WorldWideScience

Sample records for compound character recognition

  1. Optical Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converso, L.; Hocek, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems, focusing on their components (the computer, the scanner, the OCR, and the output device); how the systems work; and features to consider in selecting a system. A list of 26 questions to ask to evaluate systems for potential purchase is included. (JDD)

  2. A REVIEW: OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Tomar*1 & Amit Kishore2

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents detailed review in the field of Optical Character Recognition. Various techniques are determine that have been proposed to realize the center of character recognition in an optical character recognition system. Even though, sufficient studies and papers are describes the techniques for converting textual content from a paper document into machine readable form. Optical character recognition is a process where the computer understands automatically the image of handwritten ...

  3. Artificial Neural Network Based Optical Character Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Shrivastava; Navdeep Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Optical Character Recognition deals in recognition and classification of characters from an image. For the recognition to be accurate, certain topological and geometrical properties are calculated, based on which a character is classified and recognized. Also, the Human psychology perceives characters by its overall shape and features such as strokes, curves, protrusions, enclosures etc. These properties, also called Features are extracted from the image by means of spatial pixel-...

  4. Degraded character recognition based on gradient pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, D. R. Ramesh; Ravishankar, M.; Kumar, Manish; Wadera, Kevin; Raj, Aakash

    2010-02-01

    Degraded character recognition is a challenging problem in the field of Optical Character Recognition (OCR). The performance of an optical character recognition depends upon printed quality of the input documents. Many OCRs have been designed which correctly identifies the fine printed documents. But, very few reported work has been found on the recognition of the degraded documents. The efficiency of the OCRs system decreases if the input image is degraded. In this paper, a novel approach based on gradient pattern for recognizing degraded printed character is proposed. The approach makes use of gradient pattern of an individual character for recognition. Experiments were conducted on character image that is either digitally written or a degraded character extracted from historical documents and the results are found to be satisfactory.

  5. Braille Character Recognition Using Artificial Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Subur, Joko; Sardjono, Tri Arief; Mardiyanto, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    Braille letter is characters designed for the blind, consist of six embossed points, arranged in a standard braille character. Braille letters is touched and read using fingers, therefore the sensitivity of the fingers is important. Those characters need to be memorized, so it is very difficult to be learned. The aim of this research is to create a braille characters recognition system and translate it to alpha-numeric text. Webcam camera is used to capture braille image from braille characte...

  6. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bencharef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character.

  7. Character Recognition Using Genetically Trained Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, C.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    Computationally intelligent recognition of characters and symbols addresses a wide range of applications including foreign language translation and chemical formula identification. The combination of intelligent learning and optimization algorithms with layered neural structures offers powerful techniques for character recognition. These techniques were originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories for pattern and spectral analysis; however, their ability to optimize vast amounts of data make them ideal for character recognition. An adaptation of the Neural Network Designer soflsvare allows the user to create a neural network (NN_) trained by a genetic algorithm (GA) that correctly identifies multiple distinct characters. The initial successfid recognition of standard capital letters can be expanded to include chemical and mathematical symbols and alphabets of foreign languages, especially Arabic and Chinese. The FIN model constructed for this project uses a three layer feed-forward architecture. To facilitate the input of characters and symbols, a graphic user interface (GUI) has been developed to convert the traditional representation of each character or symbol to a bitmap. The 8 x 8 bitmap representations used for these tests are mapped onto the input nodes of the feed-forward neural network (FFNN) in a one-to-one correspondence. The input nodes feed forward into a hidden layer, and the hidden layer feeds into five output nodes correlated to possible character outcomes. During the training period the GA optimizes the weights of the NN until it can successfully recognize distinct characters. Systematic deviations from the base design test the network's range of applicability. Increasing capacity, the number of letters to be recognized, requires a nonlinear increase in the number of hidden layer neurodes. Optimal character recognition performance necessitates a minimum threshold for the number of cases when genetically training the net. And, the

  8. Use of Splines in Handwritten Character Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar; Gopinath S,; Satish Kumar; Rajesh Chhikara

    2010-01-01

    Handwritten Character Recognition is software used to identify the handwritten characters and receive and interpret intelligible andwritten input from sources such as manuscript documents. The recent past several years has seen the development of many systems which are able to simulate the human brain actions. Among the many, the neural networks and the artificial intelligence are the most two important paradigms used. In this paper we propose a new algorithm for recognition of handwritten t...

  9. Handwritten Sindhi Character Recognition Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Ahmed Awan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available OCR (OpticalCharacter Recognition is a technology in which text image is used to understand and write text by machines. The work on languages containing isolated characters such as German, English, French and others is at its peak. The OCR and ICR (Intelligent Character Recognition research in Sindhi script is currently at in starting stages and not sufficient work have been cited in this area even though Sindhi language is rich in culture and history. This paper presents one of the initial steps in recognizing Sindhi handwritten characters. The isolated characters of Sindhi script written by thesubjects have been recognized. The various subjects were asked to write Sindhi characters in unconstrained form and then the written samples were collected and scanned through a flatbed scanner. The scanned documents were preprocessedwith the help of binary conversion, removing noise by pepper noise and the lines were segmented with the help of horizontal profile technique. The segmented lines were used to extract characters from scanned pages.This character segmentation was done by vertical projection. The extracted characters have been used to extract features so that the characters can be classified easily. Zoning was used for the feature extraction technique. For the classification, neural network has been used. The recognized characters converted into editable text with an average accuracy of 85%.

  10. Recognition of isolated handprinted characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo

    1996-01-01

    Handprinted characters are of unequal complexity and a common description of all alphabet symbols seems therefore unobtainable. However, letters which confuse human beings and man-made OCR systems usually have approximately the same appearance and may therefore be modeled jointly. We part the set...

  11. A STUDY ON OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Narendra Sahu; Manoj Sonkusare

    2018-01-01

    Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is the process which enables a system to without human intervention identifies the scripts or alphabets written into the users’ verbal communication. Optical Character identification has grown to be individual of the mainly flourishing applications of knowledge in the field of pattern detection and artificial intelligence. In our survey we study on the various OCR techniques. In this paper we resolve and examine the hypothetical and numerical models of Opti...

  12. Guideline for Optical Character Recognition Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This publication provides materials relating to the design, preparation, acquisition, inspection, and application of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) forms in data entry systems. Since the materials are advisory and tutorial in nature, this publication has been issued as a guideline rather than as a standard in the Federal Information…

  13. Optical Character Recognition: Application for Android

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Manzanero, Joaquin Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Treball realitzat a Tongji University El projecte és el desenvolupament d'una aplicació per Android basat en OCR(Optical Character Recognition) que consisteix en traduir frases d'un idioma a un altre a través de fotografiar el text amb el mòbil, després reconéixer els caràcters i finalment traduïnt al llenguatge desitjat.

  14. A New Experiment on Bengali Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sumana; Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Jeon, Seung-Whan; Kim, Tai-Hoon; Kim, Haeng-Kon

    This paper presents a method to use View based approach in Bangla Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system providing reduced data set to the ANN classification engine rather than the traditional OCR methods. It describes how Bangla characters are processed, trained and then recognized with the use of a Backpropagation Artificial neural network. This is the first published account of using a segmentation-free optical character recognition system for Bangla using a view based approach. The methodology presented here assumes that the OCR pre-processor has presented the input images to the classification engine described here. The size and the font face used to render the characters are also significant in both training and classification. The images are first converted into greyscale and then to binary images; these images are then scaled to a fit a pre-determined area with a fixed but significant number of pixels. The feature vectors are then formed extracting the characteristics points, which in this case is simply a series of 0s and 1s of fixed length. Finally, an artificial neural network is chosen for the training and classification process.

  15. Contribution to automatic handwritten characters recognition. Application to optical moving characters recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokana, Denis

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a research work on computer aided vision relating to the design of a vision system which can recognize isolated handwritten characters written on a mobile support. We use a technique which consists in analyzing information contained in the contours of the polygon circumscribed to the character's shape. These contours are segmented and labelled to give a new set of features constituted by: - right and left 'profiles', - topological and algebraic unvarying properties. A new method of character's recognition induced from this representation based on a multilevel hierarchical technique is then described. In the primary level, we use a fuzzy classification with dynamic programming technique using 'profiles'. The other levels adjust the recognition by using topological and algebraic unvarying properties. Several results are presented and an accuracy of 99 pc was reached for handwritten numeral characters, thereby attesting the robustness of our algorithm. (author) [fr

  16. IMAGE PROCESSING BASED OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION USING MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Dalal*1 & Sumiran Daiya2

    2018-01-01

    Character recognition techniques associate a symbolic identity with the image of character. In a typical OCR systems input characters are digitized by an optical scanner. Each character is then located and segmented, and the resulting character image is fed into a pre-processor for noise reduction and normalization. Certain characteristics are the extracted from the character for classification. The feature extraction is critical and many different techniques exist, each having its strengths ...

  17. A novel handwritten character recognition system using gradient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The issues faced by the handwritten character recognition systems are the similarity. ∗ ... tical/structural features have also been successfully used in character ..... The coordinates (xc, yc) of centroid are calculated by equations (4) and (5). xc =.

  18. A Modified Back propagation Algorithm for Optical Character Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra Shrivastav; Prof. Ravindra Kumar Gupta; Dr. Shailendra Singh

    2013-01-01

    Character Recognition (CR) has been an active area of research and due to its diverse applicable environment; it continues to be a challenging research topic. There is a clear need for optical character recognition in order to provide a fast and accurate method to search both existing images as well as large archives of existing paper documents. However, existing optical character recognition programs suffer from a flawed tradeoff between speed and accuracy, making it less attractive for larg...

  19. Optical character recognition based on nonredundant correlation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunecker, B; Hauck, R; Lohmann, A W

    1979-08-15

    The essence of character recognition is a comparison between the unknown character and a set of reference patterns. Usually, these reference patterns are all possible characters themselves, the whole alphabet in the case of letter characters. Obviously, N analog measurements are highly redundant, since only K = log(2)N binary decisions are enough to identify one out of N characters. Therefore, we devised K reference patterns accordingly. These patterns, called principal components, are found by digital image processing, but used in an optical analog computer. We will explain the concept of principal components, and we will describe experiments with several optical character recognition systems, based on this concept.

  20. Optical Character Recognition Using Active Contour Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Oudah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Document analysis of images snapped by camera is a growing challenge. These photos are often poor-quality compound images, composed of various objects and text; this makes automatic analysis complicated. OCR is one of the image processing techniques which is used to perform automatic identification of texts. Existing image processing techniques need to manage many parameters in order to clearly recognize the text in such pictures. Segmentation is regarded one of these essential parameters. This paper discusses the accuracy of segmentation process and its effect over the recognition process. According to the proposed method, the images were firstly filtered using the wiener filter then the active contour algorithm could be applied in the segmentation process. The Tesseract OCR Engine was selected in order to evaluate the performance and identification accuracy of the proposed method. The results showed that a more accurate segmentation process shall lead to a more accurate recognition results. The rate of recognition accuracy was 0.95 for the proposed algorithm compared with 0.85 for the Tesseract OCR Engine.

  1. Features fusion based approach for handwritten Gujarati character recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Handwritten character recognition is a challenging area of research. Lots of research activities in the area of character recognition are already done for Indian languages such as Hindi, Bangla, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu. Literature review on handwritten character recognition indicates that in comparison with other Indian scripts research activities on Gujarati handwritten character recognition are very less.  This paper aims to bring Gujarati character recognition in attention. Recognition of isolated Gujarati handwritten characters is proposed using three different kinds of features and their fusion. Chain code based, zone based and projection profiles based features are utilized as individual features. One of the significant contribution of proposed work is towards the generation of large and representative dataset of 88,000 handwritten Gujarati characters. Experiments are carried out on this developed dataset. Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Naive Bayes (NB classifier based methods are implemented for handwritten Gujarati character recognition. Experimental results show substantial enhancement over state-of-the-art and authenticate our proposals.

  2. Chinese character recognition based on Gabor feature extraction and CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yudian; Lu, Tongwei; Jiang, Yongyuan

    2018-03-01

    As an important application in the field of text line recognition and office automation, Chinese character recognition has become an important subject of pattern recognition. However, due to the large number of Chinese characters and the complexity of its structure, there is a great difficulty in the Chinese character recognition. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a method of printed Chinese character recognition based on Gabor feature extraction and Convolution Neural Network(CNN). The main steps are preprocessing, feature extraction, training classification. First, the gray-scale Chinese character image is binarized and normalized to reduce the redundancy of the image data. Second, each image is convoluted with Gabor filter with different orientations, and the feature map of the eight orientations of Chinese characters is extracted. Third, the feature map through Gabor filters and the original image are convoluted with learning kernels, and the results of the convolution is the input of pooling layer. Finally, the feature vector is used to classify and recognition. In addition, the generalization capacity of the network is improved by Dropout technology. The experimental results show that this method can effectively extract the characteristics of Chinese characters and recognize Chinese characters.

  3. Character context: a shape descriptor for Arabic handwriting recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudhsh, Mohammed; Almodfer, Rolla; Duan, Pengfei; Xiong, Shengwu

    2017-11-01

    In the handwriting recognition field, designing good descriptors are substantial to obtain rich information of the data. However, the handwriting recognition research of a good descriptor is still an open issue due to unlimited variation in human handwriting. We introduce a "character context descriptor" that efficiently dealt with the structural characteristics of Arabic handwritten characters. First, the character image is smoothed and normalized, then the character context descriptor of 32 feature bins is built based on the proposed "distance function." Finally, a multilayer perceptron with regularization is used as a classifier. On experimentation with a handwritten Arabic characters database, the proposed method achieved a state-of-the-art performance with recognition rate equal to 98.93% and 99.06% for the 66 and 24 classes, respectively.

  4. IMAGE TYPE WATER METER CHARACTER RECOGNITION BASED ON EMBEDDED DSP

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Ying; HAN Yan-bin; ZHANG Yu-lin

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, we combined DSP processor with image processing algorithm and studied the method of water meter character recognition. We collected water meter image through camera at a fixed angle, and the projection method is used to recognize those digital images. The experiment results show that the method can recognize the meter characters accurately and artificial meter reading is replaced by automatic digital recognition, which improves working efficiency.

  5. Optical character recognition of handwritten Arabic using hidden Markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulama, Mohannad M.; Natsheh, Asem M.; Abandah, Gheith A.; Olama, Mohammed M.

    2011-04-01

    The problem of optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten Arabic has not received a satisfactory solution yet. In this paper, an Arabic OCR algorithm is developed based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) combined with the Viterbi algorithm, which results in an improved and more robust recognition of characters at the sub-word level. Integrating the HMMs represents another step of the overall OCR trends being currently researched in the literature. The proposed approach exploits the structure of characters in the Arabic language in addition to their extracted features to achieve improved recognition rates. Useful statistical information of the Arabic language is initially extracted and then used to estimate the probabilistic parameters of the mathematical HMM. A new custom implementation of the HMM is developed in this study, where the transition matrix is built based on the collected large corpus, and the emission matrix is built based on the results obtained via the extracted character features. The recognition process is triggered using the Viterbi algorithm which employs the most probable sequence of sub-words. The model was implemented to recognize the sub-word unit of Arabic text raising the recognition rate from being linked to the worst recognition rate for any character to the overall structure of the Arabic language. Numerical results show that there is a potentially large recognition improvement by using the proposed algorithms.

  6. An Evaluation of PC-Based Optical Character Recognition Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, E. M.; Uslan, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    The review examines six personal computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems designed for use by blind and visually impaired people. Considered are OCR components and terms, documentation, scanning and reading, command structure, conversion, unique features, accuracy of recognition, scanning time, speed, and cost. (DB)

  7. Sunspot drawings handwritten character recognition method based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sheng; Zeng, Xiangyun; Lin, Ganghua; Zhao, Cui; Feng, Yongli; Tao, Jinping; Zhu, Daoyuan; Xiong, Li

    2016-05-01

    High accuracy scanned sunspot drawings handwritten characters recognition is an issue of critical importance to analyze sunspots movement and store them in the database. This paper presents a robust deep learning method for scanned sunspot drawings handwritten characters recognition. The convolution neural network (CNN) is one algorithm of deep learning which is truly successful in training of multi-layer network structure. CNN is used to train recognition model of handwritten character images which are extracted from the original sunspot drawings. We demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method on sunspot drawings provided by Chinese Academy Yunnan Observatory and obtain the daily full-disc sunspot numbers and sunspot areas from the sunspot drawings. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves a high recognition accurate rate.

  8. Optical character recognition systems for different languages with soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arindam; Badelia, Pratixa; K Ghosh, Soumya

    2017-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive survey of soft-computing models for optical character recognition systems. The various techniques, including fuzzy and rough sets, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms, are tested using real texts written in different languages, such as English, French, German, Latin, Hindi and Gujrati, which have been extracted by publicly available datasets. The simulation studies, which are reported in details here, show that soft-computing based modeling of OCR systems performs consistently better than traditional models. Mainly intended as state-of-the-art survey for postgraduates and researchers in pattern recognition, optical character recognition and soft computing, this book will be useful for professionals in computer vision and image processing alike, dealing with different issues related to optical character recognition.

  9. Handwriting Moroccan regions recognition using Tifinagh character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. El Kessab

    2015-09-01

    In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh regions composed of 1600 image (100 Image for each region. The dataset can be used in one hand to test the efficiency of the Tifinagh region recognition system in extraction of characteristics significatives and the correct identification of each region in classification phase in the other hand.

  10. Handwritten Javanese Character Recognition Using Several Artificial Neural Network Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Satia Budhi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Javanese characters are traditional characters that are used to write the Javanese language. The Javanese language is a language used by many people on the island of Java, Indonesia. The use of Javanese characters is diminishing more and more because of the difficulty of studying the Javanese characters themselves. The Javanese character set consists of basic characters, numbers, complementary characters, and so on. In this research we have developed a system to recognize Javanese characters. Input for the system is a digital image containing several handwritten Javanese characters. Preprocessing and segmentation are performed on the input image to get each character. For each character, feature extraction is done using the ICZ-ZCZ method. The output from feature extraction will become input for an artificial neural network. We used several artificial neural networks, namely a bidirectional associative memory network, a counterpropagation network, an evolutionary network, a backpropagation network, and a backpropagation network combined with chi2. From the experimental results it can be seen that the combination of chi2 and backpropagation achieved better recognition accuracy than the other methods.

  11. Glyph Identification and Character Recognition for Sindhi OCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NISAR AHMEDMEMON

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A computer can read and write multiple languages and today?s computers are capable of understanding various human languages. A computer can be given instructions through various input methods but OCR (Optical Character Recognition and handwritten character recognition are the input methods in which a scanned page containing text is converted into written or editable text. The change in language text available on scanned page demands different algorithm to recognize text because every language and script pose varying number of challenges to recognize text. The Latin language recognition pose less difficulties compared to Arabic script and languages that use Arabic script for writing and OCR systems for these Latin languages are near to perfection. Very little work has been done on regional languages of Pakistan. In this paper the Sindhi glyphs are identified and the number of characters and connected components are identified for this regional language of Pakistan. A graphical user interface has been created to perform identification task for glyphs and characters of Sindhi language. The glyphs of characters are successfully identified from scanned page and this information can be used to recognize characters. The language glyph identification can be used to apply suitable algorithm to identify language as well as to achieve a higher recognition rate.

  12. Recognition of online handwritten Gurmukhi characters based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karun Verma

    as the recognition of characters using rule based post-pro- cessing algorithm. ... ods in their work in order to recognize handwriting with pen-based devices. ..... Centernew is the average y-coordinate value of new stroke and denotes the center ...

  13. Teach Your Computer to Read: Scanners and Optical Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Desktop scanners can be used with a software technology called optical character recognition (OCR) to convert the text on virtually any paper document into an electronic form. OCR offers educators new flexibility in incorporating text into tests, lesson plans, and other materials. (MLF)

  14. AN OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968

    RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPE LIBRARY SYSTEMS WHICH UTILIZE OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION INPUT HAS CENTERED AROUND OPTICAL PAGE READERS AND DOCUMENT READERS. THE STATE-OF-THE-ART OF BOTH THESE OPTICAL SCANNERS IS SUCH THAT BOTH ARE ACCEPTABLE FOR LIBRARY INPUT PREPARATION. A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT UTILIZING THE TWO TYPES OF READERS, SINCE…

  15. Optical character recognition reading aid for the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Juan Carlos; Cremaschi, Fabian; Lombardo, Elva; Vitu, Ed; Dujovny, Manuel

    2008-06-01

    An optical character recognition (OCR) reading machine is a significant help for visually impaired patients. An OCR reading machine is used. This instrument can provide a significant help in order to improve the quality of life of patients with low vision or blindness.

  16. RECOGNITION METHOD FOR CURSIVE JAPANESE WORD WRITTEN IN LATIN CHARACTERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruyama, K.; Nakano, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a recognition method for cursive Japanese words written in Latin characters. The method integrates multiple classifiers using duplicated can­ didates in multiple classifiers and orders of classifiers to improve the word recog­ nition rate combining their results. In experiments

  17. ADAPTIVE CONTEXT PROCESSING IN ON-LINE HANDWRITTEN CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwayama, N.; Ishigaki, K.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new approach to context processing in on-line handwritten character recognition (OLCR). Based on the observation that writers often repeat the strings that they input, we take the approach of adaptive context processing. (ACP). In ACP, the strings input by a writer are automatically

  18. Recognition of handwritten characters using local gradient feature descriptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surinta, Olarik; Karaaba, Mahir F.; Schomaker, Lambert R.B.; Wiering, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we propose to use local gradient feature descriptors, namely the scale invariant feature transform keypoint descriptor and the histogram of oriented gradients, for handwritten character recognition. The local gradient feature descriptors are used to extract feature vectors

  19. Nonlinear filtering for character recognition in low quality document images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Escobar, Julia; Kober, Vitaly

    2014-09-01

    Optical character recognition in scanned printed documents is a well-studied task, where the captured conditions like sheet position, illumination, contrast and resolution are controlled. Nowadays, it is more practical to use mobile devices for document capture than a scanner. So as a consequence, the quality of document images is often poor owing to presence of geometric distortions, nonhomogeneous illumination, low resolution, etc. In this work we propose to use multiple adaptive nonlinear composite filters for detection and classification of characters. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed system are presented and discussed.

  20. Character recognition from trajectory by recurrent spiking neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiangrong Shen; Kang Lin; Yueming Wang; Gang Pan

    2017-07-01

    Spiking neural networks are biologically plausible and power-efficient on neuromorphic hardware, while recurrent neural networks have been proven to be efficient on time series data. However, how to use the recurrent property to improve the performance of spiking neural networks is still a problem. This paper proposes a recurrent spiking neural network for character recognition using trajectories. In the network, a new encoding method is designed, in which varying time ranges of input streams are used in different recurrent layers. This is able to improve the generalization ability of our model compared with general encoding methods. The experiments are conducted on four groups of the character data set from University of Edinburgh. The results show that our method can achieve a higher average recognition accuracy than existing methods.

  1. Optical character recognition: an illustrated guide to the frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, George; Nartker, Thomas A.; Rice, Stephen V.

    1999-12-01

    We offer a perspective on the performance of current OCR systems by illustrating and explaining actual OCR errors made by three commercial devices. After discussing briefly the character recognition abilities of humans and computers, we present illustrated examples of recognition errors. The top level of our taxonomy of the causes of errors consists of Imaging Defects, Similar Symbols, Punctuation, and Typography. The analysis of a series of 'snippets' from this perspective provides insight into the strengths and weaknesses of current systems, and perhaps a road map to future progress. The examples were drawn from the large-scale tests conducted by the authors at the Information Science Research Institute of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. By way of conclusion, we point to possible approaches for improving the accuracy of today's systems. The talk is based on our eponymous monograph, recently published in The Kluwer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.

  2. Automated Degradation Diagnosis in Character Recognition System Subject to Camera Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Degradation diagnosis plays an important role for degraded character processing, which can tell the recognition difficulty of a given degraded character. In this paper, we present a framework for automated degraded character recognition system by statistical syntactic approach using 3D primitive symbol, which is integrated by degradation diagnosis to provide accurate and reliable recognition results. Our contribution is to design the framework to build the character recognition submodels corresponding to degradation subject to camera vibration or out of focus. In each character recognition submodel, statistical syntactic approach using 3D primitive symbol is proposed to improve degraded character recognition performance. In the experiments, we show attractive experimental results, highlighting the system efficiency and recognition performance by statistical syntactic approach using 3D primitive symbol on the degraded character dataset.

  3. Distorted Character Recognition Via An Associative Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Richard A.; Szu, Harold H.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, it is intended to provide some preliminary results of a character recognition scheme which has foundations in on-going neural network architecture modeling, and secondly, to apply some of the neural network results in a real application area where thirty years of effort has had little effect on providing the machine an ability to recognize distorted objects within the same object class. It is the author's belief that the time is ripe to start applying in ernest the results of over twenty years of effort in neural modeling to some of the more difficult problems which seem so hard to solve by conventional means. The character recognition scheme proposed utilizes a preprocessing stage which performs a 2-dimensional Walsh transform of an input cartesian image field, then sequency filters this spectrum into three feature bands. Various features are then extracted and organized into three sets of feature vectors. These vector patterns that are stored and recalled associatively. Two possible associative neural memory models are proposed for further investigation. The first being an outer-product linear matrix associative memory with a threshold function controlling the strength of the output pattern (similar to Kohonen's crosscorrelation approach [1]). The second approach is based upon a modified version of Grossberg's neural architecture [2] which provides better self-organizing properties due to its adaptive nature. Preliminary results of the sequency filtering and feature extraction preprocessing stage and discussion about the use of the proposed neural architectures is included.

  4. THE RECOGNITION OF SPOKEN MONO-MORPHEMIC COMPOUNDS IN CHINESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-da Lai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the auditory lexical access of mono-morphemic compounds in Chinese as a way of understanding the role of orthography in the recognition of spoken words. In traditional Chinese linguistics, a compound is a word written with two or more characters whether or not they are morphemic. A monomorphemic compound may either be a binding word, written with characters that only appear in this one word, or a non-binding word, written with characters that are chosen for their pronunciation but that also appear in other words. Our goal was to determine if this purely orthographic difference affects auditory lexical access by conducting a series of four experiments with materials matched by whole-word frequency, syllable frequency, cross-syllable predictability, cohort size, and acoustic duration, but differing in binding. An auditory lexical decision task (LDT found an orthographic effect: binding words were recognized more quickly than non-binding words. However, this effect disappeared in an auditory repetition and in a visual LDT with the same materials, implying that the orthographic effect during auditory lexical access was localized to the decision component and involved the influence of cross-character predictability without the activation of orthographic representations. This claim was further confirmed by overall faster recognition of spoken binding words in a cross-modal LDT with different types of visual interference. The theoretical and practical consequences of these findings are discussed.

  5. Latin Letters Recognition Using Optical Character Recognition to Convert Printed Media Into Digital Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Anugrah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Printed media is still popular now days society. Unfortunately, such media encountered several drawbacks. For example, this type of media consumes large storage that impact in high maintenance cost. To keep printed information more efficient and long-lasting, people usually convert it into digital format. In this paper, we built Optical Character Recognition (OCR system to enable automatic conversion the image containing the sentence in Latin characters into digital text-shaped information. This system consists of several interrelated stages including preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction, classifier, model and recognition. In preprocessing, the median filter is used to clarify the image from noise and the Otsu’s function is used to binarize the image. It followed by character segmentation using connected component labeling. Artificial neural network (ANN is used for feature extraction to recognize the character. The result shows that this system enable to recognize the characters in the image whose success rate is influenced by the training of the system.

  6. Character-level neural network for biomedical named entity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridach, Mourad

    2017-06-01

    Biomedical named entity recognition (BNER), which extracts important named entities such as genes and proteins, is a challenging task in automated systems that mine knowledge in biomedical texts. The previous state-of-the-art systems required large amounts of task-specific knowledge in the form of feature engineering, lexicons and data pre-processing to achieve high performance. In this paper, we introduce a novel neural network architecture that benefits from both word- and character-level representations automatically, by using a combination of bidirectional long short-term memory (LSTM) and conditional random field (CRF) eliminating the need for most feature engineering tasks. We evaluate our system on two datasets: JNLPBA corpus and the BioCreAtIvE II Gene Mention (GM) corpus. We obtained state-of-the-art performance by outperforming the previous systems. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to investigate the combination of deep neural networks, CRF, word embeddings and character-level representation in recognizing biomedical named entities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-Budget, Cost-Effective OCR: Optical Character Recognition for MS-DOS Micros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Discusses optical character recognition (OCR) for use with MS-DOS microcomputers. Cost effectiveness is considered, three types of software approaches to character recognition are explained, hardware and operation requirements are described, possible library applications are discussed, future OCR developments are suggested, and a list of OCR…

  8. Using K-Nearest Neighbor in Optical Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Ong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth in computer vision technology has aided society with various kinds of tasks. One of these tasks is the ability of recognizing text contained in an image, or usually referred to as Optical Character Recognition (OCR. There are many kinds of algorithms that can be implemented into an OCR. The K-Nearest Neighbor is one such algorithm. This research aims to find out the process behind the OCR mechanism by using K-Nearest Neighbor algorithm; one of the most influential machine learning algorithms. It also aims to find out how precise the algorithm is in an OCR program. To do that, a simple OCR program to classify alphabets of capital letters is made to produce and compare real results. The result of this research yielded a maximum of 76.9% accuracy with 200 training samples per alphabet. A set of reasons are also given as to why the program is able to reach said level of accuracy.

  9. The nuclear fuel rod character recognition system based on neural network technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woong-Ki; Park, Soon-Yong; Lee, Yong-Bum; Kim, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jong-Min; Chien, Sung-Il.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear fuel rods should be discriminated and managed systematically by numeric characters which are printed at the end part of each rod in the process of producing fuel assembly. The characters are used to examine manufacturing process of the fuel rods in the inspection process of irradiated fuel rod. Therefore automatic character recognition is one of the most important technologies to establish automatic manufacturing process of fuel assembly. In the developed character recognition system, mesh feature set extracted from each character written in the fuel rod is employed to train a neural network based on back-propagation algorithm as a classifier for character recognition system. Performance evaluation has been achieved on a test set which is not included in a training character set. (author)

  10. Online recognition of Chinese characters: the state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Lin; Jaeger, Stefan; Nakagawa, Masaki

    2004-02-01

    Online handwriting recognition is gaining renewed interest owing to the increase of pen computing applications and new pen input devices. The recognition of Chinese characters is different from western handwriting recognition and poses a special challenge. To provide an overview of the technical status and inspire future research, this paper reviews the advances in online Chinese character recognition (OLCCR), with emphasis on the research works from the 1990s. Compared to the research in the 1980s, the research efforts in the 1990s aimed to further relax the constraints of handwriting, namely, the adherence to standard stroke orders and stroke numbers and the restriction of recognition to isolated characters only. The target of recognition has shifted from regular script to fluent script in order to better meet the requirements of practical applications. The research works are reviewed in terms of pattern representation, character classification, learning/adaptation, and contextual processing. We compare important results and discuss possible directions of future research.

  11. Modality effect in false recognition: evidence from Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei Bin; Yang, Zhi Liang; Wang, Lin Song

    2010-02-01

    Using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory method, Smith and Hunt ( 1998 ) first reported the modality effect on false memory and showed that false recall from DRM lists was lower following visual study than following auditory study, which led to numerous studies on the mechanism of modality effect on false memory and provided many competing explanations. In the present experiment, the authors tested the modality effect in false recognition by using a blocked presentation condition and a random presentation condition. The present experiment found a modality effect different from the results of the previous research; namely, false recognition was shown to be greater following visual study than following auditory study, especially in the blocked presentation condition rather than in the random presentation condition. The authors argued that this reversed modality effect may be due to different encoding and processing characteristics between Chinese characters and English words. Compared with English words, visual graphemes of critical lures in Chinese lists are likely to be activated and encoded in participants' minds, thus it is more difficult for participants to discriminate later inner graphemes from those items presented in visual modality. Hence visual presentation could lead to more false recognition than auditory presentation in Chinese lists. The results in the present experiment demonstrated that semantic activation occurring during the encoding and retrieve phases played an important role in modality effect in false recognition, and our findings might be explained by the activation-monitoring account. Utilisant la méthode de fausse mémoire de Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM), Smith et Hunt ( 1998 ) ont d'abord rendu compte de l'effet de modalité sur la fausse mémoire et ils ont montré que le faux rappel à partir des listes de DRM était plus faible suivant une étude visuelle plutôt qu'une étude auditive. Ceci a mené à plusieurs

  12. Transfer of Perceptual Expertise: The Case of Simplified and Traditional Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianyin; Chuk, Tin Yim; Yeh, Su-Ling; Hsiao, Janet H.

    2016-01-01

    Expertise in Chinese character recognition is marked by reduced holistic processing (HP), which depends mainly on writing rather than reading experience. Here we show that, while simplified and traditional Chinese readers demonstrated a similar level of HP when processing characters shared between the simplified and traditional scripts, simplified…

  13. Common constraints limit Korean and English character recognition in peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingchen; Kwon, MiYoung; Legge, Gordon E

    2018-01-01

    The visual span refers to the number of adjacent characters that can be recognized in a single glance. It is viewed as a sensory bottleneck in reading for both normal and clinical populations. In peripheral vision, the visual span for English characters can be enlarged after training with a letter-recognition task. Here, we examined the transfer of training from Korean to English characters for a group of bilingual Korean native speakers. In the pre- and posttests, we measured visual spans for Korean characters and English letters. Training (1.5 hours × 4 days) consisted of repetitive visual-span measurements for Korean trigrams (strings of three characters). Our training enlarged the visual spans for Korean single characters and trigrams, and the benefit transferred to untrained English symbols. The improvement was largely due to a reduction of within-character and between-character crowding in Korean recognition, as well as between-letter crowding in English recognition. We also found a negative correlation between the size of the visual span and the average pattern complexity of the symbol set. Together, our results showed that the visual span is limited by common sensory (crowding) and physical (pattern complexity) factors regardless of the language script, providing evidence that the visual span reflects a universal bottleneck for text recognition.

  14. Multi-script handwritten character recognition : Using feature descriptors and machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surinta, Olarik

    2016-01-01

    Handwritten character recognition plays an important role in transforming raw visual image data obtained from handwritten documents using for example scanners to a format which is understandable by a computer. It is an important application in the field of pattern recognition, machine learning and

  15. A simple and efficient optical character recognition system for basic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are on the way for the development of efficient OCR systems for Indian languages, .... Each vowel has a vowel sign (modifier) and each consonant has a basic form (prim- itive). ..... as a single class of character in the first stage of classification.

  16. Action recognition using mined hierarchical compound features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Andrew; Illingworth, John; Bowden, Richard

    2011-05-01

    The field of Action Recognition has seen a large increase in activity in recent years. Much of the progress has been through incorporating ideas from single-frame object recognition and adapting them for temporal-based action recognition. Inspired by the success of interest points in the 2D spatial domain, their 3D (space-time) counterparts typically form the basic components used to describe actions, and in action recognition the features used are often engineered to fire sparsely. This is to ensure that the problem is tractable; however, this can sacrifice recognition accuracy as it cannot be assumed that the optimum features in terms of class discrimination are obtained from this approach. In contrast, we propose to initially use an overcomplete set of simple 2D corners in both space and time. These are grouped spatially and temporally using a hierarchical process, with an increasing search area. At each stage of the hierarchy, the most distinctive and descriptive features are learned efficiently through data mining. This allows large amounts of data to be searched for frequently reoccurring patterns of features. At each level of the hierarchy, the mined compound features become more complex, discriminative, and sparse. This results in fast, accurate recognition with real-time performance on high-resolution video. As the compound features are constructed and selected based upon their ability to discriminate, their speed and accuracy increase at each level of the hierarchy. The approach is tested on four state-of-the-art data sets, the popular KTH data set to provide a comparison with other state-of-the-art approaches, the Multi-KTH data set to illustrate performance at simultaneous multiaction classification, despite no explicit localization information provided during training. Finally, the recent Hollywood and Hollywood2 data sets provide challenging complex actions taken from commercial movie sequences. For all four data sets, the proposed hierarchical

  17. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes in Chinese Compound Words Modulates Attentional Blink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongwen; Gao, Min; Yan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is the phenomenon in which the identification of the second of two targets (T2) is attenuated if it is presented less than 500 ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated in canonical word conditions, it remains unclear whether the character order in compound words affects the magnitude of the AB. Morpheme decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words can provide an effective means to examine AB priming and to assess combinations of the component representations inherent to visual word identification. In the present study, we examined the processing of consecutive targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm using Chinese two-character compound words in which the two characters were transposed to form meaningful words or meaningless combinations (reversible, transposed, or canonical words). We found that when two Chinese characters that form a compound word, regardless of their order, are presented in an RSVP sequence, the likelihood of an AB for the second character is greatly reduced or eliminated compared to when the two characters constitute separate words rather than a compound word. Moreover, the order of the report for the two characters is more likely to be reversed when the normal order of the two characters in a compound word is reversed, especially when the interval between the presentation of the two characters is extremely short. These findings are more consistent with the cognitive strategy hypothesis than the resource-limited hypothesis during character decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words. These results suggest that compound characters are perceived as a unit, rather than two separate words. The data further suggest that readers could easily understand the text with character transpositions in compound words during Chinese reading.

  18. The DSFPN, a new neural network for optical character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morns, L P; Dlay, S S

    1999-01-01

    A new type of neural network for recognition tasks is presented in this paper. The network, called the dynamic supervised forward-propagation network (DSFPN), is based on the forward only version of the counterpropagation network (CPN). The DSFPN, trains using a supervised algorithm and can grow dynamically during training, allowing subclasses in the training data to be learnt in an unsupervised manner. It is shown to train in times comparable to the CPN while giving better classification accuracies than the popular backpropagation network. Both Fourier descriptors and wavelet descriptors are used for image preprocessing and the wavelets are proven to give a far better performance.

  19. Comparison of crisp and fuzzy character networks in handwritten word recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gader, Paul; Mohamed, Magdi; Chiang, Jung-Hsien

    1992-01-01

    Experiments involving handwritten word recognition on words taken from images of handwritten address blocks from the United States Postal Service mailstream are described. The word recognition algorithm relies on the use of neural networks at the character level. The neural networks are trained using crisp and fuzzy desired outputs. The fuzzy outputs were defined using a fuzzy k-nearest neighbor algorithm. The crisp networks slightly outperformed the fuzzy networks at the character level but the fuzzy networks outperformed the crisp networks at the word level.

  20. Lexicon Reduction for Urdu/Arabic Script Based Character Recognition: A Multilingual OCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeeda Naz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arabic script character recognition is challenging task due to complexity of the script and huge number of ligatures. We present a method for the development of multilingual Arabic script OCR (Optical Character Recognition and lexicon reduction for Arabic Script and its derivative languages. The objective of the proposed method is to overcome the large dataset Urdu and similar scripts by using GCT (Ghost Character Theory concept. Arabic and its sibling script languages share the similar character dataset i.e. the character set are difference in diacritic and writing styles like Naskh or Nasta?liq. Based on the proposed method, the lexicon for Arabic and Arabic script based languages can be minimized approximately up to 20 times. The proposed multilingual Arabic script OCR approach have been evaluated for online Arabic and its derivative language like Urdu using BPNN. The result showed that proposed method helps to not only the reduction of lexicon but also helps to develop the Multilanguage character recognition system for Arabic Script.

  1. Optical character recognition of camera-captured images based on phase features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Escobar, Julia; Kober, Vitaly

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays most of digital information is obtained using mobile devices specially smartphones. In particular, it brings the opportunity for optical character recognition in camera-captured images. For this reason many recognition applications have been recently developed such as recognition of license plates, business cards, receipts and street signal; document classification, augmented reality, language translator and so on. Camera-captured images are usually affected by geometric distortions, nonuniform illumination, shadow, noise, which make difficult the recognition task with existing systems. It is well known that the Fourier phase contains a lot of important information regardless of the Fourier magnitude. So, in this work we propose a phase-based recognition system exploiting phase-congruency features for illumination/scale invariance. The performance of the proposed system is tested in terms of miss classifications and false alarms with the help of computer simulation.

  2. Handwritten Character Recognition Based on the Specificity and the Singularity of the Arabic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Boulid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A good Arabic handwritten recognition system must consider the characteristics of Arabic letters which can be explicit such as the presence of diacritics or implicit such as the baseline information (a virtual line on which cursive text are aligned and/join. In order to find an adequate method of features extraction, we have taken into consideration the nature of the Arabic characters. The paper investigate two methods based on two different visions: one describes the image in terms of the distribution of pixels, and the other describes it in terms of local patterns. Spatial Distribution of Pixels (SDP is used according to the first vision; whereas Local Binary Patterns (LBP are used for the second one. Tested on the Arabic portion of the Isolated Farsi Handwritten Character Database (IFHCDB and using neural networks as a classifier, SDP achieve a recognition rate around 94% while LBP achieve a recognition rate of about 96%.

  3. The role of lexical variables in the visual recognition of Chinese characters: A megastudy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Wei Ping; Yap, Melvin J; Rickard Liow, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Logographic Chinese orthography partially represents both phonology and semantics. By capturing the online processing of a large pool of Chinese characters, we were able to examine the relative salience of specific lexical variables when this nonalphabetic script is read. Using a sample of native mainland Chinese speakers (N = 35), lexical decision latencies for 1560 single characters were collated into a database, before the effects of a comprehensive range of variables were explored. Hierarchical regression analyses determined the unique item-level variance explained by orthographic (frequency, stroke count), semantic (age of learning, imageability, number of meanings), and phonological (consistency, phonological frequency) factors. Orthographic and semantic variables, respectively, accounted for more collective variance than the phonological variables. Significant main effects were further observed for the individual orthographic and semantic predictors. These results are consistent with the idea that skilled readers tend to rely on orthographic and semantic information when processing visually presented characters. This megastudy approach marks an important extension to existing work on Chinese character recognition, which hitherto has relied on factorial designs. Collectively, the findings reported here represent a useful set of empirical constraints for future computational models of character recognition.

  4. Development of an optical character recognition pipeline for handwritten form fields from an electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Luke V; Peissig, Peggy L; McCarty, Catherine A; Starren, Justin

    2012-06-01

    Although the penetration of electronic health records is increasing rapidly, much of the historical medical record is only available in handwritten notes and forms, which require labor-intensive, human chart abstraction for some clinical research. The few previous studies on automated extraction of data from these handwritten notes have focused on monolithic, custom-developed recognition systems or third-party systems that require proprietary forms. We present an optical character recognition processing pipeline, which leverages the capabilities of existing third-party optical character recognition engines, and provides the flexibility offered by a modular custom-developed system. The system was configured and run on a selected set of form fields extracted from a corpus of handwritten ophthalmology forms. The processing pipeline allowed multiple configurations to be run, with the optimal configuration consisting of the Nuance and LEADTOOLS engines running in parallel with a positive predictive value of 94.6% and a sensitivity of 13.5%. While limitations exist, preliminary experience from this project yielded insights on the generalizability and applicability of integrating multiple, inexpensive general-purpose third-party optical character recognition engines in a modular pipeline.

  5. A method of neighbor classes based SVM classification for optical printed Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wu, Xiaohong; Yu, Yanmei; Luo, Daisheng

    2013-01-01

    In optical printed Chinese character recognition (OPCCR), many classifiers have been proposed for the recognition. Among the classifiers, support vector machine (SVM) might be the best classifier. However, SVM is a classifier for two classes. When it is used for multi-classes in OPCCR, its computation is time-consuming. Thus, we propose a neighbor classes based SVM (NC-SVM) to reduce the computation consumption of SVM. Experiments of NC-SVM classification for OPCCR have been done. The results of the experiments have shown that the NC-SVM we proposed can effectively reduce the computation time in OPCCR.

  6. An analog VLSI real time optical character recognition system based on a neural architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo, G.; Caviglia, D.; Valle, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a real time Optical Character Recognition system is presented: it is based on a feature extraction module and a neural network classifier which have been designed and fabricated in analog VLSI technology. Experimental results validate the circuit functionality. The results obtained from a validation based on a mixed approach (i.e., an approach based on both experimental and simulation results) confirm the soundness and reliability of the system

  7. An analog VLSI real time optical character recognition system based on a neural architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo, G.; Caviglia, D.; Valle, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). Dip. of Biophysical and Electronic Engineering

    1999-03-01

    In this paper a real time Optical Character Recognition system is presented: it is based on a feature extraction module and a neural network classifier which have been designed and fabricated in analog VLSI technology. Experimental results validate the circuit functionality. The results obtained from a validation based on a mixed approach (i.e., an approach based on both experimental and simulation results) confirm the soundness and reliability of the system.

  8. Recognition characters and new records of two species of Phylloscyrtini (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Trigonidiinae from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de P. Martins

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Phylloscyrtini occurs from eastern United States to Argentina and includes 21 valid species. It is a highly neglected group of crickets and little is known about its biology and distribution. Cranistus colliurides Stål, 1861 and Phylloscyrtus amoenus (Burmeister, 1880 were recorded for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, and information on calling song, stridulatory file and recognition characters were provided.

  9. Scene text recognition in mobile applications by character descriptor and structure configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chucai; Tian, Yingli

    2014-07-01

    Text characters and strings in natural scene can provide valuable information for many applications. Extracting text directly from natural scene images or videos is a challenging task because of diverse text patterns and variant background interferences. This paper proposes a method of scene text recognition from detected text regions. In text detection, our previously proposed algorithms are applied to obtain text regions from scene image. First, we design a discriminative character descriptor by combining several state-of-the-art feature detectors and descriptors. Second, we model character structure at each character class by designing stroke configuration maps. Our algorithm design is compatible with the application of scene text extraction in smart mobile devices. An Android-based demo system is developed to show the effectiveness of our proposed method on scene text information extraction from nearby objects. The demo system also provides us some insight into algorithm design and performance improvement of scene text extraction. The evaluation results on benchmark data sets demonstrate that our proposed scheme of text recognition is comparable with the best existing methods.

  10. Optical Character Recognition Applied to Romanian Printed Texts of the 18th–20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Cojocaru

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Optical Character Recognition (OCR of historical texts of the 18th–20th century in the Romanian language using the Cyrillic script. We differ three epochs (approximately, the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, with different usage of the Cyrillic alphabet in Romanian and, correspondingly, different approach to OCR. We developed historical alphabets and sets of glyphs recognition templates specific for each epoch. The dictionaries in proper alphabets and orthographies were also created. In addition, virtual keyboards, fonts, transliteration utilities, etc. were developed. The resulting technology and toolset permit successful recognition of historical Romanian texts in the Cyrillic script. After transliteration to the modern Latin script we obtain no-barrier access to historical documents.

  11. Priming effects in Chinese character recognition for Chinese children with developmental dyslexia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuliang Zou; Jing Wang; Hanrong Wu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Dyslexic children exhibit reading ability unmatched to age,although they possess normal intelligence and are well educated.OBJECTIVE:To examine the performance of dyslexic children in Chinese characters visual recognition tasks and to investigate the relationship between priming effect in character recognition and dyslexia.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A case-control study was performed at the Department of Children and Adolescent Health and Maternal Care,School of Public Health,Tongji Medical College,Huazhong University of Science and Technology between March and June 2007.PARTICIPANTS:A total of 75 primary school students in grades 3 and 5 were selected from two primary schools in Wuhan City,Hubei province,China,and were assigned to three groups.(1) Reading disability (RD,n=25);(2) chronological age (CA) group (n=25 normal readers that were intelligence quotient and age-matched to the RD group);(3) reading level (RL) group (n=25 normal readers that were intelligence quotient and RL-matched to the RD group).All children were right-handed and had normal or corrected-to-normal vision.METHODS:Recognition of target characters was performed in each child using a masked prime paradigm.Recognition speed and accuracy of graphic,phonological,and semantic characters were examined.Simultaneously,data,with respect to response time for each target character and error rate,were recorded to calculate facilitation values (unrelated RT-related RT).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Response time,facilitation,and error rate in Chinese character recognition task were calculated.RESULTS:The baseline-adjusted facilitation of graphic,phonological,and semantic priming for dyslexic children was -0.010,-0.010,and 0.001,respectively.Dyslexic children displayed inhibition in graphic and phonological prime conditions.Facilitations under the three prime conditions were 0.026,0.026,and 0.022 for the CA group.In the RL group,results were 0.062,0.058,and 0.031 respectively.The differences of baseline

  12. reCAPTCHA: human-based character recognition via Web security measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ahn, Luis; Maurer, Benjamin; McMillen, Colin; Abraham, David; Blum, Manuel

    2008-09-12

    CAPTCHAs (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) are widespread security measures on the World Wide Web that prevent automated programs from abusing online services. They do so by asking humans to perform a task that computers cannot yet perform, such as deciphering distorted characters. Our research explored whether such human effort can be channeled into a useful purpose: helping to digitize old printed material by asking users to decipher scanned words from books that computerized optical character recognition failed to recognize. We showed that this method can transcribe text with a word accuracy exceeding 99%, matching the guarantee of professional human transcribers. Our apparatus is deployed in more than 40,000 Web sites and has transcribed over 440 million words.

  13. Computerized literature reference system: use of an optical scanner and optical character recognition software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossef, S V; Schwartz, L H

    1990-09-01

    A computerized reference system for radiology journal articles was developed by using an IBM-compatible personal computer with a hand-held optical scanner and optical character recognition software. This allows direct entry of scanned text from printed material into word processing or data-base files. Additionally, line diagrams and photographs of radiographs can be incorporated into these files. A text search and retrieval software program enables rapid searching for keywords in scanned documents. The hand scanner and software programs are commercially available, relatively inexpensive, and easily used. This permits construction of a personalized radiology literature file of readily accessible text and images requiring minimal typing or keystroke entry.

  14. Classification of remotely sensed data using OCR-inspired neural network techniques. [Optical Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Richard K.

    1992-01-01

    Neural networks have been applied to classifications of remotely sensed data with some success. To improve the performance of this approach, an examination was made of how neural networks are applied to the optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten digits and letters. A three-layer, feedforward network, along with techniques adopted from OCR, was used to classify Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data. Good results were obtained. To overcome the difficulties that are characteristic of remote sensing applications and to attain significant improvements in classification accuracy, a special network architecture may be required.

  15. APPLYING PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS, MULTILAYER PERCEPTRON AND SELF-ORGANIZING MAPS FOR OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuat Thanh Tung

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Optical Character Recognition plays an important role in data storage and data mining when the number of documents stored as images is increasing. It is expected to find the ways to convert images of typewritten or printed text into machine-encoded text effectively in order to support for the process of information handling effectively. In this paper, therefore, the techniques which are being used to convert image into editable text in the computer such as principal component analysis, multilayer perceptron network, self-organizing maps, and improved multilayer neural network using principal component analysis are experimented. The obtained results indicated the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods.

  16. Optimizing Statistical Character Recognition Using Evolutionary Strategies to Recognize Aircraft Tail Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Berlanga

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of statistical classification systems for optical character recognition (OCR is a cumbersome task. This paper proposes a method using evolutionary strategies (ES to evolve and upgrade the set of parameters in an OCR system. This OCR is applied to identify the tail number of aircrafts moving on the airport. The proposed approach is discussed and some results are obtained using a benchmark data set. This research demonstrates the successful application of ES to a difficult, noisy, and real-world problem.

  17. Synthesis of Common Arabic Handwritings to Aid Optical Character Recognition Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laslo Dinges

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Document analysis tasks such as pattern recognition, word spotting or segmentation, require comprehensive databases for training and validation. Not only variations in writing style but also the used list of words is of importance in the case that training samples should reflect the input of a specific area of application. However, generation of training samples is expensive in the sense of manpower and time, particularly if complete text pages including complex ground truth are required. This is why there is a lack of such databases, especially for Arabic, the second most popular language. However, Arabic handwriting recognition involves different preprocessing, segmentation and recognition methods. Each requires particular ground truth or samples to enable optimal training and validation, which are often not covered by the currently available databases. To overcome this issue, we propose a system that synthesizes Arabic handwritten words and text pages and generates corresponding detailed ground truth. We use these syntheses to validate a new, segmentation based system that recognizes handwritten Arabic words. We found that a modification of an Active Shape Model based character classifiers—that we proposed earlier—improves the word recognition accuracy. Further improvements are achieved, by using a vocabulary of the 50,000 most common Arabic words for error correction.

  18. Synthesis of Common Arabic Handwritings to Aid Optical Character Recognition Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Laslo; Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Elzobi, Moftah; El-Etriby, Sherif

    2016-03-11

    Document analysis tasks such as pattern recognition, word spotting or segmentation, require comprehensive databases for training and validation. Not only variations in writing style but also the used list of words is of importance in the case that training samples should reflect the input of a specific area of application. However, generation of training samples is expensive in the sense of manpower and time, particularly if complete text pages including complex ground truth are required. This is why there is a lack of such databases, especially for Arabic, the second most popular language. However, Arabic handwriting recognition involves different preprocessing, segmentation and recognition methods. Each requires particular ground truth or samples to enable optimal training and validation, which are often not covered by the currently available databases. To overcome this issue, we propose a system that synthesizes Arabic handwritten words and text pages and generates corresponding detailed ground truth. We use these syntheses to validate a new, segmentation based system that recognizes handwritten Arabic words. We found that a modification of an Active Shape Model based character classifiers-that we proposed earlier-improves the word recognition accuracy. Further improvements are achieved, by using a vocabulary of the 50,000 most common Arabic words for error correction.

  19. Kinect Who’s Coming - Applying Kinect to Human Body Height Measurement to Improve Character Recognition Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau-Wei Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of relevant research on character recognition has been carried out, but a certain amount of time is needed to compare faces from a large database. The Kinect is able to obtain three-dimensional coordinates for an object (x & y axes and depth, and in recent years research on its applications has expanded from use in gaming to that of image measurement. This study uses Kinect skeleton information to conduct body height measurements with the aim of improving character recognition performance. Time spent searching and comparing characters is reduced by creating height categories. The margin of error for height used in this investigation was ± 5 cm; therefore, face comparisons were only executed for people in the database within ±5 cm of the body height measured, reducing the search time needed. In addition, using height and facial features simultaneously to conduct character recognition can also reduce the frequency of mistaken recognition. The Kinect was placed on a rotary stage and the position of the head on the body frame was used to conduct body tracking. Body tracking can be used to reduce image distortion caused by the lens of the Kinect. EmguCV was used for image processing and character recognition. The methods proposed in this study can be used in public safety, student attendance registration, commercial VIP recognition and many others.

  20. Robust recognition of degraded machine-printed characters using complementary similarity measure and error-correction learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagita, Norihiro; Sawaki, Minako

    1995-03-01

    Most conventional methods in character recognition extract geometrical features such as stroke direction, connectivity of strokes, etc., and compare them with reference patterns in a stored dictionary. Unfortunately, geometrical features are easily degraded by blurs, stains and the graphical background designs used in Japanese newspaper headlines. This noise must be removed before recognition commences, but no preprocessing method is completely accurate. This paper proposes a method for recognizing degraded characters and characters printed on graphical background designs. This method is based on the binary image feature method and uses binary images as features. A new similarity measure, called the complementary similarity measure, is used as a discriminant function. It compares the similarity and dissimilarity of binary patterns with reference dictionary patterns. Experiments are conducted using the standard character database ETL-2 which consists of machine-printed Kanji, Hiragana, Katakana, alphanumeric, an special characters. The results show that this method is much more robust against noise than the conventional geometrical feature method. It also achieves high recognition rates of over 92% for characters with textured foregrounds, over 98% for characters with textured backgrounds, over 98% for outline fonts, and over 99% for reverse contrast characters.

  1. Novel Ontologies-based Optical Character Recognition-error Correction Cooperating with Graph Component Extraction

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    Sarunya Kanjanawattana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available literature. Extracting graph information clearly contributes to readers, who are interested in graph information interpretation, because we can obtain significant information presenting in the graph. A typical tool used to transform image-based characters to computer editable characters is optical character recognition (OCR. Unfortunately, OCR cannot guarantee perfect results, because it is sensitive to noise and input quality. This becomes a serious problem because misrecognition provides misunderstanding information to readers and causes misleading communication. In this study, we present a novel method for OCR-error correction based on bar graphs using semantics, such as ontologies and dependency parsing. Moreover, we used a graph component extraction proposed in our previous study to omit irrelevant parts from graph components. It was applied to clean and prepare input data for this OCR-error correction. The main objectives of this paper are to extract significant information from the graph using OCR and to correct OCR errors using semantics. As a result, our method provided remarkable performance with the highest accuracies and F-measures. Moreover, we examined that our input data contained less of noise because of an efficiency of our graph component extraction. Based on the evidence, we conclude that our solution to the OCR problem achieves the objectives.

  2. A Bayesian computational model for online character recognition and disability assessment during cursive eye writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eDiard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research involves a novel apparatus, in which the user is presented with an illusion inducing visual stimulus. The user perceives illusory movement that can be followed by the eye, so that smooth pursuit eye movements can be sustained in arbitrary directions. Thus, free-flow trajectories of any shape can be traced. In other words, coupled with an eye-tracking device, this apparatus enables "eye writing", which appears to be an original object of study. We adapt a previous model of reading and writing to this context. We describe a probabilistic model called the Bayesian Action-Perception for Eye On-Line model (BAP-EOL. It encodes probabilistic knowledge about isolated letter trajectories, their size, high-frequency components of the produced trajectory, and pupil diameter. We show how Bayesian inference, in this single model, can be used to solve several tasks, like letter recognition and novelty detection (i.e., recognizing when a presented character is not part of the learned database. We are interested in the potential use of the eye writing apparatus by motor impaired patients: the final task we solve by Bayesian inference is disability assessment (i.e., measuring and tracking the evolution of motor characteristics of produced trajectories. Preliminary experimental results are presented, which illustrate the method, showing the feasibility of character recognition in the context of eye writing. We then show experimentally how a model of the unknown character can be used to detect trajectories that are likely to be new symbols, and how disability assessment can be performed by opportunistically observing characteristics of fine motor control, as letter are being traced. Experimental analyses also help identify specificities of eye writing, as compared to handwriting, and the resulting technical challenges.

  3. Two-stage neural-network-based technique for Urdu character two-dimensional shape representation, classification, and recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megherbi, Dalila B.; Lodhi, S. M.; Boulenouar, A. J.

    2001-03-01

    This work is in the field of automated document processing. This work addresses the problem of representation and recognition of Urdu characters using Fourier representation and a Neural Network architecture. In particular, we show that a two-stage Neural Network scheme is used here to make classification of 36 Urdu characters into seven sub-classes namely subclasses characterized by seven proposed and defined fuzzy features specifically related to Urdu characters. We show that here Fourier Descriptors and Neural Network provide a remarkably simple way to draw definite conclusions from vague, ambiguous, noisy or imprecise information. In particular, we illustrate the concept of interest regions and describe a framing method that provides a way to make the proposed technique for Urdu characters recognition robust and invariant to scaling and translation. We also show that a given character rotation is dealt with by using the Hotelling transform. This transform is based upon the eigenvalue decomposition of the covariance matrix of an image, providing a method of determining the orientation of the major axis of an object within an image. Finally experimental results are presented to show the power and robustness of the proposed two-stage Neural Network based technique for Urdu character recognition, its fault tolerance, and high recognition accuracy.

  4. Aplikasi Penerjemah Bahasa Inggris – Indonesia dengan Optical Character Recognition Berbasis Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa Eka Utami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Perangkat lunak untuk pengenalan karakter yang terdapat dalam ponsel pintar khususnya berbasis Android dikembangkan dengan penekanan pada mobilitas, portabilitas, ruang penyimpanan, perangkat keras, dan keterbatasan jangkauan dapat dipecahkan. Akan tetapi, kinerja sebuah ponsel pintar berbasis Android dan komputer berbeda maka kecepatan pengenalan karakter juga akan berpengaruh. Masalah ini tampaknya akan menunjukkan suatu solusi, yaitu dengan salah satu inovasi yang diterapkankan ke dalam perangkat Android dengan teknologi OCR (Optical Character Recognition. Perencanaan sistem menggunakan pengembangan perangkat lunak berorientasi pemakaian ulang karena menggunakan komponen yang dapat dipakai ulang dalam pengembangannya. Sistem ini dibuat dengan memanfaatkan engine Tesseract OCR yang dikembangkan oleh Google bersifat open source. Perangkat lunak yang digunakan untuk merancang layout dan implementasi sistem, yaitu menggunakan lingkungan pengembang Android Studio yang ditulis dengan bahasa pemrograman Java dan XML. Pengujian aplikasi penerjemah dengan OCR ini menggunakan metode white box dan menghitung akurasi pendeteksian karakter. Hasil perhitungan presentase akurasi deteksi karakter yang diberikan aplikasi terhadap keseluruhan sampel yang diuji mencapai 97,5%.

  5. [Delays produced by prolonged viewing in the recognition of Kanji characters: analysis of the "Gestaltzerfall" phenomenon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninose, Y; Gyoba, J

    1996-08-01

    It is a well-known observation that when a Kanji character is viewed steadily and continuously, the viewer often becomes unable to recognize the Kanji as a whole pattern and it becomes difficult to judge whether or not the Kanji is orthographically correct. Such a phenomenon is called the "Gestaltzerfall" of Kanji characters. In the present study, two experiments were carried out to examine delays in the recognition of test Kanji following 25 s of prolonged viewing of adaptation Kanji, which were comprised of either the same or different parts and structures. When the size of the adaptation Kanji was equal to that of the test Kanji, there were significant delays of more than 50 ms, both when the stimuli were of the same pattern, and when they had the same structure but different components. However, when their sizes were different, delays were found only when the test and the adaptation Kanji were of the same pattern. These results suggest that a Kanji pattern may be internally represented as a whole, independent of its size, while the processing of Kanji structure may be dependent upon its size. Prolonged viewing may produce an adaptation effect specific to such representations.

  6. Visual Similarity of Words Alone Can Modulate Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Recognition: Evidence From Modeling Chinese Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Janet H; Cheung, Kit

    2016-03-01

    In Chinese orthography, the most common character structure consists of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right (SP characters); the minority, opposite arrangement also exists (PS characters). Recent studies showed that SP character processing is more left hemisphere (LH) lateralized than PS character processing. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether this is due to phonetic radical position or character type frequency. Through computational modeling with artificial lexicons, in which we implement a theory of hemispheric asymmetry in perception but do not assume phonological processing being LH lateralized, we show that the difference in character type frequency alone is sufficient to exhibit the effect that the dominant type has a stronger LH lateralization than the minority type. This effect is due to higher visual similarity among characters in the dominant type than the minority type, demonstrating the modulation of visual similarity of words on hemispheric lateralization. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. The Compensatory Effectiveness of Optical Character Recognition/Speech Synthesis on Reading Comprehension of Postsecondary Students with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Eleanor L.; Raskind, Marshall H.

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-seven college students with learning disabilities were given a reading comprehension task under the following conditions: (1) using an optical character recognition/speech synthesis system; (2) having the text read aloud by a human reader; or (3) reading silently without assistance. Findings indicated that the greater the disability, the…

  8. The use of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) in the digitisation of herbarium specimen labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, Robyn E; Cubey, Robert W N; Haston, Elspeth M

    2014-01-01

    At the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE) the use of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) to aid the digitisation process has been investigated. This was tested using a herbarium specimen digitisation process with two stages of data entry. Records were initially batch-processed to add data extracted from the OCR text prior to being sorted based on Collector and/or Country. Using images of the specimens, a team of six digitisers then added data to the specimen records. To investigate whether the data from OCR aid the digitisation process, they completed a series of trials which compared the efficiency of data entry between sorted and unsorted batches of specimens. A survey was carried out to explore the opinion of the digitisation staff to the different sorting options. In total 7,200 specimens were processed. When compared to an unsorted, random set of specimens, those which were sorted based on data added from the OCR were quicker to digitise. Of the methods tested here, the most successful in terms of efficiency used a protocol which required entering data into a limited set of fields and where the records were filtered by Collector and Country. The survey and subsequent discussions with the digitisation staff highlighted their preference for working with sorted specimens, in which label layout, locations and handwriting are likely to be similar, and so a familiarity with the Collector or Country is rapidly established.

  9. The use of Optical Character Recognition (OCR in the digitisation of herbarium specimen labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Drinkwater

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available At the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE the use of Optical Character Recognition (OCR to aid the digitisation process has been investigated. This was tested using a herbarium specimen digitisation process with two stages of data entry. Records were initially batch-processed to add data extracted from the OCR text prior to being sorted based on Collector and/or Country. Using images of the specimens, a team of six digitisers then added data to the specimen records. To investigate whether the data from OCR aid the digitisation process, they completed a series of trials which compared the efficiency of data entry between sorted and unsorted batches of specimens. A survey was carried out to explore the opinion of the digitisation staff to the different sorting options. In total 7,200 specimens were processed.When compared to an unsorted, random set of specimens, those which were sorted based on data added from the OCR were quicker to digitise. Of the methods tested here, the most successful in terms of efficiency used a protocol which required entering data into a limited set of fields and where the records were filtered by Collector and Country. The survey and subsequent discussions with the digitisation staff highlighted their preference for working with sorted specimens, in which label layout, locations and handwriting are likely to be similar, and so a familiarity with the Collector or Country is rapidly established.

  10. REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTER DISPLACEMENT OF EPICUTICULAR COMPOUNDS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO MATE CHOICE IN DROSOPHILA SUBQUINARIA AND DROSOPHILA RECENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Kelly A.; White, Brooke E.; Sztepanacz, Jacqueline L.; Bewick, Emily R.; Rundle, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between species can alter selection on sexual displays used in mate choice within species. Here we study the epicuticular pheromones of two Drosophila species that overlap partially in geographic range and are incompletely reproductively isolated. Drosophila subquinaria shows a pattern of reproductive character displacement against Drosophila recens, and partial behavioral isolation between conspecific sympatric versus allopatric populations, whereas D. recens shows no such variation in mate choice. First, using manipulative perfuming experiments, we show that females use pheromones as signals for mate discrimination both between species and among populations of D. subquinaria. Second, we show that patterns of variation in epicuticular compounds, both across populations and between species, are consistent with those previously shown for mating probabilities: pheromone compositions differ between populations of D. subquinaria that are allopatric versus sympatric with D. recens, but are similar across populations of D. recens regardless of overlap with D. subquinaria. We also identify differences in pheromone composition among allopatric regions of D. subquinaria. In sum, our results suggest that epicuticular compounds are key signals used by females during mate recognition, and that these traits have diverged among D. subquinaria populations in response to reinforcing selection generated by the presence of D. recens. PMID:24351014

  11. Handwritten Devanagari Character Recognition Using Layer-Wise Training of Deep Convolutional Neural Networks and Adaptive Gradient Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Jangid

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Handwritten character recognition is currently getting the attention of researchers because of possible applications in assisting technology for blind and visually impaired users, human–robot interaction, automatic data entry for business documents, etc. In this work, we propose a technique to recognize handwritten Devanagari characters using deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN which are one of the recent techniques adopted from the deep learning community. We experimented the ISIDCHAR database provided by (Information Sharing Index ISI, Kolkata and V2DMDCHAR database with six different architectures of DCNN to evaluate the performance and also investigate the use of six recently developed adaptive gradient methods. A layer-wise technique of DCNN has been employed that helped to achieve the highest recognition accuracy and also get a faster convergence rate. The results of layer-wise-trained DCNN are favorable in comparison with those achieved by a shallow technique of handcrafted features and standard DCNN.

  12. Target locations in visual field and character recognition by students of Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Ho; Hsu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2003-02-01

    The potential influence of target location in a visual field on search should be considered in layouts of control panels and advertisements. This investigation was done to verify the assumption that the upper-left portion of a page or its equivalent naturally attracts the attention of the viewer. Exp. 1 used a tachistoscope to test which of eight Chinese characters first attracted the attention of viewers. The eight Chinese characters are arranged in a square and a circular configuration. In the square layout, a large square (18 cm x 18 cm) was first conceptually subdivided into nine equal parts (6 cm x 6 cm). Then, the eight Chinese characters were put in the center of each part, leaving the central part blank. In the circular layout, the same Chinese characters were symmetrically placed on the conceptual circumference (r = 6 cm) of a circle within a large square. Exp. 2 was a paper-and-pencil test. An embedded-fault-character-search was used to examine the location of the first faulty character discovered by the subjects. 60 college students and 36 schoolchildren were selected as subjects for the tachistoscopic experiment and paper-and-pencil test. Finally, five graduate students participated in Exp. 3 in which an eye camera registered subjects' eye movements to measured distribution of durations of looking over eight locations. The measurements indicated a slight predominance of the upper-left portion for college students and graduate students, and a slight predominance of the upper-right portion for schoolchildren.

  13. A modern optical character recognition system in a real world clinical setting: some accuracy and feasibility observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondich, Paul G; Overhage, J Marc; Dexter, Paul R; Downs, Stephen M; Lemmon, Larry; McDonald, Clement J

    2002-01-01

    Advances in optical character recognition (OCR) software and computer hardware have stimulated a reevaluation of the technology and its ability to capture structured clinical data from preexisting paper forms. In our pilot evaluation, we measured the accuracy and feasibility of capturing vitals data from a pediatric encounter form that has been in use for over twenty years. We found that the software had a digit recognition rate of 92.4% (95% confidence interval: 91.6 to 93.2) overall. More importantly, this system was approximately three times as fast as our existing method of data entry. These preliminary results suggest that with further refinements in the approach and additional development, we may be able to incorporate OCR as another method for capturing structured clinical data.

  14. A New Database of Digits Extracted from Coins with Hard-to-Segment Foreground for Optical Character Recognition Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyu Pan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the release date struck on a coin is important information of its monetary type, recognition of extracted digits may assist in identification of monetary types. However, digit images extracted from coins are challenging for conventional optical character recognition methods because the foreground of such digits has very often the same color as their background. In addition, other noises, including the wear of coin metal, make it more difficult to obtain a correct segmentation of the character shape. To address those challenges, this article presents the CoinNUMS database for automatic digit recognition. The database CoinNUMS, containing 3,006 digit images, is divided into three subsets. The first subset CoinNUMS_geni consists of 606 digit images manually cropped from high-resolution photographs of well-conserved coins from GENI coin photographs; the second subset CoinNUMS_pcgs_a consists of 1,200 digit images automatically extracted from a subset of the USA_Grading numismatic database containing coins in different quality; the last subset CoinNUMS_pcgs_m consists of 1,200 digit images manually extracted from the same coin photographs as CoinNUMS_pcgs_a. In CoinNUMS_pcgs_a and CoinNUMS_pcgs_m, the digit images are extracted from the release date. In CoinNUMS_geni, the digit images can come from the cropped date, the face value, or any other legends containing digits in the coin. To show the difficulty of these databases, we have tested recognition algorithms of the literature. The database and the results of the tested algorithms will be freely available on a dedicated website.1

  15. Learning representation hierarchies by sharing visual features: a computational investigation of Persian character recognition with unsupervised deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Zahra; Testolin, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    In humans, efficient recognition of written symbols is thought to rely on a hierarchical processing system, where simple features are progressively combined into more abstract, high-level representations. Here, we present a computational model of Persian character recognition based on deep belief networks, where increasingly more complex visual features emerge in a completely unsupervised manner by fitting a hierarchical generative model to the sensory data. Crucially, high-level internal representations emerging from unsupervised deep learning can be easily read out by a linear classifier, achieving state-of-the-art recognition accuracy. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that handwritten digits and letters share many common visual features: A generative model that captures the statistical structure of the letters distribution should therefore also support the recognition of written digits. To this aim, deep networks trained on Persian letters were used to build high-level representations of Persian digits, which were indeed read out with high accuracy. Our simulations show that complex visual features, such as those mediating the identification of Persian symbols, can emerge from unsupervised learning in multilayered neural networks and can support knowledge transfer across related domains.

  16. When is the right hemisphere holistic and when is it not? The case of Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Harry K S; Leung, Jacklyn C Y; Wong, Vienne M Y; Hsiao, Janet H

    2018-05-15

    Holistic processing (HP) has long been considered a characteristic of right hemisphere (RH) processing. Indeed, holistic face processing is typically associated with left visual field (LVF)/RH processing advantages. Nevertheless, expert Chinese character recognition involves reduced HP and increased RH lateralization, presenting a counterexample. Recent modeling research suggests that RH processing may be associated with an increase or decrease in HP, depending on whether spacing or component information was used respectively. Since expert Chinese character recognition involves increasing sensitivity to components while deemphasizing spacing information, RH processing in experts may be associated with weaker HP than novices. Consistent with this hypothesis, in a divided visual field paradigm, novices exhibited HP only in the LVF/RH, whereas experts showed no HP in either visual field. This result suggests that the RH may flexibly switch between part-based and holistic representations, consistent with recent fMRI findings. The RH's advantage in global/low spatial frequency processing is suggested to be relative to the task relevant frequency range. Thus, its use of holistic and part-based representations may depend on how attention is allocated for task relevant information. This study provides the first behavioral evidence showing how type of information used for processing modulates perceptual representations in the RH. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of familiarity in associative recognition of unitized compound word pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fahad N; Hockley, William E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of unitization and contribution of familiarity in the recognition of word pairs. Compound words were presented as word pairs and were contrasted with noncompound word pairs in an associative recognition task. In Experiments 1 and 2, yes-no recognition hit and false-alarm rates were significantly higher for compound than for noncompound word pairs, with no difference in discrimination in both within- and between-subject comparisons. Experiment 2 also showed that item recognition was reduced for words from compound compared to noncompound word pairs, providing evidence of the unitization of the compound pairs. A two-alternative forced-choice test used in Experiments 3A and 3B provided evidence that the concordant effect for compound word pairs was largely due to familiarity. A discrimination advantage for compound word pairs was also seen in these experiments. Experiment 4A showed that a different pattern of results is seen when repeated noncompound word pairs are compared to compound word pairs. Experiment 4B showed that memory for the individual items of compound word pairs was impaired relative to items in repeated and nonrepeated noncompound word pairs, and Experiment 5 demonstrated that this effect is eliminated when the elements of compound word pairs are not unitized. The concordant pattern seen in yes-no recognition and the discrimination advantage in forced-choice recognition for compound relative to noncompound word pairs is due to greater reliance on familiarity at test when pairs are unitized.

  18. Automatic feature design for optical character recognition using an evolutionary search procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentiford, F W

    1985-03-01

    An automatic evolutionary search is applied to the problem of feature extraction in an OCR application. A performance measure based on feature independence is used to generate features which do not appear to suffer from peaking effects [17]. Features are extracted from a training set of 30 600 machine printed 34 class alphanumeric characters derived from British mail. Classification results on the training set and a test set of 10 200 characters are reported for an increasing number of features. A 1.01 percent forced decision error rate is obtained on the test data using 316 features. The hardware implementation should be cheap and fast to operate. The performance compares favorably with current low cost OCR page readers.

  19. Analog design of a new neural network for optical character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morns, I P; Dlay, S S

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit is presented for a new type of neural network, which gives a recognition rate of over 100 kHz. The network is used to classify handwritten numerals, presented as Fourier and wavelet descriptors, and has been shown to train far quicker than the popular backpropagation network while maintaining classification accuracy.

  20. Molecular Recognition: Detection of Colorless Compounds Based on Color Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafi, Lida; Kashani, Samira; Karimi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which students measure the amount of cetirizine in allergy-treatment tablets based on molecular recognition. The basis of recognition is competition of cetirizine with phenolphthalein to form an inclusion complex with ß-cyclodextrin. Phenolphthalein is pinkish under basic condition, whereas it's complex form…

  1. Enhancement and character recognition of the erased colophon of a 15th-century Hebrew prayer book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walvoord, Derek J.; Easton, Roger L., Jr.; Knox, Keith T.; Heimbueger, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    A handwritten codex often included an inscription that listed facts about its publication, such as the names of the scribe and patron, date of publication, the city where the book was copied, etc. These facts obviously provide essential information to a historian studying the provenance of the codex. Unfortunately, this page was sometimes erased after the sale of the book to a new owner, often by scraping off the original ink. The importance of recovering this information would be difficult to overstate. This paper reports on the methods of imaging, image enhancement, and character recognition that were applied to this page in a Hebrew prayer book copied in Florence in the 15th century.

  2. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) as a radiology reporting tool by using optical character recognition (OCR) and macro program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Han; Song, Ho-Taek; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2012-12-01

    The objectives are (1) to introduce a new concept of making a quantitative computed tomography (QCT) reporting system by using optical character recognition (OCR) and macro program and (2) to illustrate the practical usages of the QCT reporting system in radiology reading environment. This reporting system was created as a development tool by using an open-source OCR software and an open-source macro program. The main module was designed for OCR to report QCT images in radiology reading process. The principal processes are as follows: (1) to save a QCT report as a graphic file, (2) to recognize the characters from an image as a text, (3) to extract the T scores from the text, (4) to perform error correction, (5) to reformat the values into QCT radiology reporting template, and (6) to paste the reports into the electronic medical record (EMR) or picture archiving and communicating system (PACS). The accuracy test of OCR was performed on randomly selected QCTs. QCT as a radiology reporting tool successfully acted as OCR of QCT. The diagnosis of normal, osteopenia, or osteoporosis is also determined. Error correction of OCR is done with AutoHotkey-coded module. The results of T scores of femoral neck and lumbar vertebrae had an accuracy of 100 and 95.4 %, respectively. A convenient QCT reporting system could be established by utilizing open-source OCR software and open-source macro program. This method can be easily adapted for other QCT applications and PACS/EMR.

  3. Compound Decomposition in Dutch Large Vocabulary Speech Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses compound splitting for Dutch in the context of broadcast news transcription. Language models were created using original text versions and text versions that were decomposed using a data-driven compound splitting algorithm. Language model performances were compared in terms of

  4. Digitization of Full-Text Documents Before Publishing on the Internet: A Case Study Reviewing the Latest Optical Character Recognition Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, Clare M.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews strengths and weaknesses of five optical character recognition (OCR) software packages used to digitize paper documents before publishing on the Internet. Outlines options available and stages of the conversion process. Describes the learning experience of Eurotext, a United Kingdom-based electronic libraries project (eLib). (PEN)

  5. The Impact of a Modified Repeated-Reading Strategy Paired with Optical Character Recognition on the Reading Rates of Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattillo, Suzan Trefry; Heller, Kathryn Wolf; Smith, Maureen

    2004-01-01

    The repeated-reading strategy and optical character recognition were paired to demonstrate a functional relationship between the combined strategies and two factors: the reading rates of students with visual impairments and the students' self-perceptions, or attitudes, toward reading. The results indicated that all five students increased their…

  6. A usability evaluation of an interactive application for halal products using optical character recognition and augmented reality technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Meng Chun; Nizam, Siti Soleha Muhammad; Arshad, Haslina; A'isyah Ahmad Shukri, Saidatul; Hashim, Nurhazarifah Che; Putra, Haekal Mozzia; Abidin, Rimaniza Zainal

    2017-10-01

    This article discusses the usability of an interactive application for halal products using Optical Character Recognition (OCR) and Augmented Reality (AR) technologies. Among the problems that have been identified in this study is that consumers have little knowledge about the E-Code. Therefore, users often have doubts about the halal status of the product. Nowadays, the integrity of halal status can be doubtful due to the actions of some irresponsible people spreading false information about a product. Therefore, an application that uses OCR and AR technology developed in this study will help the users to identify the information content of a product by scanning the E-Code label and by scanning the product's brand to know the halal status of the product. In this application, E-Code on the label of a product is scanned using OCR technology to display information about the E-Code. The product's brand is scan using augmented reality technology to display halal status of the product. The findings reveal that users are satisfied with this application and it is useful and easy to use.

  7. Microscopic recognition and identification of fish meal in compound feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Prins, Theo; Rhee, van de N.; Vliege, J.J.M.; Pinckaers, V.G.Z.

    2017-01-01

    Fish meal is an accepted ingredient in compound feed. Unauthorised application is primarily enforced by visual inspection, i.e., microscopy. In order to document the visually available diversity, fragments of bones and scales of 17 teleost fish species belonging to seven different orders were

  8. Invention and validation of an automated camera system that uses optical character recognition to identify patient name mislabeled samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Charles D; McCarthy, William; Cleveland, David; Messinger, Bonnie L

    2014-03-01

    Mislabeled samples are a serious problem in most clinical laboratories. Published error rates range from 0.39/1000 to as high as 1.12%. Standardization of bar codes and label formats has not yet achieved the needed improvement. The mislabel rate in our laboratory, although low compared with published rates, prompted us to seek a solution to achieve zero errors. To reduce or eliminate our mislabeled samples, we invented an automated device using 4 cameras to photograph the outside of a sample tube. The system uses optical character recognition (OCR) to look for discrepancies between the patient name in our laboratory information system (LIS) vs the patient name on the customer label. All discrepancies detected by the system's software then require human inspection. The system was installed on our automated track and validated with production samples. We obtained 1 009 830 images during the validation period, and every image was reviewed. OCR passed approximately 75% of the samples, and no mislabeled samples were passed. The 25% failed by the system included 121 samples actually mislabeled by patient name and 148 samples with spelling discrepancies between the patient name on the customer label and the patient name in our LIS. Only 71 of the 121 mislabeled samples detected by OCR were found through our normal quality assurance process. We have invented an automated camera system that uses OCR technology to identify potential mislabeled samples. We have validated this system using samples transported on our automated track. Full implementation of this technology offers the possibility of zero mislabeled samples in the preanalytic stage.

  9. Radiation Dose-Rate Extraction from the Camera Image of Quince 2 Robot System using Optical Character Recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Jeong, Kyung Min

    2012-01-01

    In the case of the Japanese Quince 2 robot system, 7 CCD/CMOS cameras were used. 2 CCD cameras of Quince robot are used for the forward and backward monitoring of the surroundings during navigation. And 2 CCD (or CMOS) cameras are used for monitoring the status of front-end and back-end motion mechanics such as flippers and crawlers. A CCD camera with wide field of view optics is used for monitoring the status of the communication (VDSL) cable reel. And another 2 CCD cameras are assigned for reading the indication value of the radiation dosimeter and the instrument. The Quince 2 robot measured radiation in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The CCD camera with wide field-of-view (fisheye) lens reads indicator of the dosimeter loaded on the Quince 2 robot, which was sent to carry out investigating the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor situation. The camera image with gamma ray dose-rate information is transmitted to the remote control site via VDSL communication line. At the remote control site, the radiation information in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor can be perceived by monitoring the camera image. To make up the radiation profile in the surveyed refueling floor, the gamma ray dose-rate information in the image should be converted to numerical value. In this paper, we extract the gamma ray dose-rate value in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor using optical character recognition method

  10. Radiation Dose-Rate Extraction from the Camera Image of Quince 2 Robot System using Optical Character Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In the case of the Japanese Quince 2 robot system, 7 CCD/CMOS cameras were used. 2 CCD cameras of Quince robot are used for the forward and backward monitoring of the surroundings during navigation. And 2 CCD (or CMOS) cameras are used for monitoring the status of front-end and back-end motion mechanics such as flippers and crawlers. A CCD camera with wide field of view optics is used for monitoring the status of the communication (VDSL) cable reel. And another 2 CCD cameras are assigned for reading the indication value of the radiation dosimeter and the instrument. The Quince 2 robot measured radiation in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The CCD camera with wide field-of-view (fisheye) lens reads indicator of the dosimeter loaded on the Quince 2 robot, which was sent to carry out investigating the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor situation. The camera image with gamma ray dose-rate information is transmitted to the remote control site via VDSL communication line. At the remote control site, the radiation information in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor can be perceived by monitoring the camera image. To make up the radiation profile in the surveyed refueling floor, the gamma ray dose-rate information in the image should be converted to numerical value. In this paper, we extract the gamma ray dose-rate value in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor using optical character recognition method

  11. Activation of р-450-depended monooxygenases changing immunotoxicity of phosphoroorganic compounds due to their metabolism character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.F. Zabrodsky

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available It was established that the application of the monooxygenase system inductors (MSI of phenobarbital and benzonal up to acute poisoning of animals by trichlorfom in a dose of 1,0 LD50, metabolized in the organism till production of compounds with higher toxicity caused its immunotoxic properties increase. The experiment was carried out on outbred white rats. the acute dimethyldichlorvinylphosphate (1,0 LD50 poisoning, biotransformation of which proceeded with formation of less-toxic and non-toxic compounds after MSI introduction, caused its decrease of suppression influence on immunity system indices

  12. Functional Anatomy of Recognition of Chinese Multi-Character Words: Convergent Evidence from Effects of Transposable Nonwords, Lexicality, and Word Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Yu, Xi; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Mingxia

    2016-01-01

    This fMRI study aimed to identify the neural mechanisms underlying the recognition of Chinese multi-character words by partialling out the confounding effect of reaction time (RT). For this purpose, a special type of nonword-transposable nonword-was created by reversing the character orders of real words. These nonwords were included in a lexical decision task along with regular (non-transposable) nonwords and real words. Through conjunction analysis on the contrasts of transposable nonwords versus regular nonwords and words versus regular nonwords, the confounding effect of RT was eliminated, and the regions involved in word recognition were reliably identified. The word-frequency effect was also examined in emerged regions to further assess their functional roles in word processing. Results showed significant conjunctional effect and positive word-frequency effect in the bilateral inferior parietal lobules and posterior cingulate cortex, whereas only conjunctional effect was found in the anterior cingulate cortex. The roles of these brain regions in recognition of Chinese multi-character words were discussed.

  13. USING STROKE-BASED OR CHARACTER-BASED SELF-ORGANIZING MAPS IN THE RECOGNITION OF ONLINE, CONNECTED CURSIVE SCRIPT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOMAKER, L

    Comparisons are made between a number of stroke-based and character-based recognizers of connected cursive script. In both approaches a Kohonen self-organizing neural network is used as a feature-vector quantizer. It is found that a ''best match only'' character-based recognizer performs better than

  14. Distinguishing familiarity from fluency for the compound word pair effect in associative recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fahad N; Hockley, William E

    2017-09-01

    We examined whether processing fluency contributes to associative recognition of unitized pre-experimental associations. In Experiments 1A and 1B, we minimized perceptual fluency by presenting each word of pairs on separate screens at both study and test, yet the compound word (CW) effect (i.e., hit and false-alarm rates greater for CW pairs with no difference in discrimination) did not reduce. In Experiments 2A and 2B, conceptual fluency was examined by comparing transparent (e.g., hand bag) and opaque (e.g., rag time) CW pairs in lexical decision and associative recognition tasks. Lexical decision was faster for transparent CWs (Experiment 2A) but in associative recognition, the CW effect did not differ by CW pair type (Experiment 2B). In Experiments 3A and 3B, we examined whether priming that increases processing fluency would influence the CW effect. In Experiment 3A, CW and non-compound word pairs were preceded with matched and mismatched primes at test in an associative recognition task. In Experiment 3B, only transparent and opaque CW pairs were presented. Results showed that presenting matched versus mismatched primes at test did not influence the CW effect. The CW effect in yes-no associative recognition is due to reliance on enhanced familiarity of unitized CW pairs.

  15. Quantification of character-impacting compounds in Ocimum basilicum and 'Pesto alla Genovese' with selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadei, Gianluca; Ross, Brian M

    2012-02-15

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is an important flavourant plant which constitutes the major ingredient of the pasta sauce 'Pesto alla Genovese'. The characteristic smell of basil stems mainly from a handful of terpenoids (methyl cinnamate, eucalyptol, linalool and estragole), the concentration of which varies according to basil cultivars. The simple and rapid analysis of the terpenoid constituents of basil would be useful as a means to optimise harvesting times and to act as a quality control process for basil-containing foodstuffs. Classical analytical techniques such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) are, however, slow, technically demanding and therefore less suitable for routine analysis. A new chemical ionisation technique which allows real-time quantification of traces gases, Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS), was therefore utilised to determine its usefulness for the assay of terpenoid concentrations in basil and pesto sauce headspace. Trace gas analysis was performed using the NO(+) precursor ion which minimised interference from other compounds. Character-impacting compound concentration was measured in basil headspace with good reproducibility and statistically significant differences were observed between cultivars. Quantification of linalool in pesto sauce headspace proved more difficult due to the presence of interfering compounds. This was resolved by careful selection of reaction product ions which allowed us to detect differences between various commercial brands of pesto. We conclude that SIFT-MS may be a valid tool for the fast and reproducible analysis of flavourant terpenoids in basil and basil-derived foodstuffs. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Taking a radical position: Evidence for position specific radical representations in Chinese character recognition using masked priming ERP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Fan eSu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the investigation of orthographic representation of Chinese characters, one question that has stimulated much research is whether radicals (character components are specified for spatial position in a character (e.g. Ding, Peng, & Taft, 2004; Tsang & Chen, 2009. Differing from previous work, component or radical position information in this study is conceived in terms of relative frequency across different positions of characters containing it. A lexical decision task in a masked priming paradigm focusing on radicals with preferred position of occurrence was conducted. A radical position that encompasses more characters than other positions was identified to be the preferred position of a particular radical. The prime that was exposed for 96ms might share a radical with the target in the same or different positions. Moreover, the shared radical appeared either in its preferred or non-preferred position in the target. While response latencies only revealed the effect of graphical similarity, both effects of graphical similarity and radical position preference were found in the ERP results. The former effect was reflected in greater positivity in occipital P1 and greater negativity in N400 for radicals in different positions in prime and target characters. The latter effect manifested as greater negativity in occipital N170 and greater positivity in frontal P200 in the same time window elicited by radicals in their non-preferred position. Equally interesting was the reversal of the effect of radical position preference in N400 with greater negativity associated with radicals in preferred position. These findings identify the early ERP components associated with activation of position-specific radical representations in the orthographic lexicon, and reveal the change in the nature of competition from processing at the radical level to the lexical level.

  17. Recent Advances in Multinuclear NMR Spectroscopy for Chiral Recognition of Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio S. Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR is a powerful tool for the elucidation of chemical structure and chiral recognition. In the last decade, the number of probes, media, and experiments to analyze chiral environments has rapidly increased. The evaluation of chiral molecules and systems has become a routine task in almost all NMR laboratories, allowing for the determination of molecular connectivities and the construction of spatial relationships. Among the features that improve the chiral recognition abilities by NMR is the application of different nuclei. The simplicity of the multinuclear NMR spectra relative to 1H, the minimal influence of the experimental conditions, and the larger shift dispersion make these nuclei especially suitable for NMR analysis. Herein, the recent advances in multinuclear (19F, 31P, 13C, and 77Se NMR spectroscopy for chiral recognition of organic compounds are presented. The review describes new chiral derivatizing agents and chiral solvating agents used for stereodiscrimination and the assignment of the absolute configuration of small organic compounds.

  18. Is the Salivary Gland Associated with Honey Bee Recognition Compounds in Worker Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen J; Correia-Oliveira, Maria E; Shemilt, Sue; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2018-06-07

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) function as recognition compounds with the best evidence coming from social insects such as ants and honey bees. The major exocrine gland involved in hydrocarbon storage in ants is the post-pharyngeal gland (PPG) in the head. It is still not clearly understood where CHCs are stored in the honey bee. The aim of this study was to investigate the hydrocarbons and esters found in five major worker honey bee (Apis mellifera) exocrine glands, at three different developmental stages (newly emerged, nurse, and forager) using a high temperature GC analysis. We found the hypopharyngeal gland contained no hydrocarbons nor esters, and the thoracic salivary and mandibular glands only contained trace amounts of n-alkanes. However, the cephalic salivary gland (CSG) contained the greatest number and highest quantity of hydrocarbons relative to the five other glands with many of the hydrocarbons also found in the Dufour's gland, but at much lower levels. We discovered a series of oleic acid wax esters that lay beyond the detection of standard GC columns. As a bee's activities changed, as it ages, the types of compounds detected in the CSG also changed. For example, newly emerged bees have predominately C 19 -C 23 n-alkanes, alkenes and methyl-branched compounds, whereas the nurses' CSG had predominately C 31:1 and C 33:1 alkene isomers, which are replaced by a series of oleic acid wax esters in foragers. These changes in the CSG were mirrored by corresponding changes in the adults' CHCs profile. This indicates that the CSG may have a parallel function to the PPG found in ants acting as a major storage gland of CHCs. As the CSG duct opens into the buccal cavity the hydrocarbons can be worked into the comb wax and could help explain the role of comb wax in nestmate recognition experiments.

  19. Some methods of encoding simple visual images for use with a sparse distributed memory, with applications to character recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1989-01-01

    To study the problems of encoding visual images for use with a Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM), I consider a specific class of images- those that consist of several pieces, each of which is a line segment or an arc of a circle. This class includes line drawings of characters such as letters of the alphabet. I give a method of representing a segment of an arc by five numbers in a continuous way; that is, similar arcs have similar representations. I also give methods for encoding these numbers as bit strings in an approximately continuous way. The set of possible segments and arcs may be viewed as a five-dimensional manifold M, whose structure is like a Mobious strip. An image, considered to be an unordered set of segments and arcs, is therefore represented by a set of points in M - one for each piece. I then discuss the problem of constructing a preprocessor to find the segments and arcs in these images, although a preprocessor has not been developed. I also describe a possible extension of the representation.

  20. Research on the selection of innovation compound using Possibility Construction Space Theory and fuzzy pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Songhua; Li, Dehua; Nie, Hui

    2009-10-01

    There are a large number of fuzzy concepts and fuzzy phenomena in traditional Chinese medicine, which have led to great difficulties for study of traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, the mathematical methods are used to quantify fuzzy concepts of drugs and prescription. We put forward the process of innovation formulations and selection method in Chinese medicine based on the Possibility Construction Space Theory (PCST) and fuzzy pattern recognition. Experimental results show that the method of selecting medicines from a number of characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine is consistent with the basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine. The results also reflect the integrated effects of the innovation compound. Through the use of the innovation formulations system, we expect to provide software tools for developing new traditional Chinese medicine and to inspire traditional Chinese medicine researchers to develop novel drugs.

  1. The Chinese Lexicon Project: A megastudy of lexical decision performance for 25,000+ traditional Chinese two-character compound words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Yap, Melvin J; Chan, Yuen-Lai; Sze, Wei Ping; Shaoul, Cyrus; Lin, Dan

    2017-08-01

    Using a megastudy approach, we developed a database of lexical variables and lexical decision reaction times and accuracy rates for more than 25,000 traditional Chinese two-character compound words. Each word was responded to by about 33 native Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong. This resource provides a valuable adjunct to influential mega-databases, such as the Chinese single-character, English, French, and Dutch Lexicon Projects. Three analyses were conducted to illustrate the potential uses of the database. First, we compared the proportion of variance in lexical decision performance accounted for by six word frequency measures and established that the best predictor was Cai and Brysbaert's (PLoS One, 5, e10729, 2010) contextual diversity subtitle frequency. Second, we ran virtual replications of three previously published lexical decision experiments and found convergence between the original experiments and the present megastudy. Finally, we conducted item-level regression analyses to examine the effects of theoretically important lexical variables in our normative data. This is the first publicly available large-scale repository of behavioral responses pertaining to Chinese two-character compound word processing, which should be of substantial interest to psychologists, linguists, and other researchers.

  2. Rapid recognition of volatile organic compounds with colorimetric sensor arrays for lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xianhua; Li, Dan; Du, Wei; Yan, Mengqiu; Wang, You; Huo, Danqun; Hou, Changjun

    2018-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath can be used as biomarkers to identify early stages of lung cancer. Herein, we report a disposable colorimetric array that has been constructed from diverse chemo-responsive colorants. Distinguishable difference maps were plotted within 4 min for specifically targeted VOCs. Through the consideration of various chemical interactions with VOCs, the arrays successfully discriminate between 20 different volatile organic compounds in breath that are related to lung cancer. VOCs were identified either with the visualized difference maps or through pattern recognition with an accuracy of at least 90%. No uncertainties or errors were observed in the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Finally, good reproducibility and stability of the array was achieved against changes in humidity. Generally, this work provides fundamental support for construction of simple and rapid VOC sensors. More importantly, this approach provides a hypothesis-free array method for breath testing via VOC profiling. Therefore, this small, rapid, non-invasive, inexpensive, and visualized sensor array is a powerful and promising tool for early screening of lung cancer. Graphical abstract A disposable colorimetric array has been developed with broadly chemo-responsive dyes to incorporate various chemical interactions, through which the arrays successfully discriminate 20 VOCs that are related to lung cancer via difference maps alone or chemometrics within 4 min. The hydrophobic porous matrix provides good stability against changes in humidity.

  3. Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I shall examine the cognitive, heuristic and theoretical functions of the concept of recognition. To evaluate both the explanatory power and the limitations of a sociological concept, the theory construction must be analysed and its actual productivity for sociological theory mus...

  4. Simple and efficient method for region of interest value extraction from picture archiving and communication system viewer with optical character recognition software and macro program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Han; Park, Eun Hae; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2015-01-01

    The objectives are: 1) to introduce a simple and efficient method for extracting region of interest (ROI) values from a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) viewer using optical character recognition (OCR) software and a macro program, and 2) to evaluate the accuracy of this method with a PACS workstation. This module was designed to extract the ROI values on the images of the PACS, and created as a development tool by using open-source OCR software and an open-source macro program. The principal processes are as follows: (1) capture a region of the ROI values as a graphic file for OCR, (2) recognize the text from the captured image by OCR software, (3) perform error-correction, (4) extract the values including area, average, standard deviation, max, and min values from the text, (5) reformat the values into temporary strings with tabs, and (6) paste the temporary strings into the spreadsheet. This principal process was repeated for the number of ROIs. The accuracy of this module was evaluated on 1040 recognitions from 280 randomly selected ROIs of the magnetic resonance images. The input times of ROIs were compared between conventional manual method and this extraction module-assisted input method. The module for extracting ROI values operated successfully using the OCR and macro programs. The values of the area, average, standard deviation, maximum, and minimum could be recognized and error-corrected with AutoHotkey-coded module. The average input times using the conventional method and the proposed module-assisted method were 34.97 seconds and 7.87 seconds, respectively. A simple and efficient method for ROI value extraction was developed with open-source OCR and a macro program. Accurate inputs of various numbers from ROIs can be extracted with this module. The proposed module could be applied to the next generation of PACS or existing PACS that have not yet been upgraded. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Confirmation of 1-Phenylethane-1-thiol as the Character Impact Aroma Compound in Curry Leaves and Its Behavior during Tissue Disruption, Drying, and Frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Martin

    2017-03-15

    The most odor-active compounds previously identified by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis were quantitated in freshly picked curry leaves, either by stable isotope dilution assays in combination with GC-GC-MS or by GC-FID after simultaneous extraction/fractionation. Odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as ratios of concentrations to odor threshold values. The topmost OAVs were obtained for (3Z)-hex-3-enal (grassy; OAV 180 000), (1S)-1-phenylethane-1-thiol (sulfury, burnt; OAV 150 000), (1R)-1-phenylethane-1-thiol (sulfury, burnt; OAV 120 000), (3R)-linalool (citrusy; OAV 58 000), and myrcene (geranium leaf-like; OAV 23 000). The high OAVs calculated for its enantiomers confirmed 1-phenylethane-1-thiol as character impact compound of the typical sulfury and burnt aroma of curry leaves. The 1-phenylethane-1-thiol concentration in curry leaves decreased upon tissue disruption and drying, as well as upon frying of fresh leaves. By contrast, frying of dried leaves led to an increase of 1-phenylethane-1-thiol, indicating a yet unknown thermolabile precursor.

  6. Enhancing of chemical compound and drug name recognition using representative tag scheme and fine-grained tokenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Lai, Po-Ting; Chang, Yung-Chun; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han

    2015-01-01

    The functions of chemical compounds and drugs that affect biological processes and their particular effect on the onset and treatment of diseases have attracted increasing interest with the advancement of research in the life sciences. To extract knowledge from the extensive literatures on such compounds and drugs, the organizers of BioCreative IV administered the CHEMical Compound and Drug Named Entity Recognition (CHEMDNER) task to establish a standard dataset for evaluating state-of-the-art chemical entity recognition methods. This study introduces the approach of our CHEMDNER system. Instead of emphasizing the development of novel feature sets for machine learning, this study investigates the effect of various tag schemes on the recognition of the names of chemicals and drugs by using conditional random fields. Experiments were conducted using combinations of different tokenization strategies and tag schemes to investigate the effects of tag set selection and tokenization method on the CHEMDNER task. This study presents the performance of CHEMDNER of three more representative tag schemes-IOBE, IOBES, and IOB12E-when applied to a widely utilized IOB tag set and combined with the coarse-/fine-grained tokenization methods. The experimental results thus reveal that the fine-grained tokenization strategy performance best in terms of precision, recall and F-scores when the IOBES tag set was utilized. The IOBES model with fine-grained tokenization yielded the best-F-scores in the six chemical entity categories other than the "Multiple" entity category. Nonetheless, no significant improvement was observed when a more representative tag schemes was used with the coarse or fine-grained tokenization rules. The best F-scores that were achieved using the developed system on the test dataset of the CHEMDNER task were 0.833 and 0.815 for the chemical documents indexing and the chemical entity mention recognition tasks, respectively. The results herein highlight the importance

  7. BanglaLekha-Isolated: A multi-purpose comprehensive dataset of Handwritten Bangla Isolated characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Biswas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BanglaLekha-Isolated, a Bangla handwritten isolated character dataset is presented in this article. This dataset contains 84 different characters comprising of 50 Bangla basic characters, 10 Bangla numerals and 24 selected compound characters. 2000 handwriting samples for each of the 84 characters were collected, digitized and pre-processed. After discarding mistakes and scribbles, 1,66,105 handwritten character images were included in the final dataset. The dataset also includes labels indicating the age and the gender of the subjects from whom the samples were collected. This dataset could be used not only for optical handwriting recognition research but also to explore the influence of gender and age on handwriting. The dataset is publicly available at https://data.mendeley.com/datasets/hf6sf8zrkc/2.

  8. PATTERN RECOGNITION STUDIES OF HALOGENATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING CONDUCTING POLYMER SENSOR ARRAYS. (R825323)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct measurement of volatile and semivolatile halogenated organic compounds of environmental interest was carried out using arrays of conducting polymer sensors. Mathematical expressions of the sensor arrays using microscopic polymer network model is described. A classical, non...

  9. Do Dyslexic Individuals Present a Reduced Visual Attention Span? Evidence from Visual Recognition Tasks of Non-Verbal Multi-Character Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeari, Menahem; Isser, Michal; Schiff, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    A controversy has recently developed regarding the hypothesis that developmental dyslexia may be caused, in some cases, by a reduced visual attention span (VAS). To examine this hypothesis, independent of phonological abilities, researchers tested the ability of dyslexic participants to recognize arrays of unfamiliar visual characters. Employing…

  10. Quantitative and pattern recognition analysis of five marker compounds in Raphani semen using high-performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yeon Woo; Lee, Joo Sang; Zhao, Bing Tian; Woo, Mi Hee; Min, Byung Sun [College of Pharmacy, Drug Research and Development Center, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Ah [College of Pharmacy, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Eun, Rhan Woo [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    A rapid and simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array (PDA) analytical method was developed for the quantitative analysis of Raphani Semen (RS). This method was successfully used to determine the five main phenolic compounds found in RS specimens from different production regions. The compounds included sinapine thiocyanate (1), β-d-fructofuranosyl-α-d-(6-O-sinapoyl)-glucopyranoside (2), isorhamnetin 3,4′-di-O-β-d-glucoside (3), β-d-(3-O-sinapoyl)-fructofuranosyl-α-d-(6-O-sinapoyl)-glucopyranoside (4), and β-d-(3,4-O-disinapoyl)-fructofuranosyl-α-d-(6-O-sinapoyl)-glucopyranoside (5). The marker compounds were separated using an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 column (5.0 µm, 150 × 4.6 mm i.d.) by gradient elution with acetonitrile/water/0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as the mobile phase (flow rate, 1.0 mL/min). This method was fully validated with respect to linearity, precision, accuracy, stability, and robustness. The HPLC analytical method was validated to conduct a pattern recognition analysis by repeatedly analyzing 56 seed samples including 55 RS (C01–C49 and K50–K55) and 1 Brassicae Semen samples. In addition, a content standard for RS was proposed. Compounds 1 and 4 were revealed as major components in the HPLC chromatogram, and their contents ranged from 0.06 to 0.20 and 0.02 to 0.35 mg/g, respectively. These results demonstrate the successful development of an analytical method suitable for evaluating the quality and distinguishing the origin of RS. In addition, we briefly describe the crucial liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical conditions for the precise simultaneous quantification of the marker compounds.

  11. Quantitative and pattern recognition analysis of five marker compounds in Raphani semen using high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yeon Woo; Lee, Joo Sang; Zhao, Bing Tian; Woo, Mi Hee; Min, Byung Sun; Kim, Jeong Ah; Eun, Rhan Woo

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array (PDA) analytical method was developed for the quantitative analysis of Raphani Semen (RS). This method was successfully used to determine the five main phenolic compounds found in RS specimens from different production regions. The compounds included sinapine thiocyanate (1), β-d-fructofuranosyl-α-d-(6-O-sinapoyl)-glucopyranoside (2), isorhamnetin 3,4′-di-O-β-d-glucoside (3), β-d-(3-O-sinapoyl)-fructofuranosyl-α-d-(6-O-sinapoyl)-glucopyranoside (4), and β-d-(3,4-O-disinapoyl)-fructofuranosyl-α-d-(6-O-sinapoyl)-glucopyranoside (5). The marker compounds were separated using an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 column (5.0 µm, 150 × 4.6 mm i.d.) by gradient elution with acetonitrile/water/0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as the mobile phase (flow rate, 1.0 mL/min). This method was fully validated with respect to linearity, precision, accuracy, stability, and robustness. The HPLC analytical method was validated to conduct a pattern recognition analysis by repeatedly analyzing 56 seed samples including 55 RS (C01–C49 and K50–K55) and 1 Brassicae Semen samples. In addition, a content standard for RS was proposed. Compounds 1 and 4 were revealed as major components in the HPLC chromatogram, and their contents ranged from 0.06 to 0.20 and 0.02 to 0.35 mg/g, respectively. These results demonstrate the successful development of an analytical method suitable for evaluating the quality and distinguishing the origin of RS. In addition, we briefly describe the crucial liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical conditions for the precise simultaneous quantification of the marker compounds

  12. Character & Cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2009-01-01

    They say first impressions can be deceiving. The difficulty of getting to know someone increases when that person is mostly fictional. Whatever the author writes is all readers can know. Whatever they read about the character is all they have to go on. Now take it another step back, and imagine a portrait drawing, painting or print of that…

  13. Believable Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nasr, Magy Seif; Bishko, Leslie; Zammitto, Veronica; Nixon, Michael; Vasiliakos, Athanasios V.; Wei, Huaxin

    The interactive entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1996, the U.S. entertainment software industry reported 2.6 billion in sales revenue, this figure has more than tripled in 2007 yielding 9.5 billion in revenues [1]. In addition, gamers, the target market for interactive entertainment products, are now reaching beyond the traditional 8-34 year old male to include women, Hispanics, and African Americans [2]. This trend has been observed in several markets, including Japan, China, Korea, and India, who has just published their first international AAA title (defined as high quality games with high budget), a 3D third person action game: Ghajini - The Game [3]. The topic of believable characters is becoming a central issue when designing and developing games for today's game industry. While narrative and character were considered secondary to game mechanics, games are currently evolving to integrate characters, narrative, and drama as part of their design. One can see this pattern through the emergence of games like Assassin's Creed (published by Ubisoft 2008), Hotel Dusk (published by Nintendo 2007), and Prince of Persia series (published by Ubisoft), which emphasized character and narrative as part of their design.

  14. A Preliminary study on the Biased Attention and Interpretation in the Recognition of Face-body Compound of the Individuals with Social Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyun eKim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the processes through which individuals with social anxiety attend to and interpret compound emotional expressions of the face and body. Incongruent face-body compound images that combined an angry face (or body with a fearful, sad, or happy body (or face were presented to a social anxiety group (SA; n=22 and a healthy control group (HC; n=22. The participants were instructed to interpret the emotional state of the image, and their eye-movements and behavioral responses were measured. The results revealed that both group showed longer scanpath length during the recognition of compound images which combined angry face with angry, fearful, sadness, or happy body. The SA group also showed longer scanpath length in congruent face-body compound images of fear and sad. Additionally, the SA group fixated for a shorter period of time on the face and longer on the body than the HC group. Regarding emotion interpretation, the SA group was more likely to interpret the emotional state of incongruent face-body compound images based on the body than the HC group. These findings provide a preliminary observation that individuals with social anxiety showed different attentional bias pattern by congruency of face-body compound images and that it might have biased their interpretations of the emotional states.

  15. Characters with personality!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Brandenburgh, A.; Muller, T.J.; Heuvelink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Serious games offer an opportunity for learning communication skills by practicing conversations with one or more virtual characters, provided that the character(s) behave in accordance with their assigned properties and strate-gies. This paper presents an approach for developing virtual characters

  16. New technique for number-plate recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Shi, Peng-Fei

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents an alternative algorithm for number plate recognition. The algorithm consists of three modules. Respectively, they are number plate location module, character segmentation module and character recognition module. Number plate location module extracts the number plate from the detected car image by analyzing the color and the texture properties. Different from most license plate location methods, the algorithm has fewer limits to the car size, the car position in the image and the image background. Character segmentation module applies connected region algorithm both to eliminate noise points and to segment characters. Touching characters and broken characters can be processed correctly. Character recognition module recognizes characters with HHIC (Hierarchical Hybrid Integrated Classifier). The system has been tested with 100 images obtained from crossroad and parking lot, etc, where the cars have different size, position, background and illumination. Successful recognition rate is about 92%. The average processing time is 1.2 second.

  17. Actor/Character Dualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  18. Benchmark for license plate character segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gabriel Resende; da Silva, Sirlene Pio Gomes; Menotti, David; Shwartz, William Robson

    2016-09-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) has been the focus of many researches in the past years. In general, ALPR is divided into the following problems: detection of on-track vehicles, license plate detection, segmentation of license plate characters, and optical character recognition (OCR). Even though commercial solutions are available for controlled acquisition conditions, e.g., the entrance of a parking lot, ALPR is still an open problem when dealing with data acquired from uncontrolled environments, such as roads and highways when relying only on imaging sensors. Due to the multiple orientations and scales of the license plates captured by the camera, a very challenging task of the ALPR is the license plate character segmentation (LPCS) step, because its effectiveness is required to be (near) optimal to achieve a high recognition rate by the OCR. To tackle the LPCS problem, this work proposes a benchmark composed of a dataset designed to focus specifically on the character segmentation step of the ALPR within an evaluation protocol. Furthermore, we propose the Jaccard-centroid coefficient, an evaluation measure more suitable than the Jaccard coefficient regarding the location of the bounding box within the ground-truth annotation. The dataset is composed of 2000 Brazilian license plates consisting of 14000 alphanumeric symbols and their corresponding bounding box annotations. We also present a straightforward approach to perform LPCS efficiently. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation for the dataset based on five LPCS approaches and demonstrate the importance of character segmentation for achieving an accurate OCR.

  19. Two-tier architecture for unconstrained handwritten character ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This approach uses the Kohonen self-organizing neural network for data classification in the ... Traditional classifiers test the ..... Trier O D, Jain A K, Taxt T 1996 Feature extraction methods for character recognition – A survey. Pattern Recogn.

  20. Target recognition by wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhengdong; He Wuliang; Zheng Xiaodong; Cheng Jiayuan; Peng Wen; Pei Chunlan; Song Chen

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transform has an important character of multi-resolution power, which presents pyramid structure, and this character coincides the way by which people distinguish object from coarse to fineness and from large to tiny. In addition to it, wavelet transform benefits to reducing image noise, simplifying calculation, and embodying target image characteristic point. A method of target recognition by wavelet transform is provided

  1. Essays on Character & Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Children and Families at Brookings, 2014

    2014-01-01

    These essays provide richer set of writings on the philosophical, empirical and practical issues raised by a focus on character, and in particular its relationship to questions of opportunity. Each one is an intellectual pemmican: sharp and to the point. Two scholars draw attention to the gendered nature of character formation (Segal and Lexmond);…

  2. Social character of materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A; Hunt, J M; Kernan, J B

    2000-06-01

    Scores for 170 undergraduates on Richins and Dawson's Materialism scale were correlated with scores on Kassarjian's Social Preference Scale, designed to measure individuals' character structure. A correlation of .26 between materialism and other-directed social character suggested that an externally oriented reference system guides materialists' perceptions, judgments, acquisitions, and possessions.

  3. Character Development in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Glenn R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Explored the effects of a program consisting of communication and counseling skills, assertiveness training and moral dilemmas on the character development of high school students. The results demonstrated that the character development of the students in the experimental treatment group was affected significantly over time by the program.…

  4. Drawing and Recognizing Chinese Characters with Recurrent Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Yao; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Cheng-Lin; Bengio, Yoshua

    2018-04-01

    Recent deep learning based approaches have achieved great success on handwriting recognition. Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world. Previous research has mainly focused on recognizing handwritten Chinese characters. However, recognition is only one aspect for understanding a language, another challenging and interesting task is to teach a machine to automatically write (pictographic) Chinese characters. In this paper, we propose a framework by using the recurrent neural network (RNN) as both a discriminative model for recognizing Chinese characters and a generative model for drawing (generating) Chinese characters. To recognize Chinese characters, previous methods usually adopt the convolutional neural network (CNN) models which require transforming the online handwriting trajectory into image-like representations. Instead, our RNN based approach is an end-to-end system which directly deals with the sequential structure and does not require any domain-specific knowledge. With the RNN system (combining an LSTM and GRU), state-of-the-art performance can be achieved on the ICDAR-2013 competition database. Furthermore, under the RNN framework, a conditional generative model with character embedding is proposed for automatically drawing recognizable Chinese characters. The generated characters (in vector format) are human-readable and also can be recognized by the discriminative RNN model with high accuracy. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of using RNNs as both generative and discriminative models for the tasks of drawing and recognizing Chinese characters.

  5. Diradical character of some fluoranthenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVETLANA MARKOVIĆ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that some Kekuléan fluoranthenes are diradicals and that their ground state is a triplet. In the energetically less favorable singlet state, these hydrocarbons also exhibit pronounced diradical character. The diradical character y of the compounds under investigation was estimated using the unrestricted symmetry-broken (yPUHF and complete active space (yNOON methods. It was found that the yPUHF values better reproduce the diradical character of the investigated hydrocarbons. It was shown that singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO and SOMO-1 of a diradical structure occupy different parts of space with a small shared region, resulting in a spin density distribution over the entire molecule. The spatial diradical distribution in the singlet diradical structures was examined by inspecting the HOMOs and LUMOs for a and b spin electrons. It was shown that the a-HOMO and the b-LUMO (as well as the b-HOMO and the a-LUMO occupy practically the same part of space. In this way, there are no unpaired electrons in a singlet diradical structure, yet two of them occupy different parts of space, thus allowing the p-electrons to delocalize.

  6. Madness in Shakespeare's Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Borja-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with an introduction where the aims are explained: a psychopathological analysis of a Shakespearean character - Othello – followed by the discussion of the English dramatist’s importance in helping us understand madness in the emergent world of Renaissance. The main characteristics of Othello’s personality, which allowed the development of his jealousy delusion, are described. Finally, the conclusions underline the overlap of the symptoms developed by the character with the DSM-IV classification.

  7. Character, attitude and disposition

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Recent debate over the empirical psychological presuppositions of virtue ethics has focused on reactive behavioural dispositions. But there are many character traits that cannot be understood properly in this way. Such traits are well described by attitude psychology. Moreover, the findings of attitude psychology support virtue ethics in three ways. First, they confirm the role of habituation in the development of character. Further, they show virtue ethics to be compatible with the situation...

  8. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Classification and recognition of handwritten digits by using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The problem of handwriting recognition has been studied for decades and ... tially completed work of character recognition using mathematical morphology. ... There are ten digits in English language and each digit is differentiated from the ...

  10. A Study Of The Effects Of Computer Animated Character Body Style On Perception Of Facial Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Cissell, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This study examined if there is a difference in viewer perception of computer animated character facial expressions based on character body style, specifically, realistic and stylized character body styles. Participants viewed twenty clips of computer animated characters expressing one of five emotions: sadness, happiness, anger, surprise and fear. They then named the emotion and rated the sincerity, intensity, and typicality of each clip. The results indicated that for recognition, participa...

  11. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It is perhaps a facet of human nature that makes a person want to beking, and to control others. The character "王" was originally"王",symbolizing the emerald prayer beads worn exclusively by the king. Inthe course of this character’s evolution, however, new connotations were

  12. Cinematography and character depiction

    OpenAIRE

    William Francis Nicholson

    2011-01-01

    This essay investigates the ways in which cinematography can be used in depicting characters effectively in the motion picture medium. Since an aspiring filmmaker may be overwhelmed by the expansive field of cinematography, this essay aims to demystify and systematise this aspect of filmmaking. It combines information from written sources (mostly text books on filmmaking and cinematography) with observations made from viewing recent and older feature films. The knowledge is organised under th...

  13. Crystal structure of mixed ligand compound [HgPhen{(C2H5)2NCS2}2] and character of intermolecular interaction in the structures of [MPhen{(C2H5)2NCS2}2] (M = Zn, Cd, Hg) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevtsova, R.F.; Glinskaya, L.A.; Zemskova, S.M.; Larionov, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    Monocrystals of mixed ligand complex [HgPhen(Et 2 NCS 2 ) 2 ] (Phen = 1, 10-phenanthroline) have been prepared and by the method of X-ray diffraction its crystal structure has been determined. The structure of mercury complex has been compared with structures of previously studied cadmium and zinc complexes similar in composition. The character of interaction between molecules of cadmium, zinc, mercury mixed ligand complexes and ways of their packing have been considered. It is shown that the structure of the complexes presents a molecular group assembled from two monomeric compounds at the expense of interaction between heterocyclic ligands contained in the mixed ligand complexes [ru

  14. Recognizing Chinese characters in digital ink from non-native language writers using hierarchical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hao; Zhang, Xi-wen

    2017-06-01

    While Chinese is learned as a second language, its characters are taught step by step from their strokes to components, radicals to components, and their complex relations. Chinese Characters in digital ink from non-native language writers are deformed seriously, thus the global recognition approaches are poorer. So a progressive approach from bottom to top is presented based on hierarchical models. Hierarchical information includes strokes and hierarchical components. Each Chinese character is modeled as a hierarchical tree. Strokes in one Chinese characters in digital ink are classified with Hidden Markov Models and concatenated to the stroke symbol sequence. And then the structure of components in one ink character is extracted. According to the extraction result and the stroke symbol sequence, candidate characters are traversed and scored. Finally, the recognition candidate results are listed by descending. The method of this paper is validated by testing 19815 copies of the handwriting Chinese characters written by foreign students.

  15. Handwritten recognition of Tamil vowels using deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Prashanth, N.; Siddarth, B.; Ganesh, Anirudh; Naveen Kumar, Vaegae

    2017-11-01

    We come across a large volume of handwritten texts in our daily lives and handwritten character recognition has long been an important area of research in pattern recognition. The complexity of the task varies among different languages and it so happens largely due to the similarity between characters, distinct shapes and number of characters which are all language-specific properties. There have been numerous works on character recognition of English alphabets and with laudable success, but regional languages have not been dealt with very frequently and with similar accuracies. In this paper, we explored the performance of Deep Belief Networks in the classification of Handwritten Tamil vowels, and conclusively compared the results obtained. The proposed method has shown satisfactory recognition accuracy in light of difficulties faced with regional languages such as similarity between characters and minute nuances that differentiate them. We can further extend this to all the Tamil characters.

  16. Actualism and Fictional Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leclerc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2016v20n1p61 In what follows, I present only part of a program that consists in developing a version of actualism as an adequate framework for the metaphysics of intentionality. I will try to accommodate in that framework suggestions found in Kripke’s works and some positions developed by Amie Thomasson. What should we change if we accept “fictional entities” in the domain of the actual world? Actualism is the thesis that everything that exists belongs to the domain of the actual world and that there are no possibilia. I shall defend that there are abstract artefacts, like fictional characters, and institutions. My argument could be seen as a version of Moore’s paradox: it is paradoxical to say: “I made (created it, but I do not believe it exists”. Moreover, there are true sentences about them. I will examine what it means to include abstract artefacts in the domain of the actual world. I favour a use of “exist” that includes beings with no concrete occupation of tri-dimensional space; to exist, it is enough to have been introduced at some moment in history. Abstract artefacts, like fictional characters, exist in that sense. I argue that it is important to distinguish two perspectives (internal and external in order to clarify the kind of knowledge we have of fictional characters. However, their existence presupposes a relation of dependence to a material basis and the mental activities of many people.

  17. The typeface character

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Research from the fields of neuroscience and psychology, shows that typefaces can carry different semantic associations. However, to be able to read a text, the reader can no longer focus on the character of the typeface, as the human mind is incapable of simultaneously giving full attention to d...... to different matters. This results in the inherent conflict of typefaces that they on one hand need to draw attention to themselves, and on the other hand need to let go of this attention for the content to be read....

  18. Chinese Characters Elicit Face-Like N170 Inversion Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man-Ying; Kuo, Bo-Cheng; Cheng, Shih-Kuen

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of both faces and Chinese characters is commonly believed to rely on configural information. While faces typically exhibit behavioral and N170 inversion effects that differ from non-face stimuli (Rossion, Joyce, Cottrell, & Tarr, 2003), the current study examined whether a similar reliance on configural processing may result in similar…

  19. Document recognition serving people with disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchterman, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Document recognition advances have improved the lives of people with print disabilities, by providing accessible documents. This invited paper provides perspectives on the author's career progression from document recognition professional to social entrepreneur applying this technology to help people with disabilities. Starting with initial thoughts about optical character recognition in college, it continues with the creation of accurate omnifont character recognition that did not require training. It was difficult to make a reading machine for the blind in a commercial setting, which led to the creation of a nonprofit social enterprise to deliver these devices around the world. This network of people with disabilities scanning books drove the creation of Bookshare.org, an online library of scanned books. Looking forward, the needs for improved document recognition technology to further lower the barriers to reading are discussed. Document recognition professionals should be proud of the positive impact their work has had on some of society's most disadvantaged communities.

  20. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  1. Vehicle license plate recognition based on geometry restraints and multi-feature decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianwei; Wang, Zongyue

    2005-10-01

    Vehicle license plate (VLP) recognition is of great importance to many traffic applications. Though researchers have paid much attention to VLP recognition there has not been a fully operational VLP recognition system yet for many reasons. This paper discusses a valid and practical method for vehicle license plate recognition based on geometry restraints and multi-feature decision including statistical and structural features. In general, the VLP recognition includes the following steps: the location of VLP, character segmentation, and character recognition. This paper discusses the three steps in detail. The characters of VLP are always declining caused by many factors, which makes it more difficult to recognize the characters of VLP, therefore geometry restraints such as the general ratio of length and width, the adjacent edges being perpendicular are used for incline correction. Image Moment has been proved to be invariant to translation, rotation and scaling therefore image moment is used as one feature for character recognition. Stroke is the basic element for writing and hence taking it as a feature is helpful to character recognition. Finally we take the image moment, the strokes and the numbers of each stroke for each character image and some other structural features and statistical features as the multi-feature to match each character image with sample character images so that each character image can be recognized by BP neural net. The proposed method combines statistical and structural features for VLP recognition, and the result shows its validity and efficiency.

  2. Character impact odorants of fennel fruits and fennel tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Annette; Rychlik, Michael

    2006-05-17

    The flavor of fennel fruits and fennel tea was examined by aroma extract dilution analysis of the respective dichloromethane extracts. In both fennel fruits and tea, trans-anethole, anisaldehyde, and trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal showed high flavor dilution (FD) factors followed by fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, estragole, and beta-myrcene. On the basis of these results, the odorants showing higher FD factors were quantified in tea as well as in fruits, and odor activity values (OAV) in tea were calculated by dividing the concentration of the compound by its recognition threshold in water. The highest OAV was found for trans-anethole, followed by estragole, fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and anisaldehyde. From a comparison of the concentrations of odorants in fruits and tea, trans-anethole and estragole showed similar extraction rates of approximately 10-15%, whereas the extraction rates for (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and limonene were below 2%. In contrast to this, fenchone, camphor, linalool, and carvone showed higher extraction rates (26-50%), whereas the high apparent extraction rates of anisalcohol (393%) and vanilline (480%) were attributed to the formation from precursors. Sensory studies of aqueous models containing odorants in the amounts quantified in fennel teas revealed high similarity of the models with the tea and proved that all impact odorants had been identified in their correct concentrations. Further sensory experiments showed that estragole had no odor impact on the overall flavor of fennel tea, and, therefore, a reduction of estragole in fennel products would have no negative impact on their sensoric quality. In contrast to this, trans-anethole and fenchone were found to be character impact compounds of fennel.

  3. Javanese Character Feature Extraction Based on Shape Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galih Hendra Wibowo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Javanese character is one of Indonesia's noble culture, especially in Java. However, the number of Javanese people who are able to read the letter has decreased so that there need to be conservation efforts in the form of a system that is able to recognize the characters. One solution to these problem lies in Optical Character Recognition (OCR studies, where one of its heaviest points lies in feature extraction which is to distinguish each character. Shape Energy is one of feature extraction method with the basic idea of how the character can be distinguished simply through its skeleton. Based on the basic idea, then the development of feature extraction is done based on its components to produce an angular histogram with various variations of multiples angle. Furthermore, the performance test of this method and its basic method is performed in Javanese character dataset, which has been obtained from various images, is 240 data with 19 labels by using K-Nearest Neighbors as its classification method. Performance values were obtained based on the accuracy which is generated through the Cross-Validation process of 80.83% in the angular histogram with an angle of 20 degrees, 23% better than Shape Energy. In addition, other test results show that this method is able to recognize rotated character with the lowest performance value of 86% at 180-degree rotation and the highest performance value of 96.97% at 90-degree rotation. It can be concluded that this method is able to improve the performance of Shape Energy in the form of recognition of Javanese characters as well as robust to the rotation.

  4. Application of optical character recognition in thermal image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, W. T.; Sim, K. S.; Tso, C. P.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the reliability of the thermal imager compared to other devices that are used in preventive maintenance. Several case studies are used to facilitate the comparisons. When any device is found to perform unsatisfactorily where there is a suspected fault, its short-fall is determined so that the other devices may compensate, if possible. This study discovered that the thermal imager is not suitable or efficient enough for systems that happen to have little contrast in temperature between its parts or small but important parts that have their heat signatures obscured by those from other parts. The thermal imager is also found to be useful for preliminary examinations of certain systems, after which other more economical devices are suitable substitutes for further examinations. The findings of this research will be useful to the design and planning of preventive maintenance routines for industrial benefits.

  5. A survey on optical character recognition for Bangla and Devanagari ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fujisawa 2008). ... out human involvement, (ii) reading aid for the blind, (iii) automatic text entry into ... various techniques being applied for classification, and highlights the .... are fused using a simple majority voting scheme to arrive at a final decision.

  6. Artificial neural network model for Yoruba character recognition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Computer Science and Its Application. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Maya Studio Projects Photorealistic Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Create realistic characters with Maya tools and this project-based book Maya character generation tools are extremely sophisticated, and there's no better way to learn all their capabilities than by working through the projects in this hands-on book. This official guide focuses on understanding and implementing Maya's powerful tools for creating realistic characters for film, games, and TV. Use a variety of tools to create characters from skeleton to clothing, including hairstyles and facial hair, and learn how to use Performance Capture. A DVD includes supplementary videos, project support fi

  8. Simple and ultra-fast recognition and quantitation of compounded monoclonal antibodies: Application to flow injection analysis combined to UV spectroscopy and matching method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccoulet, E; Schweitzer-Chaput, A; Toussaint, B; Prognon, P; Caudron, E

    2018-09-01

    Compounding of monoclonal antibody (mAbs) constantly increases in hospital. Quality control (QC) of the compounded mAbs based on quantification and identification is required to prevent potential errors and fast method is needed to manage outpatient chemotherapy administration. A simple and ultra-fast (less than 30 s) method using flow injection analysis associated to least square matching method issued from the analyzer software was performed and evaluated for the routine hospital QC of three compounded mAbs: bevacizumab, infliximab and rituximab. The method was evaluated through qualitative and quantitative parameters. Preliminary analysis of the UV absorption and second derivative spectra of the mAbs allowed us to adapt analytical conditions according to the therapeutic range of the mAbs. In terms of quantitative QC, linearity, accuracy and precision were assessed as specified in ICH guidelines. Very satisfactory recovery was achieved and the RSD (%) of the intermediate precision were less than 1.1%. Qualitative analytical parameters were also evaluated in terms of specificity, sensitivity and global precision through a matrix of confusion. Results showed to be concentration and mAbs dependant and excellent (100%) specificity and sensitivity were reached within specific concentration range. Finally, routine application on "real life" samples (n = 209) from different batch of the three mAbs complied with the specifications of the quality control i.e. excellent identification (100%) and ± 15% of targeting concentration belonging to the calibration range. The successful use of the combination of second derivative spectroscopy and partial least square matching method demonstrated the interest of FIA for the ultra-fast QC of mAbs after compounding using matching method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Which "Character" Should Sport Develop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Andy

    2005-01-01

    For years, strong claims have been made that sport builds character. Despite such claims, a "winning at all cost" mentality can frequently be seen within all of sport. The reason for this paradox may relate to confusion around what it means to demonstrate character. The purpose of this article is to show that there are indeed two distinct types of…

  10. THE NEED FOR CHARACTER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Pala

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Character education is a national movement creatingschools that foster ethical,responsible and caring young people by modelling and teaching good characterthrough emphasis on universal values that we all share. It is the intentional,proactive effort by schools, districts and states to instil in their students importantcore ethical values such as caring, honesty, fairness, responsibility and respect forself and others.Good character is not formed automatically; it is developed over time through asustained process of teaching, example, learning and practice. It is developedthrough character education. The intentional teaching of good character isparticularly important in today’s society since ouryouth face many opportunitiesand dangers unknown to earlier generations. They are bombarded with many morenegative influences through the media and other external sources prevalent intoday’s culture. Since children spend about 900 hours a year in school, it isessential that schools resume a proactive role in assisting families andcommunities by developing caring, respectful environments where students learncore, ethical values. When a comprehensive approachto character education isused, a positive moral culture is created in the school—a total school environmentthat supports the values taught in the classroom (Character Education Partnership,2010.The aim of this study is to provide guidelines forthe elements need for effectiveand comprehensive character education. And to emphasize the need of charactereducation to help students develop good character, which includes knowing,caring about and acting upon core ethical values such as respect, responsibility,honesty, fairness and compassion.

  11. Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Morariu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of speech recognition by pattern recognition techniques. Learning consists in determining the unique characteristics of a word (cepstral coefficients by eliminating those characteristics that are different from one word to another. For learning and recognition, the system will build a dictionary of words by determining the characteristics of each word to be used in the recognition. Determining the characteristics of an audio signal consists in the following steps: noise removal, sampling it, applying Hamming window, switching to frequency domain through Fourier transform, calculating the magnitude spectrum, filtering data, determining cepstral coefficients.

  12. A DNA-Encoded Library of Chemical Compounds Based on Common Scaffolding Structures Reveals the Impact of Ligand Geometry on Protein Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalli, Nicholas; Biendl, Stefan; Hartmann, Marco; Piazzi, Jacopo; Sladojevich, Filippo; Gräslund, Susanne; Brown, Peter J; Näreoja, Katja; Schüler, Herwig; Scheuermann, Jörg; Franzini, Raphael; Neri, Dario

    2018-06-01

    A DNA-encoded chemical library (DECL) with 1.2 million compounds was synthesized by combinatorial reaction of seven central scaffolds with two sets of 343×492 building blocks. Library screening by affinity capture revealed that for some target proteins, the chemical nature of building blocks dominated the selection results, whereas for other proteins, the central scaffold also crucially contributed to ligand affinity. Molecules based on a 3,5-bis(aminomethyl)benzoic acid core structure were found to bind human serum albumin with a K d value of 6 nm, while compounds with the same substituents on an equidistant but flexible l-lysine scaffold showed 140-fold lower affinity. A 18 nm tankyrase-1 binder featured l-lysine as linking moiety, while molecules based on d-Lysine or (2S,4S)-amino-l-proline showed no detectable binding to the target. This work suggests that central scaffolds which predispose the orientation of chemical building blocks toward the protein target may enhance the screening productivity of encoded libraries. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Holistic Processing of Chinese Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Chun-Nang Wong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced holistic processing (obligatory attention to all parts of an object has been associated with different types of perceptual expertise involving faces, cars, fingerprints, musical notes, English words, etc. Curiously Chinese characters are regarded as an exception, as indicated by the lack of holistic processing found for experts (Hsiao and Cottrell, 2009. The ceiling performance of experts, however, may have caused this null effect. We revisit this issue by adopting the often-used face-composite sequential-matching task to two-part Chinese characters. Participants matched the target halves (left or right of two characters while ignoring the irrelevant halves. Both Chinese readers (experts and non-Chinese readers (novices showed holistic processing. Follow-up experiments suggested different origins of the effects for the two groups. For experts, holistic processing was sensitive to the amount of experience with the characters, as it was larger for words than non-words (formed by swapping the two parts of a valid character. Novices, however, showed similar degree of holistic processing to words and non-words, suggesting that their effects were more related to their inefficient decomposition of a complex, character-like pattern into parts. Overall these findings suggest that holistic processing may be a marker of expertise with Chinese characters, contrary to previous claims.

  14. Cuticular Compounds Bring New Insight in the Post-Glacial Recolonization of a Pyrenean Area: Deutonura deficiens Deharveng, 1979 Complex, a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porco, David; Bedos, Anne; Deharveng, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Background In most Arthropod groups, the study of systematics and evolution rely mostly on neutral characters, in this context cuticular compounds, as non-neutral characters, represent an underexplored but potentially informative type of characters at the infraspecific level as they have been routinely proven to be involved in sexual attraction. Methods and Findings The collembolan species complex Deutonura deficiens was chosen as a model in order to test the utility of these characters for delineating four infraspecific entities of this group. Specimens were collected for three subspecies (D. d. deficiens, D. d. meridionalis, D. d. sylvatica) and two morphotypes (D. d. sylvatica morphoype A and B) of the complex; an additional species D. monticola was added. Cuticular compounds were extracted and separated by gas chromatography for each individual. Our results demonstrate that cuticular compounds succeeded in separating the different elements of this complex. Those data allowed also the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships among them. Conclusions The discriminating power of cuticular compounds is directly related to their involvement in sexual attraction and mate recognition. These findings allowed a discussion on the potential involvement of intrinsic and paleoclimatic factors in the origin and the diversification of this complex in the Pyrenean zone. This character type brings the first advance from pattern to process concerning the origin of this species complex. PMID:21209797

  15. Cuticular compounds bring new insight in the post-glacial recolonization of a Pyrenean area: Deutonura deficiens Deharveng, 1979 complex, a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porco, David; Bedos, Anne; Deharveng, Louis

    2010-12-21

    In most Arthropod groups, the study of systematics and evolution rely mostly on neutral characters, in this context cuticular compounds, as non-neutral characters, represent an underexplored but potentially informative type of characters at the infraspecific level as they have been routinely proven to be involved in sexual attraction. The collembolan species complex Deutonura deficiens was chosen as a model in order to test the utility of these characters for delineating four infraspecific entities of this group. Specimens were collected for three subspecies (D. d. deficiens, D. d. meridionalis, D. d. sylvatica) and two morphotypes (D. d. sylvatica morphoype A and B) of the complex; an additional species D. monticola was added. Cuticular compounds were extracted and separated by gas chromatography for each individual. Our results demonstrate that cuticular compounds succeeded in separating the different elements of this complex. Those data allowed also the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships among them. The discriminating power of cuticular compounds is directly related to their involvement in sexual attraction and mate recognition. These findings allowed a discussion on the potential involvement of intrinsic and paleoclimatic factors in the origin and the diversification of this complex in the Pyrenean zone. This character type brings the first advance from pattern to process concerning the origin of this species complex.

  16. BACS: The Brussels Artificial Character Sets for studies in cognitive psychology and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Camille; Content, Alain; Chetail, Fabienne

    2017-12-01

    Written symbols such as letters have been used extensively in cognitive psychology, whether to understand their contributions to written word recognition or to examine the processes involved in other mental functions. Sometimes, however, researchers want to manipulate letters while removing their associated characteristics. A powerful solution to do so is to use new characters, devised to be highly similar to letters, but without the associated sound or name. Given the growing use of artificial characters in experimental paradigms, the aim of the present study was to make available the Brussels Artificial Character Sets (BACS): two full, strictly controlled, and portable sets of artificial characters for a broad range of experimental situations.

  17. Character profiles and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwanjin; Suh, Byung Seong; Kim, Won Sool; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Kounseok

    2015-04-01

    There is a surge of interest in subjective well-being (SWB), which concerns how individuals feel about their happiness. Life satisfaction tends to be influenced by individual psychological traits and external social factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual character and SWB. Data from 3522 university students were analyzed in this study. Character profiles were evaluated using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short version (TCI-RS). Life satisfaction was assessed using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). All statistical tests regarding the correlations between each character profile and life satisfaction were conducted using ANOVAs, t-tests, multiple linear regression models and correlation analyses. The creative (SCT) profile was associated with the highest levels of life satisfaction, whereas the depressive (sct) profile was associated with the lowest levels of life satisfaction. Additionally, high self-directedness, self-transcendence and cooperation were associated with high life satisfaction. The results of gender-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that the effects of self-directedness were the strongest in the assessment of one's quality of life, followed by self-transcendence and cooperativeness, in that order. All of the three-character profiles were significantly correlated with one's quality of life, and the character profiles of TCI-RS explained 27.6% of life satisfaction in total. Among the three-character profiles, the self-directedness profile was most associated with life satisfaction. Our study was cross-sectional, and self-reported data from students at a single university were analyzed. The results of this study showed that, among the character profiles, the effects of self-directedness were the strongest for predicting life satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of Radical Awareness in Chinese-As-A-Second-Language Learners' Chinese Character Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu Ka

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the role of radical awareness in Chinese character reading development among young Chinese-as-a-second-language (CSL) learners is evaluated in terms of a structural property of the writing system: the distribution of elementary, one-radical (i.e. one-element) simple characters as against majority, multi-radical compound characters.…

  19. Holistic versus Analytic Processing: Evidence for a Different Approach to Processing of Chinese at the Word and Character Levels in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Phil D.; Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tong, Xiuhong

    2010-01-01

    Among 30 Hong Kong Chinese fourth graders, sensitivities to character and word constructions were examined in judgment tasks at each level. There were three conditions across both tasks: the real condition, consisting of either actual two-character compound Chinese words or real Chinese compound characters; the reversed condition, with either the…

  20. Moral character in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong

    2014-11-01

    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment.

  1. Multi-font printed Mongolian document recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liangrui; Liu, Changsong; Ding, Xiaoqing; Wang, Hua; Jin, Jianming

    2009-01-01

    Mongolian is one of the major ethnic languages in China. Large amount of Mongolian printed documents need to be digitized in digital library and various applications. Traditional Mongolian script has unique writing style and multi-font-type variations, which bring challenges to Mongolian OCR research. As traditional Mongolian script has some characteristics, for example, one character may be part of another character, we define the character set for recognition according to the segmented components, and the components are combined into characters by rule-based post-processing module. For character recognition, a method based on visual directional feature and multi-level classifiers is presented. For character segmentation, a scheme is used to find the segmentation point by analyzing the properties of projection and connected components. As Mongolian has different font-types which are categorized into two major groups, the parameter of segmentation is adjusted for each group. A font-type classification method for the two font-type group is introduced. For recognition of Mongolian text mixed with Chinese and English, language identification and relevant character recognition kernels are integrated. Experiments show that the presented methods are effective. The text recognition rate is 96.9% on the test samples from practical documents with multi-font-types and mixed scripts.

  2. Hemispheric processing in reading Chinese characters: statistical, experimental, and cognitive modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Janet Hui-wen

    2006-01-01

    In Chinese orthography, phonetic compounds comprise about 80% of the most frequent characters. They contain separate phonological and semantic elements, referred to as phonetic and semantic radicals respectively. A dominant type exists in which the se-mantic radical appears on the left and the phonetic radical on the right (SP characters); an opposite, minority structure also exists in which the semantic radical appears on the right and the phonetic radical on the left (PS characters). Throug...

  3. Factorized combinations of Virasoro characters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytsko, A.G.; Fring, A.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate linear combinations of characters for minimal Virasoro models which are representable as a product of several basic blocks. Our analysis is based on consideration of asymptotic behaviour of the characters in the quasi-classical limit. In particular, we introduce a notion of the secondary effective central charge. We find all possible cases for which factorization occurs on the base of the Gauss-Jacobi or the Watson identities. Exploiting these results, we establish various types of identities between different characters. In particular, we present several identities generalizing the Rogers-Ramanujan identities. Applications to quasi-particle representations, modular invariant partition functions, super-conformal theories and conformal models with boundaries are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  4. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  5. The Influence of Brand Equity Characters on Children's Food Preferences and Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGale, Lauren Sophie; Halford, Jason Christian Grovenor; Harrold, Joanne Alison; Boyland, Emma Jane

    2016-10-01

    To assess the influence of brand equity characters displayed on food packaging on children's food preferences and choices, 2 studies were conducted. Brand equity characters are developed specifically to represent a particular brand or product. Despite existing literature suggesting that promotional characters influence children's food choices, to date, no research has assessed the influence of brand equity characters specifically. We recruited 209 children 4-8 years of age from schools and childcare centers in the UK. In a mixed-measures design, the children were asked to rate their taste preferences and preferred snack choice for 3 matched food pairs, presented either with or without a brand equity character displayed on packaging. Study 1 addressed congruent food-character associations and study 2 addressed incongruent associations. Participants were also asked to rate their recognition and liking of characters used. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and χ(2) analyses were used where appropriate. Children were significantly more likely to show a preference for foods with a brand equity character displayed on the packaging compared with a matched food without a brand equity character, for both congruent and incongruent food-character associations. The presence of a brand equity character also significantly influenced the children's within-pair preferences, within-pair choices, and overall snack choice (congruent associations only). Displaying brand equity characters promotes unhealthy food choices in children. The findings are consistent with those of studies exploring other types of promotional characters. In the context of a childhood obesity epidemic, the use of brand equity characters in the promotion of foods high in fat, salt, and sugar to children should be restricted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reader, Word, and Character Attributes Contributing to Chinese Children's Concept of Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Lin, Tzu-Jung; Ku, Yu-Min; Zhang, Jie; O'Connell, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Concept of word--the awareness of how words differ from nonwords or other linguistic properties--is important to learning to read Chinese because words in Chinese texts are not separated by space, and most characters can be productively compounded with other characters to form new words. The current study examined the effects of reader, word, and…

  7. Page Recognition: Quantum Leap In Recognition Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry

    1989-07-01

    No milestone has proven as elusive as the always-approaching "year of the LAN," but the "year of the scanner" might claim the silver medal. Desktop scanners have been around almost as long as personal computers. And everyone thinks they are used for obvious desktop-publishing and business tasks like scanning business documents, magazine articles and other pages, and translating those words into files your computer understands. But, until now, the reality fell far short of the promise. Because it's true that scanners deliver an accurate image of the page to your computer, but the software to recognize this text has been woefully disappointing. Old optical-character recognition (OCR) software recognized such a limited range of pages as to be virtually useless to real users. (For example, one OCR vendor specified 12-point Courier font from an IBM Selectric typewriter: the same font in 10-point, or from a Diablo printer, was unrecognizable!) Computer dealers have told me the chasm between OCR expectations and reality is so broad and deep that nine out of ten prospects leave their stores in disgust when they learn the limitations. And this is a very important, very unfortunate gap. Because the promise of recognition -- what people want it to do -- carries with it tremendous improvements in our productivity and ability to get tons of written documents into our computers where we can do real work with it. The good news is that a revolutionary new development effort has led to the new technology of "page recognition," which actually does deliver the promise we've always wanted from OCR. I'm sure every reader appreciates the breakthrough represented by the laser printer and page-makeup software, a combination so powerful it created new reasons for buying a computer. A similar breakthrough is happening right now in page recognition: the Macintosh (and, I must admit, other personal computers) equipped with a moderately priced scanner and OmniPage software (from Caere

  8. A Study of Character among Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupel, Jill D.

    2017-01-01

    The idea that sport builds character has been around for a long time. However, sports may not build the type of character once thought. Character of athletes was defined based on differing views held by sport scholars, coaches, athletes, and sport enthusiast. Sport scholars tend to view character of athletes from a moral perspective. Coaches,…

  9. Building Character through Literacy with Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2014-01-01

    Character education is described as curriculum specifically developed to teach children about the quality and traits of good character. One means in which children can learn about good character is through the pages of high quality children's literature. In this study, the author defines the characteristics of an effective character development…

  10. Identification Of Minangkabau Landscape Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrina, M.; Gunawan, A.; Aris, Munandar

    2017-10-01

    Minangkabau is one of cultures in indonesia which occupies landscape intact. Landscape of Minangkabau have a very close relationship with the culture of the people. Uniqueness of Minangkabau culture and landscape forming an inseparable characterunity. The landscape is necessarily identified to know the inherent landscape characters. The objective of this study was to identify the character of the Minangkabau landscape characterizes its uniqueness. The study was conducted by using descriptive method comprised literature review and field observasion. Observed the landscape characters comprised two main features, they were major and minor features. Indetification of the features was conducted in two original areas (darek) of the Minangkabau traditional society. The research results showed that major features or natural features of the landscape were predominantly landform, landcover, and hidrology. All luhak (districts) of Minangkabau showed similar main features such as hill, canyon, lake, valley, and forest. The existence of natural features such as hills, canyon and valleys characterizes the nature of minangkabau landscape. Minor features formed by Minangkabau cultural society were agricultural land and settlement. Rumah gadang (big house) is one of famous minor features characterizes the Minangkabau culture. In addition, several historical artefacts of building and others structure may strengthen uniqueness of the Minangkabau landscape character, such as The royal palace, inscription, and tunnels.

  11. Understanding Agency and Educating Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Klas

    2011-01-01

    How can we understand human agency, and what does it mean to educate character? In this essay Klas Roth develops a Kantian notion, one that suggests we render ourselves efficacious and autonomous in education and elsewhere. This requires, among other things, that we are successful in bringing about the intended result through our actions and the…

  12. Character Toys as Psychological Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena O.

    2011-01-01

    The main characteristic of children's play is its mental aspect--the fact that it is based on thoughts and feelings and not on objective reality. During imaginary play, children go beyond the limits of reality, and toys are tools that help them to do this. Children need character toys--toys that play the role of companion or partner--in the early…

  13. Can Youth Sport Build Character?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light; Bredemeier, Brenda Light; Power, F. Clark

    2001-01-01

    Participation and competition in some sports are associated with lower stages of moral reasoning. Coaches can foster moral development by starting with the right mental model, holding benchmark meetings about team values, setting goals for physical and character skills, making time for guided discussion sessions, building community, modeling…

  14. WORD LEVEL DISCRIMINATIVE TRAINING FOR HANDWRITTEN WORD RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Gader, P.

    2004-01-01

    Word level training refers to the process of learning the parameters of a word recognition system based on word level criteria functions. Previously, researchers trained lexicon­driven handwritten word recognition systems at the character level individually. These systems generally use statistical

  15. Speech Recognition Technology for Disabilities Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, K. Wendy; Kamoua, Ridha; Sutan, Victor; Farooq, Omer; Eng, Gilbert; Chu, Wei Chern; Hou, Guofeng

    2005-01-01

    Speech recognition is an alternative to traditional methods of interacting with a computer, such as textual input through a keyboard. An effective system can replace or reduce the reliability on standard keyboard and mouse input. This can especially assist dyslexic students who have problems with character or word use and manipulation in a textual…

  16. Speaker Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Jørgensen, Kasper Winther

    2005-01-01

    Speaker recognition is basically divided into speaker identification and speaker verification. Verification is the task of automatically determining if a person really is the person he or she claims to be. This technology can be used as a biometric feature for verifying the identity of a person...

  17. Validity of the growth model of the 'computerized visual perception assessment tool for Chinese characters structures'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huey-Min; Li, Cheng-Hsaun; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Yang, Yu-Mao; Lin, Chin-Kai; Wan, Wei-Hsiang

    2017-08-01

    Morphological awareness is the foundation for the important developmental skills involved with vocabulary, as well as understanding the meaning of words, orthographic knowledge, reading, and writing. Visual perception of space and radicals in two-dimensional positions of Chinese characters' morphology is very important in identifying Chinese characters. The important predictive variables of special and visual perception in Chinese characters identification were investigated in the growth model in this research. The assessment tool is the "Computerized Visual Perception Assessment Tool for Chinese Characters Structures" developed by this study. There are two constructs, basic stroke and character structure. In the basic stroke, there are three subtests of one, two, and more than three strokes. In the character structure, there are three subtests of single-component character, horizontal-compound character, and vertical-compound character. This study used purposive sampling. In the first year, 551 children 4-6 years old participated in the study and were monitored for one year. In the second year, 388 children remained in the study and the successful follow-up rate was 70.4%. This study used a two-wave cross-lagged panel design to validate the growth model of the basic stroke and the character structure. There was significant correlation of the basic stroke and the character structure at different time points. The abilities in the basic stroke and in the character structure steadily developed over time for preschool children. Children's knowledge of the basic stroke effectively predicted their knowledge of the basic stroke and the character structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CAR LICENSE PLATES RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasa Zata Dina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of vehicles on the road has increased drastically in recent years. The license plate is an identity card for a vehicle. It can map to the owner and further information about vehicle. License plate information is useful to help traffic management systems. For example, traffic management systems can check for vehicles moving at speeds not permitted by law and can also be installed in parking areas to se-cure the entrance or exit way for vehicles. License plate recognition algorithms have been proposed by many researchers. License plate recognition requires license plate detection, segmentation, and charac-ters recognition. The algorithm detects the position of a license plate and extracts the characters. Various license plate recognition algorithms have been implemented, and each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. In this research, I implement three algorithms for detecting license plates, three algorithms for segmenting license plates, and two algorithms for recognizing license plate characters. I evaluate each of these algorithms on the same two datasets, one from Greece and one from Thailand. For detecting li-cense plates, the best result is obtained by a Haar cascade algorithm. After the best result of license plate detection is obtained, for the segmentation part a Laplacian based method has the highest accuracy. Last, the license plate recognition experiment shows that a neural network has better accuracy than other algo-rithm. I summarize and analyze the overall performance of each method for comparison.

  19. On characters of finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Broué, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This book explores the classical and beautiful character theory of finite groups. It does it by using some rudiments of the language of categories. Originally emerging from two courses offered at Peking University (PKU), primarily for third-year students, it is now better suited for graduate courses, and provides broader coverage than books that focus almost exclusively on groups. The book presents the basic tools, notions and theorems of character theory (including a new treatment of the control of fusion and isometries), and introduces readers to the categorical language at several levels. It includes and proves the major results on characteristic zero representations without any assumptions about the base field. The book includes a dedicated chapter on graded representations and applications of polynomial invariants of finite groups, and its closing chapter addresses the more recent notion of the Drinfeld double of a finite group and the corresponding representation of GL_2(Z).

  20. Affixation and compounding in Hakka

    OpenAIRE

    Ungsitipoonporn, Siriopen

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to present the internal structures of words in the Hakka language. Similar to other languages, affixation and compounding are outstanding in Hakka. In general, prefixes and suffixes are bound morphemes which do not occur independently, but in Hakka they sometimes appear as independent forms. Apart from single words, identifying compound words is of particular interest. Compound nouns can be made up of two or three words (characters) which ...

  1. Effects on Learning Logographic Character Formation in Computer-Assisted Handwriting Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chen-hui; Kuo, Chin-Hwa; Horng, Wen-Bing; Chen, Chun-Wen

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that investigates how different learning methods might affect the learning process of character handwriting among beginning college learners of Chinese, as measured by tests of recognition, approximate production, precise production, and awareness of conventional stroke sequence. Two methodologies were examined during…

  2. Understanding the Properties of Interactive Televised Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Laura J.; Ponto, Katelyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's television programming frequently uses interactive characters that appear to directly engage the viewers. These characters encourage children to answer questions and perform actions to help the characters solve problems in the televised world. Children readily engage in these interactions; however, it is unclear why they do so. To…

  3. A Review of Virtual Character's Emotion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen

    2008-11-01

    Emotional virtual characters are essential to digital entertainment, an emotion is related to virtual environment and a virtual character's inner variables, emotion model of virtual character is a hot topic in many fields, domain knowledge is very important for modeling emotion, and the current research of emotion expression in the world was also summarized, and some new research directions of emotion model are presented.

  4. Promoting Character Development through Coach Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, F. Clark; Seroczynski, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Can youth sports build character? Research suggests that the answer to this question leads to 2 further questions: (1) can youth sport coaches be effectively prepared to become character educators, and (2) can character education take place in today's competitive youth sport environment? (Bredemeier & Shields, 2006; Power, 2015; Power &…

  5. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  6. Marvel and DC Characters Inspired by Arachnids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiomar Ribeiro Da-Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares arachnid-based Marvel and DC comics characters. The composition of a comic book character often has interesting ‘real-life’ influences. Given the strong connection between arachnids (especially spiders, scorpions and mites, all belonging to the zoological class 'Arachnida' and human beings it is not surprising that they have inspired many fictional characters. We recorded 84 Marvel Comics characters and 40 DC Comics characters, detailed in the dataset that accompanies the article (Da-Silva 2014. Most characters have been created recently, since the 1990s. Marvel has significantly more arachnid characters than DC. As for taxonomic classification, the characters were based mostly on spiders (zoological order 'Araneae'. Of the total characters, the majority are human beings, but an overwhelming number have at least some typical arachnid features. Villains (60.91% of total are significantly more numerous, considering the sum of the two publishers. Arachnids have bad reputation for being dangerous (Thorp and Woodson 1976; Ruppert and Barnes 1996. Since the public usually considers spiders, scorpions and mites “harmful” in general, we expected a larger contingent of villains. However, there was no statistical difference between the amount of villains and heroes in Marvel characters. It did not happen probably due to the success of one character: the Amazing Spider-Man.

  7. Character animation fundamentals developing skills for 2D and 3D character animation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Expand your animation toolkit and remain competitive in the industry with this leading resource for 2D and 3D character animation techniques. Apply the industry's best practices to your own workflows and develop 2D, 3D and hybrid characters with ease. With side by side comparisons of 2D and 3D character design, improve your character animation and master traditional principles and processes including weight and balance, timing and walks. Develop characters inspired by humans, birds, fish, snakes and four legged animals. Breathe life into your character and develop a characters personality w

  8. Description and recognition of patterns in stochastic signals. [Electroencephalograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flik, T [Technische Univ. Berlin (F.R. Germany). Informatik-Forschungsgruppe Rechnerorganisation und Schaltwerke

    1975-10-01

    A method is shown for the description and recognition of patterns in stochastic signals such as electroencephalograms. For pattern extraction the signal is segmented at times of minimum amplitudes. The describing features consist of geometric values of the so defined patterns. The classification algorithm is based on the regression analysis, which is well known in the field of character recognition. For an economic classification a method is proposed which reduces the number of features. The quality of this pattern recognition method is demonstrated by the detection of spike wave complexes in electroencephalograms. The pattern description and recognition are provided for processing on a digital computer. (DE)

  9. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  10. Word-level recognition of multifont Arabic text using a feature vector matching approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Erik J.; Trenkle, John M.; Vogt, Robert C., III

    1996-03-01

    Many text recognition systems recognize text imagery at the character level and assemble words from the recognized characters. An alternative approach is to recognize text imagery at the word level, without analyzing individual characters. This approach avoids the problem of individual character segmentation, and can overcome local errors in character recognition. A word-level recognition system for machine-printed Arabic text has been implemented. Arabic is a script language, and is therefore difficult to segment at the character level. Character segmentation has been avoided by recognizing text imagery of complete words. The Arabic recognition system computes a vector of image-morphological features on a query word image. This vector is matched against a precomputed database of vectors from a lexicon of Arabic words. Vectors from the database with the highest match score are returned as hypotheses for the unknown image. Several feature vectors may be stored for each word in the database. Database feature vectors generated using multiple fonts and noise models allow the system to be tuned to its input stream. Used in conjunction with database pruning techniques, this Arabic recognition system has obtained promising word recognition rates on low-quality multifont text imagery.

  11. An Embedded Application for Degraded Text Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thillou Céline

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a mobile device which tries to give the blind or visually impaired access to text information. Three key technologies are required for this system: text detection, optical character recognition, and speech synthesis. Blind users and the mobile environment imply two strong constraints. First, pictures will be taken without control on camera settings and a priori information on text (font or size and background. The second issue is to link several techniques together with an optimal compromise between computational constraints and recognition efficiency. We will present the overall description of the system from text detection to OCR error correction.

  12. Building innovative and creative character through mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Hardi; Suyitno, Amin

    2018-03-01

    21st century is predicted as the century with rapid development in all aspects of life. People require creative and innovative character to exist. Specifically, mathematics has been given to students from the kindergarten until the middle school. Thus, building character through mathematics should begin since the early age. The problem is how to build creative and innovative character through mathematics education? The goal expected from this question is to build innovative and creative characters to face the challenges of the 21st century. This article discusses the values of mathematics, the values in mathematics education, innovative and creative character, and the integration of these values in teaching mathematics that support the innovative and creative character building, and applying the values in structurely programmed, measurable, and applicable learning activities.

  13. Methods for Presenting Braille Characters on a Mobile Device with a Touchscreen and Tactile Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, J; Raisamo, R; Lylykangas, J; Surakka, V; Raisamo, J; Salminen, K; Pakkanen, T; Hippula, A

    2009-01-01

    Three novel interaction methods were designed for reading six-dot Braille characters from the touchscreen of a mobile device. A prototype device with a piezoelectric actuator embedded under the touchscreen was used to create tactile feedback. The three interaction methods, scan, sweep, and rhythm, enabled users to read Braille characters one at a time either by exploring the characters dot by dot or by sensing a rhythmic pattern presented on the screen. The methods were tested with five blind Braille readers as a proof of concept. The results of the first experiment showed that all three methods can be used to convey information as the participants could accurately (91-97 percent) recognize individual characters. In the second experiment the presentation rate of the most efficient and preferred method, the rhythm, was varied. A mean recognition accuracy of 70 percent was found when the speed of presenting a single character was nearly doubled from the first experiment. The results showed that temporal tactile feedback and Braille coding can be used to transmit single-character information while further studies are still needed to evaluate the presentation of serial information, i.e., multiple Braille characters.

  14. Abusive families and character formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, J B

    1990-06-01

    Family research studies confirm that abusive parents tend to be undifferentiated partners who compete with each other and with their children for attention and nurturance. More or less healthy parents make demands on children to counteract their own injured narcissism, but they do so largely without devaluation and the sadistic use of projective identification. Under sufficient stress abusive parents attack the child who fails to gratify their needs, thereby giving vent to longstanding frustrations and feelings of being threatened by the child's individuation and competency. The emotional atmosphere in such families facilitates ego deficits like those of the borderline personality as it molds the child's efforts to avoid anxiety. Devaluation, loss, and defenses against mourning partially account for depression and paranoid traits in abused youngsters. Early neglect and abuse exposes them to influential models who act out rage and primitive defenses. Some abused individuals project their rage and later become paranoid or antisocial, whereas others fragment or retain infantile defenses. The destructiveness of severe psychological abuse lies in the constriction of the experiencing self and healthy character development, together with the conditioning to repeat abusive relationships and to avoid intimacy. Achieving individuation under these circumstances entails overcoming the internalized abusive relationships and relinquishing the unconscious wish to be transformed from the abused into the abuser.

  15. On the character of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto eAnnila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature’s hierarchy.

  16. Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Procházka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal signal analysis based on sophisticated sensors, efficient communicationsystems and fast parallel processing methods has a rapidly increasing range of multidisciplinaryapplications. The present paper is devoted to pattern recognition, machine learning, and the analysisof sleep stages in the detection of sleep disorders using polysomnography (PSG data, includingelectroencephalography (EEG, breathing (Flow, and electro-oculogram (EOG signals. The proposedmethod is based on the classification of selected features by a neural network system with sigmoidaland softmax transfer functions using Bayesian methods for the evaluation of the probabilities of theseparate classes. The application is devoted to the analysis of the sleep stages of 184 individualswith different diagnoses, using EEG and further PSG signals. Data analysis points to an averageincrease of the length of the Wake stage by 2.7% per 10 years and a decrease of the length of theRapid Eye Movement (REM stages by 0.8% per 10 years. The mean classification accuracy for givensets of records and single EEG and multimodal features is 88.7% ( standard deviation, STD: 2.1 and89.6% (STD:1.9, respectively. The proposed methods enable the use of adaptive learning processesfor the detection and classification of health disorders based on prior specialist experience andman–machine interaction.

  17. Prediction of intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhanov, Gennady S; Kiselyova, N N

    2009-01-01

    The problems of predicting not yet synthesized intermetallic compounds are discussed. It is noted that the use of classical physicochemical analysis in the study of multicomponent metallic systems is faced with the complexity of presenting multidimensional phase diagrams. One way of predicting new intermetallics with specified properties is the use of modern processing technology with application of teaching of image recognition by the computer. The algorithms used most often in these methods are briefly considered and the efficiency of their use for predicting new compounds is demonstrated.

  18. Automatic Number Plate Recognition System for IPhone Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin Enăchescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system for automatic number plate recognition, implemented for devices running the iOS operating system. The methods used for number plate recognition are based on existing methods, but optimized for devices with low hardware resources. To solve the task of automatic number plate recognition we have divided it into the following subtasks: image acquisition, localization of the number plate position on the image and character detection. The first subtask is performed by the camera of an iPhone, the second one is done using image pre-processing methods and template matching. For the character recognition we are using a feed-forward artificial neural network. Each of these methods is presented along with its results.

  19. Advances in oriental document analysis and recognition techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seong-Whan

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, rapid progress has been made in computer processing of oriental languages, and the research developments in this area have resulted in tremendous changes in handwriting processing, printed oriental character recognition, document analysis and recognition, automatic input methodologies for oriental languages, etc. Advances in computer processing of oriental languages can also be seen in multimedia computing and the World Wide Web. Many of the results in those domains are presented in this book.

  20. Automatic system for localization and recognition of vehicle plate numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez, N.; Nakano, M.; Pérez-Meana, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a vehicle numbers plate identification system, which extracts the characters features of a plate from a captured image by a digital camera. Then identify the symbols of the number plate using a multilayer neural network. The proposed recognition system consists of two processes: The training process and the recognition process. During the training process, a database is created using 310 vehicular plate images. Then using this database a multilayer neural network is traine...

  1. DIALOGUE AND CHARACTER CLASSIFICATION IN WOLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    position, level of education, character and habits of a character are reflected in the speech .... Dictators are averse to any form of ... breaks out shouting slogans of praises of himself. ..... Task easier if I can get all the Obas settled before our.

  2. Character order processing in Chinese reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junjuan; Li, Xingshan; Liversedge, Simon P

    2015-02-01

    We explored how character order information is encoded in isolated word processing or Chinese sentence reading in 2 experiments using a masked priming paradigm and a gaze-contingent display-change paradigm. The results showed that response latencies in the lexical decision task and reading times on the target word region were longer in the unrelated condition (the prime or the preview was unrelated with the target word) than the transposed-character condition (the prime or the preview was a transposition of the 2 characters of the target word), which were respectively longer than in the identity condition (the prime or preview was identical to the target word). These results show that character order is encoded at an early stage of processing in Chinese reading, but character position encoding was not strict. We also found that character order encoding was similar for single-morpheme and multiple-morpheme words, suggesting that morphemic status does not affect character order encoding. The current results represent an early contribution to our understanding of character order encoding during Chinese reading.

  3. Aristotelian versus Virtue Ethical Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Randall

    2016-01-01

    This article examines some central aspects of Kristján Kristjánsson's book, "Aristotelian Character Education," beginning with the claim that contemporary virtue ethics provides methodological, ontological, epistemological, and moral foundations for Aristotelian character education. It considers three different formulations of what…

  4. Relationships between Character Education and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaburk, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between character education and school climate based on the lived experiences and beliefs of teachers. The research was conducted in a public middle school to explore understandings and beliefs of teachers about character education and its perceived impact on school climate. Social…

  5. A database application for wilderness character monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley Adams; Peter Landres; Simon Kingston

    2012-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Wilderness Stewardship Division, in collaboration with the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute and the NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program, developed a database application to facilitate tracking and trend reporting in wilderness character. The Wilderness Character Monitoring Database allows consistent, scientifically based...

  6. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  7. On character amenability of semigroup algebras | Maepa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We study the character amenability of semigroup algebras. We work on general semigroups and certain semigroups such as inverse semigroups with a nite number of idempotents, inverse semigroups with uniformly locally nite idempotent set, Brandt and Rees semigroup and study the character amenability of the ...

  8. First Course in Japanese: Character Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Tamako

    This character workbook is an introduction to Japanese writing designed to be used in conjunction with Parts One and Two of this introductory course in Japanese. All the "hiragana", several "katakana", and 88 Japanese characters are introduced in this text. The workbook, consisting of 30 lessons, is divided into three parts.…

  9. Landscape Character of Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoarto, A.; Gunawan, A.; Machfud; Hikmat, A.

    2017-10-01

    Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area has a diverse landscape character as a potential landscape resources for the development of ecotourism destination. This area is part of the Mount of Botol Resort, Halimun Salak National Park (HSNP). This area also has a fairly high biodiversity. This study aims to identify and analysis the category of landscape character in the Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area for the development of ecotourism destination. This study used a descriptive approach through field surveys and interviews, was carried out through two steps : 1) identify the landscape character, and 2) analysis of the landscape character. The results showed that in areas set aside for ecotourism destination in Pongkor Mining, landscape character category scattered forests, tailing ponds, river, plain, and the built environment. The Category of landscape character most dominant scattered in the area is forest, here is the river, plain, tailing ponds, the built environment, and plain. The landscape character in a natural environment most preferred for ecotourism activities. The landscape character that spread in the natural environment and the built environment is a potential that must be protected and modified such as elimination of incongruous element, accentuation of natural form, alteration of the natural form, intensification and enhanced visual quality intensively to be developed as a ecotourism destination area.

  10. Do Rural Schools Need Character Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Janice Carner

    Studies suggest that the challenge of violence in public schools can be met through character education, whether by providing a school culture in which core values are practiced or some form of moral training (indoctrination). To assess the need for character education in rural schools, small-school superintendents and board members in central…

  11. Electrooculography-based continuous eye-writing recognition system for efficient assistive communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fuming; Shinozaki, Takahiro

    2018-01-01

    Human-computer interface systems whose input is based on eye movements can serve as a means of communication for patients with locked-in syndrome. Eye-writing is one such system; users can input characters by moving their eyes to follow the lines of the strokes corresponding to characters. Although this input method makes it easy for patients to get started because of their familiarity with handwriting, existing eye-writing systems suffer from slow input rates because they require a pause between input characters to simplify the automatic recognition process. In this paper, we propose a continuous eye-writing recognition system that achieves a rapid input rate because it accepts characters eye-written continuously, with no pauses. For recognition purposes, the proposed system first detects eye movements using electrooculography (EOG), and then a hidden Markov model (HMM) is applied to model the EOG signals and recognize the eye-written characters. Additionally, this paper investigates an EOG adaptation that uses a deep neural network (DNN)-based HMM. Experiments with six participants showed an average input speed of 27.9 character/min using Japanese Katakana as the input target characters. A Katakana character-recognition error rate of only 5.0% was achieved using 13.8 minutes of adaptation data.

  12. Moral character effects in endorser perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Joseph W.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research consists of two experimental studies investigating the influence of moral character on endorser perception, and the influence of perceiver characteristics on tarnished endorser perception and brand evaluations. Perceiver characteristics are discussed from the perspectives of dispositional tendency, innate moral intuitions and self-location. The first study compared the influences of moral character and warmth on endorser perception. The second study examined the impact of perceiver characteristics on tarnished endorsers and brand evaluations. The findings reveal that moral character is more influential than warmth on endorser evaluations. Tarnished endorsers with immoral character exert more negative influence than tarnished endorsers with coldness character on brand evaluations. Innate moral intuitions and self-location moderate brand evaluations. High-morality consumers and heart-locators are more vulnerable than low-morality and brain-locators to the brands endorsed by tarnished endorsers, respectively.

  13. Character Education and Students Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu A. Kamaruddin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In an educational environment, in the form of character education program has been done both formally and informally. It's intended as one of the supporting ideas for follow-up in the form of design activities. Character education should basically refers to the vision and mission of the institution concerned. It shows the orientation of the two things in the character of the students are: aspects of human character and individual learners hallmark institution. In this paper, these two aspects is the author trying to ideas by referring to some other writings. The end result, the authors expect the birth of a design patent as early referral to spearhead a character development program learners.

  14. A Missing Piece of the Contemporary Character Education Puzzle: The Individualisation of Moral Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The different sorts of virtuous people who display various virtues to a remarkable degree have brought the issue of individualisation of moral character to the forefront. It signals a more personal dimension of character development which is notoriously ignored in the current discourse on character education. The case is made that since in…

  15. Recognition and cinema: new ways of approaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis GARCÍA MARTÍNEZ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Along the following lines we propose the use of films for educational purposes. Our main argument, based on philosophical grounds, shows the use of film format to emphasize and understand people’s motivations and actions. The reflections brought about by empathy with the characters are the first step in the approach of the topic of recognition, a term that in the medical framework involves taking into account the various aspects of inter-human relationships. Recognition of “the other” as he/she stands, implies addressing differences and providing a better doctor-patient relationship. The analysis of several films might encourage the acknowledgement of recognition as one of the key concepts to understand our ways of relating within plural societies with different lifestyles and different outlooks on the world. We believe that the effort made in dealing with such topics results in greater closeness to the patient and, therefore, better care.

  16. Rapid extraction of lexical tone phonology in Chinese characters: a visual mismatch negativity study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In alphabetic languages, emerging evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies shows the rapid and automatic activation of phonological information in visual word recognition. In the mapping from orthography to phonology, unlike most alphabetic languages in which there is a natural correspondence between the visual and phonological forms, in logographic Chinese, the mapping between visual and phonological forms is rather arbitrary and depends on learning and experience. The issue of whether the phonological information is rapidly and automatically extracted in Chinese characters by the brain has not yet been thoroughly addressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We continuously presented Chinese characters differing in orthography and meaning to adult native Mandarin Chinese speakers to construct a constant varying visual stream. In the stream, most stimuli were homophones of Chinese characters: The phonological features embedded in these visual characters were the same, including consonants, vowels and the lexical tone. Occasionally, the rule of phonology was randomly violated by characters whose phonological features differed in the lexical tone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that the violation of the lexical tone phonology evoked an early, robust visual response, as revealed by whole-head electrical recordings of the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN, indicating the rapid extraction of phonological information embedded in Chinese characters. Source analysis revealed that the vMMN was involved in neural activations of the visual cortex, suggesting that the visual sensory memory is sensitive to phonological information embedded in visual words at an early processing stage.

  17. Rapid extraction of lexical tone phonology in Chinese characters: a visual mismatch negativity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, A-Ping; Wu, Yin-Yuan; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    In alphabetic languages, emerging evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies shows the rapid and automatic activation of phonological information in visual word recognition. In the mapping from orthography to phonology, unlike most alphabetic languages in which there is a natural correspondence between the visual and phonological forms, in logographic Chinese, the mapping between visual and phonological forms is rather arbitrary and depends on learning and experience. The issue of whether the phonological information is rapidly and automatically extracted in Chinese characters by the brain has not yet been thoroughly addressed. We continuously presented Chinese characters differing in orthography and meaning to adult native Mandarin Chinese speakers to construct a constant varying visual stream. In the stream, most stimuli were homophones of Chinese characters: The phonological features embedded in these visual characters were the same, including consonants, vowels and the lexical tone. Occasionally, the rule of phonology was randomly violated by characters whose phonological features differed in the lexical tone. We showed that the violation of the lexical tone phonology evoked an early, robust visual response, as revealed by whole-head electrical recordings of the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN), indicating the rapid extraction of phonological information embedded in Chinese characters. Source analysis revealed that the vMMN was involved in neural activations of the visual cortex, suggesting that the visual sensory memory is sensitive to phonological information embedded in visual words at an early processing stage.

  18. Video Game Characters. Theory and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Schröter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experience as three ways in which players perceive video game characters and their representations, and, third, between three dimensions of video game characters as ‘intersubjective constructs’, which usually are to be analyzed not only as fictional beings with certain diegetic properties but also as game pieces with certain ludic properties and, in those cases in which they function as avatars in the social space of a multiplayer game, as representations of other players. Having established these basic distinctions, we proceed to analyze their realization and interrelation by reference to the character of Martin Walker from the third-person shooter Spec Ops: The Line (Yager Development 2012, the highly customizable player-controlled characters from the role-playing game The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim (Bethesda 2011, and the complex multidimensional characters in the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Star Wars: The Old Republic (BioWare 2011-2014.

  19. A structural query system for Han characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skala, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The IDSgrep structural query system for Han character dictionaries is presented. This dictionary search system represents the spatial structure of Han characters using Extended Ideographic Description Sequences (EIDSes), a data model and syntax based on the Unicode IDS concept. It includes a query...... language for EIDS databases, with a freely available implementation and format translation from popular third-party IDS and XML character databases. The system is designed to suit the needs of font developers and foreign language learners. The search algorithm includes a bit vector index inspired by Bloom...... filters to support faster query operations. Experimental results are presented, evaluating the effect of the indexing on query performance....

  20. Submatrices of character tables and basic sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation of character tables of nite groups we study basic sets and associated representation theoretic data for complementary sets of conjugacy lasses. For the symmetric groups we nd unexpected properties of characters on restricted sets of conjugacy classes, like beautiful...... combinatorial determinant formulae for submatrices of the character table and Cartan matrices with respect to basic sets; we observe that similar phenomena occur for the transition matrices between power sum symmetric functions to bounded partitions and the k-Schur functions dened by Lapointe and Morse...

  1. On Hemingway’s Literary Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Miruna Ciocoi-Pop

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a brief outline of Hemingway’s characters and the way in which they correspond to the author himself. It is known for a fact that Hemingway evinced a tendency to imitate his characters when they were coming to grips with diverse situations. Thus I have tried to briefly pinpoint the fading boundaries between reality and imagination in his work. By doing so, I have focused on both male and female characters, underlining the major dissimilarities between these two categories, as well as their main features.

  2. Recognition of Handwriting from Electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderman, Michael; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Erlichman, Joseph S.

    2009-01-01

    Handwriting – one of the most important developments in human culture – is also a methodological tool in several scientific disciplines, most importantly handwriting recognition methods, graphology and medical diagnostics. Previous studies have relied largely on the analyses of handwritten traces or kinematic analysis of handwriting; whereas electromyographic (EMG) signals associated with handwriting have received little attention. Here we show for the first time, a method in which EMG signals generated by hand and forearm muscles during handwriting activity are reliably translated into both algorithm-generated handwriting traces and font characters using decoding algorithms. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of recreating handwriting solely from EMG signals – the finding that can be utilized in computer peripherals and myoelectric prosthetic devices. Moreover, this approach may provide a rapid and sensitive method for diagnosing a variety of neurogenerative diseases before other symptoms become clear. PMID:19707562

  3. ZONING DESIGN FOR HAND­WRITTEN NUMERAL RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecce Di, V.; Dimauro, G.; Guerriero, A.; Impedovo, S.; Pirlo, G.; Salzo, A.

    2004-01-01

    In the field of Optical Character Recognition (OCR), zoning is used to extract topological information from patterns. In this paper zoning is considered as the result of an optimisation problem and a new technique is presented for automatic zoning. More precisely, local analysis of feature

  4. Character Strengths and Academic Achievements of Undergraduate College Students of Guwahati, Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Alam Choudhury

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Character strengths, as conceptualised by the Values-In-Action (VIA strengths classification system, are core characteristics of individuals that allow people to be virtuous (Seligman 2002. They are moral, intrinsically valuable, and ubiquitous traits that can be developed and enhanced. Social psychologists and sociologists consider achievements in college or university level, because of recognition and proper utilisation of the character strengths possessed by the individual students. The current study was conducted amongst 240 undergraduate college students of arts stream (60 males and 60 females and science stream (60 males and 60 females falling within the age group of 18-21 years, with the aim of finding out if the character strengths of the male and female undergraduate students are associated with their college academic achievements. It was found that significant correlation existed between appreciation of beauty and excellence, fairness, forgiveness, honesty, humour, kindness, love of learning and humility with the academic achievement of the students.

  5. How jurors use and misuse character evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jennifer S; Budesheim, Thomas Lee

    2004-04-01

    The Federal Rules of Evidence allow defendants to offer testimony about their good character, but that testimony can be impeached with cross-examination or a rebuttal witness. It is assumed that jurors use the defense's character evidence (CE) to form guilt and conviction judgments but use impeachment evidence only to assess the character witness's credibility. Two experiments tested these assumptions by presenting mock jurors with various forms of CE and impeachment. Participants made trait ratings for the character witness and defendant and guilt and conviction judgments. Positive CE did not affect guilt or conviction judgments, but cross-examination caused a backlash in which judgments were harsher than when no CE was given. Using path analysis, the authors tested a model of the process by which CE and impeachment affect defendant and witness impressions and guilt and conviction judgments. Implications for juror decision making are discussed.

  6. Molecular characters and recombinant expression of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-07

    Mar 7, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Molecular characters ... 1State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of .... Characterization and model building of the 3-D.

  7. Some Correlates of the Arab Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moracco, John

    1983-01-01

    Describes cultural correlates of the Arab character in terms of family patterns, international relations, and implications for therapists and other human service personnel. Discusses the Bedouin influence and religious values and suggests that cultural stereotypes may restrict true understanding. (JAC)

  8. Alterations in subspecific characters of groundnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouli, C.; Patil, S.H.; Kale, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recombination of beneficial characters associated in the cultivars of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) belonging to the two subspecies hypogaea and fastigiata had little success in conventional breeding programme. The cultures of ssp. hypogaea have the desirable characters for the crop improvement viz; various growth habits, profuse branching, large pod, seed dormancy and stress tolerance. Sequential flowering, early maturity, compact fruiting habit and high kernel outturn are the other useful characters present in ssp. fastigiata cultures. Mutation research in a popular variety, Spanish Improved belonging to ssp. fastigiata led to the selection of various mutants. One among the mutants had large pod, a characteristic of hypogaea ssp. Hybridization among the mutants and improved cultivars as well as radiation treatment of selected cultures resulted in the isolation of cultures having not only combinations and alterations of characters in both subspecies, but also modifications. These cultures are classified into major groups and their significance in the groundnut improvement is discussed. (author)

  9. Brains with character: Reading and writing neuronarrative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaczo, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    Brains with Character: Reading and Writing Neuronarrative tracks the concept of neuronarrative by analyzing the reciprocal and catalytic relationships between neuroscience and literary media. Crucial to understanding the contemporary stakes in these two cultural endeavors is how their relationships

  10. The role of nitric oxide in the object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2015-05-15

    The novel object recognition task (NORT) assesses recognition memory in animals. It is a non-rewarded paradigm that it is based on spontaneous exploratory behavior in rodents. This procedure is widely used for testing the effects of compounds on recognition memory. Recognition memory is a type of memory severely compromised in schizophrenic and Alzheimer's disease patients. Nitric oxide (NO) is sought to be an intra- and inter-cellular messenger in the central nervous system and its implication in learning and memory is well documented. Here I intended to critically review the role of NO-related compounds on different aspects of recognition memory. Current analysis shows that both NO donors and NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors are involved in object recognition memory and suggests that NO might be a promising target for cognition impairments. However, the potential neurotoxicity of NO would add a note of caution in this context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Loose, Falling Characters and Sentences: The Persistence of the OCR Problem in Digital Repository E-Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichuk, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The electronic conversion of scanned image files to readable text using optical character recognition (OCR) software and the subsequent migration of raw OCR text to e-book text file formats are key remediation or media conversion technologies used in digital repository e-book production. Despite real progress, the OCR problem of reliability and…

  12. ECONOMIC ETHICS: APPLIED AND PROFESSIONAL CHARACTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Gordova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In given article economic ethics are considered as set of norms of behavior of the businessman, the requirements shown by a cultural society to its style of work, to character of dialogue between participants of business, to their social shape. The conclusion becomes that economic ethics have applied character in relation to theoretical, to obschenormativnoy ethics, hence, represent section of applied ethics. On the other hand, the specific standard maintenance characterizes economic ethics as ethics professional.

  13. Video Game Characters. Theory and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Schröter; Jan-Noël Thon

    2014-01-01

    This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experien...

  14. The character of free topological groups II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nickolas

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A systematic analysis is made of the character of the free and free abelian topological groups on metrizable spaces and compact spaces, and on certain other closely related spaces. In the first case, it is shown that the characters of the free and the free abelian topological groups on X are both equal to the “small cardinal” d if X is compact and metrizable, but also, more generally, if X is a non-discrete k!-space all of whose compact subsets are metrizable, or if X is a non-discrete Polish space. An example is given of a zero-dimensional separable metric space for which both characters are equal to the cardinal of the continuum. In the case of a compact space X, an explicit formula is derived for the character of the free topological group on X involving no cardinal invariant of X other than its weight; in particular the character is fully determined by the weight in the compact case. This paper is a sequel to a paper by the same authors in which the characters of the free groups were analysed under less restrictive topological assumptions.

  15. Fluoride ion recognition by chelating and cationic boranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnall, Todd W; Chiu, Ching-Wen; Gabbaï, François P

    2009-02-17

    Because of the ubiquity of fluoride ions and their potential toxicity at high doses, researchers would like to design receptors that selectively detect this anion. Fluoride is found in drinking water, toothpaste, and osteoporosis drugs. In addition, fluoride ions also can be detected as an indicator of uranium enrichment (via hydrolysis of UF(6)) or of the chemical warfare agent sarin, which releases the ion upon hydrolysis. However, because of its high hydration enthalpy, the fluoride anion is one of the most challenging targets for anion recognition. Among the various recognition strategies that are available, researchers have focused a great deal of attention on Lewis acidic boron compounds. These molecules typically interact with fluoride anions to form the corresponding fluoroborate species. In the case of simple triarylboranes, the fluoroborates are formed in organic solvents but not in water. To overcome this limitation, this Account examines various methods we have pursued to increase the fluoride-binding properties of boron-based receptors. We first considered the use of bifunctional boranes, which chelate the fluoride anion, such as 1,8-diborylnaphthalenes or heteronuclear 1-boryl-8-mercurio-naphthalenes. In these molecules, the neighboring Lewis acidic atoms can cooperatively interact with the anionic guest. Although the fluoride binding constants of the bifunctional compounds exceed those of neutral monofunctional boranes by several orders of magnitude, the incompatibility of these systems with aqueous media limits their utility. More recently, we have examined simple triarylboranes whose ligands are decorated by cationic ammonium or phosphonium groups. These cationic groups increase the electrophilic character of these boranes, and unlike their neutral analogs, they are able to complex fluoride in aqueous media. We have also considered cationic boranes, which form chelate complexes with fluoride anions. Our work demonstrates that Coulombic and chelate

  16. Type-2 fuzzy graphical models for pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Jia

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses how to combine type-2 fuzzy sets and graphical models to solve a range of real-world pattern recognition problems such as speech recognition, handwritten Chinese character recognition, topic modeling as well as human action recognition. It covers these recent developments while also providing a comprehensive introduction to the fields of type-2 fuzzy sets and graphical models. Though primarily intended for graduate students, researchers and practitioners in fuzzy logic and pattern recognition, the book can also serve as a valuable reference work for researchers without any previous knowledge of these fields. Dr. Jia Zeng is a Professor at the School of Computer Science and Technology, Soochow University, China. Dr. Zhi-Qiang Liu is a Professor at the School of Creative Media, City University of Hong Kong, China.

  17. Contemporary deep recurrent learning for recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekharuddin, K. M.; Alam, M.; Vidyaratne, L.

    2017-05-01

    Large-scale feed-forward neural networks have seen intense application in many computer vision problems. However, these networks can get hefty and computationally intensive with increasing complexity of the task. Our work, for the first time in literature, introduces a Cellular Simultaneous Recurrent Network (CSRN) based hierarchical neural network for object detection. CSRN has shown to be more effective to solving complex tasks such as maze traversal and image processing when compared to generic feed forward networks. While deep neural networks (DNN) have exhibited excellent performance in object detection and recognition, such hierarchical structure has largely been absent in neural networks with recurrency. Further, our work introduces deep hierarchy in SRN for object recognition. The simultaneous recurrency results in an unfolding effect of the SRN through time, potentially enabling the design of an arbitrarily deep network. This paper shows experiments using face, facial expression and character recognition tasks using novel deep recurrent model and compares recognition performance with that of generic deep feed forward model. Finally, we demonstrate the flexibility of incorporating our proposed deep SRN based recognition framework in a humanoid robotic platform called NAO.

  18. Food brand recognition and BMI in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Moorman, Jessica; Peralta, Mericarmen; Fayhee, Kally

    2017-07-01

    Children's food brand recognition predicts health-related outcomes such as preference for obesogenic foods and increased risk for overweight. However, it is uncertain to what degree food brand recognition acts as a proxy for other factors such as parental education and income, child vocabulary, child age, child race/ethnicity, parent healthy eating guidance, child commercial TV viewing, and child dietary intake, all of which may influence or be influenced by food brand recognition. U.S. preschoolers (N = 247, average age 56 months) were measured for BMI and completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test plus recognition and recall measures for a selection of U.S. food brands. Parents completed measures of healthy eating guidance, child dietary intake, child commercial TV viewing, parent education, household income, parent BMI, and child age and race/ethnicity. Controlling these variables, child food brand recognition predicted higher child BMI percentile. Further, qualitative examination of children's incorrect answers to recall items demonstrated perceptual confusion between brand mascots and other fantasy characters to which children are exposed during the preschool years, extending theory on child consumer development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Leading Character?s Antisocial Personality Disorder In James B Stewart?s Blind Eye

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari, Ayu

    2016-01-01

    110705043 The title of this thesis isLeading Character?s Antisocial Personality Disorder in James B Stewart?s Blind Eyethat is research about antisocial personality of leading character in the novel, namely Dr. Michael Swango. The purpose of this thesis is to find out characteristic of Swango that show he has antisocial personality disorder and to know the causes of his disorder. The writer refers to theory antisocial personality disorder that take in a research of APA (American Psychiatri...

  20. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K

    2004-01-01

    This report describes research efforts towards developing algorithms for a robust face recognition system to overcome many of the limitations found in existing two-dimensional facial recognition systems...

  1. Character Play – The use of game characters in multi- player Role Playing Games across platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, M.; Brolund, T.

    2008-01-01

    histories of game characters. This article presents results from a comprehensive empirical study of the way complex game characters are utilized by players in multiplayer role-playing games across two different media platforms. The results indicate that adult players are capable of comprehending...... and utilizing game characters with well-defined personalities and backgrounds, as well as rules-based components. Furthermore, that the game format plays a significant role in the pattern of usage of the character elements. This pattern appears directly linked with variations in the way that the different game...

  2. Graphical symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    K.C. , Santosh; Wendling , Laurent

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The chapter focuses on one of the key issues in document image processing i.e., graphical symbol recognition. Graphical symbol recognition is a sub-field of a larger research domain: pattern recognition. The chapter covers several approaches (i.e., statistical, structural and syntactic) and specially designed symbol recognition techniques inspired by real-world industrial problems. It, in general, contains research problems, state-of-the-art methods that convey basic s...

  3. A Classification Scheme for Literary Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Berry

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is no established classification scheme for literary characters in narrative theory short of generic categories like protagonist vs. antagonist or round vs. flat. This is so despite the ubiquity of stock characters that recur across media, cultures, and historical time periods. We present here a proposal of a systematic psychological scheme for classifying characters from the literary and dramatic fields based on a modification of the Thomas-Kilmann (TK Conflict Mode Instrument used in applied studies of personality. The TK scheme classifies personality along the two orthogonal dimensions of assertiveness and cooperativeness. To examine the validity of a modified version of this scheme, we had 142 participants provide personality ratings for 40 characters using two of the Big Five personality traits as well as assertiveness and cooperativeness from the TK scheme. The results showed that assertiveness and cooperativeness were orthogonal dimensions, thereby supporting the validity of using a modified version of TK’s two-dimensional scheme for classifying characters.

  4. Personality and emotion-based high-level control of affective story characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wen-Poh; Pham, Binh; Wardhani, Aster

    2007-01-01

    Human emotional behavior, personality, and body language are the essential elements in the recognition of a believable synthetic story character. This paper presents an approach using story scripts and action descriptions in a form similar to the content description of storyboards to predict specific personality and emotional states. By adopting the Abridged Big Five Circumplex (AB5C) Model of personality from the study of psychology as a basis for a computational model, we construct a hierarchical fuzzy rule-based system to facilitate the personality and emotion control of the body language of a dynamic story character. The story character can consistently perform specific postures and gestures based on his/her personality type. Story designers can devise a story context in the form of our story interface which predictably motivates personality and emotion values to drive the appropriate movements of the story characters. Our system takes advantage of relevant knowledge described by psychologists and researchers of storytelling, nonverbal communication, and human movement. Our ultimate goal is to facilitate the high-level control of a synthetic character.

  5. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms...... or interpretations of recognition and toleration are considered, confusing and problematic uses of the terms are noted, and the compatibility of toleration and recognition is discussed. The article argues that there is a range of legitimate and importantly different conceptions of both toleration and recognition...

  6. The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Chan, Wayne; Jussim, Lee; De Fruyt, Filip; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Reátigui, Norma; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Marušić, Iris; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Purić, Danka; Martin, Thomas A.; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B.; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P.; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Pramila, V. S.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; and (b) report new data on national character in 26 cultures from descriptions (N=3,323) of the typical male or female adolescent, adult, or old person in each. The average ratings were internally consistent and converged with independent stereotypes of the typical culture member, but were weakly related to objective assessments of personality. We argue that this conclusion is consistent with the broader literature on the inaccuracy of national character stereotypes. PMID:24187394

  7. Transliterating non-ASCII characters with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Bernstein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This lesson shows how to use Python to transliterate automatically a list of words from a language with a non-Latin alphabet to a standardized format using the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII characters. It builds on readers’ understanding of Python from the lessons “Viewing HTML Files,” “Working with Web Pages,” “From HTML to List of Words (part 1” and “Intro to Beautiful Soup.” At the end of the lesson, we will use the transliteration dictionary to convert the names from a database of the Russian organization Memorial from Cyrillic into Latin characters. Although the example uses Cyrillic characters, the technique can be reproduced with other alphabets using Unicode.

  8. APLIKASI SPOKES-CHARACTERS DALAM KAITAN DENGAN MEREK PRODUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Widjoyo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertisement by using spokes-characters have potency to alter the choice of consumer brand with the compared to bigger impact which do not use the spokes-character. A lot of producer which hence spokes-character to increase assess to sell from a product. Spokes-Characters experience of the evolution from time to time keep abreast of the era%2C now emerge the new type of spokes-character and its application. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Iklan dengan spokes-characters berpotensi mengubah pilihan merek konsumen dengan dampak lebih besar dibanding yang tidak menggunakan spokes-character. Banyak produsen yang memakai spokes-character untuk meningkatkan nilai jual dari sebuah produk. Spokes-characters mengalami evolusi dari masa ke masa mengikuti perkembangan jaman%2C sekarang muncul jenis baru spokes-character dan aplikasinya. spokes-characters%2C advertising%2C branding.

  9. Character Issues: Reality Character Problems and Solutions through Education in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidek, Abdul Rahim; Islami, Raisul; Abdoludin

    2016-01-01

    Weak character education raises the problem of corruption, a fight between students, free sex, drugs and rape/abortion indicate that the issue of character education of the nation must be improved and the concern of all parties, the nation's leaders, law enforcement officers, educators, religious leaders, groups and other etc. There are two…

  10. Character Education in Print: Content Analysis of Character Education in Introduction to Education Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Babette Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Albert Einstein is credited with saying that the most important component of education is the development of students' character. While debate exists as to the delivery of character education in the public schools, it must be recognized that not all students have a support system outside of the schoolhouse. Consequently, when character…

  11. Refined geometric transition and qq-characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Taro; Mori, Hironori; Sugimoto, Yuji

    2018-01-01

    We show the refinement of the prescription for the geometric transition in the refined topological string theory and, as its application, discuss a possibility to describe qq-characters from the string theory point of view. Though the suggested way to operate the refined geometric transition has passed through several checks, it is additionally found in this paper that the presence of the preferred direction brings a nontrivial effect. We provide the modified formula involving this point. We then apply our prescription of the refined geometric transition to proposing the stringy description of doubly quantized Seiberg-Witten curves called qq-characters in certain cases.

  12. 8 CFR 1292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 1292.2...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. (a) Qualifications of organizations. A non-profit religious, charitable, social service, or similar organization...

  13. Character Apps for Children's Snacks: Effects of Character Awareness on Snack Selection and Consumption Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Marisa M; Cotto, Caroline E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2018-04-01

    Media characters are used to market snacks that are typically of poor nutritional value, which has been linked to childhood obesity. This study examines whether children's snack selections and consumption patterns are influenced by an app depicting a popular children's media character, as well as the role that children's awareness of the character plays. The results can increase our understanding of how to encourage healthier snack selection and consumption in newer game-based marketing venues, such as apps. Four- and 5-year-old children (N = 132) played a bowling game on an iPad with no character or with a character holding either healthier or unhealthy snacks. After app-play, children selected and consumed healthier or unhealthy snacks. Children's awareness of the character was measured by children's verbalizations of the character's name during or after app-play. An ordered logistic regression found no significant effect of treatment conditions compared with the control group. Within treatment conditions, awareness of the character led to selection and consumption of more healthy snacks in the healthier condition (odds ratio β = 10.340, P = 0.008), and of unhealthy snacks in the unhealthy condition (odds ratio β = 0.228, P = 0.033), but children were unaware that the character influenced their decisions. Results suggest that young children will choose and consume healthier, not just unhealthy, products when they are aware that a popular character in an app is associated with the snack, potentially leading to healthier eating patterns.

  14. Chinese handwriting recognition an algorithmic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Tonghua

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an algorithmic perspective on the recent development of Chinese handwriting recognition. Two technically sound strategies, the segmentation-free and integrated segmentation-recognition strategy, are investigated and algorithms that have worked well in practice are primarily focused on. Baseline systems are initially presented for these strategies and are subsequently expanded on and incrementally improved. The sophisticated algorithms covered include: 1) string sample expansion algorithms which synthesize string samples from isolated characters or distort realistic string samples; 2) enhanced feature representation algorithms, e.g. enhanced four-plane features and Delta features; 3) novel learning algorithms, such as Perceptron learning with dynamic margin, MPE training and distributed training; and lastly 4) ensemble algorithms, that is, combining the two strategies using both parallel structure and serial structure. All the while, the book moves from basic to advanced algorithms, helping ...

  15. Optical Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Jutamulia, Suganda

    2008-10-01

    Contributors; Preface; 1. Pattern recognition with optics Francis T. S. Yu and Don A. Gregory; 2. Hybrid neural networks for nonlinear pattern recognition Taiwei Lu; 3. Wavelets, optics, and pattern recognition Yao Li and Yunglong Sheng; 4. Applications of the fractional Fourier transform to optical pattern recognition David Mendlovic, Zeev Zalesky and Haldum M. Oxaktas; 5. Optical implementation of mathematical morphology Tien-Hsin Chao; 6. Nonlinear optical correlators with improved discrimination capability for object location and recognition Leonid P. Yaroslavsky; 7. Distortion-invariant quadratic filters Gregory Gheen; 8. Composite filter synthesis as applied to pattern recognition Shizhou Yin and Guowen Lu; 9. Iterative procedures in electro-optical pattern recognition Joseph Shamir; 10. Optoelectronic hybrid system for three-dimensional object pattern recognition Guoguang Mu, Mingzhe Lu and Ying Sun; 11. Applications of photrefractive devices in optical pattern recognition Ziangyang Yang; 12. Optical pattern recognition with microlasers Eung-Gi Paek; 13. Optical properties and applications of bacteriorhodopsin Q. Wang Song and Yu-He Zhang; 14. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators Aris Tanone and Suganda Jutamulia; 15. Representations of fully complex functions on real-time spatial light modulators Robert W. Cohn and Laurence G. Hassbrook; Index.

  16. Technical guide for monitoring selected conditions related to wilderness character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Landres; Steve Boutcher; Liese Dean; Troy Hall; Tamara Blett; Terry Carlson; Ann Mebane; Carol Hardy; Susan Rinehart; Linda Merigliano; David N. Cole; Andy Leach; Pam Wright; Deb Bumpus

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of monitoring wilderness character is to improve wilderness stewardship by providing managers a tool to assess how selected actions and conditions related to wilderness character are changing over time. Wilderness character monitoring provides information to help answer two key questions about wilderness character and wilderness stewardship: 1. How is...

  17. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  18. Computational Design of Animated Mechanical Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coros, Stelian; Thomaszewski, Bernhard; DRZ Team Team

    2014-03-01

    A factor key to the appeal of modern CG movies and video-games is that the virtual worlds they portray place no bounds on what can be imagined. Rapid manufacturing devices hold the promise of bringing this type of freedom to our own world, by enabling the fabrication of physical objects whose appearance, deformation behaviors and motions can be precisely specified. In order to unleash the full potential of this technology however, computational design methods that create digital content suitable for fabrication need to be developed. In recent work, we presented a computational design system that allows casual users to create animated mechanical characters. Given an articulated character as input, the user designs the animated character by sketching motion curves indicating how they should move. For each motion curve, our framework creates an optimized mechanism that reproduces it as closely as possible. The resulting mechanisms are attached to the character and then connected to each other using gear trains, which are created in a semi-automated fashion. The mechanical assemblies generated with our system can be driven with a single input driver, such as a hand-operated crank or an electric motor, and they can be fabricated using rapid prototyping devices.

  19. Reflecting on Character (Reflexionando Sobre el Caracter).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Cordelia

    1980-01-01

    Responding to the "Proyecto Resolana" article in the July/August 1980 issue of this journal, the article notes the heterogeneity of Hispanic Americans, the three main effects of the European conquest on people of the Western Hemisphere, and attempts to further define the character of Hispanic Americans. (SB)

  20. Theological Education and Character Formation in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents theological education and character formation in Nigerian Christianity. Some theologians and religious scholars do not offer any practical recipes in dealing with the major pressing problems of theological training for Christian ministry today in the 21st century Nigerian society. Some priests, lay workers ...

  1. Emotional characters for automatic plot creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theune, Mariet; Rensen, S.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Göbel, S.; Spierling, U.; Hoffmann, A.; Iurgel, I.; Schneider, O.; Dechau, J.; Feix, A.

    The Virtual Storyteller is a multi-agent framework for automatic story generation. In this paper we describe how plots emerge from the actions of semi-autonomous character agents, focusing on the influence of the characters’ emotions on plot development.

  2. Moral-Character Development for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel; Woodbury, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors accept the common view that moral-character education is immanent to the life of classroom and schools and inevitable even when remanded to the hidden curriculum. Most schools claim to address the moral formation of students, and many educators enter the profession for values-laden reasons. Yet the language of values,…

  3. On Repairing Generated Behaviors for Graphical Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corradini, Andrea; Mehta, Manish

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we continue our work on the creation of artificial intelligence (AI) behaviors for graphical interactive characters by novice users. We refer to novice users as any persons who do not have any particular skills, training and experience in both programming and design. The focus...

  4. Character Education: A Relationship with Building Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between the use of character education programming and school health. Measuring and improving school health is a process that supports social, emotional, ethical and civic education. Hoy, Tarter, and Kottkamp define this concept as a healthy school is one in which the institutional,…

  5. Morphological Characters and Histology of Pheretima darnleiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDY DARMAWAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pheretima darnleiensis is a native earthworm of Southeast Asia, India, and Japan. Although it is commonly found in Indonesia, the earthworm has never been studied well. This study was aimed to examine the morphological characters and structure of its several organs for an identification purpose, which is important for the earthworm culture. Earthworms were collected in a plot of 55-150 × 55-150 cm width and 20 cm depth at Bogor Agricultural University in Darmaga and Baranangsiang Campuses by hand sorting method. Examinations were carried out on its external as well as internal characters. The histology of the organs was studied using paraffin method. The observed characters on P. darnleiensis were the presence of prostate gland, one pair of male pores on segment XVIII, a cylindrical body with perichaetine setae, caeca on segment XXVII, copulatory pouches without diverticula and stalked glands, bithecal spermatheca with nephridia, and the first spermathecal pore on segment 4/5. In addition, other characters found on P. darnleiensis were the presence of an annular clitellum on segment XIV-XVI, an epilobus prostomium with open base, approximately 40 single pointed setae on segment XIII, one midventral female pore on segment XIV, one pair of lateroventral male pores on segment XVIII, four pairs of lateroventral spermathecal pores on segment 4/5, 5/6, 6/7, 7/8, and the first middorsal dorsal pore on segment 12/13. The histology of P. darnleiensis showed basic structure as found in other earthworms.

  6. Computer Animation for Articulated 3D Characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the computer animation literature, mainly concentrating on articulated characters and at least some degree of interactivity or real time simulation. Advances in dierent techniques such as key-frame, motion capture (also known as mocap), dynamics, inverse kinematics (IK),

  7. Honesty, Cheating, and Character in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Most college faculty care about the characters of their students, especially when it comes to questions of honesty. But can students today be trusted not to cheat when completing papers and exams, and not to do so for the right reasons? In section one of this article, the author reviews some of the leading research on cheating behavior, and in…

  8. Interactive Character Deformation Using Simplified Elastic Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of our research into realistic skin and model deformation methods aimed at the field of character deformation and animation. The main contributions lie in the properties of our deformation scheme. Our approach preserves the volume of the deformed object while

  9. DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS OF TOMOPTERNA AND RANA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    five-toed stage, of a spur on the hind foot, giving a six-toed appearance when the spur first appears. This feature ... In the main key, besides the spur on the foot, tail and spiracle characters were used, the former with the .... and is generally pale ... ' (p. 96) and 'They reach a maximum of 70 mm, and are flat, heavy tadpoles ..•.

  10. Amharic Character Generator | Gessesse | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zede Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7 (1986) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Amharic Character Generator. GA Gessesse. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.

  11. [The aesthetic character of caring knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Yun

    2013-08-01

    The identity of nursing is founded on caring knowledge, which is derived from our understanding of its experience-revealed essence. This purposive knowledge differs from scientific knowledge because validity guides the latter and ethics guides the former. Therefore, justifying the objectivity of caring knowledge should be based on the aesthetic character of this knowledge rather than on a general social-science explanation.

  12. Building Character through Sports: Myth or Possibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Timothy J. L.; Goldberg, Alan D.

    1990-01-01

    Asks whether striving to win in sports is compatible with belief participation in sports builds character. Identifies viewpoints on winning (winning as consequence and winning as experience). Suggests ways counselors might encourage athletes, coaches, and parents to perceive winning as experience so participation in sports can foster…

  13. Face of America Character Education Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World T.E.A.M. Sports, Charlotte, NC.

    This document presents a description of the Face of America Classroom Program, a character education program based on a mission to bridge and build communities through sports. Three language arts lesson plans are provided on three themes: achievement, stereotypes (especially of people with disabilities), and strategies for healthy minds and…

  14. The Problem of Loyalty in Teaching Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    In the last year, two prominent, famous, and revered coaches, Jim Tressel and Joe Paterno, committed disastrous lapses of ethics. Both coaches preached that sport and athletics build character. They either taught ethics or leadership courses at their institutions or were exemplars of ethical behavior in their personal and professional lives. Both…

  15. Cyberethics: Envisioning Character Education in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, David B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents theory and research forming the framework of a graduate course in cyberethics education. The course content includes theory and research on the psychology of the Internet, moral development, and character education. Discussion includes application of these constructs to issues such as empathy, privacy, and other issues as…

  16. The inaccuracy of national character stereotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McCrae, R. R.; Chan, W.; Jussim, L.; De Fruyt, F.; Löckenhoff, C.E.; De Bolle, M.; Costa Jr., P.T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Nakazato, K.; Shimonaka, Y.; Yik, M.; Ficková, E.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Reátigui, N.; Leibovich de Figueroa, N.; Schmidt, V.; Ahn, Ch.; Ahn, H.; Aguilar-Vafaie, M.E.; Siuta, J.; Szmigielska, B.; Cain, T.R.; Crawford, J.T.; Mastor, K.A.; Rolland, J. P.; Nansubuga, F.; Miramontez, D.R.; Benet-Martínez, V.; Rossier, J.; Bratko, D.; Marušić, I.; Halberstadt, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Knežević, G.; Purić, D.; Martin, T. A.; Gheorghiu, M.; Smith, P.B.; Barbaranelli, C.; Wang, L.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Lima, M.P.; Klinkosz, W.; Sekowski, A.; Alcalay, L.; Simonetti, F.; Avdeyeva, T.V.; Pramila, V.S.; Terracciano, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2013), s. 831-842 ISSN 0092-6566 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : national character * stereotypes * Five-Factor Model of Personality Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.011, year: 2013

  17. Animal regeneration: ancestral character or evolutionary novelty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Jonathan Mw

    2017-09-01

    An old question about regeneration is whether it is an ancestral character which is a general property of living matter, or whether it represents a set of specific adaptations to the different circumstances faced by different types of animal. In this review, some recent results on regeneration are assessed to see if they can throw any new light on this question. Evidence in favour of an ancestral character comes from the role of Wnt and bone morphogenetic protein signalling in controlling the pattern of whole-body regeneration in acoels, which are a basal group of bilaterian animals. On the other hand, there is some evidence for adaptive acquisition or maintenance of the regeneration of appendages based on the occurrence of severe non-lethal predation, the existence of some novel genes in regenerating organisms, and differences at the molecular level between apparently similar forms of regeneration. It is tentatively concluded that whole-body regeneration is an ancestral character although has been lost from most animal lineages. Appendage regeneration is more likely to represent a derived character resulting from many specific adaptations. © 2017 The Author.

  18. Public and Constitutional Support for Character Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessels, Gordon G.; Boyd, Stephen M.

    1996-01-01

    Character education thrives on an informed understanding of constitutional principles and an inclusive commitment-building process. U.S. Supreme Court opinions that clarify public school students' free speech rights have established values education as a constitutionally acceptable practice. Challenges might lie in possible violations of the First…

  19. Mapping wilderness character in Olympic National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Tricker; Peter Landres; Jennifer Chenoweth; Roger Hoffman; Scott Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The Olympic Wilderness was established November 16, 1988 when President Ronald Reagan signed the Washington Park Wilderness Act. A total of 876,447 acres or 95% of Olympic National Park (OLYM) was designated as wilderness and became a part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, wherein wilderness character would be preserved. The purpose of this project was to...

  20. Inheritance of characters in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-03

    David and Adam, 1988). The plant belongs to the order Malvales, the family Malvaceae and the genus Hibiscus ... The varieties in relation to the character studied are as follows: NRG-NG-R5: Pink flowers with resistance to root ...

  1. Educating for Character in the Sexual Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickona, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Changes in American sexual behavior brought about by the sexual revolution have been linked to the breakdown of the family and other social ills. Because sex has profound consequences for self, others, and society, sex education is an important part of character education. Sexual abstinence before marriage is associated with better physical and…

  2. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  3. Printed Persian Subword Recognition Using Wavelet Packet Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Nasrollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new approach to offline OCR (optical character recognition for printed Persian subwords using wavelet packet transform. The proposed algorithm is used to extract font invariant and size invariant features from 87804 subwords of 4 fonts and 3 sizes. The feature vectors are compressed using PCA. The obtained feature vectors yield a pictorial dictionary for which an entry is the mean of each group that consists of the same subword with 4 fonts in 3 sizes. The sets of these features are congregated by combining them with the dot features for the recognition of printed Persian subwords. To evaluate the feature extraction results, this algorithm was tested on a set of 2000 subwords in printed Persian text documents. An encouraging recognition rate of 97.9% is got at subword level recognition.

  4. Phylogeny of the Acanthocephala based on morphological characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, S

    2001-02-01

    Only four previous studies of relationships among acanthocephalans have included cladistic analyses, and knowledge of the phylogeny of the group has not kept pace with that of other taxa. The purpose of this study is to provide a more comprehensive analysis of the phylogenetic relationships among members of the phylum Acanthocephala using morphological characters. The most appropriate outgroups are those that share a common early cell-cleavage pattern (polar placement of centrioles), such as the Rotifera, rather than the Priapulida (meridional placement of centrioles) to provide character polarity based on common ancestry rather than a general similarity likely due to convergence of body shapes. The phylogeny of 22 species of the Acanthocephala was evaluated based on 138 binary and multistate characters derived from comparative morphological and ontogenetic studies. Three assumptions of cement gland structure were tested: (i) the plesiomorphic type of cement glands in the Rotifera, as the sister group, is undetermined; (ii) non-syncytial cement glands are plesiomorphic; and (iii) syncytial cement glands are plesiomorphic. The results were used to test an early move of Tegorhynchus pectinarius to Koronacantha and to evaluate the relationship between Tegorhynchus and Illiosentis. Analysis of the data-set for each of these assumptions of cement gland structure produced the same single most parsimonious tree topology. Using Assumptions i and ii for the cement glands, the trees were the same length (length = 404 steps, CI = 0.545, CIX = 0.517, HI = 0.455, HIX = 0.483, RI = 0.670, RC = 0.365). Using Assumption iii, the tree was three steps longer (length = 408 steps, CI = 0.539, CIX = 0.512, HI = 0.461, HIX = 0.488, RI = 0.665, RC = 0.359). The tree indicates that the Palaeacanthocephala and Eoacanthocephala both are monophyletic and are sister taxa. The members of the Archiacanthocephala are basal to the other two clades, but do not themselves form a clade. The results

  5. Statistical Pattern Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    Statistical pattern recognition relates to the use of statistical techniques for analysing data measurements in order to extract information and make justified decisions.  It is a very active area of study and research, which has seen many advances in recent years. Applications such as data mining, web searching, multimedia data retrieval, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, all require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. This third edition provides an introduction to statistical pattern theory and techniques, with material drawn from a wide range of fields,

  6. Fast cat-eye effect target recognition based on saliency extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Ren, Jianlin; Wang, Xingbin

    2015-09-01

    Background complexity is a main reason that results in false detection in cat-eye target recognition. Human vision has selective attention property which can help search the salient target from complex unknown scenes quickly and precisely. In the paper, we propose a novel cat-eye effect target recognition method named Multi-channel Saliency Processing before Fusion (MSPF). This method combines traditional cat-eye target recognition with the selective characters of visual attention. Furthermore, parallel processing enables it to achieve fast recognition. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs better in accuracy, robustness and speed compared to other methods.

  7. Image simulation for automatic license plate recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Raja; Zhao, Yonghui; Burry, Aaron; Kozitsky, Vladimir; Fillion, Claude; Saunders, Craig; Rodríguez-Serrano, José

    2012-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) is an important capability for traffic surveillance applications, including toll monitoring and detection of different types of traffic violations. ALPR is a multi-stage process comprising plate localization, character segmentation, optical character recognition (OCR), and identification of originating jurisdiction (i.e. state or province). Training of an ALPR system for a new jurisdiction typically involves gathering vast amounts of license plate images and associated ground truth data, followed by iterative tuning and optimization of the ALPR algorithms. The substantial time and effort required to train and optimize the ALPR system can result in excessive operational cost and overhead. In this paper we propose a framework to create an artificial set of license plate images for accelerated training and optimization of ALPR algorithms. The framework comprises two steps: the synthesis of license plate images according to the design and layout for a jurisdiction of interest; and the modeling of imaging transformations and distortions typically encountered in the image capture process. Distortion parameters are estimated by measurements of real plate images. The simulation methodology is successfully demonstrated for training of OCR.

  8. Semi-automated contour recognition using DICOMautomaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H; Duzenli, C; Wu, J; Moiseenko, V; Lee, R; Gill, B; Thomas, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A system has been developed which recognizes and classifies Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine contour data with minimal human intervention. It allows researchers to overcome obstacles which tax analysis and mining systems, including inconsistent naming conventions and differences in data age or resolution. Methods: Lexicographic and geometric analysis is used for recognition. Well-known lexicographic methods implemented include Levenshtein-Damerau, bag-of-characters, Double Metaphone, Soundex, and (word and character)-N-grams. Geometrical implementations include 3D Fourier Descriptors, probability spheres, boolean overlap, simple feature comparison (e.g. eccentricity, volume) and rule-based techniques. Both analyses implement custom, domain-specific modules (e.g. emphasis differentiating left/right organ variants). Contour labels from 60 head and neck patients are used for cross-validation. Results: Mixed-lexicographical methods show an effective improvement in more than 10% of recognition attempts compared with a pure Levenshtein-Damerau approach when withholding 70% of the lexicon. Domain-specific and geometrical techniques further boost performance. Conclusions: DICOMautomaton allows users to recognize contours semi-automatically. As usage increases and the lexicon is filled with additional structures, performance improves, increasing the overall utility of the system.

  9. Cultivating characters (moral value) through internalization strategy in science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M.; Abadi

    2018-01-01

    It is still in a crucial debate that characters play an important learning outcome to be realized by design. So far, most people think that characters were reached as nurturance effect with the assumption that students who are knowledgeable and skillful will have good characters automatically. Lately, obtained evidence that this assumption is not true. Characters should be taught deliberately or by design. This study was designed to culture elementary school students’ characters through science classroom. The teaching-learning process was conducted to facilitate and bridge the students from the known (concrete images: Science phenomena) to the unknown (abstract ideas: characters: care, and tolerance. Characters were observed five weeks before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed from observation of 24 students in internalization strategy-based courses. Qualitative and quantitative data suggested that the internalization strategy that use of science phenomena to represent abstract ideas (characters) in science classroom positively cultivating characters.

  10. Seismic echo character northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreery, C.J.; Laine, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Latest efforts in echo-character mapping of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain have discerned variations in thickness in a near-surface sedimentary sequence which has been designated seismic unit A. This unit probably represents the last episode of progradation of the Hatteras Deep Sea Fan in the southern part of the study area, and has infilled probable paleochannels from the Wilmington Canyon and Sohm Gap in the north. Unit A thins to a minimum in the central part of the plain, where older sediments come within 1 meter of the surface. Variations in the character of the surface reflector probably represent differing degrees of microtopography developed on a Late Pleistocene surface overlain by Holocene sediments. With the exception of one area identified as a relict surface outcropping in the western plain, this microtopography seems related to present-day thalweg locations on the abyssal plain. 11 references, 13 figures

  11. On the total character of finite groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Prajapati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For a finite group $G$, we study the total character $tau_G$ afforded by the direct sum of all the non-isomorphic irreducible complex representations of $G$. We resolve for several classes of groups (the Camina $p$-groups, the generalized Camina $p$-groups, the groups which admit $(G,Z(G$ as a generalized Camina pair, the problem of existence of a polynomial $f(x in mathbb{Q}[x]$ such that $f(chi = tau_G$ for some irreducible character $chi$ of $G$. As a consequence, we completely determine the $p$-groups of order at most $p^5$ (with $p$ odd which admit such a polynomial. We deduce the characterization that these are the groups $G$ for which $Z(G$ is cyclic and $(G,Z(G$ is a generalized Camina pair and, we conjecture that this holds good for $p$-groups of any order.

  12. The Character, Organization Change and Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Fernandi Wijaya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The success of building an integrated information system is an expectation of every company management to achieve effective and efficient working system. However, in the real business practices, not a few companies failed in building an integrated information system caused by the absence of several factors: strong commitment, hard work and smart effort conducted by a team. The team determines the success level in building an integrated information system. A factor of intelligence and mental maturity of users in running a new information system that has not been known is also another key to success. Therefore, it takes a good user’s character supported by a management decision to make management changes to achieve the building success level. This study aims to address the role of character and organization changes in achieving a success building an integrated information system. 

  13. Correlators in tensor models from character calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mironov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We explain how the calculations of [20], which provided the first evidence for non-trivial structures of Gaussian correlators in tensor models, are efficiently performed with the help of the (Hurwitz character calculus. This emphasizes a close similarity between technical methods in matrix and tensor models and supports a hope to understand the emerging structures in very similar terms. We claim that the 2m-fold Gaussian correlators of rank r tensors are given by r-linear combinations of dimensions with the Young diagrams of size m. The coefficients are made from the characters of the symmetric group Sm and their exact form depends on the choice of the correlator and on the symmetries of the model. As the simplest application of this new knowledge, we provide simple expressions for correlators in the Aristotelian tensor model as tri-linear combinations of dimensions.

  14. Organolanthanoid compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Up to little more than a decade ago organolanthanoid compounds were still a curiosity. Apart from the description of an isolated number of cyclopentadienyl and indenyl derivatives, very few significant contributions had been made to this interesting sector of organometallic chemistry. However, subsequent systematic studies using modern preparative and analytical techniques, together with X-ray single crystal structure determinations, enabled the isolation and characterization of a large number of very interesting homoleptic and heteroleptic compounds in which the lanthanoid is bound to hydrogen, to substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl groups, to allyl or alkynyl groups, or even to phosphorus ylides, trimethylsilyl, and carbonylmetal groups. These compounds, which are all extremely sensitive to oxygen and water, open up new possibilities in the field of catalysis and have great potential in organic synthesis - as recent studies with pentamethylcyclopentadienyl derivatives, organolanthanoid(II) compounds, and hexamethyllanthanoid complexes have already shown. (orig.) [de

  15. Hybrid Motion Graphs for Character Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Kalouache Saida; Cherif Foudil

    2016-01-01

    Many works in the literature have improved the performance of motion graphs for synthesis the humanlike results in limited domains that necessity few constraints like dance, navigation in small game like environments or in games by the gesture of feedback on a snowboard tutorial. The humanlike cannot exist in an environment without interacting with the world surrounding them; the naturalness of the entire motion extremely depends on the animation of the walking character, the chosen path and ...

  16. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  17. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  18. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms or inter...

  19. Font generation of personal handwritten Chinese characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jeng-Wei; Wang, Chih-Yin; Ting, Chao-Lung; Chang, Ray-I.

    2014-01-01

    Today, digital multimedia messages have drawn more and more attention due to the great achievement of computer and network techniques. Nevertheless, text is still the most popular media for people to communicate with others. Many fonts have been developed so that product designers can choose unique fonts to demonstrate their idea gracefully. It is commonly believed that handwritings can reflect one's personality, emotion, feeling, education level, and so on. This is especially true in Chinese calligraphy. However, it is not easy for ordinary users to customize a font of their personal handwritings. In this study, we performed a process reengineering in font generation. We present a new method to create font in a batch mode. Rather than to create glyphs of characters one by one according to their codepoints, people create glyphs incrementally in an on-demand manner. A Java Implementation is developed to read a document image of user handwritten Chinese characters, and make a vector font of these handwritten Chinese characters. Preliminary experiment result shows that the proposed method can help ordinary users create their personal handwritten fonts easily and quickly.

  20. Vocal analysis of suicidal movie characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas-Sanches, Elaine; Sanches, Marsal; Ferrari, Maria Cristina C; Oliveira, Gisele; Behlau, Mara

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the auditory-perceptive evaluation and the psychodynamic aspects of voice samples among suicidal movie characters. Voice samples of 48 characters (27 male, 21 female), extracted from 36 movies produced between 1968 and 2006, were analyzed. The samples were evaluated through a specific protocol focusing on the auditory-perceptive evaluation (voice quality, resonance, pitch, loudness, modulation, pauses, articulation and rhythm) and the psychodynamic aspects of voice. 85.5% of the samples exhibited abnormal findings in at least five parameters of the auditory-perceptive analysis, such as breathiness (n=42; 87.5% of the samples), hoarseness (n=39; 81.2%) and strain (n=29; 60.4%), as well as laryngopharingeal resonance (n=39; 81.2%), either high pitch (n=14; 29.2%), or decreased loudness (n=31; 64.6%). With respect to the psychodynamic aspects, dismay was detected in 50% (n=24) of the samples, hopelessness in 47.9% (n=23), resignation in 37.5% (n=18), and sadness in 33.3% (n=16). Our findings suggest the existence of specific patterns used by actors during the interpretation of suicidal characters. The replication of these findings among real patients may contribute to improvement in the evaluation of potential suicidal patients, as well as the implementation of preventive measures.

  1. Interspecific aggression, not interspecific mating, drives character displacement in the wing coloration of male rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, J. P.; Grether, G. F.

    2014-01-01

    Traits that mediate intraspecific social interactions may overlap in closely related sympatric species, resulting in costly between-species interactions. Such interactions have principally interested investigators studying the evolution of reproductive isolation via reproductive character displacement (RCD) or reinforcement, yet in addition to reproductive interference, interspecific trait overlap can lead to costly between-species aggression. Previous research on rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina spp.) demonstrated that sympatric shifts in male wing colour patterns and competitor recognition reduce interspecific aggression, supporting the hypothesis that agonistic character displacement (ACD) drove trait shifts. However, a recent theoretical model shows that RCD overshadows ACD if the same male trait is used for both female mate recognition and male competitor recognition. To determine whether female mate recognition is based on male wing coloration in Hetaerina, we conducted a phenotype manipulation experiment. Compared to control males, male H. americana with wings manipulated to resemble a sympatric congener (H. titia) suffered no reduction in mating success. Thus, female mate recognition is not based on species differences in male wing coloration. Experimental males did, however, experience higher interspecific fighting rates and reduced survival compared to controls. These results greatly strengthen the case for ACD and highlight the mechanistic distinction between ACD and RCD. PMID:25339724

  2. Challenging ocular image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauca, V. Paúl; Forkin, Michael; Xu, Xiao; Plemmons, Robert; Ross, Arun A.

    2011-06-01

    Ocular recognition is a new area of biometric investigation targeted at overcoming the limitations of iris recognition performance in the presence of non-ideal data. There are several advantages for increasing the area beyond the iris, yet there are also key issues that must be addressed such as size of the ocular region, factors affecting performance, and appropriate corpora to study these factors in isolation. In this paper, we explore and identify some of these issues with the goal of better defining parameters for ocular recognition. An empirical study is performed where iris recognition methods are contrasted with texture and point operators on existing iris and face datasets. The experimental results show a dramatic recognition performance gain when additional features are considered in the presence of poor quality iris data, offering strong evidence for extending interest beyond the iris. The experiments also highlight the need for the direct collection of additional ocular imagery.

  3. Head capsule characters in the Hymenoptera and their phylogenetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Vilhelmsen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The head capsule of a taxon sample of three outgroup and 86 ingroup taxa is examined for characters of possible phylogenetic significance within Hymenoptera. 21 morphological characters are illustrated and scored, and their character evolution explored by mapping them onto a phylogeny recently produced from a large morphological data set. Many of the characters are informative and display unambiguous changes. Most of the character support demonstrated is supportive at the superfamily or family level. In contrast, only few characters corroborate deeper nodes in the phylogeny of Hymenoptera.

  4. Leadership, character and its development: A qualitative exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn de Braine

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore (1 what organisational leaders consider to be character elements of leaders within the workplace, (2 what influences leaders’ character development, and (3 how an organisation can continue the process of character development. The literature review and findings revealed that leadership, integrity, industriousness, empathy, loyalty, optimism, fairness and compassion are the most sought after character elements within leaders in the workplace. Leadership and integrity were found to be the most supported character elements. The findings also indicate that work environmental factors, a person’s own efforts, and the daily experiences of work life contribute towards character development.

  5. An Edge-Based Macao License Plate Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Man Pun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system to recognize Macao license plates. Sobel edge detector is employed to extract the vertical edges, and an edge composition algorithm is proposed to combine the edges into candidate plate regions. They are further examined on the existence of the character qMq by a verification algorithm. A row separation algorithm is also proposed to cater both one-row and two-row types of plates. Projection analysis and template matching methods are exploited to segment and recognize the characters. Various pre and post processing steps are proposed other than traditional implementation so as to improve the recognition accuracy. This work achieves a high recognition rate of 95%.

  6. Phylogenetic diversification of Early Cretaceous seed plants: The compound seed cone of Doylea tetrahedrasperma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Gar W; Stockey, Ruth A

    2016-05-01

    Discovery of cupulate ovules of Doylea tetrahedrasperma within a compact, compound seed cone highlights the rich diversity of fructification morphologies, pollination biologies, postpollination enclosure of seeds, and systematic diversity of Early Cretaceous gymnosperms. Specimens were studied using the cellulose acetate peel technique, three-dimensional reconstructions (in AVIZO), and morphological phylogenetic analyses (in TNT). Doylea tetrahedrasperma has bract/fertile short shoot complexes helically arranged within a compact, compound seed cone. Complexes diverge from the axis as a single unit and separate distally into a free bract tip and two sporophylls. Each sporophyll bears a single, abaxial seed, recurved toward the cone axis, that is enveloped after pollinaton by sporophyll tissue, forming a closed cupule. Ovules are pollinated by bisaccate grains captured by micropylar pollination horns. The unique combination of characters shown by D. tetrahedrasperma includes the presence of cupulate seeds borne in conifer-like compound seed cones, an ovuliferous scale analogue structurally equivalent to the ovulate stalk of Ginkgo biloba, gymnospermous pollination, and nearly complete enclosure of mature seeds. These features characterize the Doyleales ord. nov., clearly distinguish it from the seed fern order Corystospermales, and allow for recognition of another recently described Early Cretaceous seed plant as a second species in genus Doylea. A morphological phylogenetic analysis highlights systematic relationships of the Doyleales ord. nov. and emphasizes the explosive phylogenetic diversification of gymnosperms that was underway at the time when flowering plants may have originated and/or first began to radiate. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  7. Foreign Language Optical Character Recognition, Phase II: Arabic and Persian Training and Test Data Sets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davidson, Robert

    1997-01-01

    .... The samples were systematically chosen to represent current vocabulary, usage, typography, and publication practices in major newspapers and news magazines, and in recent books and journals dealing...

  8. Kurzweil Reading Machine: A Partial Evaluation of Its Optical Character Recognition Error Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Gregory L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A study designed to assess the ability of the Kurzweil reading machine (a speech reading device for the visually handicapped) to read three different type styles produced by five different means indicated that the machines tested had different error rates depending upon the means of producing the copy and upon the type style used. (Author/CL)

  9. Foreign Language Optical Character Recognition, Phase II: Arabic and Persian Training and Test Data Sets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davidson, Robert

    1997-01-01

    .... Each data set is divided into a training set, which is made available to developers, and a carefully matched equal-sized set of closely analogous samples, which is reserved for testing of the developers' products...

  10. An Autonomous Learning System of Bengali Characters Using Web-Based Intelligent Handwriting Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Nazma; Miwa, Jouji

    2016-01-01

    This research project was aimed to develop an intelligent Bengali handwriting education system to improve the literacy level in Bangladesh. Due to the socio-economical limitation, all of the population does not have the chance to go to school. Here, we developed a prototype of web-based (iPhone/smartphone or computer browser) intelligent…

  11. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF VARIANCES IN BACKPROPAGATION NEURAL NETWORK USED FOR HANDWRITTEN CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    Vairaprakash Gurusamy *1 & K.Nandhini2

    2017-01-01

    A Neural Network is a powerful data modeling tool that is able to capture and represent complex input/output relationships. The motivation for the development of neural network technology stemmed from the desire to develop an artificial system that could perform "intelligent" tasks similar to those performed by the human brain.Back propagation was created by generalizing the Widrow-Hoff learning rule to multiple-layer networks and nonlinear differentiable transfer functions. The term back pro...

  12. Research on Recognition and Evaluation of Traffic Guide Sign

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yuan; Ming-jie Cai; Tang-yi Guo; Yu Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Traffic guide signs are effective only when they are clearly recognized by drivers. Three experiments were conducted in this study. In the first, the influence factors of guide sign recognition were studied. This study investigated 11 main factors with a convenience sample of drivers from Nanjing city in China. Weights of different influence factors were obtained through analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results showed that the setting position, occlusion degree, and character size of gui...

  13. Stigma-pollen recognition: a new look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dumas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, there have been several conceptual developments in our understanding of pollen-stigma recognition and molecular mechanisms involved. The main models proposed are compared. Based on additional data a hypothesis to complete these models especially for pollen hydration and adhesion is proposed. After attachment of the pollen to the stigma surface a close interaction exists involving lipoproteic membrane-like compounds (pollenkitt and stigma pellicle and pollen agglutinating ability.

  14. IDENTIFIKASI CHARACTER IMPACT ODORANTS BUAH KAWISTA (Feronia Limonia [Identification of Character Impact Odorants of Wood Apple Fruit (Feronia Limonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Apriyantono1

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatiles of the kawista fruit (wood apple were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and a combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS. Character impact odorants of the fruits were systematically characterized by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA with GC-Olfactometry (GC-O. A total of 75 compounds were identified, including 28 esters, 11 alcohols, 10 aldehydes, 1 acetal, 10 ketones, 4 lactones, 1 heterocyclic, 4 aliphatic hydrocarbons, 1 furan and 5 acids. However, only 44 volatiles were detected by GC-O. Among these, compounds with the most impact were ethyl butyrate (fruity, sweet, banan-likeand methyl butyrate (fruit, sour with a flavor dilution factor of 256 and 64, respectively. Based on AEDA results, butyric acid, 3-mathyl valeric acid, 1-octen-3-ol, pentyl isobutyrate, 2-ethyl hexanoic acid, ethyl octanoate, gamma-decalactone, 2,3-pentanedione, 3-octanone, 5-methyl-3-heptanone, 9-methyl-5-undecene and (E-2-hexenyl butyrate seem to contribute to kawista fruit flavor

  15. Comparison of brain mechanisms underlying the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Hong; Zhang, Qinglin; Tu, Shen; Yu, Caiyun; Qiu, Jiang

    2010-04-01

    Most Chinese characters are composed of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right. The semantic radical provides the semantic information; the phonetic radical provides information concerning the pronunciation of the whole character. The pseudo-characters in the study consisted of different sub-lexical parts of real Chinese characters and consequently they also had the semantic radical and the phonetic radical. But they were not readable and had no actual meaning. In order to investigate the spatiotemporal cortical activation patterns underlying the orthographic, phonological and semantic processing of Chinese characters, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to explore the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters when 14 healthy Chinese college students viewed the characters passively. Results showed that both Chinese characters and pseudo-characters elicited an evident negative potential peaking around 120 ms (N120), which appeared to reflect initial orthographic distinction and evaluation. Then, Chinese pseudo-characters elicited a more positive ERP deflection (P220) than did Chinese characters 200-250 ms after onset of the stimuli. It was similar to the recognition potential (RP) and might reflect the integration processes of phonological and semantic processing on the basis of early orthographic information. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (pseudo-characters minus characters) indicated that a generator localized in the left temporal-occipital junction contributed to this effect, which was possibly related to phonological and perceptual-semantic information integration. Between 350-450 ms, a greater negativity (N360) in pseudo-characters as compared to characters was found over midline fronto-central scalp regions. Dipole analysis localized the generator of N360 in the right parahippocampal cortex. Therefore, the N360 might be an N400 component and reflect the higher-level semantic activation on the

  16. The Value Of Saemaul Undong : South Korea Community Character Booster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kim Min

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is motivated by the fact that many foreign companies are still have an orientation that a business is aimed at obtaining maximum profit by using capital as small as possible and justify any means. This is compounded by the fact that many of these companies make profits out of the occupied country without contributing towards the country. This condition triggers the urgency of the presence of the planting and preservation of good and strong character to nourish the existence of the company itself as well as the country they occupy. This study aims to reveal and define what and how the application of the teachings of Saemaul Undongas value in its implications for the development of values education. This study is designed using a qualitative approach with case study method. Data was collected by means of: observation, interview and document study. The results showed that the values of Saemaul Undongas become the spirit of good and strong character building which is basically built by the value of discipline, self-reliance and mutual cooperation. Implications of the study provides an overview to the Indonesian multi-ethnic that values the life of a powerful nation that should begin with the initial value that is the value of the next. In addition, it can be developed by the Public Education by trying to adopt and manipulate Saemaul Undongas training model for the value of diligent, independent, mutual cooperation and development in accordance with the needs of the desired value. Thus, from this article can be raised a proposition that “if countries want to move forward, then make the value in the life of the society as a reference”.

  17. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  18. 8 CFR 292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 292.2...; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. (a) Qualifications of organizations. A non-profit religious, charitable, social service, or similar organization established in the United...

  19. Animated Character Analysis and Costume Design with Structured Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım Artaç, Berna; Ağaç, Saliha

    2016-01-01

    In various genres, costumes complement fictional characters and not onlyconstitute the external appearance of the fictional character, but are alsoused for purposes of fun or style by fans who dress up as the character andinternalize that character’s state of mind. This phenomenon is calledcosplay. A literature review of the field has revealed no study made previouslyon the cosplay costume design process according to character analysis. Thepresent study emphasizes the link between an...

  20. Dynamic Obstacle Clearing for Real-time Character Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Glardon, Pascal; Boulic, Ronan; Thalmann, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method to control virtual characters in dynamic environments. A virtual character is animated by a locomotion and jumping engine, enabling production of continuous parameterized motions. At any time during runtime, flat obstacles (e.g. a puddle of water) can be created and placed in front of a character. The method first decides whether the character is able to get around or jump over the obstacle. Then the motion parameters are accordingly modified. The transition...

  1. Integrating Character Education In Teaching Speaking For Business Administration Students

    OpenAIRE

    Woro Prastiwi, Chyntia Heru

    2016-01-01

    Globalization along with the advancement of information and communication technology has brought tremendous effects on students' character. Education field as a place of community has to contribute in developing students' character traits. Integrating character education in curriculum is the key for qualified education. This research aimed to describe the way to integrate character education in teaching speaking for Business Administration students. The data was obtained from teaching and lea...

  2. The Character Strengths of Class Clowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald F. Ruch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of identified as a class clown, comic talent, disruptive rule-breaker, and subversive joker. Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park & Peterson, 2006 showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, generally class clown behaviors were shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors identified as the class clown and comic talent were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (disruptive rule-breaker, subversive joker were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  3. The character strengths of class clowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  4. On character amenability of Banach algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniuth, E.; Lau, A. T.; Pym, J.

    2008-08-01

    We continue our work [E. Kaniuth, A.T. Lau, J. Pym, On [phi]-amenability of Banach algebras, Math. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 144 (2008) 85-96] in the study of amenability of a Banach algebra A defined with respect to a character [phi] of A. Various necessary and sufficient conditions of a global and a pointwise nature are found for a Banach algebra to possess a [phi]-mean of norm 1. We also completely determine the size of the set of [phi]-means for a separable weakly sequentially complete Banach algebra A with no [phi]-mean in A itself. A number of illustrative examples are discussed.

  5. ZBrush Character Creation Advanced Digital Sculpting

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A stunning, content-rich update to this top-selling ZBrush guide! This second edition of ZBrush Character Creation has been fully updated for ZBrush 4, the newest version of this fascinating and popular 3D sculpting software. ZBrush enables users to create detailed organic models using a brush-based toolset and tablet. The startling results look as though they've been painted with real brushes and oils, and ZBrush is increasingly popular for use in film, game, and broadcast pipelines. Author Scott Spencer is embedded in the ZBrush community and his movie credits include Harry Potter and The Or

  6. WWC Evidence Review Protocol for Character Education Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Character education is an inclusive concept regarding all aspects of how families, schools, and related social institutions support the positive character development of children and adults. "Character" in this context refers to the moral and ethical qualities of persons as well as the demonstration of those qualities in their emotional…

  7. Character Education of the Most Developed Countries in ASEAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiningsih

    2016-01-01

    Character education into an international issue, especially in developing countries. More specifically in Indonesia, character education is a major issue in the 2012's to the present. What kind of education that may build character? To be able to answer this question, we need a broad and deep research. Research simpler related to character…

  8. Resolving Conflict: Methods Used by TV Characters and Teenage Viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, Michael E.; Greenberg, Bradley S.

    1979-01-01

    Tested hypotheses that action/adventure characters are perceived by teenagers as likely to engage in antisocial conflict resolution; situation comedy/family drama characters, in prosocial modes. Also tested was hypothesis that, as favorite character's perceived use of a mode increases, so does the viewer's intention to use the same mode. (SW)

  9. Once Upon a Time: A Grimm Approach to Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Many school districts have implemented "packaged" programs designed to teach character education. Millions of dollars have been spent on these programs, yet society continues to produce more "characters" than students "with character." This article describes a shift from the "programmatic" mindset to a solution that is not packaged or purchased.…

  10. The Importance of Character Development: An Interview with Ron Kinnamon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Ron

    2003-01-01

    Building good character in today's youth is an adult issue because children learn values from adults. Adults must demonstrate the core values: trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring, and citizenship. Camps have developed expertise in character development and can provide leadership in the community in character education.…

  11. Character Education in Three Schools: Catholic, Quaker and Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidl, Christopher; Meidl, Tynisha

    2013-01-01

    Character education has always played a role in the purpose of schools. Most US states have a statement about character education as a part of the mission of the schools. This research studied how character education was perceived by participants in regards to school mission statements/philosophies, school atmosphere and curriculum in a Catholic…

  12. Picture This Character: Using Imagery To Teach a Japanese Syllabary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joyce D.; Wakefield, John F.

    This study examined the effectiveness of imagery to teach native English speakers to associate hiragana characters (a Japanese script) with the spoken Japanese syllables that the characters represent. Twenty-one adults in a psychology of learning class for teachers were taught to picture a hiragana character in such a way as to establish an…

  13. Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lisa; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children's and adolescents' well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012). The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years) and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years). The students completed the VIA-Youth (Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth), a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students' positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1), teachers rated the students' overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2), we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples, school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of some of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths.

  14. Good character at school: Positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eWagner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children’s and adolescents’ well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012. The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years. The students completed the VIA-Youth, a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students’ positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1, teachers rated the students’ overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2, we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of most of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths.

  15. Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired with the oppor......The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired...... countries and three firms, where firms first lobby for the policy coordination regime (harmonization versus mutual recognition), and subsequently, in case of harmonization, the global standard is auctioned among the firms. We discuss welfare effects and conclude with policy implications. In particular......, harmonized standards may fail to harvest the full pro-competitive effects from trade liberalization compared to mutual recognition; moreover, the issue is most pronounced in markets featuring price competition....

  16. CASE Recognition Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currents, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A total of 294 schools, colleges, and universities received prizes in this year's CASE Recognition program. Awards were given in: public relations programs, student recruitment, marketing, program pulications, news writing, fund raising, radio programming, school periodicals, etc. (MLW)

  17. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  18. Polymer compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    A Polymer compound comprising a polymer (a) that contains cyclic imidesgroups and a polymer (b) that contains monomer groups with a 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine side group. According to the formula (see formula) whereby themole percentage ratio of the cyclic imides groups in the polymer compoundwith

  19. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic Chemistry. Kamatak University,. Dharwad. Her research interests are synthesis, reactions and synthetic utility of sydnones. She is currently working on electrochemical and insecticidal/antifungal activities for some of these compounds. Keywords. Aromaticity, mesoionic hetero- cycles, sydnones, tandem re- actions.

  20. The Recognition Of Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Jensen, Bodil; Mørup, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87......Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87...

  1. Evaluating music emotion recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental problem with nearly all work in music genre recognition (MGR)is that evaluation lacks validity with respect to the principal goals of MGR. This problem also occurs in the evaluation of music emotion recognition (MER). Standard approaches to evaluation, though easy to implement, do...... not reliably differentiate between recognizing genre or emotion from music, or by virtue of confounding factors in signals (e.g., equalization). We demonstrate such problems for evaluating an MER system, and conclude with recommendations....

  2. Why recognition is rational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clintin P. Davis-Stober

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Recognition Heuristic (Gigerenzer and Goldstein, 1996; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 makes the counter-intuitive prediction that a decision maker utilizing less information may do as well as, or outperform, an idealized decision maker utilizing more information. We lay a theoretical foundation for the use of single-variable heuristics such as the Recognition Heuristic as an optimal decision strategy within a linear modeling framework. We identify conditions under which over-weighting a single predictor is a mini-max strategy among a class of a priori chosen weights based on decision heuristics with respect to a measure of statistical lack of fit we call ``risk''. These strategies, in turn, outperform standard multiple regression as long as the amount of data available is limited. We also show that, under related conditions, weighting only one variable and ignoring all others produces the same risk as ignoring the single variable and weighting all others. This approach has the advantage of generalizing beyond the original environment of the Recognition Heuristic to situations with more than two choice options, binary or continuous representations of recognition, and to other single variable heuristics. We analyze the structure of data used in some prior recognition tasks and find that it matches the sufficient conditions for optimality in our results. Rather than being a poor or adequate substitute for a compensatory model, the Recognition Heuristic closely approximates an optimal strategy when a decision maker has finite data about the world.

  3. Modeling the Semiotic Structure of Player-Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vella, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    When game studies has tackled the player-character, it has tended to do so by means of an opposition to the notion of the avatar, with the result that the ontological and semiotic nature of the character in itself has not been given due attention. This paper draws on understandings of character...... from the fields of narratology and literary theory to highlight the double-layered ontology of character as both a possible individual and as a semiotic construction. Uri Margolin’s narratological model of character signification is used as the basis for developing a semiotic-structural model...

  4. READING LITERATURE, TAKING PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS, AND OBTAINING CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Maisaroh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the philosophical ideas and characters containing in trilogy of 'RaraMendut's' novel by YB Mangunwijaya. The method used is the knowledge archeology of Michel Foucault. The research proves that the philosophical ideas as follows: 1 wife's faithfulness contains characters of wife’s strong determination and true faithfulness sense; 2 The women seizing fate's  contains the character of high struggle spirit;3 women as a glory’s symbol contains character of self-actualization ability; 4 women and a country's defense contains a character of clever to take on the role / responsive; 5 women and their benefits contains the character as a source of love and life spirit; 6 women as good mothers contains the character of conciliatory, reassuring, joyful, sincere, and full of love; 7 the anxiety to old age contains the character of religious and strong self-awareness; 8 the glory contains the character of the glory of battle with themselves; 9 the child's nature contains the character of belief in the skill/ creativity of children and believe to God the Evolver; And 10 the essence of wisdom and usefulness of life contain  the characters of uniting the scattered things, receiving and embracing sincerely things bad/ broken/ waste, understanding and forgiving, voice sincerity and excitement, not easy to complain.

  5. Character education in perspective of chemistry pre-service teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdekawati, Krisna

    2017-12-01

    As one of the pre-service teacher education programs, Chemistry Education Department Islamic University of Indonesia (UII) is committed to providing quality education. It is an education that can produce competent and characteristic chemistry pre-service teacher. The focus of research is to describe the perception of students as a potential teacher of chemistry on character education and achievement of character education. The research instruments include questionnaires and observation sheets. Research data show that students have understood the importance of character education and committed to organizing character education later in schools. Students have understood the ways in which character education can be used. The students stated that Chemistry Education Department has tried to equip students with character education. The observation result shows that students generally have character as a pre-service teacher.

  6. On the information content of discrete phylogenetic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordewich, Magnus; Deutschmann, Ina Maria; Fischer, Mareike; Kasbohm, Elisa; Semple, Charles; Steel, Mike

    2017-12-16

    Phylogenetic inference aims to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of different species based on genetic (or other) data. Discrete characters are a particular type of data, which contain information on how the species should be grouped together. However, it has long been known that some characters contain more information than others. For instance, a character that assigns the same state to each species groups all of them together and so provides no insight into the relationships of the species considered. At the other extreme, a character that assigns a different state to each species also conveys no phylogenetic signal. In this manuscript, we study a natural combinatorial measure of the information content of an individual character and analyse properties of characters that provide the maximum phylogenetic information, particularly, the number of states such a character uses and how the different states have to be distributed among the species or taxa of the phylogenetic tree.

  7. Tune in to the Tone: Lexical Tone Identification is Associated with Vocabulary and Word Recognition Abilities in Young Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms.

  8. Boolean logic and character state identity: pitfalls of character coding in metazoan cladistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, Ronald A.

    2002-01-01

    A critical study of the morphological data sets used for the most recent analyses of metazoan cladistics exposes a rather cavalier attitude towards character coding. Binary absence/presence coding is ubiquitous, but without any explicit justification. This uncompromising application of Boolean logic

  9. Explaining the role of character development in the evaluation of morally ambiguous characters in entertainment media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, M.; Eden, A.; Daalmans, S.; Ommen, M.E. van; Weijers, G.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    The current project aims at better understanding how narrative characteristics in stories function in the liking, moral evaluation, and enjoyment of narratives featuring morally ambiguous characters (MACs). Shafer and Raney (2012) found that viewers differently enjoyed a heroic versus MAC-centered

  10. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  11. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2002-04-16

    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  12. Towards Tetraradicaloid: The Effect of Fusion Mode on Radical Character and Chemical Reactivity

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Pan

    2015-12-30

    Open-shell singlet diradicaloids display unique electronic, non-linear optical and magnetic activity and could become novel molecular materials for organic electronics, photonics and spintronics. However, design and synthesis of diradicaloids with a significant polyradical character is a challenging task for chemists. In this article, we report our efforts toward tetraradicaloid system. A series of potential tetraradicaloids by fusion of two p-quinodimethane (p-QDM) units with naphthalene or benzene rings in different modes were synthesized. Their model compounds containing one p-QDM moiety were also prepared and compared. Their ground-state structures, physical properties and chemical reactivity were systematically investigated by various exper-imental methods such as steady-state and transient absorption, two-photon absorption, X-ray crystallographic analysis, electron spin resonance, superconducting quantum interference device and electrochemistry, assisted by density functional theory calculations. It was found that their diradical and tetraradical characters show a clear dependence on the fusion mode. Upon the introducing of more five-membered rings, the diradical characters greatly decrease. This difference can be explained by the pro-aromaticity/anti-aromaticity of the molecules as well as the intramolecular charge transfer. Our comprehensive studies provide a guideline for the design and synthesis of stable open-shell singlet polycyclic hydrocarbons with significant polyradical characters.

  13. Towards Tetraradicaloid: The Effect of Fusion Mode on Radical Character and Chemical Reactivity

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Pan; Lee, Sangsu; Herng, Tun Seng; Aratani, Naoki; Goncalves, Theo; Qi, Qingbiao; Shi, Xueliang; Yamada, Hiroko; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Ding, Jun; Kim, Dongho; Wu, Jishan

    2015-01-01

    Open-shell singlet diradicaloids display unique electronic, non-linear optical and magnetic activity and could become novel molecular materials for organic electronics, photonics and spintronics. However, design and synthesis of diradicaloids with a significant polyradical character is a challenging task for chemists. In this article, we report our efforts toward tetraradicaloid system. A series of potential tetraradicaloids by fusion of two p-quinodimethane (p-QDM) units with naphthalene or benzene rings in different modes were synthesized. Their model compounds containing one p-QDM moiety were also prepared and compared. Their ground-state structures, physical properties and chemical reactivity were systematically investigated by various exper-imental methods such as steady-state and transient absorption, two-photon absorption, X-ray crystallographic analysis, electron spin resonance, superconducting quantum interference device and electrochemistry, assisted by density functional theory calculations. It was found that their diradical and tetraradical characters show a clear dependence on the fusion mode. Upon the introducing of more five-membered rings, the diradical characters greatly decrease. This difference can be explained by the pro-aromaticity/anti-aromaticity of the molecules as well as the intramolecular charge transfer. Our comprehensive studies provide a guideline for the design and synthesis of stable open-shell singlet polycyclic hydrocarbons with significant polyradical characters.

  14. Sequential character of low-energy ternary and quaternary nuclear fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadmensky, S. G., E-mail: kadmensky@phys.vsu.ru; Bulychev, A. O. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    An analysis of low-energy true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission leads to the conclusion that these fission modes have a sequential two-step (three-step) character such that the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) and the separation of fission fragments occur at distinctly different instants, in contrast to the simultaneous emergence of all fission products in the case of onestep ternary (quaternary) fission. This conclusion relies on the following arguments. First, the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) from a fissile nucleus is due to a nonevaporative mechanism associated with a nonadiabatic character of the collective deformation motion of this nucleus at the stages preceding its scission. Second, the axial symmetry of the deformed fissile compound nucleus and the direction of its symmetry axis both remain unchanged at all stages of ternary (quaternary) fission. This circumstancemakes it possible to explain themechanism of the appearance of observed anisotropies and T — odd asymmeries in the angular distributions of products of ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. Third, the T —odd asymmetry discovered experimentally in ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons obeys the T —invariance condition only in the case of a sequential two-step (three-step) character of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. At the same time, this asymmetry is not a T —invariant quantity in the case of the simultaneous emission of products of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission from the fissile compound nucleus.

  15. Sequential character of low-energy ternary and quaternary nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadmensky, S. G.; Bulychev, A. O.

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of low-energy true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission leads to the conclusion that these fission modes have a sequential two-step (three-step) character such that the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) and the separation of fission fragments occur at distinctly different instants, in contrast to the simultaneous emergence of all fission products in the case of onestep ternary (quaternary) fission. This conclusion relies on the following arguments. First, the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) from a fissile nucleus is due to a nonevaporative mechanism associated with a nonadiabatic character of the collective deformation motion of this nucleus at the stages preceding its scission. Second, the axial symmetry of the deformed fissile compound nucleus and the direction of its symmetry axis both remain unchanged at all stages of ternary (quaternary) fission. This circumstancemakes it possible to explain themechanism of the appearance of observed anisotropies and T — odd asymmeries in the angular distributions of products of ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. Third, the T —odd asymmetry discovered experimentally in ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons obeys the T —invariance condition only in the case of a sequential two-step (three-step) character of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. At the same time, this asymmetry is not a T —invariant quantity in the case of the simultaneous emission of products of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission from the fissile compound nucleus.

  16. The influence of media characters on children's food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Jennifer A; Schiffman, Jennifer M; Hanson, Katherine G

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the role of media characters in influencing children's food choices; the first focused on children's self-reported preference, whereas the second focused on actual choice. The results of the experiments suggest that popular characters can make a difference in encouraging children to select one food over another. In the first experiment, children were more likely to indicate a preference for one food over another when one was associated with characters that they liked and with whom they were familiar. This effect was particularly strong when a sugary or salty snack branded by a favored character was competing with a healthier option branded by an unknown character or no character. Alternatively, when children were asked to choose between a healthy food and a sugary or salty snack, branding of the healthy food with a favored character did not significantly change appeal of that healthy snack. However, when foods within the same category (i.e., 2 vegetables, 2 fruits, or 2 grains) were asked to compete against each other, character branding strongly influenced children's food choice. Findings from the second experiment suggest that children are more willing to try more pieces of a healthy food if a favored character, in comparison with an unknown character, is promoting that food.

  17. THE CHARACTER ANALYSIS OF GLEN HANSARD IN ONCE FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nani Rosnani Thamrin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the characterization of talented actor named Glen Hansard in Once film. This study employed a descriptive qualitative research design based on theories of Rahardjo (1985, Robert (1965, and Card (1988. Primary data sources were whole Once scenes film directed by John Carney which had low-budgeting production with two stars, Glen Hansard and Irglova, while secondary data sources were collected from the articles related to this study. This research mainly investigated two aspects involved two character analyses of the main actor, Hansard. The first one was the construction of Hansard’s characters and the second one was the effect between his character and another actors’ character. The study showed that Hansard’s characters were constructed by five factors: from what the character did and said, what the other characters said about him, how the appearance and its milieu were, influencing one and another.The study also found that he had struggle, visionary, ambitious, introvert, sensitive, straightforward and curious characters, but more characters that showed strong characters of his were struggle, visionary and ambitious, because the scenes reflected them more.

  18. Automatic Recognition of Chinese Personal Name Using Conditional Random Fields and Knowledge Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the features of Chinese personal name, we present an approach for Chinese personal name recognition based on conditional random fields (CRF and knowledge base in this paper. The method builds multiple features of CRF model by adopting Chinese character as processing unit, selects useful features based on selection algorithm of knowledge base and incremental feature template, and finally implements the automatic recognition of Chinese personal name from Chinese document. The experimental results on open real corpus demonstrated the effectiveness of our method and obtained high accuracy rate and high recall rate of recognition.

  19. Container code recognition in information auto collection system of container inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jianping; Chen Zhiqiang; Zhang Li; Gao Wenhuan; Kang Kejun

    2003-01-01

    Now custom needs electrical application and automatic detection. Container inspection should not only give the image of the goods, but also auto-attain container's code and weight. Its function and track control, information transfer make up the Information Auto Collection system of Container Inspection. Code Recognition is the point. The article is based on model match, the close property of character, and uses it to recognize. Base on checkout rule, design the adjustment arithmetic, form the whole recognition strategy. This strategy can achieve high recognition ratio and robust property

  20. Blending of heritable recognition cues among ant nestmates creates distinct colony gestalt odours but prevents within-colony nepotism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Brask, Josefine B.; Christensen, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    members to create a Gestalt odour. Although earlier studies have established that hydrocarbon profiles are influenced by heritable factors, transfer among nestmates and additional environmental factors, no studies have quantified these relative contributions for separate compounds. Here, we use the ant...... discrimination or as nestmate recognition cues. These results indicate that heritable compounds are suitable for establishing a genetic Gestalt for efficient nestmate recognition, but that recognition cues within colonies are insufficiently distinct to allow nepotistic kin discrimination....

  1. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary

  2. Image based book cover recognition and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhadan, Kalyani; Vijayarajan, V.; Krishnamoorthi, A.; Bessie Amali, D. Geraldine

    2017-11-01

    In this we are developing a graphical user interface using MATLAB for the users to check the information related to books in real time. We are taking the photos of the book cover using GUI, then by using MSER algorithm it will automatically detect all the features from the input image, after this it will filter bifurcate non-text features which will be based on morphological difference between text and non-text regions. We implemented a text character alignment algorithm which will improve the accuracy of the original text detection. We will also have a look upon the built in MATLAB OCR recognition algorithm and an open source OCR which is commonly used to perform better detection results, post detection algorithm is implemented and natural language processing to perform word correction and false detection inhibition. Finally, the detection result will be linked to internet to perform online matching. More than 86% accuracy can be obtained by this algorithm.

  3. Neighborhood Frequency Effect in Chinese Word Recognition: Evidence from Naming and Lexical Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Feng; Gao, Xin-Yu; Chou, Tai-Li; Wu, Jei-Tun

    2017-01-01

    Neighborhood frequency is a crucial variable to know the nature of word recognition. Different from alphabetic scripts, neighborhood frequency in Chinese is usually confounded by component character frequency and neighborhood size. Three experiments were designed to explore the role of the neighborhood frequency effect in Chinese and the stimuli…

  4. Is Syntactic-Category Processing Obligatory in Visual Word Recognition? Evidence from Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate how syntactic-category and semantic information is processed in visual word recognition. The stimuli were two-character Chinese words in which semantic and syntactic-category ambiguities were factorially manipulated. A lexical decision task was employed in Experiment 1, whereas a semantic relatedness…

  5. Object Attention Patches for Text Detection and Recognition in Scene Images using SIFT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriman, Bowornrat; Schomaker, Lambertus; De Marsico, Maria; Figueiredo, Mário; Fred, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Natural urban scene images contain many problems for character recognition such as luminance noise, varying font styles or cluttered backgrounds. Detecting and recognizing text in a natural scene is a difficult problem. Several techniques have been proposed to overcome these problems. These are,

  6. Container-code recognition system based on computer vision and deep neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Tianjian; Jiang, Li; Liang, Xiaoyao

    2018-04-01

    Automatic container-code recognition system becomes a crucial requirement for ship transportation industry in recent years. In this paper, an automatic container-code recognition system based on computer vision and deep neural networks is proposed. The system consists of two modules, detection module and recognition module. The detection module applies both algorithms based on computer vision and neural networks, and generates a better detection result through combination to avoid the drawbacks of the two methods. The combined detection results are also collected for online training of the neural networks. The recognition module exploits both character segmentation and end-to-end recognition, and outputs the recognition result which passes the verification. When the recognition module generates false recognition, the result will be corrected and collected for online training of the end-to-end recognition sub-module. By combining several algorithms, the system is able to deal with more situations, and the online training mechanism can improve the performance of the neural networks at runtime. The proposed system is able to achieve 93% of overall recognition accuracy.

  7. Touchless palmprint recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Genovese, Angelo; Scotti, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the context, motivation and current status of biometric systems based on the palmprint, with a specific focus on touchless and less-constrained systems. It covers new technologies in this rapidly evolving field and is one of the first comprehensive books on palmprint recognition systems.It discusses the research literature and the most relevant industrial applications of palmprint biometrics, including the low-cost solutions based on webcams. The steps of biometric recognition are described in detail, including acquisition setups, algorithms, and evaluation procedures. Const

  8. Technetium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.A. de; Ferro F, G.

    2003-01-01

    The first radiopharmaceuticals of 99m Tc, also call of 'first generation' as colloids, aggregates and simple complexes were developed with relative easiness without it was necessary a wide understanding of its chemical structure. In the radiopharmaceuticals of 'second generation' were included those derived of the HIDA for hepatobiliary images, MAG3 and EC for images of tubular renal de purification, HMPAO and ECD for images of cerebral perfusion and MIBI and tetrofosmin for images of heart perfusion, that which implies a bigger demand in terms of the chemical knowledge. At the moment, we can affirm that the future of the radiopharmaceuticals of 99m Tc is based on the use of small and relevant biomolecules with high biological activity that allow the visualization in vivo of specific receiving sites and/or its expression in diverse pathologies. It is for it that with the 'third generation' is necessary a wide one knowledge of the chemistry of the technetium that allows the design and characterization of highly specific bio complexes. In this book, although focused mainly to the chemistry of the Tc, a brief revision is also presented on the main biologically active molecules that, coordinated the 99m Tc, present a high recognition In vivo for specific receivers. (Author)

  9. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  10. Character feature integration of Chinese calligraphy and font

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Cao; Xiao, Jianguo; Jia, Wenhua; Xu, Canhui

    2013-01-01

    A framework is proposed in this paper to effectively generate a new hybrid character type by means of integrating local contour feature of Chinese calligraphy with structural feature of font in computer system. To explore traditional art manifestation of calligraphy, multi-directional spatial filter is applied for local contour feature extraction. Then the contour of character image is divided into sub-images. The sub-images in the identical position from various characters are estimated by Gaussian distribution. According to its probability distribution, the dilation operator and erosion operator are designed to adjust the boundary of font image. And then new Chinese character images are generated which possess both contour feature of artistical calligraphy and elaborate structural feature of font. Experimental results demonstrate the new characters are visually acceptable, and the proposed framework is an effective and efficient strategy to automatically generate the new hybrid character of calligraphy and font.

  11. A Japanese logographic character frequency list for cognitive science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikamatsu, N; Yokoyama, S; Nozaki, H; Long, E; Fukuda, S

    2000-08-01

    This paper describes a Japanese logographic character (kanji) frequency list, which is based on an analysis of the largest recently available corpus of Japanese words and characters. This corpus comprised a full year of morning and evening editions of a major newspaper, containing more than 23 million kanji characters and more than 4,000 different kanji characters. This paper lists the 3,000 most frequent kanji characters, as well as an analysis of kanji usage and correlations between the present list and previous Japanese frequency lists. The authors believe that the present list will help researchers more accurately and efficiently control the selection of kanji characters in cognitive science research and interpret related psycholinguistic data.

  12. Stroop phenomena in the Japanese language: the case of ideographic characters (kanji) and syllabic characters (kana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Y

    1981-08-01

    Utilizing a unique feature of the Japanese languages--that besides two syllabic orthographies, which have identical pronunciations, words with the same pronunciation may also be written in an orthography composed of ideographic characters--we have conducted an investigation of Stroop phenomena. The fact that pronunciations of the three Japanese orthographies are identical means that, if there are any differences between them in the Stroop phenomena observed, we can place the locus of this interference effect in the perceptual process. Five color names were written in the ideographic characters (kanji) and the two syllabic orthographies (hiragana and katakana). Color-congruent cards and incongruent cards were utilized in a color-naming task and a word-reading task. Mean required times for the color-naming condition and the word-reading conditions were compared with those for control conditions. Stroop phenomena were observed in both ideographic and syllabic orthographies. Significant differences in mean required times were observed between the ideographic and syllabic orthographies but not between the two syllabic orthographies. Interferences in comparisons of Japanese orthographies and color patch control conditions were much smaller than in the case of Stroop's (1935) experiment. A "Reverse Stroop Phenomenon" was observed only in the case of kanji on incongruent cards in the word-reading condition. The results support the hypothesis that both ideographic characters (in this case, kanji) and colors are processed in a parallel fashion in the non-dominant right cerebral hemisphere, while syllabic or phonetic characters are processed in the dominant left cerebral hemisphere.

  13. [Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain.

  14. Sherlock Holmes: From literary character to pop culture symbol

    OpenAIRE

    HULCOVÁ, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis Sherlock Holmes: From literary character to pop culture symbol deals with the collection of sixty detective stories by Arthur Conan Doyle, the canon. The aim of the thesis is to highlight the aspects that contributed to the popularity of Sherlock Holmes and the series as such. The character of Sherlock Holmes became one of the most adapted literary characters, which is reflected in many areas of popular culture. Special attention is paid to the recent adaptations presentin...

  15. The Strategies for Character Building through Sports Participation

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Omar-Fauzee; Mohd Nizam Nazarudin; Yudha M. Saputra; Nina Sutresna; Duangkrai Taweesuk; Wipoj Chansem; Rozita Abd. Latif; Soh Kim Geok

    2012-01-01

    The sport participation has been a major part of our life in the societies. Studies on sports participation have found that sports have both positive and negative influence on character buildings. It has been on-going debate on whether ‘sports build character’ but through literature analysis, author had found that ‘with the intention, sports do build character.’ Therefore, strategies of building character through sports are suggested in this paper.

  16. Recognition of fractal graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perepelitsa, VA; Sergienko, [No Value; Kochkarov, AM

    1999-01-01

    Definitions of prefractal and fractal graphs are introduced, and they are used to formulate mathematical models in different fields of knowledge. The topicality of fractal-graph recognition from the point of view, of fundamental improvement in the efficiency of the solution of algorithmic problems

  17. Facial Expression Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Li, S.; Jain, A.

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of: 1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection), 2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial

  18. Neural network application for thermal image recognition of low-resolution objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi-Chin; Wu, Bo-Wen

    2007-02-01

    In the ever-changing situation on a battle field, accurate recognition of a distant object is critical to a commander's decision-making and the general public's safety. Efficiently distinguishing between an enemy's armoured vehicles and ordinary civilian houses under all weather conditions has become an important research topic. This study presents a system for recognizing an armoured vehicle by distinguishing marks and contours. The characteristics of 12 different shapes and 12 characters are used to explore thermal image recognition under the circumstance of long distance and low resolution. Although the recognition capability of human eyes is superior to that of artificial intelligence under normal conditions, it tends to deteriorate substantially under long-distance and low-resolution scenarios. This study presents an effective method for choosing features and processing images. The artificial neural network technique is applied to further improve the probability of accurate recognition well beyond the limit of the recognition capability of human eyes.

  19. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Vargas Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common types of odontogenic tumors, as they are considered more as a developmental anomaly (hamartoma than as a true neoplasia. The aim of the present study is to describe a clinical case of compound odontoma, analyzing its most commonsigns, its region of location, the decade of life and patient’s gender, disorders that may occur as well as the treatment proposed. In order to attain this objective, the method was description of the present clinical case and bibliographic revision, arriving at the result that the treatment for this type of lesion invariably is surgical removal (enucleation and curettage and the prognosis is excellent. The surgical result was followed up in the post-operative period by radiographic exam, and it was possible to conclude that there was complete cicatrization and tissue repair.

  20. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  1. ECOLOGICAL CULTURE IN THE UKRAINIAN NATIONAL CHARACTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SKLADANOVSKAYA M.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ecological security of our country, the possibility of a balanced sustainable development depends on the level of formation of ecological culture of society. Purpose of the article is to analyze the ethnic origins of ecological culture of modern Ukrainian. Nature of Ukraine is the most important point of the historical development of the national character. The installation, stereotypes, archetypes influence on its formation. The aesthetic human needs are met first in the perception of the beauty of unspoiled nature, its comprehension, reflection on the eternal themes: man's place in the natural world, awareness of human relationships and nature, its impact on the individual, man's relation to the world; an effort to recreate the beauty of the surrounding environment. Development of individual aesthetic needs, a sense of harmony and disharmony is the first step of the creativity development, the creative personality possibilities, creativity abilities, which is urgently needed as a modern social development and personal improvement. This is a necessary component of ecological consciousness, ecological culture of modern man.

  2. Younger and Older Users’ Recognition of Virtual Agent Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Jenay M.; Smarr, Cory-Ann; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rogers, Wendy A.

    2015-01-01

    As technology advances, robots and virtual agents will be introduced into the home and healthcare settings to assist individuals, both young and old, with everyday living tasks. Understanding how users recognize an agent’s social cues is therefore imperative, especially in social interactions. Facial expression, in particular, is one of the most common non-verbal cues used to display and communicate emotion in on-screen agents (Cassell, Sullivan, Prevost, & Churchill, 2000). Age is important to consider because age-related differences in emotion recognition of human facial expression have been supported (Ruffman et al., 2008), with older adults showing a deficit for recognition of negative facial expressions. Previous work has shown that younger adults can effectively recognize facial emotions displayed by agents (Bartneck & Reichenbach, 2005; Courgeon et al. 2009; 2011; Breazeal, 2003); however, little research has compared in-depth younger and older adults’ ability to label a virtual agent’s facial emotions, an import consideration because social agents will be required to interact with users of varying ages. If such age-related differences exist for recognition of virtual agent facial expressions, we aim to understand if those age-related differences are influenced by the intensity of the emotion, dynamic formation of emotion (i.e., a neutral expression developing into an expression of emotion through motion), or the type of virtual character differing by human-likeness. Study 1 investigated the relationship between age-related differences, the implication of dynamic formation of emotion, and the role of emotion intensity in emotion recognition of the facial expressions of a virtual agent (iCat). Study 2 examined age-related differences in recognition expressed by three types of virtual characters differing by human-likeness (non-humanoid iCat, synthetic human, and human). Study 2 also investigated the role of configural and featural processing as a

  3. Morphological awareness and early and advanced word recognition and spelling in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, J.E.; McBride-Chang, C.; Reitsma, P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relations of three aspects of morphological awareness to word recognition and spelling skills of Dutch speaking children. Tasks of inflectional and derivational morphology and lexical compounding, as well as measures of phonological awareness, vocabulary and mathematics

  4. Visual Recognition and Its Application to Robot Arm Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Gau Juang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of optical word recognition and fuzzy control to a smartphone automatic test system. The system consists of a robot arm and two webcams. After the words from the control panel that represent commands are recognized by the robot system, the robot arm performs the corresponding actions to test the smartphone. One of the webcams is utilized to capture commands on the screen of the control panel, the other to recognize the words on the screen of the tested smartphone. The method of image processing is based on the Red-Green-Blue (RGB and Hue-Saturation-Luminance (HSL color spaces to reduce the influence of light. Fuzzy theory is used in the robot arm’s position control. The Optical Character Recognition (OCR technique is applied to the word recognition, and the recognition results are then checked by a dictionary process to increase the recognition accuracy. The camera which is used to recognize the tested smartphone also provides object coordinates to the fuzzy controller, then the robot arm moves to the desired positions and presses the desired buttons. The proposed control scheme allows the robot arm to perform different assigned test functions successfully.

  5. Recognition in Programmes for Children with Special Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Šmid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine the factors that affect the inclusion of pupils in programmes for children with special needs from the perspective of the theory of recognition. The concept of recognition, which includes three aspects of social justice (economic, cultural and political, argues that the institutional arrangements that prevent ‘parity of participation’ in the school social life of the children with special needs are affected not only by economic distribution but also by the patterns of cultural values. A review of the literature shows that the arrangements of education of children with special needs are influenced primarily by the patterns of cultural values of capability and inferiority, as well as stereotypical images of children with special needs. Due to the significant emphasis on learning skills for academic knowledge and grades, less attention is dedicated to factors of recognition and representational character, making it impossible to improve some meaningful elements of inclusion. Any participation of pupils in activities, the voices of the children, visibility of the children due to achievements and the problems of arbitrariness in determining boundaries between programmes are some such elements. Moreover, aided by theories, the actions that could contribute to better inclusion are reviewed. An effective approach to changes would be the creation of transformative conditions for the recognition and balancing of redistribution, recognition, and representation.

  6. Galeotti on recognition as inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2008-01-01

    Anna Elisabetta Galeotti's theory of 'toleration as recognition' has been criticised by Peter Jones for being conceptually incoherent, since liberal toleration presupposes a negative attitude to differences, whereas multicultural recognition requires positive affirmation hereof. The paper spells ...

  7. School IPM Recognition and Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schools and school districts can get support and recognition for implementation of school IPM. EPA is developing a program to provide recognition for school districts that are working towards or have achieved a level of success with school IPM programs.

  8. Stereotype Associations and Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W.; Dotsch, Ron; Hugenberg, Kurt; Wigboldus, Daniel H. J.

    We investigated whether stereotype associations between specific emotional expressions and social categories underlie stereotypic emotion recognition biases. Across two studies, we replicated previously documented stereotype biases in emotion recognition using both dynamic (Study 1) and static

  9. Handwritten Digits Recognition Using Neural Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin Enăchescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for the recognition of handwritten digits and a practical implementation of this method for real-time recognition. A theoretical framework for the neural networks used to classify the handwritten digits is also presented.The classification task is performed using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN. CNN is a special type of multy-layer neural network, being trained with an optimized version of the back-propagation learning algorithm.CNN is designed to recognize visual patterns directly from pixel images with minimal preprocessing, being capable to recognize patterns with extreme variability (such as handwritten characters, and with robustness to distortions and simple geometric transformations.The main contributions of this paper are related to theoriginal methods for increasing the efficiency of the learning algorithm by preprocessing the images before the learning process and a method for increasing the precision and performance for real-time applications, by removing the non useful information from the background.By combining these strategies we have obtained an accuracy of 96.76%, using as training set the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology database.

  10. An artificial odor recognition system is developed for discriminating odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnu Jatmiko

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This artificial system consisted of 16 quartz resonator crystals as the sensor array, a frequency modulator and a frequency counter for each sensor that are connected directly to a microcomputer. We have already shown that the artificial odor recognition system with 4 sensors is high enough to discriminate simple odor correctly, however, when it was used to discriminate compound odors, the recognition capability of this system is dropped significantly to be about 40%. Results of experiments show that the developed artificial system with 16 sensors could discriminate compound aroma based on 6 gradient of alcohol concentrations with high recognition rate of 89.9% for non batch processing system, and 82.4% for batch processing of the classes of odors.

  11. CHARACTER EDUCATION IN ISLAMIC BOARDING SCHOOL- BASED SMA AMANAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Herdiana Abdurrahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe findings of the study in pesantren-based SMA Amanah covering: 1 the principal policy in developing character education, 2 the methods used in developing character education, 3 students’ characteristics as the result of the character education process, 4 the problems encountered in the implementation of character education and the efforts made in addressing the implementation of character education at the school. This study applied qualitative method using descriptive technique. The data were collected through observation, interviews, and documentation. The findings of study showed that: 1 the principal’s policy in developing character education was carried out by implementing government policies in line with the school’s vision, mission, and programs; 2 the methods used in the process of character education were through role-modelling, assignments and nurturing, habituation, training programs, and  students’ participation in various types of activities, as well as the application of rewards and punishments; 3 the student's characteristics resulted from the character  education process were piousness and devotion as well as being able to apply their knowledge and piety in everyday life; 4 problems encountered in the implementation of character education  were different values and norms students brought from home; imbalance of facilities compared to the number of students; as well as teachers’ readiness to actually implement the new program, which  was character education. Meanwhile the efforts made to overcome those problems were namely developing personal, family, neighborhood or community characters, and making commitment of all related parties/stakeholdres of SMA Amanah.

  12. Learning through hand- or typewriting influences visual recognition of new graphic shapes: behavioral and functional imaging evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcamp, Marieke; Boucard, Céline; Gilhodes, Jean-Claude; Anton, Jean-Luc; Roth, Muriel; Nazarian, Bruno; Velay, Jean-Luc

    2008-05-01

    Fast and accurate visual recognition of single characters is crucial for efficient reading. We explored the possible contribution of writing memory to character recognition processes. We evaluated the ability of adults to discriminate new characters from their mirror images after being taught how to produce the characters either by traditional pen-and-paper writing or with a computer keyboard. After training, we found stronger and longer lasting (several weeks) facilitation in recognizing the orientation of characters that had been written by hand compared to those typed. Functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings indicated that the response mode during learning is associated with distinct pathways during recognition of graphic shapes. Greater activity related to handwriting learning and normal letter identification was observed in several brain regions known to be involved in the execution, imagery, and observation of actions, in particular, the left Broca's area and bilateral inferior parietal lobules. Taken together, these results provide strong arguments in favor of the view that the specific movements memorized when learning how to write participate in the visual recognition of graphic shapes and letters.

  13. Superficial Priming in Episodic Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the effect of superficial priming in episodic recognition and found it to be different from the effect of semantic priming in episodic recognition. Participants made recognition judgments to pairs of items, with each pair consisting of a prime item and a test item. Correct positive responses to the test item were impeded if the prime…

  14. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  15. Visual Recognition Memory across Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily J. H.; Pascalis, Olivier; Eacott, Madeline J.; Herbert, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the development of representational flexibility in visual recognition memory during infancy using the Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) task. In Experiment 1, 6- and 9-month-old infants exhibited recognition when familiarization and test occurred in the same room, but showed no evidence of recognition when…

  16. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  17. Character and Characterization in “Palms and Men” novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Khajeh pour

    Full Text Available Nowadays one of the most significant elements in story writing is character and characterization. Character in a narrative or a play, is a person that his mental and moral qualities reflect in his deeds and what he says and does. Creating such characters in a story or a novel that seem to be like real people to the reader is called characterization (Mir Sadeghi, 1382: p 85. In this article character and characterization in one of the novels about the eight year war between Iran and Iraq, calling “Palms and Men”, is investigated. Character types, methods of characterization, character appearance, prototype, the relation of character with other elements, and characterization defects are some of the subjects studied in this article.Character types: these characters are generally categorized in two groups of stereotype and type. Samir, Touraj, Reza, Hamid etc. all belong to Sepah forces category which are type characters. Some women characters such as Zeinab, Samir’s mother, Kolsoum, Hanieh’s mother etc. are stereotype characters.Methods of characterization in “Palms and Men” novel:The description of characters is done in two methods by Mr. Nematollah Soleimani:aDirect characterization: If not all the characters, most of them are certainly characterized in this way. For example in expressing Hamid’s characteristic who is the commander of the mission, he writes, “Hamid didn’t bat an eyelid in any incidents. Hamid was lion-hearted”. (Soleimani, 1380: 128. In describing uncle Heidar, he writes, “wisdom and insight, and the effects of years of suffering, difficulty, and experiencing could be clearly seen in his limpid eyes. The rural man was indeed a wise and experienced man” (the same: 264_265.bIndirect Characterization: Although in novels and long stories, direct characterization method is often used, in “Palms and Men” this kind of characterization is also appeared in different conversations, stream of consciousness, deeds

  18. Character and Characterization in “Palms and Men” novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariedeh Khajehpour

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays one of the most significant elements in story writing is character and characterization. Character in a narrative or a play, is a person that his mental and moral qualities reflect in his deeds and what he says and does. Creating such characters in a story or a novel that seem to be like real people to the reader is called characterization (Mir Sadeghi, 1382: p 85. In this article character and characterization in one of the novels about the eight year war between Iran and Iraq, calling “Palms and Men”, is investigated. Character types, methods of characterization, character appearance, prototype, the relation of character with other elements, and characterization defects are some of the subjects studied in this article.  Character types: these characters are generally categorized in two groups of stereotype and type. Samir, Touraj, Reza, Hamid etc. all belong to Sepah forces category which are type characters. Some women characters such as Zeinab, Samir’s mother, Kolsoum, Hanieh’s mother etc. are stereotype characters.   Methods of characterization in “Palms and Men” novel:   The description of characters is done in two methods by Mr. Nematollah Soleimani:   a Direct characterization: If not all the characters, most of them are certainly characterized in this way. For example in expressing Hamid’s characteristic who is the commander of the mission, he writes, “Hamid didn’t bat an eyelid in any incidents. Hamid was lion-hearted”. (Soleimani, 1380: 128. In describing uncle Heidar, he writes, “wisdom and insight, and the effects of years of suffering, difficulty, and experiencing could be clearly seen in his limpid eyes. The rural man was indeed a wise and experienced man” (the same: 264_265.   b Indirect Characterization: Although in novels and long stories, direct characterization method is often used, in “Palms and Men” this kind of characterization is also appeared in different conversations

  19. Pattern recognition and modelling of earthquake registrations with interactive computer support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manova, Katarina S.

    2004-01-01

    The object of the thesis is Pattern Recognition. Pattern recognition i.e. classification, is applied in many fields: speech recognition, hand printed character recognition, medical analysis, satellite and aerial-photo interpretations, biology, computer vision, information retrieval and so on. In this thesis is studied its applicability in seismology. Signal classification is an area of great importance in a wide variety of applications. This thesis deals with the problem of (automatic) classification of earthquake signals, which are non-stationary signals. Non-stationary signal classification is an area of active research in the signal and image processing community. The goal of the thesis is recognition of earthquake signals according to their epicentral zone. Source classification i.e. recognition is based on transformation of seismograms (earthquake registrations) to images, via time-frequency transformations, and applying image processing and pattern recognition techniques for feature extraction, classification and recognition. The tested data include local earthquakes from seismic regions in Macedonia. By using actual seismic data it is shown that proposed methods provide satisfactory results for classification and recognition.(Author)

  20. Distinctive characters of Nostoc genomes in cyanolichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagunashvili, Andrey N; Andrésson, Ólafur S

    2018-06-05

    Cyanobacteria of the genus Nostoc are capable of forming symbioses with a wide range of organism, including a diverse assemblage of cyanolichens. Only certain lineages of Nostoc appear to be able to form a close, stable symbiosis, raising the question whether symbiotic competence is determined by specific sets of genes and functionalities. We present the complete genome sequencing, annotation and analysis of two lichen Nostoc strains. Comparison with other Nostoc genomes allowed identification of genes potentially involved in symbioses with a broad range of partners including lichen mycobionts. The presence of additional genes necessary for symbiotic competence is likely reflected in larger genome sizes of symbiotic Nostoc strains. Some of the identified genes are presumably involved in the initial recognition and establishment of the symbiotic association, while others may confer advantage to cyanobionts during cohabitation with a mycobiont in the lichen symbiosis. Our study presents the first genome sequencing and genome-scale analysis of lichen-associated Nostoc strains. These data provide insight into the molecular nature of the cyanolichen symbiosis and pinpoint candidate genes for further studies aimed at deciphering the genetic mechanisms behind the symbiotic competence of Nostoc. Since many phylogenetic studies have shown that Nostoc is a polyphyletic group that includes several lineages, this work also provides an improved molecular basis for demarcation of a Nostoc clade with symbiotic competence.

  1. The Implementation of Character Education at Senior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at analyzing the implementation of character education at Senior High School in Sumedang Regency, West Java, Indonesia. A content analysis method was employed to collect the data with interviews with six teachers from six different senior high schools, which represent the rural, transitional, and urban areas. The findings revealed that: (1 not all teachers understand the concept of character education; (2 the character education has not been done systematically or has not had the specific design/model for the teaching and learning process. Most teachers embedded the character values during the teaching and learning process as a form of character education. For example, through Qur’an recitation, learning tasks, group discussion, lecture, socio-drama, observation and admonition, and even through teachers’ model. Meanwhile, outside the class, character education was implemented through competition and extracurricular activities; (3 the evaluation of character education was relatively varied, such as an observation followed by admonition, group guidance, and also focusing on behavior and affective assessment in the classroom learning process. This research implied that it is needed to make a policy on a program development through the Bureau of Education to improve Senior High School teachers’ knowledge and skills in implementing the character education.

  2. Character combinations, convergence and diversification in ectoparasitic arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Robert

    2009-08-01

    Different lineages of organisms diversify over time at different rates, in part as a consequence of the characteristics of the species in these lineages. Certain suites of traits possessed by species within a clade may determine rates of diversification, with some particular combinations of characters acting synergistically to either limit or promote diversification; the most successful combinations may also emerge repeatedly in different clades via convergent evolution. Here, the association between species characters and diversification is investigated amongst 21 independent lineages of arthropods ectoparasitic on vertebrate hosts. Using nine characters (each with two to four states) that capture general life history strategy, transmission mode and host-parasite interaction, each lineage was described by the set of character states it possesses. The results show, firstly, that most possible pair-wise combinations of character states have been adopted at least once, sometimes several times independently by different lineages; thus, ectoparasitic arthropods have explored most of the life history character space available to them. Secondly, lineages possessing commonly observed combinations of character states are not necessarily the ones that have experienced the highest rates of diversification (measured as a clade's species-per-genus ratio). Thirdly, some specific traits are associated with higher rates of diversification. Using more than one host per generation, laying eggs away from the host and intermediate levels of fecundity are features that appear to have promoted diversification. These findings indicate that particular species characters may be evolutionary drivers of diversity, whose effects could also apply in other taxa.

  3. Sex-Role Portrayals of Selected Female Television Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, David H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examines the relationship between both the sex-role and the sex of viewers and viewer perception of the sex-role depicted by five female characters in prime-time television programs. Perception of character sex-role was significantly related to subject sex-role, yet unrelated to subject sex or gender. (MER)

  4. Representations of Deaf Characters in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Annie M.

    2011-01-01

    Picture books can influence how children perceive people of different backgrounds, including people with disabilities whose cultures differ from their own. Researchers have examined the portrayal of multicultural characters with disabilities in children's literature. However, few have specifically considered the portrayal of deaf characters,…

  5. Affective affordances: Improving interface characters engagement through interaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vugt, H.C.; Hoorn, J.F.; Konijn, E.A.; De Bie Dimitriadou, A.

    2006-01-01

    The nature of humans interacting with interface characters (e.g. embodied agents) is not well understood. The I-PEFiC model provides an integrative perspective on human-character interaction, assuming that the processes of engagement and user interaction exchange information in explaining user

  6. Affective affordances: Improving interface character engagement through interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, H.C.; Hoorn, J.F.; Konijn, E.A.; de Bie Dimitriadou, A.

    2006-01-01

    The nature of humans interacting with interface characters (e.g. embodied agents) is not well understood. The I-PEFiC model provides an integrative perspective on human-character interaction, assuming that the processes of engagement and user interaction exchange information in explaining user

  7. Inculcating Character Education through EFL Teaching in Indonesian State Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qoyyimah, Uswatun

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in Indonesia have implemented the recent character education policy within an era of school-based curriculum reform. The character education policy required all teachers, EFL teachers included, to instil certain values in every lesson whilst the school-based curriculum reform…

  8. Building Strengths of Character: Keys to Positive Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nansook

    2009-01-01

    Character is vital force for positive development and societal well-being. Character strengths play important roles in positive youth development, not only as broad-protective factors, preventing or mitigating psychopathology and problems, but also as enabling conditions that promote thriving and flourishing. Recent research findings show that…

  9. Adult Age Differences in Processing Narrative Text: Managing Character Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Soo Rim

    2009-01-01

    Understanding a narrative situation depends on keeping track of multiple characters that enter and exit dynamically as the plot unfolds. Because there has been no systematic investigation of age differences in the ability to manage multiple characters during narrative comprehension, this project was designed to examine those differences in this…

  10. Dialogue and character classification in Wole Soyinka's Kongi's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines Wole Soyinka's use of dialogue-one of the major elements of drama to paint portraits of various characters in his play, Kongi's Harvest. It explores the playwright's artistic realisation of characters that can be identified and classified by what they say and what is said of them. The study concludes that with ...

  11. An interpretation of suicide and murder character elimination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is noticed that women characters in particular are most likely to commit suicide when they are frustrated by something. In the selected texts, the characters who commit suicide or murder do not do so by choice, but as a result of reaching a point of absolute desperation in their lives or because of having to be loyal to ...

  12. Player-Character Dynamics in Multi- Player Role Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; McIlwain, D.; Brolund, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive empirical study of the impact of integrating complex game characters in multi-player Role Playing Games across tabletop and digital formats. Players were provided with characters that had detailed background history, personality and goals. Player...

  13. Dual Character Concepts and the Normative Dimension of Conceptual Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, Joshua; Prasada, Sandeep; Newman, George E.

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments provide evidence for a class of "dual character concepts." Dual character concepts characterize their members in terms of both (a) a set of concrete features and (b) the abstract values that these features serve to realize. As such, these concepts provide two bases for evaluating category members and two different criteria for…

  14. Preservice Secondary Teachers' Sense of Efficacy in Teaching Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the personal teaching efficacy and general teaching efficacy for character education of 130 preservice secondary teachers at a large university where there were no formal courses dedicated to character education, but the topic was included in some of the content coursework. The subjects were in one teacher education program…

  15. Teaching Character Education to College Students Using Bildungsromans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novianti, Nita

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports a study on the teaching of character education in higher education using English Bildungsroman, "Jane Eyre." The participants were 35 sixth-semester students of English Literature program in an Indonesian state university. Guided by the approach to teaching character education exemplified by Ryan & Bohlin (1999),…

  16. Sherlock Holmes Meets Othello: A MDS Analysis of Literary Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, G. W.; Lambert, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Changes in college freshmen's perceptual organization of characters from "Othello" after three weeks of study and lecture were assessed using multidimensional scaling procedures. Sherlock Holmes experts also provided dissimilarity ratings of Conan Doyle's characters. Discussion centers on the extent to which the lectures on…

  17. The Development of Leader Character through Crucible Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Alyson; Crossan, Mary; Seijts, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    Business schools strive to develop leadership excellence in their students. In this essay, we suggest that educators should find ways to help students develop and deepen leader character, a fundamental component of exemplary leadership. Frequently, business school students have preconceived ideas of leadership, often neglecting leader character.…

  18. Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.; Low, Ee Ling

    2012-01-01

    The theme of this special issue is "Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values." Character education and citizenship education, taken separately or as a single entity are currently riding high on the political and educational policy agendas of several governments (Arthur, 2003; Berkowitz & Bier, 2007;…

  19. Dynamic Characters with Communication Disorders in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotto, Carolyn D.; Ball, Angel L.

    2006-01-01

    Using quality children's literature with portrayals of characters that have communication impairments can be an effective teaching tool. Storybook characters with communication disorders can provide positive role models and promote understanding of diverse populations. Eighteen children's books were selected based on the following criteria:…

  20. Cultural characters of a newly recognized group of hospital staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevons, M P; John, M; Parker, M T

    1966-07-01

    Members of a newly recognized group of hospital staphylococci, which are believed to have arisen from 83A staphylococci by lysogenization, differ from them in several cultural characters. Some but not all of these characters appear to be determined by the carriage of phage.

  1. character association and path coefficient analysis between some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    some growth characters and grain yield in Soybean, a basis of selection for further improvement. Treatments consisted of two levels ... number of leaves as criteria for selection of Soybean for increased grain yield. Keywords: Correlation, Grain ... objective of observing the mutual relationship of different characters and also ...

  2. Keeping it wild: mapping wilderness character in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Steve; Tricker, James; Landres, Peter

    2013-12-15

    A GIS-based approach is developed to identify the state of wilderness character in US wilderness areas using Death Valley National Park (DEVA) as a case study. A set of indicators and measures are identified by DEVA staff and used as the basis for developing a flexible and broadly applicable framework to map wilderness character using data inputs selected by park staff. Spatial data and GIS methods are used to map the condition of four qualities of wilderness character: natural, untrammelled, undeveloped, and solitude or primitive and unconfined recreation. These four qualities are derived from the US 1964 Wilderness Act and later developed by Landres et al. (2008a) in "Keeping it Wild: An Interagency Strategy to Monitor Trends in Wilderness Character Across the National Wilderness Preservation System." Data inputs are weighted to reflect their importance in relation to other data inputs and the model is used to generate maps of each of the four qualities of wilderness character. The combined map delineates the range of quality of wilderness character in the DEVA wilderness revealing the majority of wilderness character to be optimal quality with the best areas in the northern section of the park. This map will serve as a baseline for monitoring change in wilderness character and for evaluating the spatial impacts of planning alternatives for wilderness and backcountry stewardship plans. The approach developed could be applied to any wilderness area, either in the USA or elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On superconformal characters and partition functions in three dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolan, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Possible short and semishort positive energy, unitary representations of the Osp(2N|4) superconformal group in three dimensions are discussed. Corresponding character formulas are obtained, consistent with character formulas for the SO(3,2) conformal group, revealing long multiplet decomposition at

  4. A Study of the Relationship Between Alcoholism and Character Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfley, Virgil L.

    Studies have shown that sociopaths and alcoholics tend to come from similar social backgrounds and that they share several characteristics. To investigate the relationship between alcoholism and character disorder syndrome in adult males, 20 males who had a history of alcohol problems and displayed characteristics of character disorder were…

  5. Good character at school: Positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Lisa; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children’s and adolescents’ well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012). The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years) and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years). The students completed the VIA-Youth (Values in Action Invento...

  6. Semantic Activity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Thonnat , Monique

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Extracting automatically the semantics from visual data is a real challenge. We describe in this paper how recent work in cognitive vision leads to significative results in activity recognition for visualsurveillance and video monitoring. In particular we present work performed in the domain of video understanding in our PULSAR team at INRIA in Sophia Antipolis. Our main objective is to analyse in real-time video streams captured by static video cameras and to recogniz...

  7. Character strengths, social anxiety, and physiological stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15 or low-character-strength (n = 15 groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.

  8. Visual Antipriming Effect: Evidence from Chinese Character Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Marsolek et al. (2006 have differentiated antipriming effects from priming effects, by adopting a novel priming paradigm comprised of four phases that include a baseline measurement. The general concept of antipriming supports the overlapping representation theory of knowledge. This study extended examination of the Marsolek et al. (2006 paradigm by investigating antipriming and priming effects in a series of Chinese character identification tasks. Results showed that identification accuracy of old characters was significantly higher than baseline measurements (i.e., the priming effect, while identification accuracy of novel characters was significantly lower than baseline measurements (i.e., the antipriming effect. This study demonstrates for the first time the effect of visual antipriming in Chinese character identification. It further provides new evidence for the overlapping representation theory of knowledge, and supports generalizability of the phenomenon to Chinese characters.

  9. Virtual muscularity: a content analysis of male video game characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Nicole; Williams, Dmitri C; Ratan, Rabindra A; Harrison, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    The 150 top-selling video games were content analyzed to study representations of male bodies. Human males in the games were captured via screenshot and body parts measured. These measurements were then compared to anthropometric data drawn from a representative sample of 1120 North American men. Characters at high levels of photorealism were larger than the average American male, but these characters did not mirror the V-shaped ideal found in mainstream media. Characters at low levels of photorealism were also larger than the average American male, but these characters were so much larger that they appeared cartoonish. Idealized male characters were more likely to be found in games for children than in games for adults. Implications for cultivation theory are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Representations of deaf characters in children's picture books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B; Moses, Annie M

    2011-01-01

    Picture books can influence how children perceive people of different backgrounds, including people with disabilities whose cultures differ from their own. Researchers have examined the portrayal of multicultural characters with disabilities in children's literature. However, few have specifically considered the portrayal of deaf characters, despite increased inclusion of deaf characters in children's literature over the past two decades. The present study analyzed the portrayal of deaf characters in picture books for children ages 4-8 years. A content analysis of 20 children's picture books was conducted in which the books were analyzed for messages linked to pathological and cultural categories. Results indicated that these books did not portray Deaf characters from a cultural perspective but, rather, highlighted aspects of deafness as a medical condition, one that requires fixing and that perpetuates stereotypes of deafness as a disability.

  11. WARACS: Wrappers to Automate the Reconstruction of Ancestral Character States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenstaeudl, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Reconstructions of ancestral character states are among the most widely used analyses for evaluating the morphological, cytological, or ecological evolution of an organismic lineage. The software application Mesquite remains the most popular application for such reconstructions among plant scientists, even though its support for automating complex analyses is limited. A software tool is needed that automates the reconstruction and visualization of ancestral character states with Mesquite and similar applications. A set of command line-based Python scripts was developed that (a) communicates standardized input to and output from the software applications Mesquite, BayesTraits, and TreeGraph2; (b) automates the process of ancestral character state reconstruction; and (c) facilitates the visualization of reconstruction results. WARACS provides a simple tool that streamlines the reconstruction and visualization of ancestral character states over a wide array of parameters, including tree distribution, character state, and optimality criterion.

  12. Particle swarm optimization for automatic creation of complex graphic characters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fister, Iztok; Perc, Matjaž; Ljubič, Karin; Kamal, Salahuddin M.; Iglesias, Andres; Fister, Iztok

    2015-01-01

    Nature-inspired algorithms are a very promising tool for solving the hardest problems in computer sciences and mathematics. These algorithms are typically inspired by the fascinating behavior at display in biological systems, such as bee swarms or fish schools. So far, these algorithms have been applied in many practical applications. In this paper, we present a simple particle swarm optimization, which allows automatic creation of complex two-dimensional graphic characters. The method involves constructing the base characters, optimizing the modifications of the base characters with the particle swarm optimization algorithm, and finally generating the graphic characters from the solution. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach with the creation of simple snowman, but we also outline in detail how more complex characters can be created

  13. Membangun Karakter Anak Usia Dini melalui Pembelajaran Math Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titin Faridatun Nisa’

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penerapan pembelajaran math character untuk membangun karakter Anak Usia Dini (AUD dan kesulitan-kesulitan yang dialami guru dalam penerapan pembelajaran math character. Target penelitian ini adalah terbentuknya karakter anak usia dini melalui pembelajaran math character. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif dengan metode penelitian kualitatif. Teknik pengumpulan informasi penelitian ini dengan metode observasi dan wawancara. Analisis data penelitian ini menggunakan analisis deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan pembelajaran math character dapat membangun delapan belas nilai-nilai karakter AUD. Kesulitan-kesulitan yang dialami guru dalam pembentukan karakter AUD melalui pembelajaran math character meliputi tema yang digunakan termasuk tema baru, siswa belum terbiasa dengan pembelajaran berbasis sentra, usia siswa bervariasi, dan adanya ikut campur wali siswa dalam kegiatan pembelajaran di kelas sehingga siswa menjadi kurang mandiri.

  14. Playing MMORPGs: connections between addiction and identifying with a character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smahel, David; Blinka, Lukas; Ledabyl, Ondrej

    2008-12-01

    Addiction to online role-playing games is one of the most discussed aspects of recent cyberpsychology, mainly for its potentially negative impact on the social lives of young people. In our study, we focus on some aspects of youth and adolescent addiction to MMORPGs. We investigated connections between players and their game characters and examined if, and in what ways, player relationship to their character affected potential addiction. Players attitude to their characters seems to play a specific role, since players who tend to be addicted view their characters as being superior and more often wish to be like their characters in their real lives. Our research also confirmed that younger players are generally more prone to addiction.

  15. [The study of transpiration influence on plant infrared radiation character].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jun; Zhang, Shuan-Qin; Pan, Jia-Liang; Lian, Chang-Chun; Yang, Hui

    2012-07-01

    Studying vegetation infrared radiation character is the base of developing infrared camouflage and concealment technology of ground military target. Accurate fusion of target and background can be achieved by simulating formation mechanism of vegetation infrared radiation character. Leaf transpiration is characteristic physiological mechanism of vegetation and one of the main factors that influence its infrared radiation character. In the present paper, physical model of leaf energy balance is set up. Based on this model the influence of plant transpiration on leaf temperature is analyzed and calculated. The daily periodic variation of transpiration, leaf temperature and infrared radiation character of typical plants such as camphor tree and holly is actually measured with porometer and infrared thermal imaging system. By contrasting plant leaf with dryness leaf, experimental data indicates that plant transpiration can regulate leaf energy balance effectively and control leaf temperature in a reasonable range and suppress deep range variation of leaf infrared radiation character.

  16. Pattern Recognition Control Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambone, Elisabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    Spacecraft control algorithms must know the expected vehicle response to any command to the available control effectors, such as reaction thrusters or torque devices. Spacecraft control system design approaches have traditionally relied on the estimated vehicle mass properties to determine the desired force and moment, as well as knowledge of the effector performance to efficiently control the spacecraft. A pattern recognition approach was used to investigate the relationship between the control effector commands and spacecraft responses. Instead of supplying the approximated vehicle properties and the thruster performance characteristics, a database of information relating the thruster ring commands and the desired vehicle response was used for closed-loop control. A Monte Carlo simulation data set of the spacecraft dynamic response to effector commands was analyzed to establish the influence a command has on the behavior of the spacecraft. A tool developed at NASA Johnson Space Center to analyze flight dynamics Monte Carlo data sets through pattern recognition methods was used to perform this analysis. Once a comprehensive data set relating spacecraft responses with commands was established, it was used in place of traditional control methods and gains set. This pattern recognition approach was compared with traditional control algorithms to determine the potential benefits and uses.

  17. Developing Character and Values for Global Citizens: Analysis of pre-service science teachers' moral reasoning on socioscientific issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Chang, Hyunsook; Choi, Kyunghee; Kim, Sung-Won; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2012-04-01

    Character and values are the essential driving forces that serve as general guides or points of reference for individuals to support decision-making and to act responsibly about global socioscientific issues (SSIs). Based on this assumption, we investigated to what extent pre-service science teachers (PSTs) of South Korea possess character and values as global citizens; these values include ecological worldview, socioscientific accountability, and social and moral compassion. Eighteen PSTs participated in the SSI programs focusing on developing character and values through dialogical and reflective processes. SSIs were centered on the use of nuclear power generation, climate change, and embryonic stem cell research. The results indicated that PSTs showed three key elements of character and values, but failed to apply consistent moral principles on the issues and demonstrated limited global perspectives. While they tended to approach the issues with emotion and sympathy, they nonetheless failed to perceive themselves as major moral agents who are able to actively resolve large-scale societal issues. This study also suggests that the SSI programs can facilitate socioscientific reasoning to include abilities such as recognition of the complexity of SSIs, examine issues from multiple perspectives, and exhibit skepticism about information.

  18. The Effect of Pinyin Input Experience on the Link Between Semantic and Phonology of Chinese Character in Digital Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjun; Luo, Rong; Liu, Huashan

    2017-08-01

    With the development of ICT, digital writing is becoming much more common in people's life. Differently from keyboarding alphabets directly to input English words, keyboarding Chinese character is always through typing phonetic alphabets and then identify the glyph provided by Pinyin input-method software while in this process which do not need users to produce orthography spelling, thus it is different from traditional written language production model based on handwriting process. Much of the research in this domain has found that using Pinyin input method is beneficial to Chinese characters recognition, but only a small part explored the effects of individual's Pinyin input experience on the Chinese characters production process. We ask whether using Pinyin input-method will strengthen the semantic-phonology linkage or semantic-orthography linkage in Chinese character mental lexicon. Through recording the RT and accuracy of participants completing semantic-syllable and semantic-glyph consistency judgments, the results found the accuracy of semantic-syllable consistency judgments in high Pinyin input experienced group was higher than that in low-experienced group, and RT was reversed. There were no significant differences on semantic-glyph consistency judgments between the two groups. We conclude that using Pinyin input method in Chinese digital writing can strengthen the semantic-phonology linkage while do not weakening the semantic-orthography linkage in mental lexicon at the same time, which means that Pinyin input method is beneficial to lexical processing involving Chinese cognition.

  19. Isotopically modified compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the nomenclature of isotopically modified compounds in Slovak language is described. This chapter consists of following parts: (1) Isotopically substituted compounds; (2) Specifically isotopically labelled compounds; (3) Selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (4) Non-selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (5) Isotopically deficient compounds.

  20. ANALYSIS OF THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IMMIGRANT/FOREIGN CHARACTERS AND NATIONAL/AUTOCHTHONOUS CHARACTERS IN SPANISH TELEVISION FICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Marcos Ramos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of an empirical research in which it were analysed the interactions between immigrants and national characters in a sample of Spanish television fictional programs broadcasted on prime time. This study is a content analysis of 282 interactions between immigrant/foreign and national characters. Thus, it was found that the largest number of relationships between the characters involved was produced in a working context. Moreover, there was a higher proportion of the use of aggressive humour from the national characters to the immigrant/foreigners than in the reverse way. It was also observed that the immigrant/foreigner characters hardly spoke about their feelings, nor were heard by the nationals when they did it, although there were a high number of interactions in which immigrant characters were expressing their opinions and these were attended by national characters. The analysis of the interactions between immigrant and national characters in television fiction is a very important research issue, because it has been proposed that the parasocial interactions are complementary of the interpersonal interactions taking place in daily life (Müller, 2009; Park, 2012.

  1. The Effect of Realistic Appearance of Virtual Characters in Immersive Environments - Does the Character's Personality Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibrek, Katja; Kokkinara, Elena; Mcdonnell, Rachel

    2018-04-01

    Virtual characters that appear almost photo-realistic have been shown to induce negative responses from viewers in traditional media, such as film and video games. This effect, described as the uncanny valley, is the reason why realism is often avoided when the aim is to create an appealing virtual character. In Virtual Reality, there have been few attempts to investigate this phenomenon and the implications of rendering virtual characters with high levels of realism on user enjoyment. In this paper, we conducted a large-scale experiment on over one thousand members of the public in order to gather information on how virtual characters are perceived in interactive virtual reality games. We were particularly interested in whether different render styles (realistic, cartoon, etc.) would directly influence appeal, or if a character's personality was the most important indicator of appeal. We used a number of perceptual metrics such as subjective ratings, proximity, and attribution bias in order to test our hypothesis. Our main result shows that affinity towards virtual characters is a complex interaction between the character's appearance and personality, and that realism is in fact a positive choice for virtual characters in virtual reality.

  2. "It Could Affect You as a Person, Character-Wise": Promoting Character Development and Preventing Sexual Violence at West Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeit, Miriam R.

    2017-01-01

    The United States Military Academy at West Point develops cadets into "leaders of character" who will become Army officers. This focus on character presents an opportunity for the prevention of sexual violence through an emphasis on military values. Using constructivist grounded theory, this study examined how cadets experience their own…

  3. Threshold models of recognition and the recognition heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Erdfelder

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the recognition heuristic (RH theory, decisions follow the recognition principle: Given a high validity of the recognition cue, people should prefer recognized choice options compared to unrecognized ones. Assuming that the memory strength of choice options is strongly correlated with both the choice criterion and recognition judgments, the RH is a reasonable strategy that approximates optimal decisions with a minimum of cognitive effort (Davis-Stober, Dana, and Budescu, 2010. However, theories of recognition memory are not generally compatible with this assumption. For example, some threshold models of recognition presume that recognition judgments can arise from two types of cognitive states: (1 certainty states in which judgments are almost perfectly correlated with memory strength and (2 uncertainty states in which recognition judgments reflect guessing rather than differences in memory strength. We report an experiment designed to test the prediction that the RH applies to certainty states only. Our results show that memory states rather than recognition judgments affect use of recognition information in binary decisions.

  4. Virtual Character Personality Influences Participant Attitudes and Behavior - An Interview with a Virtual Human Character about Her Social Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueni ePan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel technique for the study of human-virtual character interaction in immersive virtual reality. The human participants verbally administered a standard questionnaire about social anxiety to a virtual female character, that responded to each question through speech and body movements. The purpose was to study the extent to which participants responded differently to characters that exhibited different personalities, even though the verbal content of their answers was always the same. A separate online study provided evidence that our intention to create two different personality types had been successful. In the main between-groups experiment that utilized a Cave system there were 24 male participants, where 12 interacted with a female virtual character portrayed to exhibit shyness and the remaining 12 with an identical but more confident virtual character. Our results indicate that although the content of the verbal responses of both virtual characters was the same, participants showed different subjective and behavioral responses to the two different personalities. In particular participants evaluated the shy character more positively, for example, expressing willingness to spend more time with her. Participants evaluated the confident character more negatively and waited for a significantly longer time to call her back after she had left the scene in order to answer a telephone call. The method whereby participants interviewed the virtual character allowed naturalistic conversation while avoiding the necessity of speech processing and generation, and natural language understanding. It is therefore a useful method for the study of the impact of virtual character personality on participant responses.

  5. Moral character predominates in person perception and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Geoffrey P; Piazza, Jared; Rozin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    What sorts of trait information do people most care about when forming impressions of others? Recent research in social cognition suggests that "warmth," broadly construed, should be of prime importance in impression formation. Yet, some prior research suggests that information about others' specifically moral traits--their moral "character"--may be a primary dimension. Although warmth and character have sometimes been conceived of as interchangeable, we argue that they are separable, and that across a wide variety of contexts, character is usually more important than warmth in impression formation. We first showed that moral character and social warmth traits are indeed separable (Studies 1 and 2). Further studies that used correlational and experimental methods showed that, as predicted, in most contexts, moral character information is more important in impression formation than is warmth information (Studies 2-6). Character information was also more important than warmth information with respect to judgments of traits' perceived fundamentalness to identity, their uniquely human quality, their context-independence, and their controllability (Study 2). Finally, Study 7 used an archival method to show that moral character information appears more prominently than warmth information in obituaries, and more strongly determines the impressions people form of the individuals described in those obituaries. We discuss implications for current theories of person perception and social cognition.

  6. [The representation of madness in William Shakespeare's characters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stompe, Thomas; Ritter, Kristina; Friedmann, Alexander

    2006-08-01

    Shakespeare is one of the great creators of human characters of the 16(th) century. Like for many of his contemporaries madness was a central topic of his work. The first part of this paper discusses the sociocultural environment and the semantic field of madness in the Elizabethan age, which forms the background for Shakespeare's characters. In the second part we try to analyze the clinical pictures of the fictive characters of Othello, Hamlet, Lear and Macbeth. While we find melancholy, delusions and hallucinations, other diseases such as schizophrenia are missing entirely. Schizophrenia only appears in the literature more than two hundred years later, in the beginning of modern age.

  7. A cognitive network for oracle bone characters related to animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dress, Andreas; Grünewald, Stefan; Zeng, Zhenbing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of oracle bone characters for animals from a “cognitive” point of view. After some general remarks on oracle-bone characters presented in Sec. 1 and a short outline of the paper in Sec. 2, we collect various oracle-bone characters for animals from published resources in Sec. 3. In the next section, we begin analyzing a group of 60 ancient animal characters from www.zdic.net, a highly acclaimed internet dictionary of Chinese characters that is strictly based on historical sources, and introduce five categories of specific features regarding their (graphical) structure that will be used in Sec. 5 to associate corresponding feature vectors to these characters. In Sec. 6, these feature vectors will be used to investigate their dissimilarity in terms of a family of parameterized distance measures. And in the last section, we apply the SplitsTree method as encoded in the NeighborNet algorithms to construct a corresponding family of dissimilarity-based networks with the intention of elucidating how the ancient Chinese might have perceived the “animal world” in the late bronze age and to demonstrate that these pictographs reflect an intuitive understanding of this world and its inherent structure that predates its classification in the oldest surviving Chinese encyclopedia from approximately the third century BC, the Er Ya, as well as similar classification systems in the West by one to two millennia. We also present an English dictionary of 70 oracle bone characters for animals in Appendix A. In Appendix B, we list various variants of animal characters that were published in the Jia Gu Wen Bian (cf. 甲骨文编, A Complete Collection of Oracle Bone Characters, edited by the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, published by the Zhonghua Book Company in 1965). We recall the frequencies of the 521 most frequent oracle bone characters in Appendix C as reported in [T. Chen, Yin-Shang Jiaguwen Zixing

  8. Re-thinking employee recognition: understanding employee experiences of recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread acceptance of the importance of employee recognition for both individuals and organisations and evidence of its increasing use in organisations, employee recognition has received relatively little focused attention from academic researchers. Particularly lacking is research exploring the lived experience of employee recognition and the interpretations and meanings which individuals give to these experiences. Drawing on qualitative interviews conducted as part of my PhD rese...

  9. Music reading expertise modulates hemispheric lateralization in English word processing but not in Chinese character processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sara Tze Kwan; Hsiao, Janet Hui-Wen

    2018-07-01

    Music notation and English word reading both involve mapping horizontally arranged visual components to components in sound, in contrast to reading in logographic languages such as Chinese. Accordingly, music-reading expertise may influence English word processing more than Chinese character processing. Here we showed that musicians named English words significantly faster than non-musicians when words were presented in the left visual field/right hemisphere (RH) or the center position, suggesting an advantage of RH processing due to music reading experience. This effect was not observed in Chinese character naming. A follow-up ERP study showed that in a sequential matching task, musicians had reduced RH N170 responses to English non-words under the processing of musical segments as compared with non-musicians, suggesting a shared visual processing mechanism in the RH between music notation and English non-word reading. This shared mechanism may be related to the letter-by-letter, serial visual processing that characterizes RH English word recognition (e.g., Lavidor & Ellis, 2001), which may consequently facilitate English word processing in the RH in musicians. Thus, music reading experience may have differential influences on the processing of different languages, depending on their similarities in the cognitive processes involved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sublexical Ambiguity Effect in Reading Chinese Disyllabic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsu-Wen; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tsai, Jie-Li; Tzeng, Ovid J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    For Chinese compounds, neighbors can share either both orthographic forms and meanings, or orthographic forms only. In this study, central presentation and visual half-field (VF) presentation methods were used in conjunction with ERP measures to investigate how readers solve the sublexical semantic ambiguity of the first constituent character in…

  11. Ion mobility spectrometer for online monitoring of trace compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.; Xie, Z.; Schmidt, H.; Sielemann, S.; Baumbach, J.I.

    2002-01-01

    The principle, character and developments of the instrumentation of ion mobility spectrometry are reviewed. The application of ion mobility spectrometers in monitoring chemical warfare agents, explosives, drugs, environmental hazardous compounds and industrial process control are discussed. Process applications with respect to miniaturization of the instrument are presented

  12. Recognition Number of The Vehicle Plate Using Otsu Method and K-Nearest Neighbour Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulidia Rahmah Hidayah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current topic that is interesting as a solution of the impact of public service improvement toward vehicle is License Plate Recognition (LPR, but it still needs to develop the research of LPR method. Some of the previous researchs showed that K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN succeed in car license plate recognition. The Objectives of this research was to determine the implementation and accuracy of Otsu Method toward license plate recognition. The method of this research was Otsu method to extract the characteristics and image of the plate into binary image and KNN as recognition classification method of each character. The development of the license plate recognition program by using Otsu method and classification of KNN is following the steps of pattern recognition, such as input and sensing, pre-processing, extraction feature Otsu method binary, segmentation, KNN classification method and post-processing by calculating the level of accuracy. The study showed that this program can recognize by 82% from 100 test plate with 93,75% of number recognition accuracy and 91,92% of letter recognition accuracy. 

  13. Ionic character of polar crystals: An extended Mulliken scheme for electronegativities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.E.; Bennett, L.H.; Davenport, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The total energy of an atom can be expressed in terms of the charge q on the atom as E(q) = E(0)+αq+βq 2 +γq 3 . It is shown that the expected charge transfer q, which brings the intra-atomic energy of the atoms to a minimum, between otherwise isolated noninteracting atoms, is proportional to the difference in the α's of the constituent elements, i.e., q = c Δα. Thus α provides a well-defined electronegativity scale, and if the third-order term γq 3 may be neglected, then α = Phi/sub m/, which is the original Mulliken scale. The quadratic term βq 2 acts to oppose charge transfer, and therefore the coefficient c, relating q to Δα, depends on what elements are involved and on their relative concentration in a well-defined manner. This implies an asymmetry in charge transfer with concentration. Spectroscopic data indicate that γ, though small, is not negligible and, in such a case Phi/sub m/ is not a proper electronegativity. The extended Mulliken scheme, involving α and β, is relevant to the energetics of charge transfer and hence to the ionic character of insulating and semiconducting compounds. It allows simple baseline estimates to be made of such character. Other factors contribute to charge transfer and some of the complications associated with transition-metal compound formation are explored

  14. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  15. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  16. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert

    2015-10-13

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  17. Recognition properties of receptors consisting of imidazole and indole recognition units towards carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Mazik

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Compounds 4 and 5, including both 4(5-substituted imidazole or 3-substituted indole units as the entities used in nature, and 2-aminopyridine group as a heterocyclic analogue of the asparagine/glutamine primary amide side chain, were prepared and their binding properties towards carbohydrates were studied. The design of these receptors was inspired by the binding motifs observed in the crystal structures of protein–carbohydrate complexes. 1H NMR spectroscopic titrations in competitive and non-competitive media as well as binding studies in two-phase systems, such as dissolution of solid carbohydrates in apolar media, revealed both highly effective recognition of neutral carbohydrates and interesting binding preferences of these acyclic compounds. Compared to the previously described acyclic receptors, compounds 4 and 5 showed significantly increased binding affinity towards β-galactoside. Both receptors display high β- vs. α-anomer binding preferences in the recognition of glycosides. It has been shown that both hydrogen bonding and interactions of the carbohydrate CH units with the aromatic rings of the receptors contribute to the stabilization of the receptor–carbohydrate complexes. The molecular modeling calculations, synthesis and binding properties of 4 and 5 towards selected carbohydrates are described and compared with those of the previously described receptors.

  18. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali; Khashab, Niveen M.; Fahrenbach, Albert C.; Friedman, Douglas C.; Colvin, Michael T.; Coti, Karla K.; Bení tez, Diego S.; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Olsen, John Carl; Belowich, Matthew E.; Carmieli, Raanan; Khatib, Hussam A.; Goddard, William Andrew III; Wasielewski, Michael R.; Stoddart, Fraser Fraser Raser

    2009-01-01

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali

    2009-12-17

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  20. The Uncanny Valley and Nonverbal Communication in Virtual Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinwell, Angela; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Abdel Nabi, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of a current research project investigating the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in realistic, human-like virtual characters. !e research methods used in this Work include a retrospective of both empirical studies and philosophical writings on the Uncanny. No other...... research has explored the notion that realistic, human-like, virtual characters are regarded less favorably due to a perceived diminished degree of responsiveness in facial expression, specifically, nonverbal communication (NVC) in the upper face region. So far, this research project has provided the first...... empirical evidence to test the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in the domain of animated video game characters with speech, as opposed to just still, unresponsive images, as used in previous studies. Based on the results of these experiments, a conceptual framework of the Uncanny Valley in virtual characters has...

  1. Variability and Character Association in F2 Segregating Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 1Department of Horticulture. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University. Gazipur 1706, Bangladesh. ABSTRACT: The F2 segregating generations of exotic tomato hybrids were studied to measure variability, character association and path coefficient analysis.

  2. Perceiving and experiencing fictional characters: an integrative account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.F.; Konijn, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Fictional characters (PCs) and mediated persons in literature, theater, film, art, TV, and digital media fulfill basic psychological functions, although the processes involved remain unspecified. Departing from identification and empathy hypotheses, a new context-sensitive model draws upon

  3. Portrayal of Women Characters in Selected Contemporary Yoruba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    women as loving, hardworking, serious-minded and people of dignity and character. ... all the mental or moral qualities that make a person, group, ..... friends' and neighbours' wives. .... So also, money influence and entice women to engage.

  4. Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed irradiation and associated molecular changes. Sonia Mejri, Yassine Mabrouk, Marie Voisin, Philippe Delavault, Philippe Simier, Mouldi Saidi, Omrane Belhadj ...

  5. Evolution of specialization and ecological character displacement: metabolic plasticity matters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egas, C.J.M.; Reydon, Th.A.C.; Hemerik, L.

    2005-01-01

    An important question in evolutionary biology, especially with respect to herbivorous arthropods, is the evolution of specialization. In a previous paper, the combined evolutionary dynamics of specialization and ecological character displacement was studied, focusing on the role of herbivore

  6. Feminism and Self-Assessertion of Female Characters in Buchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feminism and Self-Assessertion of Female Characters in Buchi Emecheta's Second ... and ideological frame work it directly opposes sexism by supporting gender ... stereotype of women, whereby women are seen as helpless, dependent and ...

  7. Dirichlet Characters, Gauss Sums, and Inverse Z Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Jing; Liu, Huaning

    2012-01-01

    A generalized Möbius transform is presented. It is based on Dirichlet characters. A general algorithm is developed to compute the inverse $Z$ transform on the unit circle, and an error estimate is given for the truncated series representation.

  8. 8 CFR 316.10 - Good moral character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... was not a single offense for simple possession of 30 grams or less of marijuana; (iv) Admits...) Proof of good moral character in certain cases—(1) Effect of probation or parole. An applicant who has...

  9. Young James Madison: His Character and Civic Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the life of James Madison, Founding Father and "theoretic statesman." Focuses specifically on Madison's education and character, his friendship with Thomas Jefferson, and his civic legacy: a selfless devotion to republican government and union. (JDH)

  10. Aggression in Sport: Its Implications for Character Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDyke, Roger R.

    1980-01-01

    The premise that "sports builds character" is scrutinized through a discussion of several contact sports--boxing, hockey, and football. The fine line between assertiveness and aggression is explored, and the interrelationship between society and sports is investigated. (JN)

  11. Beyond the Story Map: Inferential Comprehension via Character Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTigue, Erin; Douglass, April; Wright, Katherine L.; Hodges, Tracey S.; Franks, Amanda D.

    2015-01-01

    Inferential comprehension requires both emotional intelligence and cognitive skills, however instructional comprehension strategies typically underemphasize the emotional contribution. This article documents an intervention used by diverse third grade students which centers on teaching story comprehension through character perspective-taking…

  12. The tragicomic realisation of life and destiny of Kocic's characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleša Biljana S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the collective identity of the characters of Kocic's prose. It examines the archetypal traits, oddify, originality and impressiveness of these unique characters in Serbian literature as well as the presence of collective memory, the awareness of one self and the others, historical, social and economic circumstances that surround Kocic's heroes. Looking back at the elements of the creative process, the artist's motivation and the presence of the tragical and the comical can be singled out. The characters of Simeun Djak, David Strbac, Mracajski prota, Relja Knezevic have been analyzed, and a short review of the female characters is given. Revealing the extent to which the creativity of Petar Kocic coincides with the elements of history, psychology, sociology and anthropogeography, a literary-scientific thought on his work gets completed and the versality to approach to the reading is allowed.

  13. Character, Social-Emotional, and Academic Outcomes among Underachieving Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Leslie K.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of this research was to examine the psychometric properties of a character assessment scale (the Character Assessment for School Age Children; CASAC) based on 6 pillars of character (Josephson Institute, 2009). Many youth development and character education programs utilize some, if not all, of the pillars of character explicitly or…

  14. The Proximate Unit in Chinese Handwritten Character Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Yeu eChen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In spoken word production, a proximate unit is the first phonological unit at the sublexical level that is selectable for production (O’Seaghdha, Chen, & Chen, 2010. The present study investigated whether the proximate unit in Chinese handwritten word production is the stroke, the radical, or something in between. A written version of the form preparation task was adopted. Chinese participants learned sets of two-character words, later were cued with the first character of each word, and had to write down the second character (the target. Response times were measured from the onset of a cue character to the onset of a written response. In Experiment 1, the target characters within a block shared (homogeneous or did not share (heterogeneous the first stroke. In Experiment 2, the first two strokes were shared in the homogeneous blocks. Response times in the homogeneous blocks and in the heterogeneous blocks were comparable in both experiments (Exp. 1: 687 ms vs. 684 ms, Exp. 2: 717 vs. 716. In Experiment 3 and 4, the target characters within a block shared or did not share the first radical. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 3: 685 vs. 704, Exp. 4: 594 vs. 650. In Experiment 5 and 6, the shared component was a Gestalt-like form that is more than a stroke, constitutes a portion of the target character, can be a stand-alone character itself, can be a radical of another character but is not a radical of the target character (e.g., 士in聲, 鼓, 穀, 款; called a logographeme. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 5: 576 vs. 625, Exp. 6: 586 vs. 620. These results suggest a model of Chinese handwritten character production in which the stroke is not a functional unit, the radical plays the role of a morpheme, and the logographeme is the proximate unit.

  15. Genus-two characters of the Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Koh, I.G.

    1989-01-01

    As a first step in studying conformal theories on a higher-genus Riemann surface, we construct genus-two characters of the Ising model from their behavior in zero- and nonzero-homology pinching limits, the Goddard-Kent-Oliveco set-space construction, and the branching coefficients in the level-two A 1 /sup (1)/ Kac-Moody characters on the higher-genus Riemann surface

  16. Language Empowering in Character Building (Pemberdayaan Bahasa dalam Pembentukan Karakter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamsinah Kamsinah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Character building is the most important thing to do as it is a striving system which underly behavior (Freud.  Even more, good character is more to be praised than outstanding talent. Most talents are to some extent a gift. Good character, however, is not given to us. we have to build it peace by peace by thought, choice, courage, and determination.  So important it is that it is said that  if there is no more character every thing is lost (Mahatma Gandhi. The best way to build it is  to develop   the function of all  individual potential,  including cognitive, affective,  and psychomotoric aspects simultanously in the context of socio-cultural interaction (in family, in  school, and in society. Character  is gained by nature and nurture. It can be done begin from the golden age to the old one through the three character building components: moral knowing, moral feeling, and moral action as suggested by Lickona. They make it possible since human beings, as  the best-formed creature of all, are the ones and the only creature posessing culture, and that,  they can educate and be educated in terms of   the model of  person of character.  Everybody must have character. Therefore,  to apply Lickona’s,  one must  empower her/his language, in which  she/he/ perform her/his competence in using language creativity (Chomsky in   both ordinary  and literary language. In this case, Buginese language is used as the sample.

  17. Apology Strategies Performed By Main Characters In Perahu Kertas Novel

    OpenAIRE

    KUSUMA, DEVILIA INDAH

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: speech act, apology strategies, Perahu Kertas novel Apology is a part of human communication to maintain good relations between people or to restore harmony. The writer conducted a research on apology strategies in Bahasa Indonesia, by analyzing a novel entitled Perahu Kertas. In this study, there are two problems to be solved: (1) What apology strategies are performed by main characters in Perahu Kertas novel, and (2) How is the act of apologizing upgraded by main characters in Per...

  18. Systematic review of character development and childhood chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Hill, Sherika N

    2016-05-08

    To review empirical evidence on character development among youth with chronic illnesses. A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and PSYCHINFO from inception until November 2013 to find quantitative studies that measured character strengths among youth with chronic illnesses. Inclusion criteria were limited to English language studies examining constructs of character development among adolescents or young adults aged 13-24 years with a childhood-onset chronic medical condition. A librarian at Duke University Medical Center Library assisted with the development of the mesh search term. Two researchers independently reviewed relevant titles (n = 549), then abstracts (n = 45), and finally manuscripts (n = 3). There is a lack of empirical research on character development and childhood-onset chronic medical conditions. Three studies were identified that used different measures of character based on moral themes. One study examined moral reasoning among deaf adolescents using Kohlberg's Moral Judgement Instrument; another, investigated moral values of adolescent cancer survivors with the Values In Action Classification of Strengths. A third study evaluated moral behavior among young adult survivors of burn injury utilizing the Tennessee Self-Concept, 2(nd) edition. The studies observed that youth with chronic conditions reasoned at less advanced stages and had a lower moral self-concept compared to referent populations, but that they did differ on character virtues and strengths when matched with healthy peers for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Yet, generalizations could not be drawn regarding character development of youth with chronic medical conditions because the studies were too divergent from each other and biased from study design limitations. Future empirical studies should learn from the strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature on character development among youth with chronic medical conditions.

  19. Systematic review of character development and childhood chronic illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Hill, Sherika N

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review empirical evidence on character development among youth with chronic illnesses. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and PSYCHINFO from inception until November 2013 to find quantitative studies that measured character strengths among youth with chronic illnesses. Inclusion criteria were limited to English language studies examining constructs of character development among adolescents or young adults aged 13-24 years with a childhood-onset chronic medical condition. A librarian at Duke University Medical Center Library assisted with the development of the mesh search term. Two researchers independently reviewed relevant titles (n = 549), then abstracts (n = 45), and finally manuscripts (n = 3). RESULTS: There is a lack of empirical research on character development and childhood-onset chronic medical conditions. Three studies were identified that used different measures of character based on moral themes. One study examined moral reasoning among deaf adolescents using Kohlberg’s Moral Judgement Instrument; another, investigated moral values of adolescent cancer survivors with the Values In Action Classification of Strengths. A third study evaluated moral behavior among young adult survivors of burn injury utilizing the Tennessee Self-Concept, 2nd edition. The studies observed that youth with chronic conditions reasoned at less advanced stages and had a lower moral self-concept compared to referent populations, but that they did differ on character virtues and strengths when matched with healthy peers for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Yet, generalizations could not be drawn regarding character development of youth with chronic medical conditions because the studies were too divergent from each other and biased from study design limitations. CONCLUSION: Future empirical studies should learn from the strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature on character development among youth with chronic medical conditions

  20. Speech Recognition on Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge

    2010-01-01

    in the mobile context covering motivations, challenges, fundamental techniques and applications. Three ASR architectures are introduced: embedded speech recognition, distributed speech recognition and network speech recognition. Their pros and cons and implementation issues are discussed. Applications within......The enthusiasm of deploying automatic speech recognition (ASR) on mobile devices is driven both by remarkable advances in ASR technology and by the demand for efficient user interfaces on such devices as mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). This chapter presents an overview of ASR...