer Littorina brevicula. Non-native populations of G. vermiculophylla are thus more defended against herbivory than native populations. This increased capacity for activated chemical defense may have contributed to their invasion success and at the same time it poses an elevated risk for human food safety

  9. Viral membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism

  10. Engineering Styrene Monooxygenase for Biocatalysis: Reductase-Epoxidase Fusion Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Thomas; Tucker, Kathryn; Okonkwo, Nonye; Assefa, Berhanegebriel; Conrad, Catleen; Scholtissek, Anika; Schlömann, Michael; Gassner, George; Tischler, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    The enantioselective epoxidation of styrene and related compounds by two-component styrene monooxygenases (SMOs) has targeted these enzymes for development as biocatalysts. In the present work, we prepare genetically engineered fusion proteins that join the C-terminus of the epoxidase (StyA) to the N-terminus of the reductase (StyB) through a linker peptide and demonstrate their utility as biocatalysts in the synthesis of Tyrain purple and other indigoid dyes. A single-vector expression system offers a simplified platform for transformation and expansion of the catalytic function of styrene monooxygenases, and the resulting fusion proteins are self-regulated and couple efficiently NADH oxidation to styrene epoxidation. We find that the reductase domain proceeds through a sequential ternary-complex mechanism at low FAD concentration and a double-displacement mechanism at higher concentrations of FAD. Single-turnover studies indicate an observed rate constant for FAD-to-FAD hydride transfer of ~8 s -1 . This step is rate limiting in the styrene epoxidation reaction and helps to ensure that flavin reduction and styrene epoxidation reactions proceed without wasteful side reactions. Comparison of the reductase activity of the fusion proteins with the naturally occurring reductase, SMOB, and N-terminally histidine-tagged reductase, NSMOB, suggests that the observed changes in catalytic mechanism are due in part to an increase in flavin-binding affinity associated with the N-terminal extension of the reductase.

  11. Implications of polarized DT plasmas for toroidal fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micklich, B.J.; Jassby, D.L.

    1983-05-01

    Spin polarization of the deuterons and tritons in a reacting plasma can result in an increase in the fusion reactivity and variation of the angular distribution of emission of the fusion neutrons. The increased fusion reactivity relaxes the confinement-temperature conditions for breakeven and ignition. We have determined the effect of varying the angular distribution of the fusion neutrons on the spatial distribution of fusion neturon current and flux at the first wall, on the global tritium breeding ratio, and on the first-wall radiation damage in low-aspect-ratio toroidal geometry

  12. On fusion/fission chain reactions in the Fleischmann-Pons cold fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghaie, S.; Froelich, P.; Monkhorst, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of fusion/fission chain reactions following d-d source reactions in electrochemical cold fusion experiments have been investigated. The recycling factors for the charged particles in fusion reactions with consumable nuclei deuteron, 6 Li nd 7 Li, are estimated. It is concluded that, based on the established nuclear fusion cross sections and electronic stopping power, the recycling factor is four to five orders of magnitude less than required for close to critical conditions. It is argued that the cross generation of charged particles by neutrons does not play a significant role in this process, even if increased densities at the surface of electrodes do occur

  13. Ch. 37, Inertial Fusion Energy Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, E.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and renewable energy (including biofuels) are the only energy sources capable of satisfying the Earth's need for power for the next century and beyond without the negative environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Substantially increasing the use of nuclear fission and renewable energy now could help reduce dependency on fossil fuels, but nuclear fusion has the potential of becoming the ultimate base-load energy source. Fusion is an attractive fuel source because it is virtually inexhaustible, widely available, and lacks proliferation concerns. It also has a greatly reduced waste impact, and no danger of runaway reactions or meltdowns. The substantial environmental, commercial, and security benefits of fusion continue to motivate the research needed to make fusion power a reality. Replicating the fusion reactions that power the sun and stars to meet Earth's energy needs has been a long-sought scientific and engineering challenge. In fact, this technological challenge is arguably the most difficult ever undertaken. Even after roughly 60 years of worldwide research, much more remains to be learned. the magnitude of the task has caused some to declare that fusion is 20 years away, and always will be. This glib criticism ignores the enormous progress that has occurred during those decades, progress inboth scientific understanding and essential technologies that has enabled experiments producing significant amounts of fusion energy. For example, more than 15 megawatts of fusion power was produced in a pulse of about half a second. Practical fusion power plants will need to produce higher powers averaged over much longer periods of time. In addition, the most efficient experiments to date have required using about 50% more energy than the resulting fusion reaction generated. That is, there was no net energy gain, which is essential if fusion energy is to be a viable source of electricity. The simplest fusion fuels, the heavy isotopes of

  14. The economic viability of fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.J.; Cook, I.; Lechon, Y.; Saez, R.

    2005-01-01

    Although fusion power is being developed because of its large resource base, low environmental impact and high levels of intrinsic safety, it is important to investigate the economics of a future fusion power plant to check that the electricity produced can, in fact, have a market. The direct cost of electricity of a fusion power plant and its key dependencies on the physics and technology assumptions, are calculated, as are the materials requirements. The other important aspect of costs, the external costs which can arise from effects such as pollution, accidents and waste are also given. Fusion is found to offer the prospect of a new energy source with acceptable direct costs and very low external costs. This places fusion in a strong position in a future energy market, especially one in which environmental constraints become increasingly important

  15. Cancer Cell Fusion: Mechanisms Slowly Unravel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicite K. Noubissi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways driving invasion and metastasis have been studied for many years, the origin of the population of metastatic cells within the primary tumor is still not well understood. About a century ago, Aichel proposed that cancer cell fusion was a mechanism of cancer metastasis. This hypothesis gained some support over the years, and recently became the focus of many studies that revealed increasing evidence pointing to the possibility that cancer cell fusion probably gives rise to the metastatic phenotype by generating widespread genetic and epigenetic diversity, leading to the emergence of critical populations needed to evolve resistance to the treatment and development of metastasis. In this review, we will discuss the clinical relevance of cancer cell fusion, describe emerging mechanisms of cancer cell fusion, address why inhibiting cancer cell fusion could represent a critical line of attack to limit drug resistance and to prevent metastasis, and suggest one new modality for doing so.

  16. TMX: a new fusion plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The primary goal of the magnetic fusion energy program at LLL is the development of a technically and economically feasible approach to the generation of fusion energy. Results from our earlier 2XIIB experiment lead us to believe that a fusion power plant based on a mirror system is technically feasible, assuming a favorable extrapolation to plasmas of reactor size. Achieving economic feasibility is more difficult. For power-producing applications, a reactor needs a large Q, the ratio of fusion power output to the power injected to sustain the system. In a conventional mirror reactor, the fusion power is only about equal to the power injected by the neutral beams--that is, Q is only about unity. A new idea, the tandem mirror concept described in this article, promises to increase this gain, enhancing Q by at least a factor of 5

  17. Magnetic-fusion energy and computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    1982-01-01

    The application of computers to magnetic fusion energy research is essential. In the last several years the use of computers in the numerical modeling of fusion systems has increased substantially. There are several categories of computer models used to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies are also in use. To meet the needs of the fusion program, the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computer centers at each of the major MFE laboratories by a communication network. In addition to providing cost effective computing services, the NMFECC environment stimulates collaboration and the sharing of computer codes among the various fusion research groups

  18. Public Relations on Fusion in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.; van Oost, G.; Paris, P. J.

    2000-10-01

    A summary will be presented of PR efforts on fusion energy research in Europe. A 3-D movie of a fusion research experimental reactor has been realized at the start of this year. It has been made entirely on virtual animation basis. Two versions exists, a short version of 3 min., as a video clip, and a longer version of nearly 8 min. Both could be viewed in 3D, using special projections and passive glasses or in normal VHS video projections. A new CD-ROM for individual and classroom use will be presented, discussing (i) the different energy forms, (ii) general principles of fusion, (iii) current research efforts and (iv) future prospects of fusion. This CD-ROM is now produced in English, German, French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese Several new brochures and leaflets intended to increase the public awareness on fusion in Europe will be on display.

  19. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with viral-vectored vaccines, various synergistic components may need to be incorporated into DNA vaccines. From the perspective of the future clinical use of DNA vaccines, it has been suggested that antigen presentation should be improved and cytokine coadministration attempted. However, even...

  20. NTRK1 fusion in glioblastoma multiforme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkuk Kim

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most aggressive form of brain tumor, yet with no targeted therapy with substantial survival benefit. Recent studies on solid tumors showed that fusion genes often play driver roles and are promising targets for pharmaceutical intervention. To survey potential fusion genes in GBMs, we analysed RNA-Seq data from 162 GBM patients available through The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, and found that 3' exons of neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 (NTRK1, encoding TrkA are fused to 5' exons of the genes that are highly expressed in neuronal tissues, neurofascin (NFASC and brevican (BCAN. The fusions preserved both the transmembrane and kinase domains of NTRK1 in frame. NTRK1 is a mediator of the pro-survival signaling of nerve growth factor (NGF and is a known oncogene, found commonly altered in human cancer. While GBMs largely lacked NTRK1 expression, the fusion-positive GBMs expressed fusion transcripts in high abundance, and showed elevated NTRK1-pathway activity. Lentiviral transduction of the NFASC-NTRK1 fusion gene in NIH 3T3 cells increased proliferation in vitro, colony formation in soft agar, and tumor formation in mice, suggesting the possibility that the fusion contributed to the initiation or maintenance of the fusion-positive GBMs, and therefore may be a rational drug target.

  1. Economics of fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics

  2. Economics of fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1977-10-15

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics.

  3. Document controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou, C.; Demarthon, F.; Ter Minassian, V.

    2004-01-01

    Since the years 30, the magnetic confinement is one of the researches programs to control the nuclear fusion. This document presents in a first part the historical aspects of the researches on the controlled fusion and in the second part the nuclear fusion. The nuclear fusion forcing two atomic nuclei to fuse together by reproducing the conditions of the thermonuclear reactions that make the stars burn. This technology is a potential source of inexhaustible energy for the future. Then are presented the tokamak which make possible to confine an extremely hot gaseous mixture (plasma that is over one hundred million degrees) in a vacuum chamber and the ITER project (superconductor tokamak) that will make it possible to attain the stage in which the plasma maintains the fusion reaction itself and therefore produces more energy than it consumes. The last part presents the projects of new fusion reactors. (A.L.B.)

  4. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  5. Rho GTPase activity modulates paramyxovirus fusion protein-mediated cell-cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schowalter, Rachel M.; Wurth, Mark A.; Aguilar, Hector C.; Lee, Benhur; Moncman, Carole L.; McCann, Richard O.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2006-01-01

    The paramyxovirus fusion protein (F) promotes fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane of target cells as well as cell-cell fusion. The plasma membrane is closely associated with the actin cytoskeleton, but the role of actin dynamics in paramyxovirus F-mediated membrane fusion is unclear. We examined cell-cell fusion promoted by two different paramyxovirus F proteins in three cell types in the presence of constitutively active Rho family GTPases, major cellular coordinators of actin dynamics. Reporter gene and syncytia assays demonstrated that expression of either Rac1 V12 or Cdc42 V12 could increase cell-cell fusion promoted by the Hendra or SV5 glycoproteins, though the effect was dependent on the cell type expressing the viral glycoproteins. In contrast, RhoA L63 decreased cell-cell fusion promoted by Hendra glycoproteins but had little affect on SV5 F-mediated fusion. Also, data suggested that GTPase activation in the viral glycoprotein-containing cell was primarily responsible for changes in fusion. Additionally, we found that activated Cdc42 promoted nuclear rearrangement in syncytia

  6. Evaluation of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Bioactive Compounds in Increasing the Ratio of T-cell Surface Molecules of CD3+CD4+:CD3+CD8+ In-Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejasari, Dr

    2007-09-01

    The potential ability of ginger bioactive compounds in increasing the ratio of T-cell surface molecules of CD3+CD4+:CD3+CD8+ was investigated using dual tagging FITC and PE of monoclonal antibody anti-human with its fluorescence measured by flow cytometer. Oleoresin was extracted using sinkhole distillation technique. Its components namely, gingerol in fraction-1, shogaol in fraction 2 and zingeron in fraction-3 were separated by column vacuum chromatography method. The doses of oleoresin, gingerol, shogaol, and zingeron tested were 50, 100,150, 200, and 250 μg/ml. Lymphocytes (2x106 cell/ml) from human peripheral blood were isolated using ficoll density gradient technique, and cultured in the presence of the compounds in RPMI-1640 medium and phytohemaglutinin (PHA) mitogen for 96 h under normal conditions. Percentages of T-cell surface molecules (CD4+ and CD8+) were determined using dual-tagging FITC and PE fluorescents labeled on monoclonal antibody anti human. The fluorescence-labeled bands on the T-cell surface molecules were counted using flow cytometer. The experiment revealed that oleoresin and its three fractions increased the percentage of CD3+CD4+. The compound in fraction 3 of oleoresin at 200 μg/ml increased by the highest percentage of CD3+CD4+ of 9%, but slightly decreased the percentage of CD3+CD8+. These ginger bioactive compounds increased the ratio of CD3+CD4:CD3+CD8+ T-cells with the highest increment of 30% from effects of 200 μg/ml fraction 3 of oleoresin. This in vitro finding revealed that ginger bioactive compounds potentially increased cellular and humoral immune response. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm the benefits of these ginger bioactive compounds as a potential functional food for testing on HIV infected patients.

  7. Fusion Pore Diameter Regulation by Cations Modulating Local Membrane Anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doron Kabaso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fusion pore is an aqueous channel that is formed upon the fusion of the vesicle membrane with the plasma membrane. Once the pore is open, it may close again (transient fusion or widen completely (full fusion to permit vesicle cargo discharge. While repetitive transient fusion pore openings of the vesicle with the plasma membrane have been observed in the absence of stimulation, their frequency can be further increased using a cAMP-increasing agent that drives the opening of nonspecific cation channels. Our model hypothesis is that the openings and closings of the fusion pore are driven by changes in the local concentration of cations in the connected vesicle. The proposed mechanism of fusion pore dynamics is considered as follows: when the fusion pore is closed or is extremely narrow, the accumulation of cations in the vesicle (increased cation concentration likely leads to lipid demixing at the fusion pore. This process may affect local membrane anisotropy, which reduces the spontaneous curvature and thus leads to the opening of the fusion pore. Based on the theory of membrane elasticity, we used a continuum model to explain the rhythmic opening and closing of the fusion pore.

  8. Status of fusion maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission

  9. Perfect focusing fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, G.; Takeda, T.; Iwata, G.; Mori, S.; Inoue, K.; Tanaka, M.

    1994-01-01

    We propose new perfect focusing (perfo) fusion systems in which ion- or atom-beam is used as a target for the fusion reaction, and ions (perfo particles) of different species moving in the perfo field collide with them. The 'efficiency' defined as the ratio of the fusion energy output to the radiation loss is ∼300, ∼20, and ∼4 for the T+D, 3 He+D, and 11 B+H reactions, respectively. (author)

  10. Magnetic-fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    In February 1980, the Director of Energy Research requested that the Energy Research Advisory Board (ERAB) review the Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetic Fusion Program. Of particular concern to the DOE was the judicious choice of the next major steps toward demonstration of economic power production from fusion. Of equal concern was the overall soundness of the DOE Magnetic Fusion Program: its pace, scope, and funding profiles. Their finding and recommendations are included

  11. Maximum Likelihood Fusion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-09

    Symposium of Robotics Re- search. Sienna, Italy: Springer, 2003. [12] D. Hall and J. Llinas, “An introduction to multisensor data fusion ,” Proceed- ings of...a data fusion approach for combining Gaussian metric models of an environment constructed by multiple agents that operate outside of a global... data fusion , hypothesis testing,maximum likelihood estimation, mobile robot navigation REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT

  12. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  13. Magnetic fusion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Fusion Technology describes the technologies that are required for successful development of nuclear fusion power plants using strong magnetic fields. These technologies include: ? magnet systems, ? plasma heating systems, ? control systems, ? energy conversion systems, ? advanced materials development, ? vacuum systems, ? cryogenic systems, ? plasma diagnostics, ? safety systems, and ? power plant design studies. Magnetic Fusion Technology will be useful to students and to specialists working in energy research.

  14. Efforts in Public Relations on Fusion in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.; van Oost, G.

    2001-10-01

    An overview will be given of different published materials currently in use in Europe for public relations on fusion. We will also present a CD-ROM for individual and classroom use, containing (i) a general background on different energy forms, (ii) general principles of fusion, (iii) current research efforts and (iv) future prospects of fusion. This CD-ROM is currently in English, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian. Fusion posters developed in collaboration with CPEP in Dutch, French, German, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese will be shown. Several new brochures and leaflets intended to increase the public awareness on fusion in Europe will be on display.

  15. Inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.

    1977-01-01

    The principal goal of the inertial confinement fusion program is the development of a practical fusion power plant in this century. Rapid progress has been made in the four major areas of ICF--targets, drivers, fusion experiments, and reactors. High gain targets have been designed. Laser, electron beam, and heavy ion accelerator drivers appear to be feasible. Record-breaking thermonuclear conditions have been experimentally achieved. Detailed diagnostics of laser implosions have confirmed predictions of the LASNEX computer program. Experimental facilities are being planned and constructed capable of igniting high gain fusion microexplosions in the mid 1980's. A low cost long lifetime reactor design has been developed

  16. lysosome tethering and fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMIT TULI

    Molecular mechanisms regulating endosome- lysosome tethering and fusion. Mahak Sharma. Assistant Professor & Wellcome Trust-DBT Intermediate Fellow. Department of Biological Sciences. IISER-Mohali ...

  17. COTS Fusion Tracker Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gertz, J

    2002-01-01

    .... This effort included cataloging the companies that have available ATC fusion trackers, acquiring executable tracker images from as many as possible of these trackers, running the commercial tracker...

  18. Laser fusion program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    This program is structured to proceed through a series of well defined fusion milestones to proof of the scientific feasibility, of laser fusion with the Shiva Nova system. Concurrently, those key technical areas, such as advanced lasers, which are required to progress beyond proof of feasibility, are being studied. We have identified and quantified the opportunities and key technical issues in military applications, such as weapons effects simulations, and in civilian applications, such as central-station electric power production. We summarize the current status and future plans for the laser fusion program at LLL, emphasizing the civilian applications of laser fusion

  19. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  20. Frontiers in fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Frontiers in Fusion Research provides a systematic overview of the latest physical principles of fusion and plasma confinement. It is primarily devoted to the principle of magnetic plasma confinement, that has been systematized through 50 years of fusion research. Frontiers in Fusion Research begins with an introduction to the study of plasma, discussing the astronomical birth of hydrogen energy and the beginnings of human attempts to harness the Sun's energy for use on Earth. It moves on to chapters that cover a variety of topics such as: * charged particle motion, * plasma kinetic theory, *

  1. Fusion power economy of scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    In the next 50 yr, the world will need to develop hundreds of gigawatts of non-fossil-fuel energy sources for production of electricity and fuels. Nuclear fusion can probably provide much of the required energy economically, if large single-unit power plants are acceptable. Large power plants are more common than most people realize: There are already many multiple-unit power plants producing 2 to 5 GW(electric) at a single site. The cost of electricity (COE) from fusion energy is predicted to scale as COE ∼ COE 0 (P/P 0 ) -n , where P is the electrical power, the subscript zero denotes reference values, and the exponent n ∼ 0.36 to 0.7 in various designs. The validity ranges of these scalings are limited and need to be extended by future work. The fusion power economy of scale derives from four interrelated effects: improved operations and maintenance costs; scaling of equipment unit costs; a geometric effect that increases the mass power density; and reduction of the recirculating power fraction. Increased plasma size also relaxes the required confinement parameters: For the same neutron wall loading, larger tokamaks can use lower magnetic fields. Fossil-fuel power plants have a weaker economy of scale than fusion because the fuel costs constitute much of their COE. Solar and wind power plants consist of many small units, so they have little economy of scale. Fission power plants have a strong economy of scale but are unable to exploit it because the maximum unit size is limited by safety concerns. Large, steady-state fusion reactors generating 3 to 6 GW(electric) may be able to produce electricity for 4 to 5 cents/kW·h, which would be competitive with other future energy sources. 38 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  2. INTRODUCTION: Status report on fusion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Werner

    2005-10-01

    members' personal views on the latest achievements in fusion research, including magnetic and inertial confinement scenarios. The report describes fusion fundamentals and progress in fusion science and technology, with ITER as a possible partner in the realization of self-sustainable burning plasma. The importance of the socio-economic aspects of energy production using fusion power plants is also covered. Noting that applications of plasma science are of broad interest to the Member States, the report addresses the topic of plasma physics to assist in understanding the achievements of better coatings, cheaper light sources, improved heat-resistant materials and other high-technology materials. Nuclear fusion energy production is intrinsically safe, but for ITER the full range of hazards will need to be addressed, including minimising radiation exposure, to accomplish the goal of a sustainable and environmentally acceptable production of energy. We anticipate that the role of the Agency will in future evolve from supporting scientific projects and fostering information exchange to the preparation of safety principles and guidelines for the operation of burning fusion plasmas with a Q > 1. Technical progress in inertial and magnetic confinement, as well as in alternative concepts, will lead to a further increase in international cooperation. New means of communication will be needed, utilizing the best resources of modern information technology to advance interest in fusion. However, today the basis of scientific progress is still through journal publications and, with this in mind, we trust that this report will find an interested readership. We acknowledge with thanks the support of the members of the IFRC as an advisory body to the Agency. Seven chairmen have presided over the IFRC since its first meeting in 1971 in Madison, USA, ensuring that the IAEA fusion efforts were based on the best professional advice possible, and that information on fusion developments has

  3. Increase of the radiochemical purity of aqueous solutions of compounds labelled with 131I using a ClAg sterile column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pliego, O.H.; Mitta, A.E.A.

    1980-01-01

    The use of a C1Ag sterile column that may be easily assembled at any nuclear medical center is proposed. The column is easy to handle and allows to obtain aqueous solutions of compounds labelled with radioactive iodine, with a radiochemical purity greater than 99%, conserving pH values, activity concentration, apyretogenia and sterility, the controls of toxicity and presence of heavy metals being negative. (C.A.K) [es

  4. The actin cytoskeleton inhibits pore expansion during PIV5 fusion protein-promoted cell-cell fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Wurth, Mark A.; Schowalter, Rachel M.; Smith, Everett Clinton; Moncman, Carole L.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis; McCann, Richard O.

    2010-01-01

    Paramyxovirus fusion (F) proteins promote both virus-cell fusion, required for viral entry, and cell-cell fusion, resulting in syncytia formation. We used the F-actin stabilizing drug, jasplakinolide, and the G-actin sequestrant, latrunculin A, to examine the role of actin dynamics in cell-cell fusion mediated by the parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) F protein. Jasplakinolide treatment caused a dose-dependent increase in cell-cell fusion as measured by both syncytia and reporter gene assays, and l...

  5. Packaging and Prefusion Stabilization Separately and Additively Increase the Quantity and Quality of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-Neutralizing Antibodies Induced by an RSV Fusion Protein Expressed by a Parainfluenza Virus Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo; Ngwuta, Joan O; Herbert, Richard; Swerczek, Joanna; Dorward, David W; Amaro-Carambot, Emerito; Mackow, Natalie; Kabatova, Barbora; Lingemann, Matthias; Surman, Sonja; Yang, Lijuan; Chen, Man; Moin, Syed M; Kumar, Azad; McLellan, Jason S; Kwong, Peter D; Graham, Barney S; Schaap-Nutt, Anne; Collins, Peter L; Munir, Shirin

    2016-11-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) are major pediatric respiratory pathogens that lack vaccines. A chimeric bovine/human PIV3 (rB/HPIV3) virus expressing the unmodified, wild-type (wt) RSV fusion (F) protein from an added gene was previously evaluated in seronegative children as a bivalent intranasal RSV/HPIV3 vaccine, and it was well tolerated but insufficiently immunogenic for RSV F. We recently showed that rB/HPIV3 expressing a partially stabilized prefusion form (pre-F) of RSV F efficiently induced "high-quality" RSV-neutralizing antibodies, defined as antibodies that neutralize RSV in vitro without added complement (B. Liang et al., J Virol 89:9499-9510, 2015, doi:10.1128/JVI.01373-15). In the present study, we modified RSV F by replacing its cytoplasmic tail (CT) domain or its CT and transmembrane (TM) domains (TMCT) with counterparts from BPIV3 F, with or without pre-F stabilization. This resulted in RSV F being packaged in the rB/HPIV3 particle with an efficiency similar to that of RSV particles. Enhanced packaging was substantially attenuating in hamsters (10- to 100-fold) and rhesus monkeys (100- to 1,000-fold). Nonetheless, TMCT-directed packaging substantially increased the titers of high-quality RSV-neutralizing serum antibodies in hamsters. In rhesus monkeys, a strongly additive immunogenic effect of packaging and pre-F stabilization was observed, as demonstrated by 8- and 30-fold increases of RSV-neutralizing serum antibody titers in the presence and absence of added complement, respectively, compared to pre-F stabilization alone. Analysis of vaccine-induced F-specific antibodies by binding assays indicated that packaging conferred substantial stabilization of RSV F in the pre-F conformation. This provides an improved version of this well-tolerated RSV/HPIV3 vaccine candidate, with potently improved immunogenicity, which can be returned to clinical trials. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and

  6. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prospects for bubble fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigmatulin, R.I. [Tyumen Institute of Mechanics of Multiphase Systems (TIMMS), Marx (Russian Federation); Lahey, R.T. Jr. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    In this paper a new method for the realization of fusion energy is presented. This method is based on the superhigh compression of a gas bubble (deuterium or deuterium/thritium) in heavy water or another liquid. The superhigh compression of a gas bubble in a liquid is achieved through forced non-linear, non-periodic resonance oscillations using moderate amplitudes of forcing pressure. The key feature of this new method is a coordination of the forced liquid pressure change with the change of bubble volume. The corresponding regime of the bubble oscillation has been called {open_quotes}basketball dribbling (BD) regime{close_quotes}. The analytical solution describing this process for spherically symmetric bubble oscillations, neglecting dissipation and compressibility of the liquid, has been obtained. This solution shown no limitation on the supercompression of the bubble and the corresponding maximum temperature. The various dissipation mechanisms, including viscous, conductive and radiation heat losses have been considered. It is shown that in spite of these losses it is possible to achieve very high gas bubble temperatures. This because the time duration of the gas bubble supercompression becomes very short when increasing the intensity of compression, thus limiting the energy losses. Significantly, the calculated maximum gas temperatures have shown that nuclear fusion may be possible. First estimations of the affect of liquid compressibility have been made to determine possible limitations on gas bubble compression. The next step will be to investigate the role of interfacial instability and breaking down of the bubble, shock wave phenomena around and in the bubble and mutual diffusion of the gas and the liquid.

  8. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    small hemifusion diaphragm. To obtain a direct view of the fusion process, we have carried out extensive simulations of two bilayers, composed of block copolymers, which are immersed in a solvent which favors one of the blocks. As in the biological case, the membranes are placed under tension. This is essential as fusion ...

  9. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  10. Fusion Canada issue 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a technical update on Tokamak de Varennes, a report on the Beatrix II Breeding Materials Test Program, the Tritium glovebox system for UPM, Saudi Arabia, a broad update of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project is also included. 1 fig

  11. The fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, M.H.

    1974-01-01

    Basic principles of the fusion reactor are outlined. Plasma heating and confinement schemes are described. These confinement systems include the linear Z pinch, magnetic mirrors and Tokamaks. A fusion reactor is described and a discussion is given of its environmental impact and its fuel situation. (R.L.)

  12. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Logo of the Indian Academy of Sciences. Indian Academy of ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 6. Fusion of biological ... The process of membrane fusion has been examined by Monte Carlo simulation, and is found to be very different than the conventional picture. The differences in ...

  13. Magnetic Fusion Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    This Plan reflects the present conditions of the energy situation and is consistent with national priorities for the support of basic and applied research. It is realistic in taking advantage of the technical position that the United States has already established in fusion research to make cost-effective progress toward the development of fusion power as a future energy option

  14. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, V.K.; Scholz, R.; Nolfi, F.V. Jr.; Turner, A.P.L.

    1980-01-01

    Data are given for each of the following areas: (1) effects of irradiation on fusion reactor materials, (2) hydrogen permeation and materials behavior in alloys, (3) carbon coatings for fusion applications, (4) surface damage of TiB 2 coatings under energetic D + and 4 He + irradiations, and (5) neutron dosimetry

  15. Fusion Canada issue 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Darlington's Tritium Removal Facility, work at universities on Deuterium Diffusivity in Beryllium, Fusion Studies, confinement research and the operation of divertors at Tokamak de Varennes. 5 figs

  16. Coatings for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors

  17. Two Horizons of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Mun Ling; Chik, Pakey Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to differentiate the internal and external horizons of "fusion." "Fusion" in the internal horizon relates to the structure and meaning of the object of learning as experienced by the learner. It clarifies the interrelationships among an object's critical features and aspects. It also illuminates the…

  18. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The process of membrane fusion has been examined by Monte Carlo simu- lation, and is found to be very different than the conventional picture. The differences in mechanism lead to several predictions, in particular that fusion is accompanied by tran- sient leakage. This prediction has recently been verified.

  19. Sensor Data Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plascencia, Alfredo; Stepán, Petr

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to present a sensor fusion approach to scene environment mapping as part of a Sensor Data Fusion (SDF) architecture. This approach involves combined sonar array with stereo vision readings.  Sonar readings are interpreted using probability density functions...

  20. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The process of membrane fusion has been examined by Monte Carlo simulation, and is found to be very different than the conventional picture. The differences in mechanism lead to several predictions, in particular that fusion is accompanied by transient leakage. This prediction has recently been verified. Self-consistent ...

  1. Fusion Canada issue 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the 1996 IAEA Fusion Conference site, operations at the Tokamak de Varennes including divertor pumping of impurities and pumping of carbon monoxide and methane, a discussion of the CFFTP and it's role. 1 fig

  2. The IGNITEX fusion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera, R.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the recently proposed fusion ignition experiment, IGNITEX. He emphasizes the basic ideas of this concept rather than the specific details of the physics and engineering aspects of the experiment. This concept is a good example of the importance of maintaining an adequate balance between the basic scientific progress in fusion physics and the new technologies that are becoming available in order to make fusion work. The objective of the IGNITEX project is to produce and control ignited plasmas for scientific study in the simplest and least expensive way possible. Being able to study this not-yet-produced regime of plasma operation is essential to fusion research. Two years after the fission nuclear reaction was discovered, a non-self-sustained fission reaction was produced in a laboratory, and in one more year a self-sustained reaction was achieved at the University of Chicago. However, after almost forty years of fusion research, a self-sustained fusion reaction has yet not been produced in a laboratory experiment. This fact indicates the greater difficulty of the fusion experiment. Because of the difficulty involved in the production of a self-sustained fusion reaction, it is necessary to propose such an experiment with maximum ignition margins, maximum simplicity, and minimum financial risk

  3. Future Directions for Fusion Propulsion Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robert B.; Cassibry, Jason T.

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. .If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. Arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  4. High-Throughput Screening to Identify Compounds That Increase Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Expression in Neural Stem Cells Differentiated From Fragile X Syndrome Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Daman; Swaroop, Manju; Southall, Noel; Huang, Wenwei; Zheng, Wei; Usdin, Karen

    2015-07-01

    : Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited cognitive disability, is caused by a deficiency of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). In most patients, the absence of FMRP is due to an aberrant transcriptional silencing of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. FXS has no cure, and the available treatments only provide symptomatic relief. Given that FMR1 gene silencing in FXS patient cells can be partially reversed by treatment with compounds that target repressive epigenetic marks, restoring FMRP expression could be one approach for the treatment of FXS. We describe a homogeneous and highly sensitive time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for FMRP detection in a 1,536-well plate format. Using neural stem cells differentiated from an FXS patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line that does not express any FMRP, we screened a collection of approximately 5,000 known tool compounds and approved drugs using this FMRP assay and identified 6 compounds that modestly increase FMR1 gene expression in FXS patient cells. Although none of these compounds resulted in clinically relevant levels of FMR1 mRNA, our data provide proof of principle that this assay combined with FXS patient-derived neural stem cells can be used in a high-throughput format to identify better lead compounds for FXS drug development. In this study, a specific and sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assay for fragile X mental retardation protein detection was developed and optimized for high-throughput screening (HTS) of compound libraries using fragile X syndrome (FXS) patient-derived neural stem cells. The data suggest that this HTS format will be useful for the identification of better lead compounds for developing new therapeutics for FXS. This assay can also be adapted for FMRP detection in clinical and research settings. ©AlphaMed Press.

  5. Some fusion perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the concepts of nuclear fusion reactions, advanced fusion fuels, environmental impacts, etc., are explored using the following general outline: I. Principles of Fusion (Nuclear Fuels and Reactions, Lawson Condition, n tau vs T, Nuclear Burn Characteristics); II. Magnetic Mirror Possibilities (the Ion Layer and Electron Layer, Exponential Build-up at MeV energies, Lorentz trapping at GeV energies); III. Pellet Fuel Fusion Prospects (Advanced Pellet Fuel Fusion Prospects, Burn Characteristics and Applications, Excitation-heating Prospects for Runaway Ion Temperatures). Inasmuch as the outline is very skeletal, a significant research and development effort may be in order to evaluate these prospects in more detail and hopefully ''harness the H-bomb'' for peaceful applications, the author concludes. 28 references

  6. Fusion fuel blanket technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, I.J.; Gierszewski, P.

    1987-05-01

    The fusion blanket surrounds the burning hydrogen core of a fusion reactor. It is in this blanket that most of the energy released by the nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium is converted into useful product, and where tritium fuel is produced to enable further operation of the reactor. As fusion research turns from present short-pulse physics experiments to long-burn engineering tests in the 1990's, energy removal and tritium production capabilities become important. This technology will involve new materials, conditions and processes with applications both to fusion and beyond. In this paper, we introduce features of proposed blanket designs and update and status of international research. In focusing on the Canadian blanket technology program, we discuss the aqueous lithium salt blanket concept, and the in-reactor tritium recovery test program

  7. Fusion safety data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.; Hardy, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this Fusion Safety Data Base Program is to provide a repository of data for the design and development of safe commercial fusion reactors. The program is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fusion Energy. The function of the program is to collect, examine, permanently store, and make available the safety data to the entire US magnetic-fusion energy community. The sources of data will include domestic and foreign fusion reactor safety-related research programs. Any participant in the DOE Program may use the Data Base Program from his terminal through user friendly dialog and can view the contents in the form of text, tables, graphs, or system diagrams

  8. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  9. CFAR data fusion center with inhomogeneous receivers

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Fusté, Antonio; Broquetas Ibars, Antoni

    1992-01-01

    Detection systems with distributed sensors and data fusion are increasingly used by surveillance systems. A system formed by N inhomogeneous constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detectors (cell-averaging (CA) and ordered statistic (OS) CFAR detectors) is studied. A recursive formulation of an algorithm that permits a fixed level of false alarms in the data fusion center is presented, to set the optimum individual threshold levels in the CFAR receivers and the optimum `K out of N' decision rule in...

  10. C-terminal tyrosine residues modulate the fusion activity of the Hendra virus fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Andreea; Pager, Cara Teresia; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2011-02-15

    The paramyxovirus family includes important human pathogens such as measles, mumps, respiratory syncytial virus, and the recently emerged, highly pathogenic Hendra and Nipah viruses. The viral fusion (F) protein plays critical roles in infection, promoting both the virus-cell membrane fusion events needed for viral entry as well as cell-cell fusion events leading to syncytia formation. We describe the surprising finding that addition of the short epitope HA tag to the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Hendra virus F protein leads to a significant increase in the extent of cell-cell membrane fusion. This increase was not due to alterations in surface expression, cleavage state, or association with lipid microdomains. Addition of a Myc tag of similar length did not alter Hendra F protein fusion activity, indicating that the observed stimulation was not solely a result of lengthening the CT. Three tyrosine residues within the HA tag were critical for the increase in the extent of fusion, suggesting C-terminal tyrosines may modulate Hendra fusion activity. The effects of addition of the HA tag varied with other fusion proteins, as parainfluenza virus 5 F-HA showed a decreased level of surface expression and no stimulation of fusion. These results indicate that additions to the C-terminal end of the F protein CT can modulate protein function in a sequence specific manner, reinforcing the need for careful analysis of epitope-tagged glycoproteins. In addition, our results implicate C-terminal tyrosine residues in the modulation of the membrane fusion reaction promoted by these viral glycoproteins.

  11. 18O + 12C fusion-evaporation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusch, B.; Beck, C.; Coffin, J.P.; Freeman, R.M.; Gallmann, A.; Haas, F.; Rami, F.; Wagner, P.; Alburger, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the 18 O + 12 C fusion evaporation reaction has been undertaken for 2 reasons: to make a systematic study of the formation cross section for each individual evaporation residue over a broad excitation energy region in the compound nucleus 30 Si:30 to 62 MeV; and to compare all results to fusion-evaporation calculations done in the framework of the Hauser-Feschbach statistical model

  12. Experimental study of the influence of partner structure in the fusion of the almost symmetrical systems; Etude experimentale de l`influence de la structure des partenaires dans la fusion de systemes presque symetriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodel-Le Lay, Christelle [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 - Caen (France)

    1998-12-04

    The cross-sections for the formation of evaporation residues in {sup 70}Zn and {sup 86}Kr reactions with {sup 150}Nd and {sup 130,136}Xe isotopes were measured for excitation energies of the compound nuclei ({sup 216,220,222}Th) varied from 7 MeV to 70 MeV, at the linear accelerator UNILAC of the nuclear facility GSI, Darmstadt (Germany). After de-excitation by evaporation (xn,pxn and {alpha}xn), the residual nuclei are separated from the primary beam and from spurious reaction products by the velocity filter SHIP and implanted into a silicon localization detector. Their subsequent decay via alpha particles with characteristic energies allows us to identify them and to deduce their yields. Experimental fusion-evaporation excitation functions are compared with those leading to the same compound nuclei obtained with other projectile and target combinations and with those calculated with a code developed at GSI. This code allows us to evaluate the evolution of the fission probability as a function of the incident energy for each system. The variation of cross-sections and of the fusion probability is studied as a function of the macroscopic and microscopic variables of the partners. For the synthesis of super-heavy elements, these results demonstrate quantitatively the interest in using partners of fusion with closed shell structures and rich in neurons (the fusion cross-section increases by a factor of 9 for a complementary pair of neutrons). On the other hand, closed shell compound nuclei do not influence the fusion cross-section. It will be worth synthesizing isotopes approaching the predicted stability region, nuclei with Z greater than 110 using neutron rich projectiles coming from secondary beams. (author) 104 refs., 71 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. US fusion community discussion on fusion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marton, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    On April 26 - May 1, 1998, a US Fusion Community Forum for Major Next-Step Experiments was held at Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Both the Single Integrated Step strategy and the Multiple Machine strategy have substantial support from the about 180 scientists and engineers who participated

  14. Dynamical dipole mode in heavy-ion fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parascandolo, C., E-mail: concetta.parascandolo@na.infn.i [Universita degli Studi di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Pierroutsakou, D. [INFN - Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Martin, B. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Agodi, C.; Alba, R. [INFN - LNS, via Santa Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Boiano, A. [INFN - Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Coniglione, R. [INFN - LNS, via Santa Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); De Filippo, E. [INFN - Sezione di Catania, 95123, Catania (Italy); Del Zoppo, A. [INFN - LNS, via Santa Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Emanuele, U. [INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Messina and Dip. di Fisica, Universita di Messina, Messina (Italy); Farinon, F. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291, Darmstadt (Germany); Guglielmetti, A. [Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Inglima, G.; La Commara, M. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Maiolino, C. [INFN - LNS, via Santa Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Mazzocchi, C. [Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Mazzocco, M. [Dip. di Fisica and INFN, Universita di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Romoli, M. [INFN - Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Sandoli, M. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Santonocito, D. [INFN - LNS, via Santa Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy)

    2010-03-01

    The dynamical dipole mode, excited in charge asymmetric heavy-ion collisions, was investigated in the mass region of the {sup 192}Pb compound nucleus, formed by using the {sup 40,48}Ca + {sup 152,144}Sm reactions at approx11 MeV/nucleon. Preliminary results of this measurement, concerning both fusion-evaporation and fission events are presented. As a fast cooling mechanism on the fusion path, the dynamical dipole mode could be useful for the synthesis of super heavy elements through 'hot' fusion reactions.

  15. Method to increase the transition temperature and for the critical magnetic field strength of the known intermetallic compounds of vanadium or niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, H.

    1977-01-01

    The invention deals with a method to raise the transition temperature and critical magnetic field strength of superconducting, intermetallic compounds of vanadium and niobium. For example, a niobium alloy with 4 wt.% Al in melted in vacuum electric arc and formed into a sheet of about 1 mm thick. Strips of this sheet are electrically heated up to 1,900 0 C for one hour in a high-vacuum oven. The strips are then annealed in evacuated quartz ampoules for 120 hours at 800 0 C. These strips have a transition temperature of 24 K and a critical magnetic field strength of 600 kg; the critical current density was 5 x 10 4 A/cm 2 . (HPOE) [de

  16. Materials for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, K.; Kaletta, D.

    1978-03-01

    The following report describes five papers which were given during the IMF seminar series summer 1977. The purpose of this series was to discuss especially the irradiation behaviour of materials intended for the first wall of future fusion reactors. The first paper deals with the basic understanding of plasma physics relating to the fusion reactor and presents the current state of art of fusion technology. The next two talks discuss the metals intended for the first wall and structural components of a fusion reactor. Since 14 MeV neutrons play an important part in the process of irradiation damage their role is discussed in detail. The question which machines are presently available to simulate irradiation damage under conditions similar to the ones found in a fusion reactor are investigated in the fourth talk which also presents the limitations of the different methods of simulation. In this context also discussed is the importance future intensive neutron sources and materials test reactors will have for this problem area. The closing paper has as a theme the review of the present status of research of metallic and non-metallic materials in view of the quite different requirements for different fusion systems; a closing topic is the world supply on rare materials required for fusion reactors. (orig) [de

  17. Energy from nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkau, K.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear fusion research is conducted for the long-term objective of developing a power plant generating energy from the fusion of atomic nuclei. In order for the fusion fire to be ignited the fuel, a hydrogen plasma, must be confined in magnetic fields and heated to high temperatures - a design principle resulting in good safety characteristics and environmental compatibility. As the source materials required for the fusion process are available in almost unlimited quantities and are distributed all over the world, nuclear fusion could make a sizeable contribution towards future energy supplies. Since its beginnings in the early fifties, fusion research has approached its ambitious goal in painstaking, detailed work. Sometimes unnoticed by the public, these activities have made considerable progress especially in the past few years. Such formerly critical problems as plasma heating, thermal insulation, prevention of plasma impurities, and energy extraction can now be considered nearly solved. It has been possible in the meantime to generate fusion powers of several megawatt. The results obtained so far allow a test reactor to be planned which, for the first time, is to produce a self-sustaining plasma with powers in the gigawatt range. (orig.) [de

  18. Fusion Studies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  19. Visualization of graphical information fusion results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Levchuk, Georgiy; Staskevich, Gennady; Burke, Dustin; Aved, Alex

    2014-06-01

    Graphical fusion methods are popular to describe distributed sensor applications such as target tracking and pattern recognition. Additional graphical methods include network analysis for social, communications, and sensor management. With the growing availability of various data modalities, graphical fusion methods are widely used to combine data from multiple sensors and modalities. To better understand the usefulness of graph fusion approaches, we address visualization to increase user comprehension of multi-modal data. The paper demonstrates a use case that combines graphs from text reports and target tracks to associate events and activities of interest visualization for testing Measures of Performance (MOP) and Measures of Effectiveness (MOE). The analysis includes the presentation of the separate graphs and then graph-fusion visualization for linking network graphs for tracking and classification.

  20. Energy sweepstakes: fusion gets a chance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Congress plans to speed up the magnetic-fusion program by shifting the emphasis from plasma research to fusion-reactor engineering. The bill doubles the overall fusion budget over the next five years in order to construct a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. A review panel of scientists suggested limiting the cost to under $1 billion and holding the increase until late 1983. The panel also suggested waiting until 1990 to set a date for demonstrating a competitive commercial reactor even though progress made in the 1970s could bring a realistic date as close as 2000. The new policy evolves from the debate between tokamak hawks, who want to take the best prospect to commercialization immediately, and the doves, who want to wait to see if the best possible concept turns out to be the magnetic mirror or some other contender. The Engineering Test Facility (ETF) represents a compromise of these positions

  1. Beam dancer fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    To accomplish fusion of two or more fusion fuel elements numerous minute spots of energy or laser light are directed to a micro target area, there to be moved or danced about by a precision mechanical controlling apparatus at the source of the laser light or electromagnetic energy beams, so that merging and coinciding patterns of light or energy beams can occur around the area of the fuel atoms or ions. The projecting of these merging patterns may be considered as target searching techniques to locate responsive clusters of fuel elements and to compress such elements into a condition in which fusion may occur. Computerized programming may be used

  2. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Conceptual design studies were made of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror-confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid and a small pilot-plant hybrid based on standard mirror confinement. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000-MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single-cell pilot plant

  3. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed

  4. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components during and after irradiation. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; and the study of dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are discussed

  5. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    We have carried out conceptual design studies of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fission fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid based on standard mirror confinement, and also a small pilot plant hybrid. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000 MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single cell pilot plant

  6. Remote sensing image fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano; Garzelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis of more than ten years of experience, Remote Sensing Image Fusion covers methods specifically designed for remote sensing imagery. The authors supply a comprehensive classification system and rigorous mathematical description of advanced and state-of-the-art methods for pansharpening of multispectral images, fusion of hyperspectral and panchromatic images, and fusion of data from heterogeneous sensors such as optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and integration of thermal and visible/near-infrared images. They also explore new trends of signal/image processing, such as

  7. Strategic plan for the restructured US fusion energy sciences program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This plan reflects a transition to a restructured fusion program, with a change in focus from an energy technology development program to a fusion energy sciences program. Since the energy crisis of the early 1970's, the U.S. fusion program has presented itself as a goal- oriented fusion energy development program, with milestones that required rapidly increasing budgets. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 also called for a goal-oriented development program consistent with the Department's planning. Actual funding levels, however, have forced a premature narrowing of the program to the tokamak approach. By 1995, with no clear, immediate need driving the schedule for developing fusion energy and with enormous pressure to reduce discretionary spending, Congress cut fusion program funding for FY 1996 by one-third and called for a major restructuring of the program. Based on the recommendations of the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC), the Department has decided to pursue a program that concentrates on world-class plasma, science, and on maintaining an involvement in fusion energy science through international collaboration. At the same time, the Japanese and Europeans, with energy situations different from ours, are continuing with their goal- oriented fusion programs. Collaboration with them provides a highly leveraged means of continued involvement in fusion energy science and technology, especially through participation in the engineering and design activities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor program, ITER. This restructured fusion energy sciences program, with its focus on fundamental fusion science and technology, may well provide insights that lead to more attractive fusion power plants, and will make use of the scientific infrastructure that will allow the United States to launch a fusion energy development program at some future date

  8. Structure information from fusion barriers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    effects on the fusion excitation function. However, a simultaneous analysis of the fusion, elastic and quasi-elastic channels would fix the structure and the reaction unambiguously. Keywords. Heavy ion fusion; fusion barrier distributions; nuclear structure; coupled reaction chan- nel calculations. PACS Nos 25.70.Bc; 25.70.

  9. Why and how of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    The potential advantages of fusion power are listed. The approaches to plasma containment are mentioned and the status of the fusion program is described. The ERDA and EPRI programs are discussed. The Fusion Energy Foundation's activities are mentioned. Fusion research at the U. of Ill. is described briefly

  10. InFusion: Advancing Discovery of Fusion Genes and Chimeric Transcripts from Deep RNA-Sequencing Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Okonechnikov

    Full Text Available Analysis of fusion transcripts has become increasingly important due to their link with cancer development. Since high-throughput sequencing approaches survey fusion events exhaustively, several computational methods for the detection of gene fusions from RNA-seq data have been developed. This kind of analysis, however, is complicated by native trans-splicing events, the splicing-induced complexity of the transcriptome and biases and artefacts introduced in experiments and data analysis. There are a number of tools available for the detection of fusions from RNA-seq data; however, certain differences in specificity and sensitivity between commonly used approaches have been found. The ability to detect gene fusions of different types, including isoform fusions and fusions involving non-coding regions, has not been thoroughly studied yet. Here, we propose a novel computational toolkit called InFusion for fusion gene detection from RNA-seq data. InFusion introduces several unique features, such as discovery of fusions involving intergenic regions, and detection of anti-sense transcription in chimeric RNAs based on strand-specificity. Our approach demonstrates superior detection accuracy on simulated data and several public RNA-seq datasets. This improved performance was also evident when evaluating data from RNA deep-sequencing of two well-established prostate cancer cell lines. InFusion identified 26 novel fusion events that were validated in vitro, including alternatively spliced gene fusion isoforms and chimeric transcripts that include intergenic regions. The toolkit is freely available to download from http:/bitbucket.org/kokonech/infusion.

  11. InFusion: Advancing Discovery of Fusion Genes and Chimeric Transcripts from Deep RNA-Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonechnikov, Konstantin; Imai-Matsushima, Aki; Paul, Lukas; Seitz, Alexander; Meyer, Thomas F; Garcia-Alcalde, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of fusion transcripts has become increasingly important due to their link with cancer development. Since high-throughput sequencing approaches survey fusion events exhaustively, several computational methods for the detection of gene fusions from RNA-seq data have been developed. This kind of analysis, however, is complicated by native trans-splicing events, the splicing-induced complexity of the transcriptome and biases and artefacts introduced in experiments and data analysis. There are a number of tools available for the detection of fusions from RNA-seq data; however, certain differences in specificity and sensitivity between commonly used approaches have been found. The ability to detect gene fusions of different types, including isoform fusions and fusions involving non-coding regions, has not been thoroughly studied yet. Here, we propose a novel computational toolkit called InFusion for fusion gene detection from RNA-seq data. InFusion introduces several unique features, such as discovery of fusions involving intergenic regions, and detection of anti-sense transcription in chimeric RNAs based on strand-specificity. Our approach demonstrates superior detection accuracy on simulated data and several public RNA-seq datasets. This improved performance was also evident when evaluating data from RNA deep-sequencing of two well-established prostate cancer cell lines. InFusion identified 26 novel fusion events that were validated in vitro, including alternatively spliced gene fusion isoforms and chimeric transcripts that include intergenic regions. The toolkit is freely available to download from http:/bitbucket.org/kokonech/infusion.

  12. Increase of “Umami” and “Kokumi” Compounds in Miso, Fermented Soybeans, by the Addition of Bacterial γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao Van Ho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT hydrolyzes γ-glutamyl compounds and transfers their γ-glutamyl moieties to amino acids and peptides.  We previously showed that the “umami” taste of soy sauce could be improved by the addition of salt-tolerant Bacillus subtilis GGT to the fermentation mixture, “moromi”.  Although miso fermentation is a semi-solid fermentation, unlike soy sauce fermentation, this was also the case. When 15 units of purified B. subtilis GGT were added to 418 g miso “moromi” (fermentation mixture, the glutamate concentration in “moromi” became 20 mM higher and the “umami” taste became stronger than without the addition of GGT after 2 to 6 months of fermentation.  In addition, γ-Glu-Val and γ-Glu-Val-Gly, which are known as “kokumi” peptides, were identified in “tamari”, and the concentrations of these γ-glutamyl peptides in “tamari" fermented by the addition of GGT were significantly higher than those of “moromi” without the addition of GGT.  These results indicate that B. subtilis GGT is able to improve the taste of miso.

  13. Fusion Revisits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It's going to be a hot summer at CERN. At least in the Main Building, where from 13 July to 20 August an exhibition is being hosted on nuclear fusion, the energy of the Stars. Nuclear fusion is the engine driving the stars but also a potential source of energy for mankind. The exhibition shows the different nuclear fusion techniques and research carried out on the subject in Europe. Inaugurated at CERN in 1993, following collaboration between Lausanne's CRPP-EPFL and CERN, with input from Alessandro Pascolini of Italy's INFN, this exhibition has travelled round Europe before being revamped and returning to CERN. 'Fusion, Energy of the Stars', from 13 July onwards, Main Building

  14. Aneutronic Fusion Spacecraft Architecture

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Description: provide framework to realize fusion propulsion for long-range space travel; analyze "hybrid" schemes with a solar or fission primary energy source along...

  15. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  16. Cell fusions in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Bjerregaard, Bolette; Talts, Jan Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Cell fusions are important to fertilization, placentation, development of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and the immune defense system. Additionally, cell fusions participate in tissue repair and may be important to cancer development and progression. A large number of factors appear...... to regulate cell fusions, including receptors and ligands, membrane domain organizing proteins, proteases, signaling molecules and fusogenic proteins forming alpha-helical bundles that bring membranes close together. The syncytin family of proteins represent true fusogens and the founding member, syncytin-1......, has been documented to be involved in fusions between placental trophoblasts, between cancer cells and between cancer cells and host ells. We review the literature with emphasis on the syncytin family and propose that syncytins may represent universal fusogens in primates and rodents, which work...

  17. Fusion cost normalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, S.C.; Willke, T.L.

    1978-01-01

    The categorization and accounting methods described in this paper provide a common format that can be used to assess the economic character of magnetically confined fusion reactor design concepts. The format was developed with assistance from the fusion economics community, thus ensuring that the methods meet with the approval of potential users. The format will aid designers in the preparation of design concept cost estimates and also provide policy makers with a tool to assist in appraising which design concepts may be economically promising. Adherence to the format when evaluating prospective fusion reactor design concepts will result in the identification of the more promising concepts, thus enabling the fusion power alternatives with better economic potential to be quickly and efficiently developed

  18. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Burn, G.L.; Knee', S.S.; Dowker, C.L.

    1994-02-01

    This is the fifteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; Special purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide

  19. Complimentary Advanced Fusion Exploration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alford, Mark G; Jones, Eric C; Bubalo, Adnan; Neumann, Melissa; Greer, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    .... The focus areas were in the following regimes: multi-tensor homographic computer vision image fusion, out-of-sequence measurement and track data handling, Nash bargaining approaches to sensor management, pursuit-evasion game theoretic modeling...

  20. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1984-04-01

    KfK participates to the Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community. Most of the work in progress addresses the Next European Torus (NET) and the long term technology aspects as defined in the 82/86 programme. A minor part serves to preparation of future contributions and to design studies on fusion concepts in a wider perspective. The Fusion Technology Programme of Euratom covers mainly aspects of nuclear engineering. Plasma engineering, heating, refueling and vacuum technology are at present part of the Physics Programme. In view of NET, integration of the different areas of work will be mandatory. KfK is therefore prepared to address technical aspects beyond the actual scope of the physics experiments. The technology tasks are reported project wise under title and code of the Euratom programme. Most of the projects described here are shared with other European fusion laboratories as indicated in the table annexed to this report. (orig./GG)

  1. International aspects of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    International collaborative efforts in magnetic confinement fusion in which the USA is involved are reviewed. These efforts are carried under the auspices of international agencies and through bilateral agreements

  2. Fusion safety program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, J.G.; Holland, D.F.; Herring, J.S.

    1980-09-01

    The program plan consists of research that has been divided into 13 different areas. These areas focus on the radioactive inventories that are expected in fusion reactors, the energy sources potentially available to release a portion of these inventories, and analysis and design techniques to assess and ensure that the safety risks associated with operation of magnetic fusion facilities are acceptably low. The document presents both long-term program requirements that must be fulfilled as part of the commercialization of fusion power and a five-year plan for each of the 13 different program areas. Also presented is a general discussion of magnetic fusion reactor safety, a method for establishing priorities in the program, and specific priority ratings for each task in the five-year plan

  3. Fusion-breeder program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The various approaches to a combined fusion-fission reactor for the purpose of breeding 239 Pu and 233 U are described. Design aspects and cost estimates for fuel production and electricity generation are discussed

  4. Fusion technology (FT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The annual report of tha fusion technology (FT) working group discusses the projects carried out by the participating institutes in the fields of 1) fuel injection and plasma heating, 2) magnetic field technology, and 3) systems investigations. (HK) [de

  5. Cold nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Shinji.

    1991-01-01

    Selection of cathode material is a key to the attainment of cold nuclear fusion. However, there are only few reports on the cathode material at present and an effective development has been demanded. The device comprises an anode and a cathode and an electrolytic bath having metal salts dissolved therein and containing heavy water in a glass container. The anode is made of gold or platinum and the cathode is made of metals of V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta, and a voltage of 3-25V is applied by way of a DC power source between them. The metal comprising V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta absorbs deuterium formed by electrolysis of heavy water effectively to cause nuclear fusion reaction at substantially the same frequency and energy efficiency as palladium and titanium. Accordingly, a cold nuclear fusion device having high nuclear fusion generation frequency can be obtained. (N.H.)

  6. SENYAWA BIOAKTIF RIMPANG JAHE (Zingiber officinale Roscue MENINGKATKAN RESPON SITOLITIK SEL NK TERHADAP SEL KANKER DARAH K-562 IN VITRO [Ginger Root Bioactive Compounds Increased Cytolitic Response of Natural Killer (NK Cells Against Leucemic Cell Line K-562 In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransiska Rungkat Zakaria 2

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cell, a kind of lymphocyte cells, plays an important role in attacking infectious, immature, and cancer cell. Its function could be modulated by food bioactive compounds. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of ginger root bioactive compounds such as oleoresin, gingerol, and shogaol on cytolitic response of NK cell in vitro. Lymphocyte cells were isolated by centrifugation on ficoll-hypaque density (1,77 ?0,001 g/ml method. Leukemic cells line K-562 as target cells(TC labelled by [3H]-timidin, together with lymphocyte as effector cell (EC were cultured in two ratio levels of EC : TC equal to 1:50 and 1:100, and two culture conditions, for 4 hours, respectively. Paraquate dichloride (1,1-dimethyl-4,4-bipyridilium dichloride 3 mM was used to induce stress oxidative circumstance. Cytolytic capacity of NK cells was determined by percentage of TC lysed by NK cells, in normal and oxidative stress conditions. Statistical analysis showed that the effects of ginger bioactive compounds on cytolytic response of NK cell depended on the culture conditions, as shown by cultures in the presence of oleoresin, and gingerol, but not shogaol. In the lymphocyte culture without stress oxidative, oleoresin, gingerol and shogaol compounds increased significantly cytolytic response of NK cells cultured at a ratio of TC : EC equal to 1:50, with the highest increament of 65 % at oleoresin concentration of 50 ?g/ml. However, in culture at a ratio of TC : EC equals to 1:100, only oleoresin at a concentration of 50 ?g/ml increased significantly cytolytic response of NK cells with the highest increament of 8 %. Shogaol did not affect significantly NK cells cytolytic response. Under stress oxidative conditions, shogaol increased significantly cytolytic response of NK cells cultured at a ratio of TC:EC equal to 1:50, but the highest increament of 56 % , was by oleoresin at concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Meanwhile, oleoresin and gingerol did

  7. Conference on Norwegian fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of instituting a systematic research programme in Norway on aspects of thermonuclear and plasma physics has been raised. The conference here reported was intended to provide basic information on the status of fusion research internationally and to discuss a possible Norwegian programme. The main contributions covered the present status of fusion research, international cooperation, fusion research in small countries and minor laboratories, fusion research in Denmark and Sweden, and a proposed fusion experiment in Bergen. (JIW)

  8. Fusion Simulation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Many others in the fusion energy and advanced scientific computing communities participated in the development of this plan. The core planning team is grateful for their important contributions. This summary is meant as a quick overview the Fusion Simulation Program's (FSP's) purpose and intentions. There are several additional documents referenced within this one and all are supplemental or flow down from this Program Plan. The overall science goal of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) research and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. (1). Initial FSP research will focus on two critical Integrated Science Application (ISA) areas: ISA1, the plasma edge; and ISA2, whole device modeling (WDM) including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical

  9. Reconstituted Fusion Pore

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremic, Aleksandar; Kelly, Marie; Cho, Sang-Joon; Stromer, Marvin H.; Jena, Bhanu P.

    2003-01-01

    Fusion pores or porosomes are basket-like structures at the cell plasma membrane, at the base of which, membrane-bound secretory vesicles dock and fuse to release vesicular contents. Earlier studies using atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrated the presence of fusion pores at the cell plasma membrane in a number of live secretory cells, revealing their morphology and dynamics at nm resolution and in real time. ImmunoAFM studies demonstrated the release of vesicular contents through the por...

  10. Prospective Assessment of Virtual Screening Heuristics Derived Using a Novel Fusion Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertusi, Dante A; O'Donnell, Gregory; Homsher, Michelle F; Solly, Kelli; Patel, Amita; Stahler, Shannon L; Riley, Daniel; Finley, Michael F; Finger, Eleftheria N; Adam, Gregory C; Meng, Juncai; Bell, David J; Zuck, Paul D; Hudak, Edward M; Weber, Michael J; Nothstein, Jennifer E; Locco, Louis; Quinn, Carissa; Amoss, Adam; Squadroni, Brian; Hartnett, Michelle; Heo, Mee Ra; White, Tara; May, S Alex; Boots, Evelyn; Roberts, Kenneth; Cocchiarella, Patrick; Wolicki, Alex; Kreamer, Anthony; Kutchukian, Peter S; Wassermann, Anne Mai; Uebele, Victor N; Glick, Meir; Rusinko, Andrew; Culberson, J Christopher

    2017-09-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is a widespread method in early drug discovery for identifying promising chemical matter that modulates a target or phenotype of interest. Because HTS campaigns involve screening millions of compounds, it is often desirable to initiate screening with a subset of the full collection. Subsequently, virtual screening methods prioritize likely active compounds in the remaining collection in an iterative process. With this approach, orthogonal virtual screening methods are often applied, necessitating the prioritization of hits from different approaches. Here, we introduce a novel method of fusing these prioritizations and benchmark it prospectively on 17 screening campaigns using virtual screening methods in three descriptor spaces. We found that the fusion approach retrieves 15% to 65% more active chemical series than any single machine-learning method and that appropriately weighting contributions of similarity and machine-learning scoring techniques can increase enrichment by 1% to 19%. We also use fusion scoring to evaluate the tradeoff between screening more chemical matter initially in lieu of replicate samples to prevent false-positives and find that the former option leads to the retrieval of more active chemical series. These results represent guidelines that can increase the rate of identification of promising active compounds in future iterative screens.

  11. Perspectives of fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, V.O.

    1984-01-01

    New and practically inexhaustible sources of energy must be developed for the period when oil, coal and uranium will become scarce and expensive. Nuclear fusion holds great promise as one of these practically inexhaustible energy sources. Based on the deuteriumtritium reaction with tritium obtained from naturally occuring lithium, which is also widely available in Europe, the accessible energy resources in the world are 3.10 12 to 3.10 16 toe; based on the deuterium-deuterium reaction, the deuterium content of the oceans corresponds to 10 20 toe. It is presently envisaged that in order to establish fusion as a large-scale energy source, three major thresholds must be reached: - Scientific feasibility, - Technical feasibility, i.e. the proof that the basic technical problems of the fusion reactor can be solved. - Commercial feasibility, i.e. proof that fusion power reactors can be built on an industrial scale, can be operated reliably and produce usable energy at prices competitive with other energy sources. From the above it is clear that the route to commercial fusion will be long and costly and involve the solution of extremely difficult technical problems. In view of the many steps which have to be taken, it appears unlikely that commercial fusion power will be in general use within the next 50 years and by that time world-wide expenditure on research, development and demonstration may well have exceeded 100 Bio ECU. (author)

  12. Energy from inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This book contains 22 articles on inertial fusion energy (IFE) research and development written in the framework of an international collaboration of authors under the guidance of an advisory group on inertial fusion energy set up in 1991 to advise the IAEA. It describes the actual scientific, engineering and technological developments in the field of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It also identifies ways in which international co-operation in ICF could be stimulated. The book is intended for a large audience and provides an introduction to inertial fusion energy and an overview of the various technologies needed for IFE power plants to be developed. It contains chapters on (i) the fundamentals of IFE; (ii) inertial confinement target physics; (iii) IFE power plant design principles (requirements for power plant drivers, solid state laser drivers, gas laser drivers, heavy ion drivers, and light ion drivers, target fabrication and positioning, reaction chamber systems, power generation and conditioning and radiation control, materials management and target materials recovery), (iv) special design issues (radiation damage in structural materials, induced radioactivity, laser driver- reaction chamber interfaces, ion beam driver-reaction chamber interfaces), (v) inertial fusion energy development strategy, (vi) safety and environmental impact, (vii) economics and other figures of merit; (viii) other uses of inertial fusion (both those involving and not involving implosions); and (ix) international activities. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Controlled thermonuclear fusion: research on magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, P.J.

    1988-12-01

    Recent progress in thermonuclear fusion research indicates that the scientists' schedule for the demonstration of the scientific feasibility will be kept and that break-even will be attained in the course of the next decade. To see the implementation of ignition, however, the generation of future experiments must be awaited. These projects are currently under study. With technological research going on in parallel, they should at the same time contribute to the design of a reactor. Fusion reactors will be quite different from the fission nuclear reactors we know, and the waste of the plants will also be of a different nature. It is still too early to define the precise design of a fusion reactor. On the basis of a toric machine concept like that of the tokamak, we can, however, envisage that the problems with which we are confronted will be solved one after the other. As we have just seen, these will be the objectives of the future experimental installations where ignition will be possible and where the flux of fast neutrons will be so strong that they will allow the study of low-activation materials which will be used in the structure of the reactor. But this is also a task in which from now onwards numerous laboratories in Europe and in the world participate. The works are in fact punctiform, and often the mutual incidences can only be determined by an approach simulated by numerical codes. (author) 19 figs., 6 tabs., 8 refs

  14. Osteoclast Fusion is Based on Heterogeneity Between Fusion Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolt-Pedersen, Anne-Sofie; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Bone-resorbing osteoclasts are formed through fusion of mononucleated precursors. Their choice of partners during the fusion process remains unclear. We hypothesized that osteoclasts are selective in their choice of fusion partner and that this selectivity is based on heterogeneity among the cells...... with respect to their maturation stage and their expression and cellular organization of fusion factors. Support for this hypothesis was found from immunofluorescence staining of the osteoclast fusion factors CD47, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and syncytin-1. These stainings...... fusion steps was also suggested from experiments with a CD47 blocking antibody, which resulted in an inhibition of the fusion of small osteoclasts. Conversely, blocking of connexin 43 affected the fusion of larger osteoclasts with four or more nuclei. The suggestion that different fusion factors function...

  15. Cold fusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akihito.

    1994-01-01

    A Pt wire electrode is supported from the periphery relative to a Pd electrode by way of a polyethylene or teflon plate in heavy water, and electrolysis is applied while varying conditions successively in a sawteeth fashion at an initial stage, and after elapse of about one week, a pulse current is supplied to promote nuclear reaction and to generate excess heat greater than a charged electric power. That is, small amount of neutron emission is increased and electrolytic cell temperature is elevated by varying the electrolysis conditions successively in the sawteeth fashion at the initial stage. In addition, when the pulse electric current is supplied after elapse of about one week, the electrolytic cell temperature is abnormally elevated, so that the promotion of nuclear reaction phenomenon and the generation of excess heat greater than the charged electric power are recognized. Then, a way to control power level and time fluctuation of cold fusion is attained, thereby contributing to development of a further method for generating excess heat as desired. In addition, it contributes to a development for a method of obtaining such an excess heat that can be taken as a new energy. (N.H.)

  16. Laser fusion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of the capability of laser fusion diagnostics is reviewed. Optical and infrared streak cameras provide one time resolution measurement capability of less than 10 ps, while x-ray streak cameras provide 15 ps time resolution in the range of about 1--30 keV presently. Time integrated spatial resolutions of 1 μm are provided with a variety of optical techniques. Ultraviolet holographic interferometry has measured electron densities above 10 21 cm -3 with 1 μm spatial resolution and 15 ps temporal resolution. X-ray microscopes provide 3 μm time integrated resolution and the x-ray streak pinhole camera has 6 μm spatial resolution. Development of the framing camera has thus far provided 50 μm spatial resolution with 125 ps frame duration and the third order reconstruction of zone plate images has provided 3 μm resolutions for alpha particles. Time integrated measurements of x-rays span the range shown. Finally, the new Shiva neutron spectrometer increases the energy resolution capability of that technique to 25 keV for 14-MeV neutrons. These combined capabilities provide a unique set of diagnostics for the detailed measurement of the interaction of laser light with targets and a subsequent performance of those targets

  17. Mixed Compound of DCPTA and CCC Increases Maize Yield by Improving Plant Morphology and Up-Regulating Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchao Wang

    Full Text Available DCPTA (2-diethylaminoethyl-3, 4-dichlorophenylether and CCC (2-chloroethyltrimethyl- ammonium chloride have a great effect on maize growth, but applying DCPTA individually can promote the increase of plant height, resulting in the rise of lodging percent. Plant height and lodging percent decrease in CCC-treated plants, but the accumulation of biomass reduce, resulting in yield decrease. Based on the former experiments, the performance of a mixture which contained 40 mg DCPTA and 20 mg CCC as active ingredients per liter of solution, called PCH was tested with applying 40mg/L DCPTA and 20mg/L CCC individually. Grain yield, yield components, internode characters, leaf area per plant, plant height and lodging percent as well as chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, enzymatic antioxidants, membranous peroxide and organic osmolyte were analyzed in two years (2011 and 2012, using maize hybrid, Zhengdan 958 (ZD 958 at density of 6.75 plants m-2. CCC, DCPTA and PCH were sprayed on the whole plant leaves at 7 expanded leaves stage and water was used as control. Compared to control, PCH significantly increased grain yield (by 9.53% and 6.68% from 2011 to 2012. CCC significantly decreased kernel number per ear (by 6.78% and 5.69% and thousand kernel weight (TKW (by 8.57% and 6.55% from 2011 to 2012. Kernel number per ear and TKW increased in DCPTA-treated and PCH-treated plants, but showed no significant difference between them. In CCC-treated and PCH-treated plants, internode length and plant height decreased, internode diameter increased, resulting in the significant decline of lodging percent. With DCPTA application, internode diameter increased, but internode length and plant height increased at the same time, resulting in the augment of lodging percent. Bending strength and puncture strength were increased by applying different plant growth regulators (PGRs. In PCH-treated plants, bending strength and puncture strength were greater than other

  18. The actin cytoskeleton inhibits pore expansion during PIV5 fusion protein-promoted cell-cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurth, Mark A.; Schowalter, Rachel M.; Smith, Everett Clinton; Moncman, Carole L.; Ellis Dutch, Rebecca; McCann, Richard O.

    2010-01-01

    Paramyxovirus fusion (F) proteins promote both virus-cell fusion, required for viral entry, and cell-cell fusion, resulting in syncytia formation. We used the F-actin stabilizing drug, jasplakinolide, and the G-actin sequestrant, latrunculin A, to examine the role of actin dynamics in cell-cell fusion mediated by the parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) F protein. Jasplakinolide treatment caused a dose-dependent increase in cell-cell fusion as measured by both syncytia and reporter gene assays, and latrunculin A treatment also resulted in fusion stimulation. Treatment with jasplakinolide or latrunculin A partially rescued a fusion pore opening defect caused by deletion of the PIV5 F protein cytoplasmic tail, but these drugs had no effect on fusion inhibited at earlier stages by either temperature arrest or by a PIV5 heptad repeat peptide. These data suggest that the cortical actin cytoskeleton is an important regulator of fusion pore enlargement, an energetically costly stage of viral fusion protein-mediated membrane merger.

  19. Single or double-level anterior interbody fusion techniques for cervical degenerative disc disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Wilco; Willems, Paul C.; van Limbeek, Jacques; Bartels, Ronald; Pavlov, Paul; Anderson, Patricia G.; Oner, Cumhur

    2011-01-01

    Background The number of surgical techniques for decompression and solid interbody fusion as treatment for cervical spondylosis has increased rapidly, but the rationale for the choice between different techniques remains unclear. Objectives To determine which technique of anterior interbody fusion

  20. Single or double-level anterior interbody fusion techniques for cervical degenerative disc disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, W.; Willems, P.C.P.H.; Limbeek, J. van; Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Pavlov, P.; Anderson, P.G.; Oner, C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of surgical techniques for decompression and solid interbody fusion as treatment for cervical spondylosis has increased rapidly, but the rationale for the choice between different techniques remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine which technique of anterior interbody fusion

  1. Increased responsiveness of rat mast cells to compound 48/80 due to removal of extracellular magnesium. Effects of ouabain and EGTA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Johansen, Torben

    1991-01-01

    , while this was further increased by ouabain (1 mM). Furthermore, ouabain completely restored the decreased secretion (50% of control value) due to preincubation without the divalent cations. This may indicate that magnesium influences a pool of cellular calcium that is involved in the stimulus...

  2. Advanced fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Yukihiro [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    The main subjects on fusion research are now on D-T fueled fusion, mainly due to its high fusion reaction rate. However, many issues are still remained on the wall loading by the 14 MeV neutrons. In the case of D-D fueled fusion, the neutron wall loading is still remained, though the technology related to tritium breeding is not needed. The p-{sup 6}Li and p-{sup 11}B fueled fusions are not estimated to be the next generation candidate until the innovated plasma confinement technologies come in useful to achieve the high performance plasma parameters. The fusion reactor of D-{sup 3}He fuels has merits on the smaller neutron wall loading and tritium handling. However, there are difficulties on achieving the high temperature plasma more than 100 keV. Furthermore the high beta plasma is needed to decrease synchrotron radiation loss. In addition, the efficiency of the direct energy conversion from protons coming out from fusion reaction is one of the key parameters in keeping overall power balance. Therefore, open magnetic filed lines should surround the plasma column. In this paper, we outlined the design of the commercial base reactor (ARTEMIS) of 1 GW electric output power configured by D-{sup 3}He fueled FRC (Field Reversed Configuration). The ARTEMIS needs 64 kg of {sup 3}He per a year. On the other hand, 1 million tons of {sup 3}He is estimated to be in the moon. The {sup 3}He of about 10{sup 23} kg are to exist in gaseous planets such as Jupiter and Saturn. (Y. Tanaka)

  3. Reaction mechanisms in heavy ion fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubian J.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the reaction mechanisms involved in heavy ion fusion. We begin with collisions of tightly bound systems, considering three energy regimes: energies above the Coulomb barrier, energies just below the barrier and deep sub-barrier energies. We show that channel coupling effects may influence the fusion process at above-barrier energies, increasing or reducing the cross section predicted by single barrier penetration model. Below the Coulomb barrier, it enhances the cross section, and this effect increases with the system’s size. It is argued that this behavior can be traced back to the increasing importance of Coulomb coupling with the charge of the collision partners. The sharp drop of the fusion cross section observed at deep sub-barrier energies is addressed and the theoretical approaches to this phenomenon are discussed. We then consider the reaction mechanisms involved in fusion reactions of weakly bound systems, paying particular attention to the calculations of complete and incomplete fusion available in the literature.

  4. Great expectations: a review of nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.; MacKerron, G.

    1989-01-01

    Fusion research policy has recently come under scrutiny, prompted by rising research costs and increasing doubt about the value of such long-term work. This paper reviews the basic principles of fusion, the research and development still required, the costs of research to date, justifications for it, and future policy options; and examines in broad terms some of the ways in which fusion can be and has been evaluated. Throughout, the emphasis is on the need to compare fusion on equal terms with those technological options with which it may compete, and in the context of different energy futures. (author)

  5. Hexavalent Chromium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about chromium, exposure to which can increase your risk of lung cancer and cancer of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Hexavalent chromium compounds have been used as corrosion inhibitors in a wide variety of products and processes.

  6. Dynamical analysis on heavy-ion fusion reactions near Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhaoqing; Jin Genming; Zhang Fengshou

    2008-01-01

    The shell correction is proposed in the improved isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics (ImIQMD) model, which plays an important role in heavy-ion fusion reactions near Coulomb barrier. By using the ImIQMD model, the static and dynamical fusion barriers, dynamical barrier distribution in the fusion reactions are analyzed systematically. The fusion and capture excitation functions for a series of reaction systems are calculated and compared with experimental data. It is found that the fusion cross sections for neutron-rich systems increase obviously, and the strong shell effects of two colliding nuclei result in a decrease of the fusion cross sections at the sub-barrier energies. The lowering of the dynamical fusion barriers favors the enhancement of the sub-barrier fusion cross sections, which is related to the nucleon transfer and the neck formation in the fusion reactions

  7. Development of Laser Based Plasma Diagnostics for Fusion Research on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchfeld, Robert Adam

    Worldwide demand for power, and in particular electricity, is growing. Increasing population, expanding dependence on electrical devices, as well as the development of emerging nations, has created significant challenges for the power production. Compounding the issue are concerns over pollution, natural resource supplies, and political obstacles in troubled parts of the world. Many believe that investment in renewable energy will solve the expected energy crisis; however, renewable energy has many shortfalls. Consequently, additional sources of energy should be explored to provide the best options for the future. Electricity from fusion power offers many advantages over competing technologies. It can potentially produce large amounts of clean energy, without the serious concerns of fission power plant safety and nuclear waste. Fuel supplies for fusion are plentiful. Fusion power plants can be operated as needed, without dependence on location, or local conditions. However, there are significant challenges before fusion can be realized. Many factors currently limit the effectiveness of fusion power, which prevents a commercial power plant from being feasible. Scientists in many countries have built, and operate, experimental fusion plants to study the fusion process. The leading examples are magnetic confinement reactors known as tokamaks. At present, reactor gain is near unity, where the fusion power output is nearly the same as the power required to operate the reactor. A tenfold increase in gain is what reactors such as ITER hope to achieve, where 50 MW will be used for plasma heating, magnetic fields, and so forth, with a power output of 500 MW. Before this can happen, further research is required. Loss of particle and energy confinement is a principal cause of low performance; therefore, increasing confinement time is key. There are many causes of thermal and particle transport that are being researched, and the prime tools for conducting this research are

  8. Effect of entrance channel parameters on the fusion of two heavy ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    compound processes like transfer and incomplete fusion (ICF) reactions to the cross-sections of dif- ferent evaporation residues were delineated by comparing the experimental data with the predictions of Monte Carlo simulation code PACE2.

  9. Coatings for fusion reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The internal surfaces of a tokamak fusion reactor control the impurity injection and gas recycling into the fusion plasma. Coating of internal surfaces may provide a desirable and possibly necessary design flexibility for achieving the temperatures, ion densities and containment times necessary for net energy production from fusion reactions to take place. In this paper the reactor environments seen by various componentare reviewed along with possible materials responses. Characteristics of coating-substrate systems, important to fusion applications, are delineated and the present status of coating development for fusion applications is reviewed. Coating development for fusion applications is just beginning and poses a unique and important challenge for materials development

  10. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haralalka, Shruti; Abmayr, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  11. Material for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhishek, Anuj; Ranjan, Prem

    2011-01-01

    To make nuclear fusion power a reality, the scientists are working restlessly to find the materials which can confine the power generated by the fusion of two atomic nuclei. A little success in this field has been achieved, though there are still miles to go. Fusion reaction is a special kind of reaction which must occur at very high density and temperature to develop extremely large amount of energy, which is very hard to control and confine within using the present techniques. As a whole it requires the physical condition that rarely exists on the earth to carry out in an efficient manner. As per the growing demand and present scenario of the world energy, scientists are working round the clock to make effective fusion reactions to real. In this paper the work presently going on is considered in this regard. The progress of the Joint European Torus 2010, ITER 2005, HiPER and minor works have been studied to make the paper more object oriented. A detailed study of the technological and material requirement has been discussed in the paper and a possible suggestion is provided to make a contribution in the field of building first ever nuclear fusion reactor

  12. Fusion energy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, L.C.

    The potential of fusion energy contributing to the energy needs is discussed. Controlled thermonuclear reactions hold the promise of an abundant source of fuel used to produce electrical energy for the future in an environmentally acceptable way. Once feasibility questions are answered and engineering problems are resolved, it should be possible to produce energy in a form that can use current methods of electrical generation to convert it into a useful form. If the fusion system is operated with only deuterium as fuel, the deuterium available from a pail of water would produce energy equivalent to that produced by 600 gallons of gasoline. The water in the ocean could provide energy for billions of years at the current rate of consumption. Experimental results are currently confirming the theoretical predictions and the schedule for fusion development is shown to be completion of feasibility experiments in 1974; physics test reactors appearing in 1983; experimental power reactors being built in 1990; and the demonstration plant on-line in 1994. The process of producing fusion power, fusion research needs, and problems to be solved are reviewed

  13. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-08-06

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or {sup 3}He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied.

  14. The effect of NaCl on the level of reduced sulfur compounds in rat liver. Implications for blood pressure increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Iciek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is commonly known that excessive salt intake is a risk factor of hypertension. Currently, there is an increasing interest in reduced reactive sulfur species (RSS, mainly H2S and sulfane sulfur (SS as new gasotransmitters showing vasorelaxant properties. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of repeated administration of low sodium chloride dose included in physiological saline on blood pressure, on the level of RSS and activity of enzymes involved in their biosynthesis in the rat.Methods: Two separate experiments were carried out on male Wistar rats: one with intravenous injections of saline and the second one with intraperitoneal saline injections. Blood pressure was measured during the experiment. The level of RSS and other biochemical assays were conducted in the rat liver, because of an intense cysteine metabolism to RSS in this organ.Results: Intravenous administration of saline induced a significant increase in systolic blood pressure while intraperitoneal injections showed only a tendency towards increasing blood pressure. The RSS (H2S and SS level as well as the activity of the main enzyme responsible for their production in the liver of animals after iv saline injections were decreased. Animals injected with physiological saline by ip route did not reveal any statistically significant differences in SS, H2S, and activities of sulfurtransferases, although a tendency to decrease in the RSS was observed.Conclusions: The repeated iv saline injection induced a slight hypertension accompanied by disturbances in anaerobic cysteine metabolism in the rat liver.

  15. The Root Extract of Pueraria lobata and Its Main Compound, Puerarin, Prevent Obesity by Increasing the Energy Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Won Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Pueraria lobata (RP has been reported to prevent obesity and improve glucose metabolism; however, the mechanism responsible for these effects has not been elucidated. The mechanism underlying anti-obesity effect of RP was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD induced obese mice and skeletal muscle cells (C2C12. Five-week-old C5BL/6 mice were fed a HFD containing or not containing RP (100 or 300 mg/kg or metformin (250 mg/kg for 16 weeks. RP reduced body weight gain, lipid accumulation in liver, and adipocyte and blood lipid levels. In addition, RP dose-dependently improved hyperglycemia, insulinemia, and glucose tolerance, and prevented the skeletal muscle atrophy induced by HFD. Furthermore, RP increased the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α expression and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK in skeletal muscle tissues. RP and its main component, puerarin, increased mitochondrial biogenesis and myotube hypertrophy in C2C12 cells. The present study demonstrates that RP can prevent diet-induced obesity, glucose tolerance, and skeletal muscle atrophy in mouse models of obesity. The mechanism responsible for the effect of RP appears to be related to the upregulation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle, which at the molecular level may be associated with PGC-1α and AMPK activation.

  16. Reproduction Symposium: does grazing on biosolids-treated pasture pose a pathophysiological risk associated with increased exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N P; Bellingham, M; Sharpe, R M; Cotinot, C; Rhind, S M; Kyle, C; Erhard, H; Hombach-Klonisch, S; Lind, P M; Fowler, P A

    2014-08-01

    Biosolids (processed human sewage sludge), which contain low individual concentrations of an array of contaminants including heavy metals and organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans known to cause physiological disturbances, are increasingly being used as an agricultural fertilizer. This could pose a health threat to both humans and domestic and wild animal species. This review summarizes results of a unique model, used to determine the effects of exposure to mixtures of environmentally relevant concentrations of pollutants, in sheep grazed on biosolids-treated pastures. Pasture treatment results in nonsignificant increases in environmental chemical (EC) concentrations in soil. Whereas EC concentrations were increased in some tissues of both ewes and their fetuses, concentrations were low and variable and deemed to pose little risk to consumer health. Investigation of the effects of gestational EC exposure on fetal development has highlighted a number of issues. The results indicate that gestational EC exposure can adversely affect gonadal development (males and females) and that these effects can impact testicular morphology, ovarian follicle numbers and health, and the transcriptome and proteome in adult animals. In addition, EC exposure can be associated with altered expression of GnRH, GnRH receptors, galanin receptors, and kisspeptin mRNA within the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, gonadotroph populations within the pituitary gland, and regional aberrations in thyroid morphology. In most cases, these anatomical and functional differences do not result in altered peripheral hormone concentrations or reproductive function (e.g., lambing rate), indicating physiological compensation under the conditions tested. Physiological compensation is also suggested from studies that indicate that EC effects may be greater when exposure occurs either

  17. Computational problems in magnetic fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical calculations have had an important role in fusion research since its beginning, but the application of computers to plasma physics has advanced rapidly in the last few years. One reason for this is the increasing sophistication of the mathematical models of plasma behavior, and another is the increased speed and memory of the computers which made it reasonable to consider numerical simulation of fusion devices. The behavior of a plasma is simulated by a variety of numerical models. Some models used for short times give detailed knowledge of the plasma on a microscopic scale, while other models used for much longer times compute macroscopic properties of the plasma dynamics. The computer models used in fusion research are surveyed. One of the most active areas of research is in time-dependent, three-dimensional, resistive magnetohydrodynamic models. These codes are reviewed briefly

  18. Computer applications in controlled fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    1975-02-01

    The role of Nuclear Engineering Education in the application of computers to controlled fusion research can be a very important one. In the near future the use of computers in the numerical modelling of fusion systems should increase substantially. A recent study group has identified five categories of computational models to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies are called for. The development and application of computer codes to implement these models is a vital step in reaching the goal of fusion power. In order to meet the needs of the fusion program the National CTR Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computing centers at each of the major CTR laboratories by a communications network. The crucial element that is needed for success is trained personnel. The number of people with knowledge of plasma science and engineering that are trained in numerical methods and computer science is quite small, and must be increased substantially in the next few years. Nuclear Engineering departments should encourage students to enter this field and provide the necessary courses and research programs in fusion computing. (U.S.)

  19. Prospects of fusion energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohzaki, Yasuji; Seki, Yasushi; Motojima, Osamu

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear fusion energy that collects large expectation as the energy system of 21st century adopts the tokamak with DT fuel as the main line to advance the research and development, and succeeded in the confinement of plasma that nearly satisfies the condition of zero power output. However, as for nuclear fusion energy, other various generation and utilization forms are conceivable. At present, there are many subjects before the practical use, but as to nuclear fusion energy system which is considered to contribute greatly to mankind when it will be practically used in future, it is significant to clarify the present state of the research and the subjects of the research for the realization. Tokamak type fusion reactor, helical type fusion reactor, D-He-3 FRC fusion reactor, inertial fusion reactor,fusion-fission hybrid reactor, nuclear fusion rocket, muon catalytic nuclear fusion, normal temperature nuclear fusion and so on are described. As the final summary, on the basis of the concepts of individual nuclear fusion reactors, what possibility nuclear fusion energy has as a whole is considered, and the way of advancing the development hereafter is summarized. (K.I.)

  20. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion-source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at. (Auth.)

  1. Fusion reactor wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    The fusion reactor currently is being developed as a clean source of electricity with an essentially infinite source of fuel. These reactors are visualized as using a fusion reaction to generate large quantities of high temperature energy which can be used as process heat or for the generation of electricity. The energy would be created primarily as the kinetic energy of neutrons or other reaction products. Neutron energy could be converted to high-temperature heat by moderation and capture of the neutrons. The energy of other reaction products could be converted to high-temperature heat by capture, or directly to electricity by direct conversion electrostatic equipment. An analysis to determine the wastes released as a result of operation of fusion power plants is presented

  2. Canadian fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.S.

    1982-06-01

    The National Research Council of Canada is establishing a coordinated national program of fusion research and development that is planned to grow to a total annual operating level of about $20 million in 1985. The long-term objective of the program is to put Canadian industry in a position to manufacture sub-systems and components of fusion power reactors. In the near term the program is designed to establish a minimum base of scientific and technical expertise sufficient to make recognized contributions and thereby gain access to the international effort. The Canadian program must be narrowly focussed on a few specializations where Canada has special indigenous skills or technologies. The programs being funded are the Tokamak de Varennes, the Fusion Fuels Technology Project centered on tritium management, and high-power gas laser technology and associated diagnostic instrumentation

  3. Fusion research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    The ORNL Fusion Program includes the experimental and theoretical study of two different classes of magnetic confinement schemes - systems with helical magnetic fields, such as the tokamak and stellarator, and the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) class of toroidally linked mirror systems; the development of technologies, including superconducting magnets, neutral atomic beam and radio frequency (rf) heating systems, fueling systems, materials, and diagnostics; the development of databases for atomic physics and radiation effects; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; and the design of advanced demonstration fusion devices. The program involves wide collaboration, both within ORNL and with other institutions. The elements of this program are shown. This document illustrates the program's scope; and aims by reviewing recent progress.

  4. On impact fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1997-01-01

    Impact fusion is a promising, but much less developed road towards inertial confinement fusion. It offers an excellent solution to the so-called stand-off problem for thermonuclear microexplosions but is confronted with the challenge to accelerate macroscopic particles to the needed high velocities of 10 2 -10 3 km/s. To reach these velocities, two ways have been studied in the past. The electric acceleration of a beam of microparticles, with the particles as small as large clusters, and the magnetic acceleration of gram-size ferromagnetic or superconducting projectiles. For the generation of an intense burst of soft X-rays used for the indirect drive, impact fusion may offer new promising possibilities

  5. Ceramics for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion devices, among the most critical of which are magnetic coil insulators, windows for RF heating systems, and structural uses. Radiation effects dominate consideration of candidate materials, although good pre-irradiation properties are a requisite. Materials and components can be optimized by careful control of chemical and microstructural content, and application of brittle material design and testing techniques. Future directions for research and development should include further extension of the data base in the areas of electrical, structural, and thermal properties; establishment of a fission neutron/fusion neutron correlation including transmutation gas effects; and development of new materials tailored to meet the specific needs of fusion reactors

  6. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  7. Ceramics for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al 2 O 3 , MgAl 2 O 4 , BeO, Si 3 N 4 and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying responses to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today that will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications. (author)

  8. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed.

  9. Ceramics for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al 2 O 3 , MgAl 2 O 4 , BeO, Si 3 N 4 and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications

  10. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  11. Insulators for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    Design studies for fusion devices and reactors have become more detailed in recent years and with this has come a better understanding of requirements and operating conditions for insulators in these machines. Ceramic and organic insulators are widely used for many components of fusion devices and reactors namely: radio frequency (RF) energy injection systems (BeO, Al 2 O 3 , Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 3 N 4 ); electrical insulation for the torus structure (SiC, Al 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 4 Al 2 O 2 N 6 , Si 3 N 4 , Y 2 O 3 ); lightly-shielded magnetic coils (MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 ); the toroidal field coil (epoxies, polyimides), neutron shield (B 4 C, TiH 2 ); high efficiency electrical generation; as well as the generation of very high temperatures for high efficiency hydrogen production processes (ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 - mat, graphite and carbon - felt). Timely development of insulators for fusion applications is clearly necessary. Those materials to be used in fusion machines should show high resistance to radiation damage and maintain their structural integrity. Now the need is urgent for a variety of radiation resistant materials, but much effort in these areas is required for insulators to be considered seriously by the design community. This document contains 14 papers from an IAEA meeting. It was the objective of this meeting to identify existing problems in analysing various situations of applications and requirements of electrical insulators and ceramics in fusion and to recommend strategies and different stages of implementation. This meeting was endorsed by the International Fusion Research Council

  12. International fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear energy of the light elements deuterium and lithium can be released if the 100 MK degree temperature required for deuterium-tritium thermonuclear fusion reactions can be achieved together with sufficient thermal insulation for a net energy yield. Progress of world-wide research shows good prospect for these physical conditions being achieved by the use of magnetic field confinement and of rapidly developing heating methods. Tokamak systems, alternative magnetic systems and inertial confinement progress are described. International co-operation features a number of bilateral agreements between countries: the Euratom collaboration which includes the Joint European Torus, a joint undertaking of eleven Western European nations of Euratom, established to build and operate a major confinement experiment; the development of co-operative projects within the OECD/IEA framework; the INTOR workshop, a world-wide study under IAEA auspices of the next major step in fusion research which might be built co-operatively; and assessments of the potential of nuclear fusion by the IAEA and the International Fusion Research Council. The INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) studies have outlined a major plant of the tokamak type to study the engineering and technology of fusion reactor systems, which might be constructed on a world-wide basis to tackle and share the investment risks of the developments which lie ahead. This paper summarizes the recent progress of research on controlled nuclear fusion, featuring those areas where international co-operation has played an important part, and describes the various arrangements by which this international co-operation is facilitated. (author)

  13. Neutrons and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The production of energy from fusion reactions does not require neutrons in the fundamental sense that they are required in a fission reactor. Nevertheless, the dominant fusion reaction, that between deuterium and tritium, yields a 14 MeV neutron. To contrast a fusion reactor based on this reaction with the fission case, 3 x 10 20 such neutrons produced per gigawatt of power. This is four times as many neutrons as in an equivalent fission reactor and they carry seven times the energy of the fission neutrons. Thus, they dominate the energy recovery problem and create technological problems comparable to the original plasma confinement problem as far as a practical power producing device is concerned. Further contrasts of the fusion and fission cases are presented to establish the general role of neutrons in fusion devices. Details of the energy deposition processes are discussed and those reactions necessary for producing additional tritium are outlined. The relatively high energy flux with its large intensity will activate almost any materials of which the reactor may be composed. This activation is examined from the point of view of decay heat, radiological safety, and long-term storage. In addition, a discussion of the deleterious effects of neutron interactions on materials is given in some detail; this includes the helium and hydrogen producing reactions and displacement rate of the lattice atoms. The various materials that have been proposed for structural purposes, for breeding, reflecting, and moderating neutrons, and for radiation shielding are reviewed from the nuclear standpoint. The specific reactions of interest are taken up for various materials and finally a report is given on the status and prospects of data for fusion studies

  14. Confinement inertial fusion. Power reactors of nuclear fusion by lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, G.; Ahnert, C.; Aragones, J.M.; Leira, G; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The energy crisis and the need of the nuclear fusion energy are analized. The nuclear processes in the laser interation with the ablator material are studied, as well as the thermohydrodinamic processes in the implossion, and the neutronics of the fusion. The fusion reactor components are described and the economic and social impact of its introduction in the future energetic strategies.(author)

  15. Nuclear fusion: Pursuing the Soft [Symposium on fusion technology] option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenward, M.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion research has come a long way since the fusion community held the first Symposium on fusion technology (Soft) in Britain 30 years ago. Some of the recent achievements of the Jet project are reported from this year's symposium, the 16th in the series, held in London at the beginning of September. (author)

  16. Fusion Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    surround ICF rocket concept. Calculated results of a typical propellant surround concept are shown in Figures 16 and 17 With this system, it appears...However, the time available to burn the fusion fuel to the specified burnup is also reduced. This is a minor problem with D-T fuel, but, as will be seen...TABLE 19 TCT FOR INPUT LIST NO. NAME DESCRIPTIQN 1 THRUST ROCKET THRUST, NEWTONS 2 ISP SPECIFIC IMPULSE, SECONDS 3 RATE FUSION REP RATE, HZ 4 BURNUP

  17. Cold fusion in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, L.

    1989-01-01

    Since early April a great deal of excitement has been created over the Fleischmann/Pons cold fusion experiment, which if it performs as advertised, could turn out to be mankind's best hope of heading off the energy crisis scheduled for early in the next century. Dozens of groups around the world are now attempting to duplicate the experiment to see if Fleischmann and Pons' discovery is an experimental mistake, an unknown electrochemical effect or a new kind of fusion reaction. This article puts the experiment into the perspective of today and looks at how it might affect the energy scene tomorrow if it should turn out to be commercially exploitable. (author)

  18. Vacuum fusion of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohr, J.A.

    1957-01-01

    After having outlined that vacuum fusion and moulding of uranium and of its alloys have some technical and economic benefits (vacuum operations avoid uranium oxidation and result in some purification; precision moulding avoids machining, chip production and chemical reprocessing of these chips; direct production of the desired shape is possible by precision moulding), this report presents the uranium fusion unit (its low pressure enclosure and pumping device, the crucible-mould assembly, and the MF supply device). The author describes the different steps of cast production, and briefly comments the obtained results

  19. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1985-05-01

    In the current Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community the KfK association is working at present on 16 R and D contracts. Most of the work is strongly oriented towards the Next European Torus. Direct support to NET is given by three KfK delegates being member of the NET study group. In addition to the R and D contracts the association is working on 11 NET study contracts. Though KfK contributes to all areas defined in fusion technology, the main emphasis is put on superconducting magnet and breeding blanket development. Other important fields are tritium technology, materials research, and remote handling. (orig./GG)

  20. Atomic data for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research

  1. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised

  2. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised.

  3. Atomic data for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A. (eds.); Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  4. Vesicle Fusion Mediated by Solanesol-Anchored DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavier, Kristina M; Boxer, Steven G

    2017-09-19

    Fusion between two lipid bilayers is one of the central processes in cell biology, playing a key role in endocytosis, exocytosis, and vesicle transport. We have previously developed a model system that uses the hybridization of complementary DNA strands to model the formation of the SNARE four-helix bundle that mediates synaptic vesicle fusion and used it to study vesicle fusion to a tethered lipid bilayer. Using single vesicle assays, 70% of observed fusion events in the DNA-lipid system are arrested at the hemifusion stage, whereas only 5% eventually go to full fusion. This may be because the diglycerol ether that anchors the DNA in the membrane spans only half the bilayer: upon hemifusion and mixing of the outer leaflets, the DNA-lipid is free to diffuse into the target membrane and away from the vesicle. Here, we test the hypothesis that the length of the membrane anchor may impact the outcome by comparing single leaflet-spanning DNA-lipid mediated vesicle fusion with fusion mediated by DNA anchored by solanesol, a C45 isoprenoid of sufficient length to span the bilayer. When the solanesol anchor was present on the incoming vesicles, target membrane, or both, ∼2-3 times as much full fusion was observed as in the DNA-lipid mediated system, as measured by lipid mixing or content transfer. These results indicate that a transmembrane anchor increases the efficiency of full fusion. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bringing fusion electric power closer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kintner, E.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the controlled fusion research program is given. The tokamak research program is described. Beam injection heating, control systems, and the safety of fusion reactors are topics that are also discussed

  6. Fusion in the energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching...... this goal, mankind will have a sustainable base load energy source with abundant resources, having no CO2 release, and with no longlived radioactive waste. This presentation will describe the basics of fusion energy production and the status and future prospects of the research. Considerations...... of integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA)....

  7. Atomic physics issues in fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Atomic physics issues have played a large role in controlled fusion research. A general introduction to the present role of atomic processes in both inertial and magnetic controlled fusion work is presented. (Auth.)

  8. The quest for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.

    1997-10-01

    A brief history of the magnetic fusion program from the point of view of a stellarator enthusiast who worked at a major tokamak laboratory. The reason that success in the magnetic fusion energy program is essential is presented. (author)

  9. Accelerator and fusion research division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This report contains brief discussions on research topics in the following area: Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research; Magnetic Fusion Energy; Advanced Light Source; Center for Beam Physics; Superconducting Magnets; and Bevalac Operations

  10. Fusion technology status and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of fusion technology and discusses the requirements to be met in order to build a demonstration fusion plant. Strategies and programmatic considerations in pursuing engineering feasibility are also outlined

  11. Quantum calculation of dipole excitation in fusion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simenel, C.; Chomaz, Ph.; De France, G.

    2000-01-01

    The excitation of the giant dipole resonance by fusion is studied with N/Z asymmetry in the entrance channel. The TDHF solution exhibits a strong dipole vibration which can be associated with a giant vibration along the main axis of a fluctuating prolate shape. The consequences on the gamma-ray emission from hot compound nuclei are discussed. (author)

  12. Nuclear hydrogen production: re-examining the fusion option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baindur, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a scheme for nuclear hydrogen production by fusion. The basic idea is to use nuclear energy of the fuel (hydrogen plasma) to produce molecular hydrogen fro carbon-free hydrogen compounds. The hydrogen is then stored and utilized electrochemically in fuel cells or chemically as molecular hydrogen in internal combustion engines

  13. Fusion reactor development: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is a review of the current prospects for fusion reactor development based upon the present status in plasma physics research, fusion technology development and reactor conceptual design for the tokamak magnetic confinement concept. Recent advances in tokamak plasma research and fusion technology development are summarized. The direction and conclusions of tokamak reactor conceptual design are discussed. The status of alternate magnetic confinement concept research is reviewed briefly. A feasible timetable for the development of fusion reactors is presented

  14. Fusion engineering device design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein

  15. Fusion engineering device design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  16. Fusion Engineering Device design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  17. Graphite for fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatherly, W.P.; Clausing, R.E.; Strehlow, R.A.; Kennedy, C.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

    1987-03-01

    Graphite is in widespread and beneficial use in present fusion energy devices. This report reflects the view of graphite materials scientists on using graphite in fusion devices. Graphite properties are discussed with emphasis on application to fusion reactors. This report is intended to be introductory and descriptive and is not intended to serve as a definitive information source

  18. Incomplete fusion reactions in Ho

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is confirmed by the predictions of breakup fusion model of the incomplete fusion. Keywords. Heavy ion ... Several models are used to explain these ICF namely, sum rule model [8], breakup fusion model [9], promptly emitted .... The solid lines are eye guides to the experimental points. Figure 1. Excitation functions of ...

  19. Structure information from fusion barriers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the analysis of fusion barrier distributions is not always an unambiguous test or a 'fingerprint' of the structure information of the colliding nuclei. Examples are presented with same fusion barrier distributions for nuclei having different structures. The fusion excitation functions for 16O+208Pb, using the coupled ...

  20. Fusion reactor radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, J.D.; Postma, A.K.; Bradley, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Quantities and compositions of non-tritium radioactive waste are estimated for some current conceptual fusion reactor designs, and disposal of large amounts of radioactive waste appears necessary. Although the initial radioactivity of fusion reactor and fission reactor wastes are comparable, the radionuclides in fusion reactor wastes are less hazardous and have shorter half-lives. Areas requiring further research are discussed

  1. Outcomes of Short Fusion versus Long Fusion for Adult Degenerative Scoliosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kevin; Xu, Joshua; Maharaj, Monish M; Li, Julian; Kim, Jun S; Di Capua, John; Somani, Sulaiman; Tan, Kimberly-Anne; Mobbs, Ralph J; Cho, Samuel K

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in clinical and radiographic outcomes between short (fusions in the setting of degenerative lumbar scoliosis. A literature search was performed from six electronic databases. The key terms of "degenerative scoliosis" OR "lumbar scoliosis" AND "fusion" were combined and used as MeSH subheadings. From relevant studies identified, demographic data, complication rates, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and radiographic parameters were extracted and the data was pooled and analyzed. Long fusion was associated with comparable overall complication rates to short fusion (17% vs 14%, P = 0.20). There was a significant difference in the incidence of pulmonary complications when comparing short versus long fusion (0.42% vs 2.70%; P = 0.02). No significant difference was found in terms of motor, sensory complications, infections, construct-related or cardiac complications, pseudoarthrosis, dural tears, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, or urinary retention. A longer fusion was associated with a greater reduction in coronal Cobb angle and increases in lumbar lordosis, but both findings failed to achieve statistical significance. The ODI was comparable across both cohorts. If shorter fusion lengths are clinically indicated, they should be used instead of longer fusion lengths to reduce perioperative time, costs, and some other complications. However, there are no statistically significant differences in terms of radiographically measurable restoration associated with a short or long fusion. © 2017 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Different source image fusion based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao; Piao, Yan

    2016-03-01

    The fusion technology of video image is to make the video obtained by different image sensors complementary to each other by some technical means, so as to obtain the video information which is rich in information and suitable for the human eye system. Infrared cameras in harsh environments such as when smoke, fog and low light situations penetrating power, but the ability to obtain the details of the image is poor, does not meet the human visual system. Single visible light imaging can be rich in detail, high resolution images and for the visual system, but the visible image easily affected by the external environment. Infrared image and visible image fusion process involved in the video image fusion algorithm complexity and high calculation capacity, have occupied more memory resources, high clock rate requirements, such as software, c ++, c, etc. to achieve more, but based on Hardware platform less. In this paper, based on the imaging characteristics of infrared images and visible light images, the software and hardware are combined to obtain the registration parameters through software matlab, and the gray level weighted average method is used to implement the hardware platform. Information fusion, and finally the fusion image can achieve the goal of effectively improving the acquisition of information to increase the amount of information in the image.

  3. Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360 degree field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator

  4. The effect of electrical stimulation on lumbar spinal fusion in older patients: a randomized, controlled, multi-center trial: part 2: fusion rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Thomas; Christensen, Finn B; Egund, Niels; Ernst, Carsten; Fruensgaard, Søren; Østergaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Jens Langer; Rasmussen, Sten; Niedermann, Bent; Høy, Kristian; Helmig, Peter; Holm, Randi; Lindblad, Bent Erling; Hansen, Ebbe Stender; Bünger, Cody

    2009-10-01

    Randomized, controlled, multi-center trial. To investigate the effect of direct current (DC) electrical stimulation on fusion rates after lumbar spinal fusion in patients older than 60 years. Older patients have increased complication rates after spinal fusion surgery. Treatments which have the possibility of enhancing functional outcome and fusion rates without lengthening the procedure could prove beneficial. DC-stimulation of spinal fusion has proven effective in increasing fusion rates in younger and "high risk" patients, but little information exist on the effect in older patients. A randomized clinical trial comprising 5 orthopedic centers. The study included a total of 107 patients randomized to uninstrumented posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion with or without DC-stimulation. Fusion rate was assessed at 2 year follow-up using thin slice CT. Functional outcome was assessed using Dallas Pain Questionnaire and Low Back Pain Rating Scale pain index. RESULTS.: Available follow-up after 2 years was 89% (84 of 95 patients). Fusion rates were surprisingly low. DC-stimulation had no effect on fusion rate: 35% versus 36% in controls. Other factors associated with low fusion rates were female gender (32% vs. 42% in males, P = 0.050) and smoking (21% vs. 42% in nonsmokers, P = 0.079). Patients who achieved a solid fusion as determined by CT had superior functional outcome and pain scores at their latest follow-up. Thin slice CT revealed very high nonunion rates after uninstrumented spinal fusion in older patients. DC-stimulation was not effective in increasing fusion rates in this patient population. The achievement of a solid fusion was associated with superior functional outcome.

  5. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  6. Probing of complete and incomplete fusion dynamics in heavy-ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-04

    Apr 4, 2014 ... The spin distribution of the evaporation residues also inferred that in incomplete fusion reaction channels input angular momentum ( J 0 ) increases with fusion incompleteness when compared to complete fusion reaction channels. Present observation clearly shows that the production of fast forward ...

  7. Fusion development and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: superconducting magnet technology high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies -- Aries; ITER physics; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development

  8. Fusion og frasigelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone L.

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer, i hvilket omfang reglerne om beskyttelse af lønmodtagere ved virksomhedsoverdragelse også finder anvendelse ved selskabsretliug fusion og spaltning. Der sættes fokus på forskrifterne om erhververens frasigelse af overdragerens kollektive overenskomster, og det efterprøves, om...

  9. Bouillabaisse sushi fusion power

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "If avant-garde cuisine is any guide, Japanese-French fusion does not work all that well. And the interminable discussions over the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest that what is true of cooking is true of physics" (1 page)

  10. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1985-10-01

    KfK is involved in the European Fusion Programme predominantly in the NET and Fusion Technology part. The following fields of activity are covered: Studies for NET, alternative confinement concepts, and needs and issues of integral testing. Research on structural materials. Development of superconducting magnets. Gyrotron development (part of the Physics Programme). Nuclear technology (breeding materials, blanket design, tritium technology, safety and environmental aspects of fusion, remote maintenance). Reported here are status and results of work under contracts with the CEC within the NET and Technology Programme. The aim of the major part of this R and D work is the support of NET, some areas (e.g. materials, safety and environmental impact, blanket design) have a wider scope and address problems of a demonstration reactor. In the current working period, several new proposals have been elaborated to be implemented into the 85/89 Euratom Fusion Programme. New KfK contributions relate to materials research (dual beam and fast reactor irradiations, ferritic steels), to blanket engineering (MHD-effects) and to safety studies (e.g. magnet safety). (orig./GG)

  11. Rencontre on fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, S.F.J.

    1979-02-01

    This report of a rencontre held to consider the technology of magnetic confinement fusion devices gives the agenda for the meeting and lists those topics which were identified as areas of research. These topics included materials, tritium, structures and heat transfer, neutronics and nuclear data, and corrosion problems. (UK)

  12. Intelligence Fusion [video

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School; France, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Paul France is the Homeland Security Field Operations Manager for the state of Wisconsin. He is a current participant in the Naval Postgraduate School's Homeland Security Master's Program and is working on a thesis entitled 'Preventing Terrorism through Information Sharing Using TEW Systems and Intelligence Fusion Centers.

  13. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  14. Fusion meets electronics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řípa, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2011), s. 8-8 ISSN 1818-5355 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : fusion * AMPER 2011 * ITER * COMPASS * IPP * CR Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.jet.efda.org/ multimedia /newsletter/current/

  15. Magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, B.

    1977-01-01

    A brief review of fusion research during the last 20 years is given. Some highlights of theoretical plasma physics are presented. The role that computational plasma physics is playing in analyzing and understanding the experiments of today is discussed. The magnetic mirror program is reviewed

  16. Fusion energy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are considered: (1) cryosorption vacuum pumping for fusion reactors, (2) TNS support studies, (3) tritium recovery from irradiated Li-Al and SAP, (4) actinide oxides, nitrides, and carbides, and (5) transition metal-actinide-C phase equilibria

  17. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  18. Fusion Canada issue 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue the opening of the Garching ITER site, a CCFM/TdeV update,a tritium release field test, measuring radial profile of plasma current density on TdeV, power supplies for TdeV, 5th International Tritium Technology conference, and 1994 basic tritium course. 4 figs

  19. International fusion og spaltning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone L.

    Bogen analyserer de nye muligheder fra 2007 i europæisk ret med hensyn til fusion eller spaltning mellem aktieselskaber og anpartsselskaber med hjemsted i forskellige europæiske lande. Bogen gennemgår de nye muligheder for strukturændringer, der herved er opstået mulighed for, og den sætter fokus...

  20. Controlled nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, R.W.; Coppi, B.

    1982-01-01

    A fusion power generating device is disclosed having a relatively small and inexpensive core region which may be contained within an energy absorbing blanket region. The fusion power core region contains apparatus of the toroidal type for confining a high density plasma. The fusion power core is removable from the blanket region and may be disposed and/or recycled for subsequent use within the same blanket region. Thermonuclear ignition of the plasma is obtained by feeding neutral fusible gas into the plasma in a controlled manner such that charged particle heating produced by the fusion reaction is utilized to bootstrap the device to a region of high temperatures and high densities wherein charged particle heating is sufficient to overcome radiation and thermal conductivity losses. The high density plasma produces a large radiation and particle flux on the first wall of the plasma core region thereby necessitating replacement of the core from the blanket region from time to time. A series of potentially disposable and replaceable central core regions are disclosed for a large-scale economical electrical power generating plant

  1. lysosome tethering and fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMIT TULI

    LYSOSOME. MTOC. LATE ENDOSOME. Arl8b promotes the assembly of the HOPS complex on the lysosomes to mediate late endosome-lysosome fusion and cargo delivery to lysosomes. Khatter D et al., J Cell Science 2015. Khatter D et al., Cellular Logistics 2015 ...

  2. Crystal structures of MBP fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, David S

    2016-03-01

    Although chaperone-assisted protein crystallization remains a comparatively rare undertaking, the number of crystal structures of polypeptides fused to maltose-binding protein (MBP) that have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) has grown dramatically during the past decade. Altogether, 102 fusion protein structures were detected by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis. Collectively, these structures comprise a range of sizes, space groups, and resolutions that are typical of the PDB as a whole. While most of these MBP fusion proteins were equipped with short inter-domain linkers to increase their rigidity, fusion proteins with long linkers have also been crystallized. In some cases, surface entropy reduction mutations in MBP appear to have facilitated the formation of crystals. A comparison of the structures of fused and unfused proteins, where both are available, reveals that MBP-mediated structural distortions are very rare. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  3. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautovich, D.P.; Gierszewski, P.J.; Wong, K.Y.; Stasko, R.R.; Burnham, C.D.

    1987-04-01

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP) is a national project whose aim is to develop capability in tritium and robotics technologies for application to international fusion development programs. Activities over the first five years have brought substantial interaction with the world's leading projects such as Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), the Joint European Torus (JET), and the Next European Torus (NET), Canadian R and D and engineering services, and hardware are in demand as these major projects prepare for tritium operation leading to the demonstration of energy breakeven around 1990. Global planning is underway for the next generation ignition experiment. It is anticipated this will provide increased opportunity for CFFTP and its contractors among industry, universities and governmental laboratories

  4. Data management on the fusion computational pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasky, S; Beck, M; Bhat, V; Feibush, E; Ludaescher, B; Parashar, M; Shoshani, A; Silver, D; Vouk, M

    2005-01-01

    Fusion energy science, like other science areas in DOE, is becoming increasingly data intensive and network distributed. We discuss data management techniques that are essential for scientists making discoveries from their simulations and experiments, with special focus on the techniques and support that Fusion Simulation Project (FSP) scientists may need. However, the discussion applies to a broader audience since most of the fusion SciDAC's, and FSP proposals include a strong data management component. Simulations on ultra scale computing platforms imply an ability to efficiently integrate and network heterogeneous components (computational, storage, networks, codes, etc), and to move large amounts of data over large distances. We discuss the workflow categories needed to support such research as well as the automation and other aspects that can allow an FSP scientist to focus on the science and spend less time tending information technology

  5. Progress toward fusion with light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    New results in target design, beam generation and transport, and pulse power technology have led to a program shift stressing light ion-driven inertial confinement fusion. According to present estimates, a gain ten fusion pellet will require at least one megajoule and approx. 100 TW power input. Progress in ion sources has resulted in beam power density of approx. 1 TW/cm 2 , a factor of ten increase over the last year, and cylindrical implosion experiments have been performed. Other experiments have demonstrated the ability to transport ion and electron beams with high efficiency and have confirmed numerical predictions on the properties of beam transport channels converging at a target. These developments together with improvements in pulse power technology allow us to project that the 72 beam, 100 TW Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator, PBFA-II will attain target output energy equal to stored energy in the accelerator

  6. Fast power cycle for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Fillo, J.; Makowitz, H.

    1978-01-01

    The unique, deep penetration capability of 14 MeV neutrons produced in DT fusion reactions allows the generation of very high temperature working fluid temperatures in a thermal power cycle. In the FAST (Fusion Augmented Steam Turbine) power cycle steam is directly superheated by the high temperature ceramic refractory interior of the blanket, after being generated by heat extracted from the relatively cool blanket structure. The steam is then passed to a high temperature gas turbine for power generation. Cycle studies have been carried out for a range of turbine inlet temperatures [1600 0 F to 3000 0 F (870 to 1650 0 C)], number of reheats, turbine mechanical efficiency, recuperator effectiveness, and system pressure losses. Gross cycle efficiency is projected to be in the range of 55 to 60%, (fusion energy to electric power), depending on parameters selected. Turbine inlet temperatures above 2000 0 F, while they do increase efficiency somewhat, are not necessarily for high cycle efficiency

  7. Controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Controlled production of energy by fusion of light nuclei has been the goal of a large portion of the physics community since the 1950's. In order for a fusion reaction to take place, the fuel must be heated to a temperature of 100 million degrees Celsius. At this temperature, matter can exist only in the form of an almost fully ionized plasma. In order for the reaction to produce net power, the product of the density and energy confinement time must exceed a minimum value of 10 20 sec m -3 , the so-called Lawson criterion. Basically, two approaches are being taken to meet this criterion: inertial confinement and magnetic confinement. Inertial confinement is the basis of the laser fusion approach; a fuel pellet is imploded by intense laser beams from all sides and ignites. Magnetic confinement devices, which exist in a variety of geometries, rely upon electromagnetic forces on the charged particles of the plasma to keep the hot plasma from expanding. Of these devices, the most encouraging results have been achieved with a class of devices known as tokamaks. Recent successes with these devices have given plasma physicists confidence that scientific feasibility will be demonstrated in the next generation of tokamaks; however, an even larger effort will be required to make fusion power commercially feasible. As a result, emphasis in the controlled thermonuclear research program is beginning to shift from plasma physics to a new branch of nuclear engineering which can be called fusion engineering, in which instrumentation and control engineers will play a major role. Among the new problem areas they will deal with are plasma diagnostics and superconducting coil instrumentation

  8. Controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Controlled production of energy by fusion of light nuclei has been the goal of a large portion of the physics community since the 1950's. In order for a fusion reaction to take place, the fuel must be heated to a temperature of 100 million degrees Celsius. At this temperature, matter can exist only in the form of an almost fully ionized plasma. In order for the reaction to produce net power, the product of the density and energy confinement time must exceed a minimum value of 10/sup 20/ sec m/sup -3/, the so-called Lawson criterion. Basically, two approaches are being taken to meet this criterion: inertial confinement and magnetic confinement. Inertial confinement is the basis of the laser fusion approach; a fuel pellet is imploded by intense laser beams from all sides and ignites. Magnetic confinement devices, which exist in a variety of geometries, rely upon electromagnetic forces on the charged particles of the plasma to keep the hot plasma from expanding. Of these devices, the most encouraging results have been achieved with a class of devices known as tokamaks. Recent successes with these devices have given plasma physicists confidence that scientific feasibility will be demonstrated in the next generation of tokamaks; however, an even larger effort will be required to make fusion power commercially feasible. As a result, emphasis in the controlled thermonuclear research program is beginning to shift from plasma physics to a new branch of nuclear engineering which can be called fusion engineering, in which instrumentation and control engineers will play a major role. Among the new problem areas they will deal with are plasma diagnostics and superconducting coil instrumentation.

  9. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sydnone, the representative mesoionic compound has been extensively studied because of its unusual structure, chemi- cal properties and synthetic utility. Sydnone is used as a versatile synthon in heterocyclic synthesis. This article gives a brief account of the comparative studies of the structural features of mesoionic ...

  10. The Contribution of Fusion to Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.

    2006-01-01

    The world demand for energy is projected to more than double over the next 50 years, indeed this will be essential to bring much of the world out of poverty. At the same time there is increasing pressure to substantially reduce atmospheric pollution, most notably of carbon dioxide. Together, these conflicting goals drive a need to produce enormous amounts of non-carbon energy supply, much greater than our total present energy supply. This presents an enormous challenge. As one of very few options for large-scale, non-carbon future supply of energy, fusion has the potential to make an important contribution to sustained energy supplies. Fusion's advantages of large fuel reserves, low atmospheric emissions and high levels of safety make it an important consideration in future energy strategies. - Fuel supplies are sufficient for at least thousands of years, and probably up to millions of years, of energy use. - Atmospheric emissions of CO 2 are very low and minor emissions of other pollutants are less harmful than those from most existing energy sources. - Hazards to the public will be very low because of the high levels of passive safety. - Waste materials will require little, or no, use of repository storage. Conceptual designs of fusion power plants have been optimised against safety and environmental criteria. The optimum designs vary both with the assessed progress in the development programme and according to the weight given to different criteria. The impact of this weighting on design, and the comparison of the outcomes with other energy sources, is described. To make a contribution to sustainable development, fusion must also be economically viable to enter the energy market. The calculated cost of electricity from fusion and other technologies, both new and existing, show that, particularly in an energy market where environmental constraints are playing an increasing role, fusion can make an important contribution. (author)

  11. Prompt dipole radiation in fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Baran, V.; Boiano, A.; Cardella, G.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; De Filippo, E.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Toro, M.; Inglima, G.; Glodariu, T.; La Commara, M.; Maiolino, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Pagano, A.; Piattelli, P.; Pirrone, S.

    2008-01-01

    The prompt γ-ray emission is investigated in the 16A MeV energy region by means of the 36,40 Ar + 96,92 Zr fusion reactions leading to a compound nucleus in the vicinity of 132 Ce. The dynamical nature of this radiation is confirmed. We show that the prompt γ radiation has an angular distribution pattern consistent with a dipole oscillation along the symmetry axis of the dinuclear system. The data are compared with calculations based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics

  12. Prompt dipole radiation in fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, B. [Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Pierroutsakou, D. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy)], E-mail: pierroutsakou@na.infn.it; Agodi, C.; Alba, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Baran, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); University of Bucharest (Romania); NIPNE-HH, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Boiano, A. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Cardella, G. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, 95123 Catania (Italy); Colonna, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, 95123 Catania (Italy); Coniglione, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); De Filippo, E. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, 95123 Catania (Italy); Del Zoppo, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Di Toro, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipt. di Fisica, Universita di Catania, 95123 Catania (Italy); Inglima, G. [Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Glodariu, T. [NIPNE-HH, 077125 Magurele (Romania); La Commara, M. [Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche, Univ. di Napoli ' Federico II' , via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Maiolino, C. [INFN, Lab. Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Mazzocco, M. [Dipt. di Fisica and INFN, Sezione di Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy); Pagano, A. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, 95123 Catania (Italy); Piattelli, P. [INFN, Lab. Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Pirrone, S. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, 95123 Catania (Italy)] (and others)

    2008-06-12

    The prompt {gamma}-ray emission is investigated in the 16A MeV energy region by means of the {sup 36,40}Ar + {sup 96,92}Zr fusion reactions leading to a compound nucleus in the vicinity of {sup 132}Ce. The dynamical nature of this radiation is confirmed. We show that the prompt {gamma} radiation has an angular distribution pattern consistent with a dipole oscillation along the symmetry axis of the dinuclear system. The data are compared with calculations based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics.

  13. Prompt dipole radiation in fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Baran, V.; Boiano, A.; Cardella, G.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; De Filippo, E.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Toro, M.; Inglima, G.; Glodariu, T.; La Commara, M.; Maiolino, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Pagano, A.; Piattelli, P.; Pirrone, S.; Rizzo, C.; Romoli, M.; Sandoli, M.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Signorini, C.

    2008-06-01

    The prompt γ-ray emission is investigated in the 16 A MeV energy region by means of the 36,40Ar + 96,92Zr fusion reactions leading to a compound nucleus in the vicinity of 132Ce. The dynamical nature of this radiation is confirmed. We show that the prompt γ radiation has an angular distribution pattern consistent with a dipole oscillation along the symmetry axis of the dinuclear system. The data are compared with calculations based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics.

  14. Directions for improved fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Delene, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    Conceptual fusion reactor studies over the past 10 to 15 years have projected systems that may be too large, complex, and costly to be of commercial interest. One main direction for improved fusion reactors points towards smaller, higher-power-density approaches. First-order economic issues (i.e., unit direct cost and cost of electricity) are used to support the need for more compact fusion reactors. A generic fusion physics/engineering/costing model is used to provide a quantiative basis for these arguments for specific fusion concepts

  15. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2006-01-01

    Resulting from ongoing, international research into fusion processes, the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a major step in the quest for a new energy source.The first graduate-level text to cover the details of ITER, Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics introduces various aspects and issues of recent fusion research activities through the shortest access path. The distinguished author breaks down the topic by first dealing with fusion and then concentrating on the more complex subject of plasma physics. The book begins with the basics of controlled fusion research, foll

  16. Fusion research activities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiwen

    1998-01-01

    The fusion program in China has been executed in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion for more than 30 years. Basing on the situation of the power supply requirements of China, the fusion program is becoming an important and vital component of the nuclear power program in China. This paper reviews the status of fusion research and next step plans in China. The motivation and goal of the Chinese fusion program is explained. Research and development on tokamak physics and engineering in the southwestern institute of physics (SWIP) and the institute of plasma physics of Academic Sinica (ASIPP) are introduced. A fusion breeder program and a pure fusion reactor design program have been supported by the state science and technology commission (SSTC) and the China national nuclear corporation (CNNC), respectively. Some features and progress of fusion reactor R and D activities are reviewed. Non fusion applications of plasma science are an important part of China fusion research; a brief introduction about this area is given. Finally, an introductional collaboration network on fusion research activities in China is reported. (orig.)

  17. The path to fusion power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn Smith, Chris; Ward, David

    2007-04-15

    Fusion is potentially an environmentally responsible and intrinsically safe source of essentially limitless power. It should be possible to build viable fusion power stations, and it looks as if the cost of fusion power will be reasonable. But time is needed to further develop the technology and to test in power station conditions the materials that would be used in their construction. Assuming no major adverse surprises, an orderly fusion development programme could lead to a prototype fusion power station putting electricity into the grid within 30 years, with commercial fusion power following some 10 or more years later. In the second half of the century, fusion could therefore be an important part of the portfolio of measures that are needed to cope with rising demand for energy in an environmentally responsible manner. In this paper, we describe the basics of fusion, its potential attractions, the status of fusion R&D, the remaining challenges and how they will be tackled at the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor and the proposed International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, and the timetable for the subsequent commercialization of fusion power.

  18. Physics of magnetic confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F.

    2013-06-01

    Fusion is the energy source of the universe. The local conditions in the core of the Sun allow the transfer of mass into energy, which is finally released in the form of radiation. Technical fusion melts deuterons and tritons to helium releasing large amounts of energy per fusion process. Because of the conditions for fusion, which will be deduced, the fusion fuel is in the plasma state. Here we report on the confinement of fusion plasmas by magnetic fields. Different confinement concepts — tokamaks and stellarators — will be introduced and described. The first fusion reactor, ITER, and the most modern stellarator, Wendelstein 7-X, are under construction. Their basic features and objectives will be presented.

  19. Physics of magnetic confinement fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusion is the energy source of the universe. The local conditions in the core of the Sun allow the transfer of mass into energy, which is finally released in the form of radiation. Technical fusion melts deuterons and tritons to helium releasing large amounts of energy per fusion process. Because of the conditions for fusion, which will be deduced, the fusion fuel is in the plasma state. Here we report on the confinement of fusion plasmas by magnetic fields. Different confinement concepts — tokamaks and stellarators — will be introduced and described. The first fusion reactor, ITER, and the most modern stellarator, Wendelstein 7-X, are under construction. Their basic features and objectives will be presented.

  20. Cell fusion by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khair, M.B.

    1993-08-01

    The relevance and importance of cell fusion are illustrated by the notion that current interest in this phenomenon is shared by scientists in quite varied disciplines. The diversity of cellular membrane fusion phenomena could provoke one to think that there must be a multitude of mechanisms that can account for such diversity. But, in general, the mechanism for the fusion reaction itself could be very similar in many, or even all, cases. Cell fusion can be induced by several factors such as virus Sendai, polyethylene glycol, electric current and ionizing radiation. This article provides the reader with short view of recent progress in research on cell fusion and gives some explanations about fusion mechanisms. This study shows for the first time, the results of the cell fusion induced by ionizing radiations that we have obtained in our researches and the work performed by other groups. (author). 44 refs

  1. Multisensor Fusion for Change Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, T.; Csatho, B.

    2005-12-01

    Combining sensors that record different properties of a 3-D scene leads to complementary and redundant information. If fused properly, a more robust and complete scene description becomes available. Moreover, fusion facilitates automatic procedures for object reconstruction and modeling. For example, aerial imaging sensors, hyperspectral scanning systems, and airborne laser scanning systems generate complementary data. We describe how data from these sensors can be fused for such diverse applications as mapping surface erosion and landslides, reconstructing urban scenes, monitoring urban land use and urban sprawl, and deriving velocities and surface changes of glaciers and ice sheets. An absolute prerequisite for successful fusion is a rigorous co-registration of the sensors involved. We establish a common 3-D reference frame by using sensor invariant features. Such features are caused by the same object space phenomena and are extracted in multiple steps from the individual sensors. After extracting, segmenting and grouping the features into more abstract entities, we discuss ways on how to automatically establish correspondences. This is followed by a brief description of rigorous mathematical models suitable to deal with linear and area features. In contrast to traditional, point-based registration methods, lineal and areal features lend themselves to a more robust and more accurate registration. More important, the chances to automate the registration process increases significantly. The result of the co-registration of the sensors is a unique transformation between the individual sensors and the object space. This makes spatial reasoning of extracted information more versatile; reasoning can be performed in sensor space or in 3-D space where domain knowledge about features and objects constrains reasoning processes, reduces the search space, and helps to make the problem well-posed. We demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed multisensor fusion approach

  2. Materials needs for compact fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The economic prospects for magnetic fusion energy can be dramatically improved if for the same total power output the fusion neutron first-wall (FW) loading and the system power density can be increased by factors of 3 to 5 and 10 to 30, respectively. A number of compact fusion reactor embodiments have been proposed, all of which would operate with increased FW loadings, would use thin (0.5 to 0.6 m) blankets, and would confine quasi-steady-state plasma with resistive, water-cooled copper or aluminum coils. Increased system power density (5 to 15 MWt/m 3 versus 0.3 to 0.5 MW/m 3 ), considerably reduced physical size of the fusion power core (FPC), and appreciably reduced economic leverage exerted by the FPC and associated physics result. The unique materials requirements anticipated for these compact reactors are outlined against the well documented backdrop provided by similar needs for the mainline approaches. Surprisingly, no single materials need that is unique to the compact systems is identified; crucial uncertainties for the compact approaches must also be addressed by the mainline approaches, particularly for in-vacuum components (FWs, limiters, divertors, etc.)

  3. The role of fusion as a future power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kintner, E.E.; Hirsch, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Nations of western Europe, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States are working together to demonstrate the practicality of fusion power early in the 21st century. Many difficult engineering problems make fusion development one of the most formidable scientific and technological challenges ever attempted. However, the outlook is promising for achieving an inexhaustible energy source that is safe, economic, and with acceptable environmental effects. The United States magnetic fusion power development program aims at producing fusion energy experimentally in the early 1980's and demonstrating power production on a commercial scale before 2000. This prognosis reflects the confidence gained in scientific successes of the late 1960's through the present. However, many physics problems remain to be solved and many complex engineering problems without obvious solutions await attention. In response to experimental successes and the perceived importance of the fusion energy alternative, the United States effort has grown rapidly. Scientific investigations of plasma physics continue while planned engineering studies lead toward the practical goal of a commercial technology that will take a prominent place among available energy sources of the next century. Development of laser and electron beam fusion proceeds. Alternative fusion devices are investigated for their potential feasibility while the tokamak configuration is used for principal experimental devices. A national program plan and budget coordinates the efforts of federal laboratories, universities and industry. The utilities industry conducts an independent program which is increasingly coordinated with government-sponsored activity. Fusion energy programs of several nations benefit one another and should cooperate more closely in specific problem areas. Achievement of practical fusion power could be advanced through more effective mutually supporting fusion development programs. The economic and technical

  4. Neutron emission as a probe of fusion-fission and quasi-fission dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinde, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Pre- and post scission neutron yeilds have been measured as a function of projectile mass, compound nucleus fissility, and fission mass-split and total kinetic energy (TKE) for 27 fusion-fission and quasi-fission reactions induced by beams of 16,18 O, 40 Ar and 64 Ni. A new method of interpretation of experimental pre-scission neutron multiplicities ν-pre and mean kinetic energies ε ν allows the extraction of fission time scales with much less uncertainty than previously, all fusion-fission results being consistent with a dynamical time scale of (35±15) x 10 -21 s for symmetric fission. All reactions show that ν-pre falls quite rapidly with increasing mass-asymmetry; evidence is presented that for fusion-fission reactions this is partly due to a reduction of the dynamical fission time scale with mass-asymmetry. For quasi-fission, the data indicate that the pre-scission multiplicity and mean neutron kinetic energy are very sensitive to the final mass-asymmetry, but that the time scale is virtually independent of mass-asymmetry. It is concluded that for fusion-fission there is no dependence of ν-pre on TKE, whilst for 64 Ni-induced quasi-fission reactions, a strong increase of ν-pre with decreasing TKE is observed, probably largely caused by neutron emission during the acceleration time of the fission fragments in these fast reactions. Interpretation of post-scission multiplicities in terms of fragment excitation energies leads to deduced time scales consistent with those determined from the pre-scission data. 54 refs., 17 tabs., 25 figs

  5. A dynamical theory of incomplete fusion reactions: The breakup-fusion reaction approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udagawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    A dynamical theory of partial fusion reactions is presented, which may fill the gap between direct and compound nuclear reaction theories. With the new theory one can calculate partial fusion taking place in three-body (and many more) channels reached via direct reactions, e.g., breakup and knockout reactions. The authors present first the results for the cross section for such reactions, taking as an example breakup followed by fusion. They then discuss a physical picture which emerges from their theory, namely that the partial fusion reactions, particularly of the massive-transfer type, take place in a so-called deep peripheral region. It is also shown that the deep peripheral character of such processes diminishes as the mass of the fused system decreases, so that the reactions essentially evolve to the usual peripheral character. Finally, comparisons are made of results of numerical calculations with experimental data, taking as an example the /sup 159/Tb(/sup 14/N,α) reaction with E/sub lab/ = 95 MeV

  6. Tunneling in decay and fusion of compound nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarakanov, A.V.; Shilov, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of the multichannel boundary-condition model we demonstrate the asymmetry of the total transmission of the Coulomb barrier taking into account the internal structure of the colliding nuclei. For decay the enhancement of the tunneling probability in comparison with the single-channel case is small. We prove the importance of taking into account states in which one of the decay-product fragments is in an excited state

  7. Neutral beams for magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, B.

    1977-01-01

    Significant advances in forming energetic beams of neutral hydrogen and deuterium atoms have led to a breakthrough in magnetic fusion: neutral beams are now heating plasmas to thermonuclear temperatures, here at LLL and at other laboratories. For example, in our 2XIIB experiment we have injected a 500-A-equivalent current of neutral deuterium atoms at an average energy of 18 keV, producing a dense plasma (10 14 particles/cm 3 ) at thermonuclear energy (14 keV or 160 million kelvins). Currently, LLL and LBL are developing beam energies in the 80- to 120-keV range for our upcoming MFTF experiment, for the TFTR tokamak experiment at Princeton, and for the Doublet III tokamak experiment at General Atomic. These results increase our long-range prospects of producing high-intensity beams of energies in the hundreds or even thousands of kilo-electron-volts, providing us with optimistic extrapolations for realizing power-producing fusion reactors

  8. Can gene fusions serve for fingerprints of radiogenic cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that malignancies in blood cells often bear specific chromosome translocations or gene fusions. In recent years, the presence of fusion genes became to be known also among solid cancers as driver mutations. However, representative solid cancers bearing specific gene fusions are limited to cancers of thyroid, prostate, and sarcomas among which only thyroid cancer risk is known to be related to radiation exposures. On the other hand, it is extremely rare to find recurrent reciprocal translocations among common cancers such as in the lung, stomach, breast, and colon, which form a major component of radiation risks. It is therefore unlikely that radiation increases the risk of cancer by inducing specific translocations (gene fusions) but more likely through induction of mutations (including deletions). Although gene fusions could play a role in radiation carcinogenesis, it does not seem good enough to serve for a radiation fingerprint. (author)

  9. Cervical adjacent segment pathology following fusion: Is it due to fusion?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, Philip; Kim, Kee D

    2013-01-01

    Adjacent segment pathology affects 25% of patients within ten years of anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF). Laboratory studies demonstrate fused segments increase adjacent level stress including elevated intradiscal pressure and increased range of motion. Radiographic adjacent segment pathology (RASP) has been associated to ACDF in multiple statistically significant studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing anterior cervical discectomy and arthroplasty (ACDA) and ACDF ...

  10. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  11. Entrance channel effect in the incomplete fusion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh B.P.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the effect of various entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion strength and the reaction dynamics in 12C+159Tb system at energies ≈ 4-7MeV/A have been investigated by measuring the excitation functions of individual reaction channels. Experimental excitation functions have been analyzed in the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/pxn-channels via complete fusion of 12C with 159Tb, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones. This enhancement has been attributed due to incomplete fusion. For better insight into the underlying dynamics, fraction of incomplete fusion to the total fusion has been deduced and compared with 16O+159Tb and other nearby systems as a function of various entrance channel parameters. The fraction of incomplete fusion has been found to be sensitive to the projectile type, energy and entrance-channel mass-asymmetry.

  12. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  13. Fusion theory and computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bers, A.; Coppi, B.; Davidson, R.; Dupree, T.; Freidberg, J.; Molvig, K.; McCune, J.

    1979-01-01

    It is proposed to carry out theoretical studies of the equilibrium, stability, transport and heating properties of high-temperature fusion plasmas. Continued emphasis will be placed on the effective interface of fusion theory and computations with the local Alcator, Versator, Constance and Torex experimental programs. The proposed research includes but will not be limited to the following types of studies: (a) investigation of RF heating of toroidal plasmas, (b) investigation of the MHD equilibrium and stability properties of tokamak plasmas, (c) develop the basic understanding of a wide variety of non-linear and turbulent phenomena, including stochastic magnetic fields, clumps and nonlinear saturation of linear instabilities, (d) investigate the effects of ambipolar fields on transport and stability properties of toroidal plasmas. Investigate high-beat stability properties of tandem-mirror systems, and (e) investigation of the MHD equilibrium and stability properties of Torsatron/Stellarator configurations

  14. Fusion through the NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the next generation of fusion machines which are intended to demonstrate the technical viability of fusion. In Europe, the device that will follow on from JET is known as NET - the Next European Torus. If the design programme for NET proceeds, Europe could start to build the machine in 1994. The present JET programme hopes to achieve breakeven in the early 1990's. NET hopes to reach ignition in the next century, and so lay the foundation for a demonstration reactor. A description is given of the technical specifications of the components of NET, including: the first wall, the divertors to protect the wall, the array of magnets that provide the fields containing the plasma, the superconducting magnets, and the shield of the machine. NET's research programme is briefly outlined, including the testing programme to optimise conditions in the machine to achieve ignition, and its safety work. (U.K.)

  15. Fusion: hopes and doubts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhns, H.

    1990-01-01

    The author examines current public and political attitudes to fossil fuel and nuclear fission generated electricity. He concludes that the nuclear fusion programme, currently funded and managed jointly in Europe, offers an environmentally acceptable alternative. He explains progress to date at the Joint European Torus at Culham in the United Kingdom and points out that, while much admirable work has been carried out, further work to reach plasma ignition must be in a bigger, more costly new facility yet to be built. Political and economic opposition to high cost nuclear research is highlighted, especially in West Germany. The author concludes by discussing the advantages of power generation by nuclear fusion from the safety, operational and economic points of view. (UK)

  16. Fluorination by fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    LECO crucibles and incinerator ash are two waste categories that cannot be discarded due to the presence of insoluble transuranics. Current chemical processing methods are not too effective, requiring a number of repeated operations in order to dissolve more than half the transuranics. An alternate dissolution approach has been developed involving the use of ammonium bifluoride. Low temperature fusion of the waste with ammonium bifluoride is followed by dissolution of the fused material in boiling nitric acid solutions. Greater than 60% of the transuranics contained in LECO crucibles and greater than 95% of the transuranics mixed with the incinerator ash are dissolved after a single fusion and dissolution step. Fluorination of the transuranics along with other impurities appears to render the waste material soluble in nitric acid

  17. Pulsed fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This summer school specialized in examining specific fusion center systems. Papers on scientific feasibility are first presented: confinement of high-beta plasma, liners, plasma focus, compression and heating and the use of high power electron beams for thermonuclear reactors. As for technological feasibility, lectures were on the theta-pinch toroidal reactors, toroidal diffuse pinch, electrical engineering problems in pulsed magnetically confined reactors, neutral gas layer for heat removal, the conceptual design of a series of laser fusion power plants with ''Saturn'', implosion experiments and the problem of the targets, the high brightness lasers for plasma generation, and topping and bottoming cycles. Some problems common to pulsed reactors were examined: energy storage and transfer, thermomechanical and erosion effects in the first wall and blanket, the problems of tritium production, radiation damage and neutron activation in blankets, and the magnetic and inertial confinement

  18. Historical Perspective on the United States Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    2005-01-01

    Progress and Policy is traced over the approximately 55 year history of the U. S. Fusion Program. The classified beginnings of the effort in the 1950s ended with declassification in 1958. The effort struggled during the 1960s, but ended on a positive note with the emergence of the tokamak and the promise of laser fusion. The decade of the 1970s was the 'Golden Age' of fusion, with large budget increases and the construction of many new facilities, including the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Shiva laser. The decade ended on a high note with the passage of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980, overwhelming approved by Congress and signed by President Carter. The Act called for a '$20 billion, 20 year' effort aimed at construction of a fusion Demonstration Power Plant around the end of the century. The U. S. Magnetic Fusion Energy program has been on a downhill slide since 1980, both in terms of budgets and the construction of new facilities. The Inertial Confinement Fusion program, funded by Department of Energy Defense Programs, has faired considerably better, with the construction of many new facilities, including the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

  19. Platelet-rich plasma for the spinal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moon Soo; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Oh, Jae Keun; Yoon, Won Yong; Chang, Ho Guen

    2018-01-01

    There has been a wide interest in using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a therapeutic agent to enhance spinal fusion. There are two review articles based only on clinical studies regarding the effect of PRP on spinal fusion. However, with regard to both animal model studies and clinical studies, there is no review studies regarding its effect on spinal fusion and no review studies focusing on the platelet count and the concentration of the growth factor in the PRP. The purpose is to review the literatures about the effect of PRP on spinal fusion according to the animal model studies and clinical studies, focusing on the effect of the platelet count and the concentration of the growth factor in the PRP. A PubMed search was performed for English-language articles. We identified 20 articles regarding the effect of PRP on fusion in animal model studies and clinical studies, of which 16 articles met the study criteria of case-control studies or prospective randomized studies for the spinal fusion. The articles were categorized into small-sized animal model, middle-sized animal model, and clinical studies. Studies have shown both beneficial and inhibitory effects. The conclusion that PRP has the stimulating effect on spinal fusion was not reached. However, PRP might promote the human spinal fusion if the platelet count or the concentration of growth factors in the PRP increases.

  20. Finnish Fusion Research Programme Yearbook 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T.

    1995-05-01

    Finnish Fusion Research Programme (FFUSION) is one of the national energy research programmes funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry and from 1995 by TEKES. National organization for fusion research is necessary for efficient and successful participation in international fusion programmes. FFUSION programme serves well for this purpose and it made possible to establish relations and the dialogue with the European Fusion Programme. The process led to the Finnish Association Euratom-TEKES in early 1995. The first period of the FFUSION programme (1993-1994) was preparation for the association to the Community Programme. The strategy was to emphasize fusion technology parallel with the basic fusion and plasma physics and to activate the related Finnish industry to collaborate and participate in the FFUSION programme and later in the European Fusion Programme. The key element in the strategy is the focusing our fairly small R and D effort to a few topics, which increases possibilities to be competitive in Europe. The physics programme in FFUSION deals mainly with theoretical and computational studies of radio-frequency heating in tokamak plasmas. Technology programme started with prestudies in 1993 and it concentrates into two areas: fusion reactor materials and remote handling systems. (8 figs., 3 tabs.)

  1. Heavy ion fusion III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, D.; Max, C.; Perkins, F.; Rosenbluth, M.

    1987-03-01

    This report updates Heavy Ion Fusion, JSR-82-302, dated January, 1983. During the last four years, program management and direction has been changed and the overall Inertial Confinement Program has been reviewed. This report therefore concentrates on accelerator physics issues, how the program has addressed those issues during the last four years, and how it will be addressing them in the future. 8 refs., 3 figs

  2. (Fusion energy research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  3. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.

    1998-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials includes studies (1) to investigate fracture mechanics of neutron-irradiated beryllium; (2) to describe the helium behaviour in irradiated beryllium at atomic scale; (3) to define the kinetics of beryllium reacting with air or steam; (3) to perform a feasibility study for the testing of integrated blanket modules under neutron irradiation. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported

  4. [Fusion energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer

  5. Fusion development and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R ampersand D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development

  6. Fusion development and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  7. Dynamical dipole mode in fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierroutsakou, D.; Martin, B.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Baran, V.; Boiano, A.; Cardella, G.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; De Filippo, E.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Toro, M.; Inglima, G.; Glodariu, T.; La Commara, M.; Maiolino, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Pagano, A.; Piattelli, P.; Pirrone, S.; Rizzo, C.; Romoli, M.; Sandoli, M.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Signorini, C.

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the dynamical dipole mode, related with entrance channel charge asymmetry effects, in the 40Ar+92Zr and 36Ar+96Zr fusion reactions at Elab = 15.1 A and 16 A MeV, respectively. These reactions populate, through entrance channels having different charge asymmetries, a compound nucleus in the A = 126 mass energy region, identical spin distribution at an average excitation energy of about 280 MeV. The compound nucleus average excitation energy and average mass were deduced by the analysis of the light charged particle energy spectra. By studying the γ-ray energy spectra and the γ-ray angular distributions of the considered reactions, the dynamical nature of the prompt radiation related to the dynamical dipole mode was evidenced. The data are compared with calculations based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics.

  8. Dynamical dipole mode in fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, A.; Romoli, M.; Martin, B.; Inglima, G.; La Commara, M.; Sandoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Coniglione, R.; Zoppo, A. Del; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Baran, V.; Glodariu, T.; Cardella, G.; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the dynamical dipole mode, related with entrance channel charge asymmetry effects, in the 40 Ar+ 92 Zr and 36 Ar+ 96 Zr fusion reactions at E lab = 15.1 A and 16 A MeV, respectively. These reactions populate, through entrance channels having different charge asymmetries, a compound nucleus in the A = 126 mass energy region, identical spin distribution at an average excitation energy of about 280 MeV. The compound nucleus average excitation energy and average mass were deduced by the analysis of the light charged particle energy spectra. By studying the γ-ray energy spectra and the γ-ray angular distributions of the considered reactions, the dynamical nature of the prompt radiation related to the dynamical dipole mode was evidenced. The data are compared with calculations based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics.

  9. Future of fusion implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsworth, E.; Powell, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    For fusion to become available for commercial use in the 21st century, R and D must be undertaken now. But it is hard to justify these expenditures with a cost/benefit oriented assessment methodology, because of both the time-frame and the uncertainty of the future benefits. Focusing on the factors most relevant for current consideration of fusion's commercial prospects, i.e., consumption levels and the outcomes for fission, solar, and coal, many possible futures of the US energy system are posited and analyzed under various assumptions about costs. The Reference Energy System approach was modified to establish both an appropriate degree of detail and explicit time dependence, and a computer code used to organize the relevant data and to perform calculations of system cost (annual and discounted present value), resource use, and residuals that are implied by the consumptions levels and technology mix in each scenario. Not unreasonable scenarios indicate benefits in the form of direct cost savings, which may well exceed R and D costs, which could be attributed to the implementation of fusion

  10. Heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    With controlled thermonuclear fusion holding out the possibility of a prolific and clean new source of energy, the goal remains elusive after many years of continual effort. While the conventional Tokamak route with magnetic confinement continues to hit the headlines, other alternatives are now becoming competitive. One possible solution is to confine the thermonuclear fuel pellet by high power beams. Current research and perspectives for future work in such inertial confinement was the subject of the 'Prospects for Heavy Ion Fusion' European Research Conference held in Aghia Pelaghia, Crete, last year. Its main focus was on the potential of heavy ion accelerators as well as recent advances in target physics with high power lasers and light ion beams. Carlo Rubbia declared that high energy accelerators, with their high efficiency, are the most promising approach to economical fusion energy production. However the need for cost saving in the driver accelerator requires new ideas in target design tailored to the particularities of heavy ion beams, which need to be pushed to the limits of high current and phase space density at the same time

  11. Computer applications in controlled fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    1975-01-01

    The application of computers to controlled thermonuclear research (CTR) is essential. In the near future the use of computers in the numerical modeling of fusion systems should increase substantially. A recent panel has identified five categories of computational models to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies is called for. The development and application of computer codes to implement these models is a vital step in reaching the goal of fusion power. To meet the needs of the fusion program the National CTR Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computing centers at each of the major CTR Laboratories by a communication network. The crucial element needed for success is trained personnel. The number of people with knowledge of plasma science and engineering trained in numerical methods and computer science must be increased substantially in the next few years. Nuclear engineering departments should encourage students to enter this field and provide the necessary courses and research programs in fusion computing

  12. Fusion power plant studies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, D.

    2007-01-01

    The European fusion programme is reactor oriented and it is aimed at the successive demonstration of the scientific, the technological and the economic feasibility of fusion power. For a reactor-oriented fusion development programme, it is essential to have a clear idea of the ultimate goal of the programme, namely a series of models of fusion power plants, in order to define the correct strategy and to assess the pertinence of the on-going activities. The European Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) has been a study of conceptual designs for commercial fusion power plants. It focused on five power plant models, named PPCS A, B, AB, C and D, which are illustrative of a wider spectrum of possibilities. They are all based on the tokamak concept and they have approximately the same net electrical power output, 1500 MWe. These span a range from relatively near-term, based on limited technology and plasma physics extrapolations, to an advanced conception. All five PPCS plant models differ substantially from the models that formed the basis of earlier European studies. They also differ from one another, which lead to differences in economic performance and in the details of safety and environmental impacts. The main emphasis of the PPCS was on system integration. Systems analyses were used to produce self-consistent plant parameter sets with approximately optimal economic characteristics for all models. In the PPCS models, the favourable, inherent, features of fusion have been exploited to provide substantial safety and environmental advantages. The broad features of the safety and environmental conclusions of previous studies have been confirmed and demonstrated with increased confidence. The PPCS study highlighted the need for specific design and R and D activities, in addition to those already underway within the European long term R and D programme, as well as the need to clarify the concept of DEMO, the device that will bridge the gap between ITER and the first

  13. Inertial fusion energy; L'energie de fusion inertielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decroisette, M.; Andre, M.; Bayer, C.; Juraszek, D. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dir. des Systemes d' Information (CEA/DIF), 91 (France); Le Garrec, B. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, 33 - Le Barp (France); Deutsch, C. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Migus, A. [Institut d' Optique Centre scientifique, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    We first recall the scientific basis of inertial fusion and then describe a generic fusion reactor with the different components: the driver, the fusion chamber, the material treatment unit, the target factory and the turbines. We analyse the options proposed at the present time for the driver and for target irradiation scheme giving the state of art for each approach. We conclude by the presentation of LMJ (laser Megajoule) and NIF (national ignition facility) projects. These facilities aim to demonstrate the feasibility of laboratory DT ignition, first step toward Inertial Fusion Energy. (authors)

  14. Evolution of the Prompt Dipole γ-RAY Emission with Incident Energy in Fusion Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierroutsakou, D.; Martin, B.; Inglima, G.; Boiano, A.; de Rosa, A.; di Pietro, M.; La Commara, M.; Mordente, R.; Romoli, M.; Sandoli, M.; Trotta, M.; Vardaci, E.; Glodariu, T.; Mazzocco, M.; Signorini, C.; Stroe, L.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; di Toro, M.; Maiolino, C.; Pellegriti, N.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Cardella, G.; de Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Pirrone, S.; Baran, V.

    2005-12-01

    We studied the prompt dipole γ-ray emission, associated with entrance channel charge asymmetry effects, as a function of incident energy in the 32,36S + 100,96Mo (Elab=6 MeV/nucleon) and 36,40Ar + 96,92Zr fusion reactions (Elab= 16 and 15 MeV/nucleon, respectively). With the above reaction pairs the 132Ce compound nucleus was formed, from entrance channels having different charge asymmetries, at an excitation energy of 117 and 304 MeV with identical spin distribution. By studying the differential γ-ray multiplicity spectra related to the above fusion reactions, it was shown that at the higher compound nucleus excitation energy the Giant Dipole Resonance γ-ray intensity increases by ~14% for the more charge asymmetric system while at the lower one no difference between the data was seen within the experimental uncertainties. Calculations based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics are presented and compared with the experimental findings.

  15. Fusion power: the transition from fundamental science to fusion reactor engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1975-01-01

    The historical development of fusion research is outlined. The basics of fusion power along with fuel cost and advantages of fusion are discussed. Some quantitative requirements for fusion power are described. (MOW)

  16. Effect of entrance channel parameters on the fusion of two heavy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The contribution of non-compound processes like transfer and incomplete fusion (ICF) reactions to the cross-sections of different evaporation residues were delineated by comparing the experimental data with the predictions of Monte Carlo simulation code PACE2. The results show that non-compound processes become a ...

  17. Burnside Rings of Fusion Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Sune Precht

    In this thesis we study the interactions between saturated fusion systems and group actions of the underlying p-groups. For a saturated fusion system F on a finite p-group S we construct the Burnside ring of F in terms of the finite S-sets whose actions respect the structure of the fusion system...... of Burnside rings given by multiplication with the characteristic idempotent, and we show that this map is the transfer map previously constructed. Applying these results, we show that for every saturated fusion system the ring generated by all (non-idempotent) characteristic elements in the p-local double...... Burnside ring is isomorphic to the p-local Burnside ring of the fusion system, and we disprove a conjecture by Park-Ragnarsson-Stancu on the composition product of fusion systems....

  18. Intitutional constraints to fusion commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The major thrust of this report is that the long time frame associated with the development of commercial fusion systems in the context of the commercialization and institutional history of an allied technology, fission-power, suggests that fusion commercialization will not occur without active and broad-based support on the part of the Nation's political leaders. Its key recommendation is that DOE fusion planners devote considerable resources to analytical efforts aimed at determining the need for fusion and the timing of that need, in order to convince policymakers that they need do more than preserve fusion as an option for application at some indefinite point in the future. It is the thesis of the report that, in fact, an act of political vision on the part of the Nation's leaders will be required to accomplish fusion commercialization

  19. A compensatory mutation provides resistance to disparate HIV fusion inhibitor peptides and enhances membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Wood

    Full Text Available Fusion inhibitors are a class of antiretroviral drugs used to prevent entry of HIV into host cells. Many of the fusion inhibitors being developed, including the drug enfuvirtide, are peptides designed to competitively inhibit the viral fusion protein gp41. With the emergence of drug resistance, there is an increased need for effective and unique alternatives within this class of antivirals. One such alternative is a class of cyclic, cationic, antimicrobial peptides known as θ-defensins, which are produced by many non-human primates and exhibit broad-spectrum antiviral and antibacterial activity. Currently, the θ-defensin analog RC-101 is being developed as a microbicide due to its specific antiviral activity, lack of toxicity to cells and tissues, and safety in animals. Understanding potential RC-101 resistance, and how resistance to other fusion inhibitors affects RC-101 susceptibility, is critical for future development. In previous studies, we identified a mutant, R5-tropic virus that had evolved partial resistance to RC-101 during in vitro selection. Here, we report that a secondary mutation in gp41 was found to restore replicative fitness, membrane fusion, and the rate of viral entry, which were compromised by an initial mutation providing partial RC-101 resistance. Interestingly, we show that RC-101 is effective against two enfuvirtide-resistant mutants, demonstrating the clinical importance of RC-101 as a unique fusion inhibitor. These findings both expand our understanding of HIV drug-resistance to diverse peptide fusion inhibitors and emphasize the significance of compensatory gp41 mutations.

  20. Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma for Bone Fusion in Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Go; Kamoda, Hiroto; Orita, Sumihisa; Inage, Kazuhidee; Ito, Michihiro; Yamashita, Masaomi; Furuya, Takeo; Akazawa, Tsutomu; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Ohtori, Seiji

    2018-02-01

    Retrospective case series. To examine the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for bone fusion in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) using local bone grafting. Several authors have reported the efficacy of PRP for bone union in animal models. However, the use of PRP for bone fusion in TLIF surgery has not been fully explored. Twenty patients underwent single-level TLIF surgery because of L4 spondylolisthesis. An interbody fusion cage and local bone were used in nine patients (control group) and an interbody fusion cage, local bone, and PRP were used in 11 patients (PRP group). PRP was prepared from the patients' blood samples (400 mL) immediately before surgery. The duration of bone union and postoperative bone fusion rate were assessed using plain radiography at every 3 months postoperatively and computed tomography at 12 or 24 months postoperatively, respectively. Lower back pain, leg pain, and leg numbness were evaluated using the visual analog scale preoperatively and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. The platelet count was 8.7 times higher in PRP than in blood. The bone union rate was significantly superior in the PRP group than in the control group (91% and 77%, respectively; p =0.035), whereas the average duration of bone union was not significantly different between the groups (7.7±0.74 and 10.0±2.00 months, respectively; p =0.131). There was no significant difference in lower back pain, leg pain, and leg numbness in both groups during follow-up ( p >0.05). Our study suggests that the use of PRP in TLIF surgery increases bone fusion rate.

  1. Dynamic Information Collection and Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-02

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0069 DYNAMIC INFORMATION COLLECTION AND FUSION Venugopal Veeravalli UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS CHAMPAIGN Final Report 12/02/2015...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dynamic Information Collection and Fusion 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-10-1-0458 5b. GRANT NUMBER AF FA9550-10-1-0458 5c. PROGRAM...information collection, fusion , and inference from diverse modalities Our research has been organized under three inter-related thrusts. The first thrust

  2. ALKALI FUSION OF ROSETTA ZIRCON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAHER, A.

    2008-01-01

    The decomposition of Rosetta zircon by fusion with different types of alkalis has been investigated. These alkalis include sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and eutectic mixture of both. The influences of the reaction temperature, zircon to alkalis ratio, fusion time and the stirring of the reactant on the fusion reaction have been evaluated. The obtained results favour the decomposition of zircon with the eutectic alkalis mixture by a decomposition efficiency of 96% obtained at 500 0 C after one hour

  3. Investigation of spherical and concentric mechanism of compound droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meifang Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Polymer shells with high sphericity and uniform wall thickness are always needed in the inertial confined fusion (ICF experiments. Driven by the need to control the shape of water-in-oil (W1/O compound droplets, the effects of the density matching level, the interfacial tension and the rotation speed of the continuing fluid field on the sphericity and wall thickness uniformity of the resulting polymer shells were investigated and the spherical and concentric mechanisms were also discussed. The centering of W1/O compound droplets, the location and movement of W1/O compound droplets in the external phase (W2 were significantly affected by the density matching level of the key stage and the rotation speed of the continuing fluid field. Therefore, by optimizing the density matching level and rotation speed, the batch yield of polystyrene (PS shells with high sphericity and uniform wall thickness increased. Moreover, the sphericity also increased by raising the oil/water (O/W2 interfacial tension, which drove a droplet to be spherical. The experimental results show that the spherical driving force is from the interfacial tension affected by the two relative phases, while the concentric driving force, as a resultant force, is not only affected by the three phases, but also by the continuing fluid field. The understanding of spherical and concentric mechanism can provide some guidance for preparing polymer shells with high sphericity and uniform wall thickness.

  4. Investigation of fusion gene expression in HCT116 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanmei; Ren, Juan; Fang, Mengdie; Wang, Xiaoju

    2017-12-01

    Colon cancer is the most common type of gastrointestinal cancer. A number of specific and sensitive biomarkers facilitate the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with colon cancer. Fusion genes are typically identified in cancer and a majority of the newly identified fusion genes are oncogenic in nature. Therefore, fusion genes are potential biomarkers and/or therapy targets in cancer. In the present study, the regulation of specific candidate fusion genes were investigated using Brother of the Regulator of Imprinted Sites (BORIS) in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line, which is a paralog of the fusion gene regulator CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF). The copy number of BORIS increased correspondingly to the progression of colorectal carcinoma from the M0 to the M1a stage. It was identified that EIF3E(e1)-RSPO2(e2) , EIF3E(e1)-RSPO2(e3) , PTPRK(e1)-RSPO3(e2) , PTPRK(e7)-RSPO3(e2), TADA2A-MEF2B and MED13L-CD4 are fusion transcripts present in the transcriptome of the HCT116 colon cancer cell line. CDC42SE2-KIAAO146 is a genomic fusion transcript, which originates from DNA arrangement in HCT116 cells. BORIS suppresses the expression of EIF3E , RSPO2 , PTPRK , RSPO3 , TADA2A and CD4 to inhibit the expression of fusion transcripts in HCT116 cells. It was hypothesized that the fusion transcripts investigated in the present study may not be oncogenic in HCT116 cells. As BORIS is not colorectal carcinoma-specific, the fusion genes investigated may be a biomarker assemblage for monitoring the progression of colorectal carcinoma.

  5. Results of nuclear fusion development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kenzo

    1975-01-01

    Compared with the nuclear fission research which followed that in advanced countries, Japan has treaded on its own track in nuclear fusion development; in the former, she had been far behind other leading countries. Characteristic of the efforts in Japan is the collaboration with educational institutions. Works are now carried out mainly in Tokamak plasma confinement, though other means being studied simultaneously. The nation's fusion research program is the realization of a fusion reactor at the turn of the present century, based on the world-level results attained with Tokamak. Past developments in the nuclear fusion research, the current status, and aspects for the future are discribed. (Mori, K.)

  6. Radioisotope production in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engholm, B.A.; Cheng, E.T.; Schultz, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Radioisotope production in fusion reactors is being investigated as part of the Fusion Applications and Market Evaluation (FAME) study. /sup 60/Co is the most promising such product identified to date, since the /sup 60/Co demand for medical and food sterilization is strong and the potential output from a fusion reactor is high. Some of the other radioisotopes considered are /sup 99/Tc, /sup 131/l, several Eu isotopes, and /sup 210/Po. Among the stable isotopes of interest are /sup 197/Au, /sup 103/Rh and Os. In all cases, heat or electricity can be co-produced from the fusion reactor, with overall attractive economics

  7. Mirror fusion test facility plasma diagnostics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.R. Jr.; Coffield, F.E.; Davis, G.E.; Felker, B.

    1979-01-01

    During the past 25 years, experiments with several magnetic mirror machines were performed as part of the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Program at LLL. The latest MFE experiment, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF), builds on the advances of earlier machines in initiating, stabilizing, heating, and sustaining plasmas formed with deuterium. The goals of this machine are to increase ion and electron temperatures and show a corresponding increase in containment time, to test theoretical scaling laws of plasma instabilities with increased physical dimensions, and to sustain high-beta plasmas for times that are long compared to the energy containment time. This paper describes the diagnostic system being developed to characterize these plasma parameters

  8. Neutron personnel dosimetry considerations for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, T.P.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-07-01

    The increasing development of fusion reactor technology warrants an evaluation of personnel neutron dosimetry systems to aid in the concurrent development of a radiation protection program. For this reason, current state of knowledge neutron dosimeters have been reviewed with emphasis placed on practical utilization and the problems inherent in each type of dosimetry system. Evaluations of salient parameters such as energy response, latent image instability, and minimum detectable dose equivalent are presented for nuclear emulsion films, track etch techniques, albedo and other thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques, electrical conductivity damage effects, lyoluminescence, thermocurrent, and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission. Brief summaries of dosimetry regulatory requirements and intercomparison study results help to establish compliance and recent trends, respectively. Spectrum modeling data generated by the Neutron Physics Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Facility have been analyzed by both International Commission on Radiological Protection fluence to dose conversion factors and an adjoint technique of radiation dosimetry, in an attempt to determine the applicability of current neutron dosimetry systems to deuterium and tritium fusion reactor leakage spectra. Based on the modeling data, a wide range of neutron energies will probably be present in the leakage spectra of the TFTR facility, and no appreciable risk of somatic injury to occupationally exposed workers is expected. The relative dose contributions due to high energy and thermal neutrons indicate that neutron dosimetry will probably not be a serious limitation in the development of fusion power

  9. Technological and engineering challenges of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, David; Hayward, Jim

    2008-01-01

    The current fusion development scenario in Europe assumes the sequential achievement of key milestones. Firstly, the qualification of the DEMO/reactor physics basis in ITER, secondly, the qualification of materials for in-vessel components in IFMIF and, thirdly, the qualification of components and processes in DEMO. Although this scenario is constrained by budgetary considerations, it assumes the resolution of many challenges in physics, technology and engineering. In the first part of the paper, the technological and engineering challenges to be met in order to satisfy the current development scenario will be highlighted. These challenges will be met by an appropriate share of the work between ITER, IFMIF, DEMO and the necessary accompanying programme, which will have to include a number of dedicated facilities (e.g. for the development of H and CD systems). In the second part of the paper, the consequences of a considerable acceleration of the fusion development programme will be discussed. Although most of the technological and engineering challenges identified above will have to be met within a shorter timescale, it is possible to limit the requirements and expectation for a first fusion power plant with respect to those adopted for the current fusion development scenario. However, it must be recognised that such a strategy will inevitably result in increased risk and a reduction in the economy of the plant. (author)

  10. Experimental results in muon-catalyzed fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1990-01-01

    Overall, it may be possible to look back over the past decade of research and conclude that muon-catalyzed fusion yields have significantly exceeded expectations, leading to renewed speculation regarding applications. Concerning the muon catalysis cycling rate, it is concluded that reaction rates and the overall catalysis cycling rate deserve further exploration, and that the rates are sufficiently fast to permit many hundreds of fusions during the muon lifetime. Various ways in which muons may be lost from the catalysis cycle are then described and discussed, and good agreement is obtained between experimental alpha-muon sticking values at liquid density. These values lie below the theoretical expectation, an outstanding mystery in muon-catalyzed cold fusion. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the alpha-muon sticking probability and related mechanisms. It is also clear that sticking is the major bottleneck in the muon catalysis cycle. In connection with expected fusion yields, to produce power commercially using μcf alone would probably require an order-of-magnitude increase in the yield per muon, assuming advanced technology for muon production. (N.K.)

  11. Flight dynamics investigation of compound helicopter configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Kevin; Thomson, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Compounding has often been proposed as a method to increase the maximum speed of the helicopter. There are\\ud two common types of compounding known as wing and thrust compounding. Wing compounding offloads the\\ud rotor at high speeds delaying the onset of retreating blade stall, hence increasing the maximum achievable speed,\\ud whereas with thrust compounding, axial thrust provides additional propulsive force. There has been a resurgence\\ud of interest in the configuration due to the emergenc...

  12. FUSION OF WAVELET AND CURVELET COEFFICIENTS FOR GRAY TEXTURE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santhanalakshmi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a framework for gray texture classification based on the fusion of wavelet and curvelet features. The two main frequency domain transformations Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT and Discrete Curvelet Transform (DCT are analyzed. The features are extracted from the DWT and DCT decomposed image separately and their performance is evaluated independently. Then feature fusion technique is applied to increase the classification accuracy of the proposed approach. Brodatz texture images are used for this study. The results show that, only two texture images D105 and D106 are misclassified by the fusion approach and 99.74% classification accuracy is obtained.

  13. The laser thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, J.; Dautray, R.; Decroisette, M.; Watteau, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Principle of the thermonuclear fusion by inertial confinement: required characteristics of the deuterium-tritium plasma and of the high power lasers to be used Development of high power lasers: active media used; amplifiers; frequency conversion; beam quality; pulse conditioning; existing large systems. The laser-matter interaction: collision and collective interaction of the laser radiation with matter; transport of the absorbed energy; heating and compression of deuterium-tritium; diagnoses and their comparison with the numerical simulation of the experiment; performances. Conclusions: difficulties to overcome; megajoule lasers; other energy source: particles beams [fr

  14. Materials for Fusion Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2013), s. 197-212 ISSN 1210-2709. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/25./. Praha, 18.06.2012-21.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872; GA MŠk 7G10072 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : nuclear fusion * materials * plasma facing components * plasma-material interaction * functionally graded materials Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://ctn.cvut.cz/ap/download.php?id=797

  15. Fusion Advanced Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Guebaly, Laila [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Henderson, Douglass [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wilson, Paul [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Blanchard, Jake [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-03-24

    During the January 1, 2013 – December 31, 2015 contract period, the UW Fusion Technology Institute personnel have actively participated in the ARIES-ACT and FESS-FNSF projects, led the nuclear and thermostructural tasks, attended several project meetings, and participated in all conference calls. The main areas of effort and technical achievements include updating and documenting the nuclear analysis for ARIES-ACT1, performing nuclear analysis for ARIES-ACT2, performing thermostructural analysis for ARIES divertor, performing disruption analysis for ARIES vacuum vessel, and developing blanket testing strategy and Materials Test Module for FNSF.

  16. Achievement of solid-state plasma fusion ('Cold-Fusion')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arata, Yoshiaki; Zhang, Yue-Chang

    1995-01-01

    Using a 'QMS' (Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer), the authors detected a significantly large amount (10 20 -10 21 [cm -3 ]) of helium ( 2 4 He), which was concluded to have been produced by a deuterium nuclear reaction within a host solid. These results were found to be fully repeatable and supported the authors' proposition that solid state plasma fusion ('Cold Fusion') can be generated in energetic deuterium Strongly Coupled Plasma ('SC-plasma'). This fusion reaction is thought to be sustained by localized 'Latticequake' in a solid-state media with the deuterium density equivalent to that of the host solid. While exploring this basic proposition, the characteristic differences when compared with ultra high temperature-state plasma fusion ('Hot Fusion') are clarified. In general, the most essential reaction product in both types of the deuterium plasma fusion is considered to be helium, irrespective of the 'well-known and/or unknown reactions', which is stored within the solid-state medium in abundance as a 'Residual Product', but which generally can not enter into nor be released from host-solid at a room temperature. Even measuring instruments with relatively poor sensitivity should be able to easily detect such residual helium. An absence of residual helium means that no nuclear fusion reaction has occurred, whereas its presence provides crucial evidence that nuclear fusion has, in fact, occurred in the solid. (author)

  17. Fusion energy 2000. Fusion energy 1998 (2001 Edition). Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains the Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Fusion Energy. It also contains an updated version of the Fusion Energy Conference 1998 Proceedings (38 additional papers included) as well as information on how to use this CD-ROM. The 18th International Atomic Energy Agency Fusion Energy Conference (FEC-2000) was held in Sorrento, Italy, 4-10 October 2000. 573 participants from over thirty countries and three international organizations took part in this Conference. The Conference was organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment (ENEA). Around 400 papers were presented in 22 oral and 8 poster sessions on magnetic confinement experiments, inertial fusion energy, plasma heating and current drive, ITER engineering design activities, magnetic confinement theory, innovative concepts, fusion technology, and safety and environment aspects. The 17th International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Fusion Energy Conference was held in Yokohama, Japan, 19-24 October 1999. This 6-day conference, which was attended by 835 participants from over 30 countries and two international organizations, was organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). More than 360 papers plus 5 summary talks were presented in 23 oral and 8 poster sessions on magnetic confinement and experiments, inertial fusion energy, plasma heating and current drive, ITER engineering design activities, magnetic confinement theory, innovative concepts and fusion technology

  18. Muon-catalyzed fusion: a new direction in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    In four years of intensive research, muon-catalyzed fusion has been raised from the level of a scientific curiosity to a potential means of achieving clean fusion energy. This novel approach to fusion is based on the fact that a sub-atomic particle known as a ''muon'' can induce numerous energy-releasing fusion reactions without the need for high temperatures or plasmas. Thus, the muon serves as a catalyst to facilitate production for fusion energy. The success of the research effort stems from the recent discovery of resonances in the reaction cycle which make the muon-induced fusion process extremely efficient. Prior estimates were pessimistic in that only one fusion per muon was expected. In that case energy balance would be impossible since energy must be invested to generate the muons. However, recent work has gone approximately half-way to energy balance and further improvements are being worked on. There has been little time to assess the full implications of these discoveries. However, various ways to use muon-catalyzed fusion for electrical power production are now being explored

  19. Muon-catalyzed fusion: A new direction in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    In four years of intensive research, muon-catalyzed fusion has been raised from the level of a scientific curiosity to a potential means of achieving clean fusion energy. This novel approach to fusion is based on the fact that a sub-atomic particle known as a ''muon'' can induce numerous energy-releasing fusion reactions without the need for high temperatures or plasmas. Thus, the muon serves as a catalyst to facilitate production for fusion energy. The success of the research effort stems from the recent discovery of resonances in the reaction cycle which make the muon-induced fusion process extremely efficient. Prior estimates were pessimistic in that only one fusion per muon was expected. In that case energy balance would be impossible since energy must be invested to generate the muons. However, recent work has gone approximately half-way to energy balance and further improvements are being worked on. There has been little time to assess the full implications of these discoveries. However, various ways to use muon-catalyzed fusion for electrical power production are now being explored

  20. Bismaleimide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.