WorldWideScience

Sample records for composting municipal green

  1. Chemical, microbial and physical properties of manufactured soils produced by co-composting municipal green waste with coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, O.N.; Haynes, R.J. [University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld. (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Increasing proportions of coal fly ash were co-composted with municipal green waste to produce manufactured soil for landscaping use. Only the 100% green waste treatment reached a thermophilic composting phase ({ge} 50{sup o}C) which lasted for 6 days. The 25% and 50% ash treatments reached 36-38{sup o}C over the same period while little or no self-heating occurred in the 75% and 100% ash treatments. Composted green waste had a low bulk density and high total and macro-porosity. Addition of 25% ash to green waste resulted in a 75% increase in available water holding capacity. As the proportions of added ash in the composts increased, the organic C, soluble C, microbial biomass C, basal respiration and activities of beta-glucosidase, L-asparaginase, alkali phosphatase and arylsulphatase enzymes in the composted products all decreased. It could be concluded that addition of fly ash to green waste at a proportion higher than 25% did not improve the quality parameters of manufactured soil.

  2. Feasibility study of green wastes composting with digested and dewatering sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamat Jaafarzadeh Haghighi Fard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composting as a waste management technology is becoming more widespread. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and to find the most effective composting process for the ratio of green waste, digested and dewatered sludge from Chonibieh wastewater treatment plant in the west region of Ahvaz. Methods: The composting time was 23 days and the evaluated parameters in this period of the study were organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N, moisture content and pH. The C/N ratio was maintained at 30 with weight:weight ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 (digested and dewatered sludge to green waste. Results: It was observed that vessel R3 produced higher quality of compost with final total nitrogen (1.28%, final total phosphorus (0.71%, final total organic carbon (TOC (25.78% and C/N (20.65% within the 23 days of composting. While vessel R1 produced higher final total nitrogen and total phosphorus with lower amount of total coliform indicating suitable quality of composting. Therefore, the results showed that the characteristics of dewatered sludge mixed with green waste proportion of green waste significantly influenced the compost quality and process dynamics. The results also showed that the quality of final products in all the conditions was in agreement with Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS and World Health Organization (WHO guidelines. However, the moisture content ratios were lower than the mentioned guidelines. With regards to microbial quality, all three ratios were in agreement with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and Iranian guidelines. Conclusion: It is suggested that the final product of composting can be safely used in farmland and green space.

  3. A comparative analysis of composts and vermicomposts derived from municipal solid waste for the growth and yield of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soobhany, Nuhaa; Mohee, Romeela; Garg, Vinod Kumar

    2017-04-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate and compare the responses of Phaseolus vulgaris to three types of composts and vermicomposts derived from municipal solid waste (MSW). Different amendment rates were used and evaluated for their effect on germination, growth, and marketable yield. MSW-derived vermicomposts and composts were substituted into mineral brown-earth soil, applied at rates of 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 100% (v/v) in plastic pots of 7.2-L capacity. Green beans which are grown in 40% vermicompost/soil mixtures and compost/soil mixtures yielded 78.3-89.5% higher fruit weights as compared to control. Results showed that MSW vermicomposts consistently outperformed equivalent quantities of composts in terms of fruit yield, shoot, and root dry weights, which can be attributed to the contributions of physicochemical properties and nutrients content (N, P, and K) in the potting experiments. Consequently, it seemed likely that MSW vermicompost provided other biological inputs such as plant growth regulators (PGRs) and plant growth hormones (PGHs), which could have a considerably positive effect on the growth and yields of P. vulgaris as compared to composts. More in-depth scientific investigation is required in order to identify the distinctive effects and the exact mechanisms of these PGRs in MSW vermicomposts which influenced plant growth responses.

  4. Source Separation and Composting of Organic Municipal Solid Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Mark; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a variety of composting techniques that may be utilized in a municipal level solid waste management program. Suggests how composting system designers should determine the amount and type of organics in the waste stream, evaluate separation approaches and assess collection techniques. Outlines the advantages of mixed waste composting and…

  5. Effect of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) on the productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six rates and a control of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 Mg/ha) were used to evaluate the effect of municipal compost on cowpea growth parameters (Plant height, leaf area, biomass and grain yields and tissue heavy metal concentrations). Plant height, leaf area and heavy metal concentration ...

  6. Quality assessment of compost prepared with municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, J. R.; Ramos, N.; Carreira, J. A.; Pacheco, R.; Fernández-Hernández, A.

    2017-11-01

    One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system. Temperature was used as a monitoring parameter to follow the composting progress, which underwent the typical trend of municipal solid waste composting mixtures. The results showed a similar evolution on the content of mineral nutrients of the mixture of municipal solid waste. This evolution originated in a mature compost (end sample) with an adequate content of mineral elements and physical-chemical characteristics for its use in agriculture. So, the use of compost of municipal solid waste represents an important tool for fertilization requirements for its use in agriculture.

  7. Quality assessment of compost prepared with municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodar J. R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system. Temperature was used as a monitoring parameter to follow the composting progress, which underwent the typical trend of municipal solid waste composting mixtures. The results showed a similar evolution on the content of mineral nutrients of the mixture of municipal solid waste. This evolution originated in a mature compost (end sample with an adequate content of mineral elements and physical-chemical characteristics for its use in agriculture. So, the use of compost of municipal solid waste represents an important tool for fertilization requirements for its use in agriculture.

  8. INFLUENCE OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMPOST (MSWC ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF GREEN GRAM (VIGNA RADIATE (L WILCZEK, FENUGREEK (TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM L. AND ON SOIL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kasthuri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pot culture experiments were carried out to study the effect of characterized municipal solid waste compost (MSWC amendments (0, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 g with garden soil (6 kg on the growth and the yield of green gram (Vigna radiata (L wilczek and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. as well as changes on soil quality. The growth and the yield of green gram and fenugreek were enhanced by MSWC application upto 500 g. Soil amended with > 500 g MSWC inhibited the plants biometric parameters neither with-significantly nor without-significantly suggest a possible toxic effects to both plants. No dosage effect was detected for total chlorophyll synthesized, except green gram grown in 1000 g of MSWC amendments. Compared with control, percentage of protein was increased significantly upto 250 g for green gram and 500 g for fenugreek. A significant reduction in percentage of carbohydrates was observed above 750 g of MSWC exposure for green gram and above 500 g for fenugreek. There was no specific trend and significant changes were observed in percentage of reducing sugars in both plants except green gram exposed to 50 g MSWC exposure. There was no significant difference in all plant yield parameters of both plants except fenugreek seed weight in 250 g MSWC amendment. Generally, chemical parameters of soil are improved by the addition of MSWC, after 90 d of experimental period.

  9. Effect of Drought Stress and Municipal Compost on quantitive and Qualitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Forouzandeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of drought stress and municipal compost on quantitive characteristics in peppermint , a green house experiment in a factorial based on a randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted in 2009 at University of Zabol. Treatments included: three irrigation levels %100 field capacity(control,%80 field capacity(mild stress and %60 field capacity(severe stress and four levels of municipal compost: control(no chemical fertilizer and compost, T1:10, T2:20 and T3:30 tons per hectare. Results showed that increasing of the municipal compost levels improved significantly the dry and fresh yield, plant height, tiller number, root dry and fresh weight, essential oil percentage and yield of essential oil .Effects of different levels of irrigation with superior control(no stress, was significant in all traits. According to the results achived maximum dry matter(4.51 g/pot and essential oil yield (8.42 mg/pot to produced proper at treatment 30 ton per hectare municipal compost and non-stress conditions.

  10. Municipal Household Solid Waste Compost: Effects on Carrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of municipal household solid waste compost on N, P and K uptake and yield of carrot (Daucus carrota), using a coastal savanna Haplic Acrisol. Bulked samples of fresh solid waste from 45 households within the Cape Coast Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana ...

  11. Composted municipal waste effect on chosen properties of calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidpour, M.; Afyuni, M.; Khadivi, E.; Zorpas, A.; Inglezakis, V.

    2012-10-01

    A 3-year field study was conducted to assess effects of composted municipal waste on some properties, distribution of Zn, Cu in a calcareous soil and uptake of these metals by wheat. The treatments were 0, 25, 50 and 100 Mg ha-1 of municipal solidwastewhichwas applied in three consecutive years. The application of composted municipal waste increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity, the aggregate stability,the organic carbon content and electrical conductivity, whereas it slightly decreased the soil pH and bulk density. A significant increase in the concentration of Zn and Cu were observed with increasing number and rate of compost application. The distribution of Zn and Cu between the different fractions in untreated and treated soils showed that the majority of Zn and Cu were in the residual form. Finally, the levels of Zn and Cu were higher in grains of wheat grown in composttreated plots compared to that grown in the control plots.

  12. Sequential Analysis of Metals in Municipal Dumpsite Composts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heavy metals contents (Pb, Cu, Fe, Cr, Cd, Zn, Mn and Ni) in Municipal dumpsite compost were determined by the sequential extraction method. Chemical parameters such as pH, conductivity, and organic carbon contents of the samples were also determined. Analysis of the extracts was carried out by atomic ...

  13. Additives aided composting of green waste: effects on organic matter degradation, compost maturity, and quality of the finished compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S P M Prince; Bidyadhar, Rajnikant; Bhilawe, Priya; Anand, Duraisamy; Vaidya, Atul N; Wate, Satish R

    2012-06-01

    The effect of various additives such as fly ash, phosphogypsum, jaggery, lime, and polyethylene glycol on green waste composting was investigated through assessing their influence on microbial growth, enzymatic activities, organic matter degradation, bulk density, quality of finished compost including gradation test, heavy metal analysis, etc. A perusal of results showed that addition of jaggery and polyethylene glycol were helpful to facilitate composting process as they significantly influenced the growth of microbes and cellulase activity. The quality of finished compost prepared from jaggery and polyethylene glycol added treatments were superior to other composts, wherein reduction in C/N ratio was more than 8% in jaggery treatment. All other parameters of compost quality including gradation test also favored jaggery and polyethylene glycol as the best additives for green waste composting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of different techniques of composting on stability and maturity of municipal solid waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Khalid; Shafiq, Tahira; Ahmed, Khurshed

    2010-02-01

    Three methods for composting, aerobic, anaerobic and mixed type were compared in three locally fabricated composters of 20 L each, for their effect in accelerating compost maturity and stability using municipal solid waste. The composting process was monitored through determining the changes in temperature, pH, ammonium-N (NH(+)4-N), nitrate-N (NO- 3-N), carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, NH(+)4-N/NO(-)3-N, total carbon, nitrogen (TN), potassium (TK), phosphorous (TP), humification index (HI), degree ofpolymerization (DP), humification rate (HR), CO2, humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Temperature increased rapidly from the mesophilic to the thermophilic stage and gradually decreased near the maturation phase. A similar behaviour was recorded for pH, which become slightly alkaline at the maturity level. The composting process decreases the concentration of total carbon, NH(+)4-N, C/N ratio, and CO2, and increases CEC, HI, DP, HA, TP, TK, and TN. All three composting methods used in this study produce mature compost at different time intervals. A high statically significant correlation was found between the total carbons, C/N ratio, HA, FA, DP, HI, HR, CEC, and ammonium nitrate ratio.

  15. Design of a Municipal Yard Waste Composting Facility for Anderson County, South Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klapmeyer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    ... extending their usable life. However, the major aspects of planning, constructing, and operating a municipal yard waste composting facility must be fully understood before undertaking such an endeavor...

  16. Improvement of soil properties and nitrogen utilisation of sunflower by amending municipal solid waste compost

    OpenAIRE

    Montemurro, Francesco; Maiorana, Michele; Convertini, Grazia; Fornaro, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    International audience; We studied the effects of municipal solid waste compost applied to soil on sunflower nitrogen (N) uptake, N utilisation, yield, soil mineral N deficit and soil characteristics. One unfertilised control was compared with the optimal N dose for the sunflower crops in the test area (100 kg N ha-1) supplied as: organic fertilisation, with municipal solid waste compost; mineral fertilisation, with ammonium nitrate; and mixed fertilisation, with 50 kg N ha-1 from compost and...

  17. Green waste compost as an amendment during induced phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Beata

    2015-03-01

    Phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soils is a new strategy that consists of using the higher plants to make the soil contaminant nontoxic. The main problem that occurs during the process is the low solubility and bioavailability of mercury in soil. Therefore, some soil amendments can be used to increase the efficiency of the Hg phytoextraction process. The aim of the investigation was to use the commercial compost from municipal green wastes to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil by Lepidium sativum L. plants and determine the leaching of Hg after compost amendment. The result of the study showed that Hg can be accumulated by L. sativum L. The application of compost increased both the accumulation by whole plant and translocation of Hg to shoots. Compost did not affect the plant biomass and its biometric parameters. Application of compost to the soil decreased the leaching of mercury in both acidic and neutral solutions regardless of growing medium composition and time of analysis. Due to Hg accumulation and translocation as well as its potential leaching in acidic and neutral solution, compost can be recommended as a soil amendment during the phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil.

  18. Combining woody biomass for combustion with green waste composting: Effect of removal of woody biomass on compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Boogaerts, Christophe; Vandaele, Elke

    2016-12-01

    The question was tackled on how the green waste compost industry can optimally apply the available biomass resources for producing both bioenergy by combustion of the woody fraction, and high quality soil improvers as renewable sources of carbon and nutrients. Compost trials with removal of woody biomass before or after composting were run at 9 compost facilities during 3 seasons to include seasonal variability of feedstock. The project focused on the changes in feedstock and the effect on the end product characteristics (both compost and recovered woody biomass) of this woody biomass removal. The season of collection during the year clearly affected the biochemical and chemical characteristics of feedstock, woody biomass and compost. On one hand the effect of removal of the woody fraction before composting did not significantly affect compost quality when compared to the scenario where the woody biomass was sieved from the compost at the end of the composting process. On the other hand, quality of the woody biomass was not strongly affected by extraction before or after composting. The holocellulose:lignin ratio was used in this study as an indicator for (a) the decomposition potential of the feedstock mixture and (b) to assess the stability of the composts at the end of the process. Higher microbial activity in green waste composts (indicated by higher oxygen consumption) and thus a lower compost stability resulted in higher N immobilization in the compost. Removal of woody biomass from the green waste before composting did not negatively affect the compost quality when more intensive composting was applied. The effect of removal of the woody fraction on the characteristics of the green waste feedstock and the extracted woody biomass is depending on the season of collection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of composting as a strategy for managing organic wastes from a municipal market in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulinas Masó, Montserrat; Bonmatí Blasi, August

    2008-07-01

    A pilot-scale study was undertaken to evaluate alternatives to the solid waste management of a Central American municipal market located in Estelí, Nicaragua. The municipal solid waste from the local market is the second largest contributor to the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream. Waste from the market without any previous sorting or treatment is open dumped. The options evaluated in this study were windrow composting, windrow composting with yard waste, bokashi and vermicompost. Significant differences between the properties of composts produced were found; however, all of them reduce the initial waste volume and are potential useful agronomic products for a survival agrarian milieu.

  20. Assessing the effect of biodegradable and degradable plastics on the composting of green wastes and compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmar, G; Mohee, R

    2008-10-01

    An assessment of the effect of the composting potential of Mater-Bi biodegradable plastic with green wastes, noted by GBIO, and degradable plastic (PDQ-H additive) with green wastes, noted by GDEG, was carried out in a lagged two-compartment compost reactor. The composting time was determined until constant mass of the composting substrates was reached. The green wastes composting process was used as control (G). After one week of composting, the biodegradable plastics disappeared completely, while 2% of the original degradable plastic still remained after about 8 weeks of composting. A net reduction in volatile solids contents of 61.8%, 56.5% and 53.2% were obtained for G, GBIO and GDEG, respectively. Compost quality was assessed in terms of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus contents, which were found to be highest for GBIO compost. From the phytotoxicity test, it has been observed that a diluted extract of GBIO compost has produced the longest length of radicle. From the respiration test, no significant difference in the amount of carbon dioxide released by the composting of GDEG and G was observed. This study showed that the quality of the compost is not affected by the presence of the biodegradable and degradable plastics in the raw materials.

  1. Municipal household waste used as complement material for composting chicken manure and crop residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume L. Amadji

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are few organic materials available as agricultural soil amendment because their low chemical content means that large quantities are required. In order to improve the availability of raw materials for composting, as well as the quality of the compost produced, municipal solid waste (MW was added to cotton-seed residue (CSR and to the association of CSR with chicken manure (M in different weight/weight (MW/added materials ratios of 5:1 and 2:1. Aerobic composting was processed and compost yield was determined, as well as compost particle size and pH. Also, the compost bulk density and its water holding capacity were determined as well as contents of total nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus, calcium (Ca, magnesium and heavy metals. According to its pH and carbon/nitrogen ratio values, the municipal waste of Cotonou was judged to be a good raw material for composting in order to improve availability of the organic source of nutrients. The composts produced with MW+M+CSR had the highest potential for amending Ferralsols, especially with a mixture of 2:1 (200 kg MW+100 kg M+100 kg CSR that could be applied at 10 t ha–1. However, further improvement in composting methods was suggested to increase Ca++ and reduce mercury contents, respectively. Moreover, potassium balance should be improved in the produced compost.

  2. Delayed addition of nitrogen-rich substrates during composting of municipal waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nigatu, Abebe Nigussie; Bruun, Sander; Kuyper, Thomas W.

    2017-01-01

    Municipal waste is usually composted with an N-rich substrate, such as manure, to increase the N content of the product. This means that a significant amount of nitrogen can be lost during composting. The objectives of this study were (i) to investigate the effect of split addition of a nitrogen......-rich substrate (poultry manure) on nitrogen losses and greenhouse gas emissions during composting and to link this effect to different bulking agents (coffee husks and sawdust), and (ii) to assess the effect of split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate on compost stability and sanitisation. The results showed...... addition increased methane emissions by up to 50% compared to split addition of the substrate. Hence, the timing of the addition of the N-rich substrate had only a marginal effect on total non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. Split addition of the N-rich substrate resulted in compost that was just as stable...

  3. Composting of Municipal Solid Wastes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbach, Andrew W.

    To gain more comprehensive knowledge about composting as a solid waste management tool and to better assess the limited information available, the Federal solid waste management program, within the U. S. Public Health Service, entered into a joint experimental windrow composting project in 1966 with the Tennessee Valley Authority and the City of…

  4. Can volatiles emitted by compost during spawn run be used to detect green mould infection early?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johan, B.; Rutjens, J.; Mumm, R.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years green mould (Trichoderma aggressivum) has presented big problems to the Dutch mushroom industry. T. aggressivum infects compost at a very early stage and in the Dutch situation infection most likely takes place at the compost yard. Even though compost producers in the Netherlands are

  5. Oxygen respirometry to assess stability and maturity of composted municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannotti, D.A.; Grebus, M.E.; Toth, B.L.; Madden, L.V.; Hoitink, A.J. [Ohio State Univ./Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH (United States)

    1994-11-01

    The stability and maturity of compost prepared from municipal solid waste (MSW) at a full-scale composting plant was assessed through chemical, physical, and biological assays. Respiration bioassays used to determine stability (O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} respirometry) were sensitive to process control problems at the composting plant and indicated increasing stability with time. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) growth bioassays revealed that immature compost samples inhibited growth. Growth of ryegrass in potting mix prepared with cured compost not amended with fertilizer was enhanced as compared to a pest control. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seed germination, used as an indicator of phytotoxicity, revealed inhibition of germination at all compost maturity levels. The phytotoxicity was though to be salt-related. Spearman rank-order correlations demonstrated that O{sub 2} respirometry, water-soluble organic C, and the water extract organic C to organic N ratio, significantly correlated with compost age and best indicated an acceptable level of stability. Oxygen respirometry also best predicted the potential for ryegrass growth, and an acceptable level of compost maturity. 31 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. sequential analysis of metals in municipal dumpsite composts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Ostman et al., 2006). Wastes degradation leads to the pollution of soil by many pollutants ..... Water Soluble. CONCLUSION. The increasing amount of total metals (Pb, Cu, Fe, Cr,. Cd, Zn, Mn and Ni) contents in the compost could be.

  7. Effects of earthworm casts and zeolite on the two-stage composting of green waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lu, E-mail: zhanglu1211@gmail.com; Sun, Xiangyang, E-mail: xysunbjfu@gmail.com

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Earthworm casts (EWCs) and clinoptilolite (CL) were used in green waste composting. • Addition of EWCs + CL improved physico-chemical and microbiological properties. • Addition of EWCs + CL extended the duration of thermophilic periods during composting. • Addition of EWCs + CL enhanced humification, cellulose degradation, and nutrients. • Combined addition of 0.30% EWCs + 25% CL reduced composting time to 21 days. - Abstract: Because it helps protect the environment and encourages economic development, composting has become a viable method for organic waste disposal. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of earthworm casts (EWCs) (at 0.0%, 0.30%, and 0.60%) and zeolite (clinoptilolite, CL) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) on the two-stage composting of green waste. The combination of EWCs and CL improved the conditions of the composting process and the quality of the compost products in terms of the thermophilic phase, humification, nitrification, microbial numbers and enzyme activities, the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of final composts. The compost matured in only 21 days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90–270 days required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with 0.30% EWCs and 25% CL.

  8. Effects of rhamnolipid and initial compost particle size on the two-stage composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a potential alternative to green waste incineration or deposition in landfills. The effects of the biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL) (at 0.0%, 0.15%, and 0.30%) and initial compost particle size (IPS) (10, 15, and 25 mm) on a new, two-stage method for composting green waste was investigated. A combination of RL addition and IPS adjustment improved the quality of the finished compost in terms of its physical characteristics, pH, C/N ratio, nutrient content, cellulose and hemicellulose contents, water-soluble carbon (WSC) content, xylanase and CMCase activities, numbers of culturable microorganisms (bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi), and toxicity to germinating seeds. The production of a stable and mature compost required only 24 days with the optimized two-stage composting method described here rather than the 90-270 days required with traditional composting. The best quality compost was obtained with 0.15% RL and an IPS of 15 mm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heavy metal uptake from municipal waste compost by the earthworm Eisenia foetida (Savigny 1826)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleckenstein, J.; Graff, O.

    1982-01-01

    The uptake of heavy metals and toxic elements by the adult earthworms Eisenia foetida kept in municipal waste compost for 55 and 104 days and by the juveniles was investigated. The uptake of Cu, Zn and Ni increased to constant levels, which appear to be regulated by the physiology of the earthworms. In contrary to this Cd, Hg and As continued to accumulate in the tissues of the earthworms throughout the exposure time. The Pb concentration ratio increased also, but was low (< 0.05). The living conditions for the earthworms in municipal waste compost were satisfactory but the results demonstrate that their use for biological conversion of waste compost to biomass for further animal nutrition is limited by the accumulation of cadmium and mercury.

  10. A LABORATORY STUDY TO INVESTIGATE GASEOUS EMISSIONS AND SOLIDS DECOMPOSITION DURING COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a materials flow analysis performed for composting municipal solid waste (MSW) and specific biodegradable organic components of MSW. (NOTE: This work is part of an overall U.S. EPA project providing cost, energy, and materials flow information on diffe...

  11. The effect of municipal compost application on the amount of micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of municipal compost (MC) application on micro elements concentration in soil and tissues of medicinal plant of mint. This study was carried out in a split plot based on complete randomized block design in three replications in the field of the University of Agricultural Sciences ...

  12. Use of Fertigation and Municipal Solid Waste Compost for Greenhouse Pepper Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Tzortzakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste compost (MSWC and/or fertigation used in greenhouse pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cultivation with five different substrates with soil (S and/or MSWC mixtures (0–5–10–20–40% used with or without fertigation. Plants growth increased in 10–20% MSWC and fertigation enhanced mainly the plant height. Fruit number increased in S : MSWC 80 : 20 without fertilizer. Plant biomass increased as MSWC content increased. There were no differences regarding leaf fluoresces and plant yield. The addition of MSWC increased nutritive value (N, K, P, organic matter of the substrate resulting in increased EC. Fruit fresh weight decreased (up to 31% as plants grown in higher MSWC content. Fruit size fluctuated when different MSWC content used into the soil and the effects were mainly in fruit diameter rather than in fruit length. Interestingly, the scale of marketable fruits reduced as MSWC content increased into the substrate but addition of fertilizer reversed this trend and maintained the fruit marketability. MSWC affected quality parameters and reduced fruit acidity, total phenols but increased fruit lightness. No differences observed in fruit dry matter content, fruit firmness, green colour, total soluble sugars and EC of peppers and bacteria (total coliform and E. coli units. Low content of MSWC improved plant growth and maintained fruit fresh weight for greenhouse pepper without affecting plant yield, while fertigation acted beneficially.

  13. Use of fertigation and municipal solid waste compost for greenhouse pepper cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortzakis, Nikos; Gouma, Sofia; Dagianta, Eleni; Saridakis, Christos; Papamichalaki, Maria; Goumas, Dimitrios; Manios, Thrassyvoulos

    2012-01-01

    Municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and/or fertigation used in greenhouse pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivation with five different substrates with soil (S) and/or MSWC mixtures (0-5-10-20-40%) used with or without fertigation. Plants growth increased in 10-20% MSWC and fertigation enhanced mainly the plant height. Fruit number increased in S : MSWC 80 : 20 without fertilizer. Plant biomass increased as MSWC content increased. There were no differences regarding leaf fluoresces and plant yield. The addition of MSWC increased nutritive value (N, K, P, organic matter) of the substrate resulting in increased EC. Fruit fresh weight decreased (up to 31%) as plants grown in higher MSWC content. Fruit size fluctuated when different MSWC content used into the soil and the effects were mainly in fruit diameter rather than in fruit length. Interestingly, the scale of marketable fruits reduced as MSWC content increased into the substrate but addition of fertilizer reversed this trend and maintained the fruit marketability. MSWC affected quality parameters and reduced fruit acidity, total phenols but increased fruit lightness. No differences observed in fruit dry matter content, fruit firmness, green colour, total soluble sugars and EC of peppers and bacteria (total coliform and E. coli) units. Low content of MSWC improved plant growth and maintained fruit fresh weight for greenhouse pepper without affecting plant yield, while fertigation acted beneficially.

  14. Changes in physical, chemical, and microbiological properties during the two-stage co-composting of green waste with spent mushroom compost and biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2014-11-01

    This research determined whether the two-stage co-composting can be used to convert green waste (GW) into a useful compost. The GW was co-composted with spent mushroom compost (SMC) (at 0%, 35%, and 55%) and biochar (BC) (at 0%, 20%, and 30%). The combined addition of SMC and BC greatly increased the nutrient contents of the compost product and also improved the compost quality in terms of composting temperature, particle-size distribution, free air space, cation exchange capacity, nitrogen transformation, organic matter degradation, humification, element contents, abundance of aerobic heterotrophs, dehydrogenase activity, and toxicity to germinating seeds. The addition of 35% SMC and 20% BC to GW (dry weight % of initial GW) and the two-stage co-composting technology resulted in the production of the highest quality compost product in only 24 days rather than the 90-270 days required with traditional composting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of municipal solid waste compost application on heavy metal content in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Orhan

    2015-06-01

    Municipal solid waste composts (MSWC) are widely used over agricultural lands as organic soil amendment and fertilizer. However, MSWC use may result in various adverse impacts over agricultural lands. Especially, heavy metal contents of MSWC should always be taken into consideration while using in agricultural practices. The present study was conducted to find out heavy metal contents of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and to investigate their effects on soils. Experiments were carried out in three replications as field experiments for 2 years. Dry-based MSWC was applied to each plot at the ratios of 0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 t ha(-1). Results revealed that heavy metal content of MSWC was within the allowable legal limits. Compost treatments significantly increased Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, and Pb content of soils (p compost doses. Although compost treatments significantly increased soil heavy metal contents, the final contents were still within the allowable legal limits. Results showed that MSWC doses over 10 t ha(-1) may create a heavy metal risk in long term for soils with pH ≥ 7. Therefore, in MSWC use over agricultural lands, heavy metal contents should always be taken into consideration and excessive uses should be avoided.

  16. Design of experiment (DOE) based screening of factors affecting municipal solid waste (MSW) composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Khoshrooz; Zhang, Baiyu; Lye, Leonard M; Cai, Qinghong; Cao, Tong

    2016-12-01

    A design of experiment (DOE) based methodology was adopted in this study to investigate the effects of multiple factors and their interactions on the performance of a municipal solid waste (MSW) composting process. The impact of four factors, carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N), moisture content (MC), type of bulking agent (BA) and aeration rate (AR) on the maturity, stability and toxicity of compost product was investigated. The statistically significant factors were identified using final C/N, germination index (GI) and especially the enzyme activities as responses. Experimental results validated the use of enzyme activities as proper indices during the course of composting. Maximum enzyme activities occurred during the active phase of decomposition. MC has a significant effect on dehydrogenase activity (DGH), β-glucosidase activity (BGH), phosphodiesterase activity (PDE) and the final moisture content of the compost. C/N is statistically significant for final C/N, DGH, BGH, and GI. The results provided guidance to optimize a MSW composting system that will lead to increased decomposition rate and the production of more stable and mature compost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of pathogenic bacteria loading on organic Municipal Solid Waste compost and vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soobhany, Nuhaa

    2018-01-15

    The use of composts or vermicomposts derived from organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) brought about certain disagreement in terms of high level of bacterial pathogens, thereby surpassing the legal restrictions. This preliminary study was undertaken to compare the evolution of pathogenic bacteria on OFMSW compost against vermicompost (generated by Eudrilus eugeniae) with promises of achieving sanitation goals. Analysis to quality data showed that OFMSW vermicomposting caused a moderately higher reduction in total coliforms in contrast to composting. E. coli in OFMSW composts was found to be in the range of 4.72-4.96 log 10  CFU g -1 whilst on a clear contrary, E. coli was undetectable in the final vermicomposts (6.01-6.14 logs of reduction) which might be explained by the involvement of the digestive processes in worms' guts. Both OFMSW composts and vermicomposts generated Salmonella-free products which were acceptable for agricultural usage and soil improvement. In comparison to compost, the analysis of this research indicated that earthworm activity can effectively destroy bacterial pathogenic load in OFMSW vermicomposts. But still, this study necessitates extra research in order to comprehend the factors that direct pathogenic bacteria in vermicomposting and earthworm-free decomposition systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Addition of fish pond sediment and rock phosphate enhances the composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this work was to study the two-stage composting of green waste (GW) as affected by addition of fish pond sediment (FPS; at 0, 25, and 35%) and/or rock phosphate (RP; at 0, 10, and 15%). The combined addition of FPS and RP greatly accelerated GW degradation and improved compost quality in terms of composting temperature, windrow volume, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), NH3 emission, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, nutrient content, and seed germination. The two-stage composting was optimal with the combined addition of 25% FPS and 15% RP. In addition to producing the highest quality compost product, the optimal combination resulted a mature compost in only 22days rather than in the 90-270days required with traditional composting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Municipal solid wastes composting: Estrela (Brasil); Compostaje de residuos solidos municipales: el ejemplo de Estrela, brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, O.; Bezama, A.; Navia, R.; Lorber, K. E.

    2002-07-01

    In Estrela, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, an improved separation system for the municipal solid wastes was implemented. The objective is to enhance the performance of the composting process of the solid wastes. In the original separation system, the fractions corresponding to organic matter, recyclable materials and the light-weight fraction (destined to sanitary landfill) were obtained, where the organic fraction reached a 70%. This fraction was destined to a composting process which after 80 days of processing was still in the thermophilic stage and had to be later stabilized through a worm composting process. In order to improve this situation, a modified system was proposed and implemented. In this way, four fractions were obtained during the separation process: a light fraction destined to sanitary land filling, a recyclable materials fraction and two organic fractions. (Author) 8 refs.

  20. The influences of inoculants from municipal sludge and solid waste on compost stability, maturity and enzyme activities during chicken manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuyan; Li, Jijin; Yuan, Jing; Li, Guoxue; Zang, Bing; Li, Yangyang

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of inoculants on compost stability, maturity and enzyme activities during composting of chicken manure and cornstalk. Two microbial inoculants (originated from aerobic municipal sludge and municipal solid waste, respectively) were used in composting at the rate of 0.3% of initial raw materials (wet weight). No microbial inoculums were added to the control. The experiment was conducted under aerobic conditions for 53 days. The results show that enzyme activity is an important index to comprehensively evaluate the composting stability and maturity. Microbes originated from sludge works best in terms of composting stability and maturity (C:N ratio decreased from 15.5 to 10, and germination index increased to 109%). Microbial inoculums originated from sludge and municipal solid waste extended the time of thermophilic phase for 11 and 7 days, respectively. Microbial inoculums originated from sludge and MSW significantly increased the average of catalase activity (by 15.0% and 12.1%, respectively), urease activity (by 21.5% and 12.2%, respectively) and cellulase activity (by 32.1% and 26.1%, respectively) during composting.

  1. Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Andrew; Turner, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    Composting can provide both a means of managing organic waste, and a vehicle to teach Science at all levels of schooling. In response to a local organic waste issue a process has been developed to compost waste from an olive oil press and analyse the resultant compost. In this article, the composting process is described in a manner that can be…

  2. The impact of silver nanoparticles on the composting of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitipour, Alireza; El Badawy, Amro; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Miller, Bradley; Scheckel, Kirk; Elk, Michael; Ryu, Hodon; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Santo Domingo, Jorge; Thiel, Stephen; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2013-12-17

    The study evaluates the impact of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) on the composting of municipal solid waste. The results suggest that there was no statistically significant difference in the leachate, gas, and solid quality parameters and overall composting performance between the treatments containing the AgNPs, Ag(+), and negative control. Nonetheless, taxonomical analyses of 25 Illumina 16S rDNA barcoded libraries containing 2 393 504 sequences indicated that the bacterial communities in composted samples were highly diverse and primarily dominated by Clostridia (48.5%), Bacilli (27.9%), and beta-Proteobacteria (13.4%). Bacterial diversity studies showed that the overall bacterial community structure in the composters changed in response to the Ag-based treatments. However, the data suggest that functional performance was not significantly affected due to potential bacterial functional redundancy within the compost samples. The data also indicate that while the surface transformation of AgNPs to AgCl and Ag2S can reduce the toxicity, complexation with organic matter may also play a major role. The results of this study further suggest that at relatively low concentrations, the organically rich waste management systems' functionality may not be influenced by the presence of AgNPs.

  3. Biochar-compost mixtures added to simulated golf greens increase creeping bentgrass growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixtures of 85% sand and 15% mixtures of peat (control), a commercial biochar, a commercial biochar-compost product (CarbonizPN), and seven biochar-commercial compost mixtures were tested on the growth of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L. "007") in simulated golf greens. Physical properti...

  4. Study and assessment of segregated biowaste composting: The case study of Attica municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamis, D; Bourka, A; Stamatopoulou, Ε; Moustakas, K; Skiadi, O; Loizidou, M

    2017-12-01

    This work aims to assess the operation of the first large scale segregated biowaste composting scheme in Greece to divert Household Food Waste (HFW) from landfill and produce a material which can be recovered and used as compost. The source separation and collection of HFW was deployed in selected areas in Attica Region serving about 3700 households. Sorted HFW is collected & transported to the Mechanical and Biological Treatment (MBT) plant in Attica Region that has been designed to produce Compost Like Output (CLO) from mixed MSW. The MBT facility has been adjusted in order to receive and treat aerobically HFW mixed with shredded green waste in a dedicated composting tunnel. The composting process was monitored against temperature, moisture and oxygen content indicating that the biological conditions are sufficiently developed. The product quality was examined and assessed against the quality specifications of EU End of Waste Criteria for biowaste subjected to composting aiming to specify whether the HFW that has undergone recovery ceases to be waste and can be classified as compost. More specifically, the heavy metals concentrations (Cr, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn and Hg) are within the set limits and much lower compared to the CLO material that currently is being produced at the MBT plant. In regard to the hygienic requirements of the product it has been found that the process conditions result in a pathogen free material (i.e. E. Coli and Salmonella) which does not favor the growth of viable weeds and plant propagules, while it acquires sufficient organic matter content for soil fertilization. Noticeable physical impurities (mainly fractions of glass) have been detected exceeding the quality control threshold limit of 0.5% w/w (plastics, metals and glass). The latter is related to the missorted materials and to the limited pre-treatment configurations prior to composting. The above findings indicate that effective source separation of biowaste is prerequisite for

  5. Effect of Municipal Solid Waste Compost and Sewage Sludge on yield and Yield Components of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Akbarnejad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to investigate the effect of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC and sewage sludge (SS on yield and yield components of black cumin (Nigella sativa L. an experiment was conducted in greenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Municipal solid waste compost at 0, 15, 30 ton/ha (C0, C15 and C30 and sewage sludge at 0, 15, 30 ton/ha (S0, S15 and S30 were used in a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications. Results showed that municipal solid waste compost and sewage sludge and their interaction effects had significant effects on plant height, number of capsule per plant, number of seeds per capsule, number of seeds per plant, seed yield, biomass and 1000 seed weight. Increasing of sewage sludge amount from 15 to 30 ton/ha increased all measured parameters. But with increasing of municipal solid waste compost from 15 to 30 ton/ha, plant height, number of capsule per plant, number of seeds per capsule, number of seeds per plant, seed yield, biomass and 1000 seed weight were decreased. Interaction effects of municipal solid waste compost and sewage sludge showed that yield and yield components in all treatments were increased with the exception of treatment that contained 30 ton/ha municipal solid waste and 0 ton/ha sewage sludge (C30S0. Use of high amounts of municipal solid waste compost (>15 ton/ha had a detrimental effect on yield and yield components of black cumin. Keywords: Nigella sativa, Municipal solid waste compost, Sewage sludge, Yield and yield components

  6. Prevalence and survival of potential pathogens in source-segregated green waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Lisa M; Booth, Philippa; Campbell, Colin; Tompkins, David; Hough, Rupert L

    2012-08-01

    Composting of source-separated green waste (SSGW) is essential to meet the EU Landfill Directive target and agricultural land is considered a significant market for the resulting composts. A critical review of the literature was performed to evaluate the potential for pathogens to enter the composting process via SSGW feedstocks and the likelihood of their survival of the composting process and subsequent application to land. This is discussed in the context of application of other organic wastes to land. It was concluded that zoonoses such as verotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. are unlikely to survive and effective composting process, whereas spore forming organisms are more resistant to composting but are also ubiquitous in the environment. Adherence to existing guidelines, such as those for farm yard manures, is likely to provide a rational degree of health protection for humans and livestock. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Effects of earthworm casts and zeolite on the two-stage composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2015-05-01

    Because it helps protect the environment and encourages economic development, composting has become a viable method for organic waste disposal. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of earthworm casts (EWCs) (at 0.0%, 0.30%, and 0.60%) and zeolite (clinoptilolite, CL) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) on the two-stage composting of green waste. The combination of EWCs and CL improved the conditions of the composting process and the quality of the compost products in terms of the thermophilic phase, humification, nitrification, microbial numbers and enzyme activities, the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of final composts. The compost matured in only 21days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90-270days required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with 0.30% EWCs and 25% CL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk of Leaching in Soils Amended by Compost and Digestate from Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta García-Albacete

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New European directives have proposed the direct application of compost and digestate produced from municipal solid wastes as organic matter sources in agricultural soils. Therefore information about phosphorus leaching from these residues when they are applied to the soil is increasingly important. Leaching experiments were conducted to determine the P mobility in compost and digestate mixtures, supplying equivalent amounts to 100 kg P ha−1 to three different types of soils. The tests were performed in accordance with CEN/TS 14405:2004 analyzing the maximum dissolved reactive P and the kinetic rate in the leachate. P biowaste fractionation indicated that digestate has a higher level of available P than compost has. In contrast, P losses in leaching experiments with soil-compost mixtures were higher than in soil-digestate mixtures. For both wastes, there was no correlation between dissolved reactive P lost and the water soluble P. The interaction between soil and biowaste, the long experimentation time, and the volume of leachate obtained caused the waste’s wettability to become an influential parameter in P leaching behavior. The overall conclusion is that kinetic data analysis provides valuable information concerning the sorption mechanism that can be used for predicting the large-scale behavior of soil systems.

  9. Risk of Leaching in Soils Amended by Compost and Digestate from Municipal Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquis, Ana M.; Cartagena, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    New European directives have proposed the direct application of compost and digestate produced from municipal solid wastes as organic matter sources in agricultural soils. Therefore information about phosphorus leaching from these residues when they are applied to the soil is increasingly important. Leaching experiments were conducted to determine the P mobility in compost and digestate mixtures, supplying equivalent amounts to 100 kg P ha−1 to three different types of soils. The tests were performed in accordance with CEN/TS 14405:2004 analyzing the maximum dissolved reactive P and the kinetic rate in the leachate. P biowaste fractionation indicated that digestate has a higher level of available P than compost has. In contrast, P losses in leaching experiments with soil-compost mixtures were higher than in soil-digestate mixtures. For both wastes, there was no correlation between dissolved reactive P lost and the water soluble P. The interaction between soil and biowaste, the long experimentation time, and the volume of leachate obtained caused the waste's wettability to become an influential parameter in P leaching behavior. The overall conclusion is that kinetic data analysis provides valuable information concerning the sorption mechanism that can be used for predicting the large-scale behavior of soil systems. PMID:25003139

  10. Volatile compounds emission and health risk assessment during composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Muhammad Farooq; Liu, Yanjun; Duan, Zhenhan

    2017-01-01

    Degradation of mechanically sorted organic fraction (MSOF) of municipal solid waste in composting facilities is among the major contributors of volatile compounds (VCs) generation and emission, causes nuisance problems and health risks on site as well as in the vicinages. The aim of current study...... was to determine the seasonal (summer and winter) variation and human health risk assessment of VCs in the ambient air of different processing units in MSOF at composting plant in China. Average concentration of VCs was 58.50 and 138.03 mg/m3 in summer and winter respectively. Oxygenated compounds were found...... attention should be made to minimize cumulative non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk as people are well exposed to mixture of compounds, not to individual....

  11. Heavy Metals Removal from Sewage Sludge and Municipal Solid Waste (MSW by Co-Composting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Babaee Darzi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: One of the most important pollutants in drinking water, air and soils is heavy metals. It is very harmful for humans and other live organisms. The purpose of this study was the usage of a co-composting process for removal of heavy metals from municipal solid waste and sewage sludge. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was a conducted sewage sludge and municipal solid waste. For collection of samples from urban solid waste composting and wastewater treatment plant, a 200 mL polyethylene bottles was used, samples after acidification were stored in a dark place at 4°C temperature until the metals analysis the heavy metals values remaining in the samples was measured by graphite furnace absorption spectrometer method (Varian, SpectrAA 240, Australia. In this study, we used SPSS version 16 for data processing; and they were also analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results: Result of this study showed that values of C/N in the first, second and third stage compost were 31.7, 27.3 and 41.8, respectively. Based on the result of this study the value of removal of Cd with 9.8 mg kg-1 in first stage and Cr, Cu and Zn with 89, 21 and 87.6 mg kg-1 in third stage were highest treatment. Conclusion: Our results show that co-composting process between many treatment processes having to be cost effective for heavy metal removal from solid waste and wastewater treatment.

  12. Scenario analysis of the benefit of municipal organic-waste composting over landfill, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Bunrith; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Ochiai, Satoru; Kaneko, Hidehiro

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents insight into the benefits of organic waste recycling through composting over landfill, in terms of landfill life extension, compost product, and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Future waste generation from 2003 to 2020 was forecast, and five scenarios of organic waste recycling in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia, were carried out. Organic waste-specifically food and garden waste-was used for composting, and the remaining waste was landfilled. The recycling scenarios were set based on organic waste generated from difference sources: households, restaurants, shops, markets, schools, hotels, offices, and street sweeping. Through the five scenarios, the minimum volume reductions of waste disposal were about 56, 123, and 219 m(3) d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, whereas the maximum volume reductions in these years were about 325, 643, and 1025 m(3) d(-1). These volume reductions reflect a landfill life extension of a minimum of half a year and a maximum of about four years. Compost product could be produced at a minimum of 14, 30, and 54 tons d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, and at a maximum in those years of about 80, 158, and 252 tons d(-1). At the same time benefit is gained in compost product, GHG emissions could be reduced by a minimum of 12.8% and a maximum of 65.0% from 2003 to 2020. This means about 3.23 (minimum) and 5.79 million tons CO(2)eq (maximum) contributed to GHG mitigation. In this regard, it is strongly recommended that MPP should try to initiate an organic-waste recycling strategy in a best fit scenario. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Conjunctive and mineralization impact of municipal solid waste compost and inorganic fertilizer on lysimeter and pot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Iqbal; Nadeem, Amana; Ahmed, Rauf; Husnain, Anwer

    2014-01-01

    Objectives of the present study were to investigate the physico-chemical properties of municipal solid waste (MSW)-enriched compost and its effect on nutrient mineralization and subsequent plant growth. The enrichment of MSW compost by inorganic salts enhanced the humification rate and reduced the carbon nitrogen (C/N) ratio in less time than control compost. The chemical properties of compost, C/N ratio, humic acid, fulvic acid, degree of polymerization and humification index revealed the significant correlation amid properties. A laboratory-scale experiment evaluated the conjunctive effect of MSW compost and inorganic fertilizer on tomato plants in a pot experiment. In the pot experiment five treatments, Inorganic fertilizer (T1), enriched compost (T2), enriched compost 80% + 20% inorganic fertilizer (T3), enriched compost 60% + 40% inorganic fertilizer (T4) were defined including control (Ts), applied at the rate of 110 kg-N/ha and results revealed that all treatments significantly enhanced horticultural production of tomato plant; however T4 was most effectual as compared with control, T1, T2 and T3. Augmentation in organic matter and available phosphorus (P) potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) were also observed in compost treatments. The leachability and phytoavailability of phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) from sandy soil, amended with enriched, control compost and inorganic fertilizer at rates of 200, 400 and 600 kg-N/ha were evaluated in a lysimeter study. Results illustrated that concentration of mineral nitrogen was elevated in the leachate of inorganic fertilizer than enriched and control composts; therefore compost fortifies soil with utmost nutrients for plants' growth.

  14. Phosphorus availability from rock phosphate: Combined effect of green waste composting and sulfur addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, M A; Ceglie, F G; Aly, A; Mihreteab, H T; Ciaccia, C; Tittarelli, F

    2016-11-01

    Rock phosphate constitutes a natural phosphorus (P) source for organic farming systems, but with a limiting direct agricultural use due to its poor inherent reactivity. Thus, this work studies the effect of the co-composting of rock phosphate with green wastes and elemental sulfur on phosphorus availability. Six composts were prepared combining different green wastes and rock phosphate in three different proportions (0%, 0.27% and 0.54% P fresh mass basis) and elemental sulfur in two proportions (0% and 0.5% S fresh mass basis). During composting, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored, as were physico-chemical and chemical parameters, especially those related to phosphorus. The co-composting of green wastes with rock phosphate improved phosphorus mobilization and also constituted a viable method to manage green wastes, obtaining P-enriched compost for organic farming systems. Sulfur addition favored the composting process and also phosphorus solubilization, especially in the mixture with the lowest proportion of rock phosphate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance of compost filtration practice for green infrastructure stormwater applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucette, Britt; Cardoso, Fatima; Mulbry, Walter; Millner, Pat

    2013-09-01

    Urban storm water runoff poses a substantial threat of pollution to receiving surface waters. Green infrastructure, low impact development, green building ordinances, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) storm water permit compliance, and Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) implementation strategies have become national priorities; however, designers need more sustainable, low-cost solutions to meet these goals and guidelines. The objective of this study was to determine the multiple-event removal efficiency and capacity of compost filter socks (FS) and filter socks with natural sorbents (NS) to remove soluble phosphorus, ammonium-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, E. coli, Enterococcus, and oil from urban storm water runoff. Treatments were exposed to simulated storm water pollutant concentrations consistent with urban runoff originating from impervious surfaces, such as parking lots and roadways. Treatments were exposed to a maximum of 25 runoff events, or when removal efficiencies were < or = 25%, whichever occurred first. Experiments were conducted in triplicate. The filter socks with natural sorbents removed significantly greater soluble phosphorus than the filter socks alone, removing a total of 237 mg/linear m over eight runoff events, or an average of 34%. The filter socks with natural sorbents removed 54% of ammonium-nitrogen over 25 runoff events, or 533 mg/linear m, and only 11% of nitrate-nitrogen, or 228 mg/linear m. The filter socks and filter socks with natural sorbents both removed 99% of oil over 25 runoff events, or a total load of 38,486 mg/linear m. Over 25 runoff events the filter socks with natural sorbents removed E. coli and Enteroccocus at 85% and 65%, or a total load of 3.14 CFUs x 10(8)/ linear m and 1.5 CFUs x 10(9)/linear m, respectively; both were significantly greater than treatment by filter socks alone. Based on these experiments, this technique can be used to reduce soluble pollutants from storm water over multiple runoff

  16. Use of Fertigation and Municipal Solid Waste Compost for Greenhouse Pepper Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Tzortzakis, Nikos; Gouma, Sofia; Dagianta, Eleni; Saridakis, Christos; Papamichalaki, Maria; Goumas, Dimitrios; Manios, Thrassyvoulos

    2012-01-01

    Municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and/or fertigation used in greenhouse pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivation with five different substrates with soil (S) and/or MSWC mixtures (0–5–10–20–40%) used with or without fertigation. Plants growth increased in 10–20% MSWC and fertigation enhanced mainly the plant height. Fruit number increased in S : MSWC 80 : 20 without fertilizer. Plant biomass increased as MSWC content increased. There were no differences regarding leaf fluoresces and plant y...

  17. Implementing the Green City Policy in Municipal Spatial Planning: The Case of Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abongile Dlani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The term “eco-city,” and similar concepts such as “green” and “sustainable” cities, has evolved overtime concurrent to the development of the understanding of social change and mankind’s impact on environmental and economic health. With the advent of climate change impacts, modern economies developed the green city policy to create sustainable urban development, low emission, and environmentally friendly cities. In South Africa municipalities, including Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM have been tasked to and implement the green city policy. However, BCMM is yet to develop the green city policy that clearly articulate how the municipality will combat climate change and reduce its Green House Gases (GHG emissions in its spatial planning designs. Against this background, this article reviews and analyses green policy landscape in Metropolitan Municipalities. It is envisaged that the research will provide the basis for the development of a comprehensive green policy strategies and programmes for the local transition to action in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, in the Eastern Cape Province.

  18. Delayed addition of nitrogen-rich substrates during composting of municipal waste: Effects on nitrogen loss, greenhouse gas emissions and compost stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigussie, Abebe; Bruun, Sander; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Municipal waste is usually composted with an N-rich substrate, such as manure, to increase the N content of the product. This means that a significant amount of nitrogen can be lost during composting. The objectives of this study were (i) to investigate the effect of split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate (poultry manure) on nitrogen losses and greenhouse gas emissions during composting and to link this effect to different bulking agents (coffee husks and sawdust), and (ii) to assess the effect of split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate on compost stability and sanitisation. The results showed that split addition of the nitrogen-rich substrate reduced nitrogen losses by 9% when sawdust was used and 20% when coffee husks were used as the bulking agent. Depending on the bulking agent used, split addition increased cumulative N 2 O emissions by 400-600% compared to single addition. In contrast, single addition increased methane emissions by up to 50% compared to split addition of the substrate. Hence, the timing of the addition of the N-rich substrate had only a marginal effect on total non-CO 2 greenhouse gas emissions. Split addition of the N-rich substrate resulted in compost that was just as stable and effective at completely eradicating weed seeds as single addition. These findings therefore show that split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate could be an option for increasing the fertilising value of municipal waste compost without having a significant effect on total greenhouse gas emissions or compost stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Emission of volatile organic compounds during composting of municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komilis, Dimitris P; Ham, Robert K; Park, Jae K

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and quantify volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (MSW). A laboratory experiment was conducted using organic components of MSW that were decomposed under controlled aerobic conditions. Mixed paper primarily produced alkylated benzenes, alcohols and alkanes. Yard wastes primarily produced terpenes, alkylated benzenes, ketones and alkanes, while food wastes primarily produced sulfides, acids and alcohols. Among 13 aromatic VOCs found in MSW composting facilities, toluene, ethylbenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, p-isopropyl toluene, and naphthalene were in the largest amounts. Unseeded mixed paper, seeded mixed paper, seeded yard wastes, unseeded yard wastes, seeded food wastes and unseeded food wastes produced approximately 6.5, 6.1, 2.1, 0.83, 2.5 and 0.33 mg of 13 volatile and semi-volatile aromatic organic compounds combined, respectively, per dry kg. All VOCs were emitted early during the composting process and their production rates decreased with time at thermophilic temperatures.

  20. Assessing the potential of coal ash and bagasse ash as inorganic amendments during composting of municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohee, Romeela; Boojhawon, Anuksha; Sewhoo, Babita; Rungasamy, Selven; Somaroo, Geeta D; Mudhoo, Ackmez

    2015-08-15

    This study investigates the potential of incorporating inorganic amendments such as coal and bagasse ashes in different composting mixes. 10 different composting mixes were assessed as follows: A-20% bagasse ash (BA) with unsorted municipal solid wastes (UMSW); B-40% BA with UMSW; C-UMSW; D-20% BA with sorted municipal solid wastes (SMSW); E-40% BA with SMSW; F-SMSW; G-20% coal ash (CA) with UMSW; H-40% CA with UMSW; I-20% CA with SMSW and J-40% CA with SMSW. The composting processes were carried out in rotary drum composters. Composting mixes D, F, G and I achieved a temperature above 55 °C for at least 3 days, with the following peak temperatures: D-62 °C, F-57 °C, G-62 °C and I-58 °C. D resulted in the highest average net Volatile solids (VS) degradation of 68.6% and yielded the highest average volume reduction of 66.0%. The final compost from D, G, I, C and F were within range for electrical conductivities (EC) (794-1770 μS/cm) and pH (6.69-7.12). The ashes also helped in maintaining high average water holding capacities within the range of 183-217%. The C/N ratio of sorted wastes was improved by the addition of 20% coal ash and bagasse ash. Higher germination indices, above 0.8 were obtained for the ash-amended compost (D, G, I), indicating the feasibility and enhancement of using bagasse and coal ash as inorganic amendment in the composting process. Regarding heavy metals content, the chromium concentration for the composting mix G was found to be the highest whereas mixes D and I showed compliance with the MS (Mauritian Standards) 164 standards. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Aerobic Food Waste Composting: Measurement of Green House Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J.

    2016-12-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are a major cause of global warming. While food waste composting can reduce the amount of waste being sent to traditional landfills, it also produces GHGs during the process. The objective of this research is to evaluate the GHGs emitted from an aerobic food composting machine, which is used in ISF. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy is a private independent school in Hong Kong with approximately 1500 students. Each academic year, the school produces 27 metric tons of food waste. In November 2013, the school installed a food waste composting system. Over the past 3 years, various improvements, such as installing a bio-filter to reduce the smell of the compost, have been made to the composting process. Meanwhile the compost is used by the primary students, as part of their experiential learning curriculum and organic farming projects. The composting process employs two machines: the Dehydra and A900 Rocket. The Dehydra reduces the mass of the food waste by separating the ground food waste and excessive water. The A900 Rocket, a composter made by Tidy Planet, processes food waste into compost in 14 days. This machine runs in an aerobic process, in which oxygen is used as an input gas and gases, such as carbon dioxide, are released. Carbon Dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research focuses on GHGs that are emitted from the A900 Rocket. The data is collected by the Gasmet DX 4015, a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) multi gas analyser. This equipment measures the concentration (ppm) of different GHGs, including N2O, CO2, CH4, NH3 and CO.

  2. Succession and diversity of microorganisms and their association with physicochemical properties during green waste thermophilic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Wang, Shuqi; Guo, Xiaoping; Zhao, Tingning; Zhang, Bolin

    2017-12-23

    A comprehensive characterization of the bacterial diversity associated to thermophilic stages of green waste composting was achieved. In this study, eight different treatments (T1-T8) and three replicated lab-scale green waste composting were carried out to compare the effect of the cellulase (i.e. 0, 2%), microbial inoculum (i.e. 0, 2 and 4%) and particle size (i.e. 2 and 5 mm) on bacterial community structure. Physicochemical properties and bacterial communities of T1-T8 composts were observed, and the bacterial structure and diversity were examined by high-throughput sequencing via a MiSeq platform. The results showed that the most abundant phyla among the treatments were the Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The shannon index and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) showed higher bacterial abundance and diversity at the metaphase of composting. Comparing with 5-mm treatments, particle size of 2-mm had a richer diversity of bacterial communities. The addition of cellulase and a microbial inoculum could promote the fermentation temperature, reduce the compost pH and C/N ratio and result in higher GI index. The humic substance (HS) and humic acid (HA) contents for 2-mm particle size treatments were higher than those of 5-mm treatments. Canonical correspondence analysis suggested that differences in bacterial abundance and diversity significantly correlated with HA, E4/E6 and temperature, and the relationship between bacterial diversity and environmental parameters was affected by composting stages. Based on these results, the application of cellulase to promote green waste composting was feasible, and particle size was identified as a potential control of composting physicochemical properties and bacterial diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of inoculation with white-rot fungi and fungal consortium on the composting efficiency of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voběrková, Stanislava; Vaverková, Magdalena D; Burešová, Alena; Adamcová, Dana; Vršanská, Martina; Kynický, Jindřich; Brtnický, Martin; Adam, Vojtěch

    2017-03-01

    An investigation was carried out on the effect of inoculation methods on the compost of an organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Three types of white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor and Fomes fomentarius), and a consortium of these fungi, were used. The study assessed their influence on microbial enzymatic activities and the quality of the finished compost. It was found that the addition of white-rot fungi to municipal solid waste (after 37days of composting) could be a useful strategy for enhancing the properties of the final compost product. In comparison with the control sample (compost without inoculation), it accelerates degradation of solid waste as indicated by changes in C/N, electrical conductivity and pH. However, the effectiveness of waste degradation and compost maturation depends on the type of microorganism used for inoculation. The presence of inoculants, such as Trametes versicolor and Fomes fomentarius, led to a higher degrading ratio and a better degree of maturity. This resulted in an increase of enzymatic activities (especially dehydrogenase and protease) and a germination index in comparison with inoculation using Phanerochaete chrysosporium or a consortium of fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomass ash reutilisation as an additive in the composting process of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquer, Carla; Cappai, Giovanna; De Gioannis, Giorgia; Muntoni, Aldo; Piredda, Martina; Spiga, Daniela

    2017-11-01

    In this work the effects of selected types of biomass ash on the composting process and final product quality were studied by conducting a 96-day long experiment where the source separated organic fraction of municipal waste, mixed with wood prunings that served as bulking agent, was added with 0%, 2%, 4% and 8% wt/wt of biomass ash. The evolution over time of the main process parameters was observed, and the final composts were characterised. On the basis of the results, both the composting process and the quality of the final product were improved by ash addition. Enhanced volatile solids reduction and biological stability (up to 32% and 52%, respectively, as compared to the unamended product) were attained when ash was added, since ash favored the aerobic degradation by acting asa physical conditioner. In the final products, higher humification of organic matter (expressed in terms of the humification index, that was 2.25 times higher in the most-enriched compost than in the unamended one) and total Ca, K, Mg and P content were observed when ash was used. The latter aspect may influence the composts marketability positively, particularly with regards to potassium and phosphorus. The heavy metals content, that is regarded as the main environmental disadvantage when using ash asa composting additive, did not negatively affect the final composts quality. However, some other controversial effects of ash, related to the moisture and temperature values attained during the process, pH (8.8-9.2 as compared to 8.2 of the unamended compost) and electrical conductivity levels (up to 53% higher as compared to the unamended compost) in the final composts, were also observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentration changes in sewage sludge and organic municipal waste mixtures during composting and anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebielska, Izabela; Sidełko, Robert

    2015-05-01

    We determined the changes in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in a mixture of sewage sludge and the organic fraction of municipal waste during composting and during anaerobic digestion. The processes were carried out on a laboratory scale. The PCBs were analyzed in the waste samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We evaluated the rates at which the PCB concentrations decreased during composting and during anaerobic digestion and compared the PCB degradation kinetics during these processes. The most important conclusion of this work is that anaerobic digestion is much more effective than composting at removing PCBs from a mixture of sewage sludge and the organic fraction of municipal waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oil refinery sludge and green waste simulated windrow composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, M S; Terzakis, S; Georgaki, E; Drakopoulou, S; Sabathianakis, I; Kouzoulakis, M; Manios, T

    2009-04-01

    Oil refinery sludge (ORS) was mixed with shredded green wastes (GW) at ratios of 1:1 v/v (RI) and 1:3 v/v (RII). The mixtures, of approximately volumes of 1,020 l and 990 l respectively, were introduced in metal cubic containers of 1.0 m(3) volume, opened at the top and with small holes punctured in the bottom and the side. The containers were additionally insulated with a layer of rockwool (20 mm). The boxes were emptied, the mixtures were turned and water was added occasionally, in one to two weeks intervals, simulating a windrow composting system. Temperature, physiochemical characteristics, mineral oil and grease (MOG) concentration, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration, carbon dioxide emission, methane emission and microorganisms presence were recorded either daily or every time the mixtures were turned, for a period of 120 days. RII recorded temperatures as high as 62 degrees C, reaching 56 degrees C in Day 6 and retained temperatures above 50 degrees C for more than 40 days. RI recorded its highest temperature of 53 degrees C in Day 77. The reason why the two mixtures behaved so differently can be explained by: (i) extended co-digestion phenomena by the microorganisms decomposing the GW in RII, (ii) toxic effect of ORS in RI due to the far larger amounts used (840 kg in RI in comparison with the 460 kg in RII). After Day 36 temperature increased gradually in RI and MOG and PAHs reduction was first noted. At the end of the experiment MOG concentration in RI was 57.2 mg/kg dry weight (dw) (52.1% reduction) where in RII was 34.3 mg/kg dw (62.1% reduction). Emissions of methane and carbon dioxide support the concept of the toxic effect and the delay ignition of the decomposing process in RI. In total, CO(2) and CH(4) emissions from RI were recorded to be 30.8 kg and 18.5 g, respectively, where from RII 59.6 kg of CO(2) and 6.4 g of CH(4) were emitted. An effort was made to determine the effect of temperature alone (as an abiotic treating

  7. Characterization of compost-like outputs from mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Sally M; Bateson, Thomas; Gronow, Jan R; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-06-01

    Throughout the world, most municipal solid waste consists of biodegradable components. The most abundant biological component is cellulose, followed by hemicellulose and lignin. Recycling of these components is important for the carbon cycle. In an attempt to reduce the environmental impacts of biodegradable wastes, mechanical biological treatments (MBTs) are being used as a waste management process in many countries. MBT plants attempt to mechanically separate the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable components. The nonbiodegradable components are then sent for reprocessing or landfilled, whereas the biodegradable components are reduced in biological content through composting or anaerobic digestion, leaving a compost-like output (CLO). The further use of these partially degraded residues is uncertain, and in many cases it is likely that they will be landfilled. The implications of this for the future of landfill management are causing some concern because there is little evidence that the long-term emissions tail will be reduced. In this study, the CLOs from four different biological treatment processes were characterized for physical contamination through visual inspection and for biological content using a sequential digestion analysis. The results indicate that the composition of the incoming waste, dependent on the way the waste was collected/segregated, was the factor that influenced biological content most, with length of treatment process the second most important.

  8. Green house gas emissions from composting and mechanical biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlinger, Florian; Peyr, Stefan; Cuhls, Carsten

    2008-02-01

    In order to carry out life-cycle assessments as a basis for far-reaching decisions about environmentally sustainable waste treatment, it is important that the input data be reliable and sound. A comparison of the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with each solid waste treatment option is essential. This paper addresses GHG emissions from controlled composting processes. Some important methodological prerequisites for proper measurement and data interpretation are described, and a common scale and dimension of emission data are proposed so that data from different studies can be compared. A range of emission factors associated with home composting, open windrow composting, encapsulated composting systems with waste air treatment and mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT) are presented from our own investigations as well as from the literature. The composition of source materials along with process management issues such as aeration, mechanical agitation, moisture control and temperature regime are the most important factors controlling methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammoniac (NH3) emissions. If ammoniac is not stripped during the initial rotting phase or eliminated by acid scrubber systems, biofiltration of waste air provides only limited GHG mitigation, since additional N2O may be synthesized during the oxidation of NH3, and only a small amount of CH4 degradation occurs in the biofilter. It is estimated that composting contributes very little to national GHG inventories generating only 0.01-0.06% of global emissions. This analysis does not include emissions from preceding or post-treatment activities (such as collection, transport, energy consumption during processing and land spreading), so that for a full emissions account, emissions from these activities would need to be added to an analysis.

  9. The impact of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the in-vessel composting of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamou, Ioannis; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca

    2016-10-01

    The study evaluated the impact of commercial silver doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Ag-TiO2NPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the in-vessel composting of municipal solid waste (MSW), using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy as a tool to evaluate the microbial degradation of MSW and subsequent soil application of compost. The fate of NPs present in mature compost used as a top-layer soil conditioner was investigated using a column approach at laboratory scale. The results suggested that the presence of either Ag-TiO2NPs or AgNPs did not inhibit the microbial degradation process within the range of metal concentrations used (5/225, 10/450, 20/900, 50/2250mg Ag/Ti per kg of organic matter for Ag-TiO2NP and 5, 10, 20, 50mg Ag per kg of organic matter for AgNPs). Higher concentrations of Ag-TiO2NP and AgNPs resulted in a higher inorganic carbon removal, and lower formation of humins. Formation of humins was higher for non-contaminated MSW and compost. EEM peaks shifted towards the humic substances (HS) region during in-vessel composting, indicating that microbial degradation occurred and that NPs did not have any effect on humification and therefore on compost stability. The leaching results suggested that only a low percentage of the total NPs (in weight) in compost, up to ca. 5% for Ag and up to ca. 15% for Ti, leached out from the columns, which was assumed the amount that potentially could leach to the environment. These results suggested that NPs will mainly accumulate in soils' top layers following application of compost contaminated with NP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The use of green waste compost in peat-based potting mixtures: Fertilization and suppressiveness against soilborne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der D.J.; Noort, van F.R.; Stapel-Cuijpers, L.H.M.; Kreij, de C.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Rijn, van E.; Zmora-Nahum, S.; Chen, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Twelve commercially produced Dutch green waste composts were evaluated for their suitability to replace 20% (v/v) peat substrate in the cultivation of ornamentals. Salt concentrations were determined in water extracts of the composts and disease suppressive effects were assessed against various

  11. Application of municipal solid waste compost reduces the negative effects of saline water in Hordeum maritimum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhdar, Abdelbasset; Hafsi, Chokri; Rabhi, Mokded; Debez, Ahmed; Montemurro, Francesco; Abdelly, Chedly; Jedidi, Naceur; Ouerghi, Zeineb

    2008-10-01

    The efficiency of composted municipal solid wastes (MSW) to reduce the adverse effects of salinity was investigated in Hordeum maritimum under greenhouse conditions. Plants were cultivated in pots filled with soil added with 0 and 40tha(-1) of MSW compost, and irrigated twice a week with tap water at two salinities (0 and 4gl(-1) NaCl). Harvests were achieved at 70 (shoots) and 130 (shoots and roots) days after sowing. At each cutting, dry weight (DW), NPK nutrition, chlorophyll, leaf protein content, Rubisco (ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) capacity, and contents of potential toxic elements were determined. Results showed that compost supply increased significantly the biomass production of non salt-treated plants (+80%). This was associated with higher N and P uptake in both shoots (+61% and +80%, respectively) and roots (+48% and +25%, respectively), while lesser impact was observed for K+. In addition, chlorophyll and protein contents as well as Rubisco capacity were significantly improved by the organic amendment. MSW compost mitigated the deleterious effect of salt stress on the plant growth, partly due to improved chlorophyll and protein contents and Rubisco capacity (-15%, -27% and -14%, respectively, in combined treatment, against -45%, -84% and -25%, respectively, in salt-stressed plants without compost addition), which presumably favoured photosynthesis and alleviated salt affect on biomass production by 21%. In addition, plants grown on amended soil showed a general improvement in their heavy metals contents Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ (in combined treatment: 190%, 53%, 168% and 174% in shoots and 183%, 42%, 42% and 114% in roots, respectively) but remained lower than phytotoxic values. Taken together, these findings suggest that municipal waste compost may be safely applied to salt-affected soils without adverse effects on plant physiology.

  12. Innovative biocatalytic production of soil substrate from green waste compost as a sustainable peat substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazamias, Georgios; Roulia, Maria; Kapsimali, Ioanna; Chassapis, Konstantinos

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, a new simple and quick eco-friendly method is discussed to handle effectively the green wastes and produce a sustainable peat substitute of high quality on the large scale. Principal physicochemical parameters, i.e., temperature, moisture, specific weight, pH, electrical conductivity and, also, microorganisms, organic matter, humic substances, total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon, C/N ratio, ash, metal content and phytotoxicity, were monitored systematically. Humic substances content values were interrelated to both C/N ratio and pH values and, similarly, bulk density, TOC, TKN, C/N, GI, ash and organic matter were found interconnected to each other. A novel biocatalyst, extremely rich in soil microorganisms, prepared from compost extracts and peaty lignite, accelerated the biotransformation. Zeolite was also employed. The compost does not demonstrate any phytotoxicity throughout the entire biotransformation process and has increased humic substances content. Both humic substances content and germination index can be employed as maturation indices of the compost. Addition of compost, processed for 60 days only, in cultivations of grass plants led to a significant increase in the stem mass and root size, annotating the significant contribution of the compost to both growth and germination. The product obtained is comparable to peat humus, useful as peat substitute and can be classified as a first class soil conditioner suitable for organic farming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing biochar and compost from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste on nutrient availability and plant growth of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regkouzas, Panagiotis; Manolikaki, Ioanna; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2017-04-01

    Biochars have a high variability in chemical composition, which is determined by types of feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. Inorganic compounds, such as N, P, K and Ca, retained in biochar could be released and become available to plants. The aim of this study was to understand the effect of biochar and compost addition, derived from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes at two different pyrolysis temperatures 3000C (BC300) and 6000C (BC600), on phosphorus availability and plant growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in an alkaline loam soil. This type of soil is widely available in Greece, leading us to investigate ways to increase its fertility. A 39 d growth period of lettuce was studied in a greenhouse in triplicate. Treatments comprised of control soils (no addition of biochar or compost), soils treated only with compost (5%) or biochar (5%), and combinations of biochar (5%) plus compost (5%). No fertilization was added to any of the treatments. One biomass cut was obtained. Plant shoot yield and height were determined along with elemental concentration (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu) and uptake of shoots. Results showed that BC300 combined with compost significantly increased P uptake of lettuce. On the other hand, BC600 plus compost, along with the two biochar-only treatments, significantly decreased Ca and Mg uptake of lettuce. N, K, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu uptakes were not affected by the application of biochar, compost or the combined treatments. Despite the significant increase of P uptake, plant height and shoot yield were not significantly influenced by any of the treatments.

  14. Comparison of the chemical, physical and microbial properties of composts produced by conventional composting or vermicomposting using the same feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, R J; Zhou, Y-F

    2016-06-01

    The chemical, physical and microbial properties of thermophilic composts and vermicomposts were compared using the same municipal green waste-based feedstocks: (i) municipal green waste alone, (ii) 75 % municipal green waste/25 % green garden waste and (iii) 75 % municipal green waste/25 % cattle manure. Temperatures reached 37 °C during composting of municipal green waste alone but when garden waste or cattle manure were added, temperatures reached 47 and 52 °C, respectively. At the end of vermicomposting (using Eisenia fetida), the number of earthworms present was greater than that added for the cattle manure-amended feedstock but much less for both the garden waste and municipal green waste alone treatments. The products formed in all treatments generally fell within suggested maturity indices for composts. Greater organic matter decomposition occurred during composting than vermicomposting resulting in composts having a significantly lower organic C content and a greater content of total N, extractable Mg, K, Na, P, and mineral N, a higher EC and a lower C/N ratio than the vermicomposts. For all three feedstocks, vermicomposts had a lower bulk density and greater total porosity and macroporosity than composts. For the garden waste- and cattle manure-amended feedstocks, vermicomposts had a higher microbial biomass C than the composts and for all three feedstocks, basal respiration and metabolic quotient were greatest for vermicomposts. It was concluded that composting is a robust process suitable for treatment of a range of organic wastes but, because of the nutritional requirements of the earthworms, vermicomposting is a much less robust and was only suitable for the cattle manure-amended feedstock.

  15. Effects of Chemical Fertilizer, Algea Compost and Zeolite on Green Bean Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Türkmen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study used chemical fertilizer, brown algae compost and zeolite carried out in the field of Giresun Hazelnut Research Center between May-November 2014 in pots according to randomized blog design as three replicate each. Treatment groups were consist of eight different combinations as follow; G1-Control, G2-Zeolite, G3-Compost, G4-Chemical Fertilizer, G5-Zeolite+Compost, G6-Zeolite+Chemical Fertilizer, G7-Compost+ Chemical Fertilizer, G8-Compost+Zeolite+ Chemical Fertilizer. The brown algae (Cystoseira sp. were used as compost material. These combinations were applied to green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris. The green beans were seeded by hand to arrange planting depth of 5-6 cm and 20 seeds/m2. Except control group, each treatment was added fertilizers as 50 g zeolite, 50 g compost, and 25 g chemical according to treatment design. Half of the chemical fertilizers were added at seeding time and the rest after two weeks. Collected soil samples were analyzed right after harvest, the greatest values of treatment groups were determined as; Carbon% G1: 5.08, nitrogen G3: 0.09 ppm, sodium G5: 139 ppm, potassium G6 and G8: 5 ppm, magnesium G2: 1865 ppm, calcium G6: 8.33 ppm, manganese G2: 359 ppm, iron G6 : 16070 ppm, cobalt G6 and G7: 7.91 ppm, copper G2: 17.5 ppm, zinc G8: 28.0 ppm, selenium G7: 4.17 ppm, cadmium G5: 0.08 ppm, lead G4: 5.31 ppm. The greatest harvest value as g/m2 was obtained from zeolite only group G2 with 273 while the lowest was obtained from Compost only group G3 with 113 g/m2, obviously showing the effectiveness of zeolite only application moreover, also thinking that better results may get if the present study run for longer period.

  16. Arsenic and copper stabilisation in a contaminated soil by coal fly ash and green waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Daniel C W; Yip, Alex C K; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    In situ metal stabilisation by amendments has been demonstrated as an appealing low-cost remediation strategy for contaminated soil. This study investigated the short-term leaching behaviour and long-term stability of As and Cu in soil amended with coal fly ash and/or green waste compost. Locally abundant inorganic (limestone and bentonite) and carbonaceous (lignite) resources were also studied for comparison. Column leaching experiments revealed that coal fly ash outperformed limestone and bentonite amendments for As stabilisation. It also maintained the As stability under continuous leaching of acidic solution, which was potentially attributed to high-affinity adsorption, co-precipitation, and pozzolanic reaction of coal fly ash. However, Cu leaching in the column experiments could not be mitigated by any of these inorganic amendments, suggesting the need for co-addition of carbonaceous materials that provides strong chelation with oxygen-containing functional groups for Cu stabilisation. Green waste compost suppressed the Cu leaching more effectively than lignite due to the difference in chemical composition and dissolved organic matter. After 9-month soil incubation, coal fly ash was able to minimise the concentrations of As and Cu in the soil solution without the addition of carbonaceous materials. Nevertheless, leachability tests suggested that the provision of green waste compost and lignite augmented the simultaneous reduction of As and Cu leachability in a fairly aggressive leaching environment. These results highlight the importance of assessing stability and remobilisation of sequestered metals under varying environmental conditions for ensuring a plausible and enduring soil stabilisation.

  17. Composting municipal biosolids in polyethylene sleeves with forced aeration: Process control, air emissions, sanitary and agronomic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidov, R; Saadi, I; Krassnovsky, A; Hanan, A; Medina, Sh; Raviv, M; Chen, Y; Laor, Y

    2017-09-01

    Composting in polyethylene sleeves with forced aeration may minimize odor emissions, vectors attraction and leachates associated with open windrows. A disadvantage of this technology is the lack of mixing during composting, potentially leading to non-uniform products. In two pilot experiments using biosolids and green waste (1:1; v:v), thermophilic conditions (>45°C) were maintained for two months, with successful control of oxygen levels and sufficient moisture. Emitted odors declined from 1.5-3.8×10 5 to 5.9×10 3 -2.3×10 4 odor units m -3 -air in the first 3weeks of the process, emphasizing the need of odor control primarily during this period. Therefore, composting might be managed in two phases: (i) a closed sleeve for 6-8weeks during which the odor is treated; (ii) an open pile (odor control is not necessary). Reduction of salmonella, E. coli and coliforms was effective initially, meeting the standards of "Class A" biosolids; however, total and fecal coliforms density increased after opening the second sleeve and exceeded the standard of 1000 most probable number (MPN) per g dry matter. Compost maturity was achieved in the open piles following the two sleeves and the final compost was non-phytotoxic and beneficial as a soil additive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Initial Moisture Content on the in-Vessel Composting Under Air Pressure of Organic Fraction of MunicipalSolid Waste in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhadi Makan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  19. The evolution of water extractable organic matter and its association with microbial community dynamics during municipal solid waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyu; He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; Tan, Wenbing; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan

    2016-10-01

    The humification of water extractable organic matter (WEOM) by microorganisms is widely used for assessing compost maturity and quality. However, the effect of bacterial and fungal community dynamics on humification of WEOM was not yet explored fully. Here, we used canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) to investigate the link between bacterial and fungal community dynamics and humification process of WEOM, respectively. Results showed that water-soluble carbon (WSC), humification degree, molecule weight and abundance of aromatic carbon were significantly related to bacterial community (pGalactomyces geotrichum can enhance the degradation of WSC and protein-like materials at the early composting. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes could promote the increase of aromatic carbon, oxygen-containing functional groups, humification degree and molecular weight of WEOM during the initial fermentation stage. Cladosporium herbarum and Chaetomium globosum could be the dominant controllers at the second fermentation for acceleratingthe formation of oxygen-containing functional groups and humic-like materials of WEOM, respectively. Our results suggested that regulation for the dynamics of these special bacterial and fungal species at different composting stages might be a potential way to accelerate humification of municipal solid waste composting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) as a growing medium in the nursery production of tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, F; Castillo, J E; Chica, A F; López Bellido, L

    2008-01-01

    Five media prepared from old peat (OP), white peat (WP) and municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) were used to determine optimum growing media for tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv "Atletico"). The mixtures of substrates used were: OP (65%)+WP (30%)+perlite (5%), OP (65%)+MSWC (30%)+perlite (5%), WP (65%)+OP (30%)+perlite (5%), WP (65%)+MSWC (30%)+perlite (5%), MSWC (65%)+WP (30%)+perlite (5%). Various seedling indices were measured in order to assess the quality of the nursery-produced plant. Nursery-produced tomato seedlings grown in WP (65%)+MSWC (30%) displayed quality indices similar to those recorded for conventional mixtures of old and white peat sphagnum, due to a correct balance between the compost nutrient supply and the porosity and aeration provided by white peat.

  1. Evaluation of the Addition of Wood Ash to Control the pH of Substrates in Municipal Biowaste Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oviedo-Ocaña Edgar Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the addition of wood ashes (WA for controlling the pH of substrates in municipal biowaste (MBW composting. Three combinations in wet weight percent (w/w of MBW and WA were tested: i BC1: 2% WA and 98% MBW; ii BC2: 4% WA and 96% MBW; and iii BC3: 8% WA and 92% MBW. Each combination was compared with a control (100% MBW called B1, B2 and B3 respectively. The experiment was conducted to pilot scale, with piles of 510 kg. The results indicate that the addition of WA improved the pH level and nutrients for the composting process; however, it had not substantial benefit in the process (start of the thermophilic phase and the behavior of the substrate degradation rate. Furthermore, a higher presence of salts and phytotoxic compounds in the product was observed. This could limit the product use for agricultural activities.

  2. Energy or compost from green waste? - A CO(2) - based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranert, Martin; Gottschall, Ralf; Bruns, Christian; Hafner, Gerold

    2010-04-01

    Green waste is increasingly extracted from the material recycling chain and, as a result of the financial subsidy arising from the German renewable energy law for the generation of energy from renewable raw materials; it is fed into the energy recovery process in biomass power stations. A reduction in climate relevant gases is also linked to the material recovery of green waste - in particular when using composts gained from the process as a new raw material in different types of potting compost and plant culture media as a replacement for peat. Unlike energy recovery, material valorisation is not currently subsidised. Through the analysis of material and energy valorisation methods for green waste, with particular emphasis on primary resource consumption and CO(2)-balance, it could be determined that the use of green waste for energy generation and its recovery for material and peat replacement purposes can be considered to be on a par. Based on energy recovery or material oriented scenarios, it can be further deduced that no method on its own will achieve the desired outcome and that a combination of recycling processes is more likely to lead to a significant decrease of greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Substitution of peat with municipal solid waste compost in watermelon seedling production combined with fertigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papamichalaki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in reusing organic residues as substrate medium in nurseries has increased worldwide as peat availability has been reduced over time. In this study, the effect of fertigation and/or a partial substitution of peat with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC on the emergence, growth, and nutrition of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L. seedlings were tested. The MSWC extracts (MSWC:water at 10-1 and 10-2 dilutions maintained seedling germination. Under nursery conditions, six media prepared from commercial peat and MSWC were further assessed in conjunction with nutrient application as basic fertilizer (BF or hydro fertilizer (HF. Adding MSWC to the substrate inhibited seed emergence and mean germination time, whereas fertigation maintained seed emergence in 15% MSWC but decreased in 45% MSWC. Adding 45% MSWC reduced seedling height, leaf number, and fresh weight. The HF increased fresh weight (up to 44% and growth in seedlings cultivated in 15% MSWC. Leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance increased (up to 2.6-fold in MSWC-based (< 45% MSWC substrates, but no differences were observed in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total carotenoid content, and leaf fluorescence. The HF reduced chlorophyll a and total carotenoids, but increased chlorophyll b content. The K, N, and Na content increased (ranging from 2- to 5-fold when adding MSWC, whereas P content did not differ. Fertigation benefits seedling nutritive status. Low content (15% to 30% of MSWC may act as an alternative substitute for peat with more positive effects if minerals are provided through HF.

  4. Temperature and final characteristics of composting process of the Municipal solid wastes; Evolucion de la temperatura y caracteristicas finales del co-compostaje de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, O.; Leon, J.J. de; Revilla, J.; Dobao, M.M.; Ruiz, J.L. [Departamento de Quimica Agricola y Edafologia, Universidad de Cordoba, cordoba (Spain)

    1996-06-01

    In this paper it has been studied the evolution of temperature in two depth of three piles during the composting process using the organic matter of the Municipal Solid Waste from Cordoba (Spain) from the selective harvest. The cited mixtures were composed of organic matter (<50 mm), sludge from the water treatment plant, pruning garden and bark of pine (bunking). Almost it has been obtained the yield of the composting piles and the agronomic quality of the compost obtained. The mixture organic matter <50 mm+pruning arden+bunking (M.P.B.) shoved the best index. (Author) 15 refs.

  5. Combined anaerobic degestion and composting of source-separated biodegradable municipal solid waste in batch plants; Kombineret bioforgasning og kompostering af kildesorteret organisk dagrenovation i batch-anlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This project presents results from the development, establishment and evaluation of a full-scale plant for anaerobic digestion and composting of solid biodegradable waste, including source-separated biodegradable municipal solid waste. At a full-scale level the project showed that it is possible to undertake combined anaerobic digestion and composting of biowaste without screening out impurities prior to the biological process. This implies that pre-treatment costs are reduced, and the production of waste with a high content of biodegradable matter can be avoided. The products of the biological process are energy, in the form of biogas and compost. (BA)

  6. Comparison of the physical properties of vermicompost from paper mill sludge and green compost as substitutes for peat-based potting media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos Mota, L.; Meeteren, van U.; Blok, C.

    2009-01-01

    The properties of vermicompost, green compost, and their mixes as substitutes for peat were evaluated regarding their recommendation for potting media. The mixes with a maximum of 50% of vermicompost or green compost had acceptable air filled porosity (AFP) and easily available water (EAW). In the

  7. Proposal for the integration of decentralised composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste into the waste management system of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, I; Saborit-Sánchez, I; Aguilera-Corrales, Y

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and management in Cuba was studied with a view to integrating composting of the organic fractions of MSW into the system. Composting is already included as part of the environmental strategy of the country as an appropriate waste management solution. However, no programme for area-wide implementation yet exists. The evaluation of studies carried out by some Cuban and international organisations showed that organic matter comprises approximately 60-70% of the MSW, with households being the main source. If all organic waste fractions were considered, the theoretical amount of organic waste produced would be approximately 1 Mio. Mg/a, leading to the production of approximately 0.5 Mio. Mg/a of compost. Composting could, therefore, be a suitable solution for treating the organic waste fractions of the MSW. Composting would best be carried out in decentralised systems, since transportation is a problem in Cuba. Furthermore, low technology and low budget composting options should be considered due to the problematic local economic situation. The location for such decentralised composting units would optimally be located at urban agricultural farms, which can be found all over Cuba. These farms are a unique model for sustainable farming in the world, and have a high demand for organic fertiliser. In this paper, options for the collection and impurity-separation in urban areas are discussed, and a stepwise introduction of source-separation, starting with hotel and restaurant waste, is suggested. For rural areas, the implementation of home composting is recommended.

  8. Effect of drying, composting and subsequent impurity removal by sieving on the properties of digestates from municipal organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Christine; Dornack, Christina; Raab, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The application of organic soil amendments is a common measure to prevent structural degradation of agricultural soils and to maintain and improve long-term soil fertility. Solid residues from anaerobic digestion of municipal organic waste (MOW) are rich in nutrients and organic matter and have a promising potential to be used as soil amendment. However, no study has related amendment properties of MOW digestate of one origin to different treatment procedures. We therefore investigated the impact of drying, composting and sieving on final digestate properties and specifically nutrient availability and heavy metal and carbon elution. Samples were provided by a semi-industrial two-stage biogas plant with dry fermentation of MOW. Results confirm that in comparison to drying, composting of MOW digestates leads to a significant increase of K, P, Mg, Ca, Cd and Cr in the digestates. Sieving of composted digestates showed that heavy metals are not evenly distributed and that heavy metal concentration in the digestate increases with decreasing mesh sizes (highest concentrations in the fractions organic carbon (DOC) release (R > 0.7, p<0.05). Results confirm that the extent of carbon elution depends on the degradation rate of digestates. DOC may therefore be a good measure to evaluate digestate stability and to decide on treatment measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing the addition of mineral processing waste to green waste-derived compost: an agronomic, environmental and economic appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D L; Chesworth, S; Khalid, M; Iqbal, Z

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of mixing two large volume wastes, namely mineral processing waste and source-segregated green waste compost, on the growth performance of plants targeted towards high (horticulture/agriculture) and low (amenity/restoration) value markets. The secondary aims were to evaluate the influence of mineral waste type on plant growth performance and to undertake a simple economic analysis of the use of mineral-compost mixtures in land restoration. Our results showed that in comparison to organic wastes, mineral wastes contained a low available nutrient content which reduces compost quality. This is supported by growth trials with tomato, wheat and grass which showed that, irrespective of mineral source, plants performed poorly in compost blended with mineral waste in comparison to those grown in green waste or peat-based compost alone. In terms of consumer confidence, unlike other wastes (e.g. biosolids and construction/demolition waste) the mineral quarry wastes can be expected to be free of potentially toxic elements, however, the production costs of compost-mineral waste mixtures and subsequent transport costs may limit its widespread use. In addition, handling of the material can be difficult under wet conditions and effective blending may require the purchase of specialist equipment. From our results, we conclude that mineral fines may prove useful for low quality, low value landscaping activities close to the source of production but are unsuited to high value markets.

  10. Fate and effect of linuron and metribuzin on the co-composting of green waste and sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, M S; Makridis, L; Pirounaki, E K; Chroni, C; Kyriacou, A; Lasaridi, K; Manios, T

    2010-01-01

    The fate and effect of the herbicides linuron and metribuzin on the co-composting of sewage sludge and green waste were addressed in this work. The experiments were conducted in metal cubic containers of 1.0m(3) volume simulating a windrow composting system. A mixture of sludge and green waste was prepared at a ratio of 1:5 v/v. The mixture was split in four equal parts and the two herbicides were added, using a pressure sprayer, as sole or mixed pollutant in each of the three mixtures. The forth mixture was composted without any addition of herbicide, to serve as control. Temperature, physicochemical characteristics, herbicide concentration, carbon dioxide emission, methane emission and microbiological parameters were measured either daily or every time the mixtures were turned, for a period of 80 days. Both herbicides' concentration decreased significantly resulting in removal efficiencies of 99.1-99.7% and 95.8-96.0% for linuron and metribuzin, respectively. Incubation of microbiologically inactive mixtures at a temperature schedule following the spontaneous temperature evolution in the composters resulted in very little (1-11%) decomposition for both herbicides. Comparison of the variation of physicochemical parameters and microbial populations during composting indicated that both herbicides did not affect the composting process.

  11. Effect of adding bulking materials over the composting process of municipal solid biowastes

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Oviedo-Ocaña; Luis Fernando Marmolejo-Rebellón; Patricia Torres-Lozada; Martha Daza; Mercedes Andrade; Wilmar Alexander Torres-López; Rodrigo Abonia-Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    Biowastes (BW), the main raw materials for the composting installations in developing countries, are characterized for containing uncooked food wastes (FW), high moisture content, low porosity, acidic pH, and low C/N ratios which affects the overall composting process (CP). In this study, we evaluated the effect of adding sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and star grass (SG) (Cynodon plectostachyus (K. Schum.) Pilg.) as bulking materials (BM) over the quality of the substrate, progress of the process, ...

  12. Growth and yield of tomato cultivated on composted duck excreta enriched wood shavings and source-separated municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Zoes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of growth substrates, made with duck excreta enriched wood shaving compost (DMC and the organic fraction of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW compost, on the growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv. Campbell 1327. Substrate A consisted of 3:2 (W/W proportion of DMC and MSW composts. Substrates B and C were the same as A but contained 15% (W/W ratio of brick dust and shredded plastic, respectively. Three control substrates consisted of the commercially available peat-based substrate (Pr, an in-house sphagnum peat-based substrate (Gs, and black earth mixed with sandy loam soil (BE/S in a 1:4 (W/W ratio. Substrates (A, B, C and controls received nitrogen (N, phosphate (P and potassium (K at equivalent rates of 780 mg/pot, 625 mg/pot, and 625 mg/pot, respectively, or were used without mineral fertilizers. Compared to the controls (Pr, Gs and BE/S, tomato plants grown on A, B, and C produced a greater total number and dry mass of fruits, with no significant differences between them. On average, total plant dry-matter biomass in substrate A, B, and C was 19% lower than that produced on Pr, but 28% greater than biomass obtained for plant grown, on Gs and BE/S. Plant height, stem diameter and chlorophyll concentrations indicate that substrates A, B, and C were particularly suitable for plant growth. Although the presence of excess N in composted substrates favoured vegetative rather than reproductive growth, the continuous supply of nutrients throughout the growing cycle, as well as the high water retention capacity that resulted in a reduced watering by 50%, suggest that substrates A, B, and C were suitable growing mixes, offering environmental and agronomic advantages.

  13. The changing value of the `green' label on the US municipal bond market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpf, Andreas; Mandel, Antoine

    2018-02-01

    Green bonds are seen as a key instrument to unlock climate finance. While their volume has grown steadily in recent years, the impact of the `green' label on the bond market is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the differences between the yield term structures of green and conventional bonds in the US municipal bond market. We show that, although returns on conventional bonds are on average higher than for green bonds, the differences can largely be explained by the fundamental properties of the bonds. Historically, green bonds have been penalized on the municipal market, being traded at lower prices and higher yields than expected by their credit profiles. In recent years, however, the credit quality of municipal green bonds has increased and the premium turned positive. Green bonds are thus becoming an increasingly attractive investment, with scope to bridge the climate finance gap for mitigation and adaptation.

  14. Phytophthora ramorum can survive introduction into finished compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Swain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Composted municipal green waste is a potential vehicle for the transmission of Phytophtora ramorum, the pathogen responsible for the disease known as sudden oak death. To assess the survival rate of the pathogen in compost, we introduced zoospores — a type of infectious propagule — into six composts of varying provenance and maturity. The compost samples represented three production facilities, two production techniques (turned windrow and forced air static pile and two levels of maturity (fresh, defined as aged for less than 1 week; and mature, aged for more than 4 weeks. Positive re-isolations — indicating survival of the pathogen — were obtained from all composts. The re-isolation rate from the compost from one of the three production facilities was greater than that obtained from an inert substrate (filter paper inoculated with the pathogen (P < 0.01, while re-isolation rates from the other two sources were statistically indistinguishable from those obtained from the inert substrate (P < 0.01. There was no significant difference in re-isolation rate between composts produced by the turned windrow method and composts produced by the forced air static pile technique. Re-isolation rates were greater from mature composts than from fresh composts (P < 0.01. The results show that P. ramorum may be present and infectious if introduced into finished compost, and that variations in compost characteristics appear to influence survival rates.

  15. Biochar amendment before or after composting affects compost quality and N losses, but not P plant uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Sinicco, Tania; D'Hose, Tommy; Vanden Nest, Thijs; Mondini, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the use of biochar (10% on a dry weight basis) to improve the composting process and/or the compost quality by adding it to either the feedstock mixture or the mature compost. The addition of biochar to the feedstocks was essayed in a full scale trial using a mixture of green waste and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Addition of biochar to mature compost was performed in a medium scale experiment. The use of biochar, even in small amounts, changed the composting process and the properties of the end products. However these effects depended on the time of application. We observed a faster decomposition in the bio-oxidative phase and lower greenhouse gas emissions when biochar was added at the beginning of the composting process, and a reduction in readily available P when biochar was applied during compost storage. Biochar as a means to increase the C content of the compost was only effective during compost storage. The P fertilizer replacement value of the compost with and without biochar was tested in a plant trial with annual ryegrass. While there was a clear effect on readily available P concentrations in the compost, adding biochar to the feedstock or the compost did not affect the P fertilizer replacement value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in the microbial communities during co-composting of digestates☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H.; Confalonieri, Alberto; Insam, Heribert; Schlegelmilch, Mirko; Körner, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a waste treatment method which is of increasing interest worldwide. At the end of the process, a digestate remains, which can gain added value by being composted. A study was conducted in order to investigate microbial community dynamics during the composting process of a mixture of anaerobic digestate (derived from the anaerobic digestion of municipal food waste), green wastes and a screened compost (green waste/kitchen waste compost), using the COMPOCHIP microarray. The composting process showed a typical temperature development, and the highest degradation rates occurred during the first 14 days of composting, as seen from the elevated CO2 content in the exhaust air. With an exception of elevated nitrite and nitrate levels in the day 34 samples, physical–chemical parameters for all compost samples collected during the 63 day process indicated typical composting conditions. The microbial communities changed over the 63 days of composting. According to principal component analysis of the COMPOCHIP microarray results, compost samples from the start of the experiment were found to cluster most closely with the digestate and screened compost samples. The green waste samples were found to group separately. All starting materials investigated were found to yield fewer and lower signals when compared to the samples collected during the composting experiment. PMID:24456768

  17. Effect of municipal solid waste compost and sewage sludge on yield and heavy metal accumulation in soil and black cumin (Nigella sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Akbarnejad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of municipal solid waste (MSw compost and sewage sludge (SS on yield and concentration of heavy metals in soil and black cumin (Nigella sativa L. an experiment with MSW compost at 0, 15, 30 t.ha-1 (C0, C15 and C30 and sewage sludge at 0, 15, 30 t.ha-1 (S0, S15 and S30 in a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in greenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Results showed that MSW compost and SS had significant effects on plant dry matter. Increasing the amounts of SS increased dry matter of plant. But increasing MSW compost from 15 to 30 t.ha-1 was decreased in dry matter. The Effect of MSW compost and SS on concentration of heavy metals (Ni and Pb in plant except Cd was significant. Addition of MSW compost and sewage sludge increased availability of Pb, Ni and Cd in soil. But effect of MSW compost and sewage sludge on Cd availability was not significant. Results showed that the amounts of Ni exceed the standard limits in dry matter. Therefore in use of organic wastes for medicinal plants we should be careful..

  18. Reclamation of a burned forest soil with municipal waste compost: macronutrient dynamic and improved vegetation cover recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, C; Gómez, I; Moral, R; Mataix-Solera, J; Mataix-Beneyto, J; Hernández, T

    2001-02-01

    The reclamation of burned soils in Mediterranean environments is of paramount importance in order to increase the levels of soil protection and minimise erosion and soil loss. The changes produced in the content of total organic carbon (TOC), N (Kjeldahl) and available P, K, Ca and Mg by the addition of different doses of a municipal solid waste compost to a burned soil were evaluated during one year. The effect of organic amendment on the improvement in the vegetation cover after one year was also evaluated. The organic amendment, particularly at a high dose, increased the TOC and N-Kjeldahl content of the soil in a closely related way. The levels of available K in soil were also enhanced by the organic amendment. Although the effects on all three parameters tended to decrease with time, their values in the amended soils were higher than in the control soil, which clearly indicates the improvement in the chemical quality of the soil brought about by the organic amendment. The available P content did not seem to be influenced by organic treatment, while available Mg levels were higher than in the control during the first 4 months following organic amendment. The application of compost to the burned soil improved its fertility and favoured rapid vegetal recovery, thus minimising the risk of soil erosion.

  19. Aluminium dynamics from soil to tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.): is it enhanced by municipal solid waste compost application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Tanmoy; Sonar, Indira; Paul, Ranjit K; Frankowski, Marcin; Boruah, Romesh K; Dutta, Amrit K; Das, Dilip K

    2015-01-01

    Application of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) in tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivation can increase the fertility status of soils and thus enhance the plant growth. The present study attempts at application of MSWC in tea (TV1 and TV23 clones) cultivation to assess the effect of different doses of MSWC on growth and translocation potential of Al on this plant as well as fate of Al in soil, through the calculation of a risk assessment code (RAC). The sequential extraction of Al in MSWC amended soils showed that the fractionation of Al in soil changed after compost application, with an overall increase of the fractions associated to with Fe-Mn oxides, organic and of the residual fraction. The accumulation of Al in different parts ofC. sinensisL., grown on MSWC amended soil effected an overall increased growth of the plant with increasing doses of MSWC. According to RAC, Al falls in medium to high risk, though no adverse effect on plant health was observed. Tea plants were found to adapt well to MSWC amended soils. However, long term field trials are necessary to completely assess the risk of Al accumulation in soils upon MSWC application. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied aiming to check for the presence of homogenous groups among different treatments. It was found that in both TV1 and TV23, treatments formed two different groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Different Rates of Municipal Compost and N Fertilizer on the Essential Oil and some Vegetative Characteristics of Summer Savoury (Satureja hortensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Zare

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and municipal compost on the essential yeild of savory pot experiment in 2009 was carried out in the Darab region. Different doses of compost was in four levels, including: zero C0:, 10C1:, 20C2: and 30C3: tons per hectare and nitrogen fertilizer include: zero N0:, 30N1:, 60 N2: and 90N3: kg of pure nitrogen from urea per hectare. Analysis of variance showed that the consumption of different amounts of nitrogen, compost and interaction between them on dry matter yield and height, percentage and yield of essential oil of savory, is statistically significant. Comparison of mean showed that treatment 90 kg N/ha along with 30 tons of municipal compost consumption per hectare (N3C3 with an average 50/8 g dry weight in pot greatest and treatments without N and compost (N0C0 and non-N with 10 and 20 tons of compost ha (N0C1 and N0C2 were mean 23/69, 23/42 and 24/63 g dry weight, the lowest plant dry weight were allocated to pot. N fertilizer and compost on the number of lateral branches per plant and nitrogen application on mean stem diameter was significant. N3 with an average 24/75 lateral branches and C3 with a mean 22/19 lateral branches, were the highest number of lateral branches per plant. N2C3 with mean of 2/13 percent of most essential oil produced. The most essential yield of the combination treatment N3C3, respectively. Generally produce more essential oil percent and to have more dry matter level N2C3 be seems appropriate.

  1. Comparison of compostable bags and aerated bins with conventional storage systems to collect the organic fraction of municipal solid waste from homes. a Catalonia case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyuelo, Belén; Colón, Joan; Martín, Patrícia; Sánchez, Antoni

    2013-06-01

    The separation of biowaste at home is key to improving, facilitating and reducing the operational costs of the treatment of organic municipal waste. The conventional method of collecting such waste and separating it at home is usually done by using a sealed bin with a plastic bag. The use of modern compostable bags is starting to be implemented in some European countries. These compostable bags are made of biodegradable polymers, often from renewable sources. In addition to compostable bags, a new model of bin is also promoted that has a perforated surface that, together with the compostable bag, makes the so-called "aerated system". In this study, different combinations of home collection systems have been systematically studied in the laboratory and at home. The results obtained quantitatively demonstrate that the aerated bin and compostable bag system combination is effective at improving the collection of biowaste without significant gaseous emissions and preparing the organic waste for further composting as concluded from the respiration indices. In terms of weight loss, temperature, gas emissions, respiration index and organic matter reduction, the best results were achieved with the aerated system. At the same time, a qualitative study of bin and bag combinations was carried in 100 homes in which more than 80% of the families participating preferred the aerated system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ciprofloxacin Residues in Municipal Biosolid Compost Do Not Selectively Enrich Populations of Resistant Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Caitlin P.; Liu, Jinxin; Orfe, Lisa H.; Jones, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    Biosolids and livestock manure are valuable high-carbon soil amendments, but they commonly contain antibiotic residues that might persist after land application. While composting reduces the concentration of extractable antibiotics in these materials, if the starting concentration is sufficiently high then remaining residues could impact microbial communities in the compost and soil to which these materials are applied. To examine this issue, ciprofloxacin was added to biosolid compost feedstock to achieve a total concentration of 19 ppm, approximately 5-fold higher than that normally detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (1 to 3.5 ppm). This feedstock was placed into mesh bags that were buried in aerated compost bays. Once a week, a set of bags was removed and analyzed (treated and untreated, three replicates of each; 4 weeks). Addition of ciprofloxacin had no effect on the recovery of resistant bacteria at any time point (P = 0.86), and a separate bioassay showed that aqueous extractions from materials with an estimated 59 ppm ciprofloxacin had no effect on the growth of a susceptible strain of Escherichia coli (P = 0.28). Regression analysis showed that growth of the susceptible strain of E. coli can be reduced given a sufficiently high concentration of ciprofloxacin (P < 0.007), a result that is consistent with adsorption being the primary mechanism of sequestration. While analytical methods detected biologically significant concentrations of ciprofloxacin in the materials tested here, the culture-based methods were consistent with the materials having sufficient adsorptive capacity to prevent typical concentrations of ciprofloxacin residues from selectively enriching populations of resistant bacteria. PMID:25261519

  3. Application of a green manure and green manure composted with beet vinasse on soil restoration: effects on soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, M; Gonzalez, J L; García-Martínez, A M; Parrado, J

    2008-07-01

    Beet vinasse (BV), a green manure constituted by Trifolium pratense L. uncomposted (TP) and composted with beet vinasse (at 1:1 rate, (TP+BV)1, and 2:1 rate, (TP+BV)2) at 10t organic matter ha(-1) rate were applied during a period of four years for purpose of restoration of a Xelloric Calciorthid located near Seville (Guadalquivir Valley, Andalusia, Spain). The effect on the plant cover, soil physical (structural stability and bulk density), chemical (exchangeable sodium percentage), and biological properties (microbial biomass, soil respiration and enzymatic activities such as dehydrogenase, urease, beta-glucosidase, phosphatase and arylsulfatase) were determined. The application of BV had a detrimental impact on soil physical (structural stability decreased 16.5% and bulk density increased 18.7% respect to the control soil), chemical (exchangeable sodium percentage increased 87.3% respect to the control soil), and biological properties (microbial biomass, soil respiration, and dehydrogenase, urease, beta-glucosidase, phosphatase and arylsulfatase activities decreased by 53.5%, 24.5%, 27.8%, 15%, 39.7%, 42.7%, and 65.6%, respectively with respect to the control soil), probably because high quantities of monovalent cations (Na principally) were introduced into the soil by the vinasse, thus destabilizing its structure. The application of TP had a positive impact on soil physical (structural stability increased 5.9% and bulk density decreased 6.1% respect to the control soil), and biological properties (microbial biomass, soil respiration, and dehydrogenase, urease, beta-glucosidase, phosphatase and arylsulfatase activities increased by 66.3%, 45.6%, 97.7%, 98.9%, 97.7%, 87.2%, and 89.4%, respectively with respect to the control soil). However, when BV was co-composted with a green manure, principally at a 2:1 rate, the resulting compost had a positive effect on soil physical (structural stability increased 10.5% and bulk density decreased 13.5% respect to the

  4. Reduction of the short-term availability of copper, lead and zinc in a contaminated soil amended with municipal solid waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradelo, R; Villada, A; Barral, M T

    2011-04-15

    The effect of two municipal solid waste composts on the availability of Cu, Pb and Zn in a soil contaminated in the laboratory was evaluated. An agricultural acid soil developed on granite was amended with the composts at two rates (3% and 6% dry weight), contaminated with 1000 mg kg(-1) of Cu, Pb and Zn, and incubated in the laboratory for three months. Determinations of soil pH, CaCl(2)-extractable and EDTA-extractable Cu, Pb, and Zn were run monthly during the incubation. At the end, a leaching test (TCLP) and selective extractions were performed for these elements. The analysis of the CaCl(2)-extractable elements demonstrated a strong capacity of both composts to decrease the solubility of the metals added to the soil, specially for Cu and Pb. The percentage of reduction of the soluble forms with respect to the initial addition was higher at the highest rate of compost, and reached 99% for Cu and Pb, and 80% for Zn in the compost-amended soil, whereas the soil without amendment was able to reduce Cu availability by a 94%, but not Zn or Pb availability. The TCLP test showed that compost also reduced the leachability of the three elements. Nevertheless, EDTA extracted a major amount (around 90%) of the elements added in all the treatments. Given that EDTA has a strong ability to extract elements bound to organic matter, it can be hypothesized that the main mechanism of the observed insolubilization was the formation of low-solubility organo-metallic complexes with both soil and compost organic matter. The selective extractions confirmed that compost reduced the exchangeable fraction of the elements, and that the organically bound fraction (pyrophosphate-extractable) was the main one for the three elements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of municipal solid waste- and sewage sludge-compost-based growing media on the yield and heavy metal content of four lettuce cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattullo, Concetta Eliana; Mininni, Carlo; Parente, Angelo; Montesano, Francesco Fabiano; Allegretta, Ignazio; Terzano, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    Compost has been recently suggested as an alternative to peat for the preparation of growing substrates in soilless cultivation systems. However, some physico-chemical properties of compost may reduce plant performance and endanger the quality of productions, in particular for possible heavy metal accumulation in edible parts. This study aims at evaluating the suitability of a municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and a sewage sludge compost (SSC) as components of growing media for the soilless cultivation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Heavy metal content of SSC complied with legislation limits but, in MSWC, it exceeded (Cu, Pb) or was very close (Cd, Zn) to safe limits. A greenhouse experiment was carried out by cultivating four lettuce cultivars ("Maximus," "Murai," "Patagonia," and "Aleppo") in pots containing a mixture of MSWC and perlite (MSWC + P), SSC and perlite (SSC + P), or peat and perlite (peat + P), the latter used as control. Plant biometric parameters measured after 72 days of growth revealed that the yield of plants cultivated on SSC + P was similar to control plants, independently of the cultivar. Conversely, MSWC + P suppressed in general the biomass production, especially for Murai and Patagonia cultivars. Compared to peat + P, both compost-based substrates reduced the leaf accumulation of heavy metals, with a major effect in Maximus plants. The levels of Cd and Pb in the edible part were always below the safe limits imposed by European regulation. Therefore, risks of heavy metal intake in food chain associated with the replacement of peat with compost in the growing media are negligible, even when a compost with a significant amount of heavy metals is used. Besides compost quality monitoring, also an appropriate varietal choice is crucial to obtain good yields and safe products.

  6. Modelling response patterns of physico-chemical indicators during high-rate composting of green waste for suppression of Pythium ultimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Martin, Chaney C G; Bekele, Isaac; Eudoxie, Gaius D; Bristol, Dexter; Brathwaite, Richard A I; Campo, Kenia-Rosa

    2014-01-01

    High-rate composting studies on green waste, i.e. banana leaves (BL) and lawn clippings (LC), were conducted in 0.25-m3 rotary barrel composters to evaluate and model changes in key physico-chemical parameters during composting. Time to compost maturity and antagonistic effects and relationships of composts against Pythium ultimum were also investigated. Higher temperatures were achieved in LC compost (LCC), which did not translate to higher total organic carbon (TOC) loss but resulted in lower carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) and a more mature compost. With the exception of electrical conductivity (EC), net decreases were observed in pH, TOC and C:N across compost types. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) showed a net increase in LCC and a net decrease in BLC. With the exception of TOC and pH, the results showed that compost type and time had a significant effect on the respective TKN, EC and C:N models. Compost temperature and TOC were best described by the critical exponential and rectangular hyperbola functions, respectively. Whereas TKN, C:N and pH were described using double Fourier functions and EC using Fourier functions. Composts achieved maturity within 19 days and significantly inhibited the growth of P. ultimum. Bacterial population was positively related to growth inhibition (GI) across compost types, whereas total microbial population had a positive relationship with GI in LCC. Evidence suggests that multiple groups of microorganisms contributed to GI through antibiosis and competition for resources. Composts were determined to be suitable for use as components of plant growth substrates based on compost maturity indices.

  7. Using cow dung and spent coffee grounds to enhance the two-stage co-composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of cow dung (CD) (at 0%, 20%, and 35%) and/or spent coffee grounds (SCGs) (at 0%, 30%, and 45%) as amendments in the two-stage co-composting of green waste (GW); the percentages refer to grams of amendment per 100g of GW based on dry weights. The combined addition of CD and SCGs improved the conditions during co-composting and the quality of the compost product in terms of composting temperature; particle-size distribution; mechanical properties; nitrogen changes; low-molecular weight compounds; humic substances; the degradation of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose; enzyme activities; the contents of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total potassium; and the toxicity to germinating seeds. The combined addition of 20% CD and 45% SCGs to GW resulted in the production of the highest quality compost product and did so in only 21days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of different levels of municipal waste compost and maternal corm weight on yield and vegetative characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Gholizade

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of different municipal waste compost levels of and maternal corm weights on yield and vegetative characteristics of saffron, an experiment was conducted with a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, University of Birjand during the growing season of 2014-2015. The treatments were four levels of municipal waste compost (0, 5, 10 and 20 t.ha-1 and three mother corm weights (0.1- 4, 4.1- 8 and 8.1- 12 g. The traits included the number of flower, fresh weight of flower, stigma and fresh weight of corm with scale, weight and diameter replacement and number of buds. The results showed that the effect of municipal waste compost was significant on total weight corm with scale, diameter of center corm and replacement corm, weight of fresh flower and stigma. The highest corm weight and number of replacement corms were obtained for treatment 10 t. ha-1 compost (21.33 g. plant -1 and 2.33 number, respectively, while the control had the lowest values (with 16.4 g. plant -1 and 1.66 number. The effect of mother corm weight was significant on the vegetative characteristics of saffron. The highest corm weight with scale, diameter of replacement, flower yield and fresh weight of flower and stigma were observed for 8.1-12 g. The most fresh  and dry weight of stigma (0.31 and 0.11 g. m -1, respectively were observed from treatment  mother corm weight 8.1-12 g, while the lowest values (0.06 and 0.03 g. m -1 were 0.1- 4g.  Interaction between municipal waste compost and corm weight had a significant effect on the weight of fresh flower, sepal, stigma and the number of lateral buds and the highest fresh weight of flower (9.36 g. m-2 and stigma (0.41 g. m-2 were observed for treatment 10 t. ha-1 and 8.1-12g. Generally, the findings of the current study revealed that the use of municipal waste compost (10 t. ha-1 and large mother corms (8/1-12 g

  9. The Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW Compost Properties Produced in Sanandaj City with a View of Improving the Soil Quality and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Sharifi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the use of municipal solid waste (MSW compost in agriculture as a soil conditioner is increasing day by day because of its positive effects on biological, physical, and chemical soil properties. However, some of the composts because of contamination with heavy metals and other impurities can have deleterious effects on groundwater quality, agricultural environment, food chain, plant growth and activity of soil microorganisms. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the physical and chemical properties, fertilizing potential and heavy metal polluting potential of two types of municipal solid waste composts with processing time between 4 to 8 years (type A and between1 to 4 years (type B produced in Sanandaj city with the aim of using it as an organic fertilizer. Materials and Methods: Sanadaj city, the center of Kurdistan province, with a population of about 335,000 is located in the west of Iran. The current solid waste generation from the city is about 320 t/day, which are not separated at source of generation. About 200 t of the total produced wastes are composted using an open windrows system at the Sanandaj MSW Composting Plant, which is located in 10 km of Sanadaj-Kamiaran road and the rest are disposed at the landfill site. The compost manufactured by the composting plant has been collected around it in two different locations. The first belonges to the product of 2004-2008 (type A and the second belonges to the product of 2009-2013 (type B. Till now, due to lack of quality information associated with these products, they have remained unused. Therefore, in this study, we sampled 3 samples composed of six subsamples (each containing 2 kg from the products in March 2013. The samples were analyzed to determine the physical properties (including undesirable impurities, initial moisture content, particle size distribution, particle density, bulk density (ρb, porosity, and maximum water holding capacity, and the

  10. Decomposition rate and enzymatic activity of composted municipal waste and poultry manure in the soil in a biofuel crops field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordovil, Cláudia Marques-Dos-Santos; de Varennes, Amarilis; Pinto, Renata Machado Dos Santos; Alves, Tiago Filipe; Mendes, Pedro; Sampaio, Sílvio César

    2017-05-01

    Biofuel crops are gaining importance because of the need to replace non-renewable sources. Also, due to the increasing amounts of wastes generated, there is the need to recycle them to the soil, both to fertilize crops and to improve soil physical properties through organic matter increase and microbiological changes in the rhizosphere. We therefore studied the influence of six biofuel crops (elephant grass, giant cane, sugarcane, blue gum, black cottonwood, willow) on the decomposition rate and enzymatic activity of composted municipal solid waste and poultry manure. Organic amendments were incubated in the field (litterbag method), buried near each plant or bare soil. Biomass decrease and dehydrogenase, urease and acid phosphatase level in amendments was monitored over a 180-day period. Soil under the litterbags was analysed for the same enzymatic activity and organic matter fractions (last sampling). After 365 days, a fractionation of organic matter was carried out in both amendments and soil under the litterbags. For compost, willow and sugarcane generally led to the greatest enzymatic activity, at the end of the experiment. For manure, dehydrogenase activity decreased sharply with time, the smallest value near sugarcane, while phosphatase and urease generally presented the highest values, at the beginning or after 90 days' incubation. Clustering showed that plant species could be grouped based on biomass and enzymes measured over time. Plant species influenced the decomposition rate and enzymatic activities of the organic amendments. Overall, mineralization of both amendments was associated with a greater urease activity in soils. Dehydrogenase activity in manure was closely associated with urease activity. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Composted Green Waste as a Substitute for Peat in Growth Media: Effects on Growth and Nutrition of Calathea insignis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang; Tian, Yun; Gong, Xiaoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Peat mined from endangered wetland ecosystems is generally used as a component in soilless potting media in horticulture but is a costly and non-renewable natural resource. The objective of this work was to study the feasibility of replacing peat with different percentages (0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100%) of composted green waste (CGW) as growth media for the production of the ornamental plant Calathea insignis. Compared with 100% peat media, media containing CGW had improved physical and ch...

  12. Effect of adding bulking materials over the composting process of municipal solid biowastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Oviedo-Ocaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biowastes (BW, the main raw materials for the composting installations in developing countries, are characterized for containing uncooked food wastes (FW, high moisture content, low porosity, acidic pH, and low C/N ratios which affects the overall composting process (CP. In this study, we evaluated the effect of adding sugarcane bagasse (SCB and star grass (SG (Cynodon plectostachyus (K. Schum. Pilg. as bulking materials (BM over the quality of the substrate, progress of the process, and quality of the obtained product. In this sense, two pilot-scale experiments were performed. The first one contained a substrate formed by 78% BW and 22% SCB (pile A. The second experiment contained a substrate formed by 66% BW and 34% SG (pile B. For each experiment, control treatments (piles A' and B' respectively were performed by using 100% BW without BM. The results showed that in both cases the adding of BM improved substrate quality (pH, moisture, and total organic C content [TOC], speeding up the starting step (2-3 d and reducing the duration of the thermophilic phase of CP (3 d. However, the physico-chemical properties of both BM increased cooling and maturation phases duration (between 15 and 20 d. Obtained products quality was improved in terms of higher TOC, cation-exchange capacity, bulk density, and higher water holding capacity. Application of obtained products A and B could improve some soil properties like major nutrient, water retention, and increasing the organic matter.

  13. An assessment of municipal solid waste compost quality produced in different cities of India in the perspective of developing quality control indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, J K; Panwar, N; Singh, M V

    2010-02-01

    A study was conducted to investigate physico-chemical properties, fertilizing potential and heavy metal polluting potentials of municipal solid waste composts produced in 29 cities of the country. Results indicated that except a very few samples, all other samples have normal pH and EC. Organic matter as well as major nutrients N and P contents in MSW composts are generally low as compared to the composts prepared from rural wastes. Heavy metal contents in composts from bigger cities (>1 million population) were higher by about 86% for Zn, 155% for Cu, 194% for Cd, 105% for Pb, 43% for Ni and 132% for Cr as compared to those from smaller cities (organic matter (by 57%), total N (by 77%) and total P (by 78%), but lower concentrations of heavy metals Zn (by 63%), Cu (by 78%), Cd (by 64%), Pb (by 84%), Ni (by 50%), and Cr (by 63%) as compared to those prepared from mixed wastes. Partial segregation at the site of composting did not improve quality of compost significantly in terms of fertilizing parameters and heavy metal contents. Majority of MSW composts did not conform to the quality control guideline of 'The Fertilizer (Control) Order 1985' in respect of total organic C, total P, total K as well as heavy metals Cu, Pb and Cr. In order to enable the relevant stakeholders to judge overall quality, a scheme has been proposed for the categorization of composts into different marketable classes (A, B, C, and D) and restricted use classes (RU-1, RU-2, and RU-3) on the basis their fertilizing potential and as well as potential for contaminating soil and food chain. Under the scheme, 'Fertilizing index' was calculated from the values of total organic C, N, P, K, C/N ratio and stability parameter, and 'Clean index' was calculated from the contents of heavy metals, taking the relative importance of each of the parameters into consideration. As per the scheme, majority of the compost samples did not belong to any classes and hence, have been found unsuitable for any kind of

  14. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-08

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  15. Efficiency of green waste compost and biochar soil amendments for reducing lead and copper mobility and uptake to ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Nadia; Clemente, Rafael; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Lepp, Nicholas W; Beesley, Luke

    2011-07-15

    Green waste compost and biochar amendments were assessed for their assistance in regulating the mobility of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) and the resultant uptake of these metals into vegetation. The amendments were mixed with a heavily Cu and Pb contaminated soil (600 and 21,000 mg kg(-1), respectively) from a former copper mine in Cheshire (UK), on a volume basis both singly and in combination in greenhouse pot trials. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. var. Cadix) was grown for the following 4 months during which biomass, metals in soil pore water and plant uptake were measured in three consecutive harvests. Very high Pb concentrations in pore water from untreated soil (>80 mg l(-1)) were reduced furthest by compost amendment (<5 mg l(-1)) whereas biochar was the more effective treatment at reducing pore water Cu concentrations. Duly, ryegrass shoot Cu levels were reduced and large, significant reductions in shoot Pb levels were observed after biochar and compost amendments, respectively during successive harvests. However, because green waste compost singly and in combination with biochar vividly enhanced biomass yields, harvestable amounts of Pb were only significantly reduced by the compost amendment which had reduced shoot Pb levels furthest. The low biomass of ryegrass with biochar amendment meant that this was the only amendment which did not significantly increase harvestable amounts of Cu. Therefore the two amendments have opposing metal specific suitability for treating this contaminated soil regarding whether it is a maximum reduction in plant tissue metal concentration or a maximum reduction in harvestable amount of metal that is required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Composting of municipal solid wastes in Jujuy (Argentina); Compostaje de residuos solidos urbanos en la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Romero, E. E.; Boccardo, R.; Kosir, A.; Altamirano, F.; Figliolo, C.; Arias, P.; Aguado, R.; Zankar, G. [Universidad de Jujuy. Argentina (Argentina); Gonzalez Carcedo, S. [Universidad de Burgos (Spain)

    1999-11-01

    The results from a first experience of composting of urban solid waste in Jujuy (Argentine) were shown. The organic part of a solid waste collected from the city San Salvador, was composted during 3 months experience in windrow piles and physico-chemical properties were monitored. The time of composting was diminished by the application of an aqueous aminoacid solution. (Author) 10 refs.

  17. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg{sup -1} and 362 mgCu kg{sup -1}) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg{sup -1} and 908 mgZn kg{sup -1}) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. > Compost increased the mobility of As. > Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. > These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  18. Sulphur mineralization kinetics of cattle manure and green waste compost in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviozzi, Alessandro; Cardelli, Roberto; Cipolli, Silvia; Levi-Minzi, Renato; Riffaldi, Riccardo

    2006-12-01

    Sulphur mineralization of cattle manure (CM) and green waste compost (GWC) added to six agricultural soils with different chemical properties was monitored over 10 weeks in a laboratory incubation experiment. Although the amount of sulphur was higher in CM than in GWC, the cumulative SO4(2-)-S values in GWC-treated soils were higher than in soil amended with CM. The percentages of mineralized S were always higher in GWC-treated soil (in the range 1.3-8.5%) than in CM-treated soil (in the range 0.9-3.8%). In three of the six soils, particularly for CM, an immobilization of sulphur was observed. Three kinetic models were evaluated for their suitability to describe the mineralization process. The first-order model best described S mineralization for both amended and control soils. The GWC substantially increased the amount of potentially mineralizable S (S0) relative to the controls. In GWC-treated soils, the rates of S mineralization (k) were higher than rates in the controls. The k of CM-amended soils was often lower than the k of control soils. Parameters derived from the model were tested as indices for assessing the relationships between S mineralization and soil characteristics. The S0 was positively correlated to the amount of cumulative SO4(2-)-S and also to the content of organic C, N and S in soil.

  19. Co-composting of municipal solid waste mixed with matured sewage sludge: The relationship between N2O emissions and denitrifying gene abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Rongxing; Sun, Yingjie; Li, Weihua; Ma, Qiang; Chai, Xiaoli

    2017-12-01

    Aerobic composting is an alternative measure to the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). However, it produces nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a highly potent greenhouse via microbial nitrification and denitrification. In this study, the effects of matured sewage sludge (MSS) amendment on N 2 O emissions and the inter-relationships between N 2 O emissions and the abundance of denitrifying bacteria were investigated during aerobic composting of MSW. The results demonstrated that MSW composting with MSS amendments (C1, and C2, with a MSW to MSS ratio of 2:1 and 4:1, (v/v), respectively) significantly increased N 2 O emissions during the initial stage, yet contributed to the mitigation of N 2 O emissions during the cooling and maturation stage. MSS amended composting emitted a total of 18.4%-25.7% less N 2 O than the control treatment without MSS amendment (CK). Matured sewage sludge amendment also significantly altered the abundance of denitrifying bacteria. The quantification of denitrifying functional genes revealed that the N 2 O emission rate had a significant positive correlation with the abundance of the nirS, nirK genes in both treatments with MSS amendment. The nosZ/(nirS + nirK) ratio could be a good indicator for predicting N 2 O emissions. The higher N 2 O emission rate during the initial stage of composting mixed with MSS was characterized by lower nosZ/(nirS + nirK) ratios, compared to CK treatment. Higher ratios of nosZ/(nirS + nirK) were measured during the cooling and maturation stage in treatments with MSS which resulted in a reduction of the N 2 O emissions. These results demonstrated that MSS amendment could be a valid strategy for mitigating N 2 O emissions during MSW composting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. P losses in soil columns amended with compost and digestate from municipal solid wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Albacete, Marta; Cartagena, M. Carmen

    2013-04-01

    Sludge's, manures and compost applied to agricultural soils in high quantities and long-term application to increase crop productivity, result in accumulation of soil phosphorous (P). Soluble P is directly available to algae (Sonzogni et al., 1982) and thus particularly relevant to water quality degradation. Transport of P from agricultural soils to surface waters has been linked to eutrophication in fresh water and estuaries (Sharpley and Lemunyon, 1998). Almost 50% of stored water in Spain is degraded by eutrophication processes that cause the proliferation of algae and other organisms and a decrease in oxygen content (Environmental Profile of Spain 2005). Fertilizers and biodegradable wastes application rates in agriculture are based on nitrogen requirements. This results in a P supply that is in excess of crops needs since the ratio of P to N in waste use to be greater than required by plants (Smith, 1995). While surface runoff is an important pathway of phosphorus losses from agricultural lands, significant losses can also occur via leaching thought soils. Leaching tests are important for assessing the risk of release of potential pollutants from biodegradable wastes into groundwater or surface water. Percolation tests also get information about the interaction of organic waste with soils. The study was conducted according to the percolation leaching test CEN/TS 14405 "Characterization of waste-Leaching behavior test- Up-flow percolation test" with three different soils mixed with organic wastes from msw (compost and digestato) and an inorganic fertilizer (NaH2PO4). Each soil was amended with the P sources at rates of 100 kg P ha-1. Leachates were collected and analyzed for each column for dissolved reactive P by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP) following USEPA Method 3050A digestion (USEPA, 1995). The fact that P sorption capacity (Xmax, PSI) of the soils was determined using Langmuiŕs isotherms and the P forms from organic

  1. Effect of different levels of municipal solid waste compost and nitrogen on some grain elements concentration of sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharata and some soil properties under Marvdasht conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mojab Ghasrodashti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in order to study the influence of different levels of municipal solid waste compost and nitrogen rate on grain quality of sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharata and some soil properties under Marvdasht conditions during growing season of 2008-2009. The experiment was arranged as split plots based on a randomized complete block design with two factors and three replications. Main plot included five levels of nitrogen fertilizer (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg N.ha-1 and sub plots included four levels of municipal solid waste compost (10, 20, 30 and 40 t.ha-1. The Results showed that the highest fresh ear and grain yield resulted from application of 200 kg N.ha-1 and 40 t.ha-1 compost. The grain quality analysis showed that nitrogen had significant effect on grain nitrogen percent and had not significant effect on grain phosphorus and nitrogen content. Also, compost had significant effect on grain nitrogen and phosphorus percent but had no significant effect on grain potassium percent. Soil analysis results showed that effect of compost on organic matter, EC and pH and interactions between nitrogen and compost were significant only on soil nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus percent. Nitrogen had no significant effect only on soil nitrogen percent. Also, the results showed that optimum amount of grain nitrogen and phosphorus percent were gained by using 40 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost and optimum amount of grain potassium percent was achieved by using 30 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost. Application of 250 kg N.ha-1 and 40 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost consequences to optimum amount of soil nitrogen and potassium was gained and optimum amount of soil phosphorus was gained in 150 kg N.ha-1 and 40 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost treatments. In general, to achieve the optimum growth of this crop in similar soils, application of 250 kg N.ha-1 and 40 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost treatments could

  2. Nitrification during extended co-composting of extreme mixtures of green waste and solid fraction of cattle slurry to obtain growing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Rafaela; Coromina, Narcís; Malińska, Krystyna; Martínez-Farré, F Xavier; López, Marga; Soliva, Montserrat; Marfà, Oriol

    2016-12-01

    Next generation of waste management systems should apply product-oriented bioconversion processes that produce composts or biofertilisers of desired quality that can be sold in high priced markets such as horticulture. Natural acidification linked to nitrification can be promoted during composting. If nitrification is enhanced, suitable compost in terms of pH can be obtained for use in horticultural substrates. Green waste compost (GW) represents a potential suitable product for use in growing medium mixtures. However its low N provides very limited slow-release nitrogen fertilization for suitable plant growth; and GW should be composted with a complementary N-rich raw material such as the solid fraction of cattle slurry (SFCS). Therefore, it is important to determine how very different or extreme proportions of the two materials in the mixture can limit or otherwise affect the nitrification process. The objectives of this work were two-fold: (a) To assess the changes in chemical and physicochemical parameters during the prolonged composting of extreme mixtures of green waste (GW) and separated cattle slurry (SFCS) and the feasibility of using the composts as growing media. (b) To check for nitrification during composting in two different extreme mixtures of GW and SFCS and to describe the conditions under which this process can be maintained and its consequences. The physical and physicochemical properties of both composts obtained indicated that they were appropriate for use as ingredients in horticultural substrates. The nitrification process occurred in both mixtures in the medium-late thermophilic stage of the composting process. In particular, its feasibility has been demonstrated in the mixtures with a low N content. Nitrification led to the inversion of each mixture's initial pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of composted insect rearing waste on radish, squash and green bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was initiated to determine the potential for composted solid and semi-solid insect rearing waste as a growth substrate for plants. Semi-solid larval diet was washed through the vermiculite substrate used for larval transformation to pupa. The resulting material was composted for six weeks. R...

  4. Green conversion of municipal solid wastes into fuels and chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the society is facing a serious challenge for the effective management of the increasing amount of produced municipal solid wastes. The accumulated waste has caused a series of environmental problems such as uncontrolled release of greenhouse gases. Moreover, the increasing amount of wastes has resulted in a shortage of areas available for waste disposal, resulting in a nonsustainable waste management. These problems led to serious public concerns, which in turn resulted in political actions aiming to reduce the amount of wastes reaching the environment. These actions aim to promote sustainable waste management solutions. The main objective of these policies is to promote the recycling of municipal solid waste and the conversion of waste to energy and valuable chemicals. These conversions can be performed using either biological (e.g., anaerobic digestion or thermochemical processes (e.g., pyrolysis. Research efforts during the last years have been fruitful, and many publications demonstrated the effective conversation of municipal solid waste to energy and chemicals. These processes are discussed in the current review article together with the change of the waste policy that was implemented in the EU during the last years.

  5. Co-composting of gelatin industry sludge combined with organic fraction of municipal solid waste and poultry waste employing zeolite mixed with enriched nitrifying bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Pandey, Akhilesh Kumar; Bundela, Pushpendra Singh; Wong, Jonathan W C; Li, Ronghua; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2016-08-01

    This work illustrates the co-composting of gelatin industry sludge (GIS) combined with organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and poultry waste (PW) employing 10% zeolite mixed with enriched nitrifying bacteria consortium (ENBC). Five piles of GIS were prepared mixed with OFMSW and PW at 2:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5, 6:1:0.5 and 8:1:0.5 and without GIS 0:1:0.5 (dry weight basis) served as control, while 10% zeolite mixed with ENBC was inoculated in all piles and composted for 42days. The Pile-4 with GIS, OFMSW and PW ratio 6:1:0.5 and 10% zeolite+ENBC were drastically reduced the nitrogen loss and enhance the mineralization rate as compare to other piles. The co-amendment of 6% GIS effectively buffered the pH between ∼7.5 to 8.0 and shortened the compost maturity period, while lower concentration of GIS was comparatively delayed the early decomposition. Therefore, our results suggested that suitability of 10% zeolite+ENBC with initial feedstock ratio 6:1:0.5 as the best formulation for the composting of GIS into value-added stable product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Accumulation and spatial distribution of Cd, Cr, and Pb in mulberry from municipal solid waste compost following application of EDTA and (NH4)2SO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shulan; Shang, Xiaojuan; Duo, Lian

    2013-02-01

    Municipal solid waste compost can be used to cropland as soil amendment to supply nutrients and improve soil physical properties. But long-term application of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost may result in accumulation of toxic metals in amended soil. Phytoremediation, especially phytoextraction, is a novel, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly approach that uses metal-accumulating plants to concentrate and remove metals from contaminated soils. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) was applied to metal-contaminated soil to increase the mobility and phytoavailability of metals in soil, thereby increasing the amount of toxic metals accumulated in the upper parts of phytoextracting plants. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the accumulation and spatial distribution of toxic metals (Cd, Cr, and Pb) in mulberry from MSW compost with the application of EDTA and (NH(4))(2)SO(4), (2) to examine the effectiveness of EDTA and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) applied together on toxic metals (Cd, Cr, and Pb) removal by mulberry under field conditions, and (3) to evaluate the potential of mulberry for phytoextraction of toxic metals from MSW compost. The tested plant-mulberry had been grown in MSW compost field for 4 years. EDTA solution at five rates (0, 50, 100, 50 mmol L(-1) + 1 g L(-1) (NH(4))(2)SO(4), and 100 mmol L(-1) + 1 g L(-1) (NH(4))(2)SO(4)) was added into mulberry root medium in September 2009. Twenty days later, the plants were harvested and separated into six parts according to plant height. Cd, Cr, and Pb contents in plant samples and MSW compost were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In the same treatment, Cd, Cr, and Pb concentrations in mulberry shoot were all higher than those in root, and Cd and Pb concentrations in shoot increased from lower to upper parts, reaching the highest in leaves. Significant increases were found in toxic metal concentration in different parts of mulberry with increasing EDTA concentration

  7. Composting potential of different inoculum sources in the modified SEBAC system treatment of municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster-Carneiro, T; Pérez, M; Romero, L I

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the work described here was to analyse the biomethanization process for three types of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) using two different inoculum sources in a sequential leach-bed anaerobic reactor under thermophilic (55 degrees C) and dry conditions (20%TS). The OFMSWs studied were: separately collected food waste (SC_OFMSW) from restaurants, synthetic waste (ST_OFMSW) and mechanically selected municipal waste (MS_OFMSW). The inoculum studied were digested mesophilic sludge (SLUDGE) and digested SC_OFMSW. The results show that SLUDGE gave the best performance and this was therefore selected for the rest of the experiments. Three assays were performed to analyse the biomethanization processes of three types of organic waste. The results suggest that all three wastes give rise to an acclimation stage with acidogenic/acetogenic activity between days 5 and 20-30 and a stabilization phase associated with methanogenic activity. In conclusion, a mixture of OFMSW (regardless of its origin) and SWINE arranged in layers in the reactor, as well as SLUDGE used with an inoculum source, enhanced the fast start up phase of a modified sequential leach-bed system under dry thermophilic conditions.

  8. Dynamic of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM fungus in a Humic Dystrudepts sowed with corn Zea mays L. and Green Compost (GC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Vélez Zabala

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Green Compost (GC have a positive impact on physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil, among them, the expression of the MA. In a Humic Dystrudepts in a mountainous area of Palmira (Valle five treatments were established: (T, fertilization of insdustrial chemical synthesis (FQ, green manure (AV, Compost (C and green manure compost (AVC, in a settlement of randomized complete blocks with three replications. As GC intermingled Canavalia ensiformis L. and Axonopus scoparius F., were harvested in prefloration of the legume, incorporated and became the first planting of corn, variety ICA V-354, monitored during 150 days, until time of fill of cob, when assessed length total external mycelium, LMET (Technical of the membrane filter method and the intercepted of Miller and Jastrow, that alive and active LMEV (succinate dehydrogenase, Hamel et al., 1990 and percentage of colonization by branch out manifold (Phillips and Hayman, 1980, described by Sieverding, 1983 and adapted for this crop, Sanchez et al. , 2010. The analysis of variance (SASR software version 9.1.3 showed that LMET, LMEV and % of branch out manifold showed highly significant differences between treatments. Greater LMET, coincided with increases in LMEV, colonization by branch out manifold and is presented in GC C, followed by AV, C and T, which did not vary among themselves, and, the lowest in CF. The coincidence of these three variables, would indicate that through LMET and especially, LMEV is absorbing and transporting P to the inside of the plants, and this supply, coinciding with higher % of colonization by branch out manifold, traces the path of the conjunction P in the soil-plantorganic fertilization, with their consequences on the economy of the agroecosystem and farmer.

  9. Substitution of peat for municipal solid waste- and sewage sludge-based composts in nursery growing media: effects on growth and nutrition of the native shrub Pistacia lentiscus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostos, J C; López-Garrido, R; Murillo, J M; López, R

    2008-04-01

    In this study, the effect of a partial substitution of peat for compost on the growth and nutrition of a native shrub (Pistacia lentiscus L.) was tested. Composts were prepared from pruning and municipal solid wastes or pruning waste and sewage sludge. For preparing growing media each compost was added at a rate of 40%, fresh pine bark at 20% or 40% and peat at 20%, 40% or 60%. Aqueous extracts from the substrates did not impair germination of cress (germination bioassay). In relation to plants growing in peat-based substrate (used as a control), plants of the compost-based substrates reached better growth and nutrition, especially when using the sewage sludge-based compost, and the P uptake was notably enhanced. The concentrations of trace elements were far lower than the ranges considered phytotoxic for vascular plants. Detrimental effect derived from using fresh pine bark was not observed.

  10. Effect of Chemical Fertilizer, Cow Manure and Municipal Compost on Yield, Yield Components and Oil Quantity of three Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. Cultivars in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rezvani Moghaddam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of different organic and chemical fertilizers on yield, yield components and seed oil content of sesame an experiment was conducted in a split plot layout based on randomized complete block design with four replications at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in year 2006. Four types of fertilizer, including chemical fertilizer, cow manure, municipal compost and no fertilizer (control were allocated as main plots and three sesame cultivars (two local varieties of Kalat and Esfarayen, and Oltan cultivar were used as sub plots. The results showed that fertilizer treatments had significant effect (P

  11. Evaluation of dredged sediment co-composted with green waste as plant growing media assessed by eco-toxicological tests, plant growth and microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Paola; Pastorelli, Roberta; Rami, Gabriele; Mocali, Stefano; Giagnoni, Laura; Gonnelli, Cristina; Renella, Giancarlo

    2017-07-05

    Dredged sediments have currently no broad reuse options as compared to other wastes due to their peculiar physico-chemical properties, posing problems for the management of the large volumes of sediments dredged worldwide. In this study we evaluated the performance of sediment (S) co-composted with green waste (GW) as growing medium for ornamental plants. Analysis of the microbial community structure, eco-toxicological tests, were conducted on sediments at 1:1 and 3:1S:GW composting ratios. Sediment-based growing media were then reused to growth the ornamental plant Photina x fraseri in a pilot-scale experiment and plants' physiological and chemical parameters were measured. The results showed that co-composting with green waste increased the diversity of bacteria, fungi and archaea as compared to the untreated sediments, and that both the 1:1 and 3:1 S:GW composted sediments had no substantial eco-toxicological impacts, allowing an excellent plant growth. We concluded that co-composted of sediment with green waste produce a growing medium with suitable properties for growing ornamental plants, and represent a sustainable option for beneficial use of dredged sediments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Laboratory based experiments to assess the use of green and food based compost to improve water quality in a Sustainable Drainage (SUDS) device such as a swale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, S M; Nnadi, E; Oyelola, O; Bennett, J; Warwick, F; Jackson, R; Lawson, D

    2012-05-01

    Many tonnes of compost are generated per year due to door step composting of both garden and kitchen waste. Whilst there are commercial outlets for the finer grade of compost (nurseries, there is little demand for the coarser material (>25 mm). This paper reports part of a WRAP-sponsored (Waste Resources Action Programme) study which investigated the potential for green (GC) and mixed green and food (MC) composts to be incorporated into Sustainable Drainage (SUDS) devices such as swales, and replace the topsoil (TS) onto which turf is laid or grass seed distributed. However, it is not known whether compost can replace TS in terms of pollutant remediation, both the trapping of polluted particulates and in dealing with hydrocarbons such as oil, but also from a biofilm development and activity perspective. Using laboratory based experiments utilising leaching columns and an investigation of microbiological development in the composts studied, it was found that many of the differences in performance between MC and GC were insignificant, whilst both composts performed better in terms of pollutant retention than TS. Mixed compost in particular could be used in devices where there may be oil spillages, such as the lorry park of a Motorway Service Area due to its efficiency in degrading oil. Samples of GC and MC were found to contain many of the bacteria and fungi necessary for an active and efficient biofilm which would be an argument in their favour for replacement of TS and incorporation in swales. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of urban composts for the regeneration of a burnt Mediterranean soil: a laboratory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellier, Antoine; Francou, Cédric; Houot, Sabine; Ballini, Christine; Gauquelin, Thierry; Baldy, Virginie

    2012-03-01

    In Mediterranean region, forest fires are a major problem leading to the desertification of the environment. Use of composts is considered as a solution for soil and vegetation rehabilitation. In this study, we determined under laboratory conditions the effects of three urban composts and their mode of application (laid on the soil surface or mixed into the soil) on soil restoration after fire: a municipal waste compost (MWC), a compost of sewage sludge mixed with green waste (SSC) and a green waste compost (GWC). Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralisation, total microbial biomass, fungal biomass and soil characteristics were measured during 77-day incubations in microcosms. The impact of composts input on hydrological behaviour related to erodibility was estimated by measuring runoff, retention and percolation (i.e. infiltration) of water using a rainfall simulator under laboratory conditions. Input of composts increased organic matter and soil nutrient content, and enhanced C and N mineralisation and total microbial biomass throughout the incubations, whereas it increased sporadically fungal biomass. For all these parameters, the MWC induced the highest improvement while GWC input had no significant effect compared to the control. Composts mixed with soil weakly limited runoff and infiltration whereas composts laid at the soil surface significantly reduced runoff and increased percolation and retention, particularly with the MWC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Composting and the Quality of Compost from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aerobic composting potential and quality of Source Separated Municipal Solid Waste (SSMSW) was studied using four different treatments for over 80 days. Four different types of treatments using different inoculums were used for the composting of source separated municipal solid waste. The phytotoxicity tests of the ...

  15. Use of alum water treatment sludge to stabilize C and immobilize P and metals in composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, R J; Zhou, Y-F

    2015-09-01

    Alum water treatment sludge is composed of amorphous hydroxyl-Al, which has variable charge surfaces with a large Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area (103 m(-2) g(-1)) capable of specific adsorption of organic matter molecules, phosphate, and heavy metals. The effects of adding dried, ground, alum water treatment sludge (10% w/w) to the feedstock for composting municipal green waste alone, green waste plus poultry manure, or green waste plus biosolids were determined. Addition of water treatment sludge reduced water soluble C, microbial biomass C, CO2 evolution, extractable P, and extractable heavy metals during composting. The decrease in CO2 evolution (i.e., C sequestration) was greatest for poultry manure and least for biosolid composts. The effects of addition of water treatment sludge to mature green waste-based poultry manure and biosolid composts were also determined in a 24-week incubation experiment. The composts were either incubated alone or after addition to a soil. Extractable P and heavy metal concentrations were decreased by additions of water treatment sludge in all treatments, and CO2 evolution was also reduced from the poultry manure compost over the first 16-18 weeks. However, for biosolid compost, addition of water treatment sludge increased microbial biomass C and CO2 evolution rate over the entire 24-week incubation period. This was attributed to the greatly reduced extractable heavy metal concentrations (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) present following addition of water treatment sludge, and thus increased microbial activity. It was concluded that addition of water treatment sludge reduces concentrations of extractable P and heavy metals in composts and that its effect on organic matter stabilization is much greater during the composting process than for mature compost because levels of easily decomposable organic matter are initially much higher in the feedstock than those in matured composts.

  16. Propriedades químicas de um Argissolo tratado sucessivamente com composto de lixo urbano Chemical properties of an Ultisol successively treated with municipal waste compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Diehl Krob

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar as alterações em algumas propriedades químicas do solo sob adição sucessiva de composto de lixo urbano, conduziu-se um experimento a campo, em um solo Argissolo Vermelho de textura média na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS. Os tratamentos constaram de cinco doses de composto (0, 20, 40, 80 e 160t ha-1, de um tratamento com adubo mineral e uma testemunha (Calagem e NPK, com aplicações sucessivas por um período de quatro anos. A adição de composto no solo aumentou o pH, CTC, C orgânico, N total, P e Na extraíveis, bem como da relação de adsorção de sódio (RAS, Ca e Mg trocáveis e o teor de K extraível após a terceira aplicação. O Al trocável teve os seus teores diminuídos após aplicações sucessivas de composto. Os resultados permitiram concluir que aplicação de até 80t ha-1 por ano de composto de lixo urbano pode ser considerada como adequada para melhorar e, ou, manter as propriedades químicas do solo.In order to assess the changes in some chemical properties of soil under the successive addition of urban waste compost, it was conducted a field experiment in an Ultisol soil at Agronomic Experimental Station of UFRGS. The treatments consisted of five successive applications of different doses of municipal solid waste compost (0, 20, 40, 80 and 160t ha-1 for a period of four years and a comparative treatment with mineral fertilizer and a control (without compost and fertilization. The addition of the compost increased soil pH, CEC, organic C, total N, extractable P and Na and the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, calcium, and magnesium and extractable K after the third application. The exchangeable Al had their levels reduced by successive applications of compost. The results showed that application of up to 80t ha-1 yr-1 of urban waste compost can be the dose recommended to improve and maintain the chemical properties of soil.

  17. Microbiological characteristics of bioaerosol at the composting plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Vítězová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversion of biodegradable waste from landfill is of key importance in developing a sustainable waste strategy for the next decade and beyond. The proliferation of waste treatment technologies such as mechanical biological treatment, anaerobic digestion and composting will be paramount in achieving this strategic goal. Composting plant is one of the end technology, which is widely used in waste processing of the biodegradable waste. These wastes originate from the maintenance of green areas in the cities and the municipalities and from the separatelly collected biodegradable waste from the citizens. There is also possible to process other biodegradable materials whose origin may be in other technologies of waste management at the composting plant. The most commonly used technology of composting is windrow system. Technological operations, which are necessary for the proper conduct of the composting process, may have negative influence on the environment in the immediate vicinity of composting plant. As pollutants we can mark particular odor and microorganisms. The largest group of microorganisms in the monitored air were psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria and microscopic thermotolerant fungi. The amount of thermophillic actinomycetes ranged from 10 to 84.000 CFU∙m−3 (colony forming units per m3. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the maximum air contamination has been found during aeration of windrow by compost turner and during the sieving of the mature compost. For each indicator, the increase in concentrations due to the turning of compost windrow as compared to the background concentration obtained in natural environments and upwind of composting plants was determined. At a distance of 150 m from the composting plant, only low numbers of indicator organisms at a regular occurrence in the air has been found.

  18. Volatile organic compound emissions from green waste composting: Characterization and ozone formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Anuj; Alaimo, Christopher P; Horowitz, Robert; Mitloehner, Frank M; Kleeman, Michael J; Green, Peter G

    2011-01-01

    ... of yard waste generated in the United States is now recycled, much of it by composting and mulching ( USEPA, 2008 ). At least 23 states in the United States have totally or partially banned the disposal of yard waste in landfills ( Arsova et al., 2008 ). The European Union targeted a decrease in the amount of organic waste disposed of in landfills by 20...

  19. Recycling and multi-composting of municipal wastes: the choice made by the Creusot - Montceau urban district; Recyclage et multi compostage des dechets menagers: le choix de la communaute urbaine Creusot - Montceau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panay, Ch [Communaute Urbaine, 71 - Creusot Montceau (France); Goutorbe, C. [Systeme Management Environnemental, 71 - Creusot Montseau (France)

    2000-10-01

    A new global system was developed in October 1995 by the Creusot-Montceau urban district (France) and its operator Creusot Montceau Recyclage for the management of the municipal wastes generated by the 100000 habitants of this district. This system is based on a selective collection of the recyclable wastes on the one hand, and of the fermentescible wastes on the other hand. The collected wastes supply a sorting center and three distinct composting units. Thanks to the participation of the population, to the quality of collections and to the performances of the industrial processing plant, 70% of the waste stock is valorized, the remaining 30% corresponding to ultimate wastes. This realization has demonstrated the economical efficiency of the joint composting and selective collection activities in the management of the municipal wastes of a medium size community located in a favorable area for the use of a good quality compost. (J.S.)

  20. FERTILISER VALUE AND TRACE ELEMENT CONTENT OF COMPOSTS PRODUCED FROM DIFFERENT WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Meller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Composting process provides a valuable material improving physical and chemical properties of soil. The quality of the obtained compost depends to a great extent on the kind of material subjected to stabilisation. Composting biodegradable products may result in the end product exceeding heavy metal limits that cannot be used in agriculture. The studies included composts produced in the compost plant in Kołobrzeg, the Municipal Waste Recovery and Storage Plant in Leśno Górne and the Waste Managemant Plant in Wardyń Górny. Composts were made from municipal solid waste, sewage sludge with straw and sawmill waste, and from urban green waste. The following determinations were determined: morphological composition, total content of macroelements and microelements and the level of these elements soluble in HCl at the concentration of 0.5 mol∙dm-3. The examined composts contained the amounts of total Pb, Ni and Cd allowing for their use in agriculture and the compost from sewage sludge, straw and sawmill waste, turned out to have the best utilisation properties.

  1. Is it efficient to co-compost and co-vermicompost green waste with biochar and/or clay to reduce CO2 emissions? A short-term laboratory experiment on (vermi)composts with additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthod, Justine; Rumpel, Cornélia; Paradelo, Remigio; Dignac, Marie-France

    2016-04-01

    Intensive farming practices can lead to a depletion of soil organic matter, negatively impacting important soil properties such as structural stability, fertility and C storage. The addition of organic amendments such as compost and vermicompost, rich in carbon, helps maintaining soil organic matter levels or restoring degraded soils. Composting and vermicomposting are based on stabilization of organic matter through the mineralization of easily decomposable organic matter compounds, therefore releasing greenhouse gases, including CO2. The aim of this study was to evaluate the global potential reduction of such emissions by the use of additives (2:1 clay and/or biochar): during (vermi)composting processes and after use of the final products as soil amendments. We hypothesized that the interactions between the additives and organic matter may lead to carbon stabilization and that such interactions may be enhanced by the presence of worms (Eisenia). We added in different proportions clay (25% or 50%), biochar (10%) and a mixture of biochar (10%) with clay (25%) to pre-composted green waste. The CO2 emissions of the composting and vermicomposting processes were measured during 21 days. After that, the amendments were added to a loamy cambisol soil and the CO2 emissions were monitored during 30 days of a laboratory experiment. The most efficient treatments in terms of reducing global CO2 emissions were the co-vermicomposting process with 25% clay followed by co-composting with 50% clay and with 10% biochar plus 25% clay. In this treatment (vermicompost with 25% clay), the carbon emissions were decreased by up to 44% compared to regular compost. Addition of biochar reduced CO2 emissions only during composting. Co-composting with biochar could be a promising avenue to limit global CO2 emissions whereas in presence of worms clay additions are better suited. These findings suggest that the presence of worms increased the formation of organo-mineral associations and thus C

  2. Comparison between Windrow and Pit Composting of Poultry Wastes, Leaves and Garbage of Municipal Solid Waste in Damghan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghmaeian K, Malakootian M, Noorisepehr M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic principles of Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM are: Reduction, Reuse, Recycling and Recovery (4Rs. Composting as an element of ISWM strategy that can be applied to separately collected or mixed wastes, is a controlled aerobic process carried out by successive microbial populations combining both mesophilic and thermophilic activities and leading to the production of carbon dioxide, water, minerals and stabilized organic matter. In this research, comparing between windrow and pit co-composting methods was studied in the city of Damghan, Iran. Waste proportioning was done based on C/N ratio (about 25:1 and moisture content (about 55%. Mixed wastes were located in windrow and pit with natural aeration tunnel. Sufficient oxygen supply was provided in the piles of compostable materials in two systems through frequent turning of the piles in 7 d intervals during the first month. Temperature reached to maximum level in 10-15 d and then depleted (days: 20-25. It reached to the safety level (about 60˚C based on U.S.EPA and WHO recommendations. Finally, compost was produced with pH=7.7, dark brown color and 30- 35% moisture content. N, P, K, organic matter and organic carbon were measured by standard methods. Results were compared with WHO and U.S.EPA recommendations showing suitable conditions Also it was indicated that pit method was better for maintaining temperature, nitrogen, organic C and organic matter.

  3. Municipal solid waste compost as a novel sorbent for antimony(V): adsorption and release trials at acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diquattro, Stefania; Garau, Giovanni; Lauro, Gian Paolo; Silvetti, Margherita; Deiana, Salvatore; Castaldi, Paola

    2017-12-08

    The ability of two municipal solid waste composts (MSW-Cs) to sorb antimony(V) in acidic conditions (pH 4.5) was investigated. Sorption isotherms and kinetics showed that both MSW-Cs could sorb antimony(V), even if in different amounts (~ 0.18 and 0.24 mmol g-1 of Sb(V) by MSW-C1 and MSW-C2, respectively). These differences were ascribed to the chemical composition of composts, as well as to the total acidity of their humic substances. The Sb(V) sorption by both MSW-Cs followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, while the sorption isotherms data fitted the Freundlich model better than the Langmuir one. The humic acids extracted from composts contributed to 4.26 and 8.24% of Sb(V) sorption by MSW-C1 and MSW-C2 respectively. SEM-EDX spectra of the MSW-C+Sb(V) systems showed a certain association of Ca(II) with Sb(V), while sequential extraction procedures indicated that more than 80% of the Sb(V) sorbed was strongly retained by MSW-Cs. On the other hand, treatment with oxalic acid at pH 4.5 favored the release of more than 98 and 65% of the Sb(V) sorbed by MSW-C1 and MSW-C2 respectively, supporting a possible role of calcium in Sb(V) retention. The results from this study suggest that MSW-Cs could be used as amendments for the in-situ immobilization of Sb(V) in acidic-polluted soils.

  4. Effects of municipal solid waste compost and mineral fertilizer amendments on soil properties and heavy metals distribution in maize plants (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Gregoria; de Imperial, Rosario Miralles; Torrijos, Manuel; Delgado, Mar; Rodriguez, José Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Soil amendments based on crop nutrient requirements are considered a beneficial management practice. A greenhouse experiment with maize seeds (Zea mays L.) was conducted to assess the inputs of metals to agricultural land from soil amendments. Maize seeds were exposed to a municipal solid waste (MSW) compost (50 Mg ha(-1)) and NPK fertilizer (33 g plant(-1)) amendments considering N plant requirement until the harvesting stage with the following objectives: (1) determine the accumulation of total and available metals in soil and (2) know the uptake and ability of translocation of metals from roots to different plant parts, and their effect on biomass production. The results showed that MSW compost increased Cu, Pb and Zn in soil, while NPK fertilizer increased Cd and Ni, but decreased Hg concentration in soil. The root system acted as a barrier for Cr, Ni, Pb and Hg, so metal uptake and translocation were lower in aerial plant parts. Biomass production was significantly enhanced in both MSW and NPK fertilizer-amended soils (17%), but also provoked slight increases of metals and their bioavailability in soil. The highest metal concentrations were observed in roots, but there were no significant differences between plants growing in amended soil and the control soil. Important differences were found for aerial plant parts as regards metal accumulation, whereas metal levels in grains were negligible in all the treatments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pyrolysis and co-composting of municipal organic waste in Bangladesh: A quantitative estimate of recyclable nutrients, greenhouse gas emissions, and economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Shamim; Uddin, Md Ektear; Kader, Md Abdul; Ahsan, Amimul; Mannan, M A; Hossain, Mohammad Monjur; Solaiman, Zakaria M

    2018-02-10

    Waste causes environmental pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when it is not managed sustainably. In Bangladesh, municipal organic waste (MOW) is partially collected and landfilled. Thus, it causes deterioration of the environment urging a recycle-oriented waste management system. In this study, we propose a waste management system through pyrolysis of selective MOW for biochar production and composting of the remainder with biochar as an additive. We estimated the carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) recycling potentials in the new techniques of waste management. Waste generation of a city was calculated using population density and per capita waste generation rate (PWGR). Two indicators of economic development, i.e., gross domestic product (GDP) and per capita gross national income (GNI) were used to adopt PWGR with a projected contribution of 5-20% to waste generation. The projected PWGR was then validated with a survey. The waste generation from urban areas of Bangladesh in 2016 was estimated between 15,507 and 15,888 t day -1 with a large share (∼75%) of organic waste. Adoption of the proposed system could produce 3936 t day -1 biochar blended compost with an annual return of US $210 million in 2016 while it could reduce GHG emission substantially (-503 CO 2 e t -1 municipal waste). Moreover, the proposed system would able to recover ∼46%, 54%, 54% and 61% of total C, N, P and K content in the initial waste, respectively. We also provide a projection of waste generation and nutrient recycling potentials for the year 2035. The proposed method could be a self-sustaining policy option for waste management as it would generate ∼US$51 from each tonne of waste. Moreover, a significant amount of nutrients can be recycled to agriculture while contributing to the reduction in environmental pollution and GHG emission. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Composting trial with BioFoam® products in a full scale commercial composting facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der M.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the trial was to be able to judge whether BioFoam® material degrades at sufficient rate to be composted together with regular source separated municipal solid biowaste in a full scale industrial composting facility.

  7. The efficiency of home composting programmes and compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M A; Soto, M

    2017-06-01

    The efficiency of home composting programmes and the quality of the produced compost was evaluated in eight rural areas carrying out home composting programmes (up to 880 composting bins) for all household biowaste including meat and fish leftovers. Efficiency was analysed in terms of reduction of organic waste collected by the municipal services. An efficiency of 77% on average was obtained, corresponding to a composting rate of 126kg/person·year of biowaste (or 380kg/composter·year). Compost quality was determined for a total of 90 composting bins. The operation of composting bins by users was successful, as indicated by a low C/N ratio (10-15), low inappropriate materials (or physical contaminant materials, mean of 0.27±0.44% dry matter), low heavy metal content (94% of samples met required standards for agricultural use) and high nutrient content (2.1% N, 0.6% P, 2.5% K, 0.7% Mg and 3.7% Ca on average, dry matter). The high moisture (above 70% in 48% of the samples) did not compromise the compost quality. Results of this study show that home composting of household organic waste including meat and fish leftovers is a feasible practice. Home composting helps individuals and families to reduce the amount of household waste at the same time gaining a fertiliser material (compost) of excellent quality for gardens or vegetable plots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of green waste compost on azimsulfuron dissipation and soil functions under oxic and anoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jaramillo, M; Cox, L; Hermosín, M C; Cerli, C; Kalbitz, K

    2016-04-15

    Concerns have been raised over the sustainability of intensive rice cultivation, where the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has been associated with numerous environmental problems. The objective of this study was to test the effect of the herbicide azimsulfuron on important soil functions as affected by amendment with a byproduct of the olive oil industry. Soil was collected from a Mediterranean rice field. Part of it was amended with alperujo compost (AC). Amended and unamended soils were incubated for 43days in presence or not of azimsulfuron, under anoxic-flooded (AF) and oxic-unflooded (OU) conditions. We monitored the dissipation of the herbicide azimsulfuron, C mineralization, soil microbial biomass (SMB) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and its nature. Under AF conditions, the application of compost produced an increase in the dissipation of the herbicide (up to 12.4%). It was related with the higher DOC content, 4 times higher than under OU conditions. Though increases in carbon turnover (under AF and OU conditions) and reduction of SMBC after herbicide application (only under AF conditions) were observed, the differences were not statistically significant. The application of this organic amendment is presented as an efficient management strategy to increase C turnover in agricultural soils and reduce some of the negative effects derived from the application of azimsulfuron under flooded conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dredged Material Composting at Milwaukee and Green Bay, WI, Confined Disposal Facilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    ...), Milwaukee, WI, and the Bayport CDF, Green Bay, WI. The purpose of these studies was to determine the feasibility of bioremediating dredged material contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs...

  10. Disease suppression and phytosanitary aspects of compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van E.

    2007-01-01

    Western Europe, approximately 25% of the 200 million tons of municipal solid waste that is generated each year is of organic origin and therefore compostable. Presently 35% of this organic waste is composted, resulting in 9 million tons of compost, and used mainly in agriculture,

  11. Home composting versus industrial composting: influence of composting system on compost quality with focus on compost stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena, Raquel; Font, Xavier; Gabarrell, Xavier; Sánchez, Antoni

    2014-07-01

    Stability is one of the most important properties of compost obtained from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes. This property is essential for the application of compost to land to avoid further field degradation and emissions of odors, among others. In this study, a massive characterization of compost samples from both home producers and industrial facilities is presented. Results are analyzed in terms of chemical and respiration characterizations, the latter representing the stability of the compost. Results are also analyzed in terms of statistical validation. The main conclusion from this work is that home composting, when properly conducted, can achieve excellent levels of stability, whereas industrial compost produced in the studied facilities can also present a high stability, although an important dispersion is found in these composts. The study also highlights the importance of respiration techniques to have a reliable characterization of compost quality, while the chemical characterization does not provide enough information to have a complete picture of a compost sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The removal of lead and nickel from the composted municipal waste and sewage sludge using nanoscale zero-valent iron fixed on quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Parisa; Bostani, Amir

    2017-11-01

    Reducing the concentration of heavy metals including lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in organic contaminants such as municipal wastes and sewage sludge is of health and environmental importance. Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles can effectively remove heavy metals from contaminated aqueous and solid media. It was accordingly hypothesized that it is possible to recycle and detoxify organic waste materials containing heavy metals using NZVI and NZVI fixed on quartz (QNZVI). The objective was to investigate the effects of NZVI type, concentration (2% and 5%) and contact time on the removal of Pb and Ni from raw compost, compost fermented with beet molasses, and leachate using a factorial design. The results indicated the significant reduction of DTPA- Pb and DTPA-Ni concentration, in all the organic compounds treated with NZVI and QNZVI (P= 0.01), compared with control. Increased concentration of NZVI in all treatments, increased the rate of DTPA-Pb and DTPA-Ni (P= 0.01) at 113.1% and 180% for Pb (NZVI at 2% and 5%), and at 16.3% and 23.3% for Ni, irrespective of the NZVI type. The reducing trend of extractable Pb and Ni in all the organic compounds was the same, quick reduction at the beginning, followed by a negligible rate. The highest reduction rates for Pb (at one hour) and Ni (at 672h) were equal to 72.93% and 23.27%, respectively. NZVI at 2% was more efficient than NZVI at 5%. There were not any significant differences between NZVI and QNZVI on the removal of Pb and Ni from the organic contaminants. It is possible to immobilize and reduce the concentration of heavy metals such as Pb and Ni in organic contaminants using NZVI, which is affected by NZVI properties, concentration, and contact time, as well as by organic contaminant type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of lead and cadmium concentration limits in agricultural soil and municipal solid waste compost through an approach of zero tolerance to food contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Jayanta Kumar; Panwar, N R; Singh, M V

    2010-09-01

    Cadmium and lead are important environmental pollutants with high toxicity to animals and human. Soils, though have considerable metal immobilizing capability, can contaminate food chain via plants grown upon them when their built-up occurs to a large extent. Present experiment was carried out with the objective of quantifying the limits of Pb and Cd loading in soil for the purpose of preventing food chain contamination beyond background concentration levels. Two separate sets of pot experiment were carried out for these two heavy metals with graded levels of application doses of Pb at 0.4-150 mg/kg and Cd at 0.02-20 mg/kg to an acidic light textured alluvial soil. Spinach crop was grown for 50 days on these treated soils after a stabilization period of 2 months. Upper limit of background concentration levels (C(ul)) of these metals were calculated through statistical approach from the heavy metals concentration values in leaves of spinach crop grown in farmers' fields. Lead and Cd concentration limits in soil were calculated by dividing C(ul) with uptake response slope obtained from the pot experiment. Cumulative loading limits (concentration limits in soil minus contents in uncontaminated soil) for the experimental soil were estimated to be 170 kg Pb/ha and 0.8 kg Cd/ha. Based on certain assumptions on application rate and computed cumulative loading limit values, maximum permissible Pb and Cd concentration values in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost were proposed as 170 mg Pb/kg and 0.8 mg Cd/kg, respectively. In view of these limiting values, about 56% and 47% of the MSW compost samples from different cities are found to contain Pb and Cd in the safe range.

  14. Composted green waste as a substitute for peat in growth media: effects on growth and nutrition of Calathea insignis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang; Tian, Yun; Gong, Xiaoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Peat mined from endangered wetland ecosystems is generally used as a component in soilless potting media in horticulture but is a costly and non-renewable natural resource. The objective of this work was to study the feasibility of replacing peat with different percentages (0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100%) of composted green waste (CGW) as growth media for the production of the ornamental plant Calathea insignis. Compared with 100% peat media, media containing CGW had improved physical and chemical characteristics to achieve the acceptable ranges. Moreover, CGW addition had increased the stability (i.e., reduced the decomposition rates) of growth media mixtures, as indicated by comparison of particle-size distribution at the start and end of a 7-month greenhouse experiment. Addition of CGW also supported increased plant growth (biomass production, root morphology, nutrient contents, and photosynthetic pigment contents). The physical and chemical characteristics of growth media and plant growth were best with a medium containing 70% CGW and were better in a medium with 100% CGW than in one with 100% peat media. These results indicate that CGW is a viable alternative to peat for the cultivation of Calathea insignis.

  15. Composted green waste as a substitute for peat in growth media: effects on growth and nutrition of Calathea insignis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    Full Text Available Peat mined from endangered wetland ecosystems is generally used as a component in soilless potting media in horticulture but is a costly and non-renewable natural resource. The objective of this work was to study the feasibility of replacing peat with different percentages (0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100% of composted green waste (CGW as growth media for the production of the ornamental plant Calathea insignis. Compared with 100% peat media, media containing CGW had improved physical and chemical characteristics to achieve the acceptable ranges. Moreover, CGW addition had increased the stability (i.e., reduced the decomposition rates of growth media mixtures, as indicated by comparison of particle-size distribution at the start and end of a 7-month greenhouse experiment. Addition of CGW also supported increased plant growth (biomass production, root morphology, nutrient contents, and photosynthetic pigment contents. The physical and chemical characteristics of growth media and plant growth were best with a medium containing 70% CGW and were better in a medium with 100% CGW than in one with 100% peat media. These results indicate that CGW is a viable alternative to peat for the cultivation of Calathea insignis.

  16. Biosorption of lead using Bacillus badius AK strain isolated from compost of green waste (water hyacinth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishan, Isha; Sivaprakasam, Senthilkumar; Kalamdhad, Ajay

    2017-07-01

    The bacterial strain Bacillus badius AK isolated from water hyacinth compost was investigated for biosorption characteristics in Pb(II) removal. Batch mode experiments depicted the optimum conditions for biosorption as pH at 4, the temperature of 30°C, 150 rpm of the rotational speed at biomass concentration of 20 mL with 1.7 × 1016 colony forming unit per milliliter (CFU/mL) value, at 100-150 mg/L concentration of Pb(II). The bacterial biomass was used in its native and non-pretreated state, unlike the dried, freeze-dried or chemically treated biomass. The biosorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and isotherm fitted well to the Langmuir model. Maximum Pb(II) biosorption was observed at 1.7 × 1016 CFU/mL. Influence of Pb(II) on the growth of bacterial biomass was examined by fitting the monod's model. Specific growth rate and maximum specific growth rate of B. badius AK was observed as 0.05 and 2.54 h-1, respectively; biomass yield coefficient was 11.81. The results indicated that bacterial biomass was efficient, robust and cheaper biosorbent for removal of Pb(II).

  17. REALIZATIONS OF THE MUNICIPAL ECOLOGICAL POLICY: PROTECTION OF GREEN FUND OF THE CITY USING GIS-TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Morozova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of legal documents for preservation of green fund of the city of Khabarovsk as a component of a municipal ecological policy is considered. The GIS ‘Green plantings of Khabarovsk’ is developed for information support of acceptance of administrative decisions in green building, storage of the information on city’s green fund, management of the planted trees and shrubs territories of city district. GIS is created in the environment of GIS MapInfo 7.5 Rus. It consists of a set of the vector cartographical layers characterising gardening of a city, created on base a raster topographical basis of scale 1:500. GIS is based on data of inventory of green plantings (2002–2014.

  18. Biowaste separate collection and composting in a Small Island Developing State: The case study of São Tomé and Principe, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, João M; Ferreira, José S; Dias-Ferreira, Celia

    2015-12-01

    São Tomé and Principe archipelago in West Africa is a Small Island Developing State facing acute waste management problems. This article describes the implementation of selective collection of biowaste combined with composting in São Tomé, as a case-study of an innovative action in the framework of a Small Island Developing State. Collection was designed to gather 225 t y(-1), targeting non-domestic biowaste producers, namely local businesses, municipal markets and municipal green waste. A municipal composting plant was built using basic facilities and windrow composting. The total investment amounted to €50,000, mainly supported by external aid. Biowaste producers reacted very positively, source segregating enthusiastically. Irregular service - collection collapsed each time the old vehicle was repaired - together with political disengagement and unmotivated work force were the major constrains. Biowaste was intermittently delivered to the composting plant and yielded 2 t of compost from July to December 2013 and 10 t during 2014. Compost was sold as organic fertiliser to a touristic resource, to small farmers and to gardeners, at a market price slightly below production costs, meaning the process is not economically sustainable without support. Nevertheless, biowaste is one of the few waste fractions (other than glass) that can be turned into a product that has both market value and a real demand, showing the enormous potential of composting source-separated biowaste in this part of the world. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Feasibility Studies on Static Pile Co Composting of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste With Dairy Waste Water

    OpenAIRE

    Manjula Gopinathan; Meenambal Thirumurthy

    2012-01-01

    Milk processing consumes a large amount of water and generates 6–10 liters of effluent per liter of milk processed. An effluent volume is approximately four times the volume of processed milk. Since the pollutants generated by industry are great losses of production, improvements in production efficiency are recommended to reduce pollutant loads. In this research a series of experimental studies were conducted with regard to bioconversion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste along wit...

  20. Potential role of compost and green manure amendment to mitigate soil GHGs emissions in Mediterranean drip irrigated maize production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Annachiara; Fagnano, Massimo; Fierro, Angelo

    2017-05-01

    Organic fertilization can preserve soil organic matter (SOM) and is foreseen as an effective strategy to reduce green house gases (GHGs) emissions in agriculture. However, its effectiveness needs to be clarified under specific climate, crop management and soil characteristics. A field experiment was carried out in a Mediterranean drip irrigated maize system to assess the pattern of soil CO2 and N2O fluxes in response to the replacement of a typical bare fallow-maize cycle under urea fertilization (130 kg N ha-1 y-1) (CONV) with: (i) bare fallow-maize cycles under two doses of compost (COM1 and COM2, 130 and 260 kg N ha-1 y-1, respectively) and (ii) a vetch-maize cycle, with vetch incorporation as green manure (130 kg N ha-1 y-1) (GMAN). Along the maize period (MP), reduced daily N2O emissions were detected in organic treated soils compared to CONV, mainly in the first stages of the cultivation, thanks to the slow release of available nitrogen from the organic substrates. Cumulative N2O fluxes (kg N2O-N ha-1) in MP scored to 0.24, 0.14, 0.12 and 0.085 for CONV, COM1, COM2 and GMAN, respectively, with significantly lower emissions in GMAN respect to CONV. CO2 fluxes partially reflected the ranking observed for maize yields, with cumulated values (Mg CO2-C ha-1) of 2.2, 1.5, 2.1, 2.1 for CONV, COM1, COM2 and GMAN, respectively, and significantly lower in COM1 respect to the other treatments. During the fallow period (FP), compared to CONV (0.77 Mg CO2-C ha-1 and 0.25 kg N2O-N ha-1), enhanced GHG fluxes were detected in COM treatments (about 0.90 Mg CO2-C ha-1 and 0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1, as averaged values from COM1 and COM2), likely driven by the slow prolonged mineralization of the added organic matter. GMAN showed comparable CO2 (0.82 Mg CO2-C ha-1) and N2O emissions (0.30 kg N2O-N ha-1), in consequence of restrained post-harvest residual N coupled with the counteracting effect of vetch uptake. Respect to the total yearly GHG emissions in CONV (about 194

  1. Municipal sewage sludge compost promotes Mangifera persiciforma tree growth with no risk of heavy metal contamination of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shuangshuang; Wu, Daoming; Liang, Liyin L; Zhong, Fengdi; Hu, Yaping; Hu, Xinsheng; Lai, Can; Zeng, Shucai

    2017-10-17

    Application of sewage sludge compost (SSC) as a fertilizer on landscaping provides a potential way for the effective disposal of sludge. However, the response of landscape trees to SSC application and the impacts of heavy metals from SSC on soil are poorly understood. We conducted a pot experiment to investigate the effects of SSC addition on Mangifera persiciforma growth and quantified its uptake of heavy metals from SSC by setting five treatments with mass ratios of SSC to lateritic soil as 0%:100% (CK), 15%:85% (S15), 30%:70% (S30), 60%:40% (S60), and 100%:0% (S100). As expected, the fertility and heavy metal concentrations (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) in substrate significantly increased with SSC addition. The best performance in terms of plant height, ground diameter, biomass and N, P, K uptake were found in S30, implying a reasonable amount of SSC could benefit the growth of M. persiciforma. The concentrations of Cu, Pb and Cd in S30 were insignificantly different from CK after harvest, indicating that M. persiciforma reduced the risk of heavy metal contamination of soil arising from SSC application. This study suggests that a reasonable rate of SSC addition can enhance M. persiciforma growth without causing the contamination of landscaping soil by heavy metals.

  2. [Using UV-Vis Absorbance for Characterization of Maturity in Composting Process with Different Materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Wei, Yu-quan; Li, Yang; Xi, Bei-dou; Wei, Zi-min; Wang, Xing-lei; Zhao, Zhi-nan; Ding, Jei

    2015-04-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the degree of humification in DOM during composting using different raw materials, and their effect on maturity of compost based on UV-Vis spectra measurements and chemometrics method. The raw materials of composting studied included chicken manure, pig manure, kitchen waste, lawn waste, fruits and vegetables waste, straw waste, green waste, sludge, and municipal solid waste. During composting, the parameters of UV-Vis spectra of DOM, including SUVA254 , SUVA280 , E250/E365, E4/E6, E2/E4, E2/E6, E253/E203, E253/E220, A226-400, S275-295 and S350-400 were calculated, Statistical analysis indicated that all the parameter were significantly changed during composting. SUVA254 and SUVA280 of DOM were continuously increased, E250/E365 and E4/E6 were continuously decreased in DOM, while A226-400, S275-295 and S350-400 of DOM at the final stage were significantly different with those at other stages of composting. Correlation analysis indicated that the parameters were significantly correlated with each other except for E2/E4 and E235/E203. Furthermore, principal component analysis suggested that A226-400, SUVA254, S350-400, SUVA280 and S275~295 were reasonable parameters for assessing the compost maturity. To distinguish maturity degree among different composts, hierarchical cluster analysis, an integrated tool utilizing multiple UV-Vis parameters, was performed based on the data (A226-400, SUVA254, S350-400, SUVA280 and S275-295) of DOM derived from the final stage of composting. Composts from different sources were clustered into 2 groups. The first group included chicken manure, pig manure, lawn waste, fruits and vegetables waste, green waste, sludge, and municipal solid waste characterized by a lower maturity degree, and the second group contained straw waste and kitchen waste associated with a higher maturity degree. The above results suggest that a multi-index of UV-Vis spectra could accurately evaluate the compost maturity

  3. Recycling of organic residues in compost to improve coastal sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recycling of municipal organic waste in compost is a potential approach to addressing waste disposal problems and soil fertility management. We studied during two years experiment whether composts of municipal organic waste improved with chicken dejection (MOW+Cdj), municipal organic waste improved with ...

  4. PENGEMBANGAN METODE SINTESIS FURFURAL BERBAHAN DASAR CAMPURAN LIMBAH PERTANIAN DALAM RANGKA MEWUJUDKAN PRINSIP GREEN CHEMISTRY (Development Of Synthesis Method Of Furfural From Compost Heap Mixture To Reach Out Green Chemistry Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitarlis Mitarlis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian pengembangan metode sintesis furfural dengan bahan dasar campuran limbah pertanian dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk menentukan waktu pemanasan dan konsentrasi asam optimum serta mewujudkan prinsip green chemistry. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan campuran limbah pertanian ampas tebu, limbah daun nanas dan limbah tanaman jagung dengan perbandingan 1:1:1. Proses sintesis melalui tahap hidrolisis pentosan, dehidrasi, dan siklodehidrasi untuk membentuk furfural dengan menggunakan alat refluks termodifkasi. Identifikasi furfural menggunakan uji warna dengan anilin asetat, uji indeks bias, spektrofotometer UV-Vis, dan IR, serta GC. Analisis pemenuhan prinsip green chemistry menggunakan daftar ceck 12 prinsip green chemstry. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: Waktu pemanasan dan konsentrasi asam sulfat optimum pada pembuatan furfural dari campuran limbah pertanian adalah 5 jam dan konsentrasi asam sulfat 10% (1,876 M dengan rendemen sebesar 5,58%. Metode sintesis furfural yang dikembangkan dapat memenuhi 11 dari 12 prinsip green chemistry yang telah ditetapkan. ABSTRACT The study of developing furfural synthesis method  from  compost heap mixture had been done to determine  optimum condition for this process and  to reach out the green chemistry principles. In this research, the compost heap mixture is from three kinds of compost heap (bagasse, pineapple leaf, waste of corn plant with same amount (1:1:1. The steps of furfural production process are hydrolysis of pentose by sulfuric acid, dehydration, and cyclodehydration to form furfural. It was produced by using a modification reflux apparatus. Identify of furfural product by  using qualitative analysis color test with aniline acetate, refractive index test, UV-Vis,  IR spectrophotometer, and GC. Green chemistry principles are analyzed by using check list of 12 principles of green chemistry.  Based on this research was obtained that the optimum concentration of sulfuric acid is

  5. Effect of Cd stress on the bioavailability of Cd and other mineral nutrition elements in broad bean grown in a loess subsoil amended with municipal sludge compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Nan, Zhongren; Wang, Houcheng; Li, Xiaolin; Zhou, Jian; Yao, Xun; Jin, Pen

    2017-12-26

    Municipal sludge compost (MSC) is commonly used as fertilizer or an amendment in barren soils. However, MSC-borne Cd is of great concern in food safety because of its toxicity. Loess subsoil (LS) is barren and lacks nutrients, but it has a strong ability to absorb and stabilize heavy metals. Hence, LS may be amended with MSC and may reduce the bioavailability of Cd. To simulate the dose effect of the accumulated MSC-borne Cd in amended LS, pot experiments were conducted to study the bioavailability of Cd and other mineral nutrition elements in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) under Cd stress. Plant height and dry biomass remarkably increased as the physicochemical properties of LS were significantly improved; however, they were not significantly influenced by the added Cd. The Cd in the plants grown in MSC amended-LS (P2) mainly accumulated in roots (32.12 mg kg-1) and then in stems and leaves (6.00 mg kg-1). Less Cd (0.74 mg kg-1) accumulated in the edible parts, where the Cd concentration was 53% lower than that in the edible parts of plants grown in LS (P1). The decreased Cd concentrations in the P2 beans may be due to the biomass dilution effect. Notably, the Cd concentrations in the beans exceeded the national safety limit value (0.2 mg kg-1) when the Cd treatment levels exceeded 2 mg kg-1 in LS and 6 mg kg-1 in amended LS. The MgCl2 extraction procedures can be used to assess Cd bioavailability in amended soil-plant systems. The potential antagonism of Zn and Cu against Cd toxicity in the soil-plant system may explain why this plant can tolerate higher Cd concentrations after MSC application.

  6. Influence of Municipal Solid Waste Compost on Soil Properties and Plant Reestablishment in Peri-Urban Environments Efecto de la Aplicación de Compost de Residuos Sólidos Municipales sobre las Propiedades de los Suelos y el Establecimiento de Plantas en Ambientes Peri-Urbanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Civeira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soils in urban areas often present characteristics that might submit these environments to erosion processes. Applying municipal solid wastes (MSW composts to soils have been suggested as a means to improve physical and chemical properties. A field experiment with a completely randomized design was conducted in a Typic Argiudoll from a degraded area in Buenos Aires City. The objective was to evaluate the effect of MSW compost application on soil properties, residue decomposition and Poa (Poa pratensis L. reestablishment. At the beginning of the trial, compost was prepared and applied in a bare soil on 0.25 m² square plots afterwards litterbags were incorporated and Poa was sown. Compost amounts were: 0 (control; 2 (low; 4 (medium and 7 kg m-2 (high on fresh matter basis. During the trial residue decomposition and aerial dry matter (DM: g treatment-1 were evaluated, at the end soil physical and chemical parameters were measured. Medium and high compost rates increased organic C, total N and extractable P. Addition of 2 kg m-2 affected soil organic C as well, but in a minor fee. Soil physical properties were improved after MSW compost addition. In medium and high doses, augmentations in organic matter reduced bulk densities and enhanced water infiltration. Aerial DM was significantly affected by treatments (p Los suelos de las áreas urbanas presentan características que pueden someter estos ambientes a procesos erosivos. La aplicación de composts de residuos sólidos urbanos (MSW a los suelos es una práctica que mejora sus propiedades. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del compost de MSW sobre las propiedades, la descomposición de residuos y el restablecimiento de la especie Poa (Poa pratensis L. en estos suelos. En un Argiudol típico degradado de la ciudad de Buenos Aires se realizó un ensayo con diseño completamente aleatorizado. Se preparó e incorporó compost en parcelas de 0,25 m² en las siguientes cantidades: 0

  7. Effect of different levels of municipal solid waste compost and nitrogen on some grain elements concentration of sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharata) and some soil properties under Marvdasht conditions

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mojab Ghasrodashti; H.R. H. Balouchi; A. Yadavi; M. Ghobadi

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted in order to study the influence of different levels of municipal solid waste compost and nitrogen rate on grain quality of sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharata) and some soil properties under Marvdasht conditions during growing season of 2008-2009. The experiment was arranged as split plots based on a randomized complete block design with two factors and three replications. Main plot included five levels of nitrogen fertilizer (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg N.ha-1)...

  8. Characterisation of chemical composition and energy content of green waste and municipal solid waste from Greater Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hla, San Shwe; Roberts, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The development and deployment of thermochemical waste-to-energy systems requires an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of waste streams. Despite Australia's growing interest in gasification of waste streams, no data are available on their thermochemical properties. This work presents, for the first time, a characterisation of green waste and municipal solid waste in terms of chemistry and energy content. The study took place in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland. The municipal solid waste was hand-sorted and classified into ten groups, including non-combustibles. The chemical properties of the combustible portion of municipal solid waste were measured directly and compared with calculations made based on their weight ratios in the overall municipal solid waste. The results obtained from both methods were in good agreement. The moisture content of green waste ranged from 29% to 46%. This variability - and the tendency for soil material to contaminate the samples - was the main contributor to the variation of samples' energy content, which ranged between 7.8 and 10.7MJ/kg. The total moisture content of food wastes and garden wastes was as high as 70% and 60%, respectively, while the total moisture content of non-packaging plastics was as low as 2.2%. The overall energy content (lower heating value on a wet basis, LHVwb) of the municipal solid waste was 7.9MJ/kg, which is well above the World Bank-recommended value for utilisation in thermochemical conversion processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pyrolysis of Municipal Green Waste: A Modelling, Simulation and Experimental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed J. Kabir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is the thermo-chemical conversion of carbonaceous feedstock in the absence of oxygen to produce bio-fuel (bio-oil, bio-char and syn-gas. Bio-fuel production from municipal green waste (MGW through the pyrolysis process has attracted considerable attention recently in the renewable energy sector because it can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to energy security. This study analyses properties of MGW feedstock available in Rockhampton city of Central Queensland, Australia, and presents an experimental investigation of producing bio-fuel from that MGW through the pyrolysis process using a short sealed rotary furnace. It was found from the experiment that about 19.97% bio-oil, 40.83% bio-char and 29.77% syn-gas can be produced from the MGW. Then, a four-stage steady state simulation model is developed for pyrolysis process performance simulation using Aspen Plus software. In the first stage, the moisture content of the MGW feed is reduced. In the second stage, the MGW is decomposed according to its elemental constituents. In the third stage, condensate material is separated and, finally, the pyrolysis reactions are modelled using the Gibbs free energy minimisation approach. The MGW’s ultimate and proximate analysis data were used in the Aspen Plus simulation as input parameters. The model is validated with experimentally measured data. A good agreement between simulation and experimental results was found. More specifically, the variation of modelling and experimental elemental compositions of the MGW was found to be 7.3% for carbon, 15.82% for hydrogen, 7.04% for nitrogen and 5.56% for sulphur. The validated model is used to optimise the biofuel production from the MGW as a function of operating variables such as temperature, moisture content, particle size and process heat air–fuel ratio. The modelling and optimisation results are presented, analysed and discussed.

  10. Composting Used as a Low Cost Method for Pathogen Elimination in Sewage Sludge in Mérida, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rojas-Herrera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Spreading sewage sludge from municipal wastewater (MWW treatment on land is still a common practice in developing countries. However, it is well known that sewage sludge without special treatment contains various pollutants, which are (reintroduced into the environment by sludge landspreading and which might in turn have harmful effects on the environment and human health. This is more dangerous in places like Merida, Mexico, where soil is calcareous with fractures along the ground and thin layers of humus. Consequently, any liquid and semisolid wastes have the potential of percolating to the subsurface and contaminate the aquifer. The main aim of this work was using composting as a low cost process to eliminate pathogens contained in sewage sludge from MWW treatment in order to use the final product for land spreading in a safe way for both environment and human health. Two piles for composting process at real scale were settled using a mixture of sewage sludge from municipal waste water and green waste. Composting was carried out by windrow process and it was monitored during four weeks. Concentration of helminth eggs, salmonella and faecal coliforms were measured twice a week to observe its behavior and, as a control process, Temperature, Moisture Content (MC, and pH were also measured. After 30 days of composting sludge from municipal waste water system, salmonella was eliminated by 99%, faecal coliforms by 96% and helminth eggs by 81%. After 3 months compost reached GI = 160%, so did not show any phytotoxicity to seeds.

  11. The UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy indicators for monitoring the evolution of green waste composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier, Stéphane; Abaker, Madi; Domeizel, Mariane; Rapetti, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    The maturity process of compost goes through several phases that have to be monitored in order to optimize the production process which in turn assure a good quality product and less time consumption. In order to estimate rapidly the phase where the compost is present and to measure the cellulose, the ratio C:N and the Stability Index Organic Matter (ISMO) a crucial parameter that needs to be monitored and controlled is the temperature. However, the temperature is not really a good indicator for the maturity of the compost because it is not constant and it depends on the mixing and environmental processes. The final measurements are performed at the end of the production process after certain time period that is subjectively determined by the producer. The work presented here is based on the optical properties of the organic matter that are observed each month for a period of six months. The organic matter of 5 composts was extracted by water and analyzed by UV-VIS spectroscopic technique [1] and 3D fluorescence emission technique [2]. The usual indexes were calculated (E2/E3, E4/E6, EBZ/EET, SUVA254), but also the PARAFAC decomposition of the 3D fluorescence response by Milori [3] and the Hx indexes [4]. The comparison of these results and the cellulose composition with the corresponding ISMO index indicates that the maturity process occurs more rapidly then the expectation of the producers. Further, the combination of the indicators gives useful information about different processes that take place during the maturity of the compost such as aromatization, the condensation and the stabilization of the parameters.

  12. Organized and optimized composting of agro-waste some important considerations and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Shilpa

    2013-01-01

    In the modern industrialized society, generation of solid waste, such as agricultural waste, yard waste, waste paper and food waste is increasing at an alarming rate. In countries, like India, a common method of their disposal adopted by farmers, agro- industries, municipal workers and contracting agencies is to burn such waste on site or in incinerators leading to emission of green house gases and release of pollutants directly into atmosphere. In developed countries, these solid wastes are disposed of through landfilling, which are clogging under ever-increasing load. Emission of gases from land- fills poses yet another environmental challenge. Today, composting offers a promising solution to disposal of agro-waste with minimum harmful impact on environment. Need of the hour is to carry out composting in an organized and controlled manner to derive maximum benefits with minimum undesirable effects and researchers are attempting to compost agro-wastes with these objectives in mind.

  13. An Overview of Organic Waste in Composting

    OpenAIRE

    Kadir Aeslina Abdul; Azhari Nur Wahidah; Jamaludin Siti Noratifah

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviewed studies on the composting process of organic waste. Organic wastes are wastes that easily biodegradable. These wastes are produced from many sources such as agricultural waste, market waste, kitchen waste, urban solid food wastes and municipal solid waste. Without proper management, these waste could create several environment problem. Therefore, composting is the best low cost alternative solution to overcome this problem. Composting method can degrade all types of organi...

  14. Effect of Iron Oxides (Ordinary and Nano and Municipal Solid Waste Compost (MSWC Coated Sulfur on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Plant Iron Concentration and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mazaherinia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A greenhouse study was conducted to compare the effects of ordinary iron oxide (0.02-0.06 mm and nano iron oxide (25-250 nm and five levels of both iron oxides (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 %w/w and two levels of sulfurous granular compost (MSW (0 and 2% w/w on plant height, spike length, grain weight per spike, total plant dry matter weight and thousands grain weight of wheat. The experimental factors were combined in factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design with 3 replications. Results showed that nano iron oxide was superior over ordinary iron oxide in all parameters studied. Fe concentration, spike length, plant height, grain weight per spike, total plant dry weight and thousands grain weight showed increasing trend per increase in both of iron oxides levels. Also, all parameters studied in sulfurous granular compost (MSW treatment were superior over granular compost without sulfurous (MSW. This increase in all parameters were significantly higher when urban solid waste compost coated with sulfur coupled with nano iron oxide compared to urban sulfurous granular compost (MSW along with ordinary iron oxide. Keywords: Sulfurous granular compost (MSW, Nano and ordinary iron oxides, Wheat

  15. Effectiveness of combined thermophilic composting and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... in affecting survival of Salmonella enteritidis ser. Typhimurium. Pedobiology, 22: 434-438. Castaldi P, Alberti G, Merella R, Melis P (2005). Study of organic matter evolution during municipal solid waste composting aimed at indentifying suitable parameters for evaluation of compost maturity. Waste Manage.

  16. Identifying Green Infrastructure as a Basis for an Incentive Mechanism at the Municipality Level in Biscay (Basque Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Rodríguez-Loinaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of green infrastructure (GI to human well-being have been widely recognised; however, pathways for its systematic implementation are missing. Local governments can play a crucial role in the conservation of GI, and a formal recognition of this role in budgeting systems would foster the inclusion of GI in their agenda. The aim of this study is to identify the principal components of GI at the local level to form a basis for a compensatory economic scheme. We identified the principal components of GI based on the mapping of biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision. Furthermore, we analysed the potentiality of an incentive mechanism to promote GI based on the protection status of GI. Finally, an incentive mechanism to promote GI at the municipality level was proposed. The results showed that the GI of Biscay is mainly composed of the natural forests presented in the area, and that 50% of the principal components of the GI are not protected. Furthermore, one third of the protected principal components of the GI only has protection at the municipality level. So, we propose a Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES-like scheme at the municipality level based on the cover of natural forests, where the objective is the conservation and promotion of the GI.

  17. PERSPECTIVAS DE APLICACIÓN DEL COMPOSTAJE DE BIORRESIDUOS PROVENIENTES DE RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS MUNICIPALES. UN ENFOQUE DESDE LO GLOBAL A LO LOCAL PERSPECTIVE OF APPLICATION OF BIOWASTE COMPOSTING FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES: AN APPROACH FROM GLOBAL TO LOCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Oviedo-Ocaña

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available De los residuos sólidos municipales (RSM, los biorresiduos son la fracción más alta y de mayor potencial de contaminación; el compostaje permite disminuir el impacto ocasionado por su manejo y contribuye con la sostenibilidad de la producción agrícola. Aspectos como el alto grado de contaminación de la materia prima, el uso de tecnologías inadecuadas, mínimas actividades operativas y de control del proceso, baja calidad del producto y la poca comercialización y mercadeo del mismo, han limitado la implementación del compostaje en mayor escala en países en desarrollo como Colombia. En este artículo se plantea una reflexión sobre las perspectivas de aplicación del compostaje en Colombia y se proponen estrategias como la separación en la fuente y recolección selectiva, el posicionamiento del aprovechamiento de biorresiduos en el marco político y normativo, la investigación aplicada sobre ciencia e ingeniería del compostaje, la capacitación profesional, técnica y operativa, y el establecimiento de alternativas para impulsar el producto.Biowaste represents the highest proportion from municipal solid wastes (MSW and its major pollution potential. Composting allows to reduce the impact of MSW management and contributes to sustainability in agricultural production. In developing countries such as Colombia, aspects such as the high pollution levels in raw materials, the use of inappropriate technologies, the minimum operational and process control activities, the low product quality and the scarce commercialization and marketing have represented limited possibilities for scaling up composting implementation. This paper provides a reflection on application perspectives for biowaste composting in Colombia. Strategies like: 1 source separation and selective collection, 2 inclusion of biowaste recovery within political and legal frameworks, 3 applied research about science and engineering of composting, 4 professional, technical and

  18. A Technical and Practical Study of Composting as a Solid Waste Management Alternative for the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    programs- With yard waste comprising approximately 20 percent of the municipal solid waste stream, composting can be an effective means to reduce... Composting Material ................ 38 8. Windrow Shapes and the Effect on Moisture Content .......... 39 9. Genexic Compost Site Layout...General Issue Composting is a nationally recognized method to safely and effectively convert organic waste into useful materials such as mulch and soil

  19. Runoff and Nutrient Losses from Constructed Soils Amended with Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Hansen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Composted organic materials used to stabilize roadside embankments in Texas promote rapid revegetation of soils disturbed by construction activities. Yet, adding compost to soil may increase total and soluble plant nutrients available for loss in runoff water. Composted municipal biosolids and dairy manure products were applied to soils in Texas according to prescribed Texas Department of Transportation specifications for stabilizing roadside soils. The specifications included a method for incorporating compost into soils prior to seeding or applying a compost and woodchip mix over a disturbed soil and then seeding. Applying compost and woodchips over the soil surface limited sediment losses (14 to 32 fold decrease compared to incorporating compost into the soil. Yet, the greatest total phosphorus and nitrogen losses in runoff water occurred from soils where the compost and woodchip mix was applied. The greatest losses of soluble phosphorus also occurred when the compost and woodchip mix was applied. In contrast, nitrate-nitrogen losses in runoff were similar when compost was incorporated in the soil or applied in the woodchip mix. Compost source affected the nutrient losses in runoff. While the composted municipal biosolids added greater nutrient loads to the soil, less nutrient loss in runoff occurred.

  20. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  1. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Mohd Lokman Che; Manaf, Latifah Abd; Latiff, Puziah Abdul

    2013-02-07

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction.

  2. Search for a method of analysis of the operation of sorting-composting plants for municipal wastes. Reliability of material balance statuses; Recherche d'une methode d'analyse du fonctionnement des usines de tri-compostage des dechets menagers. Fiabilite des bilans matiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboulam, S.

    2005-04-15

    The assessment of a municipal solid waste composting plant aims at the realisation of the material balance and the analysis of the operation of the processing sequence. A precise material balance makes it possible to carry out a fine economic analysis. The method suggested is based on the analysis of each equipment before the establishment of the total assessment of the platform. That allows, in the event of insufficient output quality, to target the interventions and to improve the output without blaming the totality of the processing line. To arrive there, standardised methods of sampling and characterisation of municipal solid waste and compost were adapted to intermediate flows. A database, for the error analysis according to the formulas of Gy, is proposed and the software BILCO is used for the establishment of the statistically coherent material balance. During our work, we tested the equipments most used in composting plants: the composting area, the screens with average mesh from 20 to 50 mm and with finer mesh from 8 to 15 mm, the selective conveyor, the densitometric table and the rotating drum. All the equipments are tested in real size, in different plants, except the rotating drum and the average screen which were the subject of a study at the laboratory. A simulation of screening at 20 mm shows it is possible to detect the origin of the sampling errors made at the time of the analysis of this kind of equipment. A composting pilot of 750 l was worked out, to follow the loss of mass and the CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O outputs, during composting in rotating drums. The results obtained by the tests on the experimental drum were validated on an industrial drum. The hypothesis of the conservation of the mineral matter during the composting and the accuracy of the total organic matter content determination (ignition loss at 550 deg. C) were the subject of a parallel test. From the studied equipments, a standard processing line of municipal

  3. Green, Eco, Innovative Design, and Manufacturing Technology of a 1-Ton per Batch Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerdsuwan Somrat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal treatment of waste by incineration is considered an ultimate solution in order to get rid of waste properly by using the combustible properties of waste and transforming them into inert form and gaseous emission, with the main advantage of a huge reduction in mass and volume of treated waste, destruction of the dangerous components in waste, and obtaining green and clean energy from the exothermal reaction from the completed combustion process. In order to achieve the main goal of incineration, a good design, construction, supervision, and intensive operation and maintenance must be taken into account, especially for the small-scale incinerator. This research will deal with the green, innovative, and eco design and manufacturing technology of a 1-ton per batch municipal solid waste (MSW incinerator. The concept design of the incinerator will focus on the design of the feeding process where only one batch of waste will be discharged into the combustion chamber at one time instead of the semi-feed process, as found in the conventional incinerator. This will ease the operation of the operator and reduce the operating cost. Moreover, the innovative design includes the redesign of combustion air injection into either the primary or secondary combustion chamber in order to achieve the 3Ts of combustion (time, temperature. and turbulence. This design can eliminate the use of an auxiliary burner in the primary combustion chamber. Rethinking the innovative design of using recirculation hot flue gas for preheating of wet garbage in order to pre-dry the waste before combustion is also taken into account. The manufacturing process of the wall composition as well as other parts of the incinerator are also examined.

  4. Green microalga Scenedesmus acutus grown on municipal wastewater to couple nutrient removal with lipid accumulation for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristán de Alva, Manuel; Luna-Pabello, Víctor M; Cadena, Erasmo; Ortíz, Edgar

    2013-10-01

    The green microalga Scenedesmus acutus was cultivated in two different municipal wastewater discharges (pre- and post-treated), and was compared to a culture medium with basic nutrients (20% of N, P, K), in order to study the simultaneous potential of nutrient removal and lipid accumulation ability. The highest level of nutrient removal was found in the pretreated wastewater discharge (achieving a high removal of phosphorus [66%] and organic nitrogen [94%]). Likewise, better results on biomass productivity and lipid accumulation were found in cultures using pretreated wastewater compared to enriched medium, obtaining 79.9 mg/L, and 280 mg/L, respectively. Since the best results were found in pretreated wastewater, the biodiesel preparation was performed using said medium at small-scale. After cultivation, 249.4 mg/L of biodiesel were obtained. According to this analysis, S. acutus could be used for wastewater treatment producing biomass with a suitable content of lipids, convenient for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Waste composts as nitrogen fertilizers for forage leys

    OpenAIRE

    Tontti, T.; A. NYKÄNEN; Kuisma, M.

    2009-01-01

    Two field experiments, conventional grass ley and organic grass-clover ley, were established with barley as a nurse crop in spring 2000 and given either low or high fertilization with mineral fertilizer (Mineral) or composts. The compost types were municipal biowaste (Biowaste), biowaste + sewage sludge (BioSludge) and cattle manure (Manure). Plant yields and nitrogen (N) uptakes were measured for three years and efficiency of N utilization was estimated. In single application of compost, the...

  6. In situ modeling of PAH dynamics in agricultural soils amended with composts using the "VSOIL" platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimo, Khaled; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Houot, Sabine; Lafolie, François; Deschamps, Marjolaine; Benoit, Pierre; Garnier, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    Numerous studies have shown the presence of organic pollutants (OPs) in composts. Compost application in agricultural soil generates flux of OPs and among them polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A potential accumulation of PAHs in soils from successive compost applications could imply risks to environment. To explore and design scenarios that help land managers in their impact evaluations when composts are added in soils, there is a need to a new generation of models built from multi-modules that mimic the whole interactions between the different processes describing OP dynamic in soil. Our work is based on the implementation of an interdisciplinary global model for PAHs in soil by coupling modules describing the major physical, biochemical and biological processes influencing the fate of PAHs in soil, with modules that simulate water transfer, heat transfer, solute transport, and organic matter transformation under climatic conditions. The coupling is being facilitated by the «VSOIL» modeling platform. The steps of our modelling study are the following: 1) calibrate the field model using parameters previously estimated in laboratory completed with field data on a short period, 2) test the simulations using field experimental data, 3) build scenarios to explore the impact of PAHs accumulation in a long term (40 years). Our results show that the model can adequately predict the fate of PAHs in soil and can contribute to clarify some of unexplored aspects regarding the behavior of PAHs in soil like their mineralization and stabilization. Scenarios that predict the dynamic of PAHs in soil at long terms show a low PAH accumulation in soil after 40 years due to a high sequestration of the PAH in soils that is slightly higher for municipal solid waste composts than for green waste sludge composts.

  7. Composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) organic fraction. Energy and CO{sub 2} balances; Compostaggio e digestione anaerobica della frazione organica dei rifiuti. Bilanci energetici e del carbonio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Benedetti, B. [Turin Politecnico, Turin (Italy). Dipt. di Scienza dei Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica; Genon, G. [Turin Politecnico, Turin (Italy). Dipt. di Georisorse e Territorio; Marino, M. [Life Cycle Engineering, Environmental Park, Turin (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study is the comparison between different technologies for the treatment of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology constitutes the basic approach of the work, as reference international method of analysis, and allows to compare the energy and CO{sub 2} balances taking into account the fractions deriving from renewable resources or from fossils resources. Results obtained show a significant advantage of the anaerobic treatment of MSW if compared with composting technology: obviously this conclusion refers only to an environmental point of view. [Italian] Lo scopo di questo studio e' la comparazione tra differenti tecnologie utilizzate per il trattamento della frazione organica dei rifiuti solidi urbani. L'analisi del ciclo di vita (Life Cycle Assessment, LCA) costituisce l'approccio metodologico utilizzato in modo da garantire il confronto tra i bilanci energetici e della CO{sub 2} soprattutto tenendo conto della frazione biologica dei rifiuti. I risultati ottenuti mostrano, per quanto riguarda gli aspetti piu' strettamente ambientali, un vantaggio del sistema che prevede il trattamento anaerobico dei rifiuti.

  8. Transfer of Nickel from Polluted Soil to Pisum sativum L. and Raphanus sativus L. under Composted Green Amendment and Native Soil Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafady Nivien Allam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compost, inoculation with native soil microbes and their residual effects on bioavailability of nickel by peas (Pisum sativum L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L. grown on polluted soil were investigated in pot experiments. Plants were amendment with different compost levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6% of soil dry weight and inoculated with different native soil microbes (4 fungal species, one bacterial species, 4 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated from the polluted soil under study. Significant increases in the biomass of pea and radish plants were observed as a result of amendment application and their residual effects. The mycorrhizal dependency (MD of pea plants was lower than of radish plants. The highest reductions of Ni levels in both plants were observed by the simultaneous applications of compost with microbes or mycorrhizal fungi to polluted soils. Soil pH increased significantly (p < 0.05 as a result of applying native microbes especially with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF alone or combined with compost. The DTPA extractability of soil Ni was significantly decreased with increasing soil pH (p < 0.05. The minimum transfer factor of Ni from polluted soil were 0.067 and 0.089 for pea and radish plants, respectively which were attained as a result of applying compost (0.6% of soil weight inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi. From the results, we can conclude that the use of compost and native soil microbes as a soil remediate could be an effective strategy for soil remediation.

  9. An Overview of Organic Waste in Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Aeslina Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed studies on the composting process of organic waste. Organic wastes are wastes that easily biodegradable. These wastes are produced from many sources such as agricultural waste, market waste, kitchen waste, urban solid food wastes and municipal solid waste. Without proper management, these waste could create several environment problem. Therefore, composting is the best low cost alternative solution to overcome this problem. Composting method can degrade all types of organic wastes like fruits, vegetables, plants, yard wastes and others. The composition from organic waste that could be used as nutrients for crops, soil additive and for environmental management. However, many factors can contribute to the quality of the compost products as different types of organic wastes have different concentrations of nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (N, P, K which are the common macro nutrients present in fertilizers. The presences of heavy metals show how composts can be applied to soils without contributing any ill effect. In term of the factor affecting the composting process, temperature, pH, moisture contents and carbon nitrogen ratio (C:N are the main parameters that contribute to the efficiency of the composting process.

  10. The effect of compost treatments and a plant cover with Agrostis tenuis on the immobilization/mobilization of trace elements in a mine-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, P; de Varennes, A; Cunha-Queda, A C

    2014-01-01

    A semi-field experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of mixed municipal solid waste compost (MMSWC) and green waste-derived compost (GWC) as immobilizing agents in aided-phytostabilization of a highly acidic soil contaminated with trace elements, with and without a plant cover of Agrostis tenuis. The compost application ratio was 50 Mg ha(-1), and GWC amended soil was additionally limed and supplemented with mineral fertilizers. Both treatments had an equivalent capacity to raise soil organic matter and pH, without a significant increase in soil salinity and in pseudo-total As, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations, allowing the establishment of a plant cover. Effective bioavailable Cu and Zn decreased as a consequence of both compost treatments, while effective bioavailable As increased by more than twice but remained as a small fraction of its pseudo-total content. Amended soil had higher soil enzymatic activities, especially in the presence of plants. Accumulation factors for As, Cu, Pb, and Zn by A. tenuis were low, and their concentrations in the plant were lower than the maximum tolerable levels for cattle. As a consequence, the use of A. tenuis can be recommended for assisted phytostabilization of this type of mine soil, in combination with one of the compost treatments evaluated.

  11. Evaluation of Effective Microorganisms on home scale organic waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yee Van; Lee, Chew Tin; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Chua, Lee Suan; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Leow, Chee Woh

    2017-04-17

    Home composting can be an effective way to reduce the volume of municipal solid waste. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Effective Microorganism™ (EM) for the home scale co-composting of food waste, rice bran and dried leaves. A general consensus is lacking regarding the efficiency of inoculation composting. Home scale composting was carried out with and without EM (control) to identify the roles of EM. The composting parameters for both trials showed a similar trend of changes during the decomposition. As assayed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), the functional group of humic acid was initially dominated by aliphatic structure but was dominated by the aromatic in the final compost. The EM compost has a sharper peak of aromatic CC bond presenting a better degree of humification. Compost with EM achieved a slightly higher temperature at the early stage, with foul odour suppressed, enhanced humification process and a greater fat reduction (73%). No significant difference was found for the final composts inoculated with and without EM. The properties included pH (∼7), electric conductivity (∼2), carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C: N 100%), humic acid content (4.5-4.8%) and pathogen content (no Salmonella, compost has a higher nitrogen content (+1.5%). The overall results suggested the positive effect provided by EM notably in odour control and humification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of the Fluorescence Spectra Characteristics of Dissolved Organic Matter Derived from Organic Waste Composting Based on Projection Pursuit Classification (PPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zi-min; Wang, Xing-lei; Pan, Hong-wei; Zhao, Yue; Xie, Xin-yu; Zhao, Yi; Zhang, Lin-xue; Zhao, Tao-zhi

    2015-10-01

    The characteristics of fluorescence spectra of dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from composting is one of the key ways to assess the compost maturity. However, the existing methods mainly focus on the qualitative description for the humification degree of compost. In this paper, projection pursuit classification (PPC) was conducted to quantitative assess the grades of compost maturity, based on the characteristics of fluorescence spectra of DOM. Eight organic wastes (chicken manure, swine manure, kitchen waste, lawn waste, fruits and vegetables waste, straw, green waste, and municipal solid waste) composting were conducted, the germination percentage (GI) and fluorescence spectra of DOM were measured during composting. Statistic analysis with all fluorescence parameters of DOM indicated that I436/I383 (a ratio between the fluorescence intensities at 436 and 383 nm in excitation spectra), FLR (an area ratio between fulvic-like region from 308 to 363 nm and total region in emission spectra), P(HA/Pro) (a regional integration ratio between humic acid-like region to protein-like region in excitation emission matrix (EEM) spectra), A4/A1 (an area ratio of the last quarter to the first quarter in emission spectra), r(A,C) (a ratio between the fluorescence intensities of peak A and peak C in EEM spectra) were correlated with each other (p 80%), better degree of compost maturity (II, 60% < GI < 80%), maturity (III, 50% < GI < 60%), and immaturity (IV, GI < 50%) were divided according the GI value during composting. The corresponding fluorescence parameter values were calculated at each degrade of compost maturity. Then the projection values were calculated based on PPC considering the above fluorescence parameter values. The projection value was 2.01 - 2.22 for I grade, 1.21 - 2.0 for II grade, 0.57 - 1.2 for III grade, and 0.10 - 0.56 for IV grade. Model validation was then carried out with composts samples, the results indicated that the simulated values were

  13. A FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PLANT FOR COMPOSTING ORGANIC WASTE IN THE CITY OF KRAGUJEVAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Jovičić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing of waste quantity, its harmful influence on natural environments and world experiences has had so far impose the necessity for the analyses of techno-economic possibilities of the processes for treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste stream, in our region. In this paper, problematic of treatment solid waste and composting process, which represents one of the most acceptable options for the processing of solid waste, are given. Composting involves the aerobic biological decomposition of organic materials to produce a stable humus-like product. Base of composting process, review of composting feedstock, use of compost, benefits of composting process and concrete proposal for composting process realization, with techno-economic analysis for the construction of composting plant on territory community Kragujevac, are given in this paper, too.

  14. A Cost Analysis of Food Waste Composting in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tui Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s Environmental Protection Administration (EPA has enacted a food waste recycling policy since 2003 as an alternative of landfill and incineration for the final disposal of municipal solid waste. Recycled food waste is currently seen as a valuable material, especially when appropriate technology is developed. This paper conducts a cost/benefit analysis based on six cases of food waste composting plants in Taiwan, finding that (1 the composting of food waste may yield the most net benefit compared to other applications of today; (2 the production cost of compost ranges from NT$ 2897–23,117/tonne; (3 the adoption of more automatic technology may reduce operation costs and, thus, a closed composting system with mechanical aeration may be more cost effective; (4 the output is a determinant of affecting production costs and private firms are more competitive in production costs than government-affiliated composting units; (5 all of the government-affiliated composting units face a negative profit and thus they are required to make use of the market value of the produced compost to achieve economic viability; and (6 a subsidy to the compost producer is needed to expand the market demand as the food waste recycled can save the disposal cost of municipal solid waste (MSW incineration.

  15. Bacterial diversity at different stages of the composting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Composting is an aerobic microbiological process that is facilitated by bacteria and fungi. Composting is also a method to produce fertilizer or soil conditioner. Tightened EU legislation now requires treatment of the continuously growing quantities of organic municipal waste before final disposal. However, some full-scale composting plants experience difficulties with the efficiency of biowaste degradation and with the emission of noxious odours. In this study we examine the bacterial species richness and community structure of an optimally working pilot-scale compost plant, as well as a full-scale composting plant experiencing typical problems. Bacterial species composition was determined by isolating total DNA followed by amplifying and sequencing the gene encoding the 16S ribosomal RNA. Results Over 1500 almost full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were analysed and of these, over 500 were present only as singletons. Most of the sequences observed in either one or both of the composting processes studied here were similar to the bacterial species reported earlier in composts, including bacteria from the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus. In addition, a number of previously undetected bacterial phylotypes were observed. Statistical calculations estimated a total bacterial diversity of over 2000 different phylotypes in the studied composts. Conclusions Interestingly, locally enriched or evolved bacterial variants of familiar compost species were observed in both composts. A detailed comparison of the bacterial diversity revealed a large difference in composts at the species and strain level from the different composting plants. However, at the genus level, the difference was much smaller and illustrated a delay of the composting process in the full-scale, sub-optimally performing plants. PMID:20350306

  16. Bacterial diversity at different stages of the composting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulin Lars

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Composting is an aerobic microbiological process that is facilitated by bacteria and fungi. Composting is also a method to produce fertilizer or soil conditioner. Tightened EU legislation now requires treatment of the continuously growing quantities of organic municipal waste before final disposal. However, some full-scale composting plants experience difficulties with the efficiency of biowaste degradation and with the emission of noxious odours. In this study we examine the bacterial species richness and community structure of an optimally working pilot-scale compost plant, as well as a full-scale composting plant experiencing typical problems. Bacterial species composition was determined by isolating total DNA followed by amplifying and sequencing the gene encoding the 16S ribosomal RNA. Results Over 1500 almost full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were analysed and of these, over 500 were present only as singletons. Most of the sequences observed in either one or both of the composting processes studied here were similar to the bacterial species reported earlier in composts, including bacteria from the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus. In addition, a number of previously undetected bacterial phylotypes were observed. Statistical calculations estimated a total bacterial diversity of over 2000 different phylotypes in the studied composts. Conclusions Interestingly, locally enriched or evolved bacterial variants of familiar compost species were observed in both composts. A detailed comparison of the bacterial diversity revealed a large difference in composts at the species and strain level from the different composting plants. However, at the genus level, the difference was much smaller and illustrated a delay of the composting process in the full-scale, sub-optimally performing plants.

  17. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Lokman Che Jusoh; Latifah Abd Manaf; Puziah Abdul Latiff

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-...

  18. Evaluation of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc Content of Compost Produced in Babol Composting Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Asgharzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The most important parameter is heavy metal contents in compost production technology. These heavy metals residue from substances like soap, detergents, cosmetics, packaging, leather and butteries are existed in municipal solid waste. The heavy metals can produce toxin for animal, human and plant. The aim of this research was study of produced compost quality based on heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Zn in Babol compost plant in 2012. Materials and Methods: The present research is a descriptive- cross sectional study in which was performed in six months. Total sample numbers (5 samples were randomly provided from final compost of Babol plant and then after extraction and filtration, the concentration of heavy metals like cadmium, lead and zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer PG- 999. Results: In analyzed samples the maximum, minimum and average of cadmium in the final compost were 7.25, 0.47 and 1.9 mg/kg. The maximum, minimum and mean of lead were 239.2, 31.9 and 67.1 mg/kg; in zinc were 972.7, 483.5 and 603.7 mg/kg respectively. Conclusion: The concentration of heavy metals in Babol compost samples was under Iranian national and World Health Organization standards and could be used for different species of plants. However, the usability of compost depends on other parameters such as carbon to nitrogen and other components like glass, plastics and textiles.

  19. An integrated approach of composting methodologies for solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kumaresan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic fraction of solid waste, which upon degradation produces foul smell and generates pathogens, if not properly managed. Composting is not a method of waste disposal but it is a method of waste recycling and used for agricultural purposes. An integrated approach of composting methodology was tested for municipal solid waste management. Solid waste first was composted and after 22 days, was further processed by vermicomposting. Samples were routinely taken for analysis of carbon, nitrogen, moisture content, pH and temperature to determine the quality of composting. Decrease in moisture content to 32.1 %, relative decrease in carbon and nitrogen content were also observed. Among the different types of treatment, municipal solid waste + activated sludge integration showed promising results, followed by vermicomposting municipal solid waste + activated sludge combination, compared to the combinations of dried activated sludge, municipal solid waste + activated sludge semisolid and municipal solid waste + sewage water. Thus, windrow composting followed by vermicomposting gave a better result than other methods. Thus this method would serve as a potential alternative for solid waste management.

  20. Assessing Green Development Efficiency of Municipalities and Provinces in China Integrating Models of Super-Efficiency DEA and Malmquist Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize economic and social green development, to pave a pathway towards China’s green regional development and develop effective scientific policy to assist in building green cities and countries, it is necessary to put forward a relatively accurate, scientific and concise green assessment method. The research uses the CCR (A. Charnes & W. W. Cooper & E. Rhodes Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA model to obtain the green development frontier surface based on 31 regions’ annual cross-section data from 2008–2012. Furthermore, in order to classify the regions whereby assessment values equal to 1 in the CCR model, we chose the Super-Efficiency DEA model for further sorting. Meanwhile, according to the five-year panel data, the green development efficiency changes of 31 regions can be manifested by the Malmquist index. Finally, the study assesses the reasons for regional differences; while analyzing and discussing the results may allude to a superior green development pathway for China.

  1. Bioremediation of Heavy Metals and Organic Toxicants by Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen V. Barker

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous organic and metallic residues or by-products can enter into plants, soils, and sediments from processes associated with domestic, municipal, agricultural, industrial, and military activities. Handling, ingestion, application to land or other distributions of the contaminated materials into the environment might render harm to humans, livestock, wildlife, crops, or native plants. Considerable remediation of the hazardous wastes or contaminated plants, soils, and sediments can be accomplished by composting. High microbial diversity and activity during composting, due to the abundance of substrates in feedstocks, promotes degradation of xenobiotic organic compounds, such as pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. For composting of contaminated soils, noncontaminated organic matter should be cocomposted with the soils. Metallic pollutants are not degraded during composting but may be converted into organic combinations that have less bioavailability than mineral combinations of the metals. Degradation of organic contaminants in soils is facilitated by addition of composted or raw organic matter, thereby increasing the substrate levels for cometabolism of the contaminants. Similar to the composting of soils in vessels or piles, the on-site addition of organic matter to soils (sheet composting accelerates degradation of organic pollutants and binds metallic pollutants. Recalcitrant materials, such as organochlorines, may not undergo degradation in composts or in soils, and the effects of forming organic complexes with metallic pollutants may be nonpermanent or short lived. The general conclusion is, however, that composting degrades or binds pollutants to innocuous levels or into innocuous compounds in the finished product.

  2. Bioremediation of heavy metals and organic toxicants by composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Allen V; Bryson, Gretchen M

    2002-02-12

    Hazardous organic and metallic residues or by-products can enter into plants, soils, and sediments from processes associated with domestic, municipal, agricultural, industrial, and military activities. Handling, ingestion, application to land or other distributions of the contaminated materials into the environment might render harm to humans, livestock, wildlife, crops, or native plants. Considerable remediation of the hazardous wastes or contaminated plants, soils, and sediments can be accomplished by composting. High microbial diversity and activity during composting, due to the abundance of substrates in feedstocks, promotes degradation of xenobiotic organic compounds, such as pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). For composting of contaminated soils, noncontaminated organic matter should be cocomposted with the soils. Metallic pollutants are not degraded during composting but may be converted into organic combinations that have less bioavailability than mineral combinations of the metals. Degradation of organic contaminants in soils is facilitated by addition of composted or raw organic matter, thereby increasing the substrate levels for cometabolism of the contaminants. Similar to the composting of soils in vessels or piles, the on-site addition of organic matter to soils (sheet composting) accelerates degradation of organic pollutants and binds metallic pollutants. Recalcitrant materials, such as organochlorines, may not undergo degradation in composts or in soils, and the effects of forming organic complexes with metallic pollutants may be nonpermanent or short lived. The general conclusion is, however, that composting degrades or binds pollutants to innocuous levels or into innocuous compounds in the finished product.

  3. Meat waste as feedstock for home composting: Effects on the process and quality of compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storino, Francesco; Arizmendiarrieta, Joseba S; Irigoyen, Ignacio; Muro, Julio; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M

    2016-10-01

    Home composting is a powerful tool, which is spreading in different parts of the world, to reduce the generation of municipal waste. However, there is debate concerning the appropriateness, in terms of domestic hygiene and safety, of keeping a composter bin in the household deputed to kitchen waste of animal origin, such as meat or fish scraps and pet droppings. The purpose of our work was to study how the addition of meat scraps to household waste influences the composting process and the quality of the final compost obtained. We compared four raw material mixtures, characterized by a different combination of vegetable and meat waste and different ratios of woody bulking agent. Changes in temperature, mass and volume, phenotypic microbial diversity (by Biolog™) and organic matter humification were determined during the process. At the end of the experiment, the four composts were weighed and characterized by physicochemical analysis. In addition, the presence of viable weed seeds was investigated and a germination bioassay was carried out to determine the level of phytotoxicity. Finally, the levels of pathogens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.) were also determined in the final compost. Here we show that the presence of meat waste as raw feedstock for composting in bins can improve the activity of the process, the physicochemical characteristics and maturity of the compost obtained, without significantly affecting its salinity, pH and phytotoxicity. Pathogen levels were low, showing that they can be controlled by an intensive management and proper handling of the composter bins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling Cd and Cu mobility in soils amended by long-term urban waste compost applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Cambier, Philippe; Matijević, Lana; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Urban waste compost application to soil is an effective way for organic waste disposal and at the same time may have a positive effect on various soil rhizosphere processes. However, long term applications of organic waste amendments may lead to a noteworthy accumulation of micropollutants in soil. The long-term field experiment QualiAgro, an INRA-Veolia partnership (https://www6.inra.fr/qualiagro_eng/), has been conducted since 1998 with the objectives to characterize the agronomic value of urban composts and the environmental impacts of their application. Numerical modeling was performed using HYDRUS-2D to estimate the movement of Cd and Cu from compost incroporation in the tilled layer. Experimental plots regularly amended with co-compost of sewage sludge and green wastes (SGW), or a municipal solid waste compost (MSW) have been compared to control plot without any organic amendment (CONT). Field site was equipped with wicks lysimeters, TDR probes and tensiometers in order to determine water balance and trace metal concentrations during a 6 years' time period (2004-2010). In the tilled layer different structures (Δ - compacted clods, Γ - macroporous zone, IF - interfurrows, PP - plough pan) corresponding to the tillage and compost incorporation were delimited and reproduced in a 2-D model. The increase of Cd and Cu concentrations due to each compost addition was assumed to be located in IFs for further modeling. Four compost additions were performed during 2004-2010 period which increased the Cd and Cu concentrations in the IF zones considerably. After successful model description of water flow in highly heterogeneous soil profiles, Cd and Cu were added into the model and their fate was simulated during the same time period. Two approaches were followed to estimate plausible trace metals sorption coefficients (Kd), both while assuming equilibrium between dissolved and EDTA-extractable metals. The first approach was based on Kd estimated from ratios between

  5. Composting: Fast 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    Composting is a way of using organic wastes from yards and kitchens to help plants grow. This book discusses how composting happens in nature, the classification of composting methods, and their characteristics. Examples of containers for aerobic/anaerobic decomposition are introduced along with sample activities. The process of aerobic/anaerobic…

  6. Successful School Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Rhea Dawn

    2001-01-01

    School composting programs that have met the challenges inherent in long-term composting have several traits in common: a supportive educational program, schoolwide participation, and a consistent maintenance program. Examines the elements of success, offers examples of incorporating composting into the curriculum, and describes three methods of…

  7. Compost in plant microbial fuel cell for bioelectricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moqsud, M A; Yoshitake, J; Bushra, Q S; Hyodo, M; Omine, K; Strik, David

    2015-02-01

    Recycling of organic waste is an important topic in developing countries as well as developed countries. Compost from organic waste has been used for soil conditioner. In this study, an experiment has been carried out to produce green energy (bioelectricity) by using paddy plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) in soil mixed with compost. A total of six buckets filled with the same soil were used with carbon fiber as the electrodes for the test. Rice plants were planted in five of the buckets, with the sixth bucket containing only soil and an external resistance of 100 ohm was used for all cases. It was observed that the cells with rice plants and compost showed higher values of voltage and power density with time. The highest value of voltage showed around 700 mV when a rice plant with 1% compost mixed soil was used, however it was more than 95% less in the case of no rice plant and without compost. Comparing cases with and without compost but with the same number of rice plants, cases with compost depicted higher voltage to as much as 2 times. The power density was also 3 times higher when the compost was used in the paddy PMFCs which indicated the influence of compost on bio-electricity generation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of initial physical characteristics on sludge compost performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémier, Anne; Teglia, Cécile; Barrington, Suzelle

    2009-08-01

    To develop an active microbial activity quickly developing stabilizing thermophilic temperatures during the composting of wastewater sludge, the bulking agent (BA) plays a major role in establishing the recipe structure, exposed particle surface area and porosity. To optimize the biodegradation of a sludge compost recipe, the objective of this paper was to study the effect and interaction of initial moisture content (MC) and BA particle size distribution. Three 300 L insulated laboratory composters were used to treat two series of ten (10) recipes with different combinations of MC and BA particle size distribution. Using a to wastewater sludge to BA dry mass ratio of 1/6, the ten (10) recipes were repeated using two BA, residues recycled from a commercial sludge composting plant and crushed wood pallets. Each four week trial monitored O(2) uptake, temperature, compost consolidation and airflow distribution. The Central Composite Factor Design method produced a model from the results estimating the impact of a wider range of MC and BA particles size distribution. The MC directly affected the total O(2) uptake and therefore, organic matter biodegradation. The BA particle size distribution influenced compost consolidation with a MC crossed effect. Both BA particle size distribution and MC influenced compost airflow dispersion. Composting was optimized using the BA consisting of recycled green waste residues with particle size of 20-30 mm and a 55% MC. The predictive models suggested the need for further optimization of sludge and wood residue composting recipe.

  9. Compost Management in Iran: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Farzadkia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to report of the World Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, between 33 to 60 percent increase in agricultural production in the world due to the use of chemical fertilizers. Negative effects of fertilizers on the environment and health of living organisms, especially humans, has encountered the country whit challenges such as increasing the number of cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to replace chemical fertilizers whit biofertilizers such as compost. Compost Causes increases in productivity and controls soil erosion. Methods: In order to achieve the objectives of the research, literature review was conducted and to investigate the status of chemical fertilizers and compost in Iran and developed countries through internal and external databases, documents were collected. Results: Use of fertilizers in Europe forecasted to decline 16 million tons in 2030, while in the Iran, rate of fertilizer forecast increases to 6700 thousand tons in 2020. Total supply of compost in the country is 164 thousand tons in 2009 and will be to 590 thousand tons in 2016. The total demand is 472 thousand tons in 2009 and will be to 661 thousand tons in 2016. This indicates that there is 71 thousand tons deficiency in the supply until 2016. Conclusion: Use more of compost in the country, need to a multi-faceted management issue that Ministries, municipalities and recycle of organizations must be working together. Therefore necessary awareness aboute the adverse effects of indiscriminate use of fertilizers and also promote the use compost, in addition to reducing the use of chemical fertilizers, will be cause more demand for consumption of compost.

  10. Waste composts as nitrogen fertilizers for forage leys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. TONTTI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments, conventional grass ley and organic grass-clover ley, were established with barley as a nurse crop in spring 2000 and given either low or high fertilization with mineral fertilizer (Mineral or composts. The compost types were municipal biowaste (Biowaste, biowaste + sewage sludge (BioSludge and cattle manure (Manure. Plant yields and nitrogen (N uptakes were measured for three years and efficiency of N utilization was estimated. In single application of compost, the total N was mainly in organic form and less than 10% was in inorganic form. Along with increasing amount of inorganic N applied in compost, the yield, N uptake and N recovery increased during the application year. The highest compost N recovery in the application year was 12%, found with Biowaste. In the following years the highest N recovery was found where the lowest total N had been applied. Clover performance was improved in the organic grass-clover ley established with BioSludge fertilization, producing total ley yield comparable with Manure compost. High total N application in composts caused high N surplus and low N use efficiency over three years. Generally, moderate compost fertilization is suitable for ley crops when supplemented with mineral N fertilizer or clover N fixation.;

  11. greening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utpal

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. Rapid molecular detection of ... rescence tests with monoclonal antibodies and DNA-DNA hybridization with radioprobes have been used for .... efficiency in amplification of DNA of greening bacterium based on the number of sample amplified and intensity of ...

  12. Repeated applications of compost and manure mainly affect the size and chemical nature of particulate organic matter in a loamy soil after 8 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltre, Clement; Dignac, Marie-France; Doublet, Jeremy; Plante, Alain; Houot, Sabine

    2013-04-01

    Land application of exogenous organic matter (EOM) of residual origin can help to maintain or increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. However, it remains necessary to quantify and predict the soil C accumulation and to determine under which form the C accumulates. Changes to the chemical composition of soil organic matter (SOM) after repeated applications of composts and farmyard manure were investigated in a field experiment (Qualiagro experiment, Ile-de-France) after 8 years of applications of green waste and sludge compost (GWS), municipal solid waste compost (MSW), biowaste compost (BIOW) or farmyard manure (FYM). The soil was fractionated into particulate organic matter >50 µm (POM), a heavy fraction >50 µm and a 0-50 µm fraction demineralized with hydrofluoric acid (HF). Repeated EOM applications significantly increased total SOC stocks, the C amount in the POM fraction and to a less extent in the 0-50 µm fraction compared to the reference treatment. Compost applications accumulated C preferentially under the form of coarse organic matter of size >50 µm, whereas the FYM accumulated similar C proportions of size >50 µm and 0-50 µm, which was attributed to the presence in the FYM of a fraction of labile C stimulating microbial activity and producing humified by-products together with a fraction of stabilized C directly alimenting the humified fraction of SOC. Pyrolysis-GC/MS and DRIFT spectroscopy revealed enrichment in lignin in the POM fractions of amended soils with GWS, BIOW and FYM. In the soil receiving MSW compost, the pyrolysate of the POM fraction revealed the presence of plastics originating from the MSW compost. A lower C mineralization during laboratory incubation was found for the POM fractions of amended soils compared with the POM from reference soil. This feature was related to a lower ratio of (furfural+acetic acid) / pyrole pyrolysis products in POM of amended vs. reference plots, indicating a higher degree of recalcitrance.. The POM

  13. Composting of bio-waste, aerobic and anaerobic sludges--effect of feedstock on the process and quality of compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himanen, Marina; Hänninen, Kari

    2011-02-01

    In-vessel composting of three stocks with originally different degree of organic matter degradation was conducted for: (1) kitchen source-separated bio-waste (BW), (2) aerobic (AS) as well as (3) anaerobic sludges (AnS) from municipal wastewater treatment plant. Composting experiment lasted over a year. The highest activity of the process was in the BW compost. It was implied by the highest temperature, CO(2) release, ammonification and nitrification, intensive accumulation and removal of low-weight carboxylic acids (water- and NaOH-extractable). Between the sludges higher mineralization and CO2 release was in AnS, while ammonification and nitrification were higher in AS compost; no significant difference between sludge composts was noticed for dynamics of pH, conductivity, concentrations of LWCA, and some nutrient compounds and heavy metals. Nitrogen content of the final compost increased in BW, but decreased in AS and AnS. Phytotoxicity of Lepidium sativum was eliminated faster in sludge composts compared to BW compost. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) on composting of agricultural wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fabao; Gu, Wenjie; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Xie, Kaizhi; Huang, Xu; Huang, Qiaoyi

    2011-06-01

    Composting is the biological degradation and transformation of organic materials under controlled conditions to promote aerobic decomposition. To find effective ways to accelerate composting and improve compost quality, numerous methods including additive addition, inoculation of microorganisms, and the use of biosurfactants have been explored. Studies have shown that biosurfactant addition provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, thereby accelerating the composting process. However, biosurfactants have limited applications because they are expensive and their use in composting and microbial fertilizers is prohibited. Meanwhile, alkyl polyglycoside (APG) is considered a "green" surfactant. This study aims to determine whether APG addition into a compost reaction vessel during 28-day composting can enhance the organic matter degradation and composting process of dairy manure. Samples were periodically taken from different reactor depths at 0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. pH levels, electrical conductivity (EC), ammonium and nitrate nitrogen, seed germination indices, and microbial population were determined. Organic matter and total nitrogen were also measured. Compared with the untreated control, the sample with APG exhibited slightly increased microbial populations, such as bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. APG addition increased temperatures without substantially affecting compost pH and EC throughout the process. After 28 days, APG addition increased nitrate nitrogen concentrations, promoted matter degradation, and increased seed germination indices. The results of this study suggest that the addition of APG provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, slightly enhancing organic matter decomposition and accelerating the composting process, improving the compost quality to a certain extent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Compost Compaction Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    aerated static pile composting ) has been shown to be most effective at reducing the explosives levels in the soils (4). As a result, it is anticipated...y ■,... tiiii silsis H-ifjfe Compost Compaction Evaluation Report No. ENAEC-TS-CR-93110 Contract No. DACA31-9-D-0079 Task Order No. 01...Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE October 1993 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Compost Compaction Evaluation 6

  16. Compost als onkruidonderdrukker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente

    2008-01-01

    Een deklaag van 2 centimeter compost vermindert de onkruiddruk tot 80 procent. Biologisch akkerbouwer Anton van Vilsteren uit Marknesse (Flevoland) heeft de eerste compoststrokenlegger voor uien en peen

  17. Microbiological and Physico-chemical Analysis of Compost and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recycling of organic wastes in agriculture after appropriate biological treatment can produce valuable organic matter and be of great interest in countries where nutrient-deficient and poor quality soils prevail (Hassen et al., 2001). Reports showed that application of municipal solid waste compost in agricultural production ...

  18. Microbiological degradation of pesticides in yard waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, A M; Tuovinen, O H

    1991-06-01

    Changes in public opinion and legislation have led to the general recognition that solid waste treatment practices must be changed. Solid-waste disposal by landfill is becoming increasingly expensive and regulated and no longer represents a long-term option in view of limited land space and environmental problems. Yard waste, a significant component of municipal solid waste, has previously not been separated from the municipal solid-waste stream. The treatment of municipal solid waste including yard waste must urgently be addressed because disposal via landfill will be prohibited by legislation. Separation of yard waste from municipal solid waste will be mandated in many localities, thus stressing the importance of scrutinizing current composting practices in treating grass clippings, leaves, and other yard residues. Yard waste poses a potential environmental health problem as a result of the widespread use of pesticides in lawn and tree care and the persistence of the residues of these chemicals in plant tissue. Yard waste containing pesticides may present a problem due to the recalcitrant and toxic nature of the pesticide molecules. Current composting processes are based on various modifications of either window systems or in-vessel systems. Both types of processes are ultimately dependent on microbial bioconversions of organic material to innocuous end products. The critical stage of the composting process is the thermophilic phase. The fate and mechanism of removal of pesticides in composting processes is largely unknown and in need of comprehensive analysis.

  19. Microbiological degradation of pesticides in yard waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, A M; Tuovinen, O H

    1991-01-01

    Changes in public opinion and legislation have led to the general recognition that solid waste treatment practices must be changed. Solid-waste disposal by landfill is becoming increasingly expensive and regulated and no longer represents a long-term option in view of limited land space and environmental problems. Yard waste, a significant component of municipal solid waste, has previously not been separated from the municipal solid-waste stream. The treatment of municipal solid waste including yard waste must urgently be addressed because disposal via landfill will be prohibited by legislation. Separation of yard waste from municipal solid waste will be mandated in many localities, thus stressing the importance of scrutinizing current composting practices in treating grass clippings, leaves, and other yard residues. Yard waste poses a potential environmental health problem as a result of the widespread use of pesticides in lawn and tree care and the persistence of the residues of these chemicals in plant tissue. Yard waste containing pesticides may present a problem due to the recalcitrant and toxic nature of the pesticide molecules. Current composting processes are based on various modifications of either window systems or in-vessel systems. Both types of processes are ultimately dependent on microbial bioconversions of organic material to innocuous end products. The critical stage of the composting process is the thermophilic phase. The fate and mechanism of removal of pesticides in composting processes is largely unknown and in need of comprehensive analysis. PMID:1886519

  20. Physico- Chemical characteristics of compost (Cotonou, Benin, West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was led the town of Cotonou in Benin and particularly on the vegetable garden site of Houéyiho. It involved the valorization of the waste of this site by proceeding the aerobic composting of the biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste collected in the markets. This consists among other rotten fruits of various ...

  1. The use of organic certified compost to control soilborne diseases caused by Phytophthora spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Pugliese, Massimo; Gullino, M. Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    Soilborne pathogens can cause serious damages to economically important crops. Control of these diseases has traditionally depended upon rotations and soil quality improvement strategies. Compost has shown a suppressive activity against soilborne pathogens, and its use may decrease the severity of root rot diseases, optimize waste recycling and increase yields in organic farming. An organic certified compost produced from biowaste, green and yard wastes in a composting plant in the North-West...

  2. Utilization of solar energy in sewage sludge composting: fertilizer effect and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqun; Yu, Fang; Liang, Shengwen; Wang, Zongping; Liu, Zizheng; Xiong, Ya

    2014-11-01

    Three reactors, ordinary, greenhouse, and solar, were constructed and tested to compare their impacts on the composting of municipal sewage sludge. Greenhouse and solar reactors were designed to evaluate the use of solar energy in sludge composting, including their effects on temperature and compost quality. After 40 days of composting, it was found that the solar reactor could provide more stable heat for the composting process. The average temperature of the solar reactor was higher than that of the other two systems, and only the solar reactor could maintain the temperature above 55°C for more than 3 days. Composting with the solar reactor resulted in 31.3% decrease in the total organic carbon, increased the germination index to 91%, decreased the total nitrogen loss, and produced a good effect on pot experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Posidonia oceanica (L.) based compost as substrate for potted basil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mininni, Carlo; Grassi, Francesco; Traversa, Andreina; Cocozza, Claudio; Parente, Angelo; Miano, Teodoro; Santamaria, Pietro

    2015-08-15

    Peat is the main component of growing media but is also a non-renewable resource; therefore European policy strongly encourages the use of peat alternatives such as compost. Posidonia is a Mediterranean seagrass that produces very conspicuous onshore deposits that can be composted. In this study, a commercial green compost and a Posidonia residue-based compost were tested in order to assess their potential use as substitutes or complements to peat. All macro and micro-element concentrations of the substrates were positively and significantly related to the percentage of composts in the growing media. Plant grown on peat showed higher content of P, Ca, K, Na, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe, and a slightly higher biomass production in comparison to compost-based growing media. In contrast, plants grown on compost-based substrates showed lower uptake of Cd and Cr than peat. The results indicate that both composts can be used as a complement to the peat for substrate preparation, especially at a rate of 30%. The Posidonia-based compost showed better productive results in comparison to the green one. Basil grown on the two compost-based media showed reduced absorption level of potentially toxic metals in comparison to peat. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Chemical and biological contaminants of compost from USW: Risk for the health; Exposicion a contaminantes quimicos y biologicos a traves del compost elaborado con la fraccion organica de RSU. Riesgo sobre la Salud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, J. L. [Universidad Rovira i Virgili. Reus. Tarragona (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    In the management of municipal solid waste (MSW), the sorting-composting approach presents many advantages. However, since MSW may contain a number of chemical and biological contaminants, the compost should not be necessarily a harmless product. These contaminants may expose different populations the health hazards, ranging from the composting plant workers to the consumers of vegetable products treated with compost fertilizers. The aim of this article was to review recent informations concerning health risks derived from occupational exposure to organic dusts, bio aerosols and microorganisms in MSW composting plants. An evaluation of the potential health risks of volatile organic compounds released during composting is also included. Taking into account the potential biological and chemical risks, we conclude that an exhaustive control of the workers employed in MSW composting facilities is clearly required. (Author) 19 refs.

  5. Composting Begins at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreckman, George P.

    1994-01-01

    Reports the results of a year-long home composting pilot program run by the city of Madison, Wisconsin. The study was designed to gather data on the amount and type of materials composted by 300 volunteer households and to determine the feasibility of a full-scale program. (LZ)

  6. Effect of elemental sulphur and compost on pH, electrical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of elemental sulphur and compost on pH, electrical conductivity and phosphorus availability of one clay soil. ... Soil water content was held close to field capacity and green house temperature was kept to 25 ± 5°C. Before the experiment, the physicochemical properties of soil and chemical properties of the compost ...

  7. Sewage sludge, compost and other representative organic wastes as agricultural soil amendments: Benefits versus limiting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Paula; Mourinha, Clarisse; Farto, Márcia; Santos, Teresa; Palma, Patrícia; Sengo, Joana; Morais, Marie-Christine; Cunha-Queda, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Nine different samples of sewage sludges, composts and other representative organic wastes, with potential interest to be used as agricultural soil amendments, were characterized: municipal sewage sludge (SS1 and SS2), agro industrial sludge (AIS), municipal slaughterhouse sludge (MSS), mixed municipal solid waste compost (MMSWC), agricultural wastes compost (AWC), compost produced from agricultural wastes and sewage sludge (AWSSC), pig slurry digestate (PSD) and paper mill wastes (PMW). The characterization was made considering their: (i) physicochemical parameters, (ii) total and bioavailable heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg), (iii) organic contaminants, (iv) pathogenic microorganisms and (v) stability and phytotoxicity indicators. All the sludges, municipal or other, comply with the requirements of the legislation regarding the possibility of their application to agricultural soil (with the exception of SS2, due to its pathogenic microorganisms content), with a content of organic matter and nutrients that make them interesting to be applied to soil. The composts presented, in general, some constraints regarding their application to soil, and their impairment was due to the existence of heavy metal concentrations exceeding the proposed limit of the draft European legislation. As a consequence, with the exception of AWSSC, most compost samples were not able to meet these quality criteria, which are more conservative for compost than for sewage sludge. From the results, the composting of sewage sludge is recommended as a way to turn a less stabilized waste into a material that is no longer classified as a waste and, judging by the results of this work, with lower heavy metal content than the other composted materials, and without sanitation problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Remediation of metal contaminated soil with mineral-amended composts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herwijnen, Rene van [University of Surrey, School of Engineering, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Forest Research, Land Regeneration and Urban Greening Group, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); University of Cambridge, Department of Engineering, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); University of Cambridge, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Hutchings, Tony R. [Forest Research, Land Regeneration and Urban Greening Group, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Al-Tabbaa, Abir [University of Cambridge, Department of Engineering, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Moffat, Andy J. [Forest Research, Land Regeneration and Urban Greening Group, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Johns, Mike L. [University of Cambridge, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Ouki, Sabeha K. [University of Surrey, School of Engineering, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.ouki@surrey.ac.uk

    2007-12-15

    This study examined the use of two composts derived from green waste and sewage sludge, amended with minerals (clinoptilolite or bentonite), for the remediation of metal-contaminated brownfield sites to transform them into greenspace. Soils contaminated with high or low levels of metals were mixed with the mineral-enhanced composts at different ratios and assessed by leaching tests, biomass production and metal accumulation of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The results showed that the green waste compost reduced the leaching of Cd and Zn up to 48% whereas the composted sewage sludge doubled the leachate concentration of Zn. However, the same soil amended with composted sewage sludge showed an efficient reduction in plant concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb or Zn by up to 80%. The results suggest that metal immobilisation and bioavailability are governed by the formation of complexes between the metals and organic matter. The amendment with minerals had only limited effects. - Composts can increase or decrease the bioavailability of metals in soil.

  9. Long-term simulations of water and isoproturon dynamics in a heterogeneous soil receiving different urban waste composts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Romić, Davor; Benoit, Pierre; Houot, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Implementing various compost amendments and tillage practices has a large influence on soil structure and can create heterogeneities at the plot/field scale. While tillage affects soil physical properties, compost application influences also chemical properties like pesticide sorption and degradation. A long-term field experiment called "QualiAgro" (https://www6.inra.fr/qualiagro_eng/), conducted since 1998 aims at characterizing the agronomic value of urban waste composts and their environmental impacts. A modeling study was carried out using HYDRUS-2D for the 2004-2010 period to confront the effects of two different compost types combined with the presence of heterogeneities due to tillage in terms of water and isoproturon dynamics in soil. A municipal solid waste compost (MSW) and a co-compost of sewage sludge and green wastes (SGW) have been applied to experimental plots and compared to a control plot without any compost addition (CONT). Two wick lysimeters, 5 TDR probes, and 7 tensiometers were installed per plot to monitor water and isoproturon dynamics. In the ploughed layer, four zones with differing soil structure were identified: compacted clods (Δ), non-compacted soil (Γ), interfurrows (IF), and the plough pan (PP). These different soil structural zones were implemented into HYDRUS-2D according to field observation and using measured soil hydraulic properties. Lysimeter data showed (2004 -2010 period) that the CONT plot had the largest cumulative water outflow (1388 mm) compared to the MSW plot (962 mm) and SGW plot (979 mm). HYDRUS-2D was able to describe cumulative water outflow after calibration of soil hydraulic properties, for the whole 2004-2010 period with a model efficiency value of 0.99 for all three plots. Isoproturon leaching showed had the largest cumulative value in the CONT plot (21.31 μg) while similar cumulated isoproturon leachings were measured in the SGW (0.663 μg) and MSW (0.245 μg) plots. The model was able to simulate

  10. The Utilization of Banana Peel in the Fermentation Liquid in Food Waste Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Azhari, N. W.

    2016-07-01

    Municipal solid waste in Malaysia contains a high amount of organic matters, particularly food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% from the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Food waste can be converted into useful materials such as compost. However, source separation of food waste for recycling is not commonly practiced in Malaysia due to various constraints. These constraints include low awareness among the waste generators and low demand of the products produced from the food waste such as composts. Composting is one of the alternatives that can be used in food waste disposal from Makanan Ringan Mas. The aim of the study is to convert food waste generated from Makanan Ringan Mas which is a medium sale industry located at Parit Kuari Darat, Batu Pahat by using composting method. The parameters which include temperature, pH value, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) values has been examined. Banana peel is being used as the fermentation liquid whilst soil and coconut husk were used as the composting medium. Based on the results during the composting process, most of the pH value in each reactor is above 5 and approximately at neutral. This shown that the microbial respiration in the well controlled composting reactor was inhibited and had approached the mature phase. On the other hand, during the period of composting, the overall temperature range from 25 °C to 47 °C which shown the active phase for composting will occoured. As for NPK content Nitrogen value range is 35325 mg/L to 78775 mg/L, Phosphorus, 195.83 mg/L to 471 mg/L and potassium is 422.3 mg/L to 2046 mg/L which is sufficient to use for agricultural purpose. The comparison was made with available organic compost in the market and only showed slightly difference. Nevertheless, in comparison with common fertilizer, the NPK value of organic compost are considerably very low.

  11. Effects of compost media on growth and flowering of parviflorous garden pansy (Viola x wittrockiana Gams.. Part II. Plant flowering and decorative value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zawadzińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the studies was to determine the effects of media containing composts from sewage sludge and potato pulp on the flowering and decorative value of 'Butterfly Yellow with Blotch' parviflorous pansy. In the experiment 14 potting media, including 12 media made of 4 composts, were tested. The percentage of compost mixed with sphagnum peat was 25%, 50% and 75%. The components of particular composts were as follows: I - municipal sewage sludge 70% and straw 30%; II - municipal sewage sludge 70% and sawdust 30%; III - municipal sewage sludge 35%, potato pulp 35% and straw 30%; IV - municipal sewage sludge 35%, potato pulp 35% and sawdust 30%. Two control potting media were used: 1 - sphagnum peat with Osmocote Exact Lo-Start at the dose 5 g×dm-3 and 2 - sphagnum peat with Azofoska at the dose 2.5 g×dm-3. There was no top-dressing during cultivation. The pansies for whose cultivation a slow-release fertiliser was used turned out to have most flowers, but the plants cultivated in compost with peat at the ratio 1:1 had equally abundant flowering. At the generative stage, the pansies in control media were the most decorative and those growing in 25% of compost I, 75% of compost II and 50% of compost III and IV. On the basis of plant valuation scale, quality assessment and the abundance of flowering it was found that the media containing 50% of composts were optimal for pansy cultivation.

  12. The effect of application of compost from urban solid wastes on the properties of agricola soil; Efecto de la aplicacion de compost de residuos solidos urbanos sobre las propiedades de un suelo agricola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garci-Gil, J. C.; Soler-Rovira, P.; Alonso, N.; Diaz-Marcote, I.; Polo, A. [C.S.I.C. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-08-01

    A long-term field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the addition of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost applied at two different rates on a barley crop. In all treatments, values obtained for plants overall weights show increases in comparison to the control, especially with the higher rate of compost. The contents of macronutients in plants were similar in all the treatments. only N showed an increase in both grain and straw with the higher rate of compost during the years of consecutive applications. No heavy metal contamination was observed in plants, but in the compost treatments the contents of Zn increased while Mn decreased. (Author)

  13. Characterization of different compost extracts using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Teresa; Gil, Ma Victoria; Gómez, Xiomar; González-Andrés, Fernando; Morán, Antonio

    2008-11-01

    Compost extract or "compost tea" is a liquid extract of compost obtained by mixing compost and water for a defined period of time. Compost tea contains nutrients and a range of different organisms and is applied to the soil or directly to plants with the principal aim of suppressing certain plant diseases. In addition, the application of compost tea supplies nutrients and organic matter to the soil. Thermal analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are two widely applied analytical techniques for establishing the stability of compost, and although numerous studies have evaluated the capacity of compost tea to suppress plant diseases, there are no studies employing these techniques to characterize compost-tea. For the present study, 12 compost extracts were produced under varying conditions in a purpose-built reactor. Two different composts, an stable compost produced from manure and an unstable compost produced from municipal solid waste, respectively, two aeration systems (aerated and non-aerated extracts) and three temperatures (10, 20 and 30 degrees C) were used in these experiments. The extracts were freeze-dried and subsequently analysed, together with the two composts, by means of FTIR and thermal analysis. Extracts produced from high stability compost, independently of the conditions of aeration and temperature, showed very similar results. In contrast, differences among extracts produced from the unstable compost were more noticeable. However, the different conditions of aeration and temperature during the production of the extracts only explained partially these differences, since the transformations undergone by compost over the 3 months that the experiments lasted were also reflected in the composition of the extracts. In spite of everything, extraction process favoured the degradation of easily oxidizable organic matter, which was more abundant in unstable compost. This degradation was more intense for non-aerated processes, probably

  14. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: COMPOSTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composting is an emerging ex situ biological technology that is potentially applicable to nonvolatile and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in soils. It has been applied to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and explosives. It has been found to be potentially effectiv...

  15. Composting: Great Rotten Idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    To help students investigate both the advantages and disadvantages of composting, various activities are presented dealing with the definitions and the applications of the concepts of recyclable and biodegradable. (MCO)

  16. The Science of Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, Flora L.

    1993-01-01

    Students are able to experience cellular respiration in action and become more informed about the environment by creating compost. This article describes an activity that brings a natural process into the classroom. (ZWH)

  17. Compost biofiltration of ammonia gas from bin composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J H; Park, K J

    2005-04-01

    The effects of the manure compost/coconut peels on the ammonia removal efficiency were examined from dairy manure composting mixed with crop residues. The high rapid composting and manure compost biofiltration experiments consisted of three biofilter vessels with one composter. Dairy manure amended with rice hulls and sawdust was composted in 605 L pilot-scale composter using continuous aeration for 19 days. Three pilot-scale manure compost biofilter amended with media bed 500 mm in depth and 300 mm in diameter were built to clean ammonia emission from composter, respectively. The manure compost biofilter media in the three experimental vessels was using a 50:50 by weight mixture of manure compost and coconut peels (MC/CP). The ammonia concentrations at the inlet and outlet biofilter media were measured by boric acid traps as described by Hong et al. [Hong, J.H., Keener, H.M., Elwell, D.L., 1998. Preliminary study of the effect of continuous and intermittent aeration on composting hog manure amended with sawdust. Compost Science and Utilization 6 (3), 74-88]. Results indicated that the mixture of MC/CP performed well as a biofilter media and the ammonia removal efficiency was 100% for the filter depth of 500 mm.

  18. Metaproteomics reveals major microbial players and their biodegradation functions in a large-scale aerobic composting plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongming; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zimin; Song, Caihong; Zhu, Chaowei

    2015-01-01

    Composting is an appropriate management alternative for municipal solid waste; however, our knowledge about the microbial regulation of this process is still scare. We employed metaproteomics to elucidate the main biodegradation pathways in municipal solid waste composting system across the main phases in a large-scale composting plant. The investigation of microbial succession revealed that Bacillales, Actinobacteria and Saccharomyces increased significantly with respect to abundance in composting process. The key microbiologic population for cellulose degradation in different composting stages was different. Fungi were found to be the main producers of cellulase in earlier phase. However, the cellulolytic fungal communities were gradually replaced by a purely bacterial one in active phase, which did not support the concept that the thermophilic fungi are active through the thermophilic phase. The effective decomposition of cellulose required the synergy between bacteria and fungi in the curing phase. PMID:25989417

  19. Multivariate Analysis of the Determinants of the End-Product Quality of Manure-Based Composts and Vermicomposts Using Bayesian Network Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverial, Julie; Cornet, Denis; Paul, Jacky

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that the quality of tropical composts is poorer than that of composts produced in temperate regions. The aim of this study was to test the type of manure, the use of co-composting with green waste, and the stabilization method for their ability to improve compost quality in the tropics. We produced 68 composts and vermicomposts that were analysed for their C, lignin and NPK contents throughout the composting process. Bayesian networks were used to assess the mechanisms controlling compost quality. The concentration effect, for C and lignin, and the initial blend quality, for NPK content, were the main factors affecting compost quality. Cattle manure composts presented the highest C and lignin contents, and poultry litter composts exhibited the highest NPK content. Co-composting improved quality by enhancing the concentration effect, which reduced the impact of C and nutrient losses. Vermicomposting did not improve compost quality; co-composting without earthworms thus appears to be a suitable stabilization method under the conditions of this study because it produced high quality composts and is easier to implement. PMID:27314950

  20. Multivariate Analysis of the Determinants of the End-Product Quality of Manure-Based Composts and Vermicomposts Using Bayesian Network Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverial, Julie; Cornet, Denis; Paul, Jacky; Sierra, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that the quality of tropical composts is poorer than that of composts produced in temperate regions. The aim of this study was to test the type of manure, the use of co-composting with green waste, and the stabilization method for their ability to improve compost quality in the tropics. We produced 68 composts and vermicomposts that were analysed for their C, lignin and NPK contents throughout the composting process. Bayesian networks were used to assess the mechanisms controlling compost quality. The concentration effect, for C and lignin, and the initial blend quality, for NPK content, were the main factors affecting compost quality. Cattle manure composts presented the highest C and lignin contents, and poultry litter composts exhibited the highest NPK content. Co-composting improved quality by enhancing the concentration effect, which reduced the impact of C and nutrient losses. Vermicomposting did not improve compost quality; co-composting without earthworms thus appears to be a suitable stabilization method under the conditions of this study because it produced high quality composts and is easier to implement.

  1. Multivariate Analysis of the Determinants of the End-Product Quality of Manure-Based Composts and Vermicomposts Using Bayesian Network Modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Faverial

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicated that the quality of tropical composts is poorer than that of composts produced in temperate regions. The aim of this study was to test the type of manure, the use of co-composting with green waste, and the stabilization method for their ability to improve compost quality in the tropics. We produced 68 composts and vermicomposts that were analysed for their C, lignin and NPK contents throughout the composting process. Bayesian networks were used to assess the mechanisms controlling compost quality. The concentration effect, for C and lignin, and the initial blend quality, for NPK content, were the main factors affecting compost quality. Cattle manure composts presented the highest C and lignin contents, and poultry litter composts exhibited the highest NPK content. Co-composting improved quality by enhancing the concentration effect, which reduced the impact of C and nutrient losses. Vermicomposting did not improve compost quality; co-composting without earthworms thus appears to be a suitable stabilization method under the conditions of this study because it produced high quality composts and is easier to implement.

  2. Development of microbial community in the course of composting of garden waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Vítězová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Composting represents one of the technologies of processing of biodegradable municipal waste. Samples collected from composting plants were analyzed chemically, physically and microbiologically. The pH of bio waste samples increased from 6.5 to 8.6. The total carbon to nitrogen ratio in samples of bio waste decreased, in the course of composting, from 40:1 up to the value of 25:1 while the total nitrogen to phosphorus ratio decreased from 10:1 up to 8:1. Indicator groups of microorganisms were monitored in compost samples. Representatives of Enterobacter genus, namely E. cloacae and E. aerogenes were identified in the samples on the basis of biochemical tests. The bacterial groups needed for efficient composting, i.e. order Bacillales and Actinomycetales, were present in appreciable amounts.

  3. Composting technology in waste stabilization: On the methods, challenges and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwosi, Chukwudi O; Igbokwe, Victor C; Odimba, Joyce N; Eke, Ifeanyichukwu E; Nwankwoala, Mary O; Iroh, Ikemdinachi N; Ezeogu, Lewis I

    2017-04-01

    Composting technology has become invaluable in stabilization of municipal waste due to its environmental compatibility. In this review, different types of composting methods reportedly applied in waste management were explored. Further to that, the major factors such as temperature, pH, C/N ratio, moisture, particle size that have been considered relevant in the monitoring of the composting process were elucidated. Relevant strategies to improve and optimize process effectiveness were also addressed. However, during composting, some challenges such as leachate generation, gas emission and lack of uniformity in assessing maturity indices are imminent. Here in, these challenges were properly addressed and some strategies towards ameliorating them were proffered. Finally, we highlighted some recent technologies that could improve composting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Handbook for composting and compost use in organic horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurff, van der A.W.G.; Fuchs, J.G.; Raviv, Michael; Termorshuizen, Aad

    2016-01-01

    Compost, as a product of recycling processes, can be a very appropriate input material for organic farming, provided the composting process is well-managed, the input materials are free of contaminants, and the resulting product is applied according to the system’s ecological needs. Compost is a

  5. Compost in plant microbial fuel cell for bioelectricity generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moqsud, M.A.; Yoshitake, J.; Bushra, Q.S.; Hyodo, M.; Omine, K.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of organic waste is an important topic in developing countries as well as developed countries. Compost from organic waste has been used for soil conditioner. In this study, an experiment has been carried out to produce green energy (bioelectricity) by using paddy plant microbial fuel cells

  6. Experimental evaluation of compost leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Compost is often used in raingardens, roadsides, and bioretention systems, not only because of : its beneficial properties on soil quality, but also because compost improves water infiltration and : retains stormwater contaminants. However, when comp...

  7. Compost voor biggen met diarree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommers, T.

    1990-01-01

    Het geven van compost aan biggen met diarree zorgt op het Proefstation voor de Varkenshouderij voor minder medicijngebruik. De biggen krijgen de compost van groente-, fruit- en tuinafval vanaf de tweede dag na de geboorte, zodra de diarreeverschijnselen zichtbaar zijn.

  8. The effects of worms, clay and biochar on CO2 emissions during production and soil application of co-composts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthod, Justine; Rumpel, Cornélia; Paradelo, Remigio; Dignac, Marie-France

    2016-12-01

    In this study we evaluated CO2 emissions during composting of green wastes with clay and/or biochar in the presence and absence of worms (species of the genus Eisenia), as well as the effect of those amendments on carbon mineralization after application to soil. We added two different doses of clay, biochar or their mixture to pre-composted green wastes and monitored carbon mineralization over 21 days in the absence or presence of worms. The resulting co-composts and vermicomposts were then added to a loamy Cambisol and the CO2 emissions were monitored over 30 days in a laboratory incubation. Our results indicated that the addition of clay or clay/biochar mixture reduced carbon mineralization during co-composting without worms by up to 44 %. In the presence of worms, CO2 emissions during composting increased for all treatments except for the low clay dose. The effect of the amendments on carbon mineralization after addition to soil was small in the short term. Overall, composts increased OM mineralization, whereas vermicomposts had no effect. The presence of biochar reduced OM mineralization in soil with respect to compost and vermicompost without additives, whereas clay reduced mineralization only in the composts. Our study indicates a significant role of the conditions of composting on mineralization in soil. Therefore, the production of a low CO2 emission amendment requires optimization of feedstocks, co-composting agents and worm species.

  9. Food Waste Composting Study from Makanan Ringan Mas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Ismail, S. N. M.; Jamaludin, S. N.

    2016-07-01

    The poor management of municipal solid waste in Malaysia has worsened over the years especially on food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% of the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Composting is one of low cost alternative method to dispose the food waste. This study is conducted to compost the food waste generation in Makanan Ringan Mas, which is a medium scale industry in Parit Kuari Darat due to the lack knowledge and exposure of food waste recycling practice. The aim of this study is to identify the physical and chemical parameters of composting food waste from Makanan Ringan Mas. The physical parameters were tested for temperature and pH value and the chemical parameter are Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. In this study, backyard composting was conducted with 6 reactors. Tapioca peel was used as fermentation liquid and soil and coconut grated were used as the fermentation bed. Backyard composting was conducted with six reactors. The overall results from the study showed that the temperature of the reactors were within the range which are from 30° to 50°C. The result of this study revealed that all the reactors which contain processed food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 5 to 6 which can be categorized as slightly acidic. Meanwhile, the reactors which contained raw food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 7 to 8 which can be categorized as neutral. The highest NPK obtained is from Reactor B that process only raw food waste. The average value of Nitrogen is 48540 mg/L, Phosphorus is 410 mg/L and Potassium is 1550 mg/L. From the comparison with common chemical fertilizer, it shows that NPK value from the composting are much lower than NPK of the common chemical fertilizer. However, comparison with NPK of organic fertilizer shown only slightly difference value in NPK.

  10. Innovations in composting pig manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudrum, D.P.

    2005-01-01

    Composting manure on farm can emit large quantities of ammonia and smell. This thesis focuses on improving the compost process by analysis of the process control, the feed composition and the bed structure. A low cost solution to the ammonia emission was developed. By composting at low oxygen

  11. VERMICOMPOSTING AS AN ALTERNATIVE WAY OF BIODEGRADABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT FOR SMALL MUNICIPALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sosnecka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of vermicomposting as a method of bioconversion of organic wastes, inter alia sewage sludge, biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes and green wastes. Vermicomposting is a biological process in which earthworms are employed to cooperate with microorganisms in order to convert organic wastes into a valuable product. It is considered as a relatively low cost and environmentally-friendly method of waste treatment. Nevertheless, as each biotechnology, the process is limited to some physical, chemical and biological parameters. In this study, sewage sludge coming from medium-sized wastewater treatment plant was mixed with mown grass, sawdust and organic fraction of municipal wastes and vermicomposted for 5 weeks with Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei as main actors. The scope of the research was to 1 assess the influence of E. fetida and E.andrei composting earthworms on the physical and chemical properties of the product; 2 changes of concentration of selected heavy metals and their available forms in compost during the process, 3 the effects of substrates on earthworms survival and reproduction. Selected earthworm species had shown a high tolerance to the contaminants present in sewage sludge and a positive impact on the quality of the product was noted. Vermicomposting enhances decomposition of organic matter, leads to decrease in C/N ratio and pH, and changes the availability of some heavy metals and its total content in substratum. Experimental medium led earthworms to increase body weight due to the presence of large amount of organic matter, while the reproduction was importantly reduced. Vermicomposting can be considered as a method of treatment of solid wastes, mainly in the case of small municipalities.

  12. HOME COMPOSTING: IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF THE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Lourenço Castiglioni Guidoni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available : In Brazil, the Municipal Solid Waste (RSU, from Portuguese Resíduo Sólido Urbano is a growing issue that is faced both in the formal field, in regulatory laws, as well as in management practices, concerning social and environmental responsibility of individuals, businesses and municipalities. Among the several components, organic matter corresponds to more than half of the entire amount of generated waste. As a treatment and a recycling alternative, home composting can improve the use of this fraction generated by Brazilian households. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to implement and evaluate a home composting system in four households. In each residence it was set up a cylindrical reactor of 255L to store the leftovers of fruit and vegetables as it was generated, being mixed and covered with rice hull. Weekly, the temperature and volume of the filled reactors were recorded. The final composts were assessed by the macro and micronutrients contained and their maturity stage. As a result, it was possible to reduce the amount of waste allocated for public management by the recycling source. The efficiency of the process was verified by monitoring the temperature and the absence of unpleasant odors. When 90 days were elapsed after the attendance, three of the researched households have remained with the composting system, voluntarily.

  13. Legionella spp. in UK composts--a potential public health issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, S L; Beattie, T K; Knapp, C W; Lindsay, D S J

    2014-04-01

    Over the past 5 years, a number of cases of legionellosis in Scotland have been associated with compost use; however, studies investigating sources of infection other than water systems remain limited. This study delivers the first comprehensive survey of composts commonly available in the UK for the presence of Legionella species. Twenty-two store-bought composts, one green-waste compost and one home-made compost were tested for Legionella by culture methods on BCYE-α medium, and the findings were confirmed by macrophage infectivity potentiator (mip) speciation. Twenty-two of the samples were retested after an enrichment period of 8 weeks. In total, 15 of 24 composts tested positive for Legionella species, a higher level of contamination than previously seen in Europe. Two isolates of Legionella pneumophila were identified, and Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 was found to be one of the most commonly isolated species. L. longbeachae infection would not be detected by routine Legionella urinary antigen assay, so such testing should not be used as the sole diagnostic technique in atypical pneumonia cases, particularly where there is an association with compost use. The occurrence of Legionella in over half of the samples tested indicates that compost could pose a public health risk. The addition of general hygiene warnings to compost packages may be beneficial in protecting public health. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  14. Accelerated In-vessel Composting for Household Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Prashant P.; Joshi, Yadnyeshwar S.

    2017-12-01

    Composting at household level will serve as a viable solution in managing and treating the waste efficiently. The aim of study was to design and study household composting reactors which would treat the waste at source itself. Keeping this aim in mind, two complete mix type aerobic reactors were fabricated. A comparative study between manually operated and mechanically operated reactor was conducted which is the value addition aspect of present study as it gives an effective option of treatment saving the time and manpower. Reactors were loaded with raw vegetable waste and cooked food waste i.e. kitchen waste for a period of 30 days after which mulch was allowed to mature for 10 days. Mulch was analyzed for its C/N ratio, nitrate, phosphorous, potassium and other parameters to determine compost quality, every week during its period of operation. The results showed that compost obtained from both the reactors satisfied almost all compost quality criteria as per CPHEEO manual on municipal solid waste management and thus can be used as soil amendment to increase the fertility of soil.In terms of knowledge contribution, this study puts forth an effective way of decentralized treatment.

  15. Repeated research of biodegradability of plastics materials in real composting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Adamcová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to verify information obtained by repeated research provide in 2011 and 2012 in real composting conditions and check information about biodegradability of plastics bags in real composting conditions. In both cases samples were placed into frames and inserted into one clamp within the compost pile to investigate the biodegradation. The plastics bags were obtained from chain stores in the Czech Republic and Poland. The shopping bags were made of HDPE with the TDPA additive (sample 2, PP with an addition of pro-oxidants (d2w (sample 1, 3 and materials certified as compostable (starch, polycaprolactone (sample 4, 5, 6, 7. Control sample (cellulose filtering paper, sample 8 was to check the potential of biological decomposition in the tested environment. At the end of the 15-week experimental period it was found that the polyethylene samples with the additive (sample 1, 2, 3 had not been decomposed, their colour had not changed and that no degradation neither physical changes had occurred (did not biodegrade. Samples certified as compostable (sample 4, 5, 6, 7 were decomposed. The results at the municipal compost facility demonstrate that the compostable plastics biodegrade and polyethylene samples with the additive did not biodegrade in compost.

  16. Utilization of solar energy in sewage sludge composting: Fertilizer effect and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yiqun; Yu, Fang; Liang, Shengwen; Wang, Zongping, E-mail: zongpingw@hust.edu.cn; Liu, Zizheng; Xiong, Ya

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Solar energy technologies were utilized in aerobic sewage sludge composting. • Greenhouse and solar reactors were constructed to compare impacts on the composting. • Impatiens balsamina was planted in pot experiments to evaluate fertilizer effect. - Abstract: Three reactors, ordinary, greenhouse, and solar, were constructed and tested to compare their impacts on the composting of municipal sewage sludge. Greenhouse and solar reactors were designed to evaluate the use of solar energy in sludge composting, including their effects on temperature and compost quality. After 40 days of composting, it was found that the solar reactor could provide more stable heat for the composting process. The average temperature of the solar reactor was higher than that of the other two systems, and only the solar reactor could maintain the temperature above 55 °C for more than 3 days. Composting with the solar reactor resulted in 31.3% decrease in the total organic carbon, increased the germination index to 91%, decreased the total nitrogen loss, and produced a good effect on pot experiments.

  17. A laboratory-scale comparison of compost and sand--compost--perlite as methane-oxidizing biofilter media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philopoulos, Andrew; Ruck, Juliane; McCartney, Daryl; Felske, Christian

    2009-03-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills produce methane, a potent greenhouse gas. A treatment approach is to passively vent landfill gas through a methane-oxidizing biofilter medium, a porous substrate that facilitates the growth of methanotrophic bacteria. Two substrates, compost and a sand-compost-perlite (SCP) mixture, were evaluated in a laboratory-scale experiment for their suitability as biofilter media. The SCP mixture was investigated to minimize settlement and was based on a particle size distribution specification used for turf grass. The long-term (218 days) methane removal rates showed that both compost and SCP were capable of removing 100% of the methane influent flux (134 g CH(4) m( -2) day(-1)). The post-experiment analysis showed that compost had compacted more than SCP. This did not affect the results; however, in a field installation, traffic on the biofilter surface (e.g. maintenance) could cause further compaction and negatively affect performance. Exopolymeric substance produced by the methanotrophic bacteria, attributed by others for declining removal rates due to bio-clogging, was not observed to affect the results. The maximum exopolymeric substance values measured were 23.9 and 7.8 mg D-glucose g(-1) (dry basis) for compost and SCP, respectively.

  18. Effects of compost stability and contaminant concentration on the bioremediation of PAHs-contaminated soil through composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayara, Tahseen; Sarrà, Montserrat; Sánchez, Antoni

    2010-07-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of two factors: the stability degree (0.37-4.55 mg O(2) g(-1) Organic Matter h(-1)) of different composts derived from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes and the concentration of a complex mixture of PAHs including fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene and benzo(a)anthracene in the bioremediation of soil. The two factors were systematically studied applying central composite design methodology. The obtained results demonstrated that compost stability degree was particularly important during the first stage of the process. Stable composts enhanced the levels of degradation in soil-compost mixture and a degradation rate of 92% was achieved in this period, but only 40% was degraded with the least stable compost. The PAHs concentration was also important during the process, since the degradation rates increased with the increase in the PAHs concentration. Moreover, all the individual PAHs demonstrated a notable decrease in their concentrations after the incubation period, but pyrene was degraded to lower levels in some treatments compared to others PAHs. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparing composts formed by different technological processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyckova, B.; Mudrunka, J.; Kucerova, R.; Glogarova, V.

    2017-10-01

    The presented article compares quality of composts which were formed by different technological processes. The subject to comparison was a compost which was created in a closed fermenter where ideal conditions for decomposition and organic substances conversion were ensured, with compost which was produced in an open box of community composting. The created composts were analysed to determine whether it is more important for the final compost to comply with the composting conditions or better sorting of raw materials needed for compost production. The results of the carried out experiments showed that quality of the resulting compost cannot be determined unequivocally.

  20. The use of compost for the biological pest control. An alternative for pesticides; Utilizacion de compost en el control biologico de plagas. Una alternativa a los plaguicidas quimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual, J. A.

    2000-07-01

    Traditional methods of controlling pests and diseases using chemical pesticides can provide highly effective pest control but these methods might be damaging to the environment. Compost or other organic matter added to soil has the potential to control many soil borne plant pathogens, therefore they can be used in the sustainable agriculture. The mechanisms of action of compost are not well defined, being a mix of mycoparasitism, antibiotic production and nutrient competition. Our research is focused on the potential action of compost from municipal wastes in the biological control on pest. The addition of organic waste compost improved the biological control against Pythium furthermore raised the organic matter content of an arid soil. The addition of urban waste to the soil also could act long-term against Pythium, reducing the application times. One of the compost fraction more active in biological control are the humic substances. Nowadays, composts cannot be used by themselves to prevent plant pathogens action, it also is needed some pesticide application, but the use of these pesticides can be considerably reduced with the application of compost. (Author)

  1. Assessing Soil Nutrient Additions through Different Composting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Four compost types (vermi-compost, conventional compost, farmers' compost and community nursery compost) with three replications were used in this study. ..... Edwards, C.A. 1998. The use of earthworm in the break down and management of organic wastes. In: C.A. Edwards (ed.) Earthworm Ecology. St. Lucie Press ...

  2. Assessing Soil Nutrient Additions through Different Composting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of vermi-compost in northern Ethiopia is not a common practice. It is, therefore, important to understand the possible impediments through studying its chemical and biological properties and its extra contribution compared to other composting techniques. Four compost types (vermi-compost, conventional compost, ...

  3. Effects of Compost, Vermicompost and Sulfur Compost on Scindapsus aureus Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Saffari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: This study was conducted to investigate effects of biofertilizers application and its interaction with organic manures on Scindapsus aureus performance. Materials & Methods: The experiment was performed in a randomized block design with factorial arrangement of two above mentioned factors at greenhouse of Municipality fertilizer production factory. Three different fertilizers (vermicompost, granular compost fortified with sulphur and trash compost were applied at four levels of 5, 10, 15, and 20 percent of soil. The comparisons among means were made using the least significant difference test calculated at p-values <0.05. Results: Around leaves area index (LAI, performance of vermicompost (8.31 was better than other fertilizers. This increase can be related to more absorb nutrients, better nutrition and thus improve plant performance in the presence of vermicompost. Conclusions: Thus use of fertilizers and especially vermicompost in the Scindapsus aureus growth with 10% of soil, will achieve increase in all indicators of plant growth. Thus, the processes of biological conversion such as composting in addition to economic value also have benefits for environmental protection.

  4. Compost supplementation with nutrients and microorganisms in composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Óscar J; Ospina, Diego A; Montoya, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    The composting is an aerobic, microorganism-mediated, solid-state fermentation process by which different organic materials are transformed into more stable compounds. The product obtained is the compost, which contributes to the improvement of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of the soil. However, the compost usage in agriculture is constrained because of its long-time action and reduced supply of nutrients to the crops. To enhance the content of nutrients assimilable by the plants in the compost, its supplementation with nutrients and inoculation with microorganisms have been proposed. The objective of this work was to review the state of the art on compost supplementation with nutrients and the role played by the microorganisms involved (or added) in their transformation during the composting process. The phases of composting are briefly compiled and different strategies for supplementation are analyzed. The utilization of nitrogenous materials and addition of microorganisms fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere or oxidizing ammonia into more assimilable for plants nitrogenous forms are analyzed. Several strategies for nitrogen conservation during composting are presented as well. The supplementation with phosphorus and utilization of microorganisms solubilizing phosphorus and potassium are also discussed. Main groups of microorganisms relevant during the composting process are described as well as most important strategies to identify them. In general, the development of this type of nutrient-enriched bio-inputs requires research and development not only in the supplementation of compost itself, but also in the isolation and identification of microorganisms and genes allowing the degradation and conversion of nitrogenous substances and materials containing potassium and phosphorus present in the feedstocks undergoing the composting process. In this sense, most important research trends and strategies to increase nutrient content in the compost

  5. Effects of compost media on growth and flowering of parviflorous garden pansy (Viola x wittrockiana Gams.. Part I. Plant growth and conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zawadzińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the studies was to determine the effects of media with composts, based on sewage sludge and potato pulp, on the growth and conformation of the cultivar 'Butterfl y Yellow with Blotch'. In the experiment 14 potting media, including 12 media made of 4 composts, were tested. The percentage of compost mixed with sphagnum peat was 25%, 50% and 75%. The components of particular composts were as follows: I - municipal sewage sludge 70% and straw 30%; II - municipal sewage sludge 70% and sawdust 30%; III - municipal sewage sludge 35%, potato pulp 35% and straw 30%; IV - municipal sewage sludge 35%, potato pulp 35% and sawdust 30%. Two control potting media were used: 1 - sphagnum peat with Osmocote Exact Lo-Start at the dose 5 g×dm-3, and 2 - sphagnum peat with Azofoska at the dose 2.5 g×dm-3. There was no top-dressing during cultivation. The potting media used for pansy cultivation were rich in essential nutrients and in certain media macroelement content exceeded the limits recommended for the species with great nutrient requirements. The effects of the media on the growth, conformation and foliage of pansies depended on compost composition and its pecentage in a medium. The composts used for the media were found to be suitable for pansy cultivation. Despite smaller leaf rosettes in comparison with control plants, the pansies from compost media grew well and showed no disease symptoms.

  6. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  7. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  8. Towards low carbon society in Iskandar Malaysia: Implementation and feasibility of community organic waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Cassendra Phun-Chien; Goh, Rebecca Kar Yee; Lim, Jeng-Shiun; Ho, Wai Shin; Lee, Chew-Tin; Hashim, Haslenda; Abu Mansor, Nur Naha; Ho, Chin Siong; Ramli, Abdul Rahim; Takeshi, Fujiwara

    2017-12-01

    Rapid population growth and urbanisation have generated large amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many cities. Up to 40-60% of Malaysia's MSW is reported to be food waste where such waste is highly putrescible and can cause bad odour and public health issue if its disposal is delayed. In this study, the implementation of community composting in a village within Iskandar Malaysia is presented as a case study to showcase effective MSW management and mitigation of GHG emission. The selected village, Felda Taib Andak (FTA), is located within a palm oil plantation and a crude palm oil processing mill. This project showcases a community-composting prototype to compost food and oil palm wastes into high quality compost. The objective of this article is to highlight the economic and environment impacts of a community-based composting project to the key stakeholders in the community, including residents, oil palm plantation owners and palm oil mill operators by comparing three different scenarios, through a life cycle approach, in terms of the greenhouse gas emission and cost benefit analysis. First scenario is the baseline case, where all the domestic waste is sent to landfill site. In the second scenario, a small-scale centralised composting project was implemented. In the third scenario, the data obtained from Scenario 2 was used to do a projection on the GHG emission and costing analysis for a pilot-scale centralised composting plant. The study showed a reduction potential of 71.64% on GHG emission through the diversion of food waste from landfill, compost utilisation and significant revenue from the compost sale in Scenario 3. This thus provided better insight into the feasibility and desirability in implementing a pilot-scale centralised composting plant for a sub-urban community in Malaysia to achieve a low carbon and self-sustainable society, in terms of environment and economic aspects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of organic amendments and compost extracts on tomato production and storability in ecological production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ghorbani reza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in Shiravan, Iran, during 2005 in order to investigate the effects of organic amendments, synthetic fertilizers and compost extracts on crop health, productivity and storability of commonly used tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.. Treatments included different fertilizers of cattle, sheep and poultry manures, house-hold compost and chemical fertilizers, and five aqueous extracts from cattle manure, poultry manures, green-waste and house-hold composts and water as control. The effect of fertilizer type on tomato yield and marketable yield was significant (P

  10. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers' grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills.

  11. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B.; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers’ grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills. PMID:27300323

  12. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin B Holman

    Full Text Available Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers' grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills.

  13. Effect of covering composting piles with mature compost on ammonia emission and microbial community structure of composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Koki; Morioka, Riki; Osada, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    To control ammonia (NH(3)) volatilization from the dairy cattle (Bos taurus) manure composting process, a compost pile was covered with mature compost and the gas emissions evaluated using the dynamic chamber system. The peak of NH(3) volatilization observed immediately after piling up of the compost was reduced from 196 to 62 mg/m(3) by covering the compost pile with mature compost. The accumulation of NH(4)-N to the covered mature compost was also observed. Covering and mixing the compost with mature compost had no effect on the microbial community structure. However, over time the microbial community structure changed because of a decrease in easily degradable organic compounds in the compost piles. The availability of volatile fatty acids (VFA) was considered to be important for microbial community structure in the compost. After the VFA had disappeared, the NO(3)-N concentration increased and the cellulose degrading bacteria such as Cytophaga increased in number.

  14. The use of compost. Its effects on heavy metal levels in soil and plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinamonti, F.; Stringari, G.; Gasperi, F.; Zorzi, G. [Istituto Agrario di San Michele, San Michele all`Adige (Italy)

    1997-10-01

    Three organic soil conditioners were tested in 14 different Malus domestica orchards: cattle manure, SB compost (from sewage sludge and poplar barks) and MSW compost (from municipal solid waste not source separated). These materials differed notably in their heavy metal content: the SB compost contained greater amounts of Zn, Cu and Pb than did the cattle manure, while the MSW compost had higher concentrations of all the metals studied. For 6 years the Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr content were monitored in the soil- both in `total` and EDTA extractable form - and in leaves and fruits. The resulting data demonstrate that the SB compost did not cause any significant increase in heavy metal levels in soil and plants; this compost can thus be used to fertilise the soil with no danger in the short/medium term either to the environment or to crops. In contrast, the experiment clearly demonstrates that the MSW compost, used over a 6 year period, increased concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr in the soil - both in `total` and EDTA extractable form - and in the case of Pb and Cd also in the vegetation and the fruits

  15. YIELD FORMING EFFECT OF APPLICATION OF COMPOSTS CONTAINING POLYMER MATERIALS ENRICHED IN BIOCOMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Gambuś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a pot experiment the impact of composts containing polymeric materials modified with biocomponents on the diversity of crops of oats and mustard was examined. The composts used in the study were produced in the laboratory from wheat and rape straw, and pea seed cleaning waste with 8-percent addition of chopped biopolymer materials (films which were prepared in the Central Mining Institute (GIG in Katowice. Three polymers differing in content of starch and density were selected for the composting. The pot experiment was conducted on three substrates: light and medium soil and on the sediment obtained after flotation of zinc and lead ores, coming from the landfill ZGH “Boleslaw” S.A. in Bukowno. The need for using such materials and substrates results from the conditions of processing some morphological fractions of municipal waste and from improving methods of reclamation. Yield enhancing effect of composts depends on the substrate on which the compost was used, cultivated plants and crop succession. Application of composts prepared with 8% of polymeric materials based on polyethylene, modified with starch as biocomponent, resulted in significantly lower yields in sandy (light soil in case of oats and, in some cases, in medium soil. Subsequent plant yield did not differ significantly between the objects fertilized with compost.

  16. Comparison of olive pomace and biowaste composts in a vegetable cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Morra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to study the growth and the yield responses of different vegetable crops to pomace compost and biowaste (source-separated municipal organic fraction compost and to the increase in their rates. A secondary aim was to assess the efficiency of nitrogen (N supplied to the crops by the compost rate integrated or not with N fertilisers. Finally, the ability of the two composts to improve the soil organic carbon content was also compared. The research was carried out from July 2009 to June 2011. A comparison was made of treatments resulting from the factorial combination of two composts, two rates of application, and two levels of nitrogen fertiliser. A non-fertilised control was also analysed and a standard mineral fertilisation completed the group of treatments. Cauliflower and potato were harvested after the first compost distribution, and onion and lettuce after the second. Our results indicated that the higher the quantity of olive pomace compost applied the greater the slow release of NO3–N for crop needs. This has to be related to the high carbon:nitrogen ratio of the olive pomace compost.The halved rate of N fertiliser added to compost was sufficient to overcome the competition between soil microorganisms and roots for nitrogen, only on the second crop in the annual sequence. The biowaste compost without N fertiliser integration also reduced crop yields, but this was to a lesser degree than that achieved with olive pomace compost and was independent of the rate applied. The halved rate of N fertiliser supplied was able to overcome the problems of nitrogen availability. As a consequence, the nitrogen utilisation efficiency showed a higher recovery of nitrogen from biowaste compost than from olive pomace compost, as well as from the 10 t ha–1 dose (rate 10 of dry matter than from the 20 t ha–1 dose. On the other hand, the soil organic carbon content increased significantly only when the composts were

  17. Effects of mixing and covering with mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen Hai; Yuan, Jing; Luo, Yi Ming; Li, Guo Xue; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated effects of mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting using pig manure amended with corn stalks. Apart from a control treatment, three treatments were conducted with the addition of 5% (wet weight of raw materials) of mature compost: (a) mixing raw materials with mature compost at the beginning of composting; (b) covering raw materials with mature compost throughout the experimental period; and (c) covering raw materials with mature compost at the start of composting, but incorporating it into composting pile on day 6 of composting. Mature compost used for the last treatment was inoculated with 2% (wet weight) of raw materials of strain M5 (a methanotrophic bacterium) solution. During 30-d of composting, three treatments with the addition of mature compost could reduce CH4 emission by 53-64% and N2O emission by 43-71%. However, covering with mature compost throughout the experimental period increased cumulative NH3 emission by 61%, although it could reduce 34% NH3 emission in the first 3d. Inoculating strain M5 in mature compost covered on the top of composting pile within first 6d enhanced CH4 oxidation, but simultaneously increased N2O emission. In addition, mixing with mature compost could improve compost maturity. Given the operational convenience in practice, covering with mature compost and then incorporating it into composting pile is a suitable approach to mitigate gaseous emissions during composting. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J H; Murphy, R J; Narayan, R; Davies, G B H

    2009-07-27

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all 'good' or petrochemical-based products are all 'bad'. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated 'home' composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted.

  19. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J. H.; Murphy, R. J.; Narayan, R.; Davies, G. B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all ‘good’ or petrochemical-based products are all ‘bad’. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated ‘home’ composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted. PMID:19528060

  20. Good for sewage treatment and good for agriculture: Algal based compost and biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Andrew J; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Roberts, David A

    2017-09-15

    In this study we test a novel approach to closing the anthropogenic nutrient cycle, by using the freshwater macroalga, Oedogonium intermedium, to recover dissolved nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) from municipal wastewater. We then convert this cultivated algae into two types of soil ameliorant; compost and biochar. To produce compost, algae was combined with sugarcane bagasse and left to mature for 10 weeks, and to produce biochar, algae was processed through slow pyrolysis at 450 °C. The mature compost had a total N and P content of 2.5% and 0.6%, which was 2- to 4-times lower than the algal biochar, which had a total N and P content of 5.5% and 2.5% respectively. Composting stabilized the N and P recovered from wastewater, with 80% of the initial N and >99% of the initial P retained in the mature compost. In contrast, only 29% of the initial N and 62% of the initial P was retained in the biochar. When the mature compost was added to a low fertility soil it significantly increased the production of sweet corn (Zea mays). Treatments receiving 50 and 100% compost produced 4-9 times more corn biomass than when synthetic fertilizer alone was added to the low fertility soil. When biochar was applied in conjunction with compost there was an additional 15% increase in corn productivity, most likely due to the ability of the biochar to bind labile N and P and prevent its loss from the soil. This study demonstrates a unique model for recovering N and P from municipal wastewater and recycling these nutrients into the agricultural industry. This could be an ideal model for regional areas where agriculture and water treatment facilities are co-located and could ultimately reduce the reliance of agriculture on finite mineral sources of P. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Compost duurzaam ingezet. De Compost Scorekaarten: een instrument voor het afwegen van de waarde van compost

    OpenAIRE

    Schrik, Yannick; Koopmans, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Het duurzame gebruik van een reststof zoals compost hangt sterk samen met de waarde die de compost heeft bij toepassing. Deze publicatie geeft via heldere Compost Score Kaarten inzicht in het vinden van de juiste compostsoort voor het gewenste doel. Of het nu gaat om organischestofvoorziening, verbetering van de bodemstructuur of de nutriëntenvoorziening van gewassen: een bewuste keuze voor de compostsoort en –kwaliteit draagt bij aan een duurzame inzet en duurzaam hergebruik van reststoffen.

  2. Composting of urban solid wastes: agronomic value of environmental impact. Application for potatoes production; Compost de RSU: valor agronomico vs impacto ambiental. Aplicacion en la produccion de patata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastiao, M. J.; Queda, A. C. C.

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) compost (still allowed in Portugal for agricultural purposes) on potato production and to assess the risk of heavy metal contamination of vegetables and soils. Three types of soils from the Setubal region were tested. Significant increases in potato production were obtained in poor sandy soils even at low compost application rates (15 t/ha year). There was no significant intake of heavy metals by the tubers grown with compost in all the tests performed. Four years of compost application increased copper concentration in the three types of soils, Zinc and lead accumulation was also observed in some of the experimental fields. Nevertheless, the detected amounts are still far below the limit values indicated in Portuguese and EU legislation for agricultural soils. The gradual change from MSW to bio-waste compost already in progress in our country will certainly reduce our concerns about compost utilisation in agriculture. (Author)

  3. Using life cycle assessment for municipal solid waste management in Tehran Municipality Region 20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salar Omid

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the lack of a proper waste management system, Tehran Municipality Region 20 is facing economic and environmental problems such as the high costs of a disposal system and source pollution. Life cycle assessment (LCA is a method for collecting and evaluating the inputs, outputs, and potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle. The current study purposed to provide a stable and optimized system of solid waste management in Tehran Municipality Region 20. Methods: The LCA method was used to evaluate various scenarios and compare the effects on environmental aspects of management systems. Four scenarios were defined based on existing and possible future waste management systems for this region. These scenarios were considered with different percentages for source separation, composting, recycling, and energy recovery. Results: Based on the results of this study, Scenario 4 (source separation [14%] + composting [30%] + municipal recycling facility [MRF] [20%] + energy recovery [10%] + landfilling [26%] was found to be the option with the minimum environmental impact. In the absence of government support and sufficient funds for establishing energy recovery facilities, the third scenario (source separation [14%] + composting [30%] +MRF [20%] + landfilling [36%] is recommended. Conclusion: The results acquired from this investigation will confirm the belief that LCA as an environmental device may be successfully used in an integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS as a support tool for decision-making.

  4. Compostage et qualité du compost de déchets urbains solides de la ville de Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Compaoré, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Composting and Compost Quality of Urban Solid Wastes in Bobo-Dioulasso Town, Burkina Faso. A study of urban solid wastes composting was conducted to evaluate wastes compost quality. Wastes of municipal dumps of Bobo-Dioulasso have been collected, separated and composted with cow manure, grass and Kodjari phosphate rock. During composting the pH increased up to 8.6, the moisture up to 68% and the temperature up to 65 °C before decreasing and then stabilizing at 7.1; 30% and 31 °C respectively. Particle size distribution of composts showed that the fraction ≤ 2 mm is dominant, about 65%. The organic matter, C, N, P and K contents of the composts are acceptable but the C/N ratio was relatively low in comparison with international standard. The heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn contents in composted urban wastes were relatively high with higher content of Zn and Pb. The compost obtained was of good quality and the addition of Kodjari phosphate rock enhanced this quality.

  5. Phytosanitary risk assessment of composts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termorshuizen, A.J.; Rijn, van E.; Blok, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of phytosanitary risks associated with application of composts in agriculture generally has focused on the sanitation (self-heating) phase during composting when most plant pathogens are inactivated due to lethal temperatures. However, a few plant pathogens are heat resistant and they may

  6. Strike It Rich with Classroom Compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Linda L. Cronin

    1992-01-01

    Discusses composting of organic materials as an alternative to landfills. Lists uses of composts and describes details of a simple composting activity for high school students. Includes an information sheet for students and a student data sheet. Suggests other composting activities. (PR)

  7. The Compost Pile Meets the 1990's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Todd

    1991-01-01

    Advocates composting as a valuable alternative to the landfill for waste management. As much as two-thirds of garbage can be composted, and the process has become more cost effective. Some challenges to composting are producing a compost product that will sell and dealing with the odor created by the process. (KS)

  8. Intermittent rainstorms cause pulses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and copper in leachate from compost in bioretention systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullane, Jessica M. [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Puyallup, WA 98371, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Flury, Markus, E-mail: flury@wsu.edu [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Puyallup, WA 98371, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Iqbal, Hamid [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Puyallup, WA 98371, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Sector H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan); Freeze, Patrick M. [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Puyallup, WA 98371, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Hinman, Curtis [Natural Resources Program Extension, Washington State University, Puyallup, WA 98371 (United States); Cogger, Craig G.; Shi, Zhenqing [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Puyallup, WA 98371, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Bioretention systems rely on vegetation and mixtures of soil, sand, and compost to filter stormwater runoff. However, bioretention systems can also leach metals and nutrients, and compost may be a major contributor to this leaching. To safely implement bioretention systems, it is crucial to determine the composition of compost leachate. We characterized and quantified the leachate composition of compost following intermittent, simulated storm events. Columns of municipal compost were irrigated to simulate 6-month, 24-hour rain storms in the Seattle–Tacoma region. Outflow was analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), particulate concentration, surface tension, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen, phosphorus, and copper. Results indicate a decrease of chemical concentrations over the course of individual storms and following repeated storms, but each new storm released another peak of constituents. The decrease in phosphorus, copper, and DOC concentrations with repeated storms was slower than for nitrate and EC. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the DOC consisted mainly of aliphatic and aromatic components typical of fulvic and humic acids. Less than 3% of the original copper content from the compost leached out even after nine storm events. Nonetheless, copper concentrations in the leachate exceeded regulatory discharge standards. Our results show that compost can serve as a sustained source of leaching of nutrients and metals. - Highlights: • Intermittent rainstorms release N, P, and Cu from compost in bioretention systems. • Leaching of Cu is sustained over several years of rainfall. • Leaching of Cu is correlated with DOC concentrations. • Compost in bioretention systems can be a source of pollution.

  9. Repeated compost application effects on phosphorus runoff in the Virginia Piedmont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spargo, John T; Evanylo, Gregory K; Alley, Marcus M

    2006-01-01

    Increasing amounts of animal and municipal wastes are being composted before land application to improve handling and spreading characteristics, and to reduce odor and disease incidence. Repeated applications of composted biosolids and manure to cropland may increase the risk for P enrichment of agricultural runoff. We conducted field research in 2003 and 2004 on a Fauquier silty clay loam (Ultic Hapludalfs) to compare the effects of annual (since 1999) applications of composted and uncomposted organic residuals on P runoff characteristics. Biosolids compost (BSC), poultry litter-yard waste compost (PLC), and uncomposted poultry litter (PL) were applied based on estimated plant-available N. A commercial fertilizer treatment (CF) and an unamended control treatment (CTL) were also included. Corn (Zea mays L.) and a cereal rye (Secale cereal L.) cover crop were planted each year. We applied simulated rainfall in fall 2004 and analyzed runoff for dissolved reactive P (DRP), total dissolved P (TDP), total P (TP), total organic C (TOC), and total suspended solids (TSS). End of season soil samples were analyzed for Mehlich-3 P (M3P), EPA 3050 P (3050P), water soluble P (WSP), degree of P saturation (DPS), soil C, and bulk density. Compost treatments significantly increased soil C, decreased bulk density, and increased M3P, 3050P, WSP, and DPS. The concentration of DRP, TDP, and TP in runoff was highest in compost treatments, but the mass of DRP and TDP was not different among treatments because infiltration was higher and runoff lower in compost-amended soil. Improved soil physical properties associated with poultry litter-yard waste compost application decreased loss of TP and TSS.

  10. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2002 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2002 award winner, Cargill Dow, developed the NatureWorks process to make biobased, compostable, and recyclable polylactic acid polymers for fibers and plastic packaging.

  11. Composting: Mass Balances and Product Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Körner, I.

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in composting of waste are described in Chapter 9.1 and the main composting technologies are presented in Chapter 9.2, this chapter focuses on mass balances, environmental emissions, unit process inventories and the quality of the compost produced. Understanding...... these issues and being able to account for them is a prerequisite in compost engineering and for establishing and running a successful composting facility. Of specific importance is the final use of the compost product. Use in agriculture is described in Chapter 9.10 and the use of compost in soil amendment...

  12. Revalorization of selected municipal solid wastes as new precursors of "green" nanocellulose via a novel one-pot isolation system: A source perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You Wei; Lee, Hwei Voon

    2017-08-30

    In the present work, four types of newly chosen municipal solid wastes (Panax ginseng, spent tea residue, waste cotton cloth, and old corrugated cardboard) were studied as the promising sources for nanocellulose, which has efficiently re-engineered the structure of waste products into highly valuable nanocellulose materials. The nanocellulose was produced directly via a facile one-pot oxidative hydrolysis process by using H2O2/Cr(NO3)3 solution as the bleaching agent and hydrolysis medium under acidic condition. The isolated nanocellulose products were well-characterized in terms of chemical composition, product yield, morphological structure and thermal properties. The study has found that the crystallinity index of the obtained nanocellulose products were significantly higher (62.2-83.6%) than that of its starting material due to the successive elimination of lignin, hemicellulose and amorphous regions of cellulose, which were in good agreement with the FTIR analysis. The evidence of the successful production of nanocellulose was given by TEM observation which has revealed the fibril widths were ranging from 15.6 to 46.2nm, with high cellulose content (>90%), depending on the cellulosic origin. The physicochemical properties of processed samples have confirmed that the isolation of high purity nanocellulose materials from different daily spent products is possible. The comparative study can help to provide a deep insight on the possibility of revalorizing the municipal solid wastes into nanocellulose via the simple and versatile one-pot isolation system, which has high potential to be used in commercial applications for sustainable development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Municipal 'Climate Revolution'? The Shaping of Municipal Climate Change Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam; Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2013-01-01

    -reduction goals between 0.9 and 5.9%. Size of municipality, degree of incorporation of climate change policies in the municipal administration, presence of ‘green organizations’, as well as membership of national and international climate networks, are found to be of importance for the level of ambition...

  14. Energy Effectiveness Assessment of Composting Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Plūme, I.

    2006-01-01

    The incorrect biomass composting improperly results in considerable emission of greenhouse gases, loss of effluent and composting heat into environment. The composting heat and gases utilisation is especially suitable for plant enrichment and heating of greenhouses. The mathematical model is worked out for assessment of energy effectiveness and sustainability of biomass composting process. Coefficient of energy effectiveness for traditional litter manure composting technologies is 0.45 and ca...

  15. Compost Politics: Experimenting with Togetherness in Vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahamsson, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Emerging from the question of how to live together with our planet, more-than-human approaches to interspecies relations have often presented ‘cozy’ versions of conviviality (Whatmore 2002; Haraway 2008; Hinchliffe 2010. This was usually set against a (supposedly exclusionary politics of nature, in a move that betrayed a still largely humanist ethics. From the focus on friendly companions, to the attention to practices of care or living-together, the notion of companion species and their entanglements with humans has been polarized towards a pleasant and ‘nice’ version of coexistence. But, dealing with composting, it becomes clear that relations with the environment are never so neat and clean. What are, then, the modes of being together with the ‘dirty’ side of the ‘green’? What practices emerge at the mundane interstices of the ‘big picture’ of a functional ecology? Wasting, eating, rotting, consuming, transforming and becoming-with are brought together in a variety of ways in practices of composting-with earthworms. Reporting on our own and others’ attempts to ‘live-together’ with earthworms, this paper tracks the non-relations and asymmetries of the transformations of more-than-human materialities inside (and outside domestic composting bins. We argue that the example of living-together with dung earthworms sheds light on the interplays between attachment and detachment (Candea 2010, shifting the notion of conviviality from a green and comfortable ‘democratic collective’ (Latour 2004 to a messy, yet constantly productive and on-going coexistence.

  16. Chemical structures and characteristics of animal manures and composts during composting and assessment of maturity indices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jieying Huang; Zixuan Yu; Hongjian Gao; Xiaoming Yan; Jiang Chang; Chengming Wang; Jingwei Hu; Ligan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures and maturity of swine, cattle and chicken manures and composts during 70-day composting without addition of bulking agents were investigated...

  17. Preliminary screening of co-substrates for bioremediation of pyrene-contaminated soil through composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayara, Tahseen; Sarrà, Montserrat; Sánchez, Antoni

    2009-12-30

    The feasibility of using different organic amendments of different origin and properties in the bioremediation of pyrene-contaminated soil by means of composting has been tested. The selected pyrene concentration was 1g of pyrene per kg of dry soil. The organic amendments used include: raw organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW), industrial compost from OFMSW composting (COFMSW), compost derived from home composting of OFMSW (HCOFMSW), anaerobically digested sludge (ADS), non-digested activated sludge (NDS) and centrifuged non-digested activated sludge (CNDS). The degradation rate was related to the amendment properties that directly affected the composting process. Raw OFMSW was not capable to enhance pyrene degradation in comparison to control, but stable HCOFMSW exhibited the highest removal rate (69%). The amendments stability and the temperatures reached as a consequence influenced the process, and thermophilic temperatures showed an inhibition effect on the microbial activity related to pyrene degradation. Some of the tested wastes need to be further investigated to find inexpensive organic amendments for soil bioremediation.

  18. Influence of chemical and structural evolution of dissolved organic matter on electron transfer capacity during composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xiao-Song [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Innovation base of Ground Water and Environmental System Engineering, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Xi, Bei-Dou, E-mail: hexs82@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Innovation base of Ground Water and Environmental System Engineering, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Cui, Dong-Yu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Innovation base of Ground Water and Environmental System Engineering, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Yong [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agro-Environmental Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Tan, Wen-Bin; Pan, Hong-Wei; Li, Dan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Innovation base of Ground Water and Environmental System Engineering, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Electron transfer capability (ETC) of compost-derived DOM was investigated. • Composting treatment increased the ETC of DOM from municipal solid wastes. • The ETC increase related to humic matter, and molecule weight, and N and S content. - Abstract: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can mediate electron transfer and change chemical speciation of heavy metals. In this study, the electron transfer capability (ETC) of compost-derived DOM was investigated through electrochemical approaches, and the factors influencing the ETC were studied using spectral and elemental analysis. The results showed that the electron accepting capacity (EAC) and electron donating capacity (EDC) of compost-derived DOM were 3.29–40.14 μmol{sub e−} (g C){sup −1} and 57.1– 346.07 μmol{sub e−} (g C){sup −1}, respectively. Composting treatment increased the fulvic- and humic-like substance content, oxygenated aliphatic carbon content, lignin-derived aromatic carbon content, molecule weight, and N and S content of DOM, but decreased the aliphatic carbon content and the C and H content. This conversion increased the EDC and EAC of the DOM during composting.

  19. Nutritional status, yield and composition of peach fruit subjected to the application of organic compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Wellington Bastos de Melo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional state, yield and composition of peaches on peach trees subjected to the application of organic compost to the soil. This experiment was conducted during the 2008 and 2009 cropping season in an orchard containing Chimarrita cultivars grafted onto Capdeboscq rootstocks and Haplumbrept soils in the municipality of Farroupilha (RS, Brazil. The treatments included 0, 9, 18, 36, 72 and 144 liters of organic compost per plant-1 year-1. The total nutrient contents in the leaves, yield components, yields per plant and hectare and compositions of the fruits were evaluated in 2008 and 2009 soon after harvest and after 30 days of storage. The application of organic compost to the soil increased the yield components and the yields per plant and hectare in the two treatments with the highest compost additions, which indicated that the addition of 72 L of compost per plant-1 is ideal economically. The organic compost had little effect on the composition of the peach fruit after harvest and after 30 days of storage.

  20. Compost for steep slope erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    This study was initiated to develop guidelines for maintenance erosion control measures for steep slopes. The study focused on evaluating and monitoring KY-31 fescue germination rates using two media treatments 1) 100 percent by weight compost and 2)...

  1. Assessing the use of composts from multiple sources based on the characteristics of carbon mineralization in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Longji; Cui, Hongyang; Jia, Liming; Xie, Xinyu; Li, Jiming; Wei, Zimin

    2017-12-01

    In order to improve soil quality, reduce wastes and mitigate climate change, it is necessary to understand the balance between soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and depletion under different organic waste compost amended soils. The effects of proportion (5%, 15%, 30%), compost type (sewage sludge (SS), tomato stem waste (TSW), municipal solid waste (MSW), kitchen waste (KW), cabbage waste (CW), peat (P), chicken manure (CM), dairy cattle manure (DCM)) and the black soil (CK). Their initial biochemical composition (carbon, nitrogen, C:N ratio) on carbon (C) mineralization in soil amended compost have been investigated. The CO2-C production of different treatments were measured to indicate the levels of carbon (C) mineralization during 50d of laboratory incubation. And the one order E model (M1E) was used to quantify C mineralization kinetics. The results demonstrated that the respiration and C mineralization of soil were promoted by amending composts. The C mineralization ability increased when the percentage of compost added to the soil also increased and affected by compost type in the order CM>KW, CW>SS, DCM, TSW>MSW, P>CK at the same amended level. Based on the values of C0 and k1 from M1E model, a management method in agronomic application of compost products to the precise fertilization was proposed. The SS, DCM and TSW composts were more suitable in supplying fertilizer to the plant. Otherwise, The P and MSW composts can serve the purpose of long-term nutrient retention, whereas the CW and KW composts could be used as soil remediation agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Analysis of the Possibility to Use Urban Organic Waste for Compost or Biogas Productions. Application to Rosario City, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Rubén D.; Vega, Marcelo

    2017-10-01

    The city waste is one of the main urban problems to be solved, since they generate large impacts on the environment, like use of land, contamination of the soil, water and air, and human diseases, among others. In Rosario city, placed in the Argentina Humid Pampa and having about 1 million inhabitants, the Municipality is developing different strategies in order to reduce the waste impact (295 000 Tons in 2016). One of the most important actions was the construction of the Bella Vista compost plant in 2012 (within the largest in South America). In the present work we analysed the possibility to use urban organic waste (that for Rosario city represents about 58% of the total waste in the last years) for: a) compost production and b) biogas production, with compost as a by-product. We determined the produced compost and biogas and the corresponding greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, considering three possible scenarios: A reference scenario (Sr ) where 24 100 Tons of urban solid waste per year is transported from the city houses and buildings to a transfer landfill and then to the a final disposal landfill; a scenario number one (S1 ) in which the same fraction of waste is transported to the Compost plant and transformed to compost and a scenario number two (S2 ) where the same quantity of waste is used for the production of biogas (and compost). Applying the IPCC 2006 Model, we compare the results of the annual GHG emissions, in order to select the best alternative: to expand the Compost plant or to build a Biogas (plus compost) plant. We also discussed the extension of the present analysis to the situation in which all the capability of the Compost plant (25% of the 2016 waste production of the city) is used and the impact these plants are having for a better quality of life of persons involved in the informal waste activity.

  3. The impact of sewage sludge and compost on winter triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kchaou, Rajia; Baccar, Rim; Bouzid, Jalel; Rejeb, Saloua

    2017-11-03

    There is an increasing interest in the agricultural application of organic waste such as soil amendment, due to the possibility of recycling valuable components, organic matter, and nutrient elements necessary for plant growth. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of sewage sludge, and green waste compost application, on a forage crop, triticale "X Triticosecale Wittmack" compared to unfertilized control. The experimental design was installed in the glasshouse conditions at the Regional Field Crop Research Center in Beja, Tunisia. Sewage sludge and green waste compost were added by four rates (0, 5, 10, and 20 t/ha) in soil, 15 days before triticale sowing. The main results showed that plant response differs depending on the type of adding fertilizer. Indeed, compost inputs decreased shoot length and production of triticale, among all sewage sludge rates, by average values of 26 and 60% respectively at final harvest, as compared to unamended soil. However, amendment with different rates of sewage sludge significantly (p < 0.05) increased different plant growth and yield attributes.

  4. Benefits to decomposition rates when using digestate as compost co-feedstock: Part II - Focus on microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Golnaz; Razaviarani, Vahid; Sheng, Zhiya; Liu, Yang; McCartney, Daryl

    2017-10-01

    Linkage between composting reactor performance and microbial community dynamics was investigated during co-composting of digestate and fresh feedstock (organic fraction of municipal solid waste) using 25L reactors. Previously, the relationship between composting performance and various physicochemical parameters were reported in Part I of the study (Arab and McCartney, 2017). Three digestate to fresh feedstock ratios (0, 40, and 100%; wet weight basis) were selected for analysis of microbial community dynamics. The 40% ratio was selected because it was found to perform the best (Arab and McCartney, 2017). Illumina sequencing results revealed that the reactor with a greater composting performance (higher organic matter degradation and higher heat generation; 40% ratio) was associated with higher microbial diversity. Two specific bacterial orders that might result in higher performance were Thermoactinomycetaceae and Actinomycetales with a higher sequence abundance during thermophilic composting phase and during the maturing composting phase, respectively. Galactomyces, Pichia, Chaetomium, and Acremonium were the four fungal genera that are probably also involved in higher organic matter degradation in the reactor with better performance. The redundancy analysis (RDA) biplot indicated that among the studied environmental variables, temperature, total ammonia nitrogen and nitrate concentration accounted for much of the major shifts in microbial sequence abundance during the co-composting process. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phytoavailability and fractionation of copper, manganese, and zinc in soil following application of two composts to four crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Warman, Phil R

    2004-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of compost addition to soil on fractionation and bioavailability of Cu, Mn, and Zn to four crops. Soils growing Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) were amended (by volume) with 0, 20, 40, and 60% Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste (SS-MSW) compost, and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.) were amended with 0, 20, 40, and 60% of high-Cu manure compost (by volume). The SS-MSW compost applications increased the concentration of Cu and Zn in all fractions, increased Mn in acid extractable (ACID), iron and manganese oxides (FeMnOX), and organic matter (OM) fractions, but decreased slightly exchangeable-Mn. Addition of 60% high-Cu manure compost to the soil increased Cu EXCH, ACID, FeMnOX, and OM fractions, but decreased EXCH-Mn, and did not change EXCH-Zn. Addition of both composts to soil reduced bioavailability and transfer factors for Cu and Zn. Our results suggest that mature SS-MSW and manure composts with excess Cu and Zn could be safely used as soil conditioners for agricultural crops.

  6. Phytoavailability and fractionation of copper, manganese, and zinc in soil following application of two composts to four crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Warman, Phil R

    2004-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of compost addition to soil on fractionation and bioavailability of Cu, Mn, and Zn to four crops. Soils growing Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) were amended (by volume) with 0, 20, 40, and 60% Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste (SS-MSW) compost, and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.) were amended with 0, 20, 40, and 60% of high-Cu manure compost (by volume). The SS-MSW compost applications increased the concentration of Cu and Zn in all fractions, increased Mn in acid extractable (ACID), iron and manganese oxides (FeMnOX), and organic matter (OM) fractions, but decreased slightly exchangeable-Mn. Addition of 60% high-Cu manure compost to the soil increased Cu EXCH, ACID, FeMnOX, and OM fractions, but decreased EXCH-Mn, and did not change EXCH-Zn. Addition of both composts to soil reduced bioavailability and transfer factors for Cu and Zn. Our results suggest that mature SS-MSW and manure composts with excess Cu and Zn could be safely used as soil conditioners for agricultural crops.

  7. Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Different Composting Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsiung Chang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate green house gas emissions from compost preparations, methane and carbon dioxide concentrations and emission rates at different accumulative times and composting periods were determined. While the accumulative time was less than 10 min with a closed acrylic chamber, meth ane and carbon dioxide emissions in creased slightly but with high fluntuation in the sampling e ror, and these values decreased significantly when the accumulative time was more than 20 min. During the 8 weeks of composting, the methane emission rate reaches its peak near the end of the second week and the carbon dioxide emission rate does the same near the end of third week. Meth ane and carbon dioxide emissions had high val ues at the first stage of com post ing and then de creased grad u ally for the ma tu rity of com post. Carbon dioxide emission (y was significantly related to temperature (x1, moisture content (x2, and total or ganiccarbon (x3; and there gression equation is: y = 3.11907x1 + 6.19236x2 - 6.63081x3 - 50.62498. The re gres sion equa tion be tween meth ane emis sion (y? and mois ture con tent (x2, pH (x4, C/N ra tio (x5, and ash con tent (x6 is: y?= 0.13225x2 - 0.97046x4 - 1.10599x5 - 0.55220x6 + 50.77057 in the ini tial com post ing stage (weeks 1 to 3; while, the equa tion is: y?= 0.02824x2 - 0.0037x4 - 0.1499x5 - 0.07013x6 + 4.13589 in the later compost ing stage (weeks 4 to 8. Dif ferent stage composts have significant variation of properties and greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, the emissions may be reduced by manipulating the proper factors.

  8. Stabilization of carbon in composts and biochars in relation to carbon sequestration and soil fertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolan, N.S., E-mail: Nanthi.Bolan@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contaminants Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Kunhikrishnan, A. [Chemical Safety Division, Department of Agro-Food Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Choppala, G.K.; Thangarajan, R. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contaminants Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Chung, J.W. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology, Dongjin-ro 33, Jinju, Gyeongnam, 660-758 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-01

    There have been increasing interests in the conversion of organic residues into biochars in order to reduce the rate of decomposition, thereby enhancing carbon (C) sequestration in soils. However energy is required to initiate the pyrolysis process during biochar production which can also lead to the release of greenhouse gasses. Alternative methods can be used to stabilize C in composts and other organic residues without impacting their quality. The objectives of this study include: (i) to compare the rate of decomposition among various organic amendments and (ii) to examine the effect of clay materials on the stabilization of C in organic amendments. The decomposition of a number of organic amendments (composts and biochars) was examined by monitoring the release of carbon-dioxide using respiration experiments. The results indicated that the rate of decomposition as measured by half life (t{sub 1/2}) varied between the organic amendments and was higher in sandy soil than in clay soil. The half life value ranged from 139 days in the sandy soil and 187 days in the clay soil for poultry manure compost to 9989 days for green waste biochar. Addition of clay materials to compost decreased the rate of decomposition, thereby increasing the stabilization of C. The half life value for poultry manure compost increased from 139 days to 620, 806 and 474 days with the addition of goethite, gibbsite and allophane, respectively. The increase in the stabilization of C with the addition of clay materials may be attributed to the immobilization of C, thereby preventing it from microbial decomposition. Stabilization of C in compost using clay materials did not impact negatively the value of composts in improving soil quality as measured by potentially mineralizable nitrogen and microbial biomass carbon in soil. - Graphical abstract: Stabilization of compost using clay materials (e.g. allophane) enhances carbon sequestration in soils. Highlights: Black

  9. Effect of organic waste compost on the crop productivity and soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astover, Alar; Toomsoo, Avo; Teesalu, Triin; Rossner, Helis; Kriipsalu, Mait

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable use of fertilizers is important for maintaining balanced nutrient cycling in agro-ecosystem, soil quality and crop productivity. Considering the high costs and energy demand of mineral fertilizers, it is increasingly important to use more alternative nutrient sources such composts. Nutrient release from organic fertilizers is slower compared to mineral fertilizers and thus their effects need to be evaluated over longer time periods. There is lack of knowledge on the residual effects of organic fertilizers, especially in Nordic climatic conditions. Residual effect of organic fertilizers is in most cases studied with animal manures, but even rare are studies with non-manure based composts. The aim of current study was to evaluate first year direct effect and residual effect of waste compost on the crop productivity and selected soil parameters. Crop rotation field experiment to reveal direct effect of compost to the spring barley yield and residual effect to potato and spring wheat yield was conducted in Tartu, Estonia on pseodopodzolic soil with low humus concentration (food and green waste, and category III animal by-products; and composted in aerated covered static piles for 6 weeks and after that matured in open windows for minimum six months. Compost was applied to soil with ploughing in autumn before spring barley growing season (in years 2012-2014). Compost was applied in three norms according to total N (200, 275 and 350 kg/ha). In addition there was unfertilized control plot and all experimental variants were in three replication with plot size 50 m2. First year effect of compost increased barley yield by 40-50%, first year residual effect resulted in increase of potato yield by 19-30% and second year residual effect to wheat yield was in range from 8 to 17%. First year residual effect to the potato yield was significant (F=8.9; p<0.001). All compost norms resulted significant yield increase compared to the unfertilized control plot. In the case

  10. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPOSTING POULTRY WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kopeć

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic recycling of waste, taking into account sanitary safety, should be a fundamental method for recovering the nutrients present in the waste for plants and organic matter. It also refers to by-products of animal origin, which are not intended for consumption by humans. In the present research , composting of hydrated poultry slaughterhouse waste with maize straw was carried out. A combination with fodder yeast and post-cellulose lime was also introduced, which modified chemical and physico-chemical properties of the mixtures. The experiment was carried out by recording the biomass temperature for 110 days in 1.2×1.0×0.8 m reactors with perforated bottoms enabling active aeration. The following parameters were taken into consideration in the composted material: carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, respiratory activity, microorganisms, fractions of compost obtained after washing on sieves. Small amounts of fodder yeast favoured the development of microorganisms and caused a sanitary risk in the final product. At the initial stage, the temperature of raw compost in that object was several degrees lower than in the case of the composted mass without yeast addition. The addition of post-cellulose lime at ratios 6.5:1:6.5 (maize straw: poultry slaughterhouse waste: post-cellulose lime caused a change in the time of microbiological activity, and led to its inhibition in the final process. In comparison to objects with poultry waste, the highest degree of hygienization was found in the compost with post-cellulose lime (with pH close to neutral. By adjusting the ratios of substrates we can influence the microbiological activity, but the amounts of individual substrates should be determined taking into account the quality of the obtained compost.

  11. Simulation of municipal solid waste degradation in aerobic and anaerobic bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Bhagwan Shamrao; C, Agnes Anto; Singh, Devendra Narain

    2017-03-01

    Municipal solid waste generation is huge in growing cities of developing nations such as India, owing to the rapid industrial and population growth. In addition to various methods for treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste (landfills, composting, bio-methanation, incineration and pyrolysis), aerobic/anaerobic bioreactor landfills are gaining popularity for economical and effective disposal of municipal solid waste. However, efficiency of municipal solid waste bioreactor landfills primarily depends on the municipal solid waste decomposition rate, which can be accelerated through monitoring moisture content and temperature by using the frequency domain reflectometry probe and thermocouples, respectively. The present study demonstrates that these landfill physical properties of the heterogeneous municipal solid waste mass can be monitored using these instruments, which facilitates proper scheduling of the leachate recirculation for accelerating the decomposition rate of municipal solid waste.

  12. Assessment of Composting Feasibility at Army Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    centuries. Most people are aware that the use of compost is an effective way to improve plant growth. Compost -enriched soil can also reduce erosion...can be effectively used to remediate this soil. Through this process, contaminated soil is excavated, mixed with other feedstocks, and composted ...as pallets, and dewatered sewage sludge. Effective feedstock management needs to be a critical part of any composting facility’s operational plan

  13. STABILIZATION OF DEWATERED SEWAGE SLUDGE BY AEROBIC COMPOSTING METHOD: USING SAWDUST AS BULKING AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A PARVARESH

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sludge production from municipal wastewater treatment plants should have quality standards before disposal in to the environment. Environmental specialists classified sewage sludge as a hazardous waste because of high organic compounds and pathogenic microorganisms. They belive that sewage should be stabilized before disposal and so composting of sewage sludge is an effective and economical method to stabilize. Sewage sludge compost could be used to improve soil structure and enrich the soil with nutrients. Methods. To evaluate the optimum conditions of aerobic compost, the mixture of dewatered sewage sludge from Isfahan municipal waste water treatment plant and sawdust as bulking agent were used. Pilot scale study were performed in Isfahan municipal waste water treatment plant. To perform this research project, the dewatered sewage sludge with humidity between 78 to 82 percent were mixed with sawdust. Turning over method of the piles with one week interval were applied to aerate the mixture. Temperature of the piles were monitored at different depths daily. Other parameters such as N, G, organic matters and pH were determined weekly. Total and fecal coli form, and salmonella were determined at the beginning and end of the composting process, also heavy metals were measured at the same time. Results. The results of this study showed that after days, temperature of the mixture reached up to 55 G, and were stabled for 15 days. Humidity, organic matter, organic carbon and GIN ratio of the mixture decreased over the period of the study, due to increasing the temperature. Also organic matter and humidity mainly decreased in thermofilic phase. The number of total and fecal coliform and also salmonella decreased to A class standards of US.EPA at the end of the operation. Discussion. The results of the study also showed that, this type of composting method is reliable, and simple to schedule, with high flexibility and low odor

  14. Biowaste compost effects on productive and qualitative characteristics of some field crops and on soil fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Fecondo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biowaste compost exploitation is a way of recovering agricultural soil fertility that in these last decades decreased up to a desertification limit. In order to test compost efficacy on crop yield and soil fertility, in the period 2011-2013 at COTIR experimental farm, a trial comparing different amounts of compost on two crop rotations was carried out. Crop rotations tested were durum wheat-sunflower-durum wheat and tomato-durum wheat-pepper. Results showed that the use of 40 t ha–1 of compost increased wheat grain yield and protein content if compared to control and mineral fertilised treatment. Compost application at 40 t ha–1 increased also yield of pepper in the first two harvest times, while during the third harvest, which included green and red berries, (the yield was statistically different only if compared to control treatment. Moreover, compost improved soil fertility both in terms of organic matter and main nutritional elements, while a negative aspect of its use was the increase of soil electric conductivity, although no negative effect on crops yield were observed.

  15. Compost bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Figure 3. Changes in the respiration rates of compost inhabiting microorganisms during composting. Values are means of three replicates ± 1 Standard Error. Table 1. Changes in the C:N ratios of compost mixture during incubation. Treatment. 0. 6 Months. 12 Months. 18 Months. Contaminated soil (control ...

  16. PRACTICAL SIMULATION OF COMPOSTING IN THE LABORATORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A closed incubation system was developed for laboratory simulation of composting conditions at the interior of a large compost pile. A conductive heat flux control system (CHFC) was used to adjust the temperature of the internal wall to that of the compost center and compensate f...

  17. Modeling composting kinetics: A review of approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Composting kinetics modeling is necessary to design and operate composting facilities that comply with strict market demands and tight environmental legislation. Current composting kinetics modeling can be characterized as inductive, i.e. the data are the starting point of the modeling process and

  18. Fly ash-amended compost as a manure for agricultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, M.P.; Sajwan, K.S.; Ghuman, G.S.; James, J.; Chandra, K. (Savannah State College, GA (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Homemade organic compost prepared from lawn grass clippings was amended with fine fly ash collected from a coal-fired power plant (SRS 484.D. Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC) to investigate its usefulness as a manure in enhancing nutrient uptake and increasing dry matter yield in selected agricultural crops. Three treatments were compared: five crops (mustard, collard, string beans, bell pepper, and eggplant) were each grown on three kinds of soil: soil alone, soil amended with composted grass clippings, and soil amended with the mixed compost of grass clippings and 20% fly ash. The fly ash-amended compost was found to be effective in enhancing the dry matter yield of collard greens and mustard greens by 378% and 348%, respectively, but string beans, bell pepper, and eggplant did not show any significant increase in dry matter yield. Analysis of the above-ground biomass of these last three plants showed they assimilated high levels of boron, which is phytotoxic; and this may be the reason for their poor growth. Soils treated with fly ash-amended compost often gave higher concentrations than the control for K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, and B in the Brassica crops. 18 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: Technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The anaerobic biogasification of organic wastes generates two useful products: a medium-Btu fuel gas and a compost-quality organic residue. Although commercial-scale digestion systems are used to treat municipal sewage wastes, the disposal of solid organic wastes, including municipal solid wastes (MSW), requires a more cost-efficient process. Modern biogasification systems employ high-rate, high-solids fermentation methods to improve process efficiency and reduce capital costs. The design criteria and development stages are discussed. These systems are also compared with conventional low-solids fermentation technology.

  20. Optimum municipal solid waste collection using geographical information system (GIS) and vehicle tracking for Pallavapuram municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanabhan, T E; Abbas Mohaideen, J; Srinivasan, S; Sundaram, V Lenin Kalyana

    2011-03-01

    Waste collection and transportation is the contact point between waste generators and waste management systems. A proposal for an innovative model for the collection and transportation of municipal solid waste (MSW) which is a part of a solid waste management system using a spatial geo database, integrated in a geographical information system (GIS) environment is presented. Pallavapuram is a fast-developing municipality of Chennai city in the southern suburbs about 20 km from Chennai, the state capital of Tamil Nadu in India. The disposal of MSW was previously occurring in an indiscriminate and irrational manner in the municipality. Hence in the present study an attempt was made to develop an engineered design of solid waste collection using GIS with a vehicle tracking system and final disposal by composting with investment costs. The GIS was used to analyse existing maps and data, to digitize the existing ward boundaries and to enter data about the wards and disposal sites. The proposed GIS model for solid waste disposal would give information on the planning of bins, vehicles and the optimal route. In the case of disposal, composting would be a successful strategy to accelerate the decomposition and stabilization of the biodegradable components of waste in MSW.

  1. GHG emissions during the high-rate production of compost using standard and advanced aeration strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyuelo, B; Gea, T; Sánchez, A

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we have evaluated different strategies for the optimization of the aeration during the active thermophilic stage of the composting process of source-selected Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (or biowaste) using reactors at bench scale (50L). These strategies include: typical cyclic aeration, oxygen feedback controller and a new self-developed controller based on the on-line maximization of the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) during the process. Results highlight differences found in the emission of most representative greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from composting (methane and nitrous oxide) as well as in gases typically related to composting odor problems (ammonia as typical example). Specifically, the cyclic controller presents emissions that can double that of OUR controller, whereas oxygen feedback controller shows a better performance with respect to the cyclic controller. A new parameter, the respiration index efficiency, is presented to quantitatively evaluate the GHG emissions and, in consequence, the main negative environmental impact of the composting process. Other aspects such as the stability of the compost produced and the consumption of resources are also evaluated for each controller. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Carbon dioxide and ammonia emissions during composting of mixed paper, yard waste and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komilis, Dimitris P; Ham, Robert K

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the work was to provide a method to predict CO2 and NH3 yields during composting of the biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes (MSW). The compostable portion of MSW was simulated using three principal biodegradable components, namely mixed paper wastes, yard wastes and food wastes. Twelve laboratory runs were carried out at thermophilic temperatures based on the principles of mixture experimental and full factorial designs. Seeded mixed paper (MXP), seeded yard waste (YW) and seeded food waste (FW), each composted individually, produced 150, 220 and 370 g CO2-C, and 2.0, 4.4 and 34 g NH3-N per dry kg of initial substrate, respectively. Several experimental runs were also carried out with different mixtures of these three substrates. The effect of seeding was insignificant during composting of food wastes and yard wastes, while seeding was necessary for composting of mixed paper. Polynomial equations were developed to predict CO2 and NH3 (in amounts of mass per dry kg of MSW) from mixtures of MSW. No interactions among components were found to be significant when predicting CO2 yields, while the interaction of food wastes and mixed paper was found to be significant when predicting NH3 yields.

  3. Fungal succession in an in-vessel composting system characterized using 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langarica-Fuentes, Adrian; Zafar, Urooj; Heyworth, Alan; Brown, Thomas; Fox, Graeme; Robson, Geoffrey D

    2014-05-01

    Fungi are known to have an important role in the composting process as degraders of recalcitrant materials such as cellulose and lignin. Previous attempts to study the diversity and succession of fungi in compost systems have relied on the use of culture-dependent analyses and low-resolution DNA-fingerprinting techniques, lacking the necessary depth to analyse such a rich ecosystem. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing was used to characterize the fungal community composition at the different stages of an in-vessel composting process. A complex succession of fungi was revealed, with 251 fungal OTUs identified throughout the monitoring period. The Ascomycota were the dominant phylum (82.5% of all sequences recovered), followed by the Basidiomycota (10.4%) and the subphylum Mucoromycotina (4.9%). In the starting materials and early stages of the process, yeast species from the Saccharomycetales were abundant, while in latter stages and in the high temperature regions of the pile, fungi from the orders Eurotiales, Sordariales, Mucorales, Agaricales and Microascales were the most prominent. This study provides an improved understanding of the fungal diversity occurring during the composting of municipal solid waste, and this knowledge can lead to the development of more efficient composting practices and a better evaluation of the end-product quality. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Caracterização de compostos e de materiais orgânicos para a formulação de substratos para viveiros Characterization of composts and organic wastes for nursery substrate formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cunha-Queda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho procedeu-se à carac­terização físico-química e biológica de pro­dutos obtidos a partir da compostagem de diferentes resíduos orgânicos: lamas de estações de tratamento de águas residuais (ETAR, fracção orgânica de resíduos sóli­dos urbanos (RSU e, resíduos verdes de parques e jardins. Foi ainda caracterizado um substrato comercial utilizado em vivei­ros florestais. O composto que apresentou maior limita­ção para ser utilizado na formulação de subs­tratos foi o produzido a partir da fracção orgânica de RSU devido aos elevados valores de pH e de condutividade eléctrica, e aos bai­xos valores de índice de germinação e de crescimento verificados para a espécie utili­zada, o Lepidium sativum; os compostos que apresentaram maior potencialidade para ser utilizado na formulação de substratos foram os produzidos a partir de lamas de ETAR e de resíduos verdes de parques e jardins.Present work aimed the physic-chemical and biological characterization of products obtained from composting of several organic wastes: sewage sludge produced at wastewater treatment plants (WWTP, organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW and, green waste from parks and gardens. A commercial sub­strate used at nursery plants was also characterized. The compost that presented minor po­tentiality to be used on the formulation of substrates was compost produced from organic fraction of MSW due to its high values of pH and electrical conductivity, and low values of germination and growth indexes for Lepidum sativum; composts analysed that presented high potentiality to be used on the formulation of sub­strates were those that were produced from WWTP sewage sludge and from green wastes.

  5. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 12, Numerically indexed bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  6. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  7. An evaluation of the phytotoxicity of municipal solid waste during co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composting is a bioxidative process carried out under controlled conditions which utilizes naturally occurring microorganisms for organic waste recycling. In this study, a 60 days cocomposting experiment of different treatment consisting of municipal solid wastes and plant wastes with cow dung, poultry dropping and swine ...

  8. Studyof Wastewater and Compost Effects on Some of Soil Physical and Chemical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shakarami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arid and semi-arid areas are confronting increasing water shortages. In these regions of the world, planners are being forced to consider other water sources that could be used economically and effectively to promote further development. Wastewater is the only potential water source, which will increase as the population grows and the demand on freshwater increases. Composting municipal solid wastes (MSW and sewage sludge is a good way to reduce the amount of wastes generated in densely populated areas. Municipal solid waste production in Asia in 1998 was 0.76 million tons per day, with an annual growth rate of 2- 3% in developing countries and 3.2- 4.5% in developed countries. (MSW compost is increasingly used in agriculture not only as a soil conditioner but also as a fertilizer. Despite the growing interest in wastewater and compost usage, excessive application of them may have some harmful effects such as human health problems, runoff and leaching of nutrients to surface and groundwater, undesirable chemical constituents, pathogens, accumulations of heavy metals in plants and soils, negative environmental and health impacts. So, using of wastewater and compost application should be under controlled conditions that minimize health risks of agricultural products. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in greenhouse of Bu-Ali Sina as a factorial completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of wastewater and compost on physical and chemical properties of soil. The factors included four types of watering: raw wastewater (W1, treated wastewater (W2 combined 50% of raw wastewater and fresh water (W3 and tap water (W4 and also four compost levels: 0 (C1, 40 (C2, 80 (C3 and 120 tha-1 (C4. Therefore, 16 treatments (W1C1 to W4C4 were considered for investigation. It is noted that Compost added and mixed just with top layer of the soil. 48 volumetric lysimeters were applied as Cultivation beds (26 × 30 × 30 cm. The soil

  9. Efficacy of microorganisms selected from compost to control soil-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, M; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

    2010-01-01

    Suppression of soil-borne plant pathogens with compost has been widely studied. Compost has been found to be suppressive against several soil-borne pathogens in various cropping systems. However, an increase of some diseases due to compost usage has also been observed, since compost is a product that varies considerably in chemical, physical and biotic composition, and, consequently, also in ability to suppress soil borne diseases. New opportunities in disease management can be obtained by the selection of antagonists from suppressive composts. The objective of the present work was to isolate microorganisms from a suppressive compost and to test them for their activity against soil-borne pathogens. A compost from green wastes, organic domestic wastes and urban sludge's that showed a good suppressive activity in previous trials was used as source of microorganisms. Serial diluted suspensions of compost samples were plated on five different media: selective for Fusarium sp., selective for Trichoderma sp., selective for oomycetes, potato dextrose agar (PDA) for isolation of fungi, lysogeny broth (LB) for isolation of bacteria. In total, 101 colonies were isolated from plates and tested under laboratory conditions on tomato seedlings growing on perlite medium in Petri plates infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici and compared to a commercial antagonist (Streptomyces griserovidis, Mycostop, Bioplanet). Among them, 28 showed a significant disease reduction and were assessed under greenhouse condition on three pathosystems: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. basilica/basil, Phytophthora nicotianae/tomato and Rhizoctonia solani/bean. Fusarium spp. selected from compost generally showed a good disease control against Fusarium wilts, while only bacteria significantly controlled P. nicotianae on tomato under greenhouse conditions. None of the microorganisms was able to control the three soil-borne pathogens together, in particular Rhizoctonia solani. Results

  10. A model for improving sustainble green waste recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inghels, D.; Dullaert, W.; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Green waste, consisting of leaves, wood cuttings from pruning, and grass collected from parks and gardens, is a source of biomass that can be used for material and energy valorization. Until recently, the EU-Waste Directive 2009/28/EC allowed green waste to be used as feedstock only for compost.

  11. Evaluation of Composting Process and Quality of Compost from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee pulp and husk are the main by-products generated by the coffee processing station and are disposed into arable land and surface water. Due to the contribution of these by-products to environmental pollution, environmentally friendly disposal methods are necessary. Therefore, composting as environmental friendly ...

  12. Assessment of bacterial diversity during composting of agricultural byproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Chandna, Piyush; Nain, Lata; Singh, Surender; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2013-01-01

    Background Composting is microbial decomposition of biodegradable materials and it is governed by physicochemical, physiological and microbiological factors. The importance of microbial communities (bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi) during composting is well established. However, the microbial diversity during composting may vary with the variety of composting materials and nutrient supplements. Therefore, it is necessary to study the diversity of microorganisms during composting of differen...

  13. Composting: Wastes to Resources. 4-H Leader's/Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhotal, Jean F.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    This guide is designed for adult volunteer leaders, camp counselors, and teachers who want to set up composting projects with youth. Five sections explore: (1) an introduction to composting with illustrated instructions for making compost; (2) different methods of composting and structures needed for various composting systems; (3) how to identify…

  14. Benefits to decomposition rates when using digestate as compost co-feedstock: Part I - Focus on physicochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Golnaz; McCartney, Daryl

    2017-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has gained a significant role in municipal solid waste management, but managing a high volume of digestate is one of the challenges with AD technology. One option is to mix digestate with fresh and/or stabilized organic waste and then feed to the composting process. In this study, the effect of co-composting anaerobic digestate (in different quantities) on a composting process was investigated. The digestate was prepared in a pilot-scale 500L high solids dry anaerobic digester and composting was completed in eight 25L reactors with different ratios of digestate to fresh feedstock from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The digestate constituted 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 75, or 100% (wet mass) of the feedstock. The co-composting experiment was conducted in two phases: active aeration and curing. Monitored parameters included: process temperature, aeration rate, oxygen concentration of the outlet gas, mass changes, total solids, organic matter, pH, and electrical conductivity. In addition, respirometry, C:N ratio, ammonium to nitrate ratio, and Solvita® tests were used to quantify stability and maturity end points. The results showed that the addition of digestate to the OFMSW increased composting reaction rates in all cases, with peak performance occurring within the ratio of 20-40% of digestate addition on a wet weight basis. Reactor performance may have been influenced by the high total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) levels in the digestate. Composting rates increased as TAN levels increased up to 5000 TAN mgkg -1 DM; however, TAN may have become inhibitory at higher levels. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Two-phase olive mill waste composting: enhancement of the composting rate and compost quality by grape stalks addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Maria Luz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A; Roig, Asunción

    2010-06-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is a semisolid sludge generated by the olive oil industry. Its recycling as a soil amendment, either unprocessed or composted, is being promoted as a beneficial agricultural practice in the Mediterranean area. One of the major difficulties when composting TPOMW is the compaction of the material due to its dough-like texture, which leads to an inadequate aeration. For this reason, the addition of bulking agents is particularly important to attain a proper composting process. In this study we followed the evolution of two composting mixtures (A and B) prepared by mixing equal amounts of TPOMW and sheep litter (SL) (in a dry weight basis). In pile B grape stalks (GS) were added (10% dry weight) as bulking agent to study their effect on the development of the composting process and the final compost quality. The incorporation of grape stalks to the composting mixture changed the organic matter (OM) degradation dynamics and notably reduced the total amount of lixiviates. The evolution of several maturation indices (C/N, germination index, water soluble carbon, humification indices, C/N in the leachates) showed a faster and improved composting process when GS were added. Moreover, chemical (NH4+, NO3(-), cation exchange capacity, macro and micronutrients, heavy metals) and physical properties (bulk and real densities, air content, total water holding capacity, porosity) of the final composts were analysed and confirmed the superior quality of the compost where GS were added.

  16. OIL CHEMICAL CHANGES RESULTING FROM PRE-CROPPING OF CROTALARIA JUNCEA, ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILIZATION BY ORGANIC COMPOST OF DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacimar Luis de Souza2

    2013-12-01

    five treatments with fertilization systems based on composts of different nitrogen levels: 1 - No fertilizer (0.0% of N; 2 - 1.5% N in composts; 3 - 2.0% N in composts; 4 - 2.5% N in composts and 5 - 3.0% N in composts. Green manuring with Crotalaria increased the content of P in the soil, but reduced the pH and the concentrations of K and Mg, while not change the contents of Ca, SB, total CEC and total MOS. The presence of sunnhemp pre-cultivation associated with levels of N present in the compounds had no effect on soil chemical attribute. Regarding the experimental initial condition, the area which was not fertilized (level 0% N had 42% less of K + and 30% less of Mg 2+, reflecting in the reduction of the sum of bases at 10%.

  17. Moisture relationships in composting processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, T.L.; Veeken, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Moisture is a key environmental factor that affects many aspects of the composting process. Biodegradation kinetics are affected by moisture through changes in oxygen diffusion, water potential and water activity, and microbial growth rates. These relationships are made more complex by the dynamic

  18. Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H; Favoino, Enzo

    2009-11-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to composting of organic waste and the use of compost were assessed from a waste management perspective. The GHG accounting for composting includes use of electricity and fuels, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the composting process, and savings obtained by the use of the compost. The GHG account depends on waste type and composition (kitchen organics, garden waste), technology type (open systems, closed systems, home composting), the efficiency of off-gas cleaning at enclosed composting systems, and the use of the compost. The latter is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting therefore varies between significant savings (-900 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wet waste (ww)) and a net load (300 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) ww). The major savings are obtained by use of compost as a substitute for peat in the production of growth media. However, it may be difficult for a specific composting plant to document how the compost is used and what it actually substitutes for. Two cases representing various technologies were assessed showing how GHG accounting can be done when specific information and data are available.

  19. Experimental trials on compost utilisation in plant-farming sector; Prove sperimentali sull'utilizzo di compost nel settore vivaistico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolucci, E.; Facchini, F.; Lucertini, A.; Ricci, A.; Fabi, V. [Pesaro-Urbino Univ., Pesaro-Urbino (Italy). Centro di Biotecnologie Agro-Industriali

    2001-02-01

    Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) have always been a big and vexed question. Nowadays, thanks mainly to new rules concerning waste treatment, a piece of the MSW organic fraction is used to produce Compost. That is a product able both to solve the dated problem of organic refuses, and to offer a true and versatile resource in agriculture and plant-farming. To verify its real validity in horticulture some of the most widespread crop such as tomato, pepper, melon and cauliflower were grown in different Compost-Mould mix. [Italian] I rifiuti solidi urbani (RSU) da sempre costituiscono una controversa problematica. Da qualche anno, grazie soprattutto alla nuova normativa concernente lo smaltimento dei rifiuti, una parte della frazione organica dei RSU viene impiegata per la produzione di compost, un prodotto capace in parte di risolvere l'annosa questione dei rifiuti organici e in parte capace di offrire una vera e propria risorsa delle molteplici possibilita' nel settore agricolo e vivaistico. Per verificarne l'effettiva validita' in orticoltura si e' fatto crescere in diverse miscele Compost-Terriccio alcune delle colture maggiormente diffuse, il pomodoro, il peperone, il melone e il cavolfiore. Su queste colture poi sono state analizzate la percentuale di germinazione, l'altezza della pianta, la lunghezza della prima foglia vera e sono state analizzate anche sezioni di fusto e foglia.

  20. Fungal and bacterial successions in the process of co-composting of organic wastes as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitskaya, Polina; Biktasheva, Liliya; Saveliev, Anatoly; Grigoryeva, Tatiana; Boulygina, Eugenia; Selivanovskaya, Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Composting is viewed as one of the primary methods to treat organic wastes. Co-composting may improve the efficiency of this treatment by establishing the most suitable conditions for decomposers than those present in the individual wastes. Given that bacteria and fungi are the driving agents of composting, information about the composition of their communities and dynamics during composting may improve reproducibility, performance and quality of the final compost as well as help to evaluate the potential human health risk and the choice of the most appropriate application procedure. In this study, the co-composting of mixtures containing two similar components (organic fraction of municipal solid waste and sawdust polluted by oil) and one discriminate component (sewage sludges of different origin) were investigated. Bacterial and fungal community successions in the two mixtures were analyzed during the composting process by determining the change in their structural dynamics using qPCR and 454 pyrosequencing methods in a lab experiment for a period of 270 days. During the initial composting stage, the number of 16S bacterial copies was (3.0±0.2) x 106 and (0.4±0.0) x 107 g-1, and the Rhodospiralles and Lactobacialles orders dominated. Fungal communities had (2.9±0.0) x105 and (6.1±0.2) x105 ITS copies g-1, and the Saccharomycetales order dominated. At the end of the thermophilic stage on the 30th day of composting, bacterial and fungal communities underwent significant changes: dominants changed and their relative abundance decreased. Typical compost residents included Flavobacteriales, Chitinophagaceae and Bacterioidetes for bacteria and Microascaceae, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Agaricomycetes for fungi. During the later composting stages, the dominating taxa of both bacterial and fungal communities remained, while their relative abundance decreased. In accordance with the change in the dominating OTUs, it was concluded that the

  1. Fungal and bacterial successions in the process of co-composting of organic wastes as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Galitskaya

    Full Text Available Composting is viewed as one of the primary methods to treat organic wastes. Co-composting may improve the efficiency of this treatment by establishing the most suitable conditions for decomposers than those present in the individual wastes. Given that bacteria and fungi are the driving agents of composting, information about the composition of their communities and dynamics during composting may improve reproducibility, performance and quality of the final compost as well as help to evaluate the potential human health risk and the choice of the most appropriate application procedure. In this study, the co-composting of mixtures containing two similar components (organic fraction of municipal solid waste and sawdust polluted by oil and one discriminate component (sewage sludges of different origin were investigated. Bacterial and fungal community successions in the two mixtures were analyzed during the composting process by determining the change in their structural dynamics using qPCR and 454 pyrosequencing methods in a lab experiment for a period of 270 days. During the initial composting stage, the number of 16S bacterial copies was (3.0±0.2 x 106 and (0.4±0.0 x 107 g-1, and the Rhodospiralles and Lactobacialles orders dominated. Fungal communities had (2.9±0.0 x105 and (6.1±0.2 x105 ITS copies g-1, and the Saccharomycetales order dominated. At the end of the thermophilic stage on the 30th day of composting, bacterial and fungal communities underwent significant changes: dominants changed and their relative abundance decreased. Typical compost residents included Flavobacteriales, Chitinophagaceae and Bacterioidetes for bacteria and Microascaceae, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Agaricomycetes for fungi. During the later composting stages, the dominating taxa of both bacterial and fungal communities remained, while their relative abundance decreased. In accordance with the change in the dominating OTUs, it was

  2. Toepassingsmogelijkheden van compostering in de ecologische varkenshouderij : een milieutechnische benadering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilkens, W.

    1993-01-01

    Student report in which the possibilities of composting for a pig farming system in Gemert, The Netherlands, with an ecological basis, are investigated. The process of composting and different composting systems were evaluated

  3. Remediation of metal polluted mine soil with compost: co-composting versus incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandy, Susan; Healey, John R; Nason, Mark A; Williamson, Julie C; Jones, Davey L

    2009-02-01

    Trace element contamination of post-industrial sites represents a major environmental problem and sustainable management options for remediating them are required. This study compared two strategies for immobilizing trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, and As) in mine spoil: (1) co-composting contaminated soil with organic wastes and (2) conventional incorporation of mature compost into contaminated soil. Sequential chemical extraction of the soil was performed to determine temporal changes in trace element fractionation and bioavailability during composting and plant growth. We show that mine spoil can be co-composted successfully and this action causes significant shifts in metal availability. However, co-composting did not lead to significant differences in metal partitioning in soil or in plant metal uptake compared with simply mixing mine spoil with mature compost. Both treatments promoted plant growth and reduced metal accumulation in plants. We conclude that co-composting provides little additional benefit for remediating trace-element-polluted soil compared with incorporation of compost.

  4. THE EFFECT OF COMPOST MADE WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE ON HEAVY METAL CONTENT IN SOIL AND IN LOLIUM MULTIFLORUM LAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Malinowska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the effects of different doses of sewage sludge compost mixed with wheat straw on heavy metal content in Italian ryegrass and in soil. A two year experiment with the Italian ryegrass was set up in autumn 2012. The experimental design consisted of a control plot, a plot with NPK fertiliser and three plots with three different doses of municipal sewage sludge compost (5, 10 and 15 Mg of fresh matter·ha-1. Those different compost doses contained the amounts of Nitrogen equivalent to 60, 120 and 180 kg N·ha-1. The two lower doses of compost were supplemented with nitrogen fertiliser so that the amount of this chemical element introduced to the soil of all plots with compost stood at 180 kg·ha-1. During 2013 and 2014 seasons the grass was cut three times a year after about a 30-day growing period. After dry mineralisation the content of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd in the plant samples was measured with the ICP-AES method. The fertilisers applied significantly diversified the content of chemical elements in the grass and in the soil. The highest dose of compost resulted in the highest concentration of Zn, Cu and Cd in the grass while the highest concentration of Ni and Pb was in the soil and the grass from the plot where the mid dose of compost had been applied. Cadmium concentration in the soil was the highest in the plot where the mid dose was applied. The experiment proved that compost made with sewage sludge and wheat straw is beneficial for plants.

  5. The effects of compost and compost extract on soil properties and lettuce growth.

    OpenAIRE

    CAVOSKI, Ivana

    2004-01-01

    The work was conducted at the experimental field of the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari, Italy in 2004. The aim was to study the effects of compost and compost extract on soil properties and lettuce growth. The chemical, biological and phytotoxic tests of compost extract proved its high selected soil properties (pH, EC, Organic matter, available nutrients, cations and anions contents) markedly with depth and time, the most prominent changes showed by compost extract application. Th...

  6. Effect of biochar amendment on compost organic matter composition following aerobic composting of manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Nikolas; Subdiaga, Edisson; Orsetti, Silvia; de la Rosa, José María; Knicker, Heike; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2018-02-01

    Biochar, a material defined as charred organic matter applied in agriculture, is suggested as a beneficial additive and bulking agent in composting. Biochar addition to the composting feedstock was shown to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching during the composting process, and to result in a fertilizer and plant growth medium that is superior to non-amended composts. However, the impact of biochar on the quality and carbon speciation of the organic matter in bulk compost has so far not been the focus of systematic analyses, although these parameters are key to determine the long-term stability and carbon sequestration potential of biochar-amended composts in soil. In this study, we used different spectroscopic techniques to compare the organic carbon speciation of manure compost amended with three different biochars. A non-biochar-amended compost served as control. Based on Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy we did not observe any differences in carbon speciation of the bulk compost independent of biochar type, despite a change in the FTIR absorbance ratio 2925cm -1 /1034cm -1 , that is suggested as an indicator for compost maturity. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) and emission-excitation matrixes (EEM) revealed minor differences in the extractable carbon fractions, which only accounted for ~2-3% of total organic carbon. Increased total organic carbon content of biochar-amended composts was only due to the addition of biochar-C and not enhanced preservation of compost feedstock-C. Our results suggest that biochars do not alter the carbon speciation in compost organic matter under conditions optimized for aerobic decomposition of compost feedstock. Considering the effects of biochar on compost nutrient retention, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration, biochar addition during aerobic composting of manure might be an attractive strategy to produce a sustainable, slow

  7. Stabilization of carbon in composts and biochars in relation to carbon sequestration and soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolan, N S; Kunhikrishnan, A; Choppala, G K; Thangarajan, R; Chung, J W

    2012-05-01

    There have been increasing interests in the conversion of organic residues into biochars in order to reduce the rate of decomposition, thereby enhancing carbon (C) sequestration in soils. However energy is required to initiate the pyrolysis process during biochar production which can also lead to the release of greenhouse gasses. Alternative methods can be used to stabilize C in composts and other organic residues without impacting their quality. The objectives of this study include: (i) to compare the rate of decomposition among various organic amendments and (ii) to examine the effect of clay materials on the stabilization of C in organic amendments. The decomposition of a number of organic amendments (composts and biochars) was examined by monitoring the release of carbon-dioxide using respiration experiments. The results indicated that the rate of decomposition as measured by half life (t(1/2)) varied between the organic amendments and was higher in sandy soil than in clay soil. The half life value ranged from 139 days in the sandy soil and 187 days in the clay soil for poultry manure compost to 9989 days for green waste biochar. Addition of clay materials to compost decreased the rate of decomposition, thereby increasing the stabilization of C. The half life value for poultry manure compost increased from 139 days to 620, 806 and 474 days with the addition of goethite, gibbsite and allophane, respectively. The increase in the stabilization of C with the addition of clay materials may be attributed to the immobilization of C, thereby preventing it from microbial decomposition. Stabilization of C in compost using clay materials did not impact negatively the value of composts in improving soil quality as measured by potentially mineralizable nitrogen and microbial biomass carbon in soil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fungal Communities Associated with the Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane Buried under Compost at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Urooj; Houlden, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Plastics play an essential role in the modern world due to their low cost and durability. However, accumulation of plastic waste in the environment causes wide-scale pollution with long-lasting effects, making plastic waste management expensive and problematic. Polyurethanes (PUs) are heteropolymers that made up ca. 7% of the total plastic production in Europe in 2011. Polyester PUs in particular have been extensively reported as susceptible to microbial biodegradation in the environment, particularly by fungi. In this study, we investigated the impact of composting on PUs, as composting is a microbially rich process that is increasingly being used for the processing of green waste and food waste as an economically viable alternative to landfill disposal. PU coupons were incubated for 12 weeks in fresh compost at 25°C, 45°C, and 50°C to emulate the thermophilic and maturation stages of the composting process. Incubation at all temperatures caused significant physical deterioration of the polyester PU coupons and was associated with extensive fungal colonization. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and pyrosequencing of the fungal communities on the PU surface and in the surrounding compost revealed that the population on the surface of PU was different from the surrounding compost community, suggesting enrichment and selection. The most dominant fungi identified from the surfaces of PU coupons by pyrosequencing was Fusarium solani at 25°C, while at both 45°C and 50°C, Candida ethanolica was the dominant species. The results of this preliminary study suggest that the composting process has the potential to biodegrade PU waste if optimized further in the future. PMID:24056469

  9. Fungal communities associated with the biodegradation of polyester polyurethane buried under compost at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Urooj; Houlden, Ashley; Robson, Geoffrey D

    2013-12-01

    Plastics play an essential role in the modern world due to their low cost and durability. However, accumulation of plastic waste in the environment causes wide-scale pollution with long-lasting effects, making plastic waste management expensive and problematic. Polyurethanes (PUs) are heteropolymers that made up ca. 7% of the total plastic production in Europe in 2011. Polyester PUs in particular have been extensively reported as susceptible to microbial biodegradation in the environment, particularly by fungi. In this study, we investigated the impact of composting on PUs, as composting is a microbially rich process that is increasingly being used for the processing of green waste and food waste as an economically viable alternative to landfill disposal. PU coupons were incubated for 12 weeks in fresh compost at 25°C, 45°C, and 50°C to emulate the thermophilic and maturation stages of the composting process. Incubation at all temperatures caused significant physical deterioration of the polyester PU coupons and was associated with extensive fungal colonization. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and pyrosequencing of the fungal communities on the PU surface and in the surrounding compost revealed that the population on the surface of PU was different from the surrounding compost community, suggesting enrichment and selection. The most dominant fungi identified from the surfaces of PU coupons by pyrosequencing was Fusarium solani at 25°C, while at both 45°C and 50°C, Candida ethanolica was the dominant species. The results of this preliminary study suggest that the composting process has the potential to biodegrade PU waste if optimized further in the future.

  10. Assessment of microbial contamination within working environments of different types of composting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutarowska, Beata; Skóra, Justyna; Stępień, Łukasz; Szponar, Bogumiła; Otlewska, Anna; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the degree of microbiological contamination, type of microflora, bioaerosol particle size distribution, and concentration of endotoxins in dust in different types of composting plants. In addition, this study provides a list of indicator microorganisms that pose a biological threat in composting facilities, based on their prevalence within the workplace, source of isolation, and health hazards. We undertook microbiological analysis of the air, work surfaces, and compost, and assessed the particle size distribution of bioaerosols using a six-stage Andersen sampler. Endotoxins were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Microbial identification was undertaken both microscopically and using biochemical tests. The predominant bacterial and fungal species were identified using 16S rRNA and ITS1/2 analysis, respectively. The number of mesophilic microorganisms in composting plants amounted to 6.9×10(2)-2.5×10(4) CFU/m3 in the air, 2.9×10(2)-3.3×10(3) CFU/100 cm2 on surfaces, and 2.2×10(5)-2.4×10(7) CFU/g in compost. Qualitative analysis revealed 75 microbial strains in composting plants, with filamentous fungi being the largest group of microorganisms, accounting for as many as 38 isolates. The total amount of endotoxins was 0.0062-0.0140 nmol/mg of dust. The dust fraction with aerodynamic particle diameter of 0.65-1.1 μm accounted for 28-39% of bacterial aerosols and 4-13% of fungal aerosols. We propose the following strains as indicators of harmful biological agent contamination: Bacillus cereus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. herbarum, Mucor hiemalis, and Rhizopus oryzae for both types of composting plants, and Bacillus pumilus, Mucor fragilis, Penicillium svalbardense, and P. crustosum for green waste composting plants. The biological hazards posed within these plants are due to the presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms and the inhalation of respirable

  11. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in compost samples: A potential tool to determine appropriate composting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengxiang; Pan, Zaifa; Hong, Chunlai; Wang, Weiping; Chen, Xiaoyang; Xue, Zhiyong; Yao, Yanlai

    2016-12-01

    Changes in volatile organic compound contents in compost samples during pig manure composting were studied using a headspace, solid-phase micro-extraction method (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). Parameters affecting the SPME procedure were optimized as follows: the coating was carbon molecular sieve/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber, the temperature was 60°C and the time was 30min. Under these conditions, 87 compounds were identified from 17 composting samples. Most of the volatile components could only be detected before day 22. However, benzenes, alkanes and alkenes increased and eventually stabilized after day 22. Phenol and acid substances, which are important factors for compost quality, were almost undetectable on day 39 in natural compost (NC) samples and on day 13 in maggot-treated compost (MC) samples. Our results indicate that the approach can be effectively used to determine the composting times by analysis of volatile substances in compost samples. An appropriate composting time not only ensures the quality of compost and reduces the loss of composting material but also reduces the generation of hazardous substances. The appropriate composting times for MC and NC were approximately 22days and 40days, respectively, during the summer in Zhejiang. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Passively Aerated Composting of Straw-Rich Pig Manure : Effect of Compost Bed Porosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Wilde, de V.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2002-01-01

    Straw-rich manure from organic pig farming systems can be composted in passively aerated systems as the high application of straw results in a compost bed with good structure and porosity. The passively aerated composting process was simulated in one-dimensional reactors of 2 m3 for straw-rich

  13. Carbohydrate composition of compost during composting and mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurak, E.; Kabel, M.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Changes of plant cell wall carbohydrate structures occurring during the process to make suitable compost for growth of Agaricus bisporus are unknown. In this paper, composition and carbohydrate structures in compost samples collected during composting and mycelium growth were analyzed. Furthermore,

  14. Composting rice straw with sewage sludge and compost effects on the soil-plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L; Martínez, C; Marcilla, P; Boluda, R

    2009-05-01

    Composting organic residue is an interesting alternative to recycling waste as the compost obtained may be used as organic fertilizer. This study aims to assess the composting process of rice straw and sewage sludge on a pilot-scale, to evaluate both the quality of the composts obtained and the effects of applying such compost on soil properties and plant development in pot experiments. Two piles, with shredded and non-shredded rice straw, were composted as static piles with passive aeration. Throughout the composting process, a number of parameters were determined, e.g. colour, temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, C/N ratio, humification index, cation exchange capacity, chemical oxygen demand, and germination index. Moreover, sandy and clayey soils were amended with different doses of mature compost and strewed with barley in pot experiments. The results show that compost made from shredded rice straw reached the temperatures required to maximise product sanitisation, and that the parameters indicating compost maturity were all positive; however, the humification index and NH(4) content were more selective. Therefore, using compost-amended soils at a dose of 34 Mg ha(-1) for sandy soil, and of 11 Mg ha(-1) for clayey soil improves soil properties and the growth of Hordeum vulgare plants. Under there conditions, the only limiting factor of agronomic compost utilisation was the increased soil salinity.

  15. Targeted Discovery of Glycoside Hydrolases from a Switchgrass-Adapted Compost Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Amitha; Allgaier, Martin; Park, Joshua I.; Ivanoval, Natalia; Dhaeseleer, Patrik; Lowry, Steve; Sapra, Rajat; Hazen, Terry C.; Simmons, Blake A.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2011-05-11

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Smallsubunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, ,10percent were putative cellulasesmostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50uC and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  16. Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgaier, M.; Reddy, A.; Park, J. I.; Ivanova, N.; D' haeseleer, P.; Lowry, S.; Sapra, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.; Hugenholtz, P.

    2009-11-15

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, {approx}10% were putative cellulases mostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50 C and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  17. The presence of insect at composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudruňka, J.; Lyčková, B.; Kučerová, R.; Glogarová, V.; Závada, J.; Gibesová, B.; Takač, D.

    2017-10-01

    During composting biodegradable waste, microbic organisms reproduce massively, most of which belong to serious biopathogens which are able to penetrate various environmental layers. Their vector species include dipterous insect (Diptera) which reaches considerable amounts in composting plant premises as well as home composting units, mainly during summer months. Therefore measures must be taken to eliminate or reduce this unwanted phenomenon (sanitisation, disinfection). For evaluating obtained results, relative abundance calculation was chosen.

  18. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-07-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)

  19. Optimization of Composting for Explosives Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-30

    required for implementation of j composting as a cost- effective alternative to incineration. All three explosives present at UMDA demonstrated...into the mixture to be composted and/or the contaminants must be degraded at a higher rate. To increase the rates of degradation either more effective ...microorganisms with more effective metabolic pathways/enzymes are available and will function well in a compost matrix), optimizing the composition of the

  20. Composting of Explosives-Contaminated Soil Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    dinitrotoluenes) and to evaluate the influence of temperature upon composting effectiveness . This study demonstrated that the bioconversion of explosives under... effected primarily by mechanical turning of the compost , clcsely regulated temperature regimes in such a system may be difficult to achieve. In aerated...treatment processes, the feasibility and economics of composting will be directly influenced by the length of time required for treatment. Treatment

  1. Characterisation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by the composting of different waste matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Marco; Martini, Luca Matteo; Corrà, Cesare; Scapinello, Marco; Coller, Graziano; Tosi, Paolo; Ragazzi, Marco

    2017-12-01

    The complaints arising from the problem of odorants released by composting plants may impede the construction of new composting facilities, preclude the proper activity of existing facilities or even lead to their closure, with negative implications for waste management and local economy. Improving the knowledge on VOC emissions from composting processes is of particular importance since different VOCs imply different odour impacts. To this purpose, three different organic matrices were studied in this work: dewatered sewage sludge (M1), digested organic fraction of municipal solid waste (M2) and untreated food waste (M3). The three matrices were aerobically biodegraded in a bench-scale bioreactor simulating composting conditions. A homemade device sampled the process air from each treatment at defined time intervals. The samples were analysed for VOC detection. The information on the concentrations of the detected VOCs was combined with the VOC-specific odour thresholds to estimate the relative weight of each biodegraded matrix in terms of odour impact. When the odour formation was at its maximum, the waste gas from the composting of M3 showed a total odour concentration about 60 and 15,000 times higher than those resulting from the composting of M1 and M2, respectively. Ethyl isovalerate showed the highest contribution to the total odour concentration (>99%). Terpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, p-cymene and limonene) were abundantly present in M2 and M3, while sulphides (dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide) were the dominant components of M1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology (Vol. 33)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ladaf 2

    composting experiment of different treatment consisting of municipal solid wastes and plant wastes with ... Compost maturity parameters and phytotoxicity, during co-composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) with different animal manures (3:1 w/w) were evaluated. ..... aided composting of green wastes: Effects on organic.

  3. Composite Compost Produced from Organic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lăcătuşu Radu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The soil fertilization in ecological agriculture is done mostly using organic fertilizers. Some of them are prepared as compost from waste, but other haven’t, until now, any recycling possibility. In this context, for the preparation of new types of compost, we used three type of waste: sewage sludge from waste water treatment, marine algae and farmyard manure. We have made four different composting variants, each consisting of different proportions of the three waste: equal parts (33.33% of each waste, 50% of each of the three wastes separately, the difference being made up in equal amounts (25% of the other two wastes. Composting process was performed in Könemann silos (cubs with side by 1.20m and lasted 60 days, from July 19 until September 16, when the composted material has passed the stages of reduction and oxidation. During composting process, in the reductive stage the material has reached a temperature up to 63°C Celsius, enough heat for its sterilization. Initial material, semi composted and final composted material were been chemical analyzed, especially in terms of macro- and microelements, analytical results revealing high and normal content of such chemicals. Therefore the achieved compost could be used in organic farming systems.

  4. Microbial additives in the composting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelly de Queiroz Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Composting is the process of natural degradation of organic matter carried out by environmental microorganisms whose metabolic activities cause the mineralization and partial humification of substances in the pile. This compost can be beneficially applied to the soil as organic fertilizer in horticulture and agriculture. The number of studies involving microbial inoculants has been growing, and they aim to improve processes such as composting. However, the behavior of these inoculants and other microorganisms during the composting process have not yet been described. In this context, this work aimed to investigate the effects of using a microbial inoculum that can improve the composting process and to follow the bacterial population dynamics throughout the process using the high-resolution melt (HRM technique. To do so, we analysed four compost piles inoculated with Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, B. cereus + B. megaterium and a control with no inoculum. The analyses were carried out using samples collected at different stages of the process (5th to 110th days. The results showed that the bacterial inocula influenced the process of composting, altering the breakdown of cellulose and hemicelluloses and causing alterations to the temperature and nitrogen levels throughout the composting process. The use of a universal primer (rDNA 16S allowed to follow the microbial succession during the process. However, the design of a specific primer is necessary to follow the inoculum throughout the composting process with more accuracy.

  5. The Learning of Compost Practice in University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustina, T. W.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Riandi; Purwianingsih, W.

    2017-09-01

    The compost as one of the topics of the Urban Farming Movement in Bandung city, Indonesia. The preliminary study aims to obtain a description of the performance capabilities and compost products made by students with STREAM (Science-Technology-Religion-Art-Mathematics) approach. The method was explanatory sequential mixed method. The study was conducted on one class of Biology Education students at the one of the universities in Bandung, Indonesia. The sample was chosen purposively with the number of students as many as 44 people. The instruments were making Student Worksheets, Observation Sheets of Performance and Product Assessment, Rubric of Performance and Product, and Field Notes. The indicators of performance assessment rubrics include Stirring of Compost Materials and Composting Technology in accordance with the design. The product assessment rubric are a Good Composting Criteria and Compost Packaging. The result of can be stated most students have good performance. However, the ability to design of compost technology, compost products and the ability to pack compost are still lacking. The implication of study is students of Biology Education require habituation in the ability of designing technology.

  6. From Source to Sink: Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential of Using Composted Manure and Food Waste on California's Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, S.; Silver, W. L.

    2016-12-01

    That anthropogenic climate change is irreversible, except in the case of sustained net removal of CO2 from the atmosphere, compels the scientific community to search for terrestrial carbon sinks. The soil is a promising sink: it currently stores more carbon than do the atmosphere and the vegetation combined, and most managed lands are degraded with respect to carbon. The application of compost to rangelands has been shown to enhance carbon uptake by soils, and the production of compost avoids greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste management. Though these two mitigation pathways have been well studied, emissions from the composting process - which should be quantified in order to estimate the net carbon sequestration achieved by applying compost to rangelands - have not. We present a novel approach to quantifying emissions from composting, which we have deployed in Marin County, CA: a micrometerological mass balance set up, using a system of gas and wind towers surrounding a series of composting windrow piles. Real-time greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, N2O, CH4) from the composting waste are measured by a laser spectrometer, and a system of sensors measure conditions within the pile, to identify biogeochemical drivers of those emissions. Understanding these drivers improves our knowledge of the processes governing the production of short-lived climate pollutants, and provides guidance to municipalities and states seeking to minimize their greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Influence of biodynamic preparations on compost development and resultant compost extracts on wheat seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Jennifer R; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynne; Reganold, John P; York, Alan L; Brinton, William F

    2010-07-01

    Biodynamic (BD) agriculture, a form of organic agriculture, includes the use of specially fermented preparations, but peer-reviewed studies on their efficacy are rare. Composting of a grape pomace and manure mixture was studied in two years (2002 and 2005) with and without the BD compost preparations. Water extracts of finished composts were then used to fertigate wheat seedlings, with and without added inorganic fertilizer. BD-treated mixtures had significantly greater dehydrogenase activity than did untreated (control) mixtures during composting, suggesting greater microbial activity in BD-treated compost. In both years there was a distinct compost effect on wheat shoot and root biomass irrespective of supplemental fertilizer. Shoot biomass was highest in all treatments receiving 1% compost extract. Wheat seedlings that received 1% compost extract in 2005 grew similar root and shoot biomass as fertilized seedlings, despite only containing 30% as much nitrogen as the fertilizer treatment. In both years seedlings that received fertilizer plus 1% compost extract produced 22-61% more shoot biomass and 40-66% more root biomass than seedlings that received fertilizer alone, even at higher rates. In 2002 a 1% extract of BD compost grew 7% taller wheat seedlings than did 1% extract of untreated compost. At 0.1% only BD extract grew taller plants than water, but in 2002 only. No effect on shoot or root biomass was seen at 0.1%. Our results support the use of compost extracts as fertilizer substitutes or supplements, testimonial reports on the growth promoting effects of compost extracts, and the occasional superiority of BD compost to untreated compost. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Heat inactivation of Salmonella spp. in fresh poultry compost by simulating early phase of composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Kim, J; Jiang, X

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moisture on thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in poultry litter under optimal composting conditions. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella was studied in fresh poultry compost by simulating early phase of composting process. A mixture of three Salmonella serotypes grown in Tryptic soy broth with rifampin (TSB-R) was inoculated in fresh compost with 40 or 50% moisture at a final concentration of c. 7 log CFU g(-1). The inoculated compost was kept in an environmental chamber which was programmed to rise from room temperature to target composting temperatures in 2 days. In poultry compost with optimal moisture content (50%), Salmonella spp. survived for 96, 72 and 24 h at 50, 55 and 60°C, respectively, as compared with 264, 144 and 72 h at 50, 55 and 60°C, respectively, in compost with suboptimal moisture (40%). Pathogen decline was faster during the come-up time owing to higher ammonia volatilization. Our results demonstrated that Salmonella spp. survived longer in fresh poultry compost with suboptimal moisture of 40% than in compost with optimal moisture of 50% during thermophilic composting. High nitrogen content of the poultry compost is an additional factor contributing to Salmonella inactivation through ammonia volatilization during thermal exposure. This research validated the effectiveness of the current composting guidelines on Salmonella inactivation in fresh poultry compost. Both initial moisture level and ammonia volatilization are important factors affecting microbiological safety and quality of compost product. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure can be defined as the design and development of infrastructure that works with natural systems in the performance of its functions. Green infrastructure recognises the importance of the natural environment in land use planning...

  10. Rapeseed rotation, compost and biocontrol amendments reduce soilborne diseases and increase tuber yield in conventional and organic potato production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three different potential disease-suppressive management practices, including a Brassica napus (rapeseed) green manure rotation crop, a conifer-based compost amendment, and three biological control organisms (Trichoderma virens, Bacillus subtilis, and Rhizoctonia solani hypovirulent isolate Rhs1A1)...

  11. Co-compostage de boues de station d'épuration et de déchets verts : Nouvelle méthodologie du suivi des transformations de la matière organique

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, Remy

    2007-01-01

    To reduce and recycle biowaste volumes, many cities have chosen to build municipal composting plants. Presently, compost quality determination requires many biological and chemical characterizations. Aims of this study were to characterize composting processes and to develop a simple and valuable method to assess biological and chemical evolution of composts. Compost windrows obtained from municipal solid wastes mixed to green wastes, were matured during six months. Composts were characterize...

  12. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

  13. Long-Term Emission Factors for Land Application of Treated Organic Municipal Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Nielsen, Martin P.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The agro-ecosystem model Daisy was used to explore the long-term fate of nitrogen (N) after land application of compost and digestate (based on source separated organic municipal solid waste (MSW)). The cumulative crop N yield response and emissions for mineral fertilizer (MF), anaerobically...... digested organic waste (MSW-D), and composted organic waste (MSW-C) were derived by fitting a linear mixed model to the outcomes of the simulations. The non-linearity of crop N yield responses and emission responses to increasing N fertilizer application was addressed by dividing these responses into high...

  14. Amélioration de la croissance et des paramètres agronomiques du maïs (Zea mays L. par des composts de déchets dans la carrière des calcaires de Sika-Kondji au Sud-Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.TOUNDOU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mineral resources exploitation is one of the main causes of soil degradation and pollution. Restoration of mines after exploitation is a priority of mining companies. In this work, we studied the possibility of using the putrescible and minerals wastes from a limestone plant of Sika-Kondji to fertilize the topsoil. Agronomic tests were conducted with corn to validate the potential of composts compared to a control. The results indicate that composts C1 (green waste, C2 (green waste + food and C4 (food + green wastes + limestone and clay allowed a good growth of plants relative to control. Plants grown on C2 and C4 composts presented the best agronomic performance. These composts are rich in organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium with a high electrical conductivity. These composts need to be improved and valued in the restoration program of Sika-Kondji mine.

  15. Integral valorisation of waste orange peel using combustion, biomethanisation and co-composting technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, J A; Vargas, F; Gutiérrez, M C; Chica, A F; Martín, M A

    2016-07-01

    Although recent research has demonstrated that waste orange peel (WOP) is a potentially valuable resource that can be transformed into high value products, heat generation, biomethanisation and composting might be considered the most feasible alternatives in terms of yield. This study revealed that WOP can be successfully valorised through combustion. However, a previous drying step, which generates hazardous wastewater, is required and harmful NOx are emitted with the flue gases. In contrast, a high yield of renewable methane (280LSTPCH4/kg added COD, chemical oxygen demand) and an organic amendment can be obtained through the thermophilic biomethanisation of WOP following the removal of valuable essential oils from the peel. Co-composting of WOP combined at different proportions (17-83%) with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was also demonstrated to be suitable. Moreover, a 37% reduction in odour generation was observed in co-composting of WOP compared to single composting of OFMSW. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of solid waste management strategies in Tehran: landfill and composting plus landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, M A; Naghib, Abolghasem; Yonesi, Mansoor; Akbari, Ali

    2011-07-01

    As circumstances of operating and maintenance activities for landfilling and composting in Tehran metropolis differ from those of cities in developed countries, it was concluded to have an environmental impact comparison between the current solid waste management (MSW) strategies: (1) landfill, and (2) composting plus landfill. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare these scenarios for MSW in Tehran, Iran. The Eco-Indicator 99 is applied as an impact assessment method considering surplus energy, climate change, acidification, respiratory effect, carcinogenesis, ecotoxicity and ozone layer depletion points of aspects. One ton of municipal solid waste of Tehran was selected as the functional unit. According to the comparisons, the composting plus landfill scenario causes less damage to human health in comparison to landfill scenario. However, its damages to both mineral and fossil resources as well as ecosystem quality are higher than the landfill scenario. Thus, the composting plus landfill scenario had a higher environmental impact than landfill scenario. However, an integrated waste management will ultimately be the most efficient approach in terms of both environmental and economic benefits. In this paper, a cost evaluation shows that the unit cost per ton of waste for the scenarios is 15.28 and 26.40 US$, respectively. Results show landfill scenario as the preferable option both in environmental and economic aspects for Tehran in the current situation.

  17. Chemical structures and characteristics of animal manures and composts during composting and assessment of maturity indices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieying Huang

    Full Text Available Changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures and maturity of swine, cattle and chicken manures and composts during 70-day composting without addition of bulking agents were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics were measured by routine analyses and chemical structures by solid-state 13C NMR and FT-IR. Three manures were of distinct properties. Their changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures, and maturity were different not only from each other but also from those with addition of bulking agents during composting. Aromaticity in chicken manure composts decreased at first, and then increased whereas that in cattle and swine manure composts increased. Enhanced ammonia volatilization occurred without addition of bulking agents. NMR structural information indicated that cattle and chicken composts were relatively stable at day 36 and 56, respectively, but swine manure composts were not mature up to day 70. Finally, the days required for three manures to reach the threshold values of different maturity indices were different.

  18. Chemical structures and characteristics of animal manures and composts during composting and assessment of maturity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jieying; Yu, Zixuan; Gao, Hongjian; Yan, Xiaoming; Chang, Jiang; Wang, Chengming; Hu, Jingwei

    2017-01-01

    Changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures and maturity of swine, cattle and chicken manures and composts during 70-day composting without addition of bulking agents were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics were measured by routine analyses and chemical structures by solid-state 13C NMR and FT-IR. Three manures were of distinct properties. Their changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures, and maturity were different not only from each other but also from those with addition of bulking agents during composting. Aromaticity in chicken manure composts decreased at first, and then increased whereas that in cattle and swine manure composts increased. Enhanced ammonia volatilization occurred without addition of bulking agents. NMR structural information indicated that cattle and chicken composts were relatively stable at day 36 and 56, respectively, but swine manure composts were not mature up to day 70. Finally, the days required for three manures to reach the threshold values of different maturity indices were different. PMID:28604783

  19. Compost feedstock characteristics and ratio modelling for organic waste materials co-composting in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, E W; H'ng, P S; Peng, S H; Wan-Azha, W M; Chin, K L; Chow, M J; Wong, W Z

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, large amounts of organic materials, which lead to disposal problems, are generated from agricultural residues especially from palm oil industries. Increasing landfill costs and regulations, which limit many types of waste accepted at landfills, have increased the interest in composting as a component of waste management. The objectives of this study were to characterize compost feedstock properties of common organic waste materials available in Malaysia. Thus, a ratio modelling of matching ingredients for empty fruit bunches (EFBs) co-composting using different organic materials in Malaysia was done. Organic waste materials with a C/N ratio of composting. The outcome of this study suggested that the percentage of EFB ranged between 50% and 60%, which is considered as the ideal mixing ratio in EFB co-composting. Conclusively, EFB can be utilized in composting if appropriate feedstock in term of physical and chemical characteristics is coordinated in the co-composting process.

  20. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities across compost recipes, preparation methods, and composting times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Deborah A; Weicht, Thomas R; Bates, Scott T; Leff, Jonathan W; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here can be best managed

  1. Changes in Bacterial and Fungal Communities across Compost Recipes, Preparation Methods, and Composting Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Deborah A.; Weicht, Thomas R.; Bates, Scott T.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here can be best managed

  2. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities across compost recipes, preparation methods, and composting times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A Neher

    Full Text Available Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here

  3. The Green Experiment: Cities, Green Stormwater Infrastructure, and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Chini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure is a unique combination of economic, social, and environmental goals and benefits that requires an adaptable framework for planning, implementing, and evaluating. In this study, we propose an experimental framework for policy, implementation, and subsequent evaluation of green stormwater infrastructure within the context of sociotechnical systems and urban experimentation. Sociotechnical systems describe the interaction of complex systems with quantitative and qualitative impacts. Urban experimentation—traditionally referencing climate change programs and their impacts—is a process of evaluating city programs as if in a laboratory setting with hypotheses and evaluated results. We combine these two concepts into a singular framework creating a policy feedback cycle (PFC for green infrastructure to evaluate municipal green infrastructure plans as an experimental process within the context of a sociotechnical system. After proposing and discussing the PFC, we utilize the tool to research and evaluate the green infrastructure programs of 27 municipalities across the United States. Results indicate that green infrastructure plans should incorporate community involvement and communication, evaluation based on project motivation, and an iterative process for knowledge production. We suggest knowledge brokers as a key resource in connecting the evaluation stage of the feedback cycle to the policy phase. We identify three important needs for green infrastructure experimentation: (i a fluid definition of green infrastructure in policy; (ii maintenance and evaluation components of a green infrastructure plan; and (iii communication of the plan to the community.

  4. The nitrogen efficiency of MSW composts as measured by triticale uptake in a 3-year field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jerzy; Licznar, Michal; Bekier, Jakub; Drozd, Jerzy; Jamroz, Elzbieta; Kocowicz, Andrzej; Parylak, Danuta; Kordas, Leszek; Licznar, Stanislawa

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents results of three year field experiment, where two different composts produced from municipal solid wastes were applied to sandy soil. The experiment was established on soil developed from loam sand, according to U.S.D.A. textural classes (81% of sand, 12% of silt, and 7% of clay), of a slightly acidic reaction (pH KCl 6.05 - 6.44). The plough layer (0 - 25 cm) contained about 5.0 g/kg of organic carbon. Both composts were alkaline in reaction and contained high amounts of plant available forms of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. Composts were used non-recurrently in rates of 18, 36, and 72 t/ha, calculated on dry matter basis. Control objects (0 and NPK) were plots without fertilization, as well as plots fertilized each year with mineral forms of NPK. Field experiment was conducted in 15 m2 plots, using five replications in a randomized block design. Spring triticale (x Triticosecale Wittm.) cultivated in a 3-year monoculture was used as the experiment plant. Soil samples were collected each year after harvesting. Changes in triticale yield were considered in relation to soil properties and nitrogen content in triticale straw and grain. Application of composts caused beneficial changes in soil fertility, connected mainly with an increase of soil organic matter and content of available forms of P, K, and Mg. These effects were observed throughout three years of the experiment. However, significantly higher values of organic carbon - as compared to control (0 and NPK) - were observed only in plots with medium and highest compost doses. This effect was very clear in the first year, while significant differences in soil carbon content were still observed in next two years. The yield of triticale straw and grain depended significantly on fertilization with composts, but beneficial effect of compost was observed only in the first year. Yield similar to NPK control was found only on plots where the highest dose of compost was applied. Next two

  5. Managing physicochemical parameters in compost systems to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... Mixtures of oil sludge, garden soil, poultry manure and the bulking agents were co-composted in static piles of about 1 m3 on wooden pallets overlaid with nylon fibre sheets. Temperature, moisture, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total carbon, total N, heterotrophs and respiration of compost microorganisms ...

  6. Influence of Fresh, Composted and Vermicomposted Parthenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    manure + RDF recorded highest LAI,photosynthetic rate and grain yield with better partitioning efficiency .The next best treatment was RDF in combination with Parthenium compost which had on par yield with poultry manure. Composts prepared from weed species before flowering stage had more beneficial effects than the ...

  7. Production of organic compost for Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van P.C.C.; Baar, J.; Straatsma, G.

    2009-01-01

    The increased demand for organic foods has increased the need for organic compost for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. The traditional ingredients for Dutch compost production are horse and chicken manures and wheat straw. These ingredients are not sufficiently abundant in organic form in The

  8. Organische microverontreinigingen in gft-compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rood GA; LAE

    1994-01-01

    The current investigation represented an initial survey on the presence of organic contaminants in Bio-waste compost (garden, fruit and vegetable wast). This report provides an indicative comparison between the pollution levels in compost and the target value for soil (H=20%). Partly based on this

  9. Compostwijzer compost maken in vier stappen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iepema, G.; Louis Bolk,

    2008-01-01

    Voor het in stand houden van veel natuurgebieden is maaien en afvoeren van het maaisel van belang. Het maaisel wordt vaak over grotere afstanden vervoerd om verwerkt te worden tot compost. In de directe nabijheid van het natuurgebied is in de landbouw in toenemende mate behoefte aan compost. In deze

  10. Organische microverontreinigingen in gft-compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rood GA; LAE

    1994-01-01

    Het onderhavige onderzoek is een eerste verkenning geweest naar de aanwezigheid van organische microverontreinigingen in gft-compost. In deze rapportage is een indicatieve vergelijking van de gehalten in compost met de streefwaarden voor bodem (H=20%) gemaakt. Mede op basis van dit onderzoek

  11. Compost: Brown gold or toxic trouble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, D.A.; Cahill, R.A.; Bicki, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding the occurrence of potentially hazardous constituents in raw, uncomposted yard wastes, partially composted yard wastes, and finished compost (15, 16). Environmental monitoring at composting operations or facilities is lacking, and currently published research on the environmental fate of composted yard waste constituents is extremely limited. The cost of thoroughly investigating the fate of toxicants in yard waste may seem needlessly expensive, but it is much less than the cost of cleaning up contaminated sites and groundwater. Could yard waste compost sites become Superfund sites? The cost of a thorough testing program throughout the United States may be several million dollars, but that is only a fraction of the funds spent initiating and developing yard waste composting facilities, let alone the potentially much greater cost of environmental remediation. There is still time to address these problems and to develop sound state and federal guidelines for siting and operating yard waste compost facilities. The rush to implement landfill alternatives such as composting should not be the major driving force in determining legislation governing solid waste management. ?? 1991 American Chemical Society.

  12. School Compost Programs: Pathways to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumpert, Kary; Dietz, Cyndra

    2012-01-01

    After the oft-repeated three Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) comes the lesser-known but equally important fourth R: rot. In this case, rot means compost. Classrooms, schools, and school districts can use a number of methods to establish a compost program. The finished product is a valuable soil amendment that adds fertility to local farmland, school…

  13. Assessing Soil Nutrient Additions through Different Composting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Nowadays, the use of earthworms as a composting technique is also gaining popularity. This method is commonly known as vermi-composting (Edwards, 1998), the process by which worms are used to convert organic materials ..... were taken. The experimental design applied was a completely randomized block, with 4 ...

  14. Managing physicochemical parameters in compost systems to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical, chemical and biological parameters were optimized during composting to enhance degradation of oil sludge. Mixtures of oil sludge, garden soil, poultry manure and the bulking agents were co-composted in static piles of about 1 m3 on wooden pallets overlaid with nylon fibre sheets. Temperature, moisture ...

  15. Effects of brown sugar and calcium superphosphate on the secondary fermentation of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang; Tian, Yun; Gong, Xiaoqiang

    2013-03-01

    The generation of green waste is increasing rapidly with population growth in China, and green waste is commonly treated by composting. The objective of this work was to study the physical and chemical characteristics of composted green waste as affected by a two-stage composting process and by the addition of brown sugar (at 0.0%, 0.5%, and 1%) and calcium superphosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O) (at 0%, 3%, and 6%) during the second stage. With or without these additives, all the composts displayed two peaks in fermentation temperature and matured in only 30days. Compared to traditional industrial composting, the composting method described here increased the duration of high-temperature fermentation period, reduced the maturity time, and reduced costs. Addition of 0.5% brown sugar plus 6% calcium superphosphate produced the highest quality compost with respect to C/N ratio, pH, organic matter content, electrical conductivity, particle-size distribution, and other characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects on soil organic matter mineralization and microbiological properties of applying compost to burned and unburned soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrión, M B; Lafuente, F; Mulas, R; López, O; Ruipérez, C; Pando, V

    2012-03-01

    This study was undertaken in the context of a project of reclamation of a burned forest area applying municipal waste compost (MWC) and it consisted of an incubation experience carried out under laboratory conditions. The objectives of this research were to asses the effect of three doses of MWC added to burned and unburned calcareous soils on a) SOM mineralization and b) soil microbiological parameters. The laboratory incubation experience was carried out with three compost doses (1, 2 and 4% w/w) on a burned soil and another unburned one from an adjacent plot, besides the corresponding control samples. The mineralization kinetics of the organic matter was studied for 92 days. The kinetics data were adjusted to a double exponential model, showing two C pools of different degrees of resistance to mineralization and concentration, with half-life times of 1.9-4.9 and 34-76 days, respectively. In the unburned soil, the initial potential mineralization rate of the labile and stable C pools showed an opposed behavior, increased and decreased with the MWC dose, respectively. However in the burned soil no significant tendencies were observed. Although applying compost tended to increase the size of more labile pool with respect to total mineralizable C, however most of the soil or compost OM did not result mineralizable in the short and medium term. The compost amendment did not increase soil microbial activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Utilization of high temperature compost in space agriculture: the model compost kills Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Tairo; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Yoshii, Takahiro

    The author and his colleagues have proposed the use of high temperature composting in space inhabitation. Composting has many advantages over burning in organic waste treatments. Composting is self-heating processes and needs no extra fuel. Composting requires no sophis-ticated equipment such as an incinerator. Composting emits no hazardous gases such as NOx, SOx and dioxines which are often produced by burning. The final product can be used as fer-tilizer in space farm land; resources recycling society can be constructed in space stations and space cities. In addition to these advantages, composting and compost soil may contribute to the environmental cleanup. During composting processes, harmful compounds to agricultural plants and animals can be destroyed. Seeds of weeds can be killed by high heat. Likewise pathogenic microbes in the waste can be eliminated during fermentation inside the composts. Recently we measured the survivability of E. coli in compost. E. coli was used as the represen-tative of the Gram-negative bacteria. Since many pathogenic strains belong to Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics than gram-positive bac-teria. When E. coli cells were mixed in the compost pile of which inside temperature reaches up to 75oC, they died within a short period as expected. However, E. coli DNA was detected even after a day in high temperature compost. RNA has a shorter life-span than DNA, but was detected after incubation in compost for several hours. In addition to sterilizing effects due to high temperature, we found our compost soil has E. coli killing activity. When mixed with the compost soil at room temperature, E. coli died gradually. Extract of the compost soil also killed E. coli at room temperature, but it took a few days to eliminate E. coli completely. During the killing process, total number of living bacteria did not change, indicating that the killing activity is limited to some specific

  18. Improvement of soil quality after "alperujo" compost application to two contaminated soils characterised by differing heavy metal solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburquerque, J A; de la Fuente, C; Bernal, M P

    2011-03-01

    Reclamation of trace element polluted soils often requires the improvement of the soil quality by using appropriate organic amendments. Low quality compost from municipal solid waste has been tested for reclamation of soils, but these materials can provide high amounts of heavy metals. Therefore, a high-quality compost, with low levels of heavy metals, produced from the main by-product of the Spanish olive oil extraction industry ("alperujo") was evaluated for remediation of soils affected by a pyritic mine sludge. Two contaminated soils were selected from the same area: they were characterised by differing pH values (4.6 and 7.3) and total metal concentrations, which greatly affected the fractionation of the metals. Compost was applied to soil at two rates (equivalent to 48 and 72 Tm ha(-1)) and compared with an inorganic fertiliser treatment. Compost acted as an available nutrient source (C, N and P) and showed a low mineralisation rate, suggesting a slow release of nutrients and thus favouring long term soil fertility. In addition, the liming effect of the compost led to a significant reduction of toxicity for soil microorganisms in the acidic soil and immobilisation of soil heavy metals (especially Mn and Zn), resulting in a clear increase in both soil microbial biomass and nitrification. Such positive effects were clearly greater than those provoked by the mineral fertiliser even at the lowest compost application rate, which indicates that this type of compost can be very useful for bioremediation programmes (reclamation and revegetation of polluted soils) based on phytostabilisation strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Simulation of Organic Matter and Pollutant Evolution during Composting: The COP-Compost Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashermes, G; Zhang, Y; Houot, S; Steyer, J P; Patureau, D; Barriuso, E; Garnier, P

    2013-01-01

    Organic pollutants (OPs) are potentially present in composts and the assessment of their content and bioaccessibility in these composts is of paramount importance. In this work, we proposed a model to simulate the behavior of OPs and the dynamic of organic C during composting. This model, named COP-Compost, includes two modules. An existing organic C module is based on the biochemical composition of the initial waste mixture and simulates the organic matter transformation during composting. An additional OP module simulates OP mineralization and the evolution of its bioaccessibility. Coupling hypotheses were proposed to describe the interactions between organic C and OP modules. The organic C module, evaluated using experimental data obtained from 4-L composting pilots, was independently tested. The COP-Compost model was evaluated during composting experiments containing four OPs representative of the major pollutants detected in compost and targeted by current and future regulations. These OPs included a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (fluoranthene), two surfactants (4--nonylphenol and a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate), and an herbicide (glyphosate). Residues of C-labeled OP with different bioaccessibility were characterized by sequential extraction and quantified as soluble, sorbed, and nonextractable fractions. The model was calibrated and coupling the organic C and OP modules improved the simulation of the OP behavior and bioaccessibility during composting. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Nematode succession during composting and the potential of the nematode community as an indicator of compost maturity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steel, H.; Peña, de la E.; Fonderie, P.; Willekens, K.; Borgonie, G.; Bert, W.

    2010-01-01

    One of the key issues in compost research is to assess when the compost has reached a mature stage. The maturity status of the compost determines the quality of the final soil amendment product. The nematode community occurring in a Controlled Microbial Composting (CMC) process was analyzed with the

  1. Biohydrogen and biomethane production sustained by untreated matrices and alternative application of compost waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizzi, Mariaconcetta; Morra, Simone; Pugliese, Massimo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Gilardi, Gianfranco; Valetti, Francesca

    2016-10-01

    Biohydrogen and biomethane production offers many advantages for environmental protection over the fossil fuels or the existing physical-chemical methods for hydrogen and methane synthesis. The aim of this study is focused on the exploitation of several samples from the composting process: (1) a mixture of waste vegetable materials ("Mix"); (2) an unmatured compost sample (ACV15); and (3) three types of green compost with different properties and soil improver quality (ACV1, ACV2 and ACV3). These samples were tested for biohydrogen and biomethane production, thus obtaining second generation biofuels and resulting in a novel possibility to manage renewable waste biomasses. The ability of these substrates as original feed during dark fermentation was assayed anaerobically in batch, in glass bottles, in order to determine the optimal operating conditions for hydrogen and/or methane production using "Mix" or ACV1, ACV2 or ACV3 green compost and a limited amount of water. Hydrogen could be produced with a fast kinetic in the range 0.02-2.45mLH2g(-1)VS, while methane was produced with a slower kinetic in the range 0.5-8mLCH4g(-1)VS. It was observed that the composition of each sample influenced significantly the gas production. It was also observed that the addition of different water amounts play a crucial role in the development of hydrogen or methane. This parameter can be used to push towards the alternative production of one or another gas. Hydrogen and methane production was detected spontaneously from these matrices, without additional sources of nutrients or any pre-treatment, suggesting that they can be used as an additional inoculum or feed into single or two-stage plants. This might allow the use of compost with low quality as soil improver for alternative and further applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of compost addition on the water repellency of brownfield soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Amii; Kechavarzi, Cedric; Sakrabani, Ruben; Coulon, Frederic; Simmons, Robert; Wu, Guozhong

    2010-05-01

    Compost application to brownfield sites, which can facilitate the stabilisation and remediation of contaminants whilst providing adequate conditions for plant growth, is seen as an opportunity to divert biodegradable wastes from landfill and put degraded land back into productive use. However, although compost application is thought to improve soil hydraulic functioning, there is a lack of information on the impact of large amounts of compost on soil water repellency. Water repellency in soils is attributed to the accumulation of hydrophobic organic compounds released as root exudates, fungal and microbial by-products and decomposition of organic matter. It has also been shown that brownfield soils contaminated with petroleum-derived organic contaminants can exhibit strong water repellency, preventing the rapid infiltration of water and leading potentially to surface run off and erosion of contaminated soil. However, hydrophobic organic contaminants are known to become sequestrated by partitioning into organic matter or diffusing into nano- and micropores, making them less available over time (ageing). The effect of large amounts of organic matter addition through compost application on the water repellency of soils contaminated with petroleum-derived organic contaminants requires further investigation. We characterised the influence of compost addition on water repellency in the laboratory by measuring the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT), sorptivity and water repellency index through infiltration experiments on soil samples amended with two composts made with contrasting feedstocks (green waste and predominantly meat waste). The treatments consisted of a sandy loam, a clay loam and a sandy loam contaminated with diesel fuel and aged for 3 years, which were amended with the two composts at a rate equivalent to 750t/ha. In addition core samples collected from a brownfield site, amended with compost at three different rates (250, 500 and 750t/ha) in 2007, were

  3. Co-composting of alkaline tissue digester effluent with yard trimmings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, K C

    2008-01-01

    Alkaline digestion of animal carcasses is gaining popularity as a method of disposing of animals because of its very effective pathogen control and general ease of operation. Once completed, the resulting high-strength effluent can be released into the municipal sewer systems. In some cases where the municipal system is unable to handle this high-strength wastewater, alternate methods of treatment are required. Co-composting with a low-moisture substrate such as yard trimmings can be an effective option. This paper reports the results of absorption tests to determine the amount of digester effluent (from the Tissue Digestor process) that can be added to yard waste before leachate production begins. In addition, a low dosage of liquid effluent was added to yard trimmings and composted in laboratory bioreactors. Results show that leachate production begins when 0.6L-effluent is added per kg-unamended yard waste at an original moisture content of 55.6%. The amount of leachate produced increases exponentially following the empirical equation: leachate in mL/kg=0.145 e(6.007Effluent dosage in L/kg) (valid in the effluent addition range of 0-1.2L/kg). Composting of yard waste with effluent showed that the initial pH did not inhibit microbial activity up to 9.39 pH. Variability was high and there was no statistically significant difference in dry matter degradation between treatments (measured range was 1.3-6.0% of initial dry matter). Final compost had nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of approximately 1% and 0.1%, respectively. The potassium concentration increased with increasing effluent addition and was 1.84% in the 0.2-L/kg treatment. All regulated heavy metals were several-fold below US EPA limits.

  4. New green professions in Bulgaria in the context of transition to green economy

    OpenAIRE

    Stoyanova Zornitsa; Harizanova Hristina

    2016-01-01

    Transition to green economy sets new requirements and challenges for the types of jobs, skills and knowledge. The paper analyzes and evaluates the importance of categories of green professions by sectors in Bulgaria. The main applied methodical approach for analysis and evaluation of green professions is a system approach. Assessment and analysis of the importance of categories of green professions by sectors is made on the basis of structured interviews with municipal experts from regional g...

  5. Environmental assessment of garden waste management in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting...... was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of −6 to 8mPEMg−1ww...... from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly....

  6. Selective coal mine overburden treatment with topsoil and compost to optimise pasture or native vegetation establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spargo, A; Doley, D

    2016-11-01

    Overburden at a coal mine in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, was stored in a flat-topped artificial mound with 14-degree side slopes. Topsoil was scarce, dispersive and readily eroded. A split-plot factorial experiment applied an enhanced municipal solid waste compost at 0, 60 or 100 t ha(-1) to untreated overburden or to overburden covered with 0.1 m of topsoil. Two seeding treatments, of trees and shrubs or of pasture species, were applied to two 0.5-ha replicates of each surface treatment. Substrate physical and chemical properties and vegetation attributes were assessed 2.5 years later. Compost application to both topsoil and overburden significantly increased total N, P, Cu and Zn, soluble K, Ca and Mg, and significantly reduced soluble Na and pH. Mean tree density, size and total canopy cover were significantly greater with compost applied at 60 t ha(-1) to overburden than with all other treatments, especially those on topsoil where tree growth was inhibited by undesired species. Compost application to overburden and topsoil at 100 t ha(-1) significantly increased biomass of desired pasture species and significantly reduced undesired species cover compared with unamended topsoil and the extent of bare ground compared with unamended overburden. Successful development of woody species on overburden and pastures on both overburden and topsoil treated with compost provides opportunities for new combinations of landscape design, surface preparation and plant species introductions to increase the stability of final landforms, the effectiveness of resource use, and the delivery of commercial and biodiversity benefits from mine site rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Conservation of ammonia during food waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jabi, L F; Halalsheh, M M; Badarneh, D M

    2008-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to quantify ammonia (NH3) losses during food waste composting and to evaluate the effectiveness of mature aerobic sewage sludge/olive pomace compost and phillipsite/chabazite zeolite in reducing NH3 losses during composting. Food waste amended with chopped barley straw was composted for a period of 68 days in three in-vessel reactors. The mature aerobic sewage sludge/olive pomace compost and the zeolite were placed on a mesh tray above the waste mixture in the first and second reactors, respectively. The third reactor contained straw-amended food waste only and served as a control. It was found that the mature aerobic sewage sludge/olive pomace compost reduced NH3-N losses by 36% of initial TN through nitrifying volatilized NH3 into nitrate (NO3-). Zeolite reduced NH3-N losses by 41% of initial total nitrogen due to adsorption of volatilized NH3. The use of mature compost in conservation of nitrogen is a promising cheap method; however, it needs further optimization and research.

  8. [Apply fourier transform infrared spectra coupled with two-dimensional correlation analysis to study the evolution of humic acids during composting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Gui-jun; Yu, Jing; Di, Hui-hui; Luo, Shi-jia; Zhou, Da-zhai; Xiao, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    The composition and structure of humic acids formed during composting play an important influence on the quality and mature of compost. In order to explore the composition and evolution mechanism, municipal solid wastes were collected to compost and humic and fulvic acids were obtained from these composted municipal solid wastes. Furthermore, fourier transform infrared spectra and two-dimensional correlation analysis were applied to study the composition and transformation of humic and fulvic acids during composting. The results from fourier transform infrared spectra showed that, the composition of humic acids was complex, and several absorbance peaks were observed at 2917-2924, 2844-2852, 2549, 1662, 1622, 1566, 1454, 1398, 1351, 990-1063, 839 and 711 cm(-1). Compared to humic acids, the composition of fulvci acids was simple, and only three peaks were detected at 1725, 1637 and 990 cm(-1). The appearance of these peaks showed that both humic and fulvic acids comprised the benzene originated from lignin and the polysaccharide. In addition, humic acids comprised a large number of aliphatic and protein which were hardly detected in fulvic acids. Aliphatic, polysaccharide, protein and lignin all were degraded during composting, however, the order of degradation was different between humic and fulvci acids. The result from two-dimensional correlation analysis showed that, organic compounds in humic acids were degraded in the following sequence: aliphatic> protein> polysaccharide and lignin, while that in fulvic acids was as following: protein> polysaccharide and aliphatic. A large number of carboxyl, alcohols and ethers were formed during the degradation process, and the carboxyl was transformed into carbonates. It can be concluded that, fourier transform infrared spectra coupled with two-dimensional correlation analysis not only can analyze the function group composition of humic substances, but also can characterize effectively the degradation sequence of these

  9. Influence of agricultural wastes and a finished compost on the decomposition of slaughterhouse waste composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, G W; Zeng, Jian; Arnold, Paul

    2013-11-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combining agricultural wastes or a finished compost (wheat straw, horse manure and bedding, sheep manure, and a wheat straw-SHW finished compost) as compost feedstocks with cattle slaughterhouse wastes (SHW) on a field-scale. The composts were managed in covered bins over 200 days and physico-chemical parameters related to organic matter bio-degradation were measured over time. Thermophilic temperatures were maintained above 55 °C for 12-46 days to meet the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) guidelines for pathogen control. Final C:N ratios were highest in a horse manure and bedding:SHW compost at 23:1 but ranged from 18.5 to 20.5:1 for the remaining three treatments, representing a wheat straw:SHW compost and different combinations of horse manure and bedding, SHW, and/or sheep manure. Average reduction in mass of total carbon across all the composts in the current study was 54.2%. Maturity tests at the end of the study determined that the CO2-C evolution rate in all compost products was less than 1 mg g(-1) organic matter day(-1) suggesting highly stable final compost products. Compost mass reductions all responded as exponential decay functions with R(2) values ranging from 0.84 to 0.99 regardless of compost feedstock composition. Agricultural by-products and composts are suitable feedstocks for use with SHW to generate a stable final product while meeting regulatory parameters to achieve conventional pathogen control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of microbial methods to detect fecal coliforms, E. coli and Salmonella spp. in finished compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Compost provides nutrients for produce crops. Improperly composted feedstocks can harbor pathogens which can be transferred to produce crops. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Composting Council (USCC) provide methods to test biosolids and compost, respectively, fo...

  11. Stability measurements of compost trough electrolytic respirometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Arias, V.; Fernandez, F. J.; Rodriguez, L.; Villasenor, J.

    2009-07-01

    An experimental technique for compost stability measurements based on electrolytic respirometry was optimized and subsequently applied to a composting process. Anaerobically digested sewage sludge mixed with reed was composted during 90 days in a pilot scale rotary drum with forced aeration. Periodic solid samples were taken, and a previously optimized respirometric procedure was applied to them in order to measure the oxygen consumption. The resirometric experiments were made directly with a few grams of solid samples, optimum moisture and 37 degree centigrade during 96h. (Author)

  12. Polluted land areas purified by composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, A.L.; Nikula, A.

    1996-11-01

    Restoration of polluted land and development of purification methods are among the most topical environment protection issues, IVO, too, has participated in research on microbiological purification methods. The biodegrability of creosote, and agent used for impregnation of wooden power line poles, was tested in the laboratory in 1993-94. The tests revealed that soil polluted by creosote can be cleansed efficiently. In Petaejaevesi, central Finland, the results are being applied in the composting of land masses polluted by creosote. The composting, which began in summer 1995, has succeeded in line with expectations: The content of deleterious compounds fell by half after only a couple of months of composting. (orig.)

  13. More Bang for the Buck: Integrating Green Infrastructure into Existing Public Works Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    shares lessons learned from municipal and county officials experienced in coordinating green infrastructure applications with scheduled street maintenance, park improvements, and projects on public sites.

  14. Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process enhancing compost maturity of dewatered sludge with synchronous electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hang; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Yunshu; Zheng, Zhen; Hao, Xiaodi

    2015-10-01

    Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process (AnCBE) with dewatered sludge as the anode fuel was constructed to accelerate composting of dewatered sludge, which could increase the quality of the compost and harvest electric energy in comparison with the traditional anaerobic composting (AnC). Results revealed that the AnCBE yielded a voltage of 0.60 ± 0.02 V, and total COD (TCOD) removal reached 19.8 ± 0.2% at the end of 35 d. The maximum power density was 5.6 W/m(3). At the end of composting, organic matter content (OM) reduction rate increased to 19.5 ± 0.2% in AnCBE and to 12.9 ± 0.1% in AnC. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA) result indicated that the membership degree of class I of AnCBE compost (0.64) was higher than that of AnC compost (0.44). It was demonstrated that electrogenesis in the AnCBE could improve the sludge stabilization degree, accelerate anaerobic composting process and enhance composting maturity with bioelectricity generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physico-chemical and biological characteristics of compost from decentralised composting programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M A; Sen, R; Soto, M

    2015-12-01

    Composts that originated from small-scale composting programmes including home, community and canteen waste composters were studied. Heavy metals concentration indicated compliance with current regulations for conventional and organic agriculture. Compost from canteen waste showed high organic matter content (74% VS), while community (44 ± 20% VS) and home composts (31 ± 16% VS) had moderate levels. N content increased from home compost (1.3 ± 0.9% dm) to community (2.0 ± 0.9%) and canteen compost (2.5-3.0%) while P content ranged from 0.4% to 0.6% dm. C/N, absorbance E4/E6 and N-NH4(+)/N-NO3(-) ratios as well as respiration index indicated well-stabilized final products. Culturable bacterial and fungal cfu linkage to composting dynamics were identified and higher diversity of invertebrates was found in the smaller scale static systems. With similar process evolution indicators to industrial systems, overall results support the sustainability of these small-scale, self-managed composting systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Compost incorporation, soil aggregates and organic C sequestration in two different Tuscan soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Roberto; Sparvoli, Enzo; Scatena, Manuele; Pucci, Amaranta; D'Acqui, Luigi P.

    2010-05-01

    Soil amendment with compost obtained from pre-selected urban food scraps together with green manure, reduced tillage, rotation of crops and other practices are generally considered as improving soil structure by increasing the levels of nutrient elements. The addition of well composted organic residues may increase the amount of organic C entangled within mineral particles and also stabilize soil aggregates and micro-aggregates. This consequently reduces carbon dioxide emissions and mitigates temperature increases. Our data refer to two soils, a clay soil and a sandy soil, subjected to a long term compost incorporation in order to ameliorate soil fertility. We measured the dynamic of pore size distribution and total porosity evolution together with water soil aggregates stability. We also developed our own procedure to assess the stabilization and protection of organic C in soil aggregates, by analyzing the dynamics of OM dry-oxidation by LTA (Low Temperature Ashing) cold oxygen plasma. Our results confirmed the beneficial effect of the compost on soil structure of both soils and that the potential sequestration of soil organic C is related to the granulometry and mineralogical features of the two soils. We propose an original methodological approach to assess the effective C sequestration in agricultural soil.

  17. Designing a Municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Ulrik; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård

    2014-01-01

    is therefore focusing primarily on the process of changing the perception of how to organize development in a municipality. The most important elements in transforming the whole development setup are described. Finally, a short case describing one of the significant results is included.......Can a municipality be designed? The municipality Kolding in the southern part of Denmark asked this question. The idea emerged as a response to a recognized need for new ways of branding and developing the municipality. It is an ongoing process that was kicked off in 2012 and this paper...

  18. Esco in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to discuss the possible benefits of involving Energy Service Companies (ESCO) in realising energy savings in municipalities, and how ESCO projects can be formulated very differently in the various municipalities, according to building volume, use of technologies,......-house approach, which many municipalities are considering. Practical Implications: We suggest the practical implications of our findings, as a short characteristic of the different approaches, intended for municipalities to start up energy retrofitting of municipal buildings.......Purpose: The aim of this paper is to discuss the possible benefits of involving Energy Service Companies (ESCO) in realising energy savings in municipalities, and how ESCO projects can be formulated very differently in the various municipalities, according to building volume, use of technologies......, energy savings, type of collaboration etc. Background: Since 2008, several Danish municipalities have started energy retrofitting of municipal buildings, based on contracts with Energy Service Companies. In spite of the strong growth of ESCOs, there is also widespread scepticism about ESCO, as many...

  19. Evaluation of heavy metals in the process of composting organic waste of coca leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaza-Condori Emma Eva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study is to evaluate the total concentrations of the heavy metals in waste compost samples from coca leaf. This work was carried out Kallutaca Experimental Center, Biofertilizers module Career Agricultural Engineering at the Public University of El Alto, La Paz municipality of Laja. Posed treatments were: T1 (+ Yogurt Coca wastes; T2 (Coca wastes + whey; T3 (Coca wastes + yeast and T4 (Control. The design was completely randomized with 4 treatments and 3 repetitions. The concentration of heavy metals (cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, mercury and chromium; they were categorized into Class A, for the four treatments according to the classifications established by Moreno & Moral (2008.

  20. CHALLENGES OF MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOLTÁN OROSZ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims, tasks and priorities of medium term development plans of national waste management were defined in the National Waste Management Plan, which was made for the period of 2003–2008 in Hungary. Supporting of the European Union is indispensable for carrying out of plan. The most important areas are related to the developing projects of municipal solid waste treatment (increasingthe capacity of landfills, accomplishment of the infrastructure of selective waste collection, building of new composting plants. The national environmental policy does not focus sufficiently on the prevention of waste production. Due to the high expenses of investment and operation the energetic recovery and the incineration of municipal solid waste do not compete with the deposition. We inclined to think that the waste management of Hungary will be deposition-orientated until 2015. The main problems to the next years will be the lack of reprocessing industry of plastic and glass packaging waste. The high number of to-be-recultivated landfills and the attainability of necessary financial sources are also serious problems. There are many questions. What is the future in national waste management? How can we reduce the quantity of dumped waste? What are challenges of national waste management on the short and long term?

  1. Use of composts in revegetating arid lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.

    1991-09-01

    Compost has been suggested as a soil amendment for arid lands at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The operating contractor of the site, Westinghouse Hanford Company, requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a literature review to compile additional information on the use of compost amendments and their benefits. This report provides background information on the factors needed for plant growth and the consequences of severe soil disturbance. This report also discussed the characteristics of composts relative to other amendments and how they each affect plant growth. Finally,regulatory requirements that could affect land application of sludge-based compost on the Hanford Site are reviewed.

  2. Compost-amended biofiltration swale evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    From May 2009 through June 2010, Herrera Environmental Consultants conducted hydrologic : and water quality monitoring of a compost-amended biofiltration swale and a standard (control) : biofiltration swale in the median of State Route 518 for the Wa...

  3. Composting in advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  4. Impact of compost process conditions on organic micro pollutant degradation during full scale composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about the effects of oxygen concentration, nutrient availability and moisture content on removal of organic micro-pollutants during aerobic composting is at present very limited. Impact of oxygen concentration, readily available nitrogen content (NH4(+), NO3(-)), and moisture content on biological transformation of 15 key organic micro-pollutants during composting, was therefore investigated using bench-scale degradation experiments based on non-sterile compost samples, collected at full-scale composting facilities. In addition, the adequacy of bench-scale composting experiments for representing full-scale composting conditions, was investigated using micro-pollutant concentration measurements from both bench- and full-scale composting experiments. Results showed that lack of oxygen generally prevented transformation of organic micro-pollutants. Increasing readily available nitrogen content from about 50 mg N per 100 g compost to about 140 mg N per 100 g compost actually reduced micro-pollutant transformation, while changes in compost moisture content from 50% to 20% by weight, only had minor influence on micro-pollutant transformation. First-order micro-pollutant degradation rates for 13 organic micro-pollutants were calculated using data from both full- and bench-scale experiments. First-order degradation coefficients for both types of experiments were similar and ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 d(-1) on average, indicating that if a proper sampling strategy is employed, bench-scale experiments can be used to represent full-scale composting conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biostabilization of municipal solid waste fractions from an Advanced Waste Treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Ball

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the safe disposal of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW, especially the biodegradable fraction, is an important goal of waste management. This study reports the effects of using composting to biostabilize the biodegradable fraction of MSW sourced from an Advanced Waste Treatment plant in Australia. The impact of biostabilization on the initial aerobic degradation of the material showed a reduction in oxygen consumption of 30% (230 g O2/kg loss of ignition (LOI in immature compost and 45% (181 g O2 kg−1 LOI in mature compost when compared with the input material (330 g O2/kg LOI. Anaerobic tests showed a reduction in biodegradability of 40% in the immature compost with biogas production 250 L/kg LOI compared with 50% in mature compost with biogas production of 218 L/kg LOI. The results confirm that the biostabilization of the biodegradable fraction of MSW diverted from landfill can result in a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emission.

  6. Dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Brummeler, ten, E.

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive technology for solid waste management. This thesis describes the technological potentials of dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using batch systems. In 1985 a research programme was started to develop the so- called BIOCEL system based on batchwise anaerobic digestion yielding biogas and compost. The research programme was financially supported by the Dutch National Programme for reuse of Waste (NOH), wh...

  7. El Proyecto Municip@ El Proyecto Municip@

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Pastor Albaladejo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde los años noventa del siglo pasado las administraciones públicas españolas se vieron inmersas en un proceso de transformación que no sólo afectó a sus estructuras internas sino también a su modelo de relación con los ciudadanos. Dentro de este contexto de cambio, las tecnologías de la información y comunicación (TIC e Internet se destacaron como referentes fundamentales a la hora de diseñar y afrontar cualquier plan de modernización administrativa.
    El presente artículo analiza el Proyecto Municip@, la última iniciativa de cooperación interadministrativa impulsada por la Comunidad de Madrid (CAM con la finalidad de promover y desarrollar la eAdministración en los municipios de menos de 20.000 habitantes de su ámbito territorial. En particular, se exponen los aspectos definitorios de Municip@, los antecedentes y el plan de actuación previsto para su puesta en práctica (fases, actividades, periodos de ejecución y actores participantes. Todo ello, con el objeto de conocer no sólo los puntos claves del proyecto sino también el grado de ajuste o desajuste que se detecta en la implantación de su dimensión externa (la prestación de servicios públicos electrónicos a los ciudadanos mediante la página web municipal durante el primer año de funcionamiento de esta medida innovadora (2006-2007.Since the nineties of the last century Spanish Public Administrations are embedded in a process of transformation that affected not only their internal structures but also their forms of action through the citizens. In this context of change, information and communication technologies (ICT have emerged as fundamental references to design administrative modernization policies.
    This article analyzes the Municip@ Project, the latest multilevel cooperation initiative enhanced by the Community of Madrid (CAM in order to promote and develop eGovernment in municipalities fewer than 20,000 inhabitants. In particular, we will expose the

  8. Municipal Development of Anaerobic Digestion/ Combined Heat and Power in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Brenda

    With a commercial food waste ban going into effect in Massachusetts in October 2014, businesses, institutions, and municipalities are considering alternatives to landfills and incinerators for organic waste. Anaerobic digestion is one such alternative. Similar to composting, but in an environment devoid of oxygen, anaerobic digestion produces byproducts such as methane (which can be burned for heat or electricity) and liquid or solid digestate (which can be used as fertilizer, cattle bedding, and more). Thus, disposal of food waste and other organic materials can become a source of revenue rather than just an expense. Municipalities interested in developing anaerobic digestion/combined heat and power (AD/CHP) facilities have the benefit of desirable options for sites, such as landfill gas facilities and wastewater treatment plants, and potential feedstocks in source-separated residential or municipal food waste or wastewater. This thesis examines the opportunities and challenges for municipal development of AD/CHP facilities in Massachusetts.

  9. Esco in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2012-01-01

    , energy savings, type of collaboration etc. Background: Since 2008, several Danish municipalities have started energy retrofitting of municipal buildings, based on contracts with Energy Service Companies. In spite of the strong growth of ESCOs, there is also widespread scepticism about ESCO, as many...

  10. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  11. Environmental impact of mushroom compost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Francisco; Saenz-Díez, Juan-Carlos; Martínez, Eduardo; Jiménez, Emilio; Blanco, Julio

    2016-09-01

    This research analyses the environmental impact of the creation of Agaricus bisporus compost packages. The composting process is the intermediate stage of the mushroom production process, subsequent to the mycelium cultivation stage and prior to the fruiting bodies cultivation stage. A full life cycle assessment model of the Agaricus bisporus composting process has been developed through the identification and analysis of the inputs-outputs and energy consumption of the activities involved in the production process. The study has been developed based on data collected from a plant during a 1 year campaign, thereby obtaining accurate information used to analyse the environmental impact of the process. A global analysis of the main stages of the process shows that the process that has the greatest impact in most categories is the compost batch preparation process. This is due to an increased consumption of energy resources by the machinery that mixes the raw materials to create the batch. At the composting process inside the tunnel stage, the activity that has the greatest impact in almost all categories studied is the initial stage of composting. This is due to higher energy consumption during the process compared to the other stages. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Bioaerosols from composting facilities—a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wéry, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Bioaerosols generated at composting plants are released during processes that involve the vigorous movement of material such as shredding, compost pile turning, or compost screening. Such bioaerosols are a cause of concern because of their potential impact on both occupational health and the public living in close proximity to such facilities. The biological hazards potentially associated with bioaerosol emissions from composting activities include fungi, bacteria, endotoxin, and 1-3 β-glucans. There is a major lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants as well as the potential exposure of nearby residents. This is due in part to the difficulty of tracing specifically these microorganisms in air. In recent years, molecular tools have been used to develop new tracers which should help in risk assessments. This review summarizes current knowledge of microbial diversity in composting aerosols and of the associated risks to health. It also considers methodologies introduced recently to enhance understanding of bioaerosol dispersal, including new molecular indicators and modeling. PMID:24772393

  13. Citizen involvement in green transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Citizen involvement in green transition: negotiating the tension between participation and environmental effectiveness Anders Horsbøl, Aalborg University Citizen involvement plays an important role in many governmental and municipal attempts towards green transition, reflecting a departure from...... a deficit model of public communication towards participatory ambitions of engaging citizens in more open-ended decision making (Lassen et al. 2011, Phillips et. al, 2012). However, there is often a tension between the participatory ambitions on the one hand and predetermined environmental goal...... in the form of a case study investigating how four municipality associated partners in Sweden and Denmark embark on a common project on citizen involvement as an avenue to green transition. At the outset of the project each partner identified different environmental goals such as reduction of electricity...

  14. Compost made of organic wastes suppresses fusariosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryntseva, Polina; Galitskaya, Polina; Biktasheva, Liliya; Selivanovkaya, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    Fungal plant diseases cause dramatic yield losses worldwide. Usually, pesticides are used for soil sanitation, and it results in practically pest-free soils, although pesticides cause a biological vacuum, which present many horticultural disadvantages. Suppressive composts, which possess both fertilizing properties for plants and inhibiting properties for plant pathogens, represent an effective and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional pesticides. In this study, composts obtained from agricultural organic wastes were applied to suppress Fusarium oxysporum of tomato plants in model experiments. Composts were made of mixtures of the widespread organic wastes sampled in Tatarstan (Russia): straw (SW), corn wastes (CW), chicken manure (ChM), cattle manure (CM) and swine manure (SM). 11 two- and three-component mixtures were prepared to obtain the optimal carbon-nitrogen, moisture and pH balances, and composted for 210 days. It was found that the thermophilic phase of composting in all the mixtures lasted from 2 to 35 days, and was characterized by significant fluctuations in temperature, i.e. from 27°C to 59°C. In the initial mixtures, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was between 10 and 62 mg kg-1; it fell significantly on day 13, and then continuously decreased up to day 102, and subsequently remained low. For all the mixtures, maximal respiration activity was observed in the beginning of composting (231.9 mg CO2-C g-1 day-1). After 23 days, this parameter decreased significantly, and fluctuations subsided. The phytotoxicity of the initial compost mixtures varied from 18% (SW+SM) to 100% (CW+ChM+SM, CW+ChM); however, the trends in the dynamics were similar. After 120 days of composting, 5 of 11 samples were not phytotoxic. After 120 days of composting, each mixture was divided into two parts; one was inoculated with a biopreparation consisting of four microbial strains (Trichoderma asperellum, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens and

  15. Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Møller, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting...

  16. Temperatures In Compost Landfill Covers As Result Of Methane Oxidation And Compost Respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Merono, A. R.; Pedersen, Rasmus Broen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the temperature on methane (CH4) oxidation and respiration in compost sampled at a full scale biocover implemented at Klintholm landfill exhibiting high temperatures. Compost material was collected at Klintholm landfill and incubated with and without CH4...

  17. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  18. Evaluating of selected parameters of composting process by composting of grape pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, there is annually available 8 million tons of grape pomace. From the viewpoint of waste management, pomace represents biotic waste produced in the FDM (Food–Drink–Milk sector. Composting process represents an effective use of grape pomace. Introduced experiment deals with monitoring of the composting process of grape pomace provided by 2 different variants of different composition of composting piles. Obtained results indicate that dynamics of process is affected by the share of raw materials. According to the temperature curve characteristics, the temperature above 45 °C for at least 5 days was necessary for compost sanitation. Such temperature was achieved in piles with higher proportion of pomace (Var.II. Analysis of results shows that the compost made ​​of grape pomace is a quality organic fertilizer, which may have in addition to agronomic point of view also great hygienic and ecological importance.

  19. Carbohydrate composition of compost during composting and mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-30

    Changes of plant cell wall carbohydrate structures occurring during the process to make suitable compost for growth of Agaricus bisporus are unknown. In this paper, composition and carbohydrate structures in compost samples collected during composting and mycelium growth were analyzed. Furthermore, different extracts of compost samples were prepared with water, 1M and 4M alkali and analyzed. At the beginning of composting, 34% and after 16 days of mycelium growth 27% of dry matter was carbohydrates. Carbohydrate composition analysis showed that mainly cellulose and poorly substituted xylan chains with similar amounts and ratios of xylan building blocks were present in all phases studied. Nevertheless, xylan solubility increased 20% over the period of mycelium growth indicating partial degradation of xylan backbone. Apparently, degradation of carbohydrates occurred over the process studied by both bacteria and fungi, mainly having an effect on xylan-chain length and solubility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Compost and biochar alter mycorrhization, tomato root exudation, and development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Adnan; Hage-Ahmed, Karin; Soja, Gerhard; Steinkellner, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    Soil amendments like compost and biochar are known to affect soil properties, plant growth as well as soil borne plant pathogens. Complex interactions based on microbial activity and abiotic characteristics are supposed to be responsible for suppressive properties of certain substrates, however, the specific mechanisms of action are still widely unknown. In the present study, the main focus was on the development of the soil borne pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and changes in root exudates of tomato plants grown in different soil substrate compositions, such as compost (Comp) alone at application rate of 20% (v/v), and in combination with wood biochar (WB; made from beech wood chips) or green waste biochar (GWB; made from garden waste residues) at application rate of 3% (v/v), and/or with additional arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The association of GWB and AMF had a positive effect on tomato plants growth unlike to the plants grown in WB containing a soil substrate. The AMF root colonization was not enhanced by the addition of WB or GWB in the soil substrate, though a bio-protective effect of mycorrhization was evident in both biochar amended treatments against Fol. Compost and biochars altered root exudates differently, which is evident from variable response of in vitro growth and development of Fol. The microconidia germination was highest in root exudates from plants grown in the soil containing compost and GWB, whereas root exudates of plants from a substrate containing WB suppressed the mycelial growth and development of Fol. In conclusion, the plant growth response and disease suppression in biochar containing substrates with additional AMF was affected by the feedstock type. Moreover, application of compost and biochars in the soil influence the quality and composition of root exudates with respect to their effects on soil-dwelling fungi. PMID:26217373

  1. Compost and biochar alter mycorrhization, tomato root exudation and development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan eAkhter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil amendments like compost and biochar are known to affect soil properties, plant growth as well as soil borne plant pathogens. Complex interactions based on microbial activity and abiotic characteristics are supposed to be responsible for suppressive properties of certain substrates, however, the specific mechanisms of action are still widely unknown. In the present study, the main focus was on the development of the soil borne pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. and changes in root exudates of tomato plants grown in different soil substrate compositions, such as compost (Comp alone at application rate of 20 % (v/v, and in combination with wood biochar (WB; made from beech wood chips or green waste biochar (GWB, made from garden waste residues at application rate of 3 % (v/v, and/or with additional arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. The association of GWB and AMF had a positive effect on tomato plants growth unlike to the plants grown in WB containing soil substrate. The AMF root colonization was not enhanced by the addition of WB or GWB in the soil substrate, though bio-protective effect of mycorrhization was evident in both biochar amended treatments against Fol. Compost and biochars altered root exudates differently, which is evident from variable response of in vitro growth and development of Fol. The microconidia germination was highest under in root exudates from plants grown in the soil containing compost and GWB, whereas root exudates of plants from substrate containing WB suppressed the mycelial growth and development of Fol. In conclusion, the plant growth response and disease suppression in biochar containing substrates with additional AMF was affected by the feedstock type. Moreover, application of compost and biochars in the soil influence the quality and composition of root exudates with respect to their effects on soil-dwelling fungi.

  2. Importance of Soil Amendments: Survival of Bacterial Pathogens in Manure and Compost Used as Organic Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manan; Reynnells, Russell

    2016-08-01

    Biological soil amendments (BSAs) such as manure and compost are frequently used as organic fertilizers to improve the physical and chemical properties of soils. However, BSAs have been known to be a reservoir for enteric bacterial pathogens such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), Salmonella spp., and Listeria spp. There are numerous mechanisms by which manure may transfer pathogens to growing fruits and vegetables, and several outbreaks of infections have been linked to manure-related contamination of leafy greens. In the United States several commodity-specific guidelines and current and proposed federal rules exist to provide guidance on the application of BSAs as fertilizers to soils, some of which require an interval between the application of manure to soils and the harvest of fruits and vegetables. This review examines the survival, persistence, and regrowth/resuscitation of bacterial pathogens in manure, biosolids, and composts. Moisture, along with climate and the physicochemical properties of soil, manure, or compost, plays a significant role in the ability of pathogens to persist and resuscitate in amended soils. Adaptation of enteric bacterial pathogens to the nonhost environment of soils may also extend their persistence in manure- or compost-amended soils. The presence of antibiotic-resistance genes in soils may also be increased by manure application. Overall, BSAs applied as fertilizers to soils can support the survival and regrowth of pathogens. BSAs should be handled and applied in a manner that reduces the prevalence of pathogens in soils and the likelihood of transfer of food-borne pathogens to fruits and vegetables. This review will focus on two BSAs-raw manure and composted manure (and other feedstocks)-and predominantly on the survival of enteric bacterial pathogens in BSAs as applied to soils as organic fertilizers.

  3. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Concentration and Sequential Extraction in Zahedan Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoora Javan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Producing compost out of municipal solid wastes and organic materials is one of the main ways to recycle organic materials which plays an important role in waste management. Compost can also bring some toxic substances such as heavy metals into the soil and food chain and these substances have negative effects on the living things. Methods: This research is a cross-sectional descriptive study which was carried out during two seasons of spring and summer on Zahedan vermicompost factory. There were 100 samples in the research and the rate of mobility of heavy metals of lead, cadmium, and nickel was measured through five-step sequential extraction method. Then the hazard of the metals was assessed too. Results: The results show that the highest rate of mobility is related to chromium and then cadmium and lead. Moreover, the risk assessment of heavy metals estimates the average risk of all three metals for the living things in the environment. Conclusion: Heavy metals of lead and cadmium and nickel in Zahedan compost are less than the standard that is set for Iran. 

  4. Use of wastewater and compost extracts as nutrient sources for growing nursery and turfgrass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michitsch, Robert C; Chong, Calvin; Holbein, Bruce E; Voroney, R Paul; Liu, Hua-Wu

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient salts present in liquid by-products following waste treatment are lost resources if not effectively recycled, and can cause environmental problems if improperly disposed. This research compared the growth response and mineral nutrient status of two nursery and two turfgrass species, hydroponically supplied with nutritive by-product extracts derived from anaerobically digested municipal solid waste (MSW) and aerobically composted organic wastes from the mushroom and MSW industries. Forsythia (Forsythia x intermedia 'Lynwood') and weigela (Weigela florida 'Red Prince'), and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), were grown in nutrient solutions/extracts prepared from: (i) half-strength Hoagland's #2 solution (HH; control), (ii) Plant Products liquid fertilizer (PP; g kg(-1): 180 N; 39 P; 224 K), (iii) spent mushroom compost (SMC), (iv) MSW compost (GMC), and (v) intra-process wastewater from the anaerobic digestion of MSW (ADW). Additional nutrient solutions (SMC-A, GMC-A, and ADW-A) were prepared by amending the original solutions with N, P, and/or K to concentrations in HH (mg L(-1): 105 N; 15 P; 118 K). Plants receiving the SMC-A extract grew best or at least as well as those in HH, PP, and the amended GMC-A and ADW-A solutions. This study indicated that, with proper amendments of N, P, K and other nutrients, water-soluble constituents derived from organic waste treatment have potential for use as supplemental nutrient sources for plant production.

  5. Comparison normal composting with composting using effective microorganisms for poultry carcasses disposal in poultry farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Taher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Composting offers a convenient and environmentally acceptable safe, effective method for the disposal of carcasses as an alternative method to burning, burial and rendering. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a natural biological products containing an effective microorganisms namily; Lactic acid bacill (Lactobacillus plantarum; L. casei Streptococcus Lactis., Photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas palustris; Rhodobacter sphaeroides,Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Candida utilis Toula, Pichia Jadinii, Actinomycetes (Streptomyces albus; S. griseus., and Fermenting fungi (Aspergillus oryzae; Mucor hiemalis in the composting activity of poultry carcasses. The composting stacks constitute multi alternative layers of wood shaves, hay, poultry carcasses and then wood shaves and so on. The layers have been bypassed with plastic tubes for oxygen supply. Moreover, a petri dishes of salmonella and E. coli colonies were introduced within poultry carcasses layer. After 8 days of the experimental period this study follows the physical properties of the composting process according to its odor intesity, color and pH level as well as the bacterial reisolation from the stored colonies. Results indicate that the biological products increase the temperature of the composting stack (66-68° C with a minimal odors as the pH meters recording 5.4 as compared to the control composting stack (52-64° C and pH 6.8 with offender odors. On the other hand ,the biological product inhibit the bacterial reisolation offers since the 10the day of the experiment, however, in the normal composting stack that periods will prolonged till the 17 days of the experiment. Interestingly, the biological product induce high and rapid digestable rate for the poultry carcasses which shown within 25 days of the experiment, in comparison to the normal composting stack which induce that effects in 60 days. In conclusion, the addition of effective microorganism to the

  6. Household food-waste composting using a small-scale composter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vital Vich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Household food-waste composting is an attractive alternative for Brazilian waste management; however, there are few programs or studies regarding the implementation or management of this small-scale process. This study investigates the performance of food waste composting using a simple and small-scale domestic composter. Three composting trials were conducted using food waste and wood chips in 10 L plastic bins using different filling schemes. In the first trial, the composter was filled weekly over two months. In the second, the composter was filled once with a mixture of food waste and 100% of the used wood chips from the previous trial. In the last third trial, the composter was filled with food waste and wood chips (50% of wood chips used in the second trial and 50% of untreated wood chips. The physical chemical parameters of the compost were monitored and the total coliforms and E. coli were measured. In all trials, the temperature varied between 26.7°C and 46.2°C throughout the process. The reduction in wet mass was 58-69%, while the reduction in dry mass was 37-61%. The pH value, the contents of carbon and nitrogen and the C/N ratio were in accordance with the values recommended in norm 25 (July, 2009 adopted by Brazil's Agriculture Ministry. Only the compost from Trial 2, which had 1900 MPN g-1total solids, did not meet the E. coli standards; this was likely due to the fact that when the temperatures did not reach the thermophilic phase, the relatively long time the waste remains in the composter allows these pathogenic microorganisms to decay naturally.

  7. Presence of Legionella and Free-Living Amoebae in Composts and Bioaerosols from Composting Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conza, Lisa; Pagani, Simona Casati; Gaia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires’ disease (LD). Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA) that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture) and FLA (by culture) in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila) were detected in 69.3% (61/88) of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba) in 92.0% (81/88). L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88) of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012) than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47) were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47) for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8%) were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents. PMID:23844174

  8. Biochar for composting improvement and contaminants reduction. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Paulina; Schmidt, Hans Peter; Ok, Yong Sik; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2017-12-01

    Biochar is characterised by a large specific surface area, porosity, and a large amount of functional groups. All of those features cause that biochar can be a potentially good material in the optimisation of the process of composting and final compost quality. The objective of this study was to compile the current knowledge on the possibility of biochar application in the process of composting and on the effect of biochar on compost properties and on the content of contaminants in compost. The paper presents the effect of biochar on compost maturity indices, composting temperature and moisture, and also on the content and bioavailability of nutrients and of organic and inorganic contaminants. In the paper note is also taken of the effect of biochar added to composted material on plants, microorganisms and soil invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of compost age on the release of nutrients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bilal B. Al-Bataina; Thomas M. Young; Ezio Ranieri

    2016-01-01

    .... The aim of this work was to understand the effect of compost age on the extent and rates of nitrogen release by conducting detailed rainfall simulation studies of one compost type at three different ages...

  10. Steep cut slope composting : field trials and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Three different depths of compost and five compost retention techniques were tested to determine : their efficacy and cost effectiveness for increasing the establishment of native grass seedings and decreasing : erosion on steep roadside cut slopes i...

  11. Effects of Compost on Mycelia Growth and Fructification, Mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fries) singer on lingocellulosic waste. Long composted substrate formulations of sawdust (86%) + rice bran (10%) + cassava peel (4%) supported the longest mycelia growth and density. Long composted also produced larger fruitbodies and ...

  12. Summary Report for Evaluation of Compost Sample Drying Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frye, Russell

    1994-01-01

    .... Previous work in Support of these efforts developed a compost sample preparation scheme, consisting of air drying followed by milling, to reduce analytical variability in the heterogeneous compost matrix...

  13. An Overview of Composting Based on Variable Feedstock Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Aeslina Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a biological treatment method that provides a potential sustainable way to convert food waste into organic compost. In composting, the feedstock material is an important item to ensure the success of the composting process. This paper reviewed the process of composting based on implementation different types of feedstock, namely: 1 animal waste such as cow dung, poultry litter, swine manure and chicken manure; and 2 agricultural waste such as sawdust, rice straw, bran, bagasse, banana waste and pine chip. The result for poultry litter, cow manure, swine manure, sawdust and rice straw has C/N ratio lower than 20 at final composting process which is considered as satisfactory level for compost maturity. As a conclusion, the selection of the feedstock material is based on the characteristics of the material itself and the selection of materials is important for the quality of compost.

  14. [Production of a compost accelerator inoculant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Lara, M Socorro; Quintero Lizaola, Roberto; Espinosa Victoria, David; Alarcón, Alejandro; Etchevers Barra, Jorge D; Trinidad Santos, Antonio; Conde Martínez, F Víctor

    2017-10-26

    Composting was performed using a mixture of ovine manure and straw. Inoculum was extracted at five different phases of the composting process (18, 23, 28, 33 and 38 days after the start of the composting process) and its effect on reducing biotransformation time was evaluated in the composted ovine manure. The samples were preserved in a deep freezer, then lyophilized to obtain the inoculum, 50g of which was added to each treatment in the second experimental phase. Six treatments were established; C=straw (P)+ovine manure (E), T1=P+ E+inoculum 18 days after the start of the composting process (I18), T2=P+E+I23, T3=P+E+I28, T4=P+E+I33, T5=P+E+I38, with three replications. Treatments were placed in a controlled-environment chamber at 45% relative humidity and 30°C along with flasks containing 50g of material to measure daily production, CO 2 accumulation, temperature, pH, electric conductivity (dS/m), organic matter (%), total nitrogen (%), total carbon (%), C: N ratio, particle size (Tp) and bulk density (g/l). CO 2 production (mg) showed a significant difference (p ≤.05) of treatments T2 and T5 with respect to the others, which demonstrated that the inoculum of these treatments accelerated the dynamics of microorganisms and the composting process. The quality and maturity of the compost are guaranteed as the amount of CO 2 decreases. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Monitoring of biopile composting of oily sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Nammari, Diauddin

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes a bioreactor set-up used to simulate degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a static biopile. The large-scale test was performed in a 28 m(3) custom-designed reactor. Oily sludge (40% by weight, having 7% dry matter [DM], and hydrocarbons C(10)-C(40) 160,000 mg kg(-1) DM) was mixed with organic-rich amendments - mature oil-compost (40%) and garden waste compost (20%). Within the reactor, the temperature and soil gases were monitored continuously during 370 days via 24 measurement points. Also, moisture content was continuously recorded and airflow through compost mix occasionally measured. Three-dimensional ordinary kriging spatial models were created to describe the dynamic variations of temperature, air distribution, and hydrocarbon concentration. There were large temperature differences in horizontal and vertical sections during initial months of composting only. Water content of the mixture was uneven by layers, referring on relocation of moisture due to aeration and condensation. The air distribution through the whole reactor varied largely despite of continuous aeration, while the concentration of O(2) was never reduced less than 1-2% on average. The results showed that composting of sludge using force-aerated static biopile technology was justified during the first 3-4 months, after which the masses could be re-mixed and heaped for further maturation in low-tech compost windrows. After 370 days of treatment, the content of hydrocarbons (C( 10)-C(40)) in the compost mixture was reduced by 68.7%.

  16. A Study of Rapid Biodegradation of Oily Wastes through Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    effective method for large-scale composting of organic wastes. This research project was based on the principles of the forced aeration technique. The...Process Parameters Affecting Composting The bioconversion of wastes into compost is greatly affected by several key parameters. These influence the...investigated the effect of composting on the degradation of hydrocarbons in sewage sludge. Sludge extracts were fractionated into classes of compounds and a

  17. Input/Output: hoeveelheid en volume compost in de champignonkweek

    OpenAIRE

    Leyh, Romain; Blok, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The conclusion of a previous experiment showed that the compost quantity was the most determining parameter for the production volume of mushrooms, despite the addition of hemi cellulose as carbon source to the compost. The present experiment focuses on the mycelium action with regard to the carbon availability in the compost. Two factors were studied: (1) The effect of breaking the mycelium at a predetermined depth in the compost layer and before the first mushrooms flush. The hypothesis was...

  18. Assessment of compost maturity by using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rafael; Giráldez, Inmaculada; Palma, Alberto; Jesús Díaz, M

    2016-02-01

    The composting process produces and emits hundreds of different gases. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide information about progress of composting process. This paper is focused on the qualitative and quantitative relationships between compost age, as sign of compost maturity, electronic-nose (e-nose) patterns and composition of compost and composting gas at an industrial scale plant. Gas and compost samples were taken at different depths from composting windrows of different ages. Temperature, classical chemical parameters, O2, CO, combustible gases, VOCs and e-nose profiles were determined and related using principal component analysis (PCA). Factor analysis carried out to a data set including compost physical-chemical properties, pile pore gas composition and composting time led to few factors, each one grouping together standard composting parameters in an easy to understand way. PCA obtained from e-nose profiles allowed the classifying of piles, their aerobic-anaerobic condition, and a rough estimation of the composting time. That would allow for immediate and in-situ assessment of compost quality and maturity by using an on-line e-nose. The e-nose patterns required only 3-4 sensor signals to account for a great percentage (97-98%) of data variance. The achieved patterns both from compost (chemical analysis) and gas (e-nose analysis) samples are robust despite the high variability in feedstock characteristics (3 different materials), composting conditions and long composting time. GC-MS chromatograms supported the patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic patterns of bacterial communities in aerobic compost teas associated with potential biocontrol of soilborne plant diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catello PANE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerated compost teas (ACTs are organic products obtained by forced aeration of composts suspended in liquid phase. These products may be biological control tools alternative to synthetic fungicides, because ACTs contain antagonistic microorganisms. In this study, soilborne disease suppressive ability of seven water ACTs, extracted from five horticultural residue-based composts, from an animal waste anaerobic solid digestate and from a commercial municipal waste compost, was assessed using in vitro and in vivo systems. All the ACTs inhibited in vitro growth of Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia minor, Sclerotium rolfsii and Botrytis cinerea. Filter or thermal sterilization eliminated in vitro suppression, suggesting that microorganisms play key roles in pathogen inhibition. Drenching applications of raw ACTs have potential to reduced disease symptoms caused by R. solani on savoy cabbage, S. minor on lettuce and S. rolfsii on pepper, improved the biomass production and did not show any sign of phytotoxicity. Both in vitro and in vivo suppressiveness of ACTs may be explained by antagonistic  bacterial communities that provide general suppression activities. The metabolic BIOLOG GN and GP profiles reflected the functional potential of the numerically dominant members of the microbial communities used as inoculum. This study has demonstrated that useful resident microorganisms, including mainly Gram-positive and Gram-negative antagonistic bacteria, are likely to be responsible for biological control activity of ACTs.

  20. Performance of green waste biocovers for enhancing methane oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Changgen; Yazdani, Ramin; Han, Byunghyun; Mostafid, M Erfan; Chanton, Jeff; VanderGheynst, Jean; Imhoff, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Green waste aged 2 and 24months, labeled "fresh" and "aged" green waste, respectively, were placed in biocover test cells and evaluated for their ability to oxidize methane (CH4) under high landfill gas loading over a 15-month testing period. These materials are less costly to produce than green waste compost, yet satisfied recommended respiration requirements for landfill compost covers. In field tests employing a novel gas tracer to correct for leakage, both green wastes oxidized CH4 at high rates during the first few months of operation - 140 and 200g/m(2)/day for aged and fresh green waste, respectively. Biocover performance degraded during the winter and spring, with significant CH4 generated from anaerobic regions in the 60-80cm thick biocovers. Concurrently, CH4 oxidation rates decreased. Two previously developed empirical models for moisture and temperature dependency of CH4 oxidation in soils were used to test their applicability to green waste. Models accounted for 68% and 79% of the observed seasonal variations in CH4 oxidation rates for aged green waste. Neither model could describe similar seasonal changes for the less stable fresh green waste. This is the first field application and evaluation of these empirical models using media with high organic matter. Given the difficulty of preventing undesired CH4 generation, green waste may not be a viable biocover material for many climates and landfill conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of compost for suppression of Fusarium oxysporum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present research was conducted to evaluate the compost effectiveness on Zea mays and Hibiscus sabdarriffa under Fusarium wilt disease. Compost physical, chemical and biological characters were monitored weekly during the ripening process. Both coliform and nematode were tested. Finally, the effect of compost ...

  2. Passively Aerated Composting of Straw-Rich Organic Pig Manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Wilde, de V.; Szanto, G.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this study pig manure from organic farming systems is composted with passive aeration. Effectiveness of the composting process strongly depended on the density of the compost. Best results were observed at a density of 700 kg/m3, where both aerobic degradation and drying were adequate and

  3. Effect of compost particle size on suppression of plant diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, J.; Blok, W.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Predictability of compost-induced suppression of soil-borne plant diseases is poor. Part of the variability in disease suppression could be due to the heterogeneity of a given compost. Therefore, the disease suppressive properties of different wet-sieved fractions of two composts against three

  4. Microbiological and Physico-chemical Analysis of Compost and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the compost can be used as bio-fertilizer. Monitoring of the microbial succession is important in the effective management of the composting process as microorganisms play important roles in the process and the appearance of some microorganisms reflects the quality of maturity of compost (Ryckeboer et al.,. 2003).

  5. Anaerobic composting of pyrethrum waste with and without effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    production through composting of solid pyrethrum remains after extraction of pyrethrins (marc). ... other treatments. The composted pyrethrum waste at all ratios can also be used as bio-fertilizer since the final COD of the compost is on an average of 134 g/L, suitable ... Urban development is often associated with increase in.

  6. Temperature profiles of Agaricus bisporus in composting stages and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three compost formulas using different activator materials were prepared for Agaricus bisporus cultivation. A locally available casing material known as peat of Bolu district and its different combinations with perlite were used. Temperature profiles of all mixtures during composting were measured at every composting stages ...

  7. Studies concerning recycling by composting organic waste in Tg-Mureş

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recycling organic waste has become a matter of utmost importance for overall healthiness of the Earth, its volume largely interacting with the economic development. The problem tends to become a vital matter of survival for an entire society. In this context, recovery, recycling, physical-chemical treatment, composting or incineration are methods of waste processing, commonly used in most countries of the world. These measures are intended to both environmental protection and rational use and economically efficient. Based on the data regarding the municipal waste generated in Mures County, in previous years, and in Tg-Mures city, in 2007 were calculated the quantities expected to generate by the year 2038. Also, concerning the cleaning recovery it is proposed the pile composting method, being, from our point of view, more Beneficial in the area. In conclusion, at county level but at city level too, there is still working to do, primarily in terms of awareness, not only the population but also the relevant, local bodies, of what means the cleaning recovery of the municipal waste.

  8. Development of organic fertilizers from food market waste and urban gardening by composting in Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jara-Samaniego

    Full Text Available Currently, the management of urban waste streams in developing countries is not optimized yet, and in many cases these wastes are disposed untreated in open dumps. This fact causes serious environmental and health problems due to the presence of contaminants and pathogens. Frequently, the use of specific low-cost strategies reduces the total amount of wastes. These strategies are mainly associated to the identification, separate collection and composting of specific organic waste streams, such as vegetable and fruit refuses from food markets and urban gardening activities. Concretely, in the Chimborazo Region (Ecuador, more than 80% of municipal solid waste is dumped into environment due to the lack of an efficient waste management strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a demonstration project at field scale in this region to evaluate the feasibility of implanting the composting technology not only for the management of the organic waste fluxes from food market and gardening activities to be scaled-up in other developing regions, but also to obtain an end-product with a commercial value as organic fertilizer. Three co-composting mixtures were prepared using market wastes mixed with pruning of trees and ornamental palms as bulking agents. Two piles were created using different proportions of market waste and prunings of trees and ornamental palms: pile 1 (50:33:17 with a C/N ratio 25; pile 2: (60:30:10 with C/N ratio 24 and pile 3 (75:0:25 with C/N ratio 33, prepared with market waste and prunings of ornamental palm. Throughout the process, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored and organic matter evolution was determined using thermogravimetric and chemical techniques. Additionally, physico-chemical, chemical and agronomic parameters were determined to evaluate compost quality. The results obtained indicated that all the piles showed a suitable development of the composting process, with a significant organic matter

  9. Development of organic fertilizers from food market waste and urban gardening by composting in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Samaniego, J; Pérez-Murcia, M D; Bustamante, M A; Paredes, C; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Gavilanes-Terán, I; López, M; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Brito, H; Moral, R

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the management of urban waste streams in developing countries is not optimized yet, and in many cases these wastes are disposed untreated in open dumps. This fact causes serious environmental and health problems due to the presence of contaminants and pathogens. Frequently, the use of specific low-cost strategies reduces the total amount of wastes. These strategies are mainly associated to the identification, separate collection and composting of specific organic waste streams, such as vegetable and fruit refuses from food markets and urban gardening activities. Concretely, in the Chimborazo Region (Ecuador), more than 80% of municipal solid waste is dumped into environment due to the lack of an efficient waste management strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a demonstration project at field scale in this region to evaluate the feasibility of implanting the composting technology not only for the management of the organic waste fluxes from food market and gardening activities to be scaled-up in other developing regions, but also to obtain an end-product with a commercial value as organic fertilizer. Three co-composting mixtures were prepared using market wastes mixed with pruning of trees and ornamental palms as bulking agents. Two piles were created using different proportions of market waste and prunings of trees and ornamental palms: pile 1 (50:33:17) with a C/N ratio 25; pile 2: (60:30:10) with C/N ratio 24 and pile 3 (75:0:25) with C/N ratio 33), prepared with market waste and prunings of ornamental palm. Throughout the process, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored and organic matter evolution was determined using thermogravimetric and chemical techniques. Additionally, physico-chemical, chemical and agronomic parameters were determined to evaluate compost quality. The results obtained indicated that all the piles showed a suitable development of the composting process, with a significant organic matter decomposition

  10. Assessment of compost application to coal ash disposal sites to promote the rapid vegetation establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repmann, F.; Slazak, A.; Babic, M.; Schneider, B. U.; Schaaf, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2009-04-01

    In the city of Tuzla, located in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a coal fired thermo electric power plant is operated by the company JP ELEKTROPRIVERDA BIH TERMOELEKTRANA "TUZLA". High amounts of ash are produced by the power plant, which are currently disposed into settlement ponds bordered by dams in natural valleys. A total of four ash disposal sites covering an area of approx. 170 ha have been established during the last decades. Due to the fact that residual ash from coal combustion was found to contain a variety of trace elements (Ni, Cr, As, B), it must be assumed that ash disposal of that magnitude constitutes an environmental problem which is investigated within the EU-FP6 / STREP project "Reintegration of Coal Ash Disposal Sites and Mitigation of Pollution in the West Balkan Area" RECOAL. The main hazards relate to soil and groundwater contamination due to leaching toxins, dust dispersion, and toxins entering the food chain as these disposal sites are used for agricultural purposes. In order to rapidly establish a vegetation cover on barren ash dumps that particularly would prevent dust erosion we assessed the applicability of compost, produced from locally available municipal and industrial organic residues as an amendment to ash to improve substrate fertility. The envisaged remediation technology was considered to be a low cost, easy applicable and rapid method capable of substantially enhancing living conditions of residents in the vicinity of the abandoned disposal sites. Various compost application rates were evaluated in the field on experimental site Divkovici I in Tuzla and additionally in the greenhouse environment at Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus. Field and laboratory tests revealed that plant growth and cover rate can substantially be improved by mixing compost into the upper ash layer to a maximum depth of approx. 20 cm. Besides direct growth observations in the field analysis of soil parameters gave evidence that the fertility of ashy

  11. Development of organic fertilizers from food market waste and urban gardening by composting in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Samaniego, J.; Pérez-Murcia, M. D.; Bustamante, M. A.; Paredes, C.; Pérez-Espinosa, A.; Gavilanes-Terán, I.; López, M.; Marhuenda-Egea, F. C.; Brito, H.; Moral, R.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the management of urban waste streams in developing countries is not optimized yet, and in many cases these wastes are disposed untreated in open dumps. This fact causes serious environmental and health problems due to the presence of contaminants and pathogens. Frequently, the use of specific low-cost strategies reduces the total amount of wastes. These strategies are mainly associated to the identification, separate collection and composting of specific organic waste streams, such as vegetable and fruit refuses from food markets and urban gardening activities. Concretely, in the Chimborazo Region (Ecuador), more than 80% of municipal solid waste is dumped into environment due to the lack of an efficient waste management strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a demonstration project at field scale in this region to evaluate the feasibility of implanting the composting technology not only for the management of the organic waste fluxes from food market and gardening activities to be scaled-up in other developing regions, but also to obtain an end-product with a commercial value as organic fertilizer. Three co-composting mixtures were prepared using market wastes mixed with pruning of trees and ornamental palms as bulking agents. Two piles were created using different proportions of market waste and prunings of trees and ornamental palms: pile 1 (50:33:17) with a C/N ratio 25; pile 2: (60:30:10) with C/N ratio 24 and pile 3 (75:0:25) with C/N ratio 33), prepared with market waste and prunings of ornamental palm. Throughout the process, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored and organic matter evolution was determined using thermogravimetric and chemical techniques. Additionally, physico-chemical, chemical and agronomic parameters were determined to evaluate compost quality. The results obtained indicated that all the piles showed a suitable development of the composting process, with a significant organic matter decomposition

  12. Municipal Building Energy Usage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set contains energy use data from 2009-2014 for 139 municipally operated buildings. Metrics include: Site & Source EUI, annual electricity, natural...

  13. Diverse microbial communities in non-aerated compost teas suppress bacterial wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengesha, W K; Powell, S M; Evans, K J; Barry, K M

    2017-03-01

    Non-aerated compost teas (NCTs) are water extracts of composted organic materials and are used to suppress soil borne and foliar disease in many pathosystems. Greenhouse trials were used to test the effectiveness of NCTs to suppress potato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum on plants grown in soils inoculated with a virulent isolate of the pathogen (biovar II). NCTs prepared from matured compost sources: agricultural waste (AWCT), vermicompost (VCT) and solid municipal waste (SMWCT) were evaluated at three initial application times (7 days before inoculation, at time of inoculation and 7 days after inoculation) prior to weekly applications, in a randomized complete-block design. AWCT applied initially at the time of inoculation resulted in the greatest disease suppression, with the disease severity index 2.5-fold less than the non-treated plants and the "area under the disease progress curve" (AUDPC) 3.2-fold less. VCT and SMWCT were less suppressive than AWCT regardless of initial application time. Next generation sequencing of the v4 region of 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) revealed that diversity and composition of the bacterial and fungal communities across the NCTs varied significantly. Dominant bacterial phyla such as Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, and a fungal phylum Ascomycota were detected in all NCTs. AWCT had optimum physico-chemical measurements with higher bacterial Shannon diversity indices (H) and fungal richness (S) than the other treatments. We conclude that bacterial wilt of potatoes grown in controlled conditions can be suppressed by a non-aerated compost tea with a high microbial diversity when applied at planting and weekly thereafter.

  14. Influence of compost covers on the efficiency of biowaste composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marešová, Karolina; Kollárová, Mária

    2010-12-01

    The temperature of matured compost is an indicator of feedstock quality and also a good feedback informing about the suitability of an applied technological procedure. Two independent experiments using the technology of windrow composting at open area were conducted with the final goal to evaluate the effect of compost pile covering (in comparison with uncovered piles) on the course of composting process - behaviour of temperature over time and oxygen content. Two types of sheets were used - Top Tex permeable sheet and impermeable polyethylene sheet. The experiment I (summer months) aimed at comparison of efficiency between the Top Tex sheet cover and the uncovered compost piles, while experiment II (autumn months) compared treatments using the Top Tex sheet and polyethylene sheet by contrast. Within the experiment I the composts consisted of cattle slurry and fresh grass matter at a ratio of 1:1, in case of experiment II consisted of pig/cattle manure, fresh grass matter and chipped material at a ratio of about 1:2:1. The obtained data showed no significant differences among the cover treatments according to ANOVA. The only exception was oxygen content in pile 4 (experiment II) under Top Tex sheet, where a markedly higher oxygen content than under polyethylene sheet was measured during the whole composting period. It was the only case where statistical analysis proved a significant difference; the p-value was 0.0002. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Effects of woody peat and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Difang; Luo, Wenhai; Yuan, Jing; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Yuan

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of calcium superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during pig manure composting with woody peat as the bulking agent. Two treatments were conducted with or without the addition of calcium superphosphate (10% dry weight of the composting mass), which were denoted as the control and superphosphate-amended treatment, respectively. Results show that the composting temperature of both treatments was higher than 50°C for more than 5days, which is typically required for pathogen destruction during manure composting. Compared to the control treatment, the superphosphate-amended treatment increased the emission of nitrogen oxide, but reduced the emission of methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide by approximately 35.5%, 37.9% and 65.5%, respectively. As a result, the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission during manure composting was reduced by nearly 34.7% with the addition of calcium superphosphate. The addition of calcium superphosphate increased the content of humic acid (indicated by E 4 /E 6 ratio). Nevertheless, the superphosphate-amended treatment postponed the biological degradation of organic matter and produced the mature compost with a higher electrical conductivity in comparison with the control treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S(-1)h(-1). Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS (13)C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambone, Fulvia, E-mail: fulvia.tambone@unimi.it; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  18. Optimal Adoption of Green Roofs: Hydrology and Public Finance Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stumme, Luke D

    2008-01-01

    ... infrastructure to convey and treat stormwater discharge. A municipality can introduce planned percentages of green roof coverage which will diminish infrastructure improvement costs over time and increase the population's sustainable footprint...

  19. Critical look at South Africa’s Green Drop Programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntombela, Cebile

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available itself in. Challenges facing the Green Drop Programme and the municipalities implementing the programme include: lack of human resource capacity to prepare effective corrective action plans and/or wastewater risk abatement plans; lack of finances...

  20. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1999 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1999 award winner, Biofine, developed a process to convert waste cellulose in paper mill sludge, municipal solid waste, etc. into levulinic acid (LA), a building block for other chemicals.

  1. Improving quality of composted biowaste to enhance disease suppressiveness of compost-amended, peat-based potting mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Blok, W.J.; Curci, F.; Coenen, G.C.M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2005-01-01

    Biowaste can be converted into compost by composting or by a combination of anaerobic digestion and composting. Currently, waste management systems are primarily focused on the increase of the turnover rate of waste streams whereas optimisation of product quality receives less attention. This

  2. Molecular Analysis of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria of the ß Subdivision of the Class Proteobacteria in Compost and Composted Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.; Naoumenko, Z.S.; Derikx, P.J.L.; Felske, A.; Stephen, J.R.; Arkhipchenko, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    Although the practice of composting animal wastes for use as biofertilizers has increased in recent years, little is known about the microorganisms responsible for the nitrogen transformations which occur in compost and during the composting process. Ammonia is the principle available nitrogenous

  3. Progress of organic matter degradation and maturity of compost produced in a large-scale composting facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Marui, Taketoshi

    2011-06-01

    To monitor the progress of organic matter degradation in a large-scale composting facility, the percentage of organic matter degradation was determined by measuring CO(2) evolution during recomposting of compost samples withdrawn from the facility. The percentage of organic matter degradation was calculated as the ratio of the amount of CO(2) evolved from compost raw material to that evolved from each sample during recomposting in the laboratory composting apparatus. It was assumed that the difference in the cumulative emission of CO(2) between the compost raw material and a sample corresponds to the amount of CO( 2) evolved from the sample in the composting facility. Using this method, the changes in organic matter degradation during composting in practical large-scale composting facilities were estimated and it was found that the percentage of organic matter degradation increased more vigorously in the earlier stages than in the later stages of composting. The percentage of organic matter degradation finally reached 78 and 55% for the compost produced from garbage-animal manure mixture and distillery waste (shochu residue), respectively. It was thus ascertained that organic matter degradation progressed well in both composting facilities. Furthermore, by performing a plant growth assay, it was observed that the compost products of both the facilities did not inhibit seed germination and thus were useful in promoting plant growth.

  4. Biochar amendment for integrated composting and vermicomposting of sewage sludge - The effect of biochar on the activity of Eisenia fetida and the obtained vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malińska, Krystyna; Golańska, Małgorzata; Caceres, Rafaela; Rorat, Agnieszka; Weisser, Patryk; Ślęzak, Ewelina

    2017-02-01

    Sewage sludge derived biochar (SSDB) was used as a supplementary material for municipal sewage sludge (SS) and wood chips mixtures (WC) treated by combined composting and vermicomposting. SSDB added to the mixture before composting resulted in significantly higher reproduction rate: on week 4 the number of cocoons increased by 213% when compared to the mixture with no biochar. On week 6 the average number of juveniles increased 11-fold in the mixture with biochar added before composting and 5-fold in the mixtures with biochar added after composting when compared to the mixture with no biochar. Biochar added before composting reduced bioavailability of Cd and Zn to E. fetida. The biochar-added vermicomposts showed good fertilizing properties except for elevated concentrations of Cr. The pH of all vermicomposts was in the range of 5.27-5.61. The obtained vermicomposts can be used as a growing medium for horticultural purposes or as an amendment in calcareous soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Vermi compost and Compost tea Application on the Growth criteria of Corn (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Afsharmanesh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maize (Zea mays is a cereal crop that is grown widely throughout the world in a range of agroecological environments. .Its value as a cost-effective ruminant feed is one of the main reasons that farmers grow it. However, lack of nutrients such as N and P, are the principal obstacles - to crop production under low input agricultural systems leading to dependency on chemical fertilizers. Long-term use of chemical fertilizers destroy soil physicochemical properties and it reduced permeability which restricts root growth, nutrient uptake and plant production. Therefore, the use of organic fertilizers can help to enrich the soil root zone As a result growth and yield will improve. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of different levels of vermicompost and foliar application of tea compost on growth characteristics of the hybrid maize genotype 713, a greenhouse experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications at the Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, during 2013. Treatments were included vermicompost (0, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% pot weight and tea composts (foliar application, non-foliar application. Measured traits were included root dry weight, root volume, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight, macro nutrient concentration (N and P and micro nutrient concentration (Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu. All the data were subjected to the statistical analysis (two-way ANOVA using SAS software (SAS 9.1.3. Differences between the treatments were performed by Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT at 1% confidence interval. Results and Discussion Results indicated that leaf and stem dry weight affected by the application of vermicompost and tea compost. However, the interaction effects had no significant effects on the leaf and stem dry weight. Application of tea compost increased 20% and 50% leaf dry weight and stem dry weight of corn compared to non- foliar application

  6. Improvements in a Universal Composting Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Beloev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Designed in Bulgaria for the needs of organic, environmentally-friendly and conventional agriculture, the universal composting machine requires to be attached to the front of tractors when being used in aggregates. However, it is rare to find such tractors. What is more, tractors with front – shaft power take almost do not exist. For this reason the universal composting machine is rather limited from a technological point of view despite its capacity and this made it necessary to improve it through the development and testing of a hydraulic power drive system. The purpose of the present study is to discuss the technical and technological changes in the design of the composting machine which have resulted in increased performance under conditions of sustainable agriculture in Bulgaria.

  7. Endotoxin emissions from commercial composting activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory study of endotoxin emissions and dispersal from a commercial composting facility. Replicated samples of air were taken by filtration at different locations around the facility on 10 occasions. Measurements were made of endotoxin and associated culturable microorganisms. The inflammatory response of cell cultures exposed to extracts from the filters was measured. Endotoxin was detected in elevated concentrations close to composting activities. A secondary peak, of lesser magnitude than the peak at source was detected at 100-150 m downwind of the site boundary. Unexpectedly high concentrations of endotoxin were measured at the most distant downwind sampling point. Extracted endotoxin was found to stimulate human monocytes and a human lung epithelial cell line to produce significant amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines. On a weight basis, endotoxin extracted from the composting source has a greater inflammatory cytokine inducing effect than commercial E. coli endotoxin. PMID:20102594

  8. Improving the stability of thermophilic anaerobic digesters treating SS-OFMSW through enrichment with compost and leachate seeds

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanimeh, Sophia A.

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines the potential of improving the stability of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) by adding leachate and compost during inoculation. For this purpose, two stable thermophilic digesters, A (control) and B (with added leachate and compost), were subjected to a sustained substrate shock by doubling the organic loading rate for one week. Feeding was suspended then gradually resumed to reach the pre-shock loading rate (2. gVS/l/d). Digester A failed, exhibiting excessive increase in acetate and a corresponding decrease in pH and methane generation, and lower COD and solids removal efficiencies. In contrast, digester B was able to restore its functionality with 90% recovery of pre-shock methane generation rate at stable pH, lower hydrogen levels, and reduced VFAs and ammonia accumulation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Effects of green manure storage and incorporation methods on nitrogen release and N2O emissions after soil application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Sørensen, Peter; Petersen, Søren O.

    2014-01-01

    of plant-available N, nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes, and soil respiration. Grass-clover silage provided the highest net N release with similar results for the two incorporation methods. Up to one third of the total N content in silage became plant-available during the three months. In contrast, no net N...... as compost mixed with straw or as silage of harvested ley biomass. Grass-clover compost or silage was soil-incorporated by either simulated ploughing (green manure placed at 15 cm depth) or harrowing (green manure mixed into the upper 5-cm soil horizon) in order to assess treatment effects on net release...... release was observed for the composted grass-clover and straw mixture. In fact, soil incorporation of compost by harrowing caused temporal immobilization of soil mineral N. Silage incorporated by ploughing gave rise to largest N2O effluxes with silage-induced emissions corresponding to 0.3 % of applied...

  10. Composting of oil polluted sea-weed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halmoe, G.; Hoddoe, T.

    1985-01-01

    The report describes 2 years experience of a rank composting experiment with forced airing from the bottom. Efforts to optimize the degradation of the oil in the waste is made by adding fertilizer and oil absorbing substances. This also affects the mass porosity. During the year about 75% degradation of n-alkanes in a crude oil was obtained. Good growth on the compost was obtained. An article on biodegradation of oil by G. Halmoe, presented at the Oil Spill Conference in Los Angeles the 24th to 28th February 1985 is included as an appendix. 11 tables, 5 drawings.

  11. Nitrogen availability in composted poultry litter using natural amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, N Gamze

    2009-02-01

    Poultry litter compost is used as fertilizer on agricultural land