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Sample records for composition milk yield

  1. Covariance among milking frequency, milk yield, and milk composition from automatically milked cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Chagunda, G G

    2011-01-01

    Automatic milking systems allow cows voluntary access to milking and concentrates within set limits. This leads to large variation in milking intervals, both within and between cows, which further affects yield per milking and composition of milk. This study aimed to describe the degree to which ...

  2. Variations in the milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedö, S; Nikodémusz, E; Percsich, K; Bárdos, L

    1995-01-01

    Variations in the milk yield and milk composition of a dairy cow colony (n = 23) were analyzed during 11 months of lactation. Milk yield followed a characteristic decreasing pattern in negative correlations with solid components (milk protein, lactose, total solids, milk fat). Titrable acidity (degree SH) was significantly (p < 0.1) higher in the milk of fresh-milking cows and it correlated negatively with lactose and positively with milk protein, milk fat and total solids. The concentrations of Zn, Fe and Cu tended to decrease, while Mn showed insignificant variation during lactation. Milk vitamin A showed a significant positive whilst milk vitamin E had a negative correlation with milk fat.

  3. Predicting milk yield and composition in lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A V; Strathe, A B; Kebreab, E

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a framework describing the milk production curve in sows as affected by parity, method of milk yield (MY) determination, litter size (LS), and litter gain (LG). A database containing data on LS, LG, dietary protein and fat content, MY, and composition...

  4. STUDY OF YIELD AND COMPOSITION OF CAMEL MILK IN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEYLA HADEF

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the yield and composition of raw camel milk throughout the lactation period. For this purpose seventeen multiparous she-camels, kept under grazing and supplement farming system in South East of Algeria were used in this study. A total of 153 milk samples were collected and analyzed through standard procedures to determine yield and physicochemical parameters of milk such as pH, acidity, density, fat, protein, lactose, ash and total solids. The results demonstrated that the overall means of daily milk yield and composition of pH, acidity, density, fat, protein, lactose, ash and total solids (TS were 3.96 ± 1.24 L∙day-1, 6.55 ± 0.14, 0.17 ± 0.01 %, 1.032 ± 0.002 g∙cm-3, 3.72 ± 0.14%, 3.37 ± 0.18 %, 4.13 ± 0.29 %, 0.96 ± 0.22 % and 9.99 ± 1.82 %, respectively. Moreover, the milk yield was significantly (p 0.05. The results indicated that Algerian camel milk could provide a valuable nutritious food and energy source for population living in arid and semi arid zones and it was concluded that the stage of lactation had a significant effect (p < 0.05 on milk yield and most physicochemical parameters of raw camel milk.

  5. Effects of lactation number, milk yield and milk composition on freezing point of milk of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Otwinowska-Mindur; Ewa PTAK

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the influence of lactation number, daily milk yield, somatic cell count and milk composition on the freezing point of milk of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. The data comprised 3,067,343 test day milk samples collected in 2014 from 865,198 first seven lactations of 714,018 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, made available by the Polish Federation of Cattle Breeders and Dairy Farmers. The cows calved in 20,043 herds in 2013 and 2014. Four lactation classes w...

  6. Short-term effects of milking frequency on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count and milk protein profile in dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Alexandr; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Goats in Canary Islands are milked once a day by tradition, but in most countries with high technology on farms, goats are milked twice a day, which is known to improve milk yield. Therefore it is important to know whether the increase of milking frequency can improve the production without impai...... was returned to X2 and X1. Finally, quantitative analysis showed an increase in intensities of milk protein bands from X1 to X2, but the intensities of casein bands (αS1-CN, αS2-CN, β-CN, κ-CN) and major whey proteins (α-La, β-Lg) decreased from X2 to X3.......Goats in Canary Islands are milked once a day by tradition, but in most countries with high technology on farms, goats are milked twice a day, which is known to improve milk yield. Therefore it is important to know whether the increase of milking frequency can improve the production without...... impairing milk quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the short term effects of three milking frequencies on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count (SCC) and milk protein profile in dairy goats traditionally milked once a day. Twelve Majorera goats in early lactation (48±4 d...

  7. Milk Yield and Composition of West African Dwarf (WAD) Does fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve individually housed West African Dwarf (WAD) does in their mid-lactation were used to study the effect of Bambara nut meal on milk yield, composition and mineral content of goat milk. Four experimental diets designated A, B, C and D were formulated to contain 0, 10, 20 and 30% Bambara nut meal (BM), ...

  8. Different fibre sources in dairy ass’s diet: effects on milk yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Polidori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As ass’s milk is increasingly considered as an effective hypoallergenic food for infants (Carroccio et al., 2000; Muraro et al., 2002, studies on ass’s milk yield and composition are becoming more frequent in order to fulfil the rare literature references on this innovative animal production (Chiofalo et al., 2003; Doreau et al., 2002; Salimei et al., 2004.

  9. Screening for ketosis using multiple logistic regression based on milk yield and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayano, Mitsunori; Kataoka, Tomoko

    2015-11-01

    Multiple logistic regression was applied to milk yield and composition data for 632 records of healthy cows and 61 records of ketotic cows in Hokkaido, Japan. The purpose was to diagnose ketosis based on milk yield and composition, simultaneously. The cows were divided into two groups: (1) multiparous, including 314 healthy cows and 45 ketotic cows and (2) primiparous, including 318 healthy cows and 16 ketotic cows, since nutritional status, milk yield and composition are affected by parity. Multiple logistic regression was applied to these groups separately. For multiparous cows, milk yield (kg/day/cow) and protein-to-fat (P/F) ratio in milk were significant factors (Pketosis. For primiparous cows, lactose content (%), solid not fat (SNF) content (%) and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content (mg/dl) were significantly associated with ketosis (Pketosis, provided the sensitivity, specificity and AUC values of (1) 0.711, 0.726 and 0.781; and (2) 0.678, 0.767 and 0.738, respectively.

  10. Cheesemaking in highland pastures: Milk technological properties, cream, cheese and ricotta yields, milk nutrients recovery, and products composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, M; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Stocco, G; Valorz, C; Bazzoli, I; Sturaro, E; Ramanzin, M; Bittante, G

    2016-12-01

    Summer transhumance of dairy cows to high Alpine pastures is still practiced in many mountainous areas. It is important for many permanent dairy farms because the use of highland pastures increases milk production and high-priced typical local dairy products often boost farm income. As traditional cheese- and ricotta-making procedures in Alpine pastures are central to this dairy system, the objective of this study was to characterize the quality and efficiency of products and their relationships with the quality and availability of grass during the grazing season. The milk from 148 cows from 12 permanent farms reared on a temporary farm located in Alpine pastures was processed every 2wk during the summer (7 cheesemakings from late June to early September). During each processing, 11 dairy products (4 types of milk, 2 by-products, 3 fresh products, and 2 ripened cheeses) were sampled and analyzed. In addition, 8 samples of fresh forage from the pasture used by the cows were collected and analyzed. At the beginning of the pasture season the cows were at 233±90d in milk, 2.4±1.7 parities, and produced 23.6±5.7kg/d of milk. The milk yield decreased with the move from permanent to temporary farms and during the entire summer transhumance, but partly recovered after the cows returned to the permanent farms. Similar trends were observed for the daily yields of fat, protein, casein, lactose, and energy, as we found no large variations in the quality of the milk, with the exception of the first period of Alpine pasture. The somatic cell counts of milk increased during transhumance, but this resulted from a concentration of cells in a lower quantity of milk rather than an increase in the total number of cells ejected daily from the udder. We noted a quadratic trend in availability of forage (fresh and dry matter weight per hectare), with a maximum in late July. The quality of forage also varied during the summer with a worsening of chemical composition. The evening milk

  11. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient

  13. Evaluating the effect of ration composition on income over feed cost and milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buza, M H; Holden, L A; White, R A; Ishler, V A

    2014-05-01

    Feed is generally the greatest expense for milk production. With volatility in feed and milk markets, income over feed cost (IOFC) is a more advantageous measure of profit than simply feed cost per cow. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ration cost and ingredient composition on IOFC and milk yield. The Pennsylvania State Extension Dairy Team IOFC tool (http://extension.psu.edu/animals/dairy/business-management/financial-tools/income-over-feed-cost/introduction-to-iofc) was used to collect data from 95 Pennsylvania lactating dairy cow herds from 2009 to 2012 and to determine the IOFC per cow per day. The data collected included average milk yield, milk income, purchased feed cost, ration ingredients, ingredient cost per ton, and amount of each ingredient fed. Feed costs for home-raised feeds for each ration were based on market values rather than on-farm cost. Actual costs were used for purchased feed for each ration. Mean lactating herd size was 170 ± 10.5 and daily milk yield per cow was 31.7 ± 0.19 kg. The mean IOFC was $7.71 ± $1.01 cost per cow, ranging from -$0.33 in March 2009 to $16.60 in September 2011. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA in SPSS (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Values were grouped by quartiles and analyzed with all years combined as well as by individual year. Purchased feed cost per cow per day averaged $3.16 ± $1.07 for 2009 to 2012. For 2009 to 2012 combined, milk yield and IOFC did not differ with purchased feed cost. Intermediate levels (quartiles 2 and 3) of forage cost per cow per day between $1.45 and $1.97 per cow per day resulted in the greatest average IOFC of $8.19 and the greatest average milk yield of 32.3 kg. Total feed costs in the fourth quartile ($6.27 or more per cow per day) resulted in the highest IOFC. Thus, minimizing feed cost per cow per day did not maximize IOFC. In 2010, the IOFC was highest at $8.09 for dairies that fed 1 or more commodity by-products. Results of the study indicated

  14. Association of total-mixed-ration chemical composition with milk, fat, and protein yield lactation curves at the individual level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccamo, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Licitra, G.; Petriglieri, R.; Terra, La F.; Pozzebon, A.; Ferguson, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the chemical composition of a total mixed ration (TMR) tested quarterly from March 2006 through December 2008 for milk, fat, and protein yield curves for 27 herds in Ragusa, Sicily. Before this study, standard yield curves were generated on

  15. GENETIC GAINS OF MILK YIELD AND MILK COMPOSITION AS REALIZED RESPONSE TO DAIRY COW SELECTION IN BBPTU-HPT BATURRADEN, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Rahayu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to estimate the heritabilities, examine the effects of dairy femaleselection and calculate the genetic gains on milk yield and milk composition in Baturraden Dairy CattleBreeding and Forage Centre (Balai Besar Perbibitan Ternak Unggul dan Hijauan Pakan Ternak /BBPTU–HPT Baturraden, Indonesia. The first lactation records of 221 dairy cows from 2006 to 2014were used. Heritabilities were estimated by paternal half-sib correlation. Comparison of averageperformances between daughter population (Ā and initial dam population before selection ( wereconducted by Z-test. Annual genetic gain was calculated as genetic gain per generation (the differencesbetween Ā dan divided by generation interval. Heritabilities for milk fat percentage (FP, milk fatyield (FY, milk protein percentage (PP and milk protein yield (PY were 0.46, 0.30, 0.28 and 0.17,respectively. A significant increase (P=0.025 in the total milk yield (TMY from the first generation(G1 to the second generation (G2 resulted in a high significant decrease in the FP (P=0.004. Geneticgains of TMY, FP and PP were 9.76 kg, -0.04% and -0.01% per year, respectively. It is concluded thatselection for higher TMY only negatively affect FP and PP. Selection can be applied based on FY to avoid the decrease of FP. Negative effects of genetic-environmental interaction resulted in slowergenetic gain because the imported cows needed time to adapt to the local environment.

  16. Nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation impact yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in primiparous ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in first parity ewes. Rambouillet ewe lambs (n = 84, age = 240 +/- 17 d, BW = 52.1 +/- 6.2 kg), were allocated to 6 treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial array...

  17. Effects of extruded corn on milk yield and composition and blood parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to a 2x2 cross over design, fourteen Holstein dairy cows at 99±55 DIM were fed two diets containing 21.5% DM of either ground corn (GC or extruded corn (EC. Performance and metabolic profile were detected during the third week of each experimental period. DMI and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. Milk fat and protein percentage of EC diet were significantly (P<0.10 lower than those of GC diet. Probably the higher rumen degradability of starch from EC thesis modified the synthesis of specific fatty acids leading to a milk fat depression event. Diets did not influence blood parameters, except for lower values of total protein and glucose content in EC diet-fed cows. Results suggested that the dietary inclusion of extruded corn should not be used at the tested level of substitution.

  18. Impact of mild heat stress on dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorniak, Tobias; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of summer temperatures in a temperate climate on mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows. Therefore, a data set was examined comprising five trials with dairy cows conducted at the experimental station of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute in Braunschweig, Germany. The temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated using temperature and humidity data from the barns recorded between January 2010 and July 2012. By using a generalised additive mixed model, the impact of increasing THI on dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition was evaluated. Dry matter intake and milk yield decreased when THI rose above 60, whilst water intake increased in a linear manner beyond THI 30. Furthermore, milk protein and milk fat content decreased continuously with increasing THI. The present results revealed that heat stress exists in Lower Saxony, Germany. However, further research is necessary to describe the mode of action of heat stress. Especially, mild heat stress has to be investigated in more detail and appropriate heat stress thresholds for temperate climates have to be developed.

  19. Characteristics of Aerococcus viridans isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis and its effect on milk SCC, yield, and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Gao, Jian; Ali, Tariq; Yu, Dan; Zhang, Shiyao; Khan, Saeed U; Fanning, Séamus; Han, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Aerococcus viridians (A. viridans), an environmental Gram-positive bacterium, has been documented to be associated with bovine mastitis. However, its exact role in bovine mastitis and the changes it brings about in milk characteristics are not yet known. The objectives of the current study were to describe the antibiotic resistance of A. viridans from bovine mastitis as well as the correlation between existence of this pathogen in udders and the somatic cell counts (SCC), daily milk yield, and composition of individual cow. One-year sampling for subclinical mastitis composite milk was conducted based on monthly DHI data from September 2013 to August 2014, in a commercial herd located in Beijing, China. All samples were cultured and pathogens were identified using microbiology method. A. viridians isolates were further identified by API identification system and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing method. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used to test the antibiotic resistance of A. viridians against kinds of antimicrobial substance. SCC, milk yield, and milk composition data were from monthly Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) results. Results showed that a total of 279 (16.67%) A. viridans isolates were identified from among 1674 bacterial isolates cultured from milk samples with high SCC. The incidence of mastitis caused by A. viridans was the highest (48-53%) during the summer season. Majority of the isolates were susceptible to most of antimicrobial compounds tested, especially to β-lactams, but were found to be resistant (50-90%) to aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. The average SCC of the A. viridans infected cows was significantly higher (1000.0 × 10 3  cells/mL) (P  0.05) by 1.86 kg/day. Reductions were also observed in fat content (P > 0.05), lactose (P  0.05), whereas protein content increased significantly (P bovine subclinical mastitis wherein it exerts an effect on SCC, milk yield, and composition.

  20. Effect of partial replacement of alfalfa hay with Moringa species leaves on milk yield and composition of Najdi ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Elfadıl E; Al Juhaimi, Fahad; Ghafoor, Kashif; Mohamed, H E; Abdoun, Khalid A

    2016-10-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate changes in milk yield and composition of Najdi ewes fed 25 % Moringa oleifera (MOD) or Moringa peregrina (MPD) leaf diets as a supplement to alfalfa hay diet (AHD). Thirty ewes (average 55 kg, 2 years old) were randomly sorted into three experimental groups with 10 animals each and were fed for a 6-week period with these diets (AHD, MOD, or MPD). Diets dry matter, crude protein, and crude fiber were comparable, while fat, nitrogen-free extract (NFE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), metabolizable energy (ME), total phenolic, and antioxidant activity varied (p ≤ 0.05) between the diets. Feeding ewes with MOD increased (p ≤ 0.05) the milk yield compared to those fed AHD while milk composition was similar (p ≤ 0.05) between treatments. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the ewes' milk and serum was lower (p ≤ 0.05) for MOD, while the total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity, and vitamin C contents were increased (p ≤ 0.05). The serum cholesterol and glucose of the ewes were lower (p ≤ 0.05) for those fed MOD. Moringa diets increased (p ≤ 0.05) average daily weight gain of lambs compared to those fed alfalfa diets. The results obtained showed that the inclusion of Moringa, especially M. oleifera, in the diet of Najdi ewes can improve milk yield and quality.

  1. Some compositional and health indicators of milk quality of dairy cows with higher milk yield at including of selected corn species into feeding ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pozdíšek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of economical reasons the substitution of maize by feed corn as wheat (Sulamit and triticale (Kitaro was revolved in concentrate part of dairy cow feeding rations. The design of mentioned replacement in feeding rations was carried out according to results of previous research (Pozdíšek and Vaculová, 2008 for nutrition experiment. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the possible effects of corn replacement in cow feeding rations on milk composition and properties. The expressively different variants of corn were selected for experiment in comparison to maize (reference. Dairy cows were fed by total mixed ration on the basis of maize and clover silage and hay. Otherwise the identical day feeding rations among cow groups differed only in concentrate portions ((K, control group maize 1.5 kg, wheat (P1 2.0 kg and triticale (P2 2.0 kg (experimental groups. Group feeding rations 1 (K, 2 (P1 and 3 (P2 had: NEL/kg dry (DM matter (6.524, 6.512 and 6.491; NL % in DM (17.9, 18.2 and 17.9; fibre % in DM (15.96, 15.74 and 15.72; PDIN/PDIE (1.189, 1.189 and 1.191. The experiment took six weeks, there were included 8, 9 and 9 cows (n = 26 of Czech Fleckvieh breed. Feed groups were well balanced in terms of milk yield, days in milk and number of lactation. The tie stable and pipeline milking equipment were used in experiment. Animals were milked twice a day and sampled at morning milking in intervals about seven days approximately. Cows were relatively healthy in terms of occurrence of milk secretion disorders. Within groups the individual milk samples (in total 182 in experiment were aggregated into bulk samples (n = 21 = 3 groups × 7 sampling periods, which were analysed on 45 milk indicators, 18 of them were evaluated in this paper. The differences in milk yield were significantly advantageous for K group (15.32 > 14.07 (wheat or 13.86 kg (triticale at morning milking, while fat (3.27 < 3.47 or 3.44 % was lower (P < 0.05. Lactose was not

  2. Milk yield and composition of crossbred Sahelian × Anglo-Nubian goats in the semi-intensive system in Mali during the preweaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanogo, Souleymane; Shaker, Mohamed Momani; Nantoumé, Hamidou; Salem, Abdel-Fattah Z M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate milk yield and its composition during the preweaning period for Sahelian goats (SG) and Anglo-Nubian (AN) crossbred depending on some factors. The experiments were conducted from January to December 2008 for 44 suckled and hand-milked does, randomized, and divided into two equal groups: SG (n = 22) and F(1) Anglo-Nubian × Sahelian goats (1/2AN; n = 22). The does and their offsprings were kept in a pen where they stayed indoors for 45 days before they were allowed outdoors when the weather was suitable. Each category received supplemental feeds depending on the season (rainy season, dry cold season, and dry hot season). The average daily milk yield was recorded weekly from parturition to 100 days of age. Individual milk samples were taken for chemical analysis in connection with the yield measurements twice per month from the fourth week of lactation throughout the different seasons (rainy, cold dry, and hot dry). The daily milk yield differed between breed types (P = 0.001) during the preweaning, while the effect of kids' sex on daily milk production was not significant. Litter size affected milk yield up to day 60 (P = 0.032) where does with twins producing more milk than those with single kid. However, at day 100, both groups had similar (P = 0.001) milk production. Total milk yield at weaning increased by 103 % in 1/2AN over SG. The highest concentration of total solids of milk was (12.76 %) recorded in the hot dry season. The results of this study indicate that crossbreeding native Sahelian goats with high potential Anglo-Nubian buck improved milk production and its composition.

  3. Milk yield, composition and qua­li­ty of organic milk of ewes crossbreeds of Lacaune, East Friesian and Improved Wallachian during lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Pokorná

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of milk yield, composition and quality of organic milk of crossbreeds of Lacaune (L, East Friesian (EF and Improved Wallachian (IW, (n = 10, L 50 EF 43.75 IW 6.25 during lactation was carried out on organic farm in Valašská Bystřice in 2007. All sheep were on the third lactation and during study they were reared on permanent pasture. The stage of lactation (SL had a highly significant effect on milk yield (MY and contents of total solids (TS, fat (F, protein (P, casein (C, lactose (L and urea (U. The SL had also a highly significant effect on pH and titrable acidity (TA, whereas on rennet clotting time (RCT the SL had a significant effect. On the other hand the SL had not a significant effect on somatic cell counts (SCC and rennet curd quality (RCQ. The highest contents of TS, F and C were found at the end of the lactation, whereas their lowest contents were found on the 120th day. Between the second and the last sampling the lactose content decreased. The content of U and RCT were the most variable indicators whithin the frame of our study. On the other hand SCCs were, during the whole lactation, very well-balanced and relatively low. Between pH and SCC was found positive correlation. TA gradually increased and RCT gradually prolonged with advanced lactation.

  4. Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Jorjong, S.; Fievez, V.; Kemp, B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source in early lactation on milk production, feed intake, and energy balance (EB) of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 108 multiparous) were randomly assigned to dry period

  5. Effects of replacing wheat bran by pistachio skins on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naserian, A A; Staples, C R; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pistachio skins (PiS) as a replacement of wheat bran on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats. Eight multiparous lactating Saanen goats (55 ± 7.2 days post-partum, 45 ± 2 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments arranged in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were 1) 0 g/kg PiS and 210 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (0PiS), 2) 70 g/kg PiS and 140 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (7PiS), 3) 140 g/kg PiS and 70 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (14PiS) and 4) 210 g/kg PiS and 0 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (21PiS). The trial consisted of four 21-day periods, each composed of 14 days adaptation and 7 days data collection. Dry matter intake (p < 0.05) and crude protein digestibility (p < 0.01) increased linearly with increasing PiS proportions in the diet. Increasing the proportion of PiS in the diet caused a quadratic increase in apparent digestibility of dry matter (p < 0.05), and tended (p = 0.05) to increase quadratically organic matter, and ether extract digestibility. Replacing wheat bran with PiS in the diet had no effects on milk yield, whereas milk fat concentration increased linearly (p < 0.01) with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. As the dietary proportion of PiS increased, ruminal pH tended (p = 0.07) to increase linearly, whereas ammonia-N concentration declined in the rumen. Plasma concentrations of glucose and BUN remained unaffected, whereas triglycerides (p < 0.05) and cholesterol (p < 0.01) concentrations increased linearly with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. It was concluded that PiS based on local ingredients can successfully replace wheat bran in diets of dairy goats without detrimental effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell

  6. Effect of sub-clinical mastitis on milk yield and composition of dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein, butter fat and chloride percentages but not on lactose content. There was a tendency for CP and chloride percentages to increase with increase in CMT scores. However, the mean chloride value obtained in this study of 0.244 was higher than expected. Further, mastitis significantly reduced BF content of milk from ...

  7. High-pressure homogenization of raw and pasteurized milk modifies the yield, composition, and texture of queso fresco cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, D; Clark, S; Ganesan, V; Repiso, L; Waller, J; Harte, F

    2011-03-01

    High-pressure homogenization (HPH) of milk was studied as an alternative processing operation in the manufacturing of queso fresco cheese. Raw and pasteurized (65°C for 30 min) milks were subjected to HPH at 0, 100, 200, and 300 MPa and then used to manufacture queso fresco. The cheeses were evaluated for yield, moisture content, titratable acidity, nitrogen content, whey protein content, yield force, yield strain, and tactile texture by instrumental or trained panel analyses. The combination of HPH and thermal processing of milk resulted in cheeses with increased yield and moisture content. The net amount of protein transferred to the cheese per kilogram of milk remained constant for all treatments except raw milk processed at 300 MPa. The highest cheese yield, moisture content, and crumbliness were obtained for thermally processed milk subjected to HPH at 300 MPa. The principal component analysis of all measured variables showed that the variables yield, moisture content, and crumbliness were strongly correlated to each other and negatively correlated to the variables yield strain, protein content (wet basis), and sensory cohesiveness. It is suggested that the combination of thermal processing and HPH promotes thermally induced denaturation of whey protein, together with homogenization-induced dissociation of casein micelles. The combined effect results in queso fresco containing a thin casein-whey matrix that is able to better retain sweet whey. These results indicate that HPH has a strong potential for the manufacture of queso fresco with excellent yield and textural properties. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake and blood parameters of Holstein cows fed ensiled apple pomace co-ensiled with broiler litter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman Azizi, Osman; Karimi, Shahram; Sadeghi, Ghorbanali

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of ensiled mixed apple pomace and broiler litter (EAPBL) on milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI) and blood parameters at early lactation cow. Four multiparous early-lactating Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4×4 Latin...

  9. Effects of buffering mineral mixtures on milk yield, milk composition, rumen pH and some blood biochemical parameters in heat stressed dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamović Milan

    2014-01-01

    group of cows, percentage of fat and dry substance in milk was significantly increased (p<0.05 and 0.01 respectively, while percentage of protein increase was insignificant. The substitution of magnesium oxide with bentonite had no impact on the values of examined parameters of metabolic profile, but it led to statistically significant increase of rumen contents pH values (p<0.05. From the obtained results it can be concluded that substitution of magnesium oxide with bentonite in feed mixtures that are used for feeding cows during summer period, can prevent rumen acidosis, which high yielding cows incline to under the conditions of elevated external temperatures. Besides that, this kind of substitution leads to improvement of milk composition, especially when percentage of fat and dry substance in milk is concerned. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31003 i br. TR 34013

  10. Short communication: Partial replacement of ground corn with algae meal in a dairy cow diet: Milk yield and composition, nutrient digestibility, and metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, G G; Ferreira de Jesus, E; Takiya, C S; Del Valle, T A; da Silva, T H; Vendramini, T H A; Yu, Esther J; Rennó, F P

    2016-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of partially replacing dietary ground corn with a microalgae meal from Prototheca moriformis (composed of deoiled microalgae and soyhulls) on milk yield and composition, nutrient intake, total-tract apparent digestibility, and blood profile of lactating dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Holstein cows (57.7±49.4d in milk, 25.3±5.3 of milk yield, and 590±71kg of live weight at the start of experiment, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a cross-over design experiment, with 21-d periods. Diets were no microalgae meal (CON) or 91.8g/kg of microalgae meal partially replacing dietary ground corn (ALG). Cows showed similar milk yield and composition. The 3.5% fat-corrected milk production was 30.2±1.34kg/d for CON and 31.1±1.42kg/d for ALG. Despite cows having similar dry matter intake, ALG increased neutral detergent fiber and ether extract intake. In addition, cows fed ALG exhibited higher ether extract digestibility. No differences were detected in glucose, urea, amino-aspartate transferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase blood concentrations. Feeding ALG increased the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein in blood compared with CON. The microalgae meal may partially replace ground corn in diets of lactating cows without impairing the animal's performance. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Organic and inorganic sources of zinc, copper and selenium in diets for dairy cows: intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Simões Cortinhas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effects of feeding dairy cows with organic or inorganic sources of zinc (Zn, copper (Cu and selenium (Se on blood concentrations of these minerals, blood metabolic profiles, nutrient intake and milk yield and composition. Nineteen Holstein cows were selected and randomly assigned to two groups for receiving organic (n = 9 or inorganic (n = 10 sources of Zn, Cu and Se from 60 days before the expected date of calving to 80 days of lactation. Samples of feed, orts and milk were collected for analysis. Body condition score (BCS was determined and blood samples were collected for analysis of Zn, Cu and Se concentrations, as well as for metabolic profile. Supplying organic or inorganic sources of Zn, Cu, and Se did not affect dry matter and nutrient intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition, plasma concentration of these minerals, and BCS or change the BCS in cows from 60 days before the expected date of calving to 80 days of lactation. An effect of time was observed on all feed intake variables, plasma concentrations of Zn and Se, milk yield, milk protein content, BCS and change in BCS.

  12. Blood and Milk Contents of Triiodothyronine (T3) and Cortisol in Lactating Buffaloes and Changes in Milk Yield and Composition as a Function of Lactation Number and Ambient Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habeeb, A.M. Al-Saied.; Ibrahim, M.Kh.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of lactation number and ambient temperature on T 3 and cortisol levels in milk and blood and milk composition of lactating Water buffaloes was the objective of this study. Two experiment were carried out on 72 animals in two periods through 1994. The first one was carried out on 36 animals during February, where the average of ambient temperature was 17.5 degree while the second was conducted on another 36 animals during July where the average of ambient temperature was 37.1 degree. In both two periods, the animals were classified according to lactation number into 6 equal groups from the 1 st to the 6 Th lactation number. The data showed that milk yield and T-3 either in milk or in blood besides milk fat, protein and lactose were significantly lower in july than in february. Whereas the opposite trend was noted for cortisol levels either in milk or in blood. Concerning the effect of lactation lactation number, it was observed that milk and blood T 3 , mil and blood cortisol, milk fat, protein and lactose were affected significantly by lactation number

  13. Effect of variation in proportion of cornmeal and steam-rolled corn in diets for dairy cows on behavior, digestion, and yield and composition of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, K; Ballard, C S; Mandebvu, P; Sniffen, C J; Carter, M P

    2001-02-01

    Sixty-six lactating multiparous Holstein cows (113+/-46 DIM) housed in a free-stall facility were blocked and assigned randomly to one of three treatments to evaluate the effects on animal performance from feeding cornmeal, cornmeal mixed with steam-rolled corn in a ratio of 1:1 on dry matter basis, or steam-rolled corn. The only difference in the dietary ingredients was the type of corn, which was included in the total mixed ration (TMR) at 17% of dry matter. The densities (g/L) of cornmeal and steam-rolled corn were, respectively, 635 and 553. Diets were fed as TMR and were formulated according to the Cornell Penn Miner Dairy nutrition model. The TMR consisted of 40% forage and 60% concentrate on dry matter basis. The first 2 wk of the 8-wk study was a preliminary period, and data collected during this period were used as covariate in statistical analysis of production data collected during wk 6 to 8. Treatment diets were fed from wk 3 to 8. Total tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, starch, and neutral detergent fiber were not significantly different among treatments. Cows fed TMR containing steam-rolled corn had higher body condition and ruminated longer. However, feeding cornmeal and steam-rolled corn together did not improve dry matter and nutrient digestion, milk yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, and percentage and yield of fat, crude protein, true protein, and lactose in milk, and milk urea nitrogen. In conclusion, feeding steam-rolled corn improved animal body condition and rumination. Partial or complete substitution of cornmeal by steam-rolled corn in diets for lactating dairy cows did not improve dry matter and nutrient digestion, milk yield, and milk composition.

  14. Associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbo, T; Ruegg, P L; Stocco, G; Fiore, E; Gianesella, M; Morgante, M; Pasotto, D; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits. Forty-one multibreed herds were selected for the study, and composite milk samples were collected from 1,508 cows belonging to 3 specialized dairy breeds (Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss, and Jersey) and 3 dual-purpose breeds of Alpine origin (Simmental, Rendena, and Grey Alpine). Milk composition [i.e., fat, protein, casein, lactose, pH, urea, and somatic cell count (SCC)] was analyzed, and separation of protein fractions was performed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven coagulation traits were measured: 5 traditional milk coagulation properties [time from rennet addition to milk gelation (RCT, min), curd-firming rate as the time to a curd firmness (CF) of 20 mm (k 20 , min), and CF at 30, 45, and 60 min from rennet addition (a 30 , a 45 , and a 60 , mm)], and 6 new curd firming and syneresis traits [potential asymptotical CF at an infinite time (CF P , mm), curd-firming instant rate constant (k CF , % × min -1 ), curd syneresis instant rate constant (k SR , % × min -1 ), modeled RCT (RCT eq , min), maximum CF value (CF max, mm), and time at CF max (t max , min)]. We also measured 3 cheese yield traits, expressing the weights of total fresh curd (%CY CURD ), dry matter (%CY SOLIDS ), and water (%CY WATER ) in the curd as percentages of the weight of the processed milk, and 4 nutrient recovery traits (REC PROTEIN , REC FAT , REC SOLIDS , and REC ENERGY ), representing the percentage ratio between each nutrient in the curd and milk. Milk samples with SCC > 100,000 cells/mL were subjected to bacteriological examination. All samples were divided into 7 clusters of udder health (UH) status: healthy (cows with milk SCC culture-negative samples with low, medium, or high SCC; and culture-positive samples divided into contagious, environmental, and opportunistic

  15. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period

    OpenAIRE

    CHOKAN T.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  16. Effect of post-partum body condition score on milk yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determines the effect of dam body condition on milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows. The milk production records of 60 Friesian x Bunaji dairy cows were used for the study. The body condition score (BCS) was recorded on scale 1 to 5 with an increment of 0.25 points. The mean initial milk yield (IMY), ...

  17. Milk yield and composition, nutrition, body conformation traits, body condition scores, fertility and diseases in high-yielding dairy cows--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberhard, K; Bruckmaier, R M; Kuepfer, U; Blum, J W

    2001-03-01

    Twenty-nine pairs of high-yielding dairy cows (HC; > or = 45 kg/day reached at least once during lactation) and corresponding control cows (CC; with milk yields representing the average yield of the herds) were examined on 29 Swiss farms from March 1995 to September 1996. The hypotheses were tested that there are differences in feed intake, body-conformation traits, body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), fertility status and disease incidence between HC and CC cows. Cows were studied 2 weeks before and at 5, 9, 13, 17 and 40 weeks post-partum. HC cows produced more energy-corrected milk (ECM) than CC cows (10,670 +/- 321 kg in 293 +/- 5 days and 8385 +/- 283 kg in 294 +/- 4 days, respectively; P cows (46.2 +/- 1.1 and 36.2 +/- 1.0 kg ECM/day, respectively; P cows (7.6 +/- 0.5 and 5.7 +/- 0.5 kg/day, respectively) and dry matter intakes (measured in week 5 of lactation over 3 days on six farms) were greater in HC than in CC cows (24.0 +/- 1.1 and 20.3 +/- 1.1 kg/day, respectively; P cows were taller than CC cows (wither heights 143.3 +/- 0.8 and 140.1 +/- 0.8 cm, respectively; P cows was greater than in CC cows throughout the study, differences and decreases of BW during lactation were not significant. BCS at the end of pregnancy and decrements during lactation were similar in HC and CC cows. Fertility parameters were similar in HC and CC cows. Incidences of mastitis, claw and feet problems, hypocalcemia/downer cow syndrome, ovarian cysts and abortions were similar in HC and CC cows, but there were more indigestion problems in HC than in CC cows.

  18. Short communication: Associations between feed push-up frequency, feeding and lying behavior, and milk yield and composition of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2017-03-01

    Feeding management factors have great potential to influence activity patterns and feeding behavior of dairy cows, which may have implications for performance. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of feed push-up frequency on the behavioral patterns of dairy cows, and to determine associations between behavior and milk yield and composition. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n = 28, parity = 1.9 ± 1.1; mean ± SD) were housed in tiestalls, milked twice per day, and offered ad libitum access to water and a total mixed ration (containing, on a dry matter basis: 25% corn silage, 25% grass/alfalfa haylage, 30% high-moisture corn, and 20% protein/mineral supplement), provided twice per day. Cows were divided into 2 groups of 14 (balanced by days in milk, milk production, and parity) and individually exposed to each of 2 treatments in a crossover design with 21-d periods; treatment 1 had infrequent feed push-up (3×/d), whereas treatment 2 had frequent feed push-up (5×/d). During the last 7 d of each period, dry matter intake and milk production were recorded and lying behavior was monitored using electronic data loggers. During the last 2 d of each period, milk samples were collected for analysis of protein and fat content and feed samples of fresh feed and orts were collected for particle size analysis. The particle size separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Feed push-up frequency had no effect on lying time [11.4 ± 0.37 h/d; mean ± standard error (SE)], milk production (40.2 ± 1.28 kg/d) and composition (milk protein: 3.30 ± 0.048%; milk fat: 3.81 ± 0.077%), or feed sorting. Cows sorted against long particles (78.0 ± 2.2%) and for short (102.6 ± 0.6%) and fine (108.4 ± 0.9%) particles. Milk fat content decreased by 0

  19. Effect of dietary starch level and high rumen-undegradable protein on endocrine-metabolic status, milk yield, and milk composition in dairy cows during early and late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Loor, J J; Seal, C J; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2014-12-01

    Diet composition defines the amount and type of nutrients absorbed by dairy cows. Endocrine-metabolic interactions can influence these parameters, and so nutrient availability for the mammary gland can significantly vary and affect milk yield and its composition. Six dairy cows in early and then late lactation received, for 28 d in a changeover design, 2 diets designed to provide, within the same stage of lactation, similar amounts of rumen fermentable material but either high starch plus sugar (HS) content or low starch plus sugar content (LS). All diets had similar dietary crude protein and calculated supply of essential amino acids. Dry matter intake within each stage of lactation was similar between groups. Milk yield was similar between groups in early lactation, whereas a higher milk yield was observed in late lactation when feeding HS. At the metabolic level, the main difference observed between the diets in both stages of lactation was lower blood glucose in cows fed LS. The lower glucose availability during consumption of LS caused substantial modifications in the circulating and postprandial pattern of metabolic hormones. Feeding LS versus HS resulted in an increase in the ratio of bovine somatotropin to insulin. This increased mobilization of lipid reserves resulted in higher blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate, which contributed to the higher milk fat content in both stages of lactation in the LS group. This greater recourse to body fat stores was confirmed by the greater loss of body weight during early lactation and the slower recovery of body weight in late lactation in cows fed LS. The lower insulin to glucagon ratio observed in cows fed LS in early and late lactation likely caused an increase in hepatic uptake and catabolism of amino acids, as confirmed by the higher blood urea concentrations. Despite the higher catabolism of amino acids in LS in early lactation, similar milk protein output was observed for both

  20. Effects of water restriction following feeding on nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and composition and blood hormones in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water restriction following feeding under heat stress conditions on nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and composition and some blood hormones in lactating Holstein cows were evaluated. The design was completely randomized with 30 high producing lactating Holstein cows (80.8±40.5 DIM which were assigned to two treatment groups (15 cows per treatment. Treatments were free access to water (FAW and 2 h water restriction (2hWR following feeding. Average temperature-humidity index (THI in the farm was over 80 throughout the experiment which defines heat stress conditions. Neutral detergent fibre, organic matter and ether extract digestibilities increased by water restriction (P0.05. Water intake was recorded daily during the digestibility period and was not different between FAW and 2hWR group (P>0.05. Fat corrected milk was higher in 2hWR group than FAW group (P0.05. Somatic cell counts were greater in 2hWR than FAW group (P0.05. Blood prolactin and growth hormone were higher in 2hWR group than the FAW group (P<0.05. It is concluded that water restriction for 2 hours following feeding improved nutrient digestibility of some dietary components and increased milk fat percentage in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

  1. Variability of the caprine whey protein genes and their association with milk yield, composition and renneting properties in the Sarda breed. 1. The LALBA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Paschino, Pietro; Pira, Maria Giovanna; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo

    2015-11-01

    The 5' flanking region and 3' UTR of the caprine LALBA gene were analysed by SSCP and sequencing. A total of nine SNPs were detected: three in the promoter region, two were synonymous coding SNPs at exon-1, and four SNPs were in exon-4, within the 3'UTR. The nucleotide changes located in the promoter region (c.-358T>C, c.-163G>A, c.-121T>G) were genotyped by SSCP in 263 Sarda goats to evaluate their possible effect on milk yield, composition and renneting properties. We observed an effect of the three SNPs on milk yield and lactose content. Genotypes TT and CT at c.-358T>C (P A (P C and c.-121T>G were part of transcription factors binding sites, potentially involved in modulating the LALBA gene expression. The LALBA genotype affected renneting properties (P < 0.001), as heterozygotes c.-358CT and c.-163GA were characterised by delayed rennet coagulation time and curd firming time and the lowest value of curd firmness. The present investigation increases the panel of SNPs and adds new information about the effects of the caprine LALBA gene polymorphism.

  2. Variability of the caprine whey protein genes and their association with milk yield, composition and renneting properties in the Sarda breed: 2. The BLG gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Pira, Emanuela; Puggioni, Ornella; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo

    2015-11-01

    The variability of the promoter region and the 3'UTR (exon-7) of the BLG gene, encoding the β-lactoglobulin, was investigated by sequencing in 263 lactating Sarda goats in order to assess its association with milk traits. Milk traits included: milk yield, fat, total protein and lactose content, pH, daily fat and protein yield (DFPY), freezing point, milk energy, somatic cell count, total microbial mesophilic count, rennet coagulation time (RCT), curd firming rate (k20) and curd firmness (a30). A total of 7 polymorphic sites were detected and the sequence analysed was given accession number KM817769. Only three SNPs (c.-381C>T, c.-323C>T and c.*420C>A) had minor allele frequency higher than 0.05. The effects of farm, stage of lactation and the interaction farm × stage of lactation significantly influenced all the milk traits (P T and c.*420C>A (P T (P < 0.001). The c.-381TT homozygous goats showed lower pH, RCT and k20 than c.-381CT (P < 0.05). In conclusion the polymorphism of the goat BLG gene did not affect the total protein content of the Sarda goat milk, and only weakly influenced RCT and k20. On the other hand, an interesting effect on milk yields and DFPY emerged in two SNPs. This information might be useful in dairy goat breeding programs.

  3. The influence of milking procedures on cow’s teat tissue, milk yield and milking time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Špoljar

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different milking procedures on teat length and diameter, milk yield and milking time. During the first milking procedure the milker decides when to remove the milking cluster from the udder, while in the second an automatic cluster removal, when milk flow was lower than 200 g/min, was performed. Measurements were made on two commercial farms B and A on 15 randomly chosen cows without any clinical sign of mastitis. There were no significant differencesbetween those farms in teat length and diameter differences before and after the milking. Average milking time on farm A was 6 min and 58 s, while on farm B was 5 min and 3 s. Average milk yield was 12.9 kg on farm B and 13.4 kg on farm A. Milking time was considerably shorter on farm B compared to farm A, while milk yield was almost equal on both farms. Automatic cluster weighting 2 kg removal was performed when milk flow was lower than 200 g/min in order to shorten the time needed to milk the cow, ensuring good udder health.

  4. Milk yield of some goat breeds in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mioč

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In Croatia, goats are primarily bred for meat production. However, for the past twenty years the interest in goat milk production was based on imported breeds such as Alpine-French, Saanen and German Improved Fawn goat. The purpose of this paper is to establish litter size of the principal goat breeds in Croatia and the indicators related to milk yield and chemical composition. The largest average litter size has been determined on the German Improved Fawn (1.72, then with the Boer (1.54, the Saanen (1.53 and the Croatian coloured goat (1.51, while the Alpine-French goat was the smallest (1.31. The longest lactation period (259 days has been determined on the Alpine-French goat, while the largest milk yield during lactation (724.4 kg and the largest milk fat yield (20.16 kg and protein yield (18.64 kg have been determined on the Saanen goat. However, it has been established that the Alpine-French goat milk has the highest average fat content (3.55 %, while the German Improved Fawn’s milk has the highest protein content (3.23 %. The Saanen goat had the longest milking period (222 days and the shortest suckling period (32 days, while the Alpine-French and the German Improved Fawn had the longest suckling period (51 and 45 days, respectively. The lowest quantity of milk during the suckling period (102.97 kg, i.e. 14 % was suckled by Saanen kids, while the Alpine-French (122.08 kg, i.e. 22 % and the German Improved Fawn kids suckled the greatest quantity (116.31 kg, i.e. 22 %.

  5. Milk yield, milk composition, eating behavior, and lamb performance of ewes fed diets containing soybean hulls replacing coastcross (Cynodon species) hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, R C; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Mendes, C Q; Rodrigues, G H; Packer, I U; Eastridge, M L

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of replacing coastcross hay NDF by soybean hull (SH) NDF on the lactation performance and eating behavior of ewes and also on the performance of their lambs. Fifty-six Santa Inês lactating ewes (56.1 +/- 6.8 kg of initial BW; mean +/- SD) were penned individually and used in a randomized complete block design with 14 blocks and 4 treatments. Diets were formulated to provide similar concentrations of NDF (56%) and CP (16%). The SH NDF replaced 33 (SH33), 67 (SH67), or 100% (SH100) of the NDF contributed by coastcross hay in a 70% forage-based diet (SH0), resulting in SH inclusion rates of 0, 25, 54, and 85% of the dietary DM. Once a week, from the second to the eighth week of lactation (weaning time), ewes were separated from their lambs, stimulated by a 6-IU i.v. oxytocin injection, and hand milked to empty the udder. After 3 h, milk production was obtained after the same procedure. Quadratic effect for milk production (142.4, 179.8, 212.6, and 202.9 g/3 h) and cubic effect for DMI (2.27, 2.69, 3.25, and 3.00 kg/d) were observed as SH inclusion increased from 0 to 85% of the dietary DM. Milk fat (7.59, 7.86, 7.59, and 7.74%), protein (4.53, 4.43, 4.40, and 4.55%), and total solids (18.24, 18.54, 18.39, and 18.64%) did not differ among the 70% forage-based diet and diets with SH NDF replacing 33, 67, or 100% of the NDF. A linear increase in lactose concentration was observed with SH inclusion. Ewe BW gain during the trial showed a cubic response (0.37, 0.03, 4.80, and 2.80 kg) with SH inclusion. The preweaning ADG of lambs increased linearly, and ADG of lambs after weaning decreased linearly with SH inclusion. Final BW of lambs (2 wk after weaning) did not differ among treatments. Eating behavior observations were conducted with 44 ewes. The same facilities, experimental design, dietary treatments, and feeding management were used. Observations were visually recorded every 5 min for a 24-h period when

  6. Association of candidate gene polymorphisms with milk technological traits, yield, composition, and somatic cell score in Italian Holstein-Friesian sires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viale, E; Tiezzi, F; Maretto, F; De Marchi, M; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M

    2017-09-01

    Advances in DNA-based marker technology have enabled the identification of genomic regions underlying complex phenotypic traits in livestock species. The incorporation of detected quantitative trait loci into genetic evaluation provides great potential to enhance selection accuracies, hence expediting the genetic improvement of economically important traits. The objective of the present study was to investigate 96 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located in 53 candidate genes previously reported to have effects on milk production and quality traits in a population of highly selected Holstein-Friesian bulls. A total of 423 semen samples were used to genotype the bulls through a custom oligo pool assay. Forty-five SNP in 32 genes were found to be associated with at least 1 of the tested traits. Most significant and favorable SNP trait associations were observed for polymorphisms located in CCL3 and AGPAT6 genes for fat yield (0.037 and 0.033 kg/d, respectively), DGKG gene for milk yield (0.698 kg/d), PPARGC1A, CSN1S1, and AGPAT6 genes for fat percentage (0.127, 0.113, and 0.093%, respectively), GHR gene for protein (0.064%) and casein percentage (0.053%), and TLR4 gene for fat (0.090%), protein (0.066%), and casein percentage (0.050%). Somatic cell score was favorably affected by GHR (-0.095) and POU1F1 (-0.137), and interesting SNP-trait associations were observed for polymorphisms located in CSN2, POU1F1, and AGPAT6 genes for rennet coagulation time (-0.592, -0.558, and -0.462 min, respectively), and GHR and CSN2 genes for curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition (1.264 and 1.183 mm, respectively). In addition to the influence of individual SNP, the effects of composite genotypes constructed by grouping SNP according to their individual effects on traits considered in the analysis were also examined. Favorable and significant effects on milk traits were observed for 2 composite genotypes, one including 10 SNP and the other 4 SNP. The former was associated

  7. The effect of ewes relocation on milk composition and milk flow kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Jackuliaková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of an influence of ewes relocation and milking in other parlour (treatment on milk flow kinetics, milkability and milk composition was the aim of this study. In total 34 ewes of two breeds and crosbreeds Tsigai (14 heads and Improved Valachian (20 heads with Lacaune were tested. Two weeks after lamb weaning the ewes were milked in parallel milking parlour (1x16 stalls under shelter. On the last evening milking (first experimental milking, EB before relocation of flock to another parlour, and during next three continuous evening milkings (E0 - second, E1 - third and E2 - fourth milking of exp. after relocation the milk flow kinetics were measured using electronic collection jar. On day E0 after morning milking the flock was moved on a pasture and milked in other parlour (1x24-stalls. During E0 we recorded a significant decrease of total milk yield in comparison with EB (0.527 ±0.04 and 0.647 ±0.04 L. Significant differences were also recorded in machine milk yield, machine stripping, milking time and in maximum milk flow rate. During E0 there was a higher number of nonbimodal and lower numbers of bimodal flow types. The response of ewe to E0 depended on its response to EB. Ewes with bimodal flow at EB responded more negatively to E0 than ewes with nonbimodal or plateau flow. During E2 there were significantly increased protein content and solids not fat in milk. Thus the treatment significantly influenced the milkability of ewes in a negative way, but more clear response was found out in ewes with bimodal flow response to machine milking before treatment. We could assume that relocation to other milking conditions caused only short-term changes in milk flow kinetic and milk yield. Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  8. Bovine subclinical mastitis reduces milk yield and economic return

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonçalves, J.L.; Kamphuis, C.; Martins, C.M.M.R.; Barreiro, J.R.; Tomazi, T.; Gameiro, A.H.; Hogeveen, H.; Santos, dos M.V.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of different pathogens was studied by evaluating the contralateral (healthy and infected) mammary quarters of 146 lactating cows. The impact of SM on economic return (quarter milk yield × milk price) was determined by applying milk payment estimates on milk collected from healthy vs.

  9. Effect of feeding fractionated RBD palm stearin on milk yield and quality of dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza, S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy intake of dairy cows is important during the peak of milk production to maintain consistency of milk yield. To overcome energy deficiency, diet with high energy density is required for lactating dairy cows which can be enhanced by incorporating fats. Therefore a feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing fat with fractionated RBD Palm Stearin on feed consumption, milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile of dairy cows. A total of 35 lactating dairy cows in early and mid-lactating periods were used in this trial. The trial was conducted for 12 wk and individual milk yield was recorded twice daily. Daily milk yield was increased (p<0.05 from 8.18 l for diet without fat to 8.42 and 8.32 l of milk yield per day, for inclusion of 5% and 2.5% fractionated RBD Palm Stearin, respectively.

  10. Milk composition and feeding in the Italian dairy sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nudda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk production represents a relevant quota of the energy consumption of the dairy ewe. Studies on relationships among  level of production, milk composition and metabolic aspects are the first fundamental step in the development of a feed-  ing system aimed at satisfying nutritive requirements of the animals. This paper reviews the knowledge about the milk  composition of main Italian dairy sheep breeds, the relationship among secretion kinetics of milk and protein and pro-  ductive level of animals, the algorithms used for estimating fat (6.5% and protein (5.8% corrected milk yield, the  evolution over time of milk production during lactation and the relationships between feeding and milk composition

  11. Modifying milk composition through forage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgersma, A.; Tamminga, S.; Ellen, G.

    2006-01-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of cows milk has become less favorable to human health in the last four decades due to changed feeding and management practices, notably higher proportions of concentrates and silages in diets with less grazing. Essential FA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)

  12. Yield of acid curd cheese produced from cow's milk from different lactation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamończyk, Ewa; Młynek, Krzysztof; Guliński, Piotr; Zawadzka, Wiesława

    2017-01-01

    Milk production intensification has led in many countries, including Poland, to increased milk yields per cow. A higher milk yield resulted in changes in cow productivity, including extended lactations. There is a paucity of information on the quality of milk harvested during the last months of lactations exceed- ing 10 months. Production capacity cheese (“cheese expenditure”) is an important parameter of providing   a recovery as much as the possible components of the milk processed are dry substances, which in turn af- fects the economics of production. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the lactation period (from standard lactation; extended lactation phase) on the performance of the acid curd cheese. the relation- ship between total protein content and acidity of fresh milk collected in two separate periods of lactation on the yield of acid cheese was also evaluated. The study included 1384 samples of milk collected from Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, the Black-White variety. The basic chemical composition of fresh milk and acid-curd cheese produced in the laboratory were analyzed. The cheese milk yield was evaluated on the basis of the quantity of the re- sulting curd mass. According to our estimates, under laboratory conditions an average of 100 kg of milk per cow in population produced an estimated 20.1 kg of curd cheese. The basic chemical composition of raw milk, which was diverse in terms of the period of lactation, showed a higher dry matter, fat and protein content in milk acquired during the extension phase of lactation compared to the milk of standard lactation. It has been found that the lower titratable acidity of fresh milk appeared with a higher yield of cheese curd. This difference was between 1.76 kg (with milk from cows milked during the extended lactation phase) to 2.72 kg from 100 kg of cheese milk (milk with the standard lactation). Thus, the optimum level of titratable acidity of milk for cheese yield is 6.0–7.5

  13. Effect on feed intake, milk production and milk composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-22

    Sep 22, 2014 ... feed intake and milk yield parameters was determined for dairy cows. Three feeding ... therefore fat yield, was lower in the treatment containing only wheat as an energy source. .... paddocks for heat detection and grooming.

  14. Effects of Milk Yield, Feed Composition, and Feed Contamination with Aflatoxin B1 on the Aflatoxin M1 Concentration in Dairy Cows’ Milk Investigated Using Monte Carlo Simulation Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. van der Fels-Klerx

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1 in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1, and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical dairy farm in the Netherlands. Six different scenarios were considered, based on two lactation and three CF composition scenarios. AfB1 contamination of the CF was based on results from the Dutch national monitoring programme for AfB1 in feed materials from 2000 until 2010. Monitoring data from feed materials used in CF production for dairy cattle in the Netherlands were used. Additionally, AfB1 contamination data from an incident in maize in 2013 were used. In each scenario, five different transfer equations of AfB1 from feed to AfM1 in the milk were used, and 1000 iterations were run for each scenario. The results showed that under these six scenarios, the weekly farm concentration of AfM1 in milk was above the EC threshold in less than 1% of the iterations, with all five transfer equations considered. However, this increased substantially in weeks when concentrations from the contaminated maize batch were included, and up to 28.5% of the iterations exceeded the EC threshold. It was also observed that an increase in the milk production had a minimal effect on the exceedance of the AfM1 threshold due to an apparent dilution effect. Feeding regimes, including the composition of CF and feeding roughages of dairy cows, should be carefully considered based on the potential AfM1 contamination of the farm’s milk.

  15. The Effects of Herbs on Milk Yield and Milk Quality of Mastitis Dairy Cow

    OpenAIRE

    Nurdin, E; Amelia, T; Makin, M

    2011-01-01

    This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa) supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status) in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++) were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia...

  16. Accuracy of predicting milk yield from alternative recording schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Olori, V.E.; Cromie, A.R.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Dilon, P.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of reducing the frequency of official milk recording and the number of recorded samples per test-day on the accuracy of predicting daily yield and cumulative 305-day yield was investigated. A control data set consisting of 58 210 primiparous cows with milk test-day records every 4 weeks

  17. Effect of management practices on milk yield and live weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    0.05). Milk yield was less sustained on farm. Week of lactation affected milk yield ( P<0.01). In experiment 2, five goats of each of Red Sokoto or Sahelian breeds were randomly assigned to either groundnut haulms or concentrate as supplement.

  18. Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, M; Colombini, S; Mele, M; Malagutti, L; Rapetti, L; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch concentrations and fish oil (FO) supplementation on lactation performance, in vivo total-tract nutrient digestibility, N balance, and methane (CH4) emissions in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 2 concentrations of dietary starch [low vs. high: 23.7 and 27.7% on a dry matter (DM) basis; neutral detergent fiber/starch ratios: 1.47 and 1.12], the presence or absence of FO supplement (0.80% on a DM basis), and their interaction were evaluated. Four Italian Friesian cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets in 4 consecutive 26-d periods: (1) low starch (LS), (2) low starch plus FO (LSO), (3) high starch (HS), and (4) high starch plus FO (HSO). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage, alfalfa and meadow hays). The starch concentration was balanced using different proportions of corn meal and soybean hulls. The cows were housed in metabolic stalls inside open-circuit respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emission and the collection of separate urine and feces. No differences among treatments were observed for DM intake. We observed a trend for FO to increase milk yield: 29.2 and 27.5kg/d, on average, for diets with and without FO, respectively. Milk fat was affected by the interaction between dietary starch and FO: milk fat decreased only in the HSO diet. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO on the LS diet. Fish oil supplementation decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids. High-starch diets negatively influenced all digestibility parameters measured except starch, whereas FO improved neutral detergent fiber digestibility (41.9 vs. 46.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively, and ether extract digestibility (53.7 vs. 67.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively). We observed

  19. Feeding Moringa oleifera fresh or ensiled to dairy cows--effects on milk yield and milk flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendieta-Araica, Bryan; Spörndly, Eva; Reyes-Sánchez, Nadir; Spörndly, Rolf

    2011-06-01

    Moringa oleifera, either fresh or ensiled, was compared with Elephant grass as a main feedstuff for dairy cows. To test the effects feed had on milk yield, milk composition, ration digestibility, and the organoleptic characteristics of milk, six lactating dairy cows were used in a Changeover 3 × 3 Latin Square experiment, replicated twice. With equal intake of metabolizable energy the intake of protein and fiber differed (p Moringa had the highest and the Elephant grass diet had the lowest intake. Compared with the control diet, ensiled Moringa had higher digestibility (P Moringa and Moringa silage treatments. Milk yield did not differ between any of the treatments and averaged 13.7 kg cow day(-1). Milk composition was similar among all treatments. Milk from the fresh Moringa treatment, however, had a grassy flavor and aroma, significantly different from the other two treatments, even though it was normal in color and appearance. No organoleptic differences were found between milk from the control treatment and the Moringa silage treatment. The conclusion is that Moringa silage can be fed to dairy cows in large quantities to produce the same quantity and quality of milk as traditional diets.

  20. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nurdin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. The collected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects was tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbs significantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreased mastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  1. Milk composition as an indicator of the metabolism of dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTĚRBA, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Milk presents good marker metabolic levels in dairy cows. Subscribe milk in moreover to cow does not stressful. Each month has a breeder in the yield control available basic data on milk composition (fat, protein, lactose). This basic data can be expanded to include other parameters (milk urea, ketones and citric acid). Based on these milk parameters can then correct interpretation preventively diagnose metabolic diseases in the herd. In this work, based on yield controlling diagnosed with hi...

  2. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nurdin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcumamangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milkprotein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomizeddesign was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcumazeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. Thecollected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects wastested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbssignificantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreasedmastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  3. Milk yield and quality of Cres sheep and their crosses with Awassi and East Friesian sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mioč

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the impact of crossing the indigenous Cres sheep with Awassi and, respectively, Awassi and East Friesian sheep on the milk yield and quality. For this purpose, through regular monthly milk yield recordings a total of 824individual milk samples from 139 sheep in the second lactation of the same flock were collected, of which: 46 purebred Cres sheep, CS; 33 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep and 50 % Awassi, CA; 60 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep, 25 % Awassi and 25 % East Friesian, CAEF. The obtained results show a significant (P<0.05; P<0.01 impact of the genotype and the lactation stage on the yield and chemical composition of milk, and the somatic cell count. The most milk was yielded by CAEF crosses (690 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 133.8 L per lactation and the least by CS (340 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 58.48 L per lactation. The content of total solids, fat and protein increased as lactation advanced, whereas the trend of the lactose content was opposite. The highest content of total solids, fat and protein were established in the milk of the indigenous Cres sheep. A positive correlation was established between the amount of yielded milk and the somatic cell count, whereas a negative correlation was established between the amount of milk and the content of solids, fat and proteins.

  4. Influence of storage of refrigerated milk on yield and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of milk stored at different temperatures and storage times and the influence on yield and sensory characteristics of queso fresco. The milk collected was stored at temperatures of 3 and 7°C for times of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h for analysis and processing of queso fresco. Cheeses ...

  5. Neural prediction of cows' milk yield according to environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medium and maximum air temperatures around the milk cowsheds were measured and these empirical data were used to create a neural prediction model evaluating the cows' milk yield under varying thermal conditions. We found out that artificial neural networks were an effective tool supporting the process of short-term ...

  6. Persistency of milk yield in Indonesian Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyas, N.; Putra, F. Y.; Nugroho, T.; Pramono, A.; Susilowati, A.; Sutarno; Prastowo, S.

    2018-03-01

    Milk yield is an important trait in dairy industry; thus, information regarding this phenotype is essential to measure the productivity of a farm. Total milk yield in one lactation period was often predicted using information from samples collected within certain time intervals. The rate of change of milk production between two-time intervals is defined as persistency. This article aims to estimate the persistency of milk yield between lactation 1, 2 and 3 in Indonesian Friesian Holstein (IFH) cows. Data was collected from Limpakuwus stable, Baturraden Dairy Cattle Breeding Centre, Central Java Indonesia. Records were obtained from cows which started lactating on 2013 until the end of third lactation around the beginning of 2016. Milk yield from the first (L1), second (L2) and third (L3) lactations of 21 cows were recorded in kilograms. Samples were collected in 30 days basis interval started from the 10th day of lactation up to the 10th month. In this population, the cows first calving was around February – April 2013; while the second and third calving occurred all over the relevant year. The mean of milk yield for L1, L2 and L3 were 17.77±3.70, 16.09±5.17 and 13.73±4.02 Kg respectively. The peak of milk yields was achieved at the second month of the lactation for L1, L2 and L3. The persistency from the second to the tenth test days were 97, 93 and 94% for L1, L2 and L3, respectively. Milk yield persistency is representing ability of cow in maintain milk production after peak during lactation period. The more persistent shows better performance of dairy cattle as well as farm management. For that, persistency value could be used as valuable information in evaluating the management in Indonesian dairy farms.

  7. Impact of variation at the FTO locus on milk fat yield in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielke, Lea G; Bortfeldt, Ralf H; Reissmann, Monika; Tetens, Jens; Thaller, Georg; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the biological role of the Fat Mass and Obesity associated (FTO) gene locus on milk composition in German Holstein cattle. Since FTO controls energy homeostasis and expenditure and the FTO locus has repeatedly shown association with obesity in human studies, we tested FTO as a candidate gene in particular for milk fat yield, which represents a high amount of energy secreted during lactation. The study was performed on 2,402 bulls and 860 cows where dense milk composition data were available. Genetic information was taken from a 2 Mb region around FTO. Five SNPs and two haplotype blocks in a 725 kb region covering FTO and the neighboring genes RPGRIP1L, U6ATAC, and 5 S rRNA were associated with milk fat yield and also affected protein yield in the same direction. Interestingly, higher frequency SNP alleles and haplotypes within the FTO gene increased milk fat and protein yields by up to 2.8 and 2.2 kg per lactation, respectively, while the most frequent haplotype in the upstream block covering exon 1 of FTO to exon 15 of RPGRIP1L had opposite effects with lower fat and milk yield. Both haplotype blocks were also significant in cows. The loci accounted for about 1% of the corresponding trait variance in the population. The association signals not only provided evidence for at least two causative mutations in the FTO locus with a functional effect on milk but also milk protein yield. The pleiotropic effects suggest a biological function on the usage of energy resources and the control of energy balance rather than directly affecting fat and protein synthesis. The identified effect of the obesity gene locus on milk energy content suggests an impact on infant nutrition by breast feeding in humans.

  8. Impact of variation at the FTO locus on milk fat yield in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea G Zielke

    Full Text Available This study explores the biological role of the Fat Mass and Obesity associated (FTO gene locus on milk composition in German Holstein cattle. Since FTO controls energy homeostasis and expenditure and the FTO locus has repeatedly shown association with obesity in human studies, we tested FTO as a candidate gene in particular for milk fat yield, which represents a high amount of energy secreted during lactation. The study was performed on 2,402 bulls and 860 cows where dense milk composition data were available. Genetic information was taken from a 2 Mb region around FTO. Five SNPs and two haplotype blocks in a 725 kb region covering FTO and the neighboring genes RPGRIP1L, U6ATAC, and 5 S rRNA were associated with milk fat yield and also affected protein yield in the same direction. Interestingly, higher frequency SNP alleles and haplotypes within the FTO gene increased milk fat and protein yields by up to 2.8 and 2.2 kg per lactation, respectively, while the most frequent haplotype in the upstream block covering exon 1 of FTO to exon 15 of RPGRIP1L had opposite effects with lower fat and milk yield. Both haplotype blocks were also significant in cows. The loci accounted for about 1% of the corresponding trait variance in the population. The association signals not only provided evidence for at least two causative mutations in the FTO locus with a functional effect on milk but also milk protein yield. The pleiotropic effects suggest a biological function on the usage of energy resources and the control of energy balance rather than directly affecting fat and protein synthesis. The identified effect of the obesity gene locus on milk energy content suggests an impact on infant nutrition by breast feeding in humans.

  9. SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING FOR NON - LINEAR TREND IN MILK YIELD DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Tanuj Kumar Pandey; Vinod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The present paper utilizes systematic sampling procedures for milk yield data exhibiting some non-linear trends. The best fitted mathematical forms of non-linear trend present in the milk yield data are obtained and the expressions of average variances of the estimators of population mean under simple random, usual systematic and modified systematic sampling procedures have been derived for populations showing non-linear trend. A comparative study is made among the three sampli...

  10. Efeito do genótipo sobre a produção e a composição do leite de cabras mestiças Effect of genotype on milk yield and composition of crossbred goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Nogueira Barros

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O potencial de produção de trinta e cinco cabras mestiças - 12 ½Pardo-alpina + ½Moxotó (½PA-M, 11¾ Pardo-alpina + ¼Moxotó (¾PA-M e 12 Tricross (½Anglo-nubiana + ¼Pardo-alpina + ¼Moxotó - foi avaliado em um experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Caprinos. Os cabritos foram separados das respectivas mães ao nascimento. As cabras foram ordenhadas duas vezes ao dia e o controle leiteiro procedido semanalmente. Os animais foram confinados em baias coletivas e receberam dieta para produção de 2,5 kg de leite/dia, composta de silagem de sorgo ad libitum e concentrado. Os animais foram pesados em intervalos de 14 dias. A produção de leite, como coletada, não foi influenciada pelo genótipo. No entanto, quando foi corrigida para 4% de gordura, o genótipo ½ PA-M foi superior aos ¾ PA-M e Tricross. Não houve diferença significativa entre genótipos para gordura, proteína e extrato seco total do leite.The objective of this trial was to study the production of thirty-five crossbred goats: ½Brown Alpine x 12 ½Moxoto (½BA-M, 11 ¾Brown Alpine x ¼Moxoto (¾BA-M, and 12 Tricross (½Anglo Nubian x ¼Moxoto x ¼Brown Alpine. After birth, the kids were separated from their mothers. Goats were milked twice a day and milk composition determined weekly. Animals were housed in collective pens and received a diet composed of sorghum silage (ad libitum plus concentrate that were formulated to allow 2.5 kg/d of milk yield. Animals were weighted every 14 days. Milk production did not differ among genotypes. However, 4% fat corrected milk was greater for ½BA-M than the remaining groups. No significant differences were observed for milk composition (fat, protein, and total solids across genotypes in the current trial.

  11. Genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In her thesis, Stoop shows that there is considerable genetic variation in milk fat composition, which opens opportunities to improve milk fat composition by selective breeding. Short and medium chain fatty acids had high heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd (mainly feed effects) was

  12. Human milk composition and infant growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kamilla Gehrt; Christensen, Sophie Hilario; Lind, Mads Vendelbo

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights relevant studies published between 2015 and 2017 on human milk composition and the association with infant growth. RECENT FINDINGS: High-quality studies investigating how human milk composition is related to infant growth are sparse. Recent observational...... studies show that human milk concentrations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate likely have important influence on infant growth and body composition. Furthermore, some observational studies examining human milk oligosaccharides and hormone concentrations suggest functional relevance to infant growth....... For human milk micronutrient concentrations and microbiota content, and other bioactive components in human milk, the association with infant growth is still speculative and needs further investigation. The included studies in this review are all limited in their methodological design and methods but have...

  13. Relationships between milking frequency, lactation persistency and milk yield in Sweish Red heifers and cows milked in a voluntary attendance automatic milking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, Gunnar; Svvenersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2011-01-01

    A large dataset comprising output from an automatic milking (AM) system between 1999 and 2006 was examined and a total of 172 cow lactation curves and 68 heifer lactation curves were identified for further analysis. Relationships between milking frequency at different stages of lactation...... and lactation persistency and total lactation yield were determined. Cows had higher peak and total milk yields than heifers, but heifers had higher persistency (defined as the rate of decline in milk yield between days 100 and 300 post calving). Milking frequency did not differ significantly between cows...... and heifers in early lactation, but thereafter decreased significantly more in cows than in heifers. The effect of milking frequency on yield characteristics was analysed by comparing the highest and lowest quartiles for milking frequency. High milking frequency in early lactation was consistently associated...

  14. Effect of organic sources of minerals on fat-corrected milk yield of dairy cows in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Antonio Del Valle

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of organic and inorganic sources of minerals in diets for mid-lactation dairy cows on milk yield and composition, intake and total apparent digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, blood parameters, microbial protein synthesis, and energy and protein balances. Twenty Holstein cows averaging 146.83±67.34 days in milk and weighing 625.30±80.37 kg were used. The experimental design was a crossover. Diets were composed of corn silage (50%, ground grain corn, and soybean meal, differing with regard to the sources of trace minerals, plus an organic and inorganic mix. The organic mineral source increased milk fat and fat-corrected milk yield without changing milk yield, intake, or total apparent digestibility. Blood parameters, microbial protein synthesis, and energy and protein balances were not affected by the sources of minerals. Organic sources of minerals improve milk fat yield without affecting other parameters.

  15. Effect of choline chloride supplementation on milk production and milk composition of Etawah grade goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of choline chloride supplementation through forced drinking combined with concentrate diets containing Ca-fish oil on milk production and milk composition of Etawah Grade goats was evaluated. Choline chloride is an essential component in ruminant diets as it is required for fat metabolism. Method The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three types of treatments and eight replications. The trial had two successive experimental periods; the first, during the eight weeks of late pregnancy, and the second, during the first 12 weeks of lactation. Twenty-four Etawah Grade does in the second gestation period were divided into three treatment groups. Commercial choline chloride 60 % in corncobs-based powder was used as a source of choline chloride. The treatments were no supplementation (control and supplemented with either 4 g or 8 g/2days of choline chloride. Choline chloride was given to the animals through a forced drinking technique, after dissolving it in 60 ml drinking water. The initial body weight of does was 38.81 ± 3.66 kg. The does were penned individually, and were given fresh chopped King Grass ad libitum and 700 g/day of concentrate diets containing Ca-fish oil, starting eight weeks prior to expecting kidding and continuing for 12 weeks of parturition. Results All nutrient intakes were not significantly different (p > 0.05 among the treatments during the late pregnancy and the lactation periods. Supplementation did not affect (p > 0.05 the average daily gains and feed conversion ratio during pregnancy but gave effects (p < 0.05 on the average daily gains, feed conversion ratio and income over feed cost during lactation. The highest average daily milk yields and 4 % fat corrected milk yields were found in goats supplemented with 4 g/2days of choline chloride and increased by 17.00 % and 24.67 %, respectively, compared to the control. Moreover, milk

  16. Comparing milk yield, chemical properties and somatic cell count from organic and conventional mountain farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Bianchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the effects of farming systems (organic vs. conventional, diet (hay/concentrate vs. pasture and their interaction on milk yield, gross composition and fatty acid (FA profile of dairy cows bred in mountainous areas. For this purpose four dairy farms (two organic and two conventional were chosen in the alpine territory of Aosta Valley (NW Italy; individual milk yield was recorded daily and bulk milk samples were collected monthly from February to September 2007 to cover dietary variations. Higher levels of milk production (P<0.05 and lower milk protein amounts (P<0.01 were observed in the organic farms with respect to the conventional ones, while no significant differences were noticed in milk fat and lactose contents and in somatic cell count. Concerning fatty acids, only small differences were detected between organic and conventional milk and such differences seemed to be related mainly to the stabled period. Diet affected almost all variables studied: pasture feeding provided a significant improvement in the fatty acid composition in both organic and conventional systems leading to lower hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids, higher mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid amounts (P<0.001.

  17. Natural variation in casein composition of milk

    OpenAIRE

    Bijl, E.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine milk contains 3-4 % protein and almost 80% of the milk protein fraction consist of four caseins; αs1-casein, β-casein, αs2-casein and κ-casein. Most of the caseins in milk are assembled in casein micelles, which consist of several thousands of individual casein molecules and salts. The unique structure of casein micelles allows the delivery of large amounts of calcium and phosphate to the neonate. Considerable natural variation in casein content and composition exists between milk sam...

  18. Effects of milk yield, feed composition, and feed contamination with aflatoxin B1 on the aflatoxin M1 concentration in dairy cows’ milk investigated using Monte Carlo simulation modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der Ine; Camenzuli, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF) contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical

  19. Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The composition of human milk is the biologic norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules, e.g., lactoferrin, are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. A dynamic, bioactive fluid, human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, and varies within feeds, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing. Pasteurized donor milk is now commonly provided to high risk infants and most mothers in the U.S. express and freeze their milk at some point in lactation for future infant feedings. Many milk proteins are degraded by heat treatment and freeze-thaw cycles may not have the same bioactivity after undergoing these treatments. This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, sources of its variation, and its clinical relevance. PMID:23178060

  20. Lactation yield: Interval level comparison of milk records for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1220 records ... Lactation yield: Interval level comparison of milk records for genetic improvement in Friesian vs Arsi crossbred cows in the highlands of south eastern. Ethiopia. Dumar Wabe1 and Kassahun Asmare2. 1Allage Agricultural Technical, Vocational Education Training College, P.O. Box 077. 2School of Veterinary ...

  1. Concentrate composition for automatic milking systems - effect on milking frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of affecting milking frequency in an Automatic Milking System (AMS) by changing ingredient composition of the concentrate fed in the AMS. In six experiments, six experimental concentrates were tested against a Standard concentrate all...... supplied in the amounts of 5 kg/cow/day. Fifteen cows were fed the experimental concentrate and another 15 cows the Standard concentrate for 14 days and then for the next 14 days the cows were fed the opposite diets to be their own control. The change from one mixture to the next was done over only one day...

  2. The composition of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthoff, G; Hugo, A; de Wit, M

    2006-01-01

    Milk was obtained from two captive bred cheetahs. The nutrient content was 99.6 g protein; 64.8 g fat; and 40.21 g lactose per kg milk. Small amounts of oligosaccharides, glucose, galactose and fucose were noted. The protein fraction respectively consisted of 34.2 g caseins per kg milk and of 65.3 g whey proteins per kg milk. Very little variation in milk composition among the individual cheetahs was noted. Electrophoresis and identification of protein bands showed a similar migrating sequence of proteins as seen in lion's and cat's milk, with small differences in the beta-caseins. The lipid fraction contains 290.4 g saturated and 337.3 g mono-unsaturated fatty acids per kg milk fat respectively. The high content of 279.5 g kg(-1) milk fat of polyunsaturated fatty acids is due to a high content in alpha-linolenic acid. No short chain fatty acids, but substantial levels of uneven carbon chain fatty acids were observed.

  3. Milk Yield and Quality of Holstein and Jersey Breeds of Cattle in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Friesian cows were used to evaluate the effects of breed, month of lactation and milking time on the milk yield and quality of commercial dairy cows under the tropical climate of Nigeria. Mean milk yield and milk protein were significantly higher ...

  4. Feeding restriction impairs milk yield and physicochemical properties rendering it less suitable for sale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Fruscalso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feed shortages are relatively frequent in subtropical pasture-based dairy production systems. The effect of feed restriction on milk yield and physical-chemical traits was evaluated in this study. The experiment was carried out in Brazil's south region. Treatments consisted of control and restricted diet. Six multiparous and six primiparous cows, with 499 ± 47.20 kg body weight (BW, at mid-lactation (188 ± 124 days in milk, producing 19.35 ± 4.10 kg of milk were assigned to two groups, balanced for parity, each group receiving a different sequence of the dietary treatments for 56 days, in a crossover design. Diet nominated as control included 8 kg DM 100 kg BW-1 of Bermuda grass var. Tifton pasture (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., 5.00 kg of concentrate and 2.50 kg of Tifton hay per day. The restriction diet consisted of 50 % of the quantity offered in the control diet. Milk production and physicochemical composition were evaluated. Feed restriction reduced milk production by 40 %, body condition score by 5 %, milk magnesium by 14.3 %, lactose by 1.7 %, titratable acidity by 10 % and stability to the ethanol test by 9 % and it tended to increase (7 % milk potassium content. No changes were found for the remaining characteristics. Since feed restriction is quite frequent in Brazil's extensive dairy production systems, our concern is that besides decreased milk production, changes can occur in the physiochemical attributes of the milk, mainly a reduction in the stability to the ethanol test, which may increase the volume of milk rejected by the industry.

  5. Consumo, produção e composição do leite de vacas alimentadas com óleo de soja e diferentes fontes de carboidratos na dieta Effects of different carbohydrates sources and soybean oil on intake, milk yield, and milk composition of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Costa Eifert

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 12 vacas lactantes Holandês-Gir com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do fornecimento de dietas formuladas com diferentes fontes de carboidratos no concentrado, associadas ou não à suplementação com óleo de soja, sobre o consumo de matéria seca, a produção de leite e a composição do leite. Os tratamentos consistiram de concentrados à base de milho ou farelo de trigo (FT ou polpa cítrica (PC, associados ou não a óleo de soja (0 e 2,25%. Não houve interação significativa entre a presença de óleo e a fonte de carboidratos em qualquer variável avaliada. O consumo de MS (18,4 kg/dia e a produção de leite (23,5 kg/dia não diferiram entre MI, FT ou PC, mas a dieta com FT proporcionou maior consumo de FDN e menor digestibilidade aparente total da MO e dos CHOT e reduziu o teor de lactose no leite. A síntese microbiana não foi influenciada pela fonte de carboidrato ou pelo óleo, sendo, em média, de 239,4 g N/dia. Os animais alimentados com as dietas contendo óleo apresentaram menor consumo de matéria seca (19,0 vs 17,8 kg/dia e menores teores de lactose (4,49 vs 4,33% e gordura (3,34 vs 3,13% no leite, mas não diferiram quanto à produção de leite, ao teor de proteína, à digestibilidade dos nutrientes e à síntese microbiana. A presença de óleo promoveu maior eficiência alimentar (1,35 vs 1,23 e aumentou a relação proteína:gordura do leite (0,94 vs 1,00. Do ponto de vista econômico, PC e FT podem substituir totalmente o milho no concentrado em dietas para vacas com produção de até 24 kg/dia. O óleo na dieta diminui o consumo e mantém o nível de produção, aumentando a eficiência alimentar e alterando a composição do leite.Twelve Holstein-Zebu lactating dairy cows were used to study the effects of different carbohydrate sources and soybean oil on dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition. The following carbohydrate sources were used: corn (CO, wheat bran (WB or citric pulp (CP

  6. [Milk yield and environmental factors: Multiple regression analysis of the association between milk yield and udder health, fertility data and replacement rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fölsche, C; Staufenbiel, R

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between milk yield and both fertility and general animal health in dairy herds is discussed from opposing viewpoints. The hypothesis (1) that raising the herd milk yield would decrease fertility results, the number of milk cells as an indicator for udder health and the replacement rate as a global indicator for animal health as well as increasing the occurrence of specific diseases as a herd problem was compared to the opposing hypotheses that there is no relationship (2) or that there is a differentiated and changing relationship (3). A total of 743 herd examinations, considered independent, were performed in 489 herds between 1995 and 2010. The milk yield, fertility rate, milk cell count, replacement rate, categorized herd problems and management information were recorded. The relationship between the milk yield and both the fertility data and animal health was evaluated using simple and multiple regression analyses. The period between calving and the first service displayed no significant relationship to the herd milk yield. Simple regression analysis showed that the period between calving and gestation, the calving interval and the insemination number were significantly positively associated with the herd milk yield. This positive correlation was lost in multiple regression analysis. The milk cell count and replacement rate using both the simple and multiple regression analyses displayed a significant negative relationship to the milk yield. The alternative hypothesis (3) was confirmed. A higher milk yield has no negative influence on the milk cell count and the replacement rate in terms of the udder and general health. When parameterizing the fertility, the herd milk yield should be considered. Extending the resting time may increase the milk yield while preventing a decline in the insemination index.

  7. Impact of Different Milk Yields on Milk Quality in Bohemian Spotted Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hanuš

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The milk yield (MY is a significant economic and health factor. MY influences the health state of dairy cows, their reproduction performance, longevity and milk indicators (MIs. Differences within MIs between 2 higher (1; 8 348 kg per lactation; 240 individual milk samples and 2 lower yielding herds (2; 7 344; 239 of Bohemian Spotted dairy cows (B were tested. Sampling was carried out during summer and winter feeding seasons. Lactation factors were well balanced. Group 1 was on a higher genetical level, had better nutrition and higher MY by 13.7% (P P P > 0.05. The U was higher (5.707 > 4.365 mmol l-1 in group 1, AC and URN as well (0.0362 > 0.0238 mmol l-1 and 51.94 > 41.97%. It corresponds with nitrogen and energy metabolism.

  8. Thyroid hormones in donkey blood and milk: correlations with milk yield and environmental temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Todini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones (TH are the primary endocrine stimulators of non-shivering thermogenesis and are known to stimulate lactation. Triiodothyronine (T3 is the bioactive form, mainly derived by deiodination of thyroxine (T4, and the free quote (unbound to plasma proteins is immediately bioavailable. This study aimed to evaluate potential relationships among TH in the blood, triiodothyronine in the milk (T3M, milk yield and environmental temperature in March to July for 8 lactating donkeys. Milk yield and blood TH concentrations changed significantly over time, whereas T3M was rather stable among individuals and not affected by time of sampling. Free T3 was not correlated with free T4 or with total TH in the blood, but it was weakly correlated with T3M. No relationship was found between blood TH and milk yield, which was negatively correlated with T3M. Thus, the absolute quantity of bioactive hormone in milk secretion is maintained. Milk yield was positively correlated with the free/total T3 and free T3/free T4 ratios, thus in turn with the relative quote of the circulating bioactive hormone. Circulating T3/T4 ratios were negatively correlated with environmental temperature. It is concluded that environmental temperature, in the range of the present study (-2 to 35°C, does not significantly entrain thyroid gland activity, which is affected more by other factors, such as inter-individual variations and physiological status (i.e., stage of lactation. However, increases in environmental temperature most likely induce decreases in deiodinase activity at the peripheral tissue level, as indicated by the decrease in the T3/T4 ratios in the blood.

  9. Effects of Genotype by Environment Interactions on Milk Yield, Energy Balance, and Protein Balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerda, B.; Ouweltjes, W.; Sebek, L.B.J.; Windig, J.J.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Increases in genetic merit for milk yield are associated with increases in mobilization of body reserves. This study assessed the effects of genotype by environment (GxE) interactions on milk yield and energy and protein balances. Heifers (n = 100) with high or low genetic merit for milk yield were

  10. Meat and milk compositions of bovine clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X. Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Sakashita, Kunihito; Izaike, Yoshiaki; Okano, Ryoichi; Tabara, Norio; Curchoe, Carol; Jacob, Lavina; Zhang, Yuqin; Smith, Sadie; Bormann, Charles; Xu, Jie; Sato, Masumi; Andrew, Sheila; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2005-01-01

    The technology is now available for commercial cloning of farm animals for food production, but is the food safe for consumers? Here, we provide data on >100 parameters that compare the composition of meat and milk from beef and dairy cattle derived from cloning to those of genetic- and breed-matched control animals from conventional reproduction. The cloned animals and the comparators were managed under the same conditions and received the same diet. The composition of the meat and milk from the clones were largely not statistically different from those of matched comparators, and all parameters examined were within the normal industry standards or previously reported values. The data generated from our match-controlled experiments provide science-based information desired by regulatory agencies to address public concerns about the safety of meat and milk from somatic animal clones. PMID:15829585

  11. Milk yield, quality, and coagulation properties of 6 breeds of goats: Environmental and individual variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, Giuseppe M; Stocco, Giorgia; Dettori, Maria L; Pira, Emanuela; Bittante, Giovanni; Pazzola, Michele

    2018-05-09

    Goat milk and cheese production is continuously increasing and milk composition and coagulation properties (MCP) are useful tools to predict cheesemaking aptitude. The present study was planned to investigate the extension of lactodynamographic analysis up to 60 min in goat milk, to measure the farm and individual factors, and to investigate differences among 6 goat breeds. Daily milk yield (dMY) was recorded and milk samples collected from 1,272 goats reared in 35 farms. Goats were of 6 different breeds: Saanen and Camosciata delle Alpi for the Alpine type, and Murciano-Granadina, Maltese, Sarda, and Sarda Primitiva for the Mediterranean type. Milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, pH; somatic cell score; logarithmic bacterial count) and MCP [rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), curd-firming time (k 20 , min), curd firmness at 30, 45, and 60 min after rennet addition (a 30 , a 45 , and a 60 , mm)] were recorded, and daily fat and protein yield (dFPY g/d) was calculated as the sum of fat and protein concentration multiplied by the dMY. Data were analyzed using different statistical models to measure the effects of farm, parity, stage of lactation and breed; lastly, the direct and the indirect effect of breed were quantified by comparing the variance of breed from models with or without the inclusion of linear regression of fat, protein, lactose, pH, bacterial, somatic cell counts, and dMY. Orthogonal contrasts were performed to compare least squares means. Almost all traits exhibited high variability, with coefficients of variation between 32 (for RCT) and 63% (for a 30 ). The proportion of variance regarding dMY, dFPY, and milk composition due to the farm was moderate, whereas for MCP it was low, except for a 60 , at 69%. Parity affected both yield and quality traits of milk, with least squares means of dMY and dFPY showing an increase and RCT and curd firmness traits a decrease from the first to the last parity class. All milk quality traits, excluding fat, were

  12. Mare’s milk: composition and protein fraction in comparison with different milk species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Kuterovac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The usage of the mare’s milk as functional food especial for children intolerant to cow’s milk, with neurodermitis, allergies and similar disorders desiring to improve the quality of life is fiercely debated for last decades but there were no scientific studies to suggest such use of mare’s milk based on scientific research. The objectives of this study were to determine similarities of mare’s milk in comparison with milk of ruminants (cattle, sheep and goat and human milk in terms of milk composition and protein fraction as whey proteins, caseins and micelles size. All differences were discussed regarding usage of mare’s milk in human diet and compared to milk which is usually used in human nutrition. Regarding composition, the mare’s milk is similar to human milk in of crude protein, salt and lactose content, but it has significantly lower content of fat. Fractions of main proteins are similar between human and mare’s milk, except nitrogen casein (casein N which has twice lower content in human than in mare’s milk. Content of casein N from all ruminants’ milk differ much more. Just for true whey N and non-protein nitrogen (NPN similar content as human and mare’s milk has also goat milk. The casein content is the lowest in human milk; this content is three times greater in mare’s milk and six to seven times greater in goat’s and cow’s milk, while in sheep’s milk it is more than 10 times grater. In many components and fractions mare’s milk is more similar to human milk than milk of ruminants. A detail comparison of protein fraction shows quite large differences between milk of different species. More study and clinical research are needed that can recommend usage of mare’s milk in human diet as functional food on scientific bases.

  13. On-line milk spectrometry: analysis of bovine milk composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Kyle; Kuennemeyer, Rainer; Woolford, Murray; Claycomb, Rod

    2005-04-01

    We present partial least squares (PLS) regressions to predict the composition of raw, unhomogenised milk using visible to near infrared spectroscopy. A total of 370 milk samples from individual quarters were collected and analysed on-line by two low cost spectrometers in the wavelength ranges 380-1100 nm and 900-1700 nm. Samples were collected from 22 Friesian, 17 Jersey, 2 Ayrshire and 3 Friesian-Jersey crossbred cows over a period of 7 consecutive days. Transmission spectra were recorded in an inline flowcell through a 0.5 mm thick milk sample. PLS models, where wavelength selection was performed using iterative PLS, were developed for fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell content. The root mean square error of prediction (and correlation coefficient) for the nir and visible spectrometers respectively were 0.70%(0.93) and 0.91%(0.91) for fat, 0.65%(0.5) and 0.47%(0.79) for protein, 0.36%(0.49) and 0.45%(0.43) for lactose, and 0.50(0.54) and 0.48(0.51) for log10 somatic cells.

  14. Effect of supplementary glycerin on milk composition and heat stability in dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deela Thoh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was studied the effects of various levels of crude glycerin (CG in dairy goat diet on daily intake, milk yield, milk composition, some physical properties and some quality changes of goat milk after sterilization. Methods Twelve 75% Saanen dairy goats (body weight = 49±3 kg; days in milk = 60±12 d were randomly assigned in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of three experimental diets consisting of 0%, 5%, and 10% CG (dry matter basis which were formulated to meet or exceed the nutrient requirements of goats. Experimental dairy goats were evaluated for feed and milk yield. Milk samples were analyzed for their composition, including fatty acids, casein profile, fat globule size, and color, and were sterilized to evaluate milk heat stability. Results There were no significant differences between 0% and 5% CG treatments infeed. Increasing CG supplementation from 0% to 5% increased milk yield from 2.38±0.12 to 2.64±0.23 kg/goat/d. In addition, milk samples from 5% CG treatment had the highest total solids, fat content and lactose content, and largest fat globule size. Increasing CG to 10% resulted in a decrease in milk fat. After sterilizing at 116°C, F0 = 3 min, goat milk samples from 5% CG treatment had slightly higher sediment content and comparatively higher degree of browning. Conclusion Considering milk yield, milk fat content and quality of sterilized milk, 5% CG supplementation in a total mixed ration has a potential for implementation in dairy goats.

  15. Pattern of γ-glutamyl transferase activity in cow milk throughout lactation and relationships with metabolic conditions and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamari, L; Gobbi, L; Russo, F; Cappelli, F Piccioli

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this experiment was to study the γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity in milk during lactation and its relationship with metabolic status of dairy cows, milk yield, milk composition, and cheesemaking properties. The study was performed in a tied stall barn and involved 20 lactations from 12 healthy multiparous Italian Friesian dairy cows. During lactation starting at d 10, milk samples were collected weekly and analyzed for composition, somatic cells count, titratable acidity, and milk coagulation properties. The GGT activity was measured in defatted samples. Blood samples were collected weekly to assess biochemical indicators related to energy, protein, and mineral metabolism, markers of inflammation and some enzyme activities. The lactations of each cow were retrospectively categorized into 2 groups according to their milk GGT activity value through lactation. A median value of GGT activity in the milk of all lactations was calculated (3,045 U/L), and 10 lactations with lower GGT activity were classified as low while 10 lactations with greater GGT activity were classified as high. The average value of milk GGT activity during lactation was 3,863 and 3,024 U/L for high and low, respectively. The GGT activity decreased in early lactation and reached minimum values in the second month (3,289 and 2,355 U/L for high and low, respectively). Thereafter GGT activity increased progressively, reaching values in late lactation of 4,511 and 3,540 U/L in high and low, respectively. On average, milk yield was 40.81 and 42.76 kg/d in high and low, respectively, and a negative partial correlation with milk GGT activity was observed. A greater milk protein concentration was observed in high (3.39%) compared with low (3.18%), and a positive partial correlation with milk GGT activity was observed. Greater titratable acidity in high than that in low (3.75 vs. 3.45 degrees Soxhlet-Henkel/50 mL, respectively) was also observed. Plasma glucose was greater in

  16. Relationship of litter size with milk yield, udder morphology and udder health of East Friesian sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Prpić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine relationship between litter size and milk yield, udder morphology, and udder health of East Friesian ewes. For that purpose a total of 80 East Friesian ewes, from 2nd to 4th lactation, with symmetrical udders, without visible (clinical signs of mastitis were involved in this study. Until weaning at average age of 60±5 days lambs suckled their mothers exclusively. During milking period regular milking controls (on a monthly basis were carried out (AT method and, on these occasions, individual milk samples for chemical composition analysis were taken. Three times per lactation (1st, 3rd and 5th milking control, prior to the milking, evaluation and measuring of udder morphology traits were performed. Also, during above-mentioned test-day controls (three times per lactation one sample of half udder milk was taken with purpose of bacterial and somatic cell counts (SCC tests. Ewes with twin and triplet lambs had significantly (P0.05 and depth (P>0.05. Besides that, udders of ewes with twins and triplets had higher cistern, greater teat angle and larger teat dimensions than ewes with singles, although those differences were not statistically significant. Ewes with single lamb had teats more (P<0.05 cranially oriented than ewes with twins and triplets. Significant (P<0.05 differences in somatic cell count (log10SCC between ewes of different litter sizes were determined, regardless of the health status of mammary gland. The higher (P<0.05 prevalence of subclinical mastitis was observed in ewes with twin and triplet lambs than in ewes with singles. In 46% of mammary glands (udder halves of sheep with twins and triplets a subclinical mastitis was established and even 65.8% of them undergone an infection of one or both halves of the udder during the milking period.

  17. Relationship between fat globule size and chemical and fatty acid composition of cow's milk in mid lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosima Scolozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The milk in 57 Italian Fresian cows in mid lactation was analysed in order to define the relationship between some qualitative milk parameters and the size of milk fat globules. The study focused on the morphometric evaluation of milk fat globules, chemical parameteres and fatty acid composition of the milk. The results show that a prevalence of milk fat globules with a diameter 6 um was associated (P<0.01 with greater milk yield nad a higher percentage of lactose, non-fat dry matter and ash............

  18. Relationship between fat globule size and chemical and fatty acid composition of cow's milk in mid lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Martini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The milk in 57 Italian Fresian cows in mid lactation was analysed in order to define the relationship between some qualitative milk parameters and the size of milk fat globules. The study focused on the morphometric evaluation of milk fat globules, chemical parameteres and fatty acid composition of the milk. The results show that a prevalence of milk fat globules with a diameter 6 um was associated (P<0.01 with greater milk yield nad a higher percentage of lactose, non-fat dry matter and ash............

  19. Yield and quality of brine-ripened cheeses, production from the milk of jersey and Simmental cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.T. Chitchyan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has been conducted in Lusadzor community of Tavoush province in Armenia to determine the processability of milk samples collected from Jersey and Simmental cows for cheese manufacturing. The chemical composition as well as physical–chemical and technological parameters of the milk samples have been analyzed experimentally. In addition, the researchers estimated physical, chemical and organoleptic parameters as well as the yield of the cheese produced from the bulk milk collected from Jersey and Simmental cows. The results of the research proved that the milk samples collected from Jersey and Simmental cows possess the necessary physical–chemical and technological properties and can be used as high-quality raw material for manufacturing brine-ripened (pickled cheese. The highest content of dry matter, observed in the milk collected from Jersey cows, stemmed from the high contents of fat, protein and minerals. The content of lactose (milk sugar and physical characteristics (density, freezing temperature did not vary significantly across the samples. The rennet clots formed in the milk collected from Jersey cows were characterized by higher structural–mechanical parameters and syneresis. Jersey milk possesses the qualitative characteristics that best contribute to high cheese yield, which allows for the most efficient cheese production. Cheese manufactured from Jersey milk is distinguished by less water content, higher fat and protein contents and higher organoleptic indicators, which all together improve the quality of cheese turning it into a highly competitive product.

  20. Breast milk macronutrient composition after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Goele; Matthys, Christophe; Lannoo, Matthias; Van der Schueren, Bart; Devlieger, Roland

    2015-05-01

    Breast milk samples from 12 lactating women with bariatric surgery were investigated by comparing the macronutrient and energy content with samples from 36 non-surgical controls. Samples were analyzed with the Human Milk Analyzer and the maternal diet 24 h prior to sampling with a food record. A higher fat, energy, and a slightly higher carbohydrate milk content was found in the surgical group compared to the non-surgical group (3.0 ± 0.7 versus 2.2 ± 0.9 g/100 ml, P = 0.008; 61.0 ± 7.2 versus 51.7 ± 9 kcal/100 ml, P = 0.002; and 6.6 ± 0.6 versus 6.3 ± 0.4 g/100 ml, P = 0.045, respectively). No correlations and no strong explanatory variance were found between milk macronutrient composition and corresponding maternal dietary intake. The nutritional value of breast milk after bariatric surgery appears to be at least as high as in non-surgical controls.

  1. Milk composition and blood metabolic profile from holstein cows at different calving orders and lactation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Borges de Castro Dias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate milk composition and metabolic profile of Holstein cows at different calving orders in the beginning, middle, and end of lactation. One hundred ten Holstein cows were housed in a free stall system receiving the same diet and were grouped according to calving order (first, second, third, and fourth calving and days in milk (DIM: early (1-90 DIM, middle (91-180 DIM, and end of lactation (over 181 DIM for comparing milk yield, milk composition, and blood metabolic profile between the calving orders within the same lactation period. These parameters were also evaluated between lactation periods of the cows in different calving orders. The calving order, in any lactation stage, had no influence on milk yield per day and blood biochemical profile of Holstein cows receiving the same diet. However, calving order in all stages of lactation influenced milk composition. The first, second, third, and fourth calving order had no effect on the blood biochemical profile of Holstein cows, in any lactation stage. On the other hand, the different stages of lactation influenced milk yield and milk composition of Holstein cows.

  2. Genetic comparison of milk production and composition in three maternal rabbit lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Gamal Fawzy EL Nagar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare 3 Spanish maternal rabbit lines (A, V and LP in terms of milk production and composition. These lines were founded on different criteria but selected for litter size at weaning. A total of 194 mature does in their third or higher parity were used. The milk yield of does was recorded at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16 and 17 d post-partum (dpp. The milk production traits studied were weekly milk yield (WMY; g/wk and milk conversion ratio (MCR; grams of litter gain per grams of milk suckled during the first 21  dpp. The milk composition traits studied were fat (%, protein  (%, ash (%, lactose (% and total solids (%. The milk samples to be analysed were collected from each doe at 18 dpp. Data were analysed using single trait mixed and fixed models with and without covariates; the covariates were number born alive (NBA and doe weight at kindling (DW. The overall mean of WMY, during the first 3 wk, was 1547±16 g/wk. Milk yields during the different lactation weeks were for line A 872±39, 1503±39 and 1865±39 g for first, second and third lactation weeks, respectively. In line V, the corresponding values were 919±35, 1633±35 and 2004±35  g, and in line LP, they were 1043±36, 1819±36 and 2254±36  g. Means of MCR were 0.41±0.01, 0.41±0.01 and 0.42±0.01 for A, V and LP lines, respectively. Overall means of fat, protein, ash, lactose and total solids (% were 14.62±0.17, 11.10±0.07, 1.89±0.04, 2.67±0.12 and 30.27±0.24, respectively. The differences between lines for milk production traits were significant except for MCR, while the differences between lines for milk composition traits were not significant. NBA had significant effects on all milk yield traits but had no significant effects on milk composition traits. DW only had a significant effect on weekly milk yield. The parity order had no significant effect either for milk production traits or milk composition traits in multiparous does, except

  3. Composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition of milk is of most importance to the dairy industry and human health. This study was conducted to provide data on the composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in Maroua (Cameroon). Milk and yoghurt samples were collected from 11 breeding sites and 12 producers in the city of Maroua, ...

  4. INFLUENCE OF BETAINE ON GOAT MILK YIELD AND BLOOD METABOLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier Fernandez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Betaine is a natural occurring compound with methyl donor properties which is increasingly being used in animal feeding. Betaine, an oxidative product of choline is able to replace methionine in some physiologically important body processes. The subject of this work was to study the effect of betaine added to the diet on milk production and blood metabolites on Murciano-Granadina dairy goats.  Sixty lactating goats were selected from a commercial Murciano-Granadina goat herd (EXCAMUR S.L. located in Murcia Region (Spain. Goats were selected from a 250 goats herd, taken  into account the age, stage of lactation (2.5 as average, live weight (36 kg as average and type of birth (2 kids. Two homogenous groups of 30 goats were made and fed with 1.5 kg of compound feed and 1 kg of alfalfa hay per day and goat. Goats were fed twice a day and water was provided ad libitum. Both groups received the same diet but for the second group the diet was supplemented with 4 g∙kg-1 betaine (betaine anhydrous, Danisco Animal Nutrition. The feeds, presented in pellets, were formulated in based on recommendations of INRA (2007. The experimental period was 6 months and the experimental diets were provided 15 days before parturition. The herd was machine milked once at day. Chemical composition, milk production and blood metabolites of each goat were recorded and analyzed at the end of the trial. Variance analysis and means comparison were carried out using the general lineal model procedure and Tukey test for mean comparison. Goats fed with betaine diet had higher milk fat than goats fed control diet (4.8 vs. 5.2 % for control and betaine respectively; P

  5. Produção leiteira, composição do leite e perfil bioquímico sanguíneo de vacas lactantes sob suplementação com sal aniônico Milk yield, milk composition and biochemical blood profile of lactating cows supplemented with anionic salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Treptow Marques

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de sal aniônico na dieta sobre as características físicas e a composição química do leite, o perfil bioquímico sanguíneo, a produção de leite, o peso e a condição corporal de vacas em lactação. Foram utilizadas 20 vacas da raça Jersey distribuídas em duas dietas, uma sem adição de sal aniônico e outra com adição de 0,25 kg/dia de cloreto de amônio. O delineamento empregado foi o completamente casualizado. As vacas sob suplementação com sal aniônico apresentaram menor pH urinário e aumento das concentrações sanguíneas de ureia, cálcio e magnésio. Com a dieta aniônica, o leite precipitou com menores concentrações de etanol, apresentou menor densidade, porcentagens de lactose, proteína e imunoglobulina, porém maior teor de cálcio iônico. O fornecimento de dieta aniônica durante a lactação resultou em acidose metabólica, o que alterou o perfil bioquímico sanguíneo e as características físico-químicas do leite.The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of anionic salt in the diet on the physical characteristics and chemical composition of milk, biochemical blood profile, milk yield, body weight and condition. It was used 20 Jersey cows, distributed into two diets, a diet with no addition of anionic salt and one diet with addition of 0.25 kg/day of ammonium chloride. It was used a completely randomized design. Cows supplemented with anionic salt presented lower urinary pH and increase of blood contents of urea, calcium and magnesium. With the anionic diet, milk precipitated with lower ethanol concentration and it presented lower density, percentages of lactose, protein and immunoglobulin, but higher ionic calcium content. Supply of anionic diet during lactation resulted in metabolic acidosis, which altered the blood biochemical profile and milk physical-chemical characteristics.

  6. Dairy cows fed on tropical legume forages: effects on milk yield, nutrients use efficiency and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Montoya, J M; García, R A; Ramos, R A; Flores, J M; Alas, E A; Corea, E E

    2018-04-01

    Two trials with multiparous dairy cows were conducted. Experiment 1 tested the effects of increasing forage proportion in the diet (500, 600, and 700 g/kg DM) when a mixed sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and jackbean (Cannavalia ensiformis) silage was used as forage. Experiment 2 studied the substitution of sorghum silage and soybean meal by jackbean silage or fresh cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) forage in the diet. All diets were iso-energetic and iso-proteic. In each experiment, 30 cows were used and separated into three groups. In experiment 1, there were no differences in dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield (MY), or apparent total tract digestibility (aTTd) among the three diets, but milk fat content increased with increasing forage proportion, even though the similar neutral detergent fiber of all diets. Nitrogen use efficiency was highest in the diet containing 600 g forage/kg DM, and some evidence was observed for a better profitability with this forage proportion. In experiment 2, feeding legumes increased DMI despite no effects on aTTd. Milk yield increased in line with DMI, with a larger increase for the fresh cowpea. Nitrogen use efficiency and milk composition were not affected by the diets. The increased MY and lower feed costs increased the economic benefits when feeding legumes, particularly when feeding fresh cowpea. Feeding fresh cowpea or jackbean silage to dairy cows appears to be an alternative to soybean as protein source, ideally at a forage proportions of 600 g/kg DM, without altering milk yield and quality and increasing the farm profitability.

  7. Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tempel Stumpf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test, and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day, sodium bicarbonate (40 g per cow per day or no additives. Assessments were made at the 28th and 44th days. Supply of sodium citrate or bicarbonate has no influence on the metabolic attributes, productivity, body weight, and body condition score of the cows, neither on the composition and stability of milk.

  8. Changes in milk yield, lactate dehydrogenase, milking frequency, and interquarter yield ratio persist for up to 8 weeks after antibiotic treatment of mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Løvendahl, Peter; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner

    2015-01-01

    Within the dairy industry, the appearance of milk and withdrawal time due to antibiotic residuals in the milk are used to determine recovery status after cases of treated mastitis. However, both milk production and dairy cow behavior have been shown to be affected after the normalization of milk...... from 795 dairy cows kept on 2 Danish farms and milked by an automatic milking system. A total of 174 treated mastitis cases were compared with nontreated control cows from 5 wk before treatment and until 8 wk after. Treated mastitis resulted in reduced milk yield, elevated lactate dehydrogenase...... to premastitis levels, whereas in others they remained affected throughout the rest of the observation period. To correctly estimate the effects of treated mastitis and the recovery status of cows, it is important to take the individual cow into account and not only compare with herd levels, as this might mask...

  9. Long-acting insulins alter milk composition and metabolism of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, L A; Overton, T R

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of 2 different types of long-acting insulin on milk production, milk composition, and metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Multiparous cows (n=30) averaging 88 d in milk were assigned to one of 3 treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of control (C), Humulin-N (H; Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN), and insulin glargine (L). The H and L treatments were administered twice daily at 12-h intervals via subcutaneous injection for 10d. Cows were milked twice daily, and milk composition was determined every other day. Mammary biopsies were conducted on d 11, and mammary proteins extracted from the biopsies were analyzed by Western blot for components of insulin and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake or milk yield. Treatment with both forms of long-acting insulin increased milk protein content and tended to increase milk protein yield over the 10-d treatment period. Analysis of milk N fractions from samples collected on d 10 of treatment suggested that cows administered L tended to have higher yields of milk protein fractions than cows administered H. Milk fat content and yield tended to be increased for cows administered long-acting insulins. Lactose content and yields were decreased by treatment with long-acting insulins. Administration of long-acting insulins, particularly L, tended to shift milk fatty acid composition toward increased short- and medium-chain fatty acids and decreased long-chain fatty acids. Plasma concentrations of glucose and urea N were lower for cows administered long-acting insulins; interactions of treatment and sampling time were indicative of more pronounced effects of L than H on these metabolites. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and insulin were increased in cows administered long-acting insulins. Decreased concentrations of urea N in both plasma and milk suggested more efficient use of N in cows

  10. The overall and fat composition of milk of various species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Milk, an essential source of offspring nourishment, varies in it’s composition and properties significantly across species. In human nutrition, fresh milk and dairy products are valuable sources of protein, fat and energy, and are an important part of daily meals. Most of the world’s milk production (85 % comes from cows followed by buffaloes, goats, ewes, mares and donkeys. However milk related food allergies in infants may be a reason for health problems and may cause a decrease in milk. The objective of this paper was to give an overview of the overall composition of milk and fat from different species in comparison to women milk. Regarding the overall milk composition remarkable differences in energy content, fat, lactose, protein and ash of the various milks were found, but also some similarities among milk from ruminants and non-ruminants were detected. The structures of fat globule membranes were similar among non-ruminants and women milk, while the milk fat globule structure in ruminants differed significantly. The size of fat globules was significantly different between species and highly correlated to the milk fat content, regardless of the specie. The amount of triacylglycerols was notably higher, while the amount of free fatty acids and phospholipids was notably lower in milk from ruminants and women compared to milk from mares and donkeys. The triacylglycerol structure in women and non-ruminantsˈ was similar. The percentage of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids was lower, while the unsaturated fatty acid content was higher in milk from non-ruminants, with a remarkably higher percentage of C-18:2 and C-18:3. The cholesterol content was similar in women and ruminantsˈ milk, but lower in that of non-ruminants. This review indicates that milk from non-ruminants could be more suitable for human nourishment than milk from ruminants.

  11. Composition of colostrum and milk of South African indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of colostrum, early and late lactation milk from thirteen South African indigenous Nguni goats (SAING) were analysed for contents of total solids (TS), solids-not-fat (SNF), fat, protein, lactose, ash and energy. Relationships between colostrum or milk and some parameters such as litter size (LS), milk yield (MY) and ...

  12. Seasonal variation in the Dutch bovine raw milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, J M L; van Valenberg, H J F; Dijkstra, J; van Hooijdonk, A C M

    2009-10-01

    In this study, we determined the detailed composition of and seasonal variation in Dutch dairy milk. Raw milk samples representative of the complete Dutch milk supply were collected weekly from February 2005 until February 2006. Large seasonal variation exists in the concentrations of the main components and milk fatty acid composition. Milk lactose concentration was rather constant throughout the season. Milk true protein content was somewhat more responsive to season, with the lowest content in June (3.21 g/100 g) and the highest content in December (3.38 g/100 g). Milk fat concentration increased from a minimum of 4.10 g/100 g in June to a maximum of 4.57 g/100 g in January. The largest (up to 2-fold) seasonal changes in the fatty acid composition were found for trans fatty acids, including conjugated linoleic acid. Milk protein composition was rather constant throughout the season. Milk unsaturation indices, which were used as an indication of desaturase activity, were lowest in spring and highest in autumn. Compared with a previous investigation of Dutch dairy milk in 1992, the fatty acid composition of Dutch raw milk has changed considerably, in particular with a higher content of saturated fatty acids in 2005 milk.

  13. Evaluation of milk yield losses associated with Salmonella antibodies in bulk tank milk in bovine dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T D; Green, L E; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Salmonella on milk production is not well established in cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate whether introduction of Salmonella into dairy cattle herds was associated with reduced milk yield and determine the duration of any such effect. Longitudinal data from 2005...... through 2009 were used, with data from 12 mo before until 18 mo after the estimated date of infection. Twenty-eight case herds were selected based on an increase in the level of Salmonella-specific antibodies in bulk-tank milk from ... was randomly allocated to the control herds. Hierarchical mixed effect models with the outcome test-day yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM)/cow were used to investigate daily milk yield before and after the estimated herd infection date for cows in parities 1, 2, and 3+. Control herds were used to evaluate...

  14. Effect of days in milk and milk yield on testing positive in milk antibody ELISA to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Milk samples are becoming more used as a diagnostic specimen for assessment of occurrence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This study assessed the effect of days in milk (DIM) and milk yield on testing positive in a commercial MAP specific milk antibody ELISA...... from the first couple of DIM should be excluded from MAP testing until further information on their significance is established. Milk yield also had a significant effect on odds of testing positive due to its diluting effect. Inclusion of milk yield in the interpretation of test results could improve...... among 222,774 Danish Holstein cows. Results showed that odds of testing positive on 1-2 DIM were 9-27 times higher than the rest of lactation, where the chance of testing positive varied less. The reason is most likely a high concentration of non-specific antibodies in colostrum. Consequently, samples...

  15. Seasonal variation in the Dutch bovine raw milk composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, J.M.L.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Dijkstra, J.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we determined the detailed composition of and seasonal variation in Dutch dairy milk. Raw milk samples representative of the complete Dutch milk supply were collected weekly from February 2005 until February 2006. Large seasonal variation exists in the concentrations of the main

  16. Composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PONKA ROGER

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... The composition of milk is of most importance to the dairy industry and human health. ... fraction was lower in yoghurt while Fe, Cu and Mn levels were lower in ... elements and water. ... blems result to the deterioration of fresh milk before ... milk was heated to boiling to destroy the pathogenic organisms at.

  17. Multivariate factor analysis of Girgentana goat milk composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Giaccone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of the several variables that contribute to defining milk quality is difficult due to the high degree of  correlation among them. In this case, one of the best methods of statistical processing is factor analysis, which belongs  to the multivariate groups; for our study this particular statistical approach was employed.  A total of 1485 individual goat milk samples from 117 Girgentana goats, were collected fortnightly from January to July,  and analysed for physical and chemical composition, and clotting properties. Milk pH and tritable acidity were within the  normal range for fresh goat milk. Morning milk yield resulted 704 ± 323 g with 3.93 ± 1.23% and 3.48±0.38% for fat  and protein percentages, respectively. The milk urea content was 43.70 ± 8.28 mg/dl. The clotting ability of Girgentana  milk was quite good, with a renneting time equal to 16.96 ± 3.08 minutes, a rate of curd formation of 2.01 ± 1.63 min-  utes and a curd firmness of 25.08 ± 7.67 millimetres.  Factor analysis was performed by applying axis orthogonal rotation (rotation type VARIMAX; the analysis grouped the  milk components into three latent or common factors. The first, which explained 51.2% of the total covariance, was  defined as “slow milks”, because it was linked to r and pH. The second latent factor, which explained 36.2% of the total  covariance, was defined as “milk yield”, because it is positively correlated to the morning milk yield and to the urea con-  tent, whilst negatively correlated to the fat percentage. The third latent factor, which explained 12.6% of the total covari-  ance, was defined as “curd firmness,” because it is linked to protein percentage, a30 and titatrable acidity. With the aim  of evaluating the influence of environmental effects (stage of kidding, parity and type of kidding, factor scores were anal-  ysed with the mixed linear model. Results showed significant effects of the season of

  18. Elemental composition of human and animal milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.

    1982-09-01

    A review is presented of the elemental composition of human and animal milk with special reference to trace elements determined through nuclear techniques, particularly neutron activation analysis (NAA). In the joint IAEA/WHO research project, 16 of the 24 elements under investigation have been analysed by NAA with the aid of advanced research nuclear reactors. Literature data are discussed and tabulated in 50 separate tables (one for each element) mainly for the period after 1950. Each table uses a standard format comprising 10 columns indicating (1) source of milk (e.g. human or animal), (2) status of the milk (colostrum, transitional or mature), (3) country of origin, (4) year of data publication, (5) mean concentration, (6) range of single values or standard deviation of the mean, (7) number of samples analysed, (8) analytical technique employed, (9) literature source of the data, and (10) relevant remarks, if any. The most abundant data refer to the minor elements Ca, Cl, K, Mg, N, Na, P and S and to the trace elements Cu, Fe and Zn. Fewer data are available for Cd, Hg, I, Mn, Pb and Se. For the remaining elements, including such biologically important trace elements as As, Co, Cr, F, Mo, Ni, Si and Sn, very few reliable data so far appear to exist

  19. Breed of cow and herd productivity affect milk nutrient recovery in curd, and cheese yield, efficiency and daily production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Gasparotto, V; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about cheese-making efficiency at the individual cow level, so our objective was to study the effects of herd productivity, individual herd within productivity class and breed of cow within herd by producing, then analyzing, 508 model cheeses from the milk of 508 cows of six different breeds reared in 41 multi-breed herds classified into two productivity classes (high v. low). For each cow we obtained six milk composition traits; four milk nutrient (fat, protein, solids and energy) recovery traits (REC) in curd; three actual % cheese yield traits (%CY); two theoretical %CYs (fresh cheese and cheese solids) calculated from milk composition; two overall cheese-making efficiencies (% ratio of actual to theoretical %CYs); daily milk yield (dMY); and three actual daily cheese yield traits (dCY). The aforementioned phenotypes were analyzed using a mixed model which included the fixed effects of herd productivity, parity, days in milk (DIM) and breed; the random effects were the water bath, vat, herd and residual. Cows reared in high-productivity herds yielded more milk with higher nutrient contents and more cheese per day, had greater theoretical %CY, and lower cheese-making efficiency than low-productivity herds, but there were no differences between them in terms of REC traits. Individual herd within productivity class was an intermediate source of total variation in REC, %CY and efficiency traits (10.0% to 17.2%), and a major source of variation in milk yield and dCY traits (43.1% to 46.3%). Parity of cows was an important source of variation for productivity traits, whereas DIM affected almost all traits. Breed within herd greatly affected all traits. Holsteins produced more milk, but Brown Swiss cows produced milk with higher actual and theoretical %CYs and cheese-making efficiency, so that the two large-framed breeds had the same dCY. Compared with the two large-framed breeds, the small Jersey cows produced much less milk, but with greater actual

  20. Devices used by automated milking systems are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting a representative milk sample compared with devices used by farms with conventional milk recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Claudia; Dela Rue, B.; Turner, S.A.; Petch, S.

    2015-01-01

    Information on accuracy of milk-sampling devices used on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) is essential for development of milk recording protocols. The hypotheses of this study were (1) devices used by AMS units are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting

  1. Post-weaning feed efficiency decreased in progeny of higher milk yielding beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; McFarlane, Z D; Cope, E R

    2018-02-01

    Current trends in the beef industry focus on selecting production traits with the purpose of maximizing calf weaning weight; however, such traits may ultimately decrease overall post-weaning productivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of actual milk yield in mature beef cows on their offspring's dry matter intake (DMI), BW, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI) during a ~75-day backgrounding feeding trial. A period of 24-h milk production was measured with a modified weigh-suckle-weigh technique using a milking machine. After milking, cows were retrospectively classified as one of three milk yield groups: Lower (6.57±1.21 kg), Moderate (9.02±0.60 kg) or Higher (11.97±1.46 kg). Calves from Moderate and Higher milk yielding dams had greater (Pfeeding phase; however, day 75 BW were not different (P=0.36) between Lower and Moderate calves. Body weight gain was greater (P=0.05) for Lower and Moderate calves from the day 0 BW to day 35 BW compared with Higher calves. Overall DMI was lower (P=0.03) in offspring from Lower and Moderate cows compared with their Higher milking counterparts. With the decreased DMI, FCR was lower (P=0.03) from day 0 to day 35 in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams. In addition, overall FCR was lower (P=0.02) in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams compared with calves from Higher milk yielding dams. However, calving of Lower milk yielding dams had an increased (P=0.04) efficiency from a negative RFI value compared with calves from Moderate and Higher milking dams. Results from this study suggest that increased milk production in beef cows decreases feed efficiency during a 75-day post-weaning, backgrounding period of progeny.

  2. Responses to Starch Infusion on Milk Synthesis in Low Yield Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of starch infusion on production, metabolic parameters and relative mRNA abundance was investigated in low yield lactating cows from 86 days in milk. Six Holstein cows fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were arranged into one of two complete 3×3 Latin squares and infused with a starch solution containing 800 grams starch for 16 days. The three treatments were: i ruminal and abomasal infusion with water (Control; ii ruminal infusion with cornstarch solution and abomasal infusion with water (Rumen; iii ruminal infusion with water and abomasal infusion with cornstarch solution (Abomasum. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 among the three treatments with low yield lactating cows in feed and energy intake, milk yield and composition, plasma metabolism, or even on gene expression. However, cows receiving starch through rumen performed better than directly through the abomasum during the glucose tolerance test procedure with a higher area under the curve (AUC; p = 0.08 and shorter half-time (t1/2; p = 0.11 of plasma insulin, therefore, it increased glucose disposal, which stated a lipid anabolism other than mobilization after energy supplementation. In conclusion, extra starch infusion at concentration of 800 g/d did not enhance energy supplies to the mammary gland and improve the lactating performance in low yield lactating cows.

  3. Milk yield affects time budget in daiyr cows kept in tie-stalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norring, M.; Valros, A.; Munksgaard, Lene

    2012-01-01

    Effective selection in breeding programs and improved management has increased the milk production per cow. However, the effects of the increased yield on behavior have not yet been clarified. We investigated the effect of milk yield on the time budget of 29 Finnish Ayrshire cows in the same stage...

  4. Animal factors affecting fatty acid composition of cow milk fat: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , cow individuality, parity and stage of lactation) on fatty acid (FA) composition of milk fat. Genetic parameters affecting the composition of the FAs in milk are reviewed and the possibilities for altering milk fat composition are discussed.

  5. Genes involved in bovine milk-fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schennink, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes that underlie the genetic variation in bovine milk-fat composition. The fat composition of milk samples from approximately 2,000 Dutch Holstein Friesian cows in their first lactation was measured by gas chromatography.

  6. Milk composition of Yankasa sheep raised under small-holder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) in milk compositional parameters with respect to total solid, lactose, crude protein (CP) and fat contents pH and ash contents were influenced by BCS of the ewes studied. Age of ewes significantly (P<0.05) affected all the milk composition parameters ...

  7. The overall and fat composition of milk of various species

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Gantner; Pero Mijić; Mirjana Baban; Zoran Škrtić; Alka Turalija

    2015-01-01

    Milk, an essential source of offspring nourishment, varies in it’s composition and properties significantly across species. In human nutrition, fresh milk and dairy products are valuable sources of protein, fat and energy, and are an important part of daily meals. Most of the world’s milk production (85 %) comes from cows followed by buffaloes, goats, ewes, mares and donkeys. However milk related food allergies in infants may be a reason for health problems and may cause a decrease in milk. T...

  8. Statistical Evaluations of Variations in Dairy Cows’ Milk Yields as a Precursor of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Masashi; Asano, Tomokazu; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary There are many reports of abnormal changes occurring in various natural systems prior to earthquakes. Unusual animal behavior is one of these abnormalities; however, there are few objective indicators and to date, reliability has remained uncertain. We found that milk yields of dairy cows decreased prior to an earthquake in our previous case study. In this study, we examined the reliability of decreases in milk yields as a precursor for earthquakes using long-term observation data. In the results, milk yields decreased approximately three weeks before earthquakes. We have come to the conclusion that dairy cow milk yields have applicability as an objectively observable unusual animal behavior prior to earthquakes, and dairy cows respond to some physical or chemical precursors of earthquakes. Abstract Previous studies have provided quantitative data regarding unusual animal behavior prior to earthquakes; however, few studies include long-term, observational data. Our previous study revealed that the milk yields of dairy cows decreased prior to an extremely large earthquake. To clarify whether the milk yields decrease prior to earthquakes, we examined the relationship between earthquakes of various magnitudes and daily milk yields. The observation period was one year. In the results, cross-correlation analyses revealed a significant negative correlation between earthquake occurrence and milk yields approximately three weeks beforehand. Approximately a week and a half beforehand, a positive correlation was revealed, and the correlation gradually receded to zero as the day of the earthquake approached. Future studies that use data from a longer observation period are needed because this study only considered ten earthquakes and therefore does not have strong statistical power. Additionally, we compared the milk yields with the subionospheric very low frequency/low frequency (VLF/LF) propagation data indicating ionospheric perturbations. The results showed

  9. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception rate was found for supplemented heifers, but not for cows. Fat sources containing PUFAs are recommended for dairy cattle supplementation, since they improve fertility in heifers and milk yield in cows.

  10. Lactation yield: Interval level comparison of milk records for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk recording intervals was studied by analysing 1220 lactation records of Friesian x Arsi crossbred cows kept in south eastern highlands of Ethiopia. Milk Recording Intervals (MRI) comparison was made at 15, 30 and 45 day's length. Accuracy was measured in terms of percentage difference between actual and estimated ...

  11. Natural variation in casein composition of milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, E.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine milk contains 3-4 % protein and almost 80% of the milk protein fraction consist of four caseins; αs1-casein, β-casein, αs2-casein and κ-casein. Most of the caseins in milk are assembled in casein micelles, which consist of several thousands of individual casein

  12. Effects of extruded linseed dietary supplementation on milk yield, milk quality and lipid metabolism of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Brogna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Italian Friesian dairy cows were used in an experimental trial to study the effects of extruded linseed dietary supplementation on milk production, milk quality and fatty acid (FA percentages of milk fat and total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids. Control cows were fed a corn silage based total mixed ration (TMR while treated animals also received 700g/head/d of extruded linseed supplementation. Feed intake was similar between groups. Milk yields was tendentially greater for cows fed extruded linseed. Milk urea content (P<0.05 were reduced by treatment. Results showed a significant increase n-3 FA concentration (particularly alpha linolenic acid and a significant reduction of n-6/n-3 FA ratio in milk fat, total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids (P<0.001; moreover a reduction trend (P<0.1 of arachidonic acid concentrations was observed in milk fat, total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids. At last, treatment enhanced milk fat conjugated linoleic acid (CLA percentage (P<0.05.

  13. Milk nutritional composition and its role in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paula C

    2014-06-01

    Dairy and milk consumption are frequently included as important elements in a healthy and balanced diet. It is the first food for mammals and provides all the necessary energy and nutrients to ensure proper growth and development, being crucial in respect to bone mass formation. However, several controversies arise from consumption of dairy and milk products during adulthood, especially because it refers to milk from other species. Despite these controversies, epidemiologic studies confirm the nutritional importance of milk in the human diet and reinforce the possible role of its consumption in preventing several chronic conditions like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), some forms of cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Lactose malabsorption symptoms and cow milk protein allergy are generally considered to be the adverse reactions to milk consumption. The present article reviews the main aspects of milk nutritional composition and establishes several associations between its nutritious role, health promotion, and disease prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of milk yield losses associated with Salmonella antibodies in bulk tank milk in bovine dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T D; Green, L E; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2012-09-01

    The effect of Salmonella on milk production is not well established in cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate whether introduction of Salmonella into dairy cattle herds was associated with reduced milk yield and determine the duration of any such effect. Longitudinal data from 2005 through 2009 were used, with data from 12 mo before until 18 mo after the estimated date of infection. Twenty-eight case herds were selected based on an increase in the level of Salmonella-specific antibodies in bulk-tank milk from levels consistently energy-corrected milk (ECM)/cow were used to investigate daily milk yield before and after the estimated herd infection date for cows in parities 1, 2, and 3+. Control herds were used to evaluate whether the effects in the case herds could be reproduced in herds without Salmonella infection. Herd size, days in milk, somatic cell count, season, and year were included in the models. Yield in first-parity cows was reduced by a mean of 1.4 kg (95% confidence interval: 0.5 to 2.3) of ECM/cow per day from 7 to 15 mo after the estimated herd infection date, compared with that of first-parity cows in the same herds in the 12 mo before the estimated herd infection date. Yield for parity 3+ cows was reduced by a mean of 3.0 kg (95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 4.8) of ECM/cow per day from 7 to 15 mo after herd infection compared with that of parity 3+ cows in the 12 mo before the estimated herd infection. We observed minor differences in yield in second-parity cows before and after herd infection and observed no difference between cows in control herds before and after the simulated infection date. Milk yield decreased significantly in affected herds and the reduction was detectable several months after the increase in bulk tank milk Salmonella antibodies. It took more than 1 yr for milk yield to return to preinfection levels. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Production, composition and properties of mare’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Brezovečki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In most countries of the world, mare’s milk has always been appreciated due to the proposed therapeutic effects. Thus, it has been increasingly used in nutrition, cosmetics and pharmacy and as a substitute for human milk in newborn diets. According to some estimation, about 30 million people worldwide consume mare’s milk. Recently, mare’s milk has become an interesting product in Croatia because of its specific composition and properties. The optimal ratio of casein to whey proteins and the high digestibility make mare’s milk acceptable for the infant diet, why numerous researchers and discussions focus on it. The aim of this study was to establish chemical composition and the most important properties of mare’s milk, as well as possibilities of its utilization. Because of the high percentage of whey proteins, mare’s milk is a rich source of essential aminoacids and is also convenient for human consumption. In comparison to cow and human milk, mare’s milk lipids contain less triacylglycerols (c. 80 % mare vs c. 98 % cow and human, but it has a higher percentage of phospholipids (c. 5 % and free fatty acids (c. 9 %. Besides, mare’s milk is characterized by a higher concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids, lactose, vitamins A, B and C, and by a lower content of cholesterol.

  16. Effect on feed intake, milk production and milk composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In each experiment, 10 randomly selected Holstein cows were fed the five diets according to a double 5 x 5 Latin square experimental design. ... In the trial using a 50 : 50 mixture of LH and OH as roughage source, the fat content of milk ...

  17. Yield and quality of milk and udder health in Martina Franca ass: effects of daily interval and time of machine milking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Martemucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty asses of Martina Franca breed, machine milked twice a day, were used to assess the influence of milking interval (3-h, 5-h, and 8-h; N=5 and time (700, 1200 and 1900 on milk yield and udder health. Individual milk samples were taken to determine fat, protein and lactose con- tent. Sensory analysis profile was also assessed. Milk’s total bacterial count (TBC, somatic cell con- tent (SCC and udder’s skin temperature were considered to assess udder health. Milk yield increases by 28.4% (P<0.01 with a milking interval from 3-h to 8-h and is higher (P<0.01 at morning milking. The maximum milk yield per milking corresponds to 700 milking (1416.9 mL thus indicating a circa- dian rhythm in milk secretion processes. Milking intervals of 5 and 8 hours cause a decrease (P<0.01 in milk fat and lactose content. The 8-h interval leads to an increase (P<0.01 in SCC but without any significance for the health udder. No alterations about CBT, clinical evaluation and temperature of ud- der were observed. Milk organoleptic characteristics were better in the 3-h interval milking.

  18. Efeito de diferentes fontes de gordura na dieta de vacas Jersey sobre o consumo, a produção e a composição do leite Effects of different dietary fat sources on intake and milk yield and composition of Jersey cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marta D'Almeida Duarte

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar o efeito de diferentes fontes de gordura na dieta de vacas Jersey sobre os consumos de matéria seca (CMS, fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN e extrato etéreo (CEE, sobre a composição e a produção de leite (PL, foram utilizadas oito vacas Jersey, distribuídas em dois quadrados Latinos (4 x 4. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: C = concentrado sem gordura; SB = concentrado com sebo bovino; GP = concentrado com gordura protegida comercial (sais de cálcio + óleo de palma; e GS = concentrado com grão de soja. Não houve diferença para os CMS e CFDN. O CEE foi mais elevado nos tratamentos que incluíram gordura nas dietas. Os tratamentos GP e SB proporcionaram produção leiteira (PL e produção leiteira corrigida a 4% de gordura (PLCG4% semelhantes entre si (25,6 e 23,6 kg/vaca/dia e GP foi superior aos tratamentos C e GS, que resultaram em PLCG4% de 23,4 e 22,9 kg/vaca/dia, respectivamente. A eficiência da produção de leite (PLCG4%:CMS diferiu entre tratamentos. O tratamento GP apresentou a melhor eficiência de produção (1,50, apesar de semelhante ao tratamento C (1,38. Os teores de gordura (G, proteína total (P, caseína (C, sólidos totais (ST, sólidos totais desengordurados (STD, densidade (D e índice crioscópico (IC não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Os resultados indicam a viabilidade do uso de gordura nas dietas para vacas leiteiras de alta produção, observando-se aumento na produção e melhoria da eficiência de produção, sem alterações no consumo de alimentos e na composição do leite produzido.Eight high-yielding Jersey cows were randomly assigned to two 4x4 Latin squares to study the effects of different dietary fat sources on intakes of dry matter (DMI, neutral detergent fiber (NDFI, and ether extract (EEI as well as on milk yield and composition. The following treatments were used: concentrate with no added fat (control = C; concentrate plus tallow (T; concentrate plus commercial

  19. The effect of thermal environment on daily milk yield of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metodija Trajchev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of environmental air temperatures on the milk production of dairy cows. Therefore, the experiment was carried out at the height of summer (from 15th of June to 15th of September in three small family dairy farms and one commercial dairy farm. In total, 51 dairy cows from the black-white breed were subjected to the study. The season of research was divided into three periods: the period before the hot season, the period of the hot season and the period after the hot season. In each period there were three test days selected that were used for recording the air temperature inside and outside the barns and cow’s daily milk yield. Unvaried associations between the test day milk yield of cows and independent environmental and cow factors were done using the linear mixed model for repeated measurements. The statistical model showed that the farm management system and the hot season of the year had significant infl uence on daily milk yield per cow at the level of p<0.001. The test day per periods of the season when milk control was performed and the average test day environmental temperature showed statistically significant influence on daily milk yield per cow at level p<0.01. The present results revealed that environmental air temperatures contributes to considerable loss in the milk production of dairy cows.

  20. Neural prediction of cows' milk yield according to environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Piotr

    thermal conditions. We found out that artificial neural networks were an effective tool supporting the ... The purpose of the paper was to investigate the possibility of using artificial ... The numerical data, that is, the number of milking cows and the quantity of ... parameters and the neural network training methods. The tool was.

  1. Prenatal maternal effects on body condition score, female fertility, and milk yield of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, G; Brotherstone, S; Coffey, M P

    2007-07-01

    In this study, maternal effects were described as age of dam at first and second calving, first-lactation body condition score (BCS) of the dam during gestation, and milk yield of the dam. The impact of these effects on first-lactation daughter BCS, fertility, and test-day milk yield was assessed. The effect of milk yield of dam on daughter 305-d yield in the latter's first 3 lactations was also investigated. The proportion of total phenotypic variance in daughter traits accounted for by maternal effects was calculated. Dams calving early for the first time (18 to 23 mo of age) had daughters that produced 4.5% more first-lactation daily milk, had 7% higher BCS, and had their first service 3 d earlier than cows whose dams calved late (30 to 36 mo). However, daughters of dams that calved early had difficulties conceiving as they needed 7% more inseminations and had a 7.5% higher return rate. Cows from second calvings of relatively young (36 to 41 mo) dams produced 6% more first-lactation daily milk, had 2% higher BCS, and showed a significantly better fertility profile than cows whose dams calved at a late age (47 to 55 mo). High maternal BCS during gestation had a favorable effect on daughter BCS, nonreturn rate, and number of inseminations per conception. However, it was also associated with a small decrease in daughter daily milk yield. Changes in dam BCS during gestation did not affect daughter performance significantly. Maternal effects of milk yield of the dam, expressed as her permanent environment during lactation, adversely affected daughter 305-d milk, fat, and protein yield. However, although the effect was significant, it was practically negligible (<0.3% of the mean). Finally, overall maternal effects accounted for a significant proportion of the total phenotypic variance of calving interval (1.4 +/- 0.6%) and nonreturn rate (1.1 +/- 0.5%).

  2. Efeito de níveis crescentes de uréia na dieta de vacas em lactação sobre a produção e a composição físico-química do leite Effect of increasing dietary urea levels on milk yield and composition of lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Augusto Aquino

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de níveis crescentes de uréia na dieta de vacas em lactação sobre a produção e composição físico-química do leite. Foram utilizadas nove vacas holandesas em lactação, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 3 x 3, com três tratamentos e três períodos de coleta. O experimento teve duração de 63 dias, divididos em três períodos de 21 dias. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta controle, formulada para suprir 100% das exigências de PB, proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR e proteína não-degradável no rúmen (PNDR, composta de farelo de soja como principal fonte protéica e cana-de-açúcar como volumoso, e de duas outras dietas, semelhantes à dieta controle, mas com 0,75 ou 1,5% de uréia em substituição ao farelo de soja. As dietas foram isoenergéticas (1,53 Mcal/kg de energia líquida de lactação e isoprotéicas (16% de PB. Quando os resultados foram analisados por regressão polinomial simples, não houve efeitos das dietas sobre o consumo de MS, as produções de leite e de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura, os teores de proteína e gordura e a contagem de células somáticas do leite. Os níveis de substituição do farelo de soja por uréia não influenciaram o pH, a crioscopia ou a densidade do leite. No entanto, verificou-se efeito linear decrescente dos níveis de uréia na dieta sobre a acidez do leite. Os teores de proteína, gordura, lactose, uréia, extrato seco total e extrato seco desengordurado não foram afetados pelas dietas. Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que o uso de até 1,5% de uréia na MS da dieta de vacas em lactação não altera a produção, a composição e as características físico-químicas do leite.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of three different dietary levels of urea on milk yield and composition. Nine lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to three replicated 3 x 3 Latin squares with three periods of 21 days each

  3. Evolutionary modifications of human milk composition: evidence from long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of anthropoid milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Lauren A; Bazinet, Richard P

    2008-12-01

    Brain growth in mammals is associated with increased accretion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in brain phospholipids. The period of maximum accumulation is during the brain growth spurt. Humans have a perinatal brain growth spurt, selectively accumulating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other LCPUFA from the third trimester through the second year of life. The emphasis on rapid postnatal brain growth and LCPUFA transfer during lactation has led to the suggestion that human milk LCPUFA composition may be unique. Our study tests this hypothesis by determining fatty acid composition for 11 species of captive anthropoids (n=53; Callithrix jacchus, Cebus apella, Gorilla gorilla, Hylobates lar, Leontopithecus rosalia, Macaca mulatta, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Pongo pygmaeus, Saimiri boliviensis, and Symphalangus syndactylus). Results are compared to previously published data on five species of wild anthropoids (n=28; Alouatta paliatta, Callithrix jacchus, Gorilla beringei, Leontopithecus rosalia, and Macaca sinica) and human milk fatty acid profiles. Milk LCPUFA profiles of captive anthropoids (consuming diets with a preformed source of DHA) are similar to milk from women on a Western diet, and those of wild anthropoids are similar to milk from vegan women. Collectively, the range of DHA percent composition values from nonhuman anthropoid milks (0.03-1.1) is nearly identical to that from a cross-cultural analysis of human milk (0.06-1.4). Humans do not appear to be unique in their ability to secrete LCPUFA in milk but may be unique in their access to dietary LCPUFA.

  4. Effects of feeding lutein on production performance, antioxidative status, and milk quality of high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C Z; Wang, H F; Yang, J Y; Wang, J H; Duan, Z Y; Wang, C; Liu, J X; Lao, Y

    2014-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the influences of supplementing different levels of an additive containing lutein in the diet of Chinese Holstein lactating cows on production performance, antioxidative plasma metabolites, and milk quality. This study was performed on 60 multiparous Holstein dairy cows in peak lactation. The cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 homogeneous treatments, with lutein preparation (extracted from marigolds; effective lutein content was 2%) added at levels of 0, 100, 150, and 200 g/d per head, with the actual available amounts being 0, 2, 3, and 4 g of lutein/d per head, respectively. The experiment lasted for 13 wk, with the first week for adaptation. Milk yield and milk compositions were recorded weekly, and milk concentrations of lutein, dry matter intake, and antioxidative blood index were analyzed in the first, fourth, seventh, and thirteenth week of the study. The results showed that adding lutein in the diet had no effect on dry matter intake compared with the control group; however, it slowed down the trend of decline in milk yield, and had a linear incremental effect on milk yield with increasing concentration of lutein. Dietary lutein tended to quadratically increase the percentage of milk fat, and linearly increased milk lactose concentration, with the highest value when treated at 200 g of lutein preparation/d per head, and decreased somatic cell count, with the lowest values when treated with 150 and 200 g of lutein preparation/d per head. The concentration of lutein in milk linearly increased with the incorporation of the additive, with a value of 0.59, 0.70, 1.20, and 1.50 μg/100mL when treated with 0, 100, 150, and 200 g/d, respectively. Total plasma antioxidant capacity tended to linearly increase in cows fed lutein preparation, whereas plasma superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities did not differ significantly. In conclusion, addition of lutein in the diet could improve the production

  5. Characteristics of dairy farms in the North-Eastern part of Italy: rations, milk yield and nutrients excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey was aimed to evaluate the characteristics of dairy farms in the North- Eastern part of Po valley in terms of ration composition, milk yield and N and P excretions. Eightynine farms, with Italian Holstein Friesian cows, were selected in order to cover different situations in term of farm size and milk yield (MY. MY and quality were obtained from the national database of functional controls. Each farm was visited in order to collect information about ingredients and chemical composition of rations used. Farms were classified in four groups differing for dietary crude protein density (LCP15.3% DM and for MY (LMY30 kg/d. N and P excretions were quantified by following a mass balance approach. Dietary crude protein content (CP was not correlated to milk yield (MY and quality. The estimated amounts of N excreted, discounted for 28% of N losses in atmosphere, were 78.5, 78.2, 87.2 and 89.1 kg/cow/year, and P excreted were 20.2, 18.6, 18.7 and 19.8 kg/cow/year for the LCPLMY, LCPHMY, HCPLMY, HCPHMY groups, respectively. On corn silage and cereals based rations, a dietary CP of 14.3% DM can support 31 kg MY/cow/day.

  6. Estimating milk yield and value losses from increased somatic cell count on US dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrich, J C; Wolf, C A; Lombard, J; Dolak, T M

    2018-04-01

    Milk loss due to increased somatic cell counts (SCC) results in economic losses for dairy producers. This research uses 10 mo of consecutive dairy herd improvement data from 2013 and 2014 to estimate milk yield loss using SCC as a proxy for clinical and subclinical mastitis. A fixed effects regression was used to examine factors that affected milk yield while controlling for herd-level management. Breed, milking frequency, days in milk, seasonality, SCC, cumulative months with SCC greater than 100,000 cells/mL, lactation, and herd size were variables included in the regression analysis. The cumulative months with SCC above a threshold was included as a proxy for chronic mastitis. Milk yield loss increased as the number of test days with SCC ≥100,000 cells/mL increased. Results from the regression were used to estimate a monetary value of milk loss related to SCC as a function of cow and operation related explanatory variables for a representative dairy cow. The largest losses occurred from increased cumulative test days with a SCC ≥100,000 cells/mL, with daily losses of $1.20/cow per day in the first month to $2.06/cow per day in mo 10. Results demonstrate the importance of including the duration of months above a threshold SCC when estimating milk yield losses. Cows with chronic mastitis, measured by increased consecutive test days with SCC ≥100,000 cells/mL, resulted in higher milk losses than cows with a new infection. This provides farm managers with a method to evaluate the trade-off between treatment and culling decisions as it relates to mastitis control and early detection. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Milk yield differences between 1x and 4x milking are associated with changes in mammary mitochondrial number and milk protein gene expression, but not mammary cell apoptosis or "SOCS" gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milking frequency is known to affect milk production and lactation persistence in dairy cows. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying this effect are only partially understood. Previous work in dairy cows examining increases in milk yield due to increased milking frequency have identified changes in...

  8. Interrelationships of somatic cell count, mastitis, and milk yield in a low somatic cell count herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluyker, H A; Gay, J M; Weaver, L D

    1993-11-01

    In a high yielding low SCC herd, changes in milk yield associated with SCC and occurrence of clinical mastitis and differences in SCC with parity, clinical mastitis, and DIM were investigated. Milk yield data were obtained at every milking, and SCC was measured once every 48 h in 117 cows during the first 119 d postpartum. Effects of SCC and clinical mastitis on cumulative milk yield in the first 119 d postpartum were evaluated with least squares linear regression. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to detect changes in SCC. The SCC was highest at lactation onset, and cows with clinical mastitis had significantly higher SCC. During the 10 d prior to onset of clinical mastitis, SCC was higher in affected cows than in matched unaffected controls and surged just prior to diagnosis. During the 10-d period following a mastitis treatment, SCC differences between treated and control cows remained significant but became smaller with time and returned to the premastitis differences. Occurrence of clinical mastitis was associated with 5% milk yield loss. Cows with mean SCC > 245,000 cells/ml over the 119 d showed 6.2% yield loss compared with cows with SCC 245,000 cells/ml) because a greater percentage of cows (26%) had clinical mastitis than elevated SCC (12.5%).

  9. The study of correlation between milk yields and content of progesterone and oestradiol in the milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haiyan; Fu Yan

    2007-01-01

    The Contents of progesterone (P) and oestradiol (E 2 ) in the milk of 50 Chinese Holstein cows were measured within 23 days after delivery and 12 days during oestrus with radioactive immunity. The results showed that the cows with output the milk ≤2000 kg had the average content of P and E 2 of (0.70 ±0.30) ng/ml and (134 ± 240) pg/ml respectively; the cows with output of 2001-2500 kg had the average content of P and E 2 of (0.55 ± 0.17) ng/ml and (100 ± 111) pg/ml respectively in the milk; The cows with output of 2501 kg-3000 kg had the average content of P and E 2 of (0.45 ± 0.17) ng/ml and (44 ± 24) pg/ml respectively in the milk; The cows with output of 2001-2500 kg had the average content of P and E 2 of (0.50 ± 0.19) ng/ml and (94 ± 182) pg/ml respectively in the milk. The cows with output ≤2000 kg had the average content of P and E 2 of (1.74 ± 1.13) ng/ml and (40 ± 15) pg/ml respectively in the milk; The cows with output of 2001-2500 kg had the average content of P and E 2 of (1.85 ± 0.64) ng/ml and (47 ± 11) pg/ml respectively in the milk; The cows with output of 2501-3000 kg had the average content of P and E 2 of (1.98 ± 1.26) ng/ml and (42 ± 12) pg/ml respectively in the milk; The cows with output of 2001-2500 kg had the average content of P and E 2 of (2.41 ± 1.10) ng/ml and (49 ± 13) pg/ml respectively in the milk. The result indicated that the difference between the contents of P and E 2 in the milk of the cows after delivery with different output (the total output within a period of 90 days) was very significant (P 2 during oestrus in the milk of the cows with different output was insignificant (P>0.05). (authors)

  10. Impact of sow and litter characteristics on colostrum yield, time for onset of lactation, and milk yield of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadmand, Camilla Nielsen; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Hansen, Christian Fink

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the concurrent impact of sow and litter characteristics on sow productivity. Sow productivity was defined as colostrum yield (CY), onset of lactation (the time point when milk secretion increased steeply, approximately 31 h postpartum), transition milk...... litter equlization, none of the observed independent variables were related with time for onset of lactation. In conclusion, when maximizing sow productivity in the future, it may be rewarding to pay attention to sow productivity in the colostrum period and around time for onset of lactation, and special...

  11. Impact of NDF degradability of corn silage on the milk yield potential of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Spanghero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutral detergent fibre (NDF degradability of corn silage samples, measured in vitro (ivNDFd by a filter bag system, was used to examine (i the relationship between the ivNDFd and that calculated from acid detergent lignin (L content (NDFd and (ii the impact of ivNDFd variations on the predicted milk yield (MY of dairy cows fed corn silage based diets. A total of 173 samples of corn silage were collected during a period of three years (2001-03 in different dairy farms of the Po Valley (Northern Italy. Each sample was analysed for chemical composition and was also tested in triplicate for the ivNDFd using the DaisyII incubator (Ankom, Tech. Co., Fairport, NY, USA with incubation time of 48hs. Moreover, the NDFd of samples was calculated from the L contents, while the measured ivNDFd values were used to estimate the NEl, the potential dry matter intakes (DMI and to predict the MY of cows. Corn silage samples of the three years were similar for NDF and starch contents (44.2 and 30.7% DM, on average, respectively while samples from 2003, in comparison with 2001 and 2002, had lower crude protein (6.9 vs 8.3-8.4% DM, P<0.01 and L contents (3.3 vs 3.6-3.9% DM, P<0.01 and higher ivNDFd values (53.3 vs 45.6-47.8%, P<0.01. The relationship between ivNDFd and NDFd was weak (R2=0.09, not significant. The MY predicted from the NEl content and DMI of corn silage (5.5 MJ/kg DM and 8.9 kg/d minus the maintenance energy costs, was 11.5 kg/d on average (coefficient of variation 20%. Our simulations indicate that a variation of ivNDFd by +1.0% changes the NEl of corn silage to have an expected variation in milk yield of +0.15 kg/d. If the ivNDFd is also used to predict the corn silage DMI then a +1.0% variation in ivNDFd of corn silage produces an overall +0.23 kg/d MY variation. The present results indicate that ivNDFd is highly variable in corn silage populations and differences in this nutritional parameter have an appreciable impact on the predicted milk

  12. Analysis of factors affecting milk yield of Ankole cows grazed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of seasonal rainfall (RF) and maximum temperature (Tm) variations on milk yield of Ankole cows grazed solely on range pastures were investigated. The resulting changes in herbage growth (HG), herbage yields (HY), herbage crude protein CPh) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF), as well as body condition score ...

  13. A Model for Quantifying Sources of Variation in Test-day Milk Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cow's test-day milk yield is influenced by several systematic environmental effects, which have to be removed when estimating the genetic potential of an animal. The present study quantified the variation due to test date and month of test in test-day lactation yield records using full and reduced models. The data consisted ...

  14. Effect of calving interval and parity on milk yield per feeding day in Danish commercial dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; G. Fadel, J.; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    the milk production of cows managed for lactations of different lengths, and the primary aim was to investigate the relationship between CInt, parity, and milk yield. Five measurements of milk yield were used: energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield per feeding day, ECM yield per lactating day, cumulative ECM...... yield during the first 305 d of lactation, as well as ECM yield per day during early and late lactation. The analyses were based on a total of 1,379 completed lactations from cows calving between January 2007 and May 2013 in 4 Danish commercial dairy herds managed for extended lactation for several...... years. Herd-average CInt length ranged from 414 to 521 d. The herds had Holstein, Jersey, or crosses between Holstein, Jersey, and Red Danish cows with average milk yields ranging from 7,644 to 11,286 kg of ECM per cow per year. A significant effect of the CInt was noted on all 5 measurements of milk...

  15. Season of birth is associated with first-lactation milk yield in Holstein Friesian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eetvelde, M; Kamal, M M; Vandaele, L; Opsomer, G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present research was to assess factors associated with first-lactation milk yield in dairy heifers, including maternal and environmental factors, factors related to the development of the heifer and factors related to its offspring such as gender of the calf. In addition, the potential underlying mechanism, in particular metabolic adaptations, was further explored. Data on body growth, reproduction and milk yield of 74 Holstein Friesian heifers on three herds in Flanders (Belgium) were collected. At birth, body measurements of the heifers were recorded and blood samples were taken (in order) to determine basal glucose and insulin concentrations. Body measurements were assessed every 3 months until first calving, and gender and weight of their first calf were recorded. Information on fertility and milk yield of the heifer and its dam were collected from the herd databases. Daily temperature and photoperiod were recorded from the database of the Belgian Royal Meteorological Institute. Linear mixed models were run with herd as a random factor, to account for differences in herd management. Heifers grew 867±80.7 g/day during their first year of life and were inseminated at 14.8±1.34 months. First calving took place at 24.5±1.93 months, at a weight of 642±61.5 kg and heifers produced 8506±1064 kg energy corrected milk during their first 305-day lactation. Regression models revealed that none of the maternal factors such as milk yield and parity, nor the growth of the heifer during the 1st year of life were associated with milk yield during first lactation. Age, and to a lesser extent BW at first parturition were positively associated with first-lactation milk yield. In addition, the season of birth, but not calving, had a significant influence on milk yield, with winter-born heifers producing less than heifers born in any other season. The lower yielding winter-born heifers had higher insulin concentrations at birth, whereas glucose concentrations

  16. Milk and Blood Cortisol and T3 Hormones Content and Milk Composition in Buffaloes as a Function of Lactating Number and Ambient Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habeeb Alsaied, A.M.; Ibahim, M.KH.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of lactating number and ambient temperature on T 3 and cortisol levels in each of milk and blood and milk composition of lactating Water buffaloes was the objective of this study. The experiment was carried out on 72 animals including two periods through 1994. The first was carried out on 36 animals in February where the average of ambient temperature was 17.5 degree, while the second was conducted on another 36 animals in July where the average of ambient temperature was 37.1 degree . In both two periods, the animals were classified according to lactating number into 6 equal groups from the 1st to 6 th lactation number. The data showed that milk yield and T 3 , either in milk or in blood and milk fat, protein and lactose were significantly lower in July than in February. Whereas the opposite was true with cortisol level either in milk or in blood. Concerning the effect of lactation number, it was observed that milk and blood T 3 , milk and blood cortisol and milk fat, protein and lactose were affected significantly due to lactation number

  17. An individual reproduction model sensitive to milk yield and body condition in Holstein dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Brun-Lafleur, L.; Cutullic, E.; Faverdin, P.; Delaby, L.; Disenhaus, C.

    2017-01-01

    To simulate the consequences of management in dairy herds, the use of individual-based herd models is very useful and has become common. Reproduction is a key driver of milk production and herd dynamics, whose influence has been magnified by the decrease in reproductive performance over the last decades. Moreover, feeding management influences milk yield (MY) and body reserves, which in turn influence reproductive performance. Therefore, our objective was to build an up-to-date animal reprodu...

  18. Effect of soybean hulls on lactation curves and the composition of goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliane Alavarse Zambom

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effects of soybean hulls (SBH as a ground corn replacement (0, 50, and 100% SBH on the parameters of the lactation curve and on lactation curves and milk composition. Fourteen multiparous Saanen goats were used during their lactation period, from kidding until the drying of their milk on the 228th day of lactation, and were distributed in a completely randomised design. The data was analysed using Bayesian methodology to minimise the effect of the low number of animals and to allow for comparison of the curve parameters estimated by Wood's nonlinear model. The SBH had no effect on the initial milk yield; nevertheless, the SBH reduced the rate of yield until lactation peak and accelerated the declining rate of yield after lactation. The treatments did not affect dry matter intake. The inclusion of SBH increased the fat content in the milk, which was also influenced by the lactation stage of the goats. Effects were observed on polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, PUFA/total AG ratio, and the n-6:n-3 ratio of goat milk fat. The lactation stage changed the content of saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, and C18:2 (conjugated linoleic acid. The SBH can therefore be used as a ground corn replacement in the diets of lactating goats, as changes in the lactation curve parameters did not result in changes in total yields. Nevertheless, if the milk fat increases, then as quality rises, so could payment by quality, and thus an increase in profit margins per liter of milk sold.

  19. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance QTL on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2015-01-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve....... Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis (CM) and milk yield (MY) on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter...... (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50k), which identifies 1,568 single...

  20. Early-life gut microbiome composition and milk allergy resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyavanich, Supinda; Shen, Nan; Grishin, Alexander; Wood, Robert; Burks, Wesley; Dawson, Peter; Jones, Stacie M; Leung, Donald Y M; Sampson, Hugh; Sicherer, Scott; Clemente, Jose C

    2016-10-01

    Gut microbiota may play a role in the natural history of cow's milk allergy. We sought to examine the association between early-life gut microbiota and the resolution of cow's milk allergy. We studied 226 children with milk allergy who were enrolled at infancy in the Consortium of Food Allergy observational study of food allergy. Fecal samples were collected at age 3 to 16 months, and the children were followed longitudinally with clinical evaluation, milk-specific IgE levels, and milk skin prick test performed at enrollment, 6 months, 12 months, and yearly thereafter up until age 8 years. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16s rRNA sequencing and microbiome analyses performed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME), Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt), and Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles (STAMP). Milk allergy resolved by age 8 years in 128 (56.6%) of the 226 children. Gut microbiome composition at age 3 to 6 months was associated with milk allergy resolution by age 8 years (PERMANOVA P = .047), with enrichment of Clostridia and Firmicutes in the infant gut microbiome of subjects whose milk allergy resolved. Metagenome functional prediction supported decreased fatty acid metabolism in the gut microbiome of subjects whose milk allergy resolved (η 2  = 0.43; ANOVA P = .034). Early infancy is a window during which gut microbiota may shape food allergy outcomes in childhood. Bacterial taxa within Clostridia and Firmicutes could be studied as probiotic candidates for milk allergy therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early-life gut microbiome composition and milk allergy resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyavanich, Supinda; Shen, Nan; Grishin, Alexander; Wood, Robert; Burks, Wesley; Dawson, Peter; Jones, Stacie M.; Leung, Donald; Sampson, Hugh; Sicherer, Scott; Clemente, Jose C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Gut microbiota may play a role in the natural history of cow’s milk allergy Objective To examine the association between early life gut microbiota and the resolution of cow’s milk allergy Methods We studied 226 children with milk allergy who were enrolled at infancy in the Consortium of Food Allergy (CoFAR) observational study of food allergy. Fecal samples were collected at age 3–16 months, and the children were followed longitudinally with clinical evaluation, milk-specific IgE levels, and milk skin prick test performed at enrollment, 6 months, 12 months, and yearly thereafter up until age 8 years. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16s rRNA sequencing and microbiome analyses performed using QIIME (Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology), PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States), and STAMP (Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles). Results Milk allergy resolved by age 8 years in 128 (56.6%) of the 226 children. Gut microbiome composition at age 3–6 months was associated with milk allergy resolution by age 8 years (PERMANOVA P = 0.047), with enrichment of Clostridia and Firmicutes in the infant gut microbiome of subjects whose milk allergy resolved. Metagenome functional prediction supported decreased fatty acid metabolism in the gut microbiome of subjects whose milk allergy resolved (η2 = 0.43, ANOVA P = 0.034). Conclusions Early infancy is a window during which gut microbiota may shape food allergy outcomes in childhood. Bacterial taxa within Clostridia and Firmicutes could be studied as probiotic candidates for milk allergy therapy. PMID:27292825

  2. Milk fat globule membrane and buttermilks: from composition to valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderghem, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Buttermilk, the by-product from butter manufacture, is low cost and available in large quantities but has been considered for many years as invaluable. However, over the last two decades it has gained considerable attention due to its specific composition in proteins and polar lipids from the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM. The aim of this review is to take stock of current buttermilk knowledge. Firstly, the milk fat globule membrane composition and structure are described. Secondly, buttermilk and its associated products are defined according to the milk fat making process. Structure and mean composition of these products are summarized from recent dairy research data and related to technological properties, especially the emulsifying properties provided by MFGM components. Finally, new applications are presented, leading to promising valorizations of buttermilk and its derivate products.

  3. The effects of a synthetic analogue of the Bovine Appeasing Pheromone on milk yield and composition in Valdostana dairy cows during the move from winter housing to confined lowland pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osella, Maria Cristina; Cozzi, Alessandro; Spegis, Claudio; Turille, Germano; Barmaz, Andrea; Lecuelle, Céline Lafont; Teruel, Eva; Bienboire-Frosini, Cécile; Chabaud, Camille; Bougrat, Laurent; Pageat, Patrick

    2018-05-01

    This Research Communication describes the effects of a synthetic analogue of the Bovine Appeasing Pheromone (BAP) on milk parameters in Valdostana dairy cows during the first turning out from tie-stalls to confined lowland pastures around the farms. Thirty healthy lactating Valdostana cows were enroled in the study and randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group (EG, n = 15) and control group (CG, n = 15). The two groups were separately housed in the same farm and managed outside in two different pens. Treatment (BAP and solution) and control (solution only) were poured on the nuchal skin area between the horns when the animals were inside the farm at the feeding rack every 7 d for 28 d (T0-T4). Milk samples were evaluated at the same time points (T0-T4). Daily milk production (kg/day) was higher in the EG than in the CG, particularly during the first day after the turning out to pasture (T1). Somatic Cell Count (103 cells/ml) was higher in the placebo group than in the EG, especially at T1. Proteins, fat, fat-free dry matter and casein (g/100 g) were not affected by the treatment. In T1 urea (mg/dl) content was higher in CG vs. EG, suggesting a more correct metabolic balance in the group treated with BAP. The use of BAP appears to modulate adaptation in ways that may improve dairy cow performance in the context of changes in management routines.

  4. Effect of dietary protein levels on rumen metabolism and milk yield in mid-lactating cows under hot and humid conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiangtum, W.; Schonewille, J.T.; Yawongsa, A.; Rukkwamsuk, T.; Kanjanapruthipong, J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of 2 levels of dietary Crude Protein (CP) in concentrates with similar proportions of Rumen Undegradable Protein (RUP) on rumen metabolism, milk yield and composition in mid lactating cows in Thailand. Eight 87.5% Holsteinx12.5% indigenous

  5. Effect of dietary protein levels on rumen metabolism and milk yield in mid-lactating cows under hot and humid conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiangtum, W; Schonewille, Thomas; Yawongsa, A; Rukkwamsuk, T; Kanjanapruthipon, J; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of 2 levels of dietary Crude Protein (CP) in concentrates with similar proportions of Rumen Undegradable Protein (RUP) on rumen metabolism, milk yield and composition in mid lactating cows in Thailand. Eight 87.5% Holsteinx12.5% indigenous

  6. [Breast milk: its nutritional composition and functional properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackoen, M

    2012-09-01

    Human milk is a complex biological fluid with thousands of components. The milk composition in the mammalian species is specific and adapted to the needs of the offspring. It contains macronutrients (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins) and numerous biologically active substrates. Human milk not only covers the nutritional needs of the newborn but protects the baby against infection, inflammation and oxidative stress. It has immunomodulation properties and confers trophical protection to the intestinal mucosa. The newborn infant is particularly immature: innate immunity, adaptive immunity and intestinal immaturity. Human milk will offer this exogenous protective and immunomodulating source. The development of the composition of the intestinal microflora of the neonate will be impacted by pre- and probiotic components of human milk. Current scientific knowledge of human milk properties highlights interdependency of the different components, ontogeny of the intestinal function, development of the mucosal intestinal immune system, colonization by the intestinal microbiota and protection against pathogens. Quality of these interactions influences the newborn's short and long-term health status. The promotion of breastfeeding with the support of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) program and labeling has been shown to have positive impact in public health.

  7. Improvement of Milk Fatty Acid Composition for Production of Functional Milk by Dietary Phytoncide Oil Extracted from Discarded Pine Nut Cones ( in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects of adding phytoncide oil extracted from Korean pine nut cone byproduct to the diet of dairy cows on milk yield and compositions, fatty acid characteristics, complete blood count and stress response. A total of 74 Holstein cows were used for 30 days and divided into two groups. Each group was given a basal diet (C or an experimental diet containing phytoncide additives at 0.016% (T in feed. The results showed that phytoncide feeding had no effect on milk yield. In addition, there were no observed effects on milk composition, but the ratio of fatty acid in milk was significantly affected by the phytoncide diet, and it showed a positive effect. Not only were the major functional fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid increased, but also ω6:ω3 fatty acid ratio was reduced in milk of T group (p<0.05. In blood analysis, the complete blood count showed no significant difference between C and T group on all parameters. However, the cortisol concentration was significantly decreased in T group compared to control (p<0.05. Taken together, we suggest that phytoncide oil does not have a great influence on the physiological changes, but can be a potential feed additive that improves the milk fatty acid and stress resilience in dairy cows. In addition, it will contribute to the development of feed resource, a reduction in feed cost and a lessening of environmental pollution.

  8. "EFFECT OF PROGESTOGEN-ONLY CONTRACEPTIVES ON HUMAN MILK COMPOSITION"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Ghazizadeh P. Pasalar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Different contraceptive methods are used by breastfeeding mothers. To investigate the effects of progestogen - only contraceptives on human milk components, a non-randomized, follow-up study was carried out in Iran (Varamin on 140 breastfeeding women, 51 of whom used progestogenonly contraception including progestogen-only pills (POP or depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA, and 89 used non-hormonal contraception methods, starting at 6 weeks after delivery. Human milk components were compared between the groups after 26 weeks. There were no statistically significant differences between groups, in terms of protein, sodium, calcium, phosphorus and potassium concentration of milk, but triglycerides in the hormonal group and magnesium in the non-hormonal group were higher than the other group (P< 0.05. It seems that progestogen-only methods (POP and DMPA do not have an adverse effect on human milk composition, and are safe contraceptives during lactation.

  9. Winter and spring variation in daily milk yield and mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    201007395

    2013-06-02

    Jun 2, 2013 ... Jersey, Friesian cows and their crosses under a pasture-based dairy system. C.T.W. Nantapo & V. Muchenje ... and mineral composition of pasture-based dairy cows. This was done by ..... Genetic and nongenetic variation in ...

  10. Genetic parameters for milk yield, age at first calving and interval between first and second calving in milk buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Aspilcueta Borquis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic parameters for the relation between the traits of milk yield (MY, age at first calving (AFC and interval between first and second calving (IBFSC were estimated in milk buffaloes of the Murrah breed. In the study, data of 1578 buffaloes at first lactation, with calvings from 1974 to 2006 were analyzed. The MTDFREML system was used in the analyses with models for the MY, IBFSC traits which included the fixed effects of herd-year-season of calving, linear and quadratic terms of calving age as covariate and the random animal effects and error. The model for AFC consisted of the herd-year-season fixed effects of calving and the random effects of animal and error. Heritability estimates MY, AFC and IBFSC traits were 0.20, 0.07 and 0.14, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between the traits were: MY and AFC = -0.12 and -0.15, MY and IBFSC = 0.07 and 0.30, AFC and IBFSC = 0.35 and 0.37, respectively. Genetic correlation between MY and AFC traits showed desirable negative association, suggesting that the daughters of the bulls with high breeding value for MY could be physiological maturity to a precocious age. Genetic correlation between MY and IBFSC showed that the selection of the animals that increased milk yield is also those that tend to intervals of bigger calving.

  11. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: The Impact of Large Herd on Milk Yield and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Islam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the effect of large herd size (and land areas on walking distances and milking interval (MI, and their impact on milk yield and economic penalties when 50% of the total diets were provided from home grown feed either as pasture or grazeable complementary forage rotation (CFR in an automatic milking system (AMS. Twelve scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows, 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as ‘moderate’; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as ‘high’ and 2 rates of incorporation of grazeable complementary forage system (CFS: 0, 30%; CFS = 65% farm is CFR and 35% of farm is pasture were investigated. Walking distances, energy loss due to walking, MI, reduction in milk yield and income loss were calculated for each treatment based on information available in the literature. With moderate pasture utilisation and 0% CFR, increasing the herd size from 400 to 800 cows resulted in an increase in total walking distances between the parlour and the paddock from 3.5 to 6.3 km. Consequently, MI increased from 15.2 to 16.4 h with increased herd size from 400 to 800 cows. High pasture utilisation (allowing for an increased stocking density reduced the total walking distances up to 1 km, thus reduced the MI by up to 0.5 h compared to the moderate pasture, 800 cow herd combination. The high pasture utilisation combined with 30% of the farm in CFR in the farm reduced the total walking distances by up to 1.7 km and MI by up to 0.8 h compared to the moderate pasture and 800 cow herd combination. For moderate pasture utilisation, increasing the herd size from 400 to 800 cows resulted in more dramatic milk yield penalty as yield increasing from c.f. 2.6 and 5.1 kg/cow/d respectively, which incurred a loss of up to $AU 1.9/cow/d. Milk yield losses of 0.61 kg and 0.25 kg for every km increase in total walking distance

  12. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: The Impact of Large Herd on Milk Yield and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M R; Clark, C E F; Garcia, S C; Kerrisk, K L

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the effect of large herd size (and land areas) on walking distances and milking interval (MI), and their impact on milk yield and economic penalties when 50% of the total diets were provided from home grown feed either as pasture or grazeable complementary forage rotation (CFR) in an automatic milking system (AMS). Twelve scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows), 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as 'moderate'; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as 'high') and 2 rates of incorporation of grazeable complementary forage system (CFS: 0, 30%; CFS = 65% farm is CFR and 35% of farm is pasture) were investigated. Walking distances, energy loss due to walking, MI, reduction in milk yield and income loss were calculated for each treatment based on information available in the literature. With moderate pasture utilisation and 0% CFR, increasing the herd size from 400 to 800 cows resulted in an increase in total walking distances between the parlour and the paddock from 3.5 to 6.3 km. Consequently, MI increased from 15.2 to 16.4 h with increased herd size from 400 to 800 cows. High pasture utilisation (allowing for an increased stocking density) reduced the total walking distances up to 1 km, thus reduced the MI by up to 0.5 h compared to the moderate pasture, 800 cow herd combination. The high pasture utilisation combined with 30% of the farm in CFR in the farm reduced the total walking distances by up to 1.7 km and MI by up to 0.8 h compared to the moderate pasture and 800 cow herd combination. For moderate pasture utilisation, increasing the herd size from 400 to 800 cows resulted in more dramatic milk yield penalty as yield increasing from c.f. 2.6 and 5.1 kg/cow/d respectively, which incurred a loss of up to $AU 1.9/cow/d. Milk yield losses of 0.61 kg and 0.25 kg for every km increase in total walking distance (voluntary return

  13. Rendimento, composição e análise sensorial do queijo minas frescal fabricado com leite de vacas mestiças alimentadas com diferentes volumosos Yield, composition and sensory analysis of Minas cheese made with milk from crossbred cows fed different roughages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Cristina dos Santos Guimarães Martins

    2012-04-01

    , sorghum silage, sunflower silage and pasture of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. Yield, physical-chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory analysis of Minas cheese, as well as the physical-chemical composition of milk were analyzed. For the experiment, eight 1/2 Holstein/Gir crossbred cows, with lactation period of 180 ± 12 days were distributed in two 4 × 4 latin squares (four animals, four diets and four periods. The experimental periods had a duration of 18 days: 15 days of adaptation and three days of data collection. After cheese processing microbiological, physical-chemical and sensory analysis were done. Cheese samples were frozen and analyzed for fatty acid profile. The fat content of cheese was higher for diets with sugar cane and sunflower silage compared with sorghum silage and pasture of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. Cheese produced from milk from cows fed sunflower silage had superior fatty acid composition and nutritional quality indexes, and better profile and higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. Cheese yield did not differ between diets containing different roughages. Cheese produced from milk from cows fed a diet with sunflower silage presents higher preference at the sensory analysis test, especially regarding the attribute appearance.

  14. Studies on test-day and lactation milk, fat and protein yield of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmink, J.B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Data of milk recording provides the basis to control herd management and genetic improvement of cows. Different management guides can be presented to dairy farmers. Breeding values are predicted for 305-day yields in order to select bulls and cows. However, breeding values should be

  15. Prediction of 305 d milk yield in Jersey Cattle Using ANN Modelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ozcan_eren

    Prediction of 305-day milk yield in Brown Swiss cattle using artificial ... cattle, based on a few test-day records, and some environmental factors such ... interval, as well as increase the intensity of selection, and thus create greater genetic progress. ... influential variables in predicting the incidence of clinical mastitis in dairy ...

  16. The effect of subclinical mastitis on milk yield in dairy goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Werven, van T.; Schuiling, H.J.; Nielen, van M.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate milk yield (MY) losses associated with subclinical intramammary infection (IMI) in dairy goats and to assess if somatic cell count (SCC) can be used to estimate such MY losses. We used 2 data sets to study these questions. The first data set consisted of 5

  17. Comparison of growth, milk yield and draughtability of Murrah-Philippine crossbred and Philippine native buffaloes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salas, R.C.S.; Lende, van der T.; Udo, H.M.J.; Mamuad, F.V.; Garillo, E.P.; Cruz, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    Data collected between 1981 and 1991 at the Philippine Carabao Center at Central Luzon State University (PCC-CLSU) were used for the comparison of growth, milk yield and draughtability of Murrah-Philippine crossbred and Philippine native buffaloes. Body weights and body measurements were available

  18. Milk yield and rectal temperature in West African Dwarf goats as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate milk yield and rectal temperature in West African Dwarf (WAD) goats as affected by wattle and litter size. A total of 28 lactating does were used for the experiment. 13 does had wattle (bilateral) while 15 had no wattle. 14 does had twin birth while the other 14 had single birth. The goats ...

  19. Rendimento e composição físico-química do queijo prato elaborado com leite pasteurizado pelo sistema HTST e injeção direta de vapor Yield and physical-chemistry composition of prato cheese elaborated with milk pasteurized by the HTST and direct steam injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rodrigues da Silveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o rendimento, a transição de gordura e extrato seco do leite para a coalhada e as características físico-químicas do queijo prato produzido com leite pasteurizado pelo sistema de placas (ou HTST e injeção direta de vapor (IDV. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, constituído por dois tratamentos (HTST e IDV e seis repetições (fabricações. O sistema IDV incorporou cerca de 8,5% de água ao leite, havendo como conseqüência redução (PCheese yield, fat and dry matter transitions from milk pasteurized by the two pasteurization systems to the curd, as well as, the physical-chemistry characteristics of cheeses were evaluated. The statistical treatment was full randomly, with two treatments: pasteurization by high temperature short time system (HTST and direct steam injection (DSI, with six replications. The DSI system incorporated about 8,5% of water to the milk, having as consequence reduction (P<.05 in the total solids, in the fat and in the acidity of the pasteurized milk. Larger transition of fat of the milk to the curd was observed, when this was pasteurized by the DSI system, it resulted in larger cheeses yield manufactured with milk pasteurized by this system. (8.48 liters of milk /kg of cheese, when compared to the HTST system (9.54 liters of milk /kg of cheese. Cheeses manufactured by the DSI system presented higher fat content and fat in dry matter (29.06 and 55.25%, compared to the HTST system (27.02 and 49.88%, respectively. The DSI system provides expressive increases in the cheeses yield and, of the components of the milk it was conclude that the fat was the main responsible for this increase.

  20. Influence of Electrical Conductivity, Days in Milk and Parity on Milk Production and Chemical Composition

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    Radu Ionel Neamț

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to assess milk production and chemical composition during the first 100 days of lactation, under the influence of electrical conductivity, parity and days in milk. Study was conducted at Research and Development Station for Bovine Arad, on 66 Romanian Spotted cows (20 primiparous, 46 multiparous. Significantly higher values (p≤0.017 of electrical conductivity were recorded for primiparous (10.15±0.09 mS/cm compared with multiparous (8.79±0.15 mS/cm. During the first 30 DIM electrical conductivity was higher (9.7±0.12 mS/cm than for 31 to 60 DIM (9.04±0.12 mS/cm; p≤0.001 and for 61 to 100 DIM (8.17±0.11 mS/cm, p≤0.001. Multifactorial regression model applied highlights significant influence of month of calving (p≤0.001 and DIM (p≤0.034 on the electrical conductivity, while parity had no influence (p>0.36. Medium and negative correlations were calculated between electrical conductivity and some chemical components (fat R=-0.15, protein R=-0.13, while to milk production correlation was positive (R=0.12. No significant correlations were obtained according to lactose content (R=-0.013. Dynamics of milk production and chemical composition have been significantly influenced by month of calving (p≤0.001, DIM (p≤0.001 and parity (p≤0.002. This study found no significant influence of milk electrical conductivity on milk production or chemical composition (p>0.59.

  1. The heritability of milk yield and fat percentage in the Friesian cattle in the province of Friesland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Shimy, S.A.F.

    1956-01-01

    The heritability of milk yield and fat percentage was calculated of herd-registered cattle in Friesland. The estimates were based on daughter-dam comparisons. Comparisons covered the first three lactations. The average heritability estimates of milk yield within sires, and according to the different

  2. Genetic Parameters for Body condition score, Body weigth, Milk yield and Fertility estimated using random regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk yield, and fertility were estimated using a random regression animal model extended to multivariate analysis. The data analyzed included 81,313 BCS observations, 91,937 BW observations, and 100,458 milk test-day yields

  3. A longitudinal study of human milk composition in the second year postpartum: implications for human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Maryanne T; Fogleman, April D; Newburg, David S; Allen, Jonathan C

    2017-01-01

    While the composition of human milk has been studied extensively in the first year of lactation, there is a paucity of data regarding human milk composition beyond one year postpartum. Policies vary at milk banks around the world regarding how long lactating women are eligible to donate their milk. The primary purpose of this study is to describe longitudinal changes in human milk composition in the second year postpartum to support the development of evidence based guidelines regarding how long lactating women can donate human milk to a milk bank. Nineteen lactating women in North Carolina provided monthly milk samples from 11 months to 17 months postpartum (N = 131), and two non-profit milk banks provided (N = 33) pooled, unpasteurized milk samples from 51 approved donors less than one year postpartum. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the concentration of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme, Immunoglobulin A, oligosaccharides and sodium in longitudinal samples of mother's milk between 11 and 17 months postpartum, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined, and no changes were observed in lactose, fat, iron and potassium. Human milk in the second year postpartum contained significantly higher concentrations of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme and Immunoglobulin A, than milk bank samples, and significantly lower concentrations of zinc, calcium, iron and oligosaccharides. Accepting milk bank donations beyond one year postpartum is a potential strategy for increasing the supply of donor milk, but may require mineral fortification. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effects of dietary starch and protein levels on milk production and composition of dairy cows fed high concentrate diet

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    Mustafa Güçlü Sucak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Twenty eight Holstein cows (averaged 41±31.5 and 82±24 days in milk, and 30.4±3.49 and 29.0±2.22 kg/d milk yield were fed a high concentrate diet (70:30 concentrate to forage to examine effects on milk production and composition. The cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were starch (14% and 22% and protein (15% and 18%. Wheat straw was used as forage source. The study lasted 6 weeks. Dry matter intake was not affected (P> 0.05 by the dietary treatments in the study. Milk yield increased with increased dietary protein level (P< 0.01. Milk urea nitrogen concentrations were affected by dietary protein and starch levels, but there was no interaction effect. Nitrogen efficiency (Milk N/N intake was decreased by increasing in dietary protein level (P< 0.01. In conclusion, the cows fed total mixed ration (TMR containing low level of wheat straw responded better when dietary protein increased. But, efficiency of N use and N excretion to the environment were worsened. Key words: Dairy cattle, milk composition, protein, starch, wheat straw

  5. HOLSTEIN CATTLE REPRODUCTION IN RELATION ON MILK YIELD AND BODY CONDITION SCORE

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    Miroslav MARŠÁLEK

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic conditions of the economical success in milk production is the high and periodic reproduction of the cows. That means the parturition of a healthy calf from every cow per a year. The development and level of reproduction functions is very susceptible to the quantity and mainly quality of nutrition. The insuffi ciency in nutrition is strongly related to the fertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproduction indicators depending upon the level of the milk yield and body condition of the Holstein cows at the family-owned farm. The basic dataset was obtained during the years 2004 – 2007. The milk yield and fertility data were gained from the herd records. The extreme values were removed from the basic set. Body condition score was evaluated every month. The groups according to the milk yield level and body condition score were evaluated. The basic statistical characteristics were determined in the groups of cows and in the evaluated sets. The effect of particular factors was proved by the one-factorial analysis of variance ANOVA. Increasing milk yield in the groups with milk yield up to 7000 kg of milk, 7000-8000 kg and more than 8000 kg had negative impact on the reproduction indicators. The differences in the length of calving to fififi rst service interval among particular groups were statistically signifififi cant (P ≥ 0.01. The average length of this interval was 96, 111 and 122 days for 1st, 2nd and 3rd group, respectively. In addition, the average length of calving to conception (service period interval was 154, 165 and 171 days. There were found no signifi cant differences in numbers of services per conception. The average BCS at calving was 3.59 points. After calving BCS level decreased till the 6th month of lactation, where its level 2.43 points, then the BCS level increased. Average BCS level at conception was under 2.5 points. The variation of BCS during the lactation was 2 points.

  6. Capacity of milk composition to identify the feeding system used to feed dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Fernando; Santiago, Carme; Jiménez-Calderón, José D; Martínez-Fernández, Adela

    2017-08-01

    This Research Paper addresses the hypothesis that is possible to identify the type of feed used for dairy cows by means of the analysis of milk composition and the fatty acid profile of milk fat. Sixteen dairy farms were monitored during 1 year with quarterly visits between summer 2014 and spring 2015. Rations varied throughout the year due to annual dynamic change of forage production, forage rotation, variation of nutrient requirements according to physiological state of the animal, etc. The ingredients of the rations were analysed by cluster identifying five feeding systems based on the main ingredient of the diet: grazing, maize silage, grass silage, dry forage and concentrate. Milk composition could explain up to 91·3% of the total variability among feeding systems, while fatty acid profile could explain only up to 61·2% of total variability. However, when the sum of types of fatty acids and their ratios are taken, up to 93·5% of total variability could be explained. The maize silage system had the greatest milk yield, protein, solid non-fat and urea proportions, as well as the highest proportion of saturated fatty acid and lowest concentration of trans11 18 : 1, cis9 18 : 1 and 18 : 3 n3. Principal component analysis distinguishes the maize silage system from other feeding systems, both from milk composition and milk fatty acid profile. Concentrate system overlapped partially with the grazing, grass silage and dry forage systems. The latter systems had the highest concentrations of cis9 18 : 1, trans11 18 : 1 and 18 : 3, but there was no clear differentiation among them.

  7. The effect of stage of lactation on daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content in Tsigai and Improved Valachian ewes

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    Marta Oravcová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of stage of lactation on daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content in Tsigai and Improved Valachian ewes. Breed lactation curves for daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content were modelled as a sub-model of the three-trait animal model based on repeated test-day records that were collected by the Breeding Services of the Slovak Republic between 1995 and 2010. Data included 188403 (Tsigai and 352094 (Improved Valachian ewe’s performance records. Pedigree file included 35484 (Tsigai and 66994 (Improved Valachian animals with genetic ties to ewes with milk performance data. The fixed part of the model included parity, litter size and stage of lactation. The effect of days in milk (i.e. stage of lactation was fitted using Ali and Schaeffer lactation curve. The random part of the model included flock-test day effect, direct additive genetic effect, and permanent environmental effect of ewe nested within lactation. Due to limited number of test-day records in the first and the eighth month of lactation and related difficulties in modelling milk traits in these phases of lactation, the lactation curves were plotted between days 30 and 210. During lactation period the daily milk yield curves were decreasing, while milk fat and protein content were increasing. Because of higher changes at the beginning of lactation balanced with higher changes at the end of lactation in Tsigai and smaller changes at the beginning of lactation balanced with smaller changes at the end of lactation in Improved Valachian, 150d milk yield and average milk fat and protein content were almost the same in both breeds.

  8. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats

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    T. A. Morsy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5 fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA, and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017 ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001 and acetate (p = 0.034 concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013 in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007 and milk fat content (p = 0.002. Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048 and feed efficiency (p = 0.046 compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05 milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021 C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3, without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  9. Consumo de volumosos, produção e composição físico-química do leite de cabras F1 Boer × Saanen Roughage intake, milk yield and physicochemical composition from F1 Boer × Saanen goats

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    Elisa Köhler Osmari

    2009-12-01

    Saanen em pastejo e sob suplementação têm bom potencial leiteiro.The effects were assessed of supplying supplementary roughage on intake, milk yield and milk physical and chemical composition in F1 (Boer ×Saanen goats. Eighteen females were placed in three stalls, and received as ad libitum supplement sorghum silage, corn silage and mulberry hay (MHT, with daily control of dry matter intake. The average daily production per week was calculated by gathering the milk data in three post-parturition periods: 1 (34-40 days/7 days; 2 [(64-70 days/7 days + (91-97 days/7 days]/2 and 3 (125-131 days/7 days. Daily spot-average of each period (DSAP was calculated from the reference dates of average daily production per week, that was correlated with the composition of fat, protein, lactose, total solids composition and the somatic cell count. The weekly data for acidity and density were grouped in 37, 81±13, 128 and 151±10 days post-parturition. Using mixed models, the animal was computed as random and the fixed effects were three supplements and three periods (composition, average daily production per week and per period or four (acidity and density. Mulberry hay intake (0.657 kg was greater than corn silage (0.604 kg that was greater than sorghum silage (0.305 kg. In period 2, the ether extract composition was smaller because of the decrease in fat and lactose. In period 3, protein and acidity increased and density was great in periods 1 (1.0270 and 3 (1.0277. Mastitis increased SCC in period 2. The type of supplement was not significant for protein, but there was post partum period ×supplement effect. The other variables were not influenced by the type of supplement, only by the post-partum period. Mulberry hay increased the supplement intake by the goats compared to corn and sorghum silage, but it did not improve milk yield = means and composition. Grazing Boer ×Saanen goats with supplementation have good milk production potential.

  10. Effects of management practices on yield and quality of milk from smallholder dairy units in urban and peri-urban Morogoro, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillah, Kejeri A; Kifaro, George C; Madsen, Jorgen

    2014-10-01

    A longitudinal study design was used to assess the management, chemical composition of cows' milk and quantify the microbial load of raw milk produced at farm level. Data were collected between December 2010 and September 2011 in Morogoro municipality. Milk samples were collected once every month and analysed for butter fat (BF), crude protein (CP), total solids (TS) and solids non-fat (SNF). Total bacterial count (TBC) and coliform counts (CC) were normalized by log transformation. The average milk yield was 7.0 l/day and was not influenced by feeding systems and breeds. Dairy cows owned by people who had no regular income produced more milk than government employees and retired officers. Means of BF, TS, SNF and CP were similar in different feeding systems. Wet season had significantly higher TBC (5.9 log10 cfu/ml) and CC (2.4 log10 cfu/ml) but feeding systems had no effect. Stocking density influenced TBC but not CC. It can be concluded that dairy cows produced low milk yield and its quality was poor.

  11. Genetics of heat tolerance for milk yield and quality in Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Pereira, R J; Stefani, G; El Faro, L

    2017-01-01

    Tropical and sub-tropical climates are characterized by high temperature and humidity, during at least part of the year. Consequently, heat stress is common in Holstein cattle and productive and reproductive losses are frequent. Our objectives were as follows: (1) to quantify losses in production and quality of milk due to heat stress; (2) to estimate genetic correlations within and between milk yield (MY) and milk quality traits; and (3) to evaluate the trends of genetic components of tolerance to heat stress in multiple lactations of Brazilian Holstein cows. Thus, nine analyses using two-trait random regression animal models were carried out to estimate variance components and genetic parameters over temperature-humidity index (THI) values for MY and milk quality traits (three lactations: MY×fat percentage (F%), MY×protein percentage (P%) and MY×somatic cell score (SCS)) of Brazilian Holstein cattle. It was demonstrated that the effects of heat stress can be harmful for traits related to milk production and milk quality of Holstein cattle even though most herds were maintained in a modified environment, for example, with fans and sprinklers. For MY, the effect of heat stress was more detrimental in advanced lactations (-0.22 to -0.52 kg/day per increase of 1 THI unit). In general, the mean heritability estimates were higher for lower THI values and longer days in milk for all traits. In contrast, the heritability estimates for SCS increased with increasing THI values in the second and third lactation. For each trait studied, lower genetic correlations (different from unity) were observed between opposite extremes of THI (THI 47 v. THI 80) and in advanced lactations. The genetic correlations between MY and milk quality trait varied across the THI scale and lactations. The genotype×environment interaction due to heat stress was more important for MY and SCS, particularly in advanced lactations, and can affect the genetic relationship between MY and milk quality

  12. Influence of feeding supplements of almond hulls and ensiled citrus pulp on the milk production, milk composition, and methane emissions of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S R O; Chaves, A V; Deighton, M H; Jacobs, J L; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Morris, G L; Wales, W J; Moate, P J

    2018-03-01

    Almond hulls and citrus pulp have been fed to dairy cows with variable responses for milk production, but no information exists on their effect on enteric methane emissions. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either almond hulls or ensiled citrus pulp on the milk yield, milk composition, and enteric methane emissions of dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in mid lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets over a 28-d experiment. Twelve cows received a control (CON) diet, 10 cows a diet containing almond hulls (ALH), and 10 cows a diet containing ensiled citrus pulp (CIT). All cows were offered 6.0 kg of dry matter (DM)/d of crushed corn, 2.0 kg of DM/d of cold-pressed canola, and 0.2 kg of DM/d of a mineral mix. In addition, cows fed the CON diet were offered 14.5 kg of DM/d of alfalfa cubes; cows fed the ALH diet were offered 10.5 kg of DM/d of alfalfa cubes and 4.0 kg of DM/d of almond hulls; and cows on the CIT diet were offered 11.5 kg of DM/d of alfalfa cubes and 3.0 kg of DM/d of ensiled citrus pulp. Milk yield was measured daily and milk composition was measured on 4 d of each week. Individual cow methane emissions were measured by a sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique on d 24 to 28 of the experiment. The mean milk yield of cows fed the CON diet (27.4 kg/d) was greater than the mean milk yield of cows fed the ALH diet (24.6 kg/cow per day), whereas the mean milk yield of cows fed the CIT diet (26.2 kg/cow per day) was not different from the mean milk yield from cows fed the other 2 diets. Dietary treatment did not influence the concentrations of milk fat, protein, and lactose or fat yields, but the mean protein yield from cows fed the CON diet (0.87 kg/d) was greater than that from cows fed the ALH diet (0.78 kg/d) but not different to those fed the CIT diet (0.85 kg/d). In general, we found no differences in the proportion of individual fatty acids in milk. The mean pH of ruminal fluid from cows offered the CON diet was not

  13. Frequency and association of polymorphisms in CSN3 gene with milk yield and composition in Saanen goats/Frecuencia y asociación de polimor smos en gene CSN3 con producción y composición de la leche de cabras Saanen

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    Luis David Catota-Gómez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available K-casein (CSN3 gene is of particular interest in goat production due to the e ect of its polymorphisms on milk quality and composition. The objective of this study was to assess the genotypic and allelic frequencies in CSN3 gene in the Saanen goat breed and its e ect on milk production and some of its compositional traits. Allelic discrimination assays were designed to determine the variants (A, B or C using qPCR and allelic discrimination method. Allelic frequencies for A, B and C were 0.23, 0.64 and 0.13, respectively. Association analysis indicated that the CSN3 was signi cantly associated only with protein percentage (p = 0.006. Results indicated that animals with AC, BB and CC genotypes showed higher milk protein percentage than those with genotype AB. This evidence suggests that genotypes favorable to this associated trait could be included into Saanen goat breeding strategies.

  14. Effects of seasonal change and parity on raw milk composition and related indices in Chinese Holstein cows in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Yang, Q; Yi, M; Pang, Z H; Xiong, B H

    2013-01-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of seasonal change and parity on milk composition and related indices, and to analyze the relationships among milk indices in Chinese Holstein cows from an intensive dairy farm in northern China. The 6,520 sets of complete Dairy Herd Improvement data were obtained and grouped by natural month and parity. The data included daily milk yield (DMY), milk solids percentage (MSP), milk fat percentage (MFP), milk protein percentage (MPP), milk lactose percentage (MLP), somatic cell count (SCC), somatic cell score (SCS), milk production loss (MPL), and fat-to-protein ratio (FPR). Data analysis showed that the above 9 indices were affected by both seasonal change and parity. However, the interaction between parity and seasonal change showed effects on MLP, SCS, MPL, and DMY, but no effects on MFP, MPP, MSP, and FPR. Duncan's multiple comparison on seasonal change showed that DMY (23.58 kg/d), MSP (12.35%), MPP (3.02%), and MFP (3.81%) were the lowest in June, but SCC (288.7 × 10(3)/mL) and MPL (0.69 kg/d) were the lowest in January; FPR (1.32) was the highest in February. Meanwhile, Duncan's multiple comparison on parities showed that MSP, MPP, and MLP were reduced rapidly in the fourth lactation, but SCC and MPL increased with increasing parities. The canonical correlation analysis for indices showed that SCS had high positive correlation with MPL (0.8360). Therefore, a few models were developed to quantify the effects of seasonal change and parity on raw milk composition using the Wood model. The changing patterns of milk composition and related indices in different months and parities could provide scientific evidence for improving feeding management and nutritional supplementation of Chinese Holstein cows. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. RESEARCH ON THE INFLLUENCE OF THE CALVING INTERVAL ON MILK YIELD

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    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper goal was to study the influence of the calving interval on milk yield for the Romanian Brown breed, using 950 lactations, of which: 573 lactations (60.31 % belonged to the over 400 days calving interval and 377 lactations (39.69% belonged to the 351-400 days calving interval. The calving interval varied between 446.41±18.94 days, the highest length for the 51 dairy cows which had parturition in September and 373.49 ±14.28 days, the shortest length for 53 cows which calved in October. The average calving interval for the cows with a calving interval longer than 400 days accounted for 425.58±14.10 days, while the average calving interval for the cows with this reproductionindicator between 351 and 400 days was 358.65±10.07 days. For the cows whose calving interval was longer than 400 days, milk yield accounted for 4,682.5±124.92 while for the cows whose calving interval varied between 351 and 400 days registered 4,240.0±215.10 kg. The calculations revealed a gross product of Lei 6,087 per lactation in case of cows whose calving interval was longer than 400 days and Lei 5,512 in case of the cows whose calving interval varied between 351-400 days. For an average difference of 66.93 days calving interval between the two calving interval size groups taken into consideration, the milk yield difference accounted for 442.50 kg in the benefit of the cows with the calving interval longer than 400 days. Also, a difference of Lei 575 was recorded in the favor of the cows with calving intervals longer than 400 days because they registered higher a milk yield. This means Lei 8.59 additional income per cow and calving interval day longer than 400 days.

  16. Evaluation of effects of Mycoplasma mastitis on milk composition in dairy cattle from South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farha, Abd Al-Bar; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid; Khazandi, Manouchehr; Hoare, Andrew; Petrovski, Kiro

    2017-11-25

    Mycoplasma mastitis is increasingly posing significant impact on dairy industry. Although the effects of major conventional mastitis pathogens on milk components has been widely addressed in the literature, limited data on the effects of different Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma spp. on milk quality and quantity is available. The aim of this study was to determine the casual relationship of Mycoplasma spp. and A. laidlawii to mastitis and compare them to subclinical mastitis caused by conventional mastitis pathogens from a single dairy herd in South Australia; Mycoplasma spp. and A. laidlawii were detected using PCR applied directly to milk samples. The herd had mastitis problem with high somatic cell count and low response rate to conventional antimicrobial therapy. A total of 288 cow-level milk samples were collected aseptically and used in this study. Conventional culture showed a predominance of coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by coagulase-positive staphylococci, Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., E. coli, and Klebsiella spp. PCR results showed a high prevalence of mycoplasmas (76.7%), including A. laidlawii (10.8%), M. bovis (6.2%), M. bovirhinis (5.6%), M. arginini (2%), and (52.1%) of cows were co-infected with two or more Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma species. Mycoplasma co-infection significantly increased somatic cell counts (SCC) similar to conventional mastitis pathogens and compared to non-infected cows with 389.3, 550.3 and 67.3 respectively; and decreased the milk yield with 29.0, 29.9 and 34.4 l, respectively. Mycoplasma co-infection caused significant increase in protein percentage, and significant decrease in fat percentage and total milk solids, similar to other conventional mastitis pathogens. In contrast, changes in milk composition and yield caused by various individual Mycoplasma species were non-significant. Mycoplasma mastitis had on-farm economic consequences similar to common conventional mastitis pathogens. Results of our study

  17. Polymorphisms in the ghrelin gene and their associations with milk yield and quality in water buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, F M M; de Camargo, G M F; Pablos de Souza, F R; Cardoso, D F; Fonseca, P D S; Zetouni, L; Braz, C U; Aspilcueta-Borquis, R R; Tonhati, H

    2013-05-01

    Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal hormone that acts in releasing growth hormone and influences the body general metabolism. It has been proposed as a candidate gene for traits such as growth, carcass quality, and milk production of livestock because it influences feed intake. In this context, the aim of this study was to verify the existence of polymorphisms in the ghrelin gene and their associations with milk, fat and protein yield, and percentage in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). A group of 240 animals was studied. Five primer pairs were used and 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were found in the ghrelin gene by sequencing. The animals were genotyped for 8 SNP by PCR-RFLP. The SNP g.960G>A and g.778C>T were associated with fat yield and the SNP g.905T>C was associated with fat yield and percentage and protein percentage. These SNP are located in intronic regions of DNA and may be in noncoding RNA sites or affect transcriptional efciency. The ghrelin gene in buffaloes influences milk fat and protein synthesis. The polymorphisms observed can be used as molecular markers to assist selection. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of lameness with milk yield and lactation curves in Chios dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelasakis, Athanasios I; Arsenos, Georgios; Valergakis, Georgios E; Banos, Georgios

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the study was twofold: (i) to quantify the differences in daily milk yield (DMY) and total milk yield (TMY) between lame and non-lame dairy ewes and (ii) to determine the shape of lactation curves around the lameness incident. The overall study was a prospective study of lameness for the surveyed sheep population, with a nested study including the selection of matching controls for each lame ewe separately. Two intensively reared flocks of purebred Chios ewes and a total of 283 ewes were used. Data, including gait assessment and DMY records, were collected on a weekly basis during on-farm visits across the milking period. A general linear model was developed for the calculation of lactation curves of lame and non-lame ewes, whereas one-way ANOVA was used for the comparisons between lame ewes and their controls. Lameness incidence was 12.4 and 16.8% on Farms A and B, respectively. Average DMY in lame ewes was significantly lower (213.8 g, P ewes was observed during the week 16 of the milking period (P ewes, remained significant at P ewes (about 32.5%), which was maximised 1 week later (35.8%, P ≤ 0.001) and continued for several weeks after recovery, resulting in 19.3% lower TMY for lame ewes for the first 210 d of the milking period (P ewes, as calculated by the general linear model, was 318.9 and 268.0 kg, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate evidence of significant financial losses in dairy sheep due to lameness which, however, need to be accurately estimated in further, more detailed, analyses.

  19. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Kholif, S M; Kholif, A E; Matloup, O H; Salem, A Z M; Elella, A Abu

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (pcontent (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (pcontent specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  20. [Composition of nutrients and minerals in some goat milk products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewska, R; Ganowiak, Z; Nabrzyski, M

    1997-01-01

    The paper contains results of determinations of protein, fat, carbohydrates, water and minerals (Ca, P, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Na, K) in 12 goat milk products. The nutrient components were determined by general approved analytical methods. Minerals like Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Na and K were determined by the flame ASA method. Phosphorus was determined as phosphates by colorimetric method with ammonium molybdate. Mean percentage content of protein, fat, carbohydrates and water were: 9.7-25.7; 1.4-33.5; 2.2-70.2; and 3.0-77.4 respectively. The content of minerals according to the products of goat milk were as follow: 86-1113 mg% Ca; 96-846 mg% P; 0.2-2.4 mg% Fe; 6-148 mg% Mg; 0.002-0.284 mg% Mn; 0.071-0.754 mg% Cu; 1.1-3.9 mg% Zn; 63-1281 mg% K and 27-407 mg% Na. The levels of nutrients and mineral composition of the examined goat milk products were similar to that of the cows milk products.

  1. Bacterial subclinical mastitis and its effect on milk yield in low-input dairy goat herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelasakis, A I; Angelidis, A S; Giannakou, R; Filioussis, G; Kalamaki, M S; Arsenos, G

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to record the major pathogens associated with subclinical mastitis (SCM), (2) to calculate their incidence during the milking period, and (3) to estimate the effect of SCM on daily milk yield (DMY) for goats reared under low-input management schemes. Dairy goats (n=590) of Skopelos and indigenous Greek breeds from 4 herds were randomly selected for the study. The study included monthly monitoring, milk yield recording, and bacteriological analyses of milk of individual goats during the course of 2 successive milking periods. Incidence and cumulative incidence were calculated for SCM cases. Moreover, 2 mixed linear regression models were built to assess the effects of (1) SCM and (2) different pathogens isolated from SCM cases, on DMY. The estimated incidence and cumulative incidence of SCM for the first and the second year of the study were 69.5 and 96.4 new cases of SCM/1,000 goat-months, and 24.1 and 31.7%, respectively. A total of 755 milk samples were subjected to microbiological examination, resulting in 661 positive cultures. Coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 50.2 and 34.5% of the positive cultures, respectively. The incidence of infections (new infections per 1,000 goat-months) for the first and the second year of the study were 34 and 53 for coagulase-negative staphylococci, 23 and 28 for coagulase-positive staphylococci, 3 and 5 for Streptococcus/Enterococcus spp., and 5.5 and 9.1 for gram-negative bacteria. Goats with SCM had lower DMY when compared with goats without SCM (ca. 47g/d, corresponding to a 5.7% decrease in DMY). In particular, goats with SCM due to coagulase-positive staphylococci infection produced approximately 80g/d less milk (a reduction of ca. 9.7%) compared with uninfected ones, whereas SCM due to gram-negative bacteria resulted in approximately 15% reduction in DMY. Investigating the epidemiology of SCM and its effects on production traits is critical for

  2. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  3. Fluctuations in milk yield are heritable and can be used as a resilience indicator to breed healthy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgersma, G.G.; Jong, de G.; Linde, van der R.; Mulder, H.A.

    2018-01-01

    Automatic milking systems record an enormous amount of data on milk yield and the cow itself. These type of big data are expected to contain indicators for health and resilience of cows. In this study, the aim was to define and estimate heritabilities for traits related with fluctuations in daily

  4. Effect of Zinc Methionine or Zinc Sulfate Supplementation on Milk Production and Composition of Milk in Lactating Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobhanirad, Saeid; Carlson, Dorthe; Kashani, Reza Bahari

    2010-01-01

     Zn/kg of dry matter (DM) as zinc sulfate monohydrate (ZnS) and basal diet plus 500 mg Zn/kg of DM as zinc methionine (ZnM). Results showed that milk and fat-corrected milk yield in dairy cows were not significantly affected by Zn source although a numerical increase was observed. The percentages of protein......, lactose, fat, solid nonfat, total solid, and density of milk were not significantly different between treatments. However, dairy cows that received ZnM tended to produce more milk and fat-corrected milk with a lower somatic cell count as compared to controls. The zinc concentration in milk in the Zn...

  5. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production and Composition during Multiple Lactations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britni M Brown

    Full Text Available Heat stress at the time of conception affects the subsequent milk production of primiparous Holstein cows; however, it is unknown whether these effects are maintained across multiple lactations. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and measurements of milk production and composition in cows retained within a herd for multiple lactations. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included milk production data and milk composition data from over 75,000 and 44,000 Holstein cows, respectively, born between 2000 and 2010 in Florida, Georgia, and Texas. Conception dates were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress conceived (HSC cows; cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral conceived (TNC contemporaries. Adjusted 305-d mature equivalent milk, protein percent and fat percent were evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS. Milk production was significantly affected by periconceptional heat stress. When a significant difference or tendency for a difference was detected between the HSC and TNC cows, the TNC produced more milk in all but one comparison. The advantage in milk production for the TNC cows over the HSC cows ranged from 82 ± 42 to 399 ± 61 kg per lactation. Alterations in fat and protein percentage were variable and most often detected in first lactations (first > second or third. Overall, the most striking result of this study is the consistency of the relationship between HSC and milk production. The nature of this relationship suggests that heat stress at or around the time of conception impairs cow milk yield throughout her lifetime.

  6. Effect of calving interval and parity on milk yield per feeding day in Danish commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, J O; Fadel, J G; Mogensen, L; Kristensen, T; Gaillard, C; Kebreab, E

    2016-01-01

    The idea of managing cows for extended lactations rather than lactations of the traditional length of 1 yr primarily arose from observations of increasing problems with infertility and cows being dried off with high milk yields. However, it is vital for the success of extended lactation practices that cows are able to maintain milk yield per feeding day when the length of the calving interval (CInt) is increased. Milk yield per feeding day is defined as the cumulated lactation milk yield divided by the sum of days between 2 consecutive calvings. The main objective of this study was to investigate the milk production of cows managed for lactations of different lengths, and the primary aim was to investigate the relationship between CInt, parity, and milk yield. Five measurements of milk yield were used: energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield per feeding day, ECM yield per lactating day, cumulative ECM yield during the first 305 d of lactation, as well as ECM yield per day during early and late lactation. The analyses were based on a total of 1,379 completed lactations from cows calving between January 2007 and May 2013 in 4 Danish commercial dairy herds managed for extended lactation for several years. Herd-average CInt length ranged from 414 to 521 d. The herds had Holstein, Jersey, or crosses between Holstein, Jersey, and Red Danish cows with average milk yields ranging from 7,644 to 11,286 kg of ECM per cow per year. A significant effect of the CInt was noted on all 5 measurements of milk yield, and this effect interacted with parity for ECM per feeding day, ECM per lactating day and ECM per day during late lactation. The results showed that cows were at least able to produce equivalent ECM per feeding day with increasing CInt, and that first- and second-parity cows maintained ECM per lactating day. Cows with a CInt between 17 and 19 mo produced 476 kg of ECM more during the first 305 d compared with cows with a CInt of less than 13 mo. Furthermore, early

  7. Genetic parameters for body condition score, body weight, milk yield, and fertility estimated using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Buckley, F; Dillon, P; Evans, R D; Rath, M; Veerkamp, R F

    2003-11-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk yield, and fertility were estimated using a random regression animal model extended to multivariate analysis. The data analyzed included 81,313 BCS observations, 91,937 BW observations, and 100,458 milk test-day yields from 8725 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows. A cubic random regression was sufficient to model the changing genetic variances for BCS, BW, and milk across different days in milk. The genetic correlations between BCS and fertility changed little over the lactation; genetic correlations between BCS and interval to first service and between BCS and pregnancy rate to first service varied from -0.47 to -0.31, and from 0.15 to 0.38, respectively. This suggests that maximum genetic gain in fertility from indirect selection on BCS should be based on measurements taken in midlactation when the genetic variance for BCS is largest. Selection for increased BW resulted in shorter intervals to first service, but more services and poorer pregnancy rates; genetic correlations between BW and pregnancy rate to first service varied from -0.52 to -0.45. Genetic selection for higher lactation milk yield alone through selection on increased milk yield in early lactation is likely to have a more deleterious effect on genetic merit for fertility than selection on higher milk yield in late lactation.

  8. Comparison of the compositions of the stool microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula, cow milk-based formula, or breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Gerald W; Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Gowri Pathmanathan, Siva; Zhou, Shao J; Makrides, Maria; Gibson, Robert A; Sullivan, Thomas; Prosser, Colin G; Lowry, Dianne; Hodgkinson, Alison J

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the compositions of the fecal microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula to those of infants fed cow milk formula or breast milk as the gold standard. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences was used in the analysis of the microbiotas in stool samples collected from 90 Australian babies (30 in each group) at 2 months of age. Beta-diversity analysis of total microbiota sequences and Lachnospiraceae sequences revealed that they were more similar in breast milk/goat milk comparisons than in breast milk/cow milk comparisons. The Lachnospiraceae were mostly restricted to a single species (Ruminococcus gnavus) in breast milk-fed and goat milk-fed babies compared to a more diverse collection in cow milk-fed babies. Bifidobacteriaceae were abundant in the microbiotas of infants in all three groups. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most commonly detected bifidobacterial species. A semiquantitative PCR method was devised to differentiate between B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis and was used to test stool samples. B. longum subsp. infantis was seldom present in stools, even of breast milk-fed babies. The presence of B. bifidum in the stools of breast milk-fed infants at abundances greater than 10% of the total microbiota was associated with the highest total abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae. When Bifidobacteriaceae abundance was low, Lachnospiraceae abundances were greater. New information about the composition of the fecal microbiota when goat milk formula is used in infant nutrition was thus obtained.

  9. The effect of selected cereals contained in feed ration on the amino acid composition of cows’ milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Šípalová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of maize replacement in feeding rations on the amino acid content in cows´ milk. Cows were fed total mix ration based on the maize, clover silage and hay. There was a difference in the concentrate of the feeding ration. The first group (fed maize was the control group, another two groups were experimental, one fed wheat and second fed triticale. During six weeks, totally 26 milk samples were taken from dairy cows of Czech Pied breed. Feed groups were preferably balanced in terms of milk yield, stage and number of lactations. The samples of feedstuffs as well as milk were modified for the analysis using acidic and oxidative hydrolyses. The analysis of amino acids content and composition of the sample hydrolysates was performed chromatographically by an AAA 400 analyzer, using Na-citrate buffers and ninhydrin detection. Total nitrogen content was determined according to Kjehldahl and the crude protein of the samples was determined by conversion from the nitrogen content multiplied by appropriate factor. The high content of crude protein in wheat did not influenced composition of milk from dairy cows fed this type of feedstuff. With respect to resulting amino acid content and composition of milk samples, none of the tested grains can be re­com­men­ded as a full-value maize replacement. Each feedstuff is an abundant source of several and ty­pi­cal amino acids in milk. However, triticale (cultivar Kitaro seems to be acceptable replacement of maize owing to better crude protein efficiency, composition and health indicators of milk quality.

  10. The effect of subclinical mastitis on milk yield in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, G; van Werven, T; Schuiling, H J; Nielen, M

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate milk yield (MY) losses associated with subclinical intramammary infection (IMI) in dairy goats and to assess if somatic cell count (SCC) can be used to estimate such MY losses. We used 2 data sets to study these questions. The first data set consisted of 5 herds. Milk production and SCC were recorded during 1 lactation. From approximately 100 does in each herd, milk samples were collected on 3 occasions during lactation for bacteriological culture. Linear mixed regression was used to estimate the effect of IMI on MY. The second data set consisted of 6 large herds, in which some of the goats had an extended lactation (≥2 yr). Milk yield and SCC data were recorded without bacteriological culture. The data showed that bacterial infection was related to an increase in SCC. Infections with major pathogens were rare and associated with a decreased MY; infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci did not affect MY, whereas infection with Corynebacterium bovis was associated with increased MY. A negative correlation was observed between SCC and MY, but the data suggested that this negative correlation was attenuated rather than caused by IMI. Furthermore, SCC seemed to be affected by MY via a dilution effect. Hypotheses about biological mechanisms behind these observations are discussed. This paper shows that MY losses caused by subclinical udder infections are limited in goats, and that SCC cannot be used to estimate the magnitude of these losses. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pathogen-specific effects on milk yield in repeated clinical mastitis episodes in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of clinical mastitis (CM) cases due to different pathogens on milk yield in Holstein cows. The first 3 CM cases in a cow's lactation were modeled. Eight categories of pathogens were included: Streptococcus spp.; Staphylococcus aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; cases with CM signs but no bacterial growth (above the level detectable by our microbiological procedures) observed in the culture sample, and cases with contamination (≥ 3 pathogens in the sample); other pathogens that may be treated with antibiotics (included Citrobacter, Corynebacterium bovis, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas; "other treatable"); and other pathogens not successfully treated with antibiotics (Trueperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma, Prototheca, yeasts; "other not treatable"). Data from 38,276 lactations in cows from 5 New York State dairy herds, collected from 2003-2004 until 2011, were analyzed. Mixed models with an autoregressive correlation structure (to account for correlation among the repeated measures of milk yield within a lactation) were estimated. Primiparous (lactation 1) and multiparous (lactations 2 and 3) cows were analyzed separately, as the shapes of their lactation curves differed. Primiparas were followed for up to 48 wk of lactation and multiparas for up to 44 wk. Fixed effects included parity, calving season, week of lactation, CM (type, case number, and timing of CM in relation to milk production cycle), and other diseases (milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum). Herd was modeled as a random effect. Clinical mastitis was more common in multiparas than in primiparas. In primiparas, Streptococcus spp. occurred most frequently as the first case. In multiparas, E. coli was most common as the first case. In subsequent cases, CM cases with no specific growth or contamination were most common in both parity groups. The hazard of

  12. Limits to prediction of energy balance from milk composition measures at individual cow level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, P; Ridder, C; Friggens, N C

    2010-01-01

    at each milking. Three breeds (Danish Red, Holstein-Friesian, and Jersey) of cows (299 cows, 623 lactations) in parities 1 to 4 were used. Milk data were smoothed using a rolling local regression. Energy balance based on milk composition was calculated using a partial least squares (PLS) model based......Frequently updated energy balance (EB) estimates for individual cows are especially useful for dairy herd management, and individual-level estimates form the basis for group-level EB estimates. The accuracy of EB estimates determines the value of this information for management decision support....... This study aimed to assess EB accuracy through ANOVA components and by comparing EB estimates based either on milk composition (EBalMilk) or on body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) (EBalBody). Energy balance based on milk composition was evaluated using data in which milk composition was measured...

  13. A field study on the effects of dietary monensin on milk production and milk composition in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, Jocelyn; DuTremblay, Denis; Baril, Jean; Bagg, Randy; Brodeur, Marcel; Duffield, Todd; DesCôteaux, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of 16 ppm of dietary monensin on milk production and composition of dairy cows, and to investigate factors having a potential impact on this effect. Data were generated from a total of 3577 Holstein dairy cows (47 herds) in Quebec enrolled in a herd-level, randomized clinical trial investigating the effects of monensin supplementation. Milk production and composition data were collected from monthly dairy herd improvement (DHI) testing. Monensin increased milk production by 0.9 kg/cow/d in cows under 150 days in milk (DIM) (P < 0.05). Monensin decreased milk fat percentage by 0.18 percentage points during the whole lactation (P < 0.05). This decreasing effect was larger for component-fed cows (P < 0.05) and for cows being fed low levels of dietary physically effective particles (P < 0.05) when compared respectively to cows fed total mixed ration and cows fed high levels of dietary physically effective particles. The results of this study suggest that monensin influences milk production and milk composition of dairy cows, and that diet composition and feeding system influence those effects. PMID:20592825

  14. Adaptive models for online estimation of individual milk yield response to concentrate intake and milking interval length of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, G.; Engel, B.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Automated feeding and milking of dairy cows enables the application of individual cow settings for concentrate supply and milking frequency. Currently, general settings are used, based on knowledge about energy and nutrient requirements in relation to milk production at the group level. Individual

  15. Relationship between climatic variables and the variation in bulk tank milk composition using canonical correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürmer, Morgana; Busanello, Marcos; Velho, João Pedro; Heck, Vanessa Isabel; Haygert-Velho, Ione Maria Pereira

    2018-06-04

    A number of studies have addressed the relations between climatic variables and milk composition, but these works used univariate statistical approaches. In our study, we used a multivariate approach (canonical correlation) to study the impact of climatic variables on milk composition, price, and monthly milk production at a dairy farm using bulk tank milk data. Data on milk composition, price, and monthly milk production were obtained from a dairy company that purchased the milk from the farm, while climatic variable data were obtained from the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET). The data are from January 2014 to December 2016. Univariate correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis were performed. Few correlations between the climatic variables and milk composition were found using a univariate approach. However, using canonical correlation analysis, we found a strong and significant correlation (r c  = 0.95, p value = 0.0029). Lactose, ambient temperature measures (mean, minimum, and maximum), and temperature-humidity index (THI) were found to be the most important variables for the canonical correlation. Our study indicated that 10.2% of the variation in milk composition, pricing, and monthly milk production can be explained by climatic variables. Ambient temperature variables, together with THI, seem to have the most influence on variation in milk composition.

  16. Quantitative and compositional variations in milk yield of west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    apra.v4i3-4.49782 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES.

  17. Effect of feeding levels on the milk yield and on the incorporation of 14C labelled Volatile Fatty Acids in rumen into the milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahara, Nobuo; Nishibe, Shinzo

    1975-01-01

    It has been known that milk production was influenced by the feeding schedule, such as hay vs silage and ratio or concentrate to roughage, which have an important effect upon the VFA (volatile fatty acid) production in the rumen. This experiment were conducted using acetate-1- 14 C, propionate-1- 14 C, and butylate-1- 14 C, to examine the effect of nutritional feeding levels on the milk yield and on the incorporation rate of ruminal VFA-1- 14 C into the milk components. The experiment using six Holstein cows, had two periods, with different levels of concentrate feeding. In the first period, the concentrate fed was a half of 4%-FCM and in the second period, its level was a half of the first one. As a roughage, corn silage and grass hay were fed. Following the reduced feeding level of the concentrate, nutrient intake, milk yield, milk component yield and the lactose percentage were all lowered, but the fat percentage was slightly increased and the casein percentage was constant while the incorporation rates of each ruminal VFA-1- 14 C into the milk components were also lowered, remarkably for the lactose. (auth.)

  18. Effect of feeding levels on the milk yield and on the incorporation of /sup 14/C labelled Volatile Fatty Acids in rumen into the milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahara, N; Nishibe, S [Hokkaido National Agricultural Experiment Station, Sapporo (Japan)

    1975-07-01

    It has been known that milk production was influenced by the feeding schedule, such as hay vs silage and ratio or concentrate to roughage, which have an important effect upon the VFA (volatile fatty acid) production in the rumen. This experiment was conducted using acetate-1-/sup 14/C, propionate-1-/sup 14/C, and butylate-1-/sup 14/C, to examine the effect of nutritional feeding levels on the milk yield and on the incorporation rate of ruminal VFA-1-/sup 14/C into the milk components. The experiment using six Holstein cows, had two periods, with different levels of concentrate feeding. In the first period, the concentrate fed was a half of 4%-FCM and in the second period, its level was a half of the first one. As a roughage, corn silage and grass hay were fed. Following the reduced feeding level of the concentrate, nutrient intake, milk yield, milk component yield and the lactose percentage were all lowered, but the fat percentage was slightly increased and the casein percentage was constant while the incorporation rates of each ruminal VFA-1-/sup 14/C into the milk components were also lowered, remarkably for the lactose.

  19. Short communication: Genetic study of methane production predicted from milk fat composition in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelen, S; Bovenhuis, H; Dijkstra, J; van Arendonk, J A M; Visker, M H P W

    2015-11-01

    Dairy cows produce enteric methane, a greenhouse gas with 25 times the global warming potential of CO2. Breeding could make a permanent, cumulative, and long-term contribution to methane reduction. Due to a lack of accurate, repeatable, individual methane measurements needed for breeding, indicators of methane production based on milk fatty acids have been proposed. The aim of the present study was to quantify the genetic variation for predicted methane yields. The milk fat composition of 1,905 first-lactation Dutch Holstein-Friesian cows was used to investigate 3 different predicted methane yields (g/kg of DMI): Methane1, Methane2, and Methane3. Methane1 was based on the milk fat proportions of C17:0anteiso, C18:1 rans-10+11, C18:1 cis-11, and C18:1 cis-13 (R(2)=0.73). Methane2 was based on C4:0, C18:0, C18:1 trans-10+11, and C18:1 cis-11 (R(2)=0.70). Methane3 was based on C4:0, C6:0, and C18:1 trans-10+11 (R(2)=0.63). Predicted methane yields were demonstrated to be heritable traits, with heritabilities between 0.12 and 0.44. Breeding can, thus, be used to decrease methane production predicted based on milk fatty acids. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Compressive yielding of tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, B.; Lee, S.-Y.; Uestuendag, E.; Aydiner, C.C.; Conner, R.D.; Bourke, M.A.M

    2003-07-15

    In-situ uniaxial compression tests were conducted on four tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites using neutron diffraction. The results were interpreted with a finite element model. Both phases were seen to approximately obey the von Mises yield criterion. The fibers were observed to yield first and then transfer load to the matrix.

  1. Compressive yielding of tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, B.; Lee, S.-Y.; Uestuendag, E.; Aydiner, C.C.; Conner, R.D.; Bourke, M.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    In-situ uniaxial compression tests were conducted on four tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites using neutron diffraction. The results were interpreted with a finite element model. Both phases were seen to approximately obey the von Mises yield criterion. The fibers were observed to yield first and then transfer load to the matrix

  2. The nutritive value, yield and botanical composition of irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performances of grass and grass/legume swards at three levels of nitrogen were compared under irrigation over a three-year period. The swards were grazed by dairy cows and the influence of nitrogen on dry matter yield, protein content, protein yield and botanical composition was measured. Keywords: ...

  3. Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Delaš

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0, along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6 was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

  4. Botanical composition, yield and nutritional quality of grassland in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock production contributes to the livelihoods of the Ethiopian people; however, the productivity of the livestock subsector in the highlands is low due to malnutrition. Therefore, this study assessed the botanical composition, dry matter (DM) yield, chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of the ...

  5. Effect of short-term versus long-term grassland management and seasonal variation in organic and conventional dairy farming on the composition of bulk tank milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S A; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Govasmark, E

    2013-01-01

    Bulk tank milk from 28 dairy farms was sampled every second month for 2 yr to assess the effects of grassland management, production system and season on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins, Se, and milk sensory quality. Grassland management varied in terms of...... feeding periods had potential health benefits due to FA composition. In contrast, the higher milk-fat proportions of saturated FA in milk from ORG farms may be perceived as negative for human health.......:0 and C18:1 cis-9 associated with higher forage proportion and differences in concentrations of FA in concentrates. Compared with the outdoor-feeding periods, the indoor feeding periods yielded milk fat with higher proportions of most short-chain and medium-chain FA and lower proportions of most C18-FA....... In conclusion, grassland management had minor effects on milk composition, and differences between ORG farms and CON farms may be explained by differences in concentrate intake and concentrate FA concentrations. Milk produced on ORG farms versus CON farms and milk produced during the outdoor versus indoor...

  6. Effect of pasture botanical composition on milk composition in organic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S.; Dahl, A.V.; Vae, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Milk samples from sixteen Norwegian Red dairy cows grazing mixed swards of either grass-red clover (GR) or mixed swards of sown and unsown species of grass, clover and other herbs (GCH) were collected during four periods. Both pastures were organically managed. Pasture botanical composition had...

  7. Estimation of 305 Day Milk Yield from Cumulative Monthly and Bimonthly Test Day Records in Indonesian Holstein Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, A. P.; Hartatik, T.; Purnomoadi, A.; Kurnianto, E.

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate 305 day first lactation milk yield of Indonesian Holstein cattle from cumulative monthly and bimonthly test day records and to analyze its accuracy.The first lactation records of 258 dairy cows from 2006 to 2014 consisted of 2571 monthly (MTDY) and 1281 bimonthly test day yield (BTDY) records were used. Milk yields were estimated by regression method. Correlation coefficients between actual and estimated milk yield by cumulative MTDY were 0.70, 0.78, 0.83, 0.86, 0.89, 0.92, 0.94 and 0.96 for 2-9 months, respectively, meanwhile by cumulative BTDY were 0.69, 0.81, 0.87 and 0.92 for 2, 4, 6 and 8 months, respectively. The accuracy of fitting regression models (R2) increased with the increasing in the number of cumulative test day used. The used of 5 cumulative MTDY was considered sufficient for estimating 305 day first lactation milk yield with 80.6% accuracy and 7% error percentage of estimation. The estimated milk yield from MTDY was more accurate than BTDY by 1.1 to 2% less error percentage in the same time.

  8. VITAMIN-E, LIPID FRACTIONS, AND FATTY-ACID COMPOSITION OF COLOSTRUM, TRANSITIONAL MILK, AND MATURE MILK - AN INTERNATIONAL COMPARATIVE-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOERSMA, ER; OFFRINGA, PJ; MUSKIET, FAJ; CHASE, WM; SIMMONS, IJ

    Triglycerides, cholesterol, fatty acid composition, and tocopherols were determined in colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk in St Lucia. With progress of lactation, triglycerides and percentage medium-chain fatty acids increased whereas tocopherols, cholesterol, and percentage longchain

  9. Influence of raw milk quality on processed dairy products: How do raw milk quality test results relate to product quality and yield?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Steven C; Martin, Nicole H; Barbano, David M; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the influence of raw milk quality on the quality of processed dairy products and offers a perspective on the merits of investing in quality. Dairy farmers are frequently offered monetary premium incentives to provide high-quality milk to processors. These incentives are most often based on raw milk somatic cell and bacteria count levels well below the regulatory public health-based limits. Justification for these incentive payments can be based on improved processed product quality and manufacturing efficiencies that provide the processor with a return on their investment for high-quality raw milk. In some cases, this return on investment is difficult to measure. Raw milks with high levels of somatic cells and bacteria are associated with increased enzyme activity that can result in product defects. Use of raw milk with somatic cell counts >100,000cells/mL has been shown to reduce cheese yields, and higher levels, generally >400,000 cells/mL, have been associated with textural and flavor defects in cheese and other products. Although most research indicates that fairly high total bacteria counts (>1,000,000 cfu/mL) in raw milk are needed to cause defects in most processed dairy products, receiving high-quality milk from the farm allows some flexibility for handling raw milk, which can increase efficiencies and reduce the risk of raw milk reaching bacterial levels of concern. Monitoring total bacterial numbers in regard to raw milk quality is imperative, but determining levels of specific types of bacteria present has gained increasing importance. For example, spores of certain spore-forming bacteria present in raw milk at very low levels (e.g., products to levels that result in defects. With the exception of meeting product specifications often required for milk powders, testing for specific spore-forming groups is currently not used in quality incentive programs in the United States but is used in other countries (e.g., the

  10. The effect of partial replacement of corn silage on rumen degradability, milk production and composition in lactating primiparous dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Biricik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of corn silage with long alfalfa hay and/or coarse chopped wheat straw on neutral detergent fibre (NDF rumen degradability, milk yield and composition in late lactating dairy cows fed diets with 50% forage on dry matter basis. Twelve late lactating Holstein primiparous cows including four cows equipped with a rumen cannula, averaging 210 ± 20 d in milk and weighing 575 ± 50 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design. During each of four 21-d periods, cows were fed 4 total mixed diets that were varied in the forage sources: 1 50% corn silage (CS, 2 35% corn silage + 15% wheat straw (CSW, 3 35% corn silage + 15% alfalfa hay (CSA, 4 25% corn silage + 10% wheat straw + 15% alfalfa hay (CSWA. The production of milk averaged 18.55, 20.41 and 20.06 kg/d for unadjusted milk production, 4% fat corrected milk and solid corrected milk, respectively, and was not affected by treatments. Likewise, milk composition or production of milk components was not affected by diets and averaged 4.69% fat, 3.66% protein, 4.51% lactose, 866 g/d fat, 665 g/d protein, 824 g/d lactose. Treatments had no effect on in situ NDF soluble, degradable and potential degradability of all diets, whereas the effective degradability (ED of NDF was greater for cows fed CS diet than for cows fed CSW, CSA and CSWA diets (P<0.05. These values suggested that the partial replacement of corn silage with alfalfa hay and/or wheat straw has no unfavourable effect on the productive parameters.

  11. Genetic relationship of lactation persistency with milk yield, somatic cell score, reproductive traits, and longevity in Slovak Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Strapáková, Eva; Candrák, Juraj; Strapák, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the breeding values (BVs) of lactation persistency, the test day of milk yield, the somatic cell score, reproductive traits (calving interval, days open), longevity in Slovak Holstein dairy cattle. BVs were used for the detection of relationships among the persistency of lactation and other selected traits. Data for the estimation of BVs of milk production and somatic cell score were collected from 855 240 cows. BVs for reproductive t...

  12. Reciprocal combinations of barley and corn grains in oil-supplemented diets: feeding behavior and milk yield of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, S; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Schingoethe, D J

    2014-11-01

    The effect of barley-based (BBD) or corn-based diets (CBD), or their equal blend (BCBD) on dry matter (DM) intake, feeding and chewing behavior, and production performance of lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (75.6 ± 11.0 d in milk) were used in a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Forage-to-concentrate ratio (40:60), forage neutral detergent fiber (20% of DM), total neutral detergent fiber (>29% of DM), and geometric mean particle size (4.3mm) were similar among treatments. Meal patterns, including meal size and intermeal interval, were not affected by the dietary treatments and DM intake (25.6 kg/d) was not different among treatments. Ether extract intake increased linearly with increasing amount of the corn grain in the diets. Due to similar feed intake, actual milk (48.6 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk (36.8 kg/d), and fat- and protein-corrected milk (38.1 kg/d) yields were not affected by treatments. Average milk protein percentage and yield were 2.83% and 1.37 kg/d, respectively, and were not different across treatments. Milk fat percentage increased linearly with increasing amount of corn grain in the diets and was greater in CBD relative to BCBD but not BBD (2.31, 2.28, and 2.57%, for BBD, BCBD, and CBD, respectively). However, milk fat yield tended to show a linear increase as the amount of corn grain included in the diets increased. Results indicated that changing diet fermentability by replacing barley grain for corn grain in oil-supplemented diets did not influence feeding patterns and thereby no changes in feed intake and milk yield occurred. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. the composition of the milk of the african dwarf goat, springbok

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    portant, particularly the composition of the mother's milk. Ben-Shaul (1963) has given the composition of the milk of a large number of wild animals but those of the blue duiker. (CephaJophus monticola), springbok (Antidorcas morsupialis) and the African dwarf goat (Caprine spp.) were not included. These three animals are.

  14. A decision-tree model to detect post-calving diseases based on rumination, activity, milk yield, BW and voluntary visits to the milking robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, M; Antler, A; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Maltz, E; Halachmi, I

    2016-09-01

    Early detection of post-calving health problems is critical for dairy operations. Separating sick cows from the herd is important, especially in robotic-milking dairy farms, where searching for a sick cow can disturb the other cows' routine. The objectives of this study were to develop and apply a behaviour- and performance-based health-detection model to post-calving cows in a robotic-milking dairy farm, with the aim of detecting sick cows based on available commercial sensors. The study was conducted in an Israeli robotic-milking dairy farm with 250 Israeli-Holstein cows. All cows were equipped with rumination- and neck-activity sensors. Milk yield, visits to the milking robot and BW were recorded in the milking robot. A decision-tree model was developed on a calibration data set (historical data of the 10 months before the study) and was validated on the new data set. The decision model generated a probability of being sick for each cow. The model was applied once a week just before the veterinarian performed the weekly routine post-calving health check. The veterinarian's diagnosis served as a binary reference for the model (healthy-sick). The overall accuracy of the model was 78%, with a specificity of 87% and a sensitivity of 69%, suggesting its practical value.

  15. Effects of genetic selection for milk yield on energy balance, levels of hormones, and metabolites in lactating cattle, and possible links to reduced fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Beerda, B.; Lende, van der T.

    2003-01-01

    Selection for a higher milk yield increases metabolic load via a higher yield per se and/or via physiological processes that facilitate milk yield, and it is difficult to differentiate between these two. Here, we aim to identify important pathways that contribute to the reduction in fertility

  16. Effect of feed supplements on dry season milk yield and profitability of crossbred cows in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, Christoph; Peters, Michael; Möhring, Jens; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    The contribution of dry season silage feeding on daily milk yield (MY) and dairying profitability in terms of income over feed cost (IOFC) was evaluated in dual-purpose cattle production systems in Honduras. MY records of 34 farms from two milk collection centres were collected over a 2-year period. Farms were surveyed to obtain information on the type, quantity and cost of supplemented feed, breed type and number of lactating cows in each month. Farms were classified in silage farms (SF, with a short silage supplementation period), non-silage farms (NSF) and prototype farms (PF, with an extended silage supplementation period). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and a linear mixed model approach. PF had significantly higher MY than SF and NSF but, due to higher expenses for both concentrate and silage, similar IOFC compared to NSF. SF had similar MY but lower IOFC compared to NSF, due to higher feed expenses. The effect of silage feeding, particularly maize silage, on MY was significant and superior to that of other forage supplements. Silage supplementation contributed to the highest MY and IOFC on farms with crossbred cows of >62.5 % Bos taurus and to the second highest profitability on farms with >87.5 % Bos indicus share. It is concluded that silage can play an important role in drought-constrained areas of the tropics and can contribute to profitable dairying, irrespective of breed.

  17. EFFECTS OF HIGH SOYBEAN OIL FOR GOATS IN LATE LACTATION ON INTAKE, MILK COMPOSITION AND FATTY ACID PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brou Kouakou

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal fat and vegetable oils are generally added to livestock diets to increase energy density. Unlike other ruminants, goats can tolerate more than 6% dietary fat. Feeding a diet containing soybean oil (SO, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA to goats can change the milk fat composition, thereby modifying the nutritional quality of the milk. PUFA such as linoleic acids are considered healthier fats since they have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases in humans. Eighteen dairy goats (3 - 4 yr.; BW = 40 kg; 9 Saanen and 9 Alpine in late lactation were used in an experiment to determine the effect of high PUFA (12% soybean oil; 12% SO on feed intake, milk composition and fatty acid profile. Does were group fed once a day (2 pens per treatment a 16% CP and 3.5 Mcal DE/kg diets containing either 6 or 12% SO for 24 d. Feed intake was recorded daily during the trial and milk yield was recorded from d-10 to d-24. Milk samples were collected 3 times a week and analyzed for protein, fat, lactose, and total solids. Milk fat was extracted and prepared for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. The FAMEs were analyzed using a gas chromatography (GC unit, fitted with a 60 m x 0.25 mm i.d. fused silica SP 2380 (Sigma-Aldrich capillary column. The data were analyzed using MIXED procedures in SAS as a completely randomized design with repeated measures. Dietary treatments did not affect (P > 0.05 pen feed intake, milk yield or milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and total solids. Diet containing 12% SO decreased (P < 0.05 the proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA; C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C16:0 and increased (P < 0.01 the proportions of monounsaturated fat (MUFA; C18:1n9; C18:1t, and the predominant PUFA, linoleic acid (C18:2n6. The results indicate that goats consuming diet with 12% SO (high PUFA in late lactation produced milk with higher proportions of PUFA and MUFA and lower proportions of SFA compared to 6% SO.

  18. Efeitos do estresse térmico sobre a produção, composição química do leite e respostas termorreguladoras de cabras da raça alpina Thermal stress effects on milk yield and chemical composition and thermoregulatory responses of lactating alpines goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena de Albuquerque Brasil

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Seis cabras da raça Alpina, com produção média de leite de 2,5 kg/dia, foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos de três e submetidas à termoneutralidade ou estresse térmico por 56 dias em câmara climática. Usou-se um delineamento estatístico "crossover". A temperatura média do ar diurna, incluindo radiação solar simulada, foi de 33,84ºC. Os animais estressados aumentaram a freqüência respiratória, o volume-minuto respiratório, a termólise-evaporativa respiratória, temperatura retal e a taxa de sudorese, enquanto o volume corrente respiratório e o volume globular diminuíram. Houve também perda de peso, redução da ingestão de alimentos e duplicação do consumo de água. A produção de leite e a porcentagem de gordura, proteína, lactose e sólidos totais diminuíram. Os teores de cloretos, cálcio e fósforo não sofreram alteração. Concluiu-se que, para manter a homeotermia, as cabras mobilizaram o sistema respiratório e sudoríparo para perder calor. A alta temperatura ambiente efetiva reduziu a produção e os teores de alguns componentes do leite.Six Alpine goats with an average milk yield of 2.5 kg/day were randomly assigned to two groups of three and allotted to thermoneutral or heat stress conditions, for 56 days in climate chamber room. A crossover experimental design was used. The goats under heat stress were exposed to a diurnal average air temperature plus simulated solar radiation of 33. 84ºC. The heat-stressed goats showed elevated respiratory frequency, respiratory minute volume, respiratory evaporation, rectal temperature and sweating rate, while the tidal volume and packed cell volume decreased. Further weight loss, decreased feed intake, and their water consumption doubled. The milk yield, the percentage of fat, protein, lactose and total solid contents decreased. The contents of chloride, calcium and phosphorus did not change. The goats mobilized the respiratory and sweating systems to

  19. The Effects of Superovulation Prior to Mating and Zinc Supplementation on Milk Yields in Etawah-Grade Does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriani Adriani

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six Etawah-grade does (BW ranged from 20.4 to 44.2 kg and age ranged from 2.5 to 7 years were used to study the effects of superovulation prior to mating and zinc supplementation on milk yields. The experimental does were assigned into a randomized block design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. The first factor was PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin injection with 2 levels (0 IU/kg BW [nonsuperovulation–NSO] and 15 IU/kg BW [Superovulation–SO]. The second factor was zinc concentration in the diet with 3 levels (40 mg/kg DM [Z-40], 60 mg/kg DM [Z-60], and 80 mg/kg DM [Z-80]. Intravaginal sponge (60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate was applied for 14 days to synchronize estrus cycle. Twenty four  hours prior to sponge removal, PMSG was injected  to  stimulate superovulation. After  sponge removal,  5 experimental does  were mixed with 1 buck for natural mating. During  pregnancy  the experimental does were fed and  raised in   individual stables. Udder volume  was measured every other week from weeks 12 to 21 of  pregnancy.  During lactation  (one week to  5 months post partum kids were separated from the does, and   milk was harvested by hand milking. Milk samples were taken every other week for determination of milk quality. The results  indicated that  superovulation increased udder differential growth  by 80% (822.85 vs 1481.25 cm3/head, milk yield by  32% (567.14 vs 746.52 g/head/day.  Zinc concentration  increased udder differential growth and milk yield. Milk productions for does receiving 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg DM were 565.68, 737.88 and 666.92 g/day, respectively.It was concluded that  superovulation and zinc supplementation  increased milk  yield in Etawah Grade does. (Animal Production 6(2: 86-94 (2004   Key Words:  Superovulation, Zinc, Milk  Yield, Etawah-Grade

  20. Genetic parameters of linear conformation type traits and their relationship with milk yield throughout lactation in mixed-breed dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, A; Mucha, S; Mrode, R; Coffey, M; Conington, J

    2016-07-01

    Conformation traits are of interest to many dairy goat breeders not only as descriptive traits in their own right, but also because of their influence on production, longevity, and profitability. If these traits are to be considered for inclusion in future dairy goat breeding programs, relationships between them and production traits such as milk yield must be considered. With the increased use of regression models to estimate genetic parameters, an opportunity now exists to investigate correlations between conformation traits and milk yield throughout lactation in more detail. The aims of this study were therefore to (1) estimate genetic parameters for conformation traits in a population of crossbred dairy goats, (2) estimate correlations between all conformation traits, and (3) assess the relationship between conformation traits and milk yield throughout lactation. No information on milk composition was available. Data were collected from goats based on 2 commercial goat farms during August and September in 2013 and 2014. Ten conformation traits, relating to udder, teat, leg, and feet characteristics, were scored on a linear scale (1-9). The overall data set comprised data available for 4,229 goats, all in their first lactation. The population of goats used in the study was created using random crossings between 3 breeds: British Alpine, Saanen, and Toggenburg. In each generation, the best performing animals were selected for breeding, leading to the formation of a synthetic breed. The pedigree file used in the analyses contained sire and dam information for a total of 30,139 individuals. The models fitted relevant fixed and random effects. Heritability estimates for the conformation traits were low to moderate, ranging from 0.02 to 0.38. A range of positive and negative phenotypic and genetic correlations between the traits were observed, with the highest correlations found between udder depth and udder attachment (0.78), teat angle and teat placement (0

  1. Comparison of carcass yield and meat composition of three classes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to compare the carcass yield and meat composition of three classes of chicken. Twenty one (21) birds in total consisting of 7 birds each of broilers, cockerel and spent hens were purchased from a reputable farm in Aiyepe, Ogun State. Birds were acclimatized for two weeks under similar ...

  2. Characteristics of the lactation, chemical composition milk hygiene quality of the Littoral-Dinaric ass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Ivanković

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk production is one of the possible economic uses of donkey population. The Littoral- Dinaric donkey is numerous, but the structural changes in rural areas during the last decade have pushed it into a group of endangered genetic heritage. The aim of this research is to determine the production potential, lactation characteristics, chemical composition and hygienic quality of the Littoral-Dinaric ass milk. The average milk production was 172.12 mL per milking with the average fat percentage of 0.33 %, milk protein 1.55 %, and lactose 6.28 %. The low average number of somatic cells and bacterial count are noticed in ass’s milk (4.09 mL log-1; 3.58 mL log-1. A significant influence of lactation stage on the milk quantity and proportion of dry matter (P<0.01, as well on the proportion of milk fat and milk protein (P<0.05, was observed. Also the influence of the season on productivity, and the proportion of dry matter and milk fat (P<0001, as well as milk protein (P<0.01 was also significant. Productivity of the Littoral-Dinaric ass in the pasture system is relatively modest, but the direct and indirect benefits from this kind of production are multiple. That is the reason to continue the development of donkey milk production technology.

  3. Nitrogen balance and milk composition of dairy cows fed urea and soybean meal and two protein levels using sugar cane based diets

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Henrique Andreucci Conti; Elmeson Ferreira de Jesus; Angélica Simone Cravo Pereira; Marcos André Arcari; Kleber da Cunha Peixoto Junior; Francisco Palma Rennó; Marcos Veiga dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of feeding two levels of crude protein (CP) (low: 142 g CP/kg DM; and high: 156 g CP/kg DM) and two nitrogen sources (soybean meal and urea) to dairy cows using sugar cane as forage on microbial protein synthesis, the composition of the milk nitrogen fraction, nitrogen (N) balance and blood parameters. Twelve Holstein cows with an average milk yield of 22.0 ± 2.3 kg/day, and with 235 ± 40 days in milk were included in this study. The animals wer...

  4. Influence of the type of milking and storage of milk on the chem ical composition, Somatic Cell Count and bacterial count Total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Leite Peixoto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The refrigeration of milk and the usage of mechanical milking are important to obtain milk in accordance with quality standards. In this work we evaluated the influence of the type of milking process and type of storage on the quality of the refrigerated milk. It was obtained 1363 refrigerated milk samples stored in single or collective expansion tanks, from manually or mechanically milked animals. The experiment was carried out in a 2x2 randomized factorial scheme. Two types of expansion tanks (single and collective and two types of milking (manual and mechanical. The average comparison test and Tukey test was carried out with 95% confidence. The levels of fat, protein, lactose and defatted dry extract, were evaluated according to the type of milking and type of milk storage. The values obtained were higher when compared to the values stabilished by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. The level of milk fat was higher in samples with somatic cell count above 501,000 SC/mL. However, the levels of protein and defatted dry extract were higher in samples with somatic cell count below 500,000 SC/mL. The type of milking and the type of storage have influence on parameters related to milk quality such as levels of fat, protein, lactose and somatic cell count. The milk chemical composition revealed in accordance with the values stabilished by the Brazilian legislation. The total bacterial count did not vary with storage type nor the type of milking.

  5. Composition and Variation of Macronutrients, Immune Proteins, and Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Human Milk From Nonprofit and Commercial Milk Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith-Dennis, Laura; Xu, Gege; Goonatilleke, Elisha; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Underwood, Mark A; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2018-02-01

    When human milk is unavailable, banked milk is recommended for feeding premature infants. Milk banks use processes to eliminate pathogens; however, variability among methods exists. Research aim: The aim of this study was to compare the macronutrient (protein, carbohydrate, fat, energy), immune-protective protein, and human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) content of human milk from three independent milk banks that use pasteurization (Holder vs. vat techniques) or retort sterilization. Randomly acquired human milk samples from three different milk banks ( n = 3 from each bank) were analyzed for macronutrient concentrations using a Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy human milk analyzer. The concentrations of IgA, IgM, IgG, lactoferrin, lysozyme, α-lactalbumin, α antitrypsin, casein, and HMO were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The concentrations of protein and fat were significantly ( p < .05) less in the retort sterilized compared with the Holder and vat pasteurized samples, respectively. The concentrations of all immune-modulating proteins were significantly ( p < .05) less in the retort sterilized samples compared with vat and/or Holder pasteurized samples. The total HMO concentration and HMOs containing fucose, sialic acid, and nonfucosylated neutral sugars were significantly ( p < .05) less in retort sterilized compared with Holder pasteurized samples. Random milk samples that had undergone retort sterilization had significantly less immune-protective proteins and total and specific HMOs compared with samples that had undergone Holder and vat pasteurization. These data suggest that further analysis of the effect of retort sterilization on human milk components is needed prior to widespread adoption of this process.

  6. The effects of time of disease occurrence, milk yield, and body condition on fertility of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, S H; de Vries, M J; Schukken, Y H

    1999-12-01

    The associations between occurrence of diseases, milk yield, and body condition score on conception risk after first artificial insemination (AI) were analyzed in an observational study on a convenience sample of 43 farms participating in a herd health program. Data were taken from 9369 lactations, from 4382 cows inseminated between 20 and 180 d in milk from 1990 to 1996. Two logistic regression models, one containing data from all lactations and a subset containing data from 1762 lactations with body condition scoring, were used to determine pregnancy risk at first AI. The effects of herd deviation in test-day milk yield, body condition score loss, and milk fat to protein ratio changes in early lactation were significant predictors of pregnancy risk, independent of disease; days in milk; farm; and seasonal factors. Three different methods of disease parameterization (incidence rates, binomial classes dependent on the interval in days since last occurrence with respect to AI, and a linear variable weighted for this interval) produced similar results. Metritis, cystic ovarian disease, lameness, and mastitis gave odds ratios for pregnancy risk ranging from 0.35 to 1.15, largely dependent on the interval in days from final disease occurrence to first AI. Displaced abomasum, milk fever, and retained fetal membranes resulted in odds ratios for pregnancy risk of 0.25, 0.85, and 0.55, respectively. These diseases showed little relationship between fertility and the number of days since last occurrence. Results of this study confirm the negative effects of milk yield, body score condition loss, and disease on dairy cow fertility. The effects of some diseases on first service conception were strongly dependent on the interval since last disease occurrence. This was especially valid for clinical mastitis, which has an extremely weak effect on conception if occurring prior to AI and is associated with > 50% reduction in pregnancy risk if occurring in the 3 wk directly after

  7. How do characteristics of donors and their children influence volume and composition of banked milk?

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqua Anna Quitadamo; Giuseppina Palumbo; Alberto Gatta; Liliana Cianti; Massimiliano Copetti; Maria Assunta Gentile; Pierpaolo Cristalli

    2018-01-01

    When own mother’s milk is not available, donor human milk (DHM) is the first choice in preterm infant feeding. Although worldwide strong efforts have been made to implement human milk (HM) donation, there is currently little available research on donors characteristics and their influence on volume and composition of DHM. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between social-demographic variables of donating mothers (age, residence, job, number of children), as well as gestation...

  8. RESEARCH REGARDING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF POWDER MILK WITH NUTRIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Giurgiulescu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Powdered milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. This product has incomposition powder apple, powder carrots, rice flour and corn flour, vitamins, minerals.One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer self life than liquid milk and does notneed to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content. Another purpose is to reduce its bulk for economy oftransportation. Milk powders contain all twenty standards amino acids and are high insoluble vitamins and minerals.The typical average amounts of major nutrients in the un reconstituted in 100 g milk are (by weight 12,7g protein,68,2g carbohydrates (predominantly lactose, calcium 427g , potassium g, vitamins11g, Inappropriate storageconditions (high relative humidity and high ambient temperature can significantly degrade the nutritive value ofmilk powder.

  9. Effect of Cattle Breeds on Milk Composition and Technological Characteristics in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. X. Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cattle breeds have a striking effect on milk, including milk composition and technological characteristics. This study aims to compare milk composition, acidification activity, viscosity, milk dispersion system stability and casein molecular weight among three buffalo breeds in China. The technological characteristics of milk produced by three cattle breeds of river buffalo (Murrah, crossbreed 1st generation (F1, crossbreed multiple generation (FH, H≥3 buffaloes were investigated. Cattle breeds showed evident effect on milk protein, fat and total solids content, but little effect on most of buffalo casein molecular weight. Milk fat, protein content and the viscosity of buffalo milk from river buffalo were lower than those of F1 and FH, so was the buffer capacity. The viscosity was negatively correlated to temperature and concentration. Results of stability coefficient showed that milk dispersion system had the best dynamic stability characteristics under pH 6.6 and 6 times dilution, while zeta potential of Murrah milk was slightly higher than that of hybrid offspring (F1, FH. SDS-PAGE results showed that buffalo αs-casein had a slightly faster mobility than standard αs-casein; while buffalo β-casein showed a slightly slower mobility than standard β-casein. There is no clear differences in molecular weight of αs-, β-, and κ-casein among Murrah, F1 and FH.

  10. Selection intensity for milk yield in 1970—1977 in the Finnish Ayrshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. B. Lindström

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection differentials for sires and dams of bulls taken into AI use in 1970—1977, as well as for sires used in AI, were combined with an estimate of the quality of dams of female replacements to calculate the (predicted genetic change in milk yield in the Ayrshire breed. In the period the average annual genetic gain was 0.97 % of the mean yield, in the last three years it was c. 1.1 %. The average generation interval was 6.8 years; 8.7 years for the bull sires, 7.4 years for the bull dams and 6.4 years for the cow sires. The bull sires accounted for 42 %, the bull dams for 37 % and the cow sires for only 12% of the total genetic gain. A more rational use of progeny tested and young bulls, combined with a reduction of the generation interval of 15 %, could easily have increased the genetic progress by 20 %.

  11. Analysis of heat stress in UK dairy cattle and impact on milk yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, Robert J H; Mead, Naomi E; Willett, Kate M; Parker, David E

    2014-01-01

    Much as humans suffer from heat-stress during periods of high temperature and humidity, so do dairy cattle. Using a temperature-humidity index (THI), we investigate the effect of past heatwaves in the UK on heat-stress in dairy herds. Daily THI data derived from routine meteorological observations show that during the summer, there has been an average of typically 1 day per year per station over the past 40 years when the THI has exceeded the threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress in dairy cattle. However, during the heatwaves of 2003 and 2006, this threshold was exceeded on typically 5 days on average in the Midlands, south and east of England. Most dairy cattle are in the west and north of the country and so did not experience the severest heat. Milk yield data in the south-west of England show that a few herds experienced decreases in yields during 2003 and 2006. We used the 11-member regional climate model ensemble with the A1B scenario from UKCP09 to investigate the possible future change in days exceeding the THI threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress. The number of days where the THI exceeds this threshold could increase to over 20 days yr −1 in southern parts of England by the end of the century. (letters)

  12. The effect of different precooling rates and cold storage on milk microbiological quality and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paludetti, Lizandra F; Kelly, Alan L; O'Brien, Bernadette; Jordan, Kieran; Gleeson, David

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effect of different milk cooling rates, before entering the bulk tank, on the microbiological load and composition of the milk, as well as on energy usage. Three milk precooling treatments were applied before milk entered 3 identical bulk milk tanks: no plate cooler (NP), single-stage plate cooler (SP), and double-stage plate cooler (DP). These precooling treatments cooled the milk to 32.0 ± 1.4°C, 17.0 ± 2.8°C, and 6.0 ± 1.1°C, respectively. Milk was added to the bulk tank twice daily for 72 h, and the tank refrigeration temperature was set at 3°C. The blend temperature within each bulk tank was reduced after each milking event as the volume of milk at 3°C increased simultaneously. The bacterial counts of the milk volumes precooled at different rates did not differ significantly at 0 h of storage or at 24-h intervals thereafter. After 72 h of storage, the total bacterial count of the NP milk was 3.90 ± 0.09 log 10 cfu/mL, whereas that of the precooled milk volumes were 3.77 ± 0.09 (SP) and 3.71 ± 0.09 (DP) log 10 cfu/mL. The constant storage temperature (3°C) over 72 h helped to reduce bacterial growth rates in milk; consequently, milk composition was not affected and minimal, if any, proteolysis occurred. The DP treatment had the highest energy consumption (17.6 ± 0.5 Wh/L), followed by the NP (16.8 ± 2.7 Wh/L) and SP (10.6 ± 1.3 Wh/L) treatments. This study suggests that bacterial count and composition of milk are minimally affected when milk is stored at 3°C for 72 h, regardless of whether the milk is precooled; however, milk entering the tank should have good initial microbiological quality. Considering the numerical differences between bacterial counts, however, the use of the SP or DP precooling systems is recommended to maintain low levels of bacterial counts and reduce energy consumption. The Authors. Published by FASS Inc. and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association

  13. Effect of supplementation of Sesbania sesban to lactating ewes on milk yield and growth rate of lambs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekoya, A.; Oosting, S.J.; Fernandez-Rivera, S.; Tamminga, S.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to study the effects of supplementation of Sesbania sesban on the milk yield of ewes and growth rate of their lambs. The experiment was done with animals that had been fed for 16 months on a basal diet of teff straw supplemented with concentrates alone (0% S.

  14. Cubic-spline interpolation to estimate effects of inbreeding on milk yield in first lactation Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makram J. Geha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk yield records (305d, 2X, actual milk yield of 123,639 registered first lactation Holstein cows were used to compare linear regression (y = β0 + β1X + e ,quadratic regression, (y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 + e cubic regression (y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 + β3X3 + e and fixed factor models, with cubic-spline interpolation models, for estimating the effects of inbreeding on milk yield. Ten animal models, all with herd-year-season of calving as fixed effect, were compared using the Akaike corrected-Information Criterion (AICc. The cubic-spline interpolation model with seven knots had the lowest AICc, whereas for all those labeled as "traditional", AICc was higher than the best model. Results from fitting inbreeding using a cubic-spline with seven knots were compared to results from fitting inbreeding as a linear covariate or as a fixed factor with seven levels. Estimates of inbreeding effects were not significantly different between the cubic-spline model and the fixed factor model, but were significantly different from the linear regression model. Milk yield decreased significantly at inbreeding levels greater than 9%. Variance component estimates were similar for the three models. Ranking of the top 100 sires with daughter records remained unaffected by the model used.

  15. Postpartum endocrine activities, metabolic attributes and milk yield are influenced by thermal stress in crossbred dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsanullah; Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan; Suhail, Syed Muhammad; Akhtar, Sohail; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted on 30 freshly parturated multiparous crossbred dairy cows possessing three levels of Holstein Frisian genetic makeup (62.5, 75.0, and 87.5%). Data on temperature humidity index (THI) were classified into comfortable (≤ 71), mild stress (72-79), moderate stress (80-89), and stressful (≥90) zone. Results showed that serum cortisol concentration increased significantly (P stressful condition irrespective of genetic makeup compared to the other zones. Daily milk yield (DMY) was significantly (P stressful condition. Triglyceride was significantly higher in cows with genetic makeup 87.5% compared to the others, while total serum protein was significantly (P stressful conditions. The mean concentration of cortisol and protein increased linearly from comfort to the stressful condition, while mean serum triglyceride, glucose, progesterone (P 4 ), and luteinizing hormone (LH) decreased by moving from comfort to stressful conditions. Results also indicated that higher cortisol level in higher grade crossbred cows was adversely associated with LH concentration and milk yield under thermal stress conditions. Greater triglyceride in high-grade crossbred (87.5%) cows indicates higher fat mobilization reflecting a negative energy balance. We concluded that heat stress increased blood cortisol and protein, and reduced milk yield in dairy cows irresptive of the genetic makeup. In addition, there was no significant difference in blood metabolites and daily milk yield in the different levels of genetic makeup cows.

  16. The effect of routine hoof trimming on locomotion score, ruminating time, activity and milk yield of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertem, van T.; Parmet, Y.; Steensels, M.; Maltz, E.; Antler, A.; Schlageter Tello, A.A.; Lokhorst, C.; Romanini, C.E.B.; Viazzi, S.; Bahr, C.; Berckmans, D.; Halachmi, I.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of hoof trimming on cow behavior (ruminating time, activity, and locomotion score) and performance (milk yield) over time. Data were gathered from a commercial dairy farm in Israel where routine hoof trimming is done by a trained hoof trimmer

  17. Genetic relationships among linear type traits, milk yield, body weight, fertility and somatic cell count in primiparous dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.P.; Evans, R.D.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    Phenotypic and genetic (co)variances among type traits, milk yield, body weight, fertility and somatic cell count were estimated. The data analysed included 3,058 primiparous spring-calving Holstein-Friesian cows from 80 farms throughout the south of Ireland. Heritability estimates for the type

  18. Postpartum endocrine activities, metabolic attributes and milk yield are influenced by thermal stress in crossbred dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsanullah; Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan; Suhail, Syed Muhammad; Akhtar, Sohail; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted on 30 freshly parturated multiparous crossbred dairy cows possessing three levels of Holstein Frisian genetic makeup (62.5, 75.0, and 87.5%). Data on temperature humidity index (THI) were classified into comfortable (≤ 71), mild stress (72-79), moderate stress (80-89), and stressful (≥90) zone. Results showed that serum cortisol concentration increased significantly ( P cows during stressful condition irrespective of genetic makeup compared to the other zones. Daily milk yield (DMY) was significantly ( P cows during stressful condition. Triglyceride was significantly higher in cows with genetic makeup 87.5% compared to the others, while total serum protein was significantly ( P cows during both moderate and stressful conditions. The mean concentration of cortisol and protein increased linearly from comfort to the stressful condition, while mean serum triglyceride, glucose, progesterone (P4), and luteinizing hormone (LH) decreased by moving from comfort to stressful conditions. Results also indicated that higher cortisol level in higher grade crossbred cows was adversely associated with LH concentration and milk yield under thermal stress conditions. Greater triglyceride in high-grade crossbred (87.5%) cows indicates higher fat mobilization reflecting a negative energy balance. We concluded that heat stress increased blood cortisol and protein, and reduced milk yield in dairy cows irresptive of the genetic makeup. In addition, there was no significant difference in blood metabolites and daily milk yield in the different levels of genetic makeup cows.

  19. Quantifying the effect of heat stress on daily milk yield and monitoring dynamic changes using an adaptive dynamic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, G.; Engel, B.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Vellinga, T.V.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Automation and use of robots are increasingly being used within dairy farming and result in large amounts of real time data. This information provides a base for the new management concept of precision livestock farming. From 2003 to 2006, time series of herd mean daily milk yield were collected on

  20. An individual reproduction model sensitive to milk yield and body condition in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun-Lafleur, L; Cutullic, E; Faverdin, P; Delaby, L; Disenhaus, C

    2013-08-01

    To simulate the consequences of management in dairy herds, the use of individual-based herd models is very useful and has become common. Reproduction is a key driver of milk production and herd dynamics, whose influence has been magnified by the decrease in reproductive performance over the last decades. Moreover, feeding management influences milk yield (MY) and body reserves, which in turn influence reproductive performance. Therefore, our objective was to build an up-to-date animal reproduction model sensitive to both MY and body condition score (BCS). A dynamic and stochastic individual reproduction model was built mainly from data of a single recent long-term experiment. This model covers the whole reproductive process and is composed of a succession of discrete stochastic events, mainly calving, ovulations, conception and embryonic loss. Each reproductive step is sensitive to MY or BCS levels or changes. The model takes into account recent evolutions of reproductive performance, particularly concerning calving-to-first ovulation interval, cyclicity (normal cycle length, prevalence of prolonged luteal phase), oestrus expression and pregnancy (conception, early and late embryonic loss). A sensitivity analysis of the model to MY and BCS at calving was performed. The simulated performance was compared with observed data from the database used to build the model and from the bibliography to validate the model. Despite comprising a whole series of reproductive steps, the model made it possible to simulate realistic global reproduction outputs. It was able to well simulate the overall reproductive performance observed in farms in terms of both success rate (recalving rate) and reproduction delays (calving interval). This model has the purpose to be integrated in herd simulation models to usefully test the impact of management strategies on herd reproductive performance, and thus on calving patterns and culling rates.

  1. A survey on composition and microbiota of fresh and fermented yak milk at different Tibetan altitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, X.H.; Luo, Z.; Yu, L.; Ren, F.Z.; Han, B.Z.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Yak milk is a type of milk that people are less familiar with due to its remote geographical location, the particular geographical environment and climatic conditions in Tibet, which may have significant effects on composition, microbiota and fermentation outcome. To investigate the chemical

  2. Human milk composition differs in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares, M.; Albrecht, S.; Palma, de G.; Desamparados Ferrer, M.; Castillejo, G.; Schols, H.A.; Sanz, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether breast-milk composition and microbiota differ in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease (CD) to ultimately contribute to identify additional factors determining CD risk. Methods Breast-milk samples from healthy mothers (n = 12) and mothers with CD (n = 12)

  3. Effect of dietary starch source on milk production and composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of four sources of starch on milk production and composition, nutrient digestion and blood metabolites of lactating Holstein cows. Four multiparous Holstein cows (708 ± 70 kg of body weight; 83 ± 9 days in milk) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods.

  4. Genetic variation of milk fatty acid composition between and within dairy cattle breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    Maurice – Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T. (2014). Genetic variation of milk fatty acid composition between and within dairy cattle breeds. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

    Fat is one of the main components in bovine milk and comprises a large

  5. Modeling heterogeneous (co)variances from adjacent-SNP groups improves genomic prediction for milk protein composition traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebreyesus, Grum; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Accurate genomic prediction requires a large reference population, which is problematic for traits that are expensive to measure. Traits related to milk protein composition are not routinely recorded due to costly procedures and are considered to be controlled by a few quantitative trait loci...... of large effect. The amount of variation explained may vary between regions leading to heterogeneous (co)variance patterns across the genome. Genomic prediction models that can efficiently take such heterogeneity of (co)variances into account can result in improved prediction reliability. In this study, we...... developed and implemented novel univariate and bivariate Bayesian prediction models, based on estimates of heterogeneous (co)variances for genome segments (BayesAS). Available data consisted of milk protein composition traits measured on cows and de-regressed proofs of total protein yield derived for bulls...

  6. Diet and cooling interactions on physiological responses of grazing dairy cows, milk production and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, M. R.; Valtorta, S. E.; Leva, P. E.; Gaggiotti, M. C.; Conti, G. A.; Gregoret, R. F.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of diet and cooling in the holding pen before milking on rectal temperature, respiration rate and milk production and composition. Fifty-eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a factorial split-plot design, at Rafaela Experimental Station from 12 January to 3 March 2003. The treatments were combinations of two diets: control (CD) and balanced (BD) with two levels of cooling before milking: none (NSF) and a sprinkler and fans (SF). Forage:concentrate ratios for CD and BD were 81:19 and 68:32, respectively. Cows were milked twice daily. Milk production was recorded daily, and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) was analysed twice a week. The physiological data were recorded once a week, before the cattle entered the holding pen and after milking, in the afternoon. Average maximum weekly temperature humidity index was 75.4 and ranged from 61.4 to 83. There were highly significant effects of cooling on physiological responses. Milk production was affected by diet and cooling, with no interaction; the highest and lowest production of milk was 22.42 and 20.07 l/cow per day, for BD+SF and CD+NSF, respectively. Protein was affected by diet, and was higher for BD (3.17 vs. 3.08%). There were interaction effects on milk fat at the 8% level, the highest concentration being 3.65% for BD+NFS. It was concluded that under grazing conditions, cooling by sprinkler and fans before milking improves the comfort of dairy cows, and that the effects on milk production and composition are enhanced when diets are specially formulated for heat-stress periods.

  7. Postpartum body condition score and results from the first test day milk as predictors of disease, fertility, yield, and culling in commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, C; Schukken, Y H; Dobbelaar, P

    1999-02-01

    The study used field data from a regular herd health service to investigate the relationships between body condition scores or first test day milk data and disease incidence, milk yield, fertility, and culling. Path model analysis with adjustment for time at risk was applied to delineate the time sequence of events. Milk fever occurred more often in fat cows, and endometritis occurred between calving and 20 d of lactation more often in thin cows. Fat cows were less likely to conceive at first service than were cows in normal condition. Fat body condition postpartum, higher first test day milk yield, and a fat to protein ratio of > 1.5 increased body condition loss. Fat or thin condition or condition loss was not related to other lactation diseases, fertility parameters, milk yield, or culling. First test day milk yield was 1.3 kg higher after milk fever and was 7.1 kg lower after displaced abomasum. Higher first test day milk yield directly increased the risk of ovarian cyst and lameness, increased 100-d milk yield, and reduced the risk of culling and indirectly decreased reproductive performance. Cows with a fat to protein ratio of > 1.5 had higher risks for ketosis, displaced abomasum, ovarian cyst, lameness, and mastitis. Those cows produced more milk but showed poor reproductive performance. Given this type of herd health data, we concluded that the first test day milk yield and the fat to protein ratio were more reliable indicators of disease, fertility, and milk yield than was body condition score or loss of body condition score.

  8. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for First Lactation Monthly Test-day Milk Yields using Random Regression Test Day Model in Karan Fries Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Singh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A single trait linear mixed random regression test-day model was applied for the first time for analyzing the first lactation monthly test-day milk yield records in Karan Fries cattle. The test-day milk yield data was modeled using a random regression model (RRM considering different order of Legendre polynomial for the additive genetic effect (4th order and the permanent environmental effect (5th order. Data pertaining to 1,583 lactation records spread over a period of 30 years were recorded and analyzed in the study. The variance component, heritability and genetic correlations among test-day milk yields were estimated using RRM. RRM heritability estimates of test-day milk yield varied from 0.11 to 0.22 in different test-day records. The estimates of genetic correlations between different test-day milk yields ranged 0.01 (test-day 1 [TD-1] and TD-11 to 0.99 (TD-4 and TD-5. The magnitudes of genetic correlations between test-day milk yields decreased as the interval between test-days increased and adjacent test-day had higher correlations. Additive genetic and permanent environment variances were higher for test-day milk yields at both ends of lactation. The residual variance was observed to be lower than the permanent environment variance for all the test-day milk yields.

  9. Estimation of genotype X environment interactions, in a grassbased system, for milk yield, body condition score,and body weight using random regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    (Co)variance components for milk yield, body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), BCS change and BW change over different herd-year mean milk yields (HMY) and nutritional environments (concentrate feeding level, grazing severity and silage quality) were estimated using a random regression model.

  10. Effect of temperament on milk production, somatic cell count, chemical composition and physical properties in Lacaune dairy sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Tóth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of temperament on milk yield, lactation length, physico-chemical properties and somatic cell count of Lacaune ewes were evaluated. The investigation was carried out at a sheep farm in the county of Győr-Moson-Sopron. The temperament of 106 Lacaune ewes was measured by the temperament 5-point-scale test (1=very nervous, 5=very quiet during milking. Furthermore, 42 ewes were randomly selected from a herd of 106 animals for the analysis of milk composition (fat, protein and lactose, pH, electrical conductivity as well as somatic cell count. It was found that the temperament had a significant effect on lactation length and lactation milk production, lactose, electrical conductivity and somatic cell count. Calm ewes had significantly longer lactation (4 score: 220.7 day; 5 score: 201.4 day as well as higher milk production (4 score: 207.9 kg; 5 score: 193.3 kg compared to more temperamental animals (2+3 scores: 166.5 day and 135.5 kg; P<0.05. The content of lactose was significantly lower (4.32 in the more temperamental group, while electrical conductivity was higher (4.81 mS cm-1 compared to calmer animals (4.69 % and 4.16 mS cm-1. Additionally, significant differences were found in milk somatic cell count among the temperament categories. Calmer ewes had a lower somatic cell count in milk (5.17 log cm-3 than more temperamental ones (5.67 log cm-3; P<0.05.

  11. Impact of cow strain and concentrate supplementation on grazing behaviour, milk yield and metabolic state of dairy cows in an organic pasture-based feeding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heublein, C; Dohme-Meier, F; Südekum, K-H; Bruckmaier, R M; Thanner, S; Schori, F

    2017-07-01

    As ruminants are able to digest fibre efficiently and assuming that competition for feed v. food use would intensify in the future, cereals and other field crops should primarily be destined to cover the dietary needs of humans and monogastric animals such as poultry and pigs. Farming systems with a reduced or absent concentrate supplementation, as postulated by organic agriculture associations, require adapted dairy cows. The aim of this experiment was to examine the impact of concentrate supplementation on milk production, grazing and rumination behaviour, feed intake, physical activity and blood traits with two Holstein-Friesian cow strains and to conclude the consequences for sustainable and organic farming. The experiment was a cross-over study and took place on an organic farm in Switzerland. In all, 12 Swiss Holstein-Friesian (HCH) cows and 12 New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HNZ) cows, which were paired according to lactation number, days in milk and age for primiparous cows, were used. All cows grazed full time and were supplemented either with 6 kg/day of a commercial, organic cereal-grain mix or received no supplement. After an adaptation period of 21 days, a measurement period of 7 days followed, where milk yield and composition, pasture dry matter intake estimated with the n-alkane double-indicator technique, physical activity based on pedometer measurements, grazing behaviour recorded by automatic jaw movement recorder and blood samples were investigated. Non-supplemented cows had a lower milk yield and supplemented HCH cows produced more milk than supplemented HNZ cows. Grazing time and physical activity were greater for non-supplemented cows. Supplementation had no effect on rumination behaviour, but HNZ cows spent longer ruminating compared with HCH cows. Pasture dry matter intake decreased with the concentrate supplementation. Results of blood analysis did not indicate a strong negative energy balance for either non-supplemented or supplemented cows

  12. Relationship between udder morphology traits, alveolar and cisternal milk compartments and machine milking performances of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ayadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 dairy dromedary camels under intensive conditions in late lactation (275±24 days were used to study the relationship between external and internal udder morphology and machine milking performances. Measurements of udder and teat morphology were obtained immediately before milking and in duplicate. Individual milk yield, lag time and total milking time were recorded during milking, and milk samples were collected and analyzed for milk composition thereafter. Cisternal and alveolar milk volumes and composition were evaluated at 9 h milking interval. Results revealed that dairy camels had well developed udders and milk veins, with medium sized teats. On average, milk yield as well as milk fat and protein contents were 4.80±0.50 L d-1, 2.61±0.16% and 3.08±0.05%, respectively. The low fat values observed indicated incomplete milk letdown during machine milking. Lag time, and total milking time were 3.0±0.3, and 120.0±8.9s, on average, respectively. Positive correlations (p<0.05 were observed between milk yield and udder depth (r=0.37, distance between teats (r=0.57 and milk vein diameter (r=0.28, while a negative correlation was found with udder height (r=-0.25, p<0.05. Cisternal milk accounted for 11% of the total udder milk. Positive correlations were observed between total milk yield and volume of alveolar milk (r=0.98; p<0.001 as well as with volume of cisternal milk (r=0.63, p<0.05. Despite the low udder milk storage capacity observed in dairy camels, our study concluded that the evaluated dromedary sample had adequate udder morphology for machine milking. Finally, positive relationships were detected between milk yield and udder morphology traits of dairy camels.

  13. Milk yield, feed efficiency and metabolic profiles in Jersey and Holstein cows assigned to different fat supplementation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Nielsen, M.O.; Lund, Peter

    2015-01-01

    , compared to their lowest recorded weight after calving. Subsequently, the cows were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments until the end of lactation. There was no effect of feeding strategy on DM intake during week 9–40 of lactation. Fat supplemented rations (WCR; RPF) increased yield of milk...... energy efficiency in Jersey cows but increased energy efficiency in Holstein cows. Because fat supplementation reduced dietary protein concentration and increased milk production, protein intake was lower and N efficiency was higher on WCR and RPF than on CON. Metabolite concentrations in jugular vein...

  14. Genetic parameters estimate for milk and mozzarella cheese yield, fat and protein percentage in dairy buffaloes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tonhati

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was analyze the (covariance components and genetic and phenotypic relationships in the following traits: accumulated milk yield at 270 days (MY270, observed until 305 days of lactation; accumulated milk yield at 270 days (MY270/ A and at 305 days (MY305, observed until 335 days of lactation; mozzarella cheese yield (MCY and fat (FP and protein (PP percentage, observed until 335 days of lactation. The (covariance components were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood methodology in analyses single, two and three-traits using animal models. Heritability estimated for MY270, MY270/A, MY305, MCY, FP and PP were 0.22; 0.24, 0.25, 0.14, 0.29 and 0.40 respectively. The genetic correlations between MCY and the variables MY270, MY270/A, MY305, PP and FP was: 0.85; 1.00; 0.89; 0.14 and 0.06, respectively. This way, the selection for the production of milk in long period should increase MCY. However, in the search of animals that produce milk with quality, the genetic parameters suggest that another index should be composed allying these studied traits.

  15. Milk production and composition, nitrogen utilization, and grazing behavior of late-lactation dairy cows as affected by time of allocation of a fresh strip of pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibart, R E; Tavendale, M; Otter, D; Schwendel, B H; Lowe, K; Gregorini, P; Pacheco, D

    2017-07-01

    Eighty late-lactation dairy cows were used to examine the effects of allocating a new pasture strip of a sward based on ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the morning (a.m.; ∼0730 h) or in the afternoon (p.m.; ∼1530 h) on milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) utilization, and grazing behavior. Cows grazed the same pasture strips for 24 h and were offered the same daily herbage allowance. Herbage composition differed among treatments; p.m. herbage had greater dry matter (DM; 22.7 vs. 19.9%), organic matter (OM; 89.5 vs. 88.9%), and water-soluble carbohydrate (10.9 vs. 7.6%) concentrations and lesser crude protein (20.5 vs. 22.2%) and neutral detergent fiber (48.8 vs. 50.4%) concentrations compared with a.m. herbage. Total fatty acids (FA), α-linolenic acid, and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) were greater in a.m. herbage, whereas monounsaturated FA were greater in p.m. herbage. Estimates of herbage DM intake did not differ among treatments. Daily milk yields and milk fat and milk protein concentrations were similar among treatments, whereas milk fat (684 vs. 627 g/cow), milk protein (545 vs. 505 g/cow), and milk solids (milk fat + milk protein) yields (1,228 vs. 1,132 g/cow) tended to be greater for cows on p.m. herbage. Rumenic acid and total PUFA in milk were greater for cows on a.m. herbage, whereas oleic acid was greater for cows on p.m. herbage. Estimates of urinary N excretion (g/d) did not differ among treatments, but urinary N concentrations were greater for cows on a.m. herbage (5.85 vs. 5.36 g/L). Initial herbage mass (HM) available (kg of DM/ha) and instantaneous HM disappearance rates (kg of DM/ha and kg of DM/h) did not differ, but fractional disappearance rates (0.56 vs. 0.74 per hour for a.m. vs. p.m., respectively) differed. Under the current conditions, timing of pasture strip allocation altered the herbage nutrient supply to cows; allocating a fresh strip of pasture later in the day resulted in moderate increases in milk and milk solids yields

  16. Udder size and milk production potentials of goats and sheep in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During these periods, the udder sizes of the dams were measured weekly before hand milking thrice a week to determine the milk yield. Samples of the milk were analysed for th.eir composition. The results showed that the udder size increased with increasing milk yield (112 - 248ml) up to the peak of lactation which was ...

  17. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Rafiq

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%, solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%, total solids (18.05%±0.05%, protein (5.15%±0.06% and casein (3.87%±0.04% contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%, buffalo (0.68%±0.02% and sheep (0.66%±0.02% milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82, cow (r = 0.88, sheep (r = 0.86 and goat milk (r = 0.98. The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g, camel (96±2.2 mg/g and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products.

  18. Genotype × environment interaction for fertility and milk yield traits in Canadian, Mexican and US Holstein cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montaldo, H.H.; Pelcastre-Cruz, A.; Castillo-Juárez, H.; Ruiz-López, F.J.; Miglior, F.

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate genotype × environment interaction (G×E) between Canada, the United States and Mexico for fertility and milk yield traits using genetic correlations between countries estimated from genetic evaluations of sires. Genetic correlation between Mexican and Canadian Holsteins for age at first calving was ≤ 0.48 and lower than the simulated value obtained accounting for data structure and selection effects. For calving interval, genetic correlation between Mexico and Canada ranged from 0.48 to 0.69. Genetic correlation between calving interval in Mexico (multiplied by -1) and daughter pregnancy rate in the United States ranged from 0.64 to 0.73, and was lower than simulated and actual Canada-United States values. Genetic correlations between Mexico and Canada and the United States for milk yield traits were ≥ 0.83, similar to simulated genetic correlations, but lower than Canada-United States values (≥ 0.93). Heritability estimates for age at first calving, calving interval, milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat content, and protein content for the Mexican Holstein population were 0.06, 0.03, 0.18, 0.20, 0.19, 0.46, and 0.49, respectively. G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for age at first calving were high, whereas G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for calving interval and between daughter pregnancy rate in the United States and calving interval in Mexico were moderate. G×E interaction effects for milk yield traits between Canada or the United States with Mexico in registered Holsteins were low.

  19. Genotype × environment interaction for fertility and milk yield traits in Canadian, Mexican and US Holstein cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montaldo, H.H.; Pelcastre-Cruz, A.; Castillo-Juárez, H.; Ruiz-López, F.J.; Miglior, F.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate genotype × environment interaction (G×E) between Canada, the United States and Mexico for fertility and milk yield traits using genetic correlations between countries estimated from genetic evaluations of sires. Genetic correlation between Mexican and Canadian Holsteins for age at first calving was ≤ 0.48 and lower than the simulated value obtained accounting for data structure and selection effects. For calving interval, genetic correlation between Mexico and Canada ranged from 0.48 to 0.69. Genetic correlation between calving interval in Mexico (multiplied by -1) and daughter pregnancy rate in the United States ranged from 0.64 to 0.73, and was lower than simulated and actual Canada-United States values. Genetic correlations between Mexico and Canada and the United States for milk yield traits were ≥ 0.83, similar to simulated genetic correlations, but lower than Canada-United States values (≥ 0.93). Heritability estimates for age at first calving, calving interval, milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat content, and protein content for the Mexican Holstein population were 0.06, 0.03, 0.18, 0.20, 0.19, 0.46, and 0.49, respectively. G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for age at first calving were high, whereas G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for calving interval and between daughter pregnancy rate in the United States and calving interval in Mexico were moderate. G×E interaction effects for milk yield traits between Canada or the United States with Mexico in registered Holsteins were low.

  20. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential oil yield and composition when extracted from dried flowers. Therefore, the following distillation times (DT) were tested in this experiment: 1.5 min, 3 min, 3.75 min, 7.5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, and 240 min. The essential oil yield (range 0.5-6.8%) reached a maximum at 60 min DT. The concentrations of cineole (range 6.4-35%) and fenchol (range 1.7-2.9%) were highest at the 1.5 min DT and decreased with increasing length of the DT. The concentration of camphor (range 6.6-9.2%) reached a maximum at 7.5-15 min DT, while the concentration of linalool acetate (range 15-38%) reached a maximum at 30 min DT. Results suggest that lavender essential oil yield may not increase after 60 min DT. The change in essential oil yield, and the concentrations of cineole, fenchol and linalool acetate as DT changes were modeled very well by the asymptotic nonlinear regression model. DT may be used to modify the chemical profile of lavender oil and to obtain oils with differential chemical profiles from the same lavender flowers. DT must be taken into consideration when citing or comparing reports on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

  1. Fatty Acid Composition of Buffalo Milk Yellow Cheese after Technological Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.; Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese in fresh condition and after combining of two technological approaches – lyophilization and gamma sterilization with 1, 2 and 4 kGy, aiming at a prolongation of its shelf life, was investigated. The fat extraction from the milk samples was realized by the method of Roese-Gottlieb. The analysis of the fatty acids was made with the aid of gas chromatograph Shimadzu 2010. Minimal changes in the fatty acid composition of the buffalo milk yellow cheese after freeze-drying and gamma ray treatment were established

  2. Fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese after technological processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.; Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese in fresh condition and after combining of two technological approaches – lyophilization and gamma sterilization with 1, 2 and 4 kGy, aiming at a prolongation of its shelf life, was investigated. The fat extraction from the milk samples was realized by the method of Roese-Gottlieb. The analysis of the fatty acids was made with the aid of gas chromatograph Shimadzu 2010. Minimal changes in the fatty acid composition of the buffalo milk yellow cheese after freeze-drying and gamma ray treatment were established

  3. Milk production and composition responds to dietary neutral detergent fiber and starch ratio in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Xiaoqiao; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Junli; Ma, Lu

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) : starch ratio could be considered as a nutritional indicator to evaluate carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. Eight primiparous dairy cows were assigned to four total mixed rations with NDF : starch ratios of 0.86, 1.18, 1.63 and 2.34 from T1 to T4 in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dry matter intake and milk production were decreased from T1 to T4. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF and crude protein were linearly decreased from T1 to T4. As NDF : starch ratio increased, milk protein content and production, and milk lactose content and production were linearly reduced. However, milk fat content was linearly increased from T1 to T4. Quadratic effect was observed on milk fat production with the highest level in T3. Averaged rumen pH was linearly increased from T1 to T4, and subacute rumen acidosis occurred in T1. Ruminal propionate and butyrate concentration were linearly decreased, and microbial crude protein and metabolizable protein decreased from T1 to T4. It is concluded that NDF : starch ratio can be considered as a potential indicator to evaluate dietary carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Activity and milk compositional changes following experimentally induced Streptococcus uberis bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, H J; Sorter, D E; Hogan, J S

    2015-02-01

    Milk constituents and physical activity of cows experimentally infected with Streptococcus uberis mastitis were compared with those of uninfected cows. Twelve late-lactation Holsteins cows were paired based on milk production and parity. One cow in each pair was experimentally infected in the right front mammary gland with Strep. uberis. The remaining cow in each pair served as an uninfected control. Real-time analyses of milk constituents provided fat, protein, and lactose percentages at each milking. Pedometers were placed on the left front leg of all cows and activity was measured. Intramammary infections with Strep. uberis reduced milk yield in experimental cows by approximately 1.6kg/d in the first week after challenge compared with control cows. Lactose percentage in milk was reduced on d 3, 4, 5, and 6 after challenge in treatment cows compared with controls. Percentages of fat and protein in milk did not differ between infected and uninfected cows the week after infections were induced. Total steps per day were reduced and minutes resting per day were increased the week after experimental challenge in infected cows compared with control cows. The number of resting bouts did not differ between infected and uninfected cows. Changes in percentage of lactose in milk and animal activity caused by experimentally induced Strep. uberis mastitis were detected by the automated milk analyzer and pedometer systems. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of grass silage-to-maize silage ratio and concentrate composition on methane emissions, performance and milk composition of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K J; Huntington, J A; Wilkinson, R G; Bartram, C G; Sinclair, L A

    2015-06-01

    It is well-established that altering the proportion of starch and fibre in ruminant diets can alter ruminal and post-ruminal digestion, although quantitative evidence that this reduces enteric methane (CH4) production in dairy cattle is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of varying grass-to-maize silage ratio (70 : 30 and 30 : 70 DM basis), offered ad libitum, with either a concentrate that was high in starch or fibre, on CH4 production, intake, performance and milk composition of dairy cows. A total of 20 cows were allocated to one of the four experimental diets in a two-by-two factorial design run as a Latin square with each period lasting 28 days. Measurements were conducted during the final 7 days of each period. Cows offered the high maize silage ration had a higher dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk energy output and lower CH4 emissions when expressed per kg DMI and per unit of ingested gross energy, but there was no difference in total CH4 production. Several of the milk long-chain fatty acids (FA) were affected by forage treatment with the most notable being an increase in 18:0, 18:1 c9, 18:2 c9 c12 and total mono unsaturated FA, observed in cows offered the higher inclusion of maize silage, and an increase in 18:3 c9 c12 c15 when offered the higher grass silage ration. Varying the composition of the concentrate had no effect on DMI or milk production; however, when the high-starch concentrate was fed, milk protein concentration and milk FAs, 10:0, 14:1, 15:0, 16:1, increased and 18:0 decreased. Interactions were observed for milk fat concentration, being lower in cows offered high-grass silage and high-fibre concentrates compared with the high-starch concentrate, and FA 17:0, which was the highest in milk from cows fed the high-grass silage diet supplemented with the high-starch concentrate. In conclusion, increasing the proportion of maize silage in the diets of dairy cows increased intake and performance, and reduced CH

  6. Effects of goat milk or milk replacer diet on meat quality and fat composition of suckling goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañón, S; Vila, R; Price, A; Ferrandini, E; Garrido, M D

    2006-02-01

    The effects of a diet with goat milk "GM" or milk replacer "MR" on the meat quality and fat composition of suckling Murciano-Granadina kids were studied. MR consisted of powdered skimmed milk, coconut oil and fat, and cereal products and by-products. Raw meat quality (moisture, protein, lipids, ash, collagen, cholesterol, haem pigments, CIELab colour, pH and water retention capacity), fatty acid "FA" composition and eating quality of cooked meat (odour, flavour and texture) were determined. Diet had only a slight effect on raw meat quality but had a pronounced effect on fatty acid composition and eating quality of cooked meat. MR diet increased the water/protein proportion in the muscle. The saturated/unsaturated FA ratio in GM and MR fat was 0.94 and 2.27, respectively. The major FA in GM and MR fat were C16:0 and C18:1, respectively. Short-chain C4-C12 hardly accumulated in the adipose tissue of suckling kid, increasing the relative percentages of C14-C20. This effect was more pronounced in MR fat, due to the fact that MR contained more short-chain fatty acids than GM. MR diet gave cooked meat a more intense characteristic goat meat odour and flavour, more tenderness and more juiciness than the natural suckling diet. This fact could be related to differences in meat and fat composition.

  7. Efeito da pastagem, da produção e da composição do leite no desempenho de bezerros de diferentes grupos genéticos Effect of pasture, milk yield and composition on the performance of beef calves from different genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2004-06-01

    para o peso ao nascimento, desmame e GMD foi, respectivamente, de 3,4; 11,8; e 10,2%.The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the performance of Charolais (CH and ½Nellore (NE ½CH (produced by CH cows, NE and ½CH ½NE (produced by NE cows calves, mantained with the cows until weaning, on native pasture (NP or winter (oat + italian rye grass and summer (alexander grass cultivated pasture (CP. Sixty straigthbred or crossbreds calves were used, and weighted at birth; 14; 42; 70; 98; 126; 154; 182 days; and at weaning. The cows milk yield was evaluated at the same date of the calves weighing, with exception at birth. Calves mantained on CP showed higher average daily weight gain (ADG (733 vs 440 g and were heavier at weaning (191,8 vs 128,6 kg than calves mantained on NP. Quadratic effect was observed for calves ADG (y=489.89 + 3.96DAY - 0.0198DAY², being the ADG maximum point (571 g at 85 days of age for those mantained on NP and at 107 days (848 g for those mantained on CP. Average daily milk yield explained 45% of calves weaning weight and 38% of the ADG. The correlations between the milk yield and calves ADG and weight were significant even in the advanced stages of lactation. The correlation between the average daily milk yield during the whole lactation period and the ADG was higher in animals mantained on CP (.54 than on NP (.44 and for F1 animals (.73 in relation to straigthbreds (.47. The lowest correlation between milk yield and ADG was observed for straigthbred NE calves (.31, for the other groups the correlation were .60; .71; and .84, for CH; ½CH ½NE and ½NE ½CH, respectively. Fat, lactose, nonfat dry extract and total dry extract contents did not show significant correlation with the ADG. However, when the total production of these components were considered, the correlations with ADG were significant. F1 calves were heavier at birth and weaning than straigthbreds. The heterosis for birth weight, weaning weight and ADG was, respectively, 3

  8. Intake and milk yield of Zebu cows fed Moringa forage ensiled with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor nutrition of Zebu cattle grazing low quality native pastures is still a major constraint to milk production in Nigeria. High protein Moringa oleifera silage fed to these animals has potential to improve local milk production. In this study, moringa forage (MF) was ensiled with cassava peel (CSP) at 30, 50 and 70 % inclusion ...

  9. Genetic relationships among Body condition score, Body weight, Milk yield and Fertility in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk production, and fertility-related traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 8591 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, milk production, and/or fertility from 78 seasonal calving

  10. Influence of stage of lactation and year season on composition of mares' colostrum and milk and method and time of storage on vitamin C content in mares' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz-Kęszycka, Maria; Czyżak-Runowska, Grażyna; Wójtowski, Jacek; Jóźwik, Artur; Pankiewicz, Radosław; Łęska, Bogusława; Krzyżewski, Józef; Strzałkowska, Nina; Marchewka, Joanna; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2015-08-30

    Mares' milk is becoming increasingly popular in Western Europe. This study was thus aimed at investigating the impact of stage of lactation and season on chemical composition, somatic cell count and some physicochemical parameters of mares' colostrum and milk, and at developing a method for the determination of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in mares' milk and to determine its content in fresh and stored milk. The analysis conducted showed an effect of the stage of lactation on contents of selected chemical components and physicochemical parameters of mares' milk. In successive lactation periods levels of fat, cholesterol, energy value, citric acid and titratable acidity decreased, whereas levels of lactose and vitamin C, as well as the freezing point, increased. Analysis showed that milk produced in autumn (September, October, November) had a higher freezing point and lower concentrations of total solids, protein, fat, cholesterol, citric acid and energy value in comparison to milk produced in summer (June, July, August). Mares' milk was characterised by low somatic cell count throughout lactation. In terms of vitamin C stability the most advantageous method of milk storage was 6-month storage of lyophilised milk. In general, the results confirmed that mares' milk is a raw material with a unique chemical composition different from that produced by other farm animals. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effect of pour-on alphacypermethrin on feed intake, body condition score, milk yield, pregnancy rates, and calving-to-conception interval in buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, G; Veneziano, V; Cimmino, R; Esposito, L; Auletta, L; Varricchio, E; Balestrieri, A; Claps, S; Campanile, G; Neglia, G

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of alphacypermethrin (ACYP) on pediculosis due to Haematopinus tuberculatus and to evaluate the influence of the treatment on productive and reproductive performance in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) reared in an intensive system. The trial was performed on 56 pluriparous buffaloes at 86.8 ± 8.1 d in milk. The animals underwent individual louse count and were divided into 2 homogenous groups according to louse count, age, number of lactations, days in milk, live BW, BCS, pregnancy status, and milk yield. Group A (n = 28) was treated by a pour-on formulation of ACYP, and Group S (n = 28) was treated by pour-on saline solution. Individual louse counts were performed weekly on 10 buffaloes in each group. Feed intake was recorded daily and the total mixed ration, individual ingredients, and orts were analyzed to calculate DM ingestion. Individual milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were analyzed at the beginning of the trial, after 4 wk, and at the end of the trial to assess milk composition. Individual BCS was also evaluated simultaneously. Finally, the animals underwent synchronization of ovulation starting 4 wk after treatment and the pregnancy rate and the calving-conception interval were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA for repeated measures. The infestation was constant in Group S, whereas no lice were present in Group A throughout the study. Daily DMI was similar in the 2 groups (16.7 ± 0.4 vs. 16.3 ± 0.3 kg/d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), although buffaloes in Group A showed higher (P rate (90.5 vs. 80.9% in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), a lower (P conception interval was recorded in Group A compared to Group S (118 ± 16 vs. 177 ± 16 d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). In addition to the pour-on treatment against pediculosis, productive and reproductive performance were also improved. This represents a significant improvement in dairy buffalo herd

  12. Effects of Mycotoxin Sequestering Agents Added Into Feed on Health, Reproduction and Milk Yield of Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hulík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of mycotoxin sequestering agents in feed on health, reproduction and milk yield of dairy cattle were studied in a 5-month long experiment on 300 dairy cows divided into two groups and six subgroups. The experiment was conducted in adding a mycotoxin sequestering agent based on 1,3 and 1,6 β-glucans to standard cattle nutrition (TMR, which was regularly tested for content of important mycotoxins, in order to gain knowledge about possible positive effect of this agent on the health of dairy cattle and about possible avoidance of negative effects of mycotoxins on dairy cattle due to their structural elimination caused by the agent. The experiment’s setting and conditions during it were in all aspects common and comparable within the European Union, the experiment’s results should be therefore seen as relevant. Health, pregnancy rate and milk yield were carefully monitored during the experiment. Indicators of state of health (occurrence of mastitis and somatic cell count in milk did not show any significant differences between test and control groups of dairy cows. The average milk yield of dairy cows which were fed the agent enriched feed (30.2 kg a day was slightly lower in comparison to control groups (31 kg a day, both results with P < 0.001, however, fat content of milk of test groups’ cows (4.02% was considerably higher than that of control groups’ cows (3.79%. The average pregnancy rate of cows which were fed the agent enriched feed also manifested considerable increase in percentage and stability (from 42.95% of control groups’ cows to 62.25% of test groups’ cows, the standard deviation decreased from 21.1% to 14.4% which means smaller differences among pregnancy rate of test groups’ cows, hence higher stability, this increase manifested even long after the cows had been fed regular feed again.

  13. Litter size influences milk composition and energy expenditure of rat pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorotto, M.L.; Burrin, D.G.; Perez, M.; Reeds, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors wished to determine whether differences in milk intake were solely responsible for differences in the weight gain of rat pups suckled in litters of varying sizes (S = 4, C = 10, L = 16 pups/litter; 9 litters/group). Milk intake was measured (by 3 H 2 O dilution) at 4-6, 8-10, and 14-16 d of age (3 litters of each size/time point). Pup (water, protein, and fat) and milk composition (water, fat, protein and lactose) were analyzed at 6, 10, and 16 d. Dam milk output was positively correlated with litter size and duration of lactation. Milk fat concentration was inversely related to dam milk output (r 2 = 0.79). Weight gain was highest in S litters and lowest in L litters. Weight gain was highly correlated to the volume of milk consumed in S and C pups (r 2 = 81%), but was poorly correlated among L pups (r 2 = 23%). The different correlations may have resulted from (1) the disparate relationship between volume and energy intake of L pups compared to S and C pups, or (2) a higher maintenance energy expenditure in L pups up to 10 d of age determined by a comparison of the composition of weight gain and energy intake. Thus, the reduced weight gain of pups suckled in large litters resulted from changes in both milk energy intake and the efficiency of its utilization

  14. Indicadores do ambiente ruminal e suas relações com a composição do leite e células somáticas em diferentes períodos da primeira fase da lactação em vacas de alta produção Indicators of rumen environment and their relation with milk composition and somatic cells in the first phase of lactation in high-yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rómulo Campos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available No atual sistema internacional de pagamento do leite por qualidade, têm-se valorizado dois aspectos fundamentais: a contagem de células somáticas (CCS e o conteúdo de sólidos totais. O primeiro fator depende da saúde da glândula mamária e o segundo, de maior importância econômica para os laticínios, está relacionado com o manejo alimentar e a raça dos animais. O ambiente ruminal pode modificar a composição do leite, em especial o teor de gordura. A fonte principal de proteína nos ruminantes depende da síntese de proteína no rúmen. Os atuais sistemas de alimentação, usados em vacas de alta produção, predispõem os animais à apresentação de síndromes metabólicas o que direta ou indiretamente afeta a produção de leite. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, relacionar indicadores do ambiente ruminal (tempo de redução com azul de metileno e pH e o pH da urina com a composição do leite (sólidos totais e a CCS. Não foi encontrada associação estatística entre os parâmetros avaliados. Os valores médios dos sólidos não-gordurosos analisados no estudo foram inferiores ao limite estabelecido pela norma oficial do Brasil.In the current international milk payment system, where the quality is the main factor; two fundamental aspects have acquired great importance: the somatic cells count and the amount of total solids. The first one depends on the health of the mammary gland and the second factor, which has more economic impact for the dairy industry, is directly related to feeding management and the cattle breed. The environment of the rumen can modify the composition of the milk, specially the fat percentage. The main source of protein in the ruminants depends on the synthesis of protein in the rumen. The current feeding systems used in high-yielding dairy cows, predispose them to the outcome of metabolic syndromes that directly or indirectly affect the milk production. The purpose of this study was to establish a

  15. Effects of forage type and extruded linseed supplementation on methane production and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, K M; Humphries, D J; Kirton, P; Kliem, K E; Givens, D I; Reynolds, C K

    2015-06-01

    Replacing dietary grass silage (GS) with maize silage (MS) and dietary fat supplements may reduce milk concentration of specific saturated fatty acids (SFA) and can reduce methane production by dairy cows. The present study investigated the effect of feeding an extruded linseed supplement on milk fatty acid (FA) composition and methane production of lactating dairy cows, and whether basal forage type, in diets formulated for similar neutral detergent fiber and starch, altered the response to the extruded linseed supplement. Four mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were fed diets as total mixed rations, containing either high proportions of MS or GS, both with or without extruded linseed supplement, in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 28-d periods. Diets contained 500 g of forage/kg of dry matter (DM) containing MS and GS in proportions (DM basis) of either 75:25 or 25:75 for high MS or high GS diets, respectively. Extruded linseed supplement (275 g/kg ether extract, DM basis) was included in treatment diets at 50 g/kg of DM. Milk yields, DM intake, milk composition, and methane production were measured at the end of each experimental period when cows were housed in respiration chambers. Whereas DM intake was higher for the MS-based diet, forage type and extruded linseed had no significant effect on milk yield, milk fat, protein, or lactose concentration, methane production, or methane per kilogram of DM intake or milk yield. Total milk fat SFA concentrations were lower with MS compared with GS-based diets (65.4 vs. 68.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and with extruded linseed compared with no extruded linseed (65.2 vs. 68.6 g/100 g of FA, respectively), and these effects were additive. Concentrations of total trans FA were higher with MS compared with GS-based diets (7.0 vs. 5.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and when extruded linseed was fed (6.8 vs. 5. 6g/100 g of FA, respectively). Total n-3 FA were higher when extruded linseed was fed compared with no

  16. The influence of protein feed supplements for composition of cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čermák Bohuslav

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments at three experimental groups(each n=9 cows the supplement of protein through extracted soja and AMINOTEK were observed. Average daily milk yield depend on month after calving. (1st x= 28  s´=20,2, 2nd x=35 s=25,6, 3nd x=31 s=26,8. The differences among basic milk nutriments were not statistical significant during experiment. The contents of milk nutriments were decreased at the control group and at the both experiment groups in January. A tendency to higher level of proteins, methionine and cystine  was at the experiment groups. The content of lysine is constant. We observed increase content of oil acid in milk tested dairy cow. These dairy cows were fed by AMINOTEK suplement. The oil acid could be basic component in another non-saturated acid in milk fat (NNKT. Again was find higher delegacy linol acid.

  17. Impact of region on the composition of milk fatty acids in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Wang, Jiaqi; Yuan, Tingjie; Bu, Dengpan; Yang, Jinhui; Zhou, Lingyun; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Juanxia

    2013-08-30

    Milk composition and its fatty acid profile have received much attention with respect to improving human health. However, limited work has been conducted to assess the composition of milk fat in China, which is the third largest producer of milk in the world. In this study the effects of geographical region and seasonal changes (spring and summer) on the fatty acid composition of milk samples collected from six Chinese farms were investigated. Milk fat and protein contents, as well as some individual fatty acids and five fatty acid groups, were found to be unaffected by season, but they did show significant differences by geographical region. Levels of milk cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid decreased in summer and increased in spring, increased in north (Hohhot), northeast (Harbin), north centre (Beijing) and northwest (Xi'an) China and decreased in far northwest (Urumqi) and east (Chuzhou) China. Monounsaturated fatty acids increased in east and northwest China and decreased in northeast China, while polyunsaturated fatty acids increased in far northwest and north centre China and decreased in northeast China. This study provides relevent information that contributes to the understanding of parameters affecting variability of milk fatty acid profiles. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PONKA ROGER

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... cribed as being almost a complete food for man. It contains carbohydrates, protein ... For centuries, milk production in Cameroon has been characterized by a ...... and maintenance of the human body. (FAO/WHO/UNU, 2007).

  19. Determinatıon of Some Genetic Parameters, Phenotypic, Genetic and Environmental Trends and Environmental Factors Affecting Milk Yield Traits of Brown Swiss Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Hanifi Selvi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, genetic parameters, macro environmental factors and genetic, phenotypic and environmental trends for actual and 305 day milk yield of Brown Swiss cattle reared in Research Farm of Agricultural College at Atatürk University were estimated. Estimated breeding values that were used for calculation of the genetic trend and genetic parameters were estimated by using MTDFREML computer package program. Environmental factors affecting on actual and 305day milk yields were analysed by using Harvey statistic package program. While effects of the years and parities on the actual and 305-day milk yields were highly significant, the influence of the calving season was found to be insignificant. Environmental and phenotypic trends for actual and 305-day milk yields were determined as -33.2 kg and -29.0 kg; and -27.8±19.1 kg/year and -25.9±8.7 kg/year respectively. Genetic trends for actual and 305-day milk yields were calculated as 5.4±3.8 kg and 3.1±3.4 kg. Heritability’s for actual and 305-day milk yields were 0.21±0.12 and 0.16±0.14 respectively. Repeatability values for actual and 305-day milk yield were found as 0.29 and 0.33 respectively.

  20. Genetic relationships among body condition score, body weight, milk yield, and fertility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Buckley, F; Dillon, P; Evans, R D; Rath, M; Veerkamp, R F

    2003-06-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk production, and fertility-related traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 8591 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, milk production, and/or fertility from 78 seasonal calving grass-based farms throughout southern Ireland. Of the cows included in the analysis, 4402 had repeated records across the 2 yr of the study. Genetic correlations between level of BCS at different stages of lactation and total lactation milk production were negative (-0.51 to -0.14). Genetic correlations between BW at different stages of lactation and total lactation milk production were all close to zero but became positive (0.01 to 0.39) after adjusting BW for differences in BCS. Body condition score at different stages of lactation correlated favorably with improved fertility; genetic correlations between BCS and pregnant 63 d after the start of breeding season ranged from 0.29 to 0.42. Both BW at different stages of lactation and milk production tended to exhibit negative genetic correlations with pregnant to first service and pregnant 63 d after the start of the breeding season and positive genetic correlations with number of services and the interval from first service to conception. Selection indexes investigated illustrate the possibility of continued selection for increased milk production without any deleterious effects on fertility or average BCS, albeit, genetic merit for milk production would increase at a slower rate.

  1. Utilização de óleo de soja em rações para vacas leiteiras no período de transição: consumo, produção e composição do leite Use of soybean oil for dairy cows during transition period: Intake, milk yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Domingos Ferreira Santos

    2009-07-01

    higher intake of total digestible nutrients and net lactation energy during the post-partum. There was no alteration in milk and fat yield, but a reduction in the milk fat content was observed for cows fed fat diet compared with the control diet. The diets used had no influence on the intake, and the fat diet resulted in an increased net energy intake and improvement in the nutrient balance during the initial phase of lactation. A non-significant increase in milk yield (+ 2.53 kg/d was observed when using the fat diet.

  2. Relationship between content of crude protein in rations for dairy cows and milk yield, concentration of urea in milk and ammonia emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, B; Swensson, C

    2002-07-01

    During recent decades, efforts have been made in several countries to diminish the negative environmental influence of dairy production. The main focus has been on nitrogen and phosphorus. Modern dairy production in Western Europe is often based on imported feed-stuffs, mostly protein-rich feeds. In Sweden at least, it is wished that the use of imported feedstuffs in animal production will decrease due to the risk of contamination with Salmonella and the ban of using GMO crops in Swedish dairy production. An experiment was carried out to investigate whether a lower content of crude protein in the diet would decrease the ammonia release from cow manure and whether a well-balanced diet using only feedstuffs of Swedish origin would maintain milk production. Five treatments were arranged in a Latin square design. Two different protein supplements made of ingredients of Swedish origin were each fed at two protein levels, and a fifth imported commercial protein mix was fed at the higher level. The treatments with low protein levels (13.1 to 13.5%) had a significantly lower milk yield, kilograms of ECM, but, on the other hand the net profit, milk income minus feed cost was nearly the same in all treatments except diet C, which had lower feed cost but also lower net profit due to lower milk yield. The content of urea in milk was higher with diets high in crude protein (17%) content. A decreased protein level in the diets did not influence the content of casein or whey protein, but the commercial concentrate showed a tendency to give lower values than the Swedish mixtures. The low protein diets gave significantly lower ammonia release from manure compared with the high protein diets. There were no production differences between the diets of Swedish feeds compared with the imported control. The readily fermentable beet pulp should have helped cows use the higher N diet more efficiently and increased the response. This gives the rumen microbes a possibility to match the

  3. The effect of dietary Chlorella vulgaris inclusion on goat's milk chemical composition, fatty acids profile and enzymes activities related to oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, E; Abdullah, M A M; Mavrommatis, A; Chatzikonstantinou, M; Skliros, D; Sotirakoglou, K; Flemetakis, E; Labrou, N E; Zervas, G

    2018-02-01

    The impact of dietary supplementation with microalgae on goat's milk chemical composition, fatty acids (FA) profile and enzymes activities related to antioxidant mechanism has not been well documented. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of Chlorella vulgaris on the following: (i) milk yield, chemical composition and FA profile, (ii) the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in blood plasma and (iii) the activities of SOD, GR and lactoperoxidase (LPO) in milk of goats. Furthermore, the oxidative stress indicators for measuring total antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity [ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays] and oxidative stress biomarkers [malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC)] were also determined in blood plasma and milk of the animals. For this purpose, 16 cross-bred goats were divided into two homogenous groups. Each goat of both groups was fed individually with alfalfa hay and concentrates separately. The concentrates of the control group (Control) had no microalgae, while those of the Chlorella group were supplemented with 10 g lyophilized Chlorella vulgaris/kg concentrates (Chlorella). Thus, the average intake was 5.15 g Chlorella vulgaris/kg DM. The results showed that the dietary inclusion of Chlorella vulgaris had not noticeable impact on goat's milk yield, chemical composition and FA profile. Significantly higher SOD (by 10.31%) and CAT (by 18.66%) activities in the blood plasma of goats fed with Chlorella vulgaris compared with the control were found. Moreover, the dietary supplementation with Chlorella vulgaris caused a significant increase in SOD (by 68.84%) activity and a reduction in PC (by 24.07%) content in goat's milk. In conclusion, the Chlorella vulgaris inclusion in goat's diets improved the

  4. Effects of bovine pregnancy on the fatty acid composition of milk: the significance for humans needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, R; Regal, P; Díaz-Bao, M; Vázquez, B I; Cepeda, A

    2017-04-01

    Milk from 40 Holstein dairy cows was collected from two different farms in Galicia (Spain). The differences in the fatty acid composition of two groups of cows, 20 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant, was studied to determine whether pregnancy status is a determinant factor that can alter the fatty acid profile of milk. Gas-chromatography (GC) coupled to flame ionisation detection (FID) was used for the determination of the fatty acids. Differences in the milk fatty acids between pregnant and non-pregnant cows were pronounced showing statistically significant differences for some fatty acids and the total saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Milk from non-pregnant cows was lower in saturated fatty acids and higher in monounsaturated fatty acids (unlike milk from pregnant cows). The effects of the consumption of bovine milk, particularly milk fat, on human health have been studied in depth and sometimes are associated with negative effects, but milk has also several beneficial characteristics linked to some fatty acids.

  5. Composition of milk obtained from unmassaged versus massaged breasts of lactating mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Mervat I; Kawashima, Takaaki; Nakamura, Sadako; Kobayashi, Michiko; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2004-05-01

    The Oketani method is a program of breast massage and clinical counseling developed by the midwife Satomi Oketani. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the method on the quality of breast milk by determining the chemical composition of the milk before and after massage. Milk samples were obtained immediately before and after massage from healthy, exclusively breast-feeding Japanese mothers at two different periods of lactation one 3 months after parturition. Lipids, whey protein, casein, lactose, ash, and total solids in milk were measured in milk samples. The gross energy content of milk was estimated. Breast massage significantly increased lipids in the late lactating period but not in the early lactating period. In the early lactating period casein was increased by breast massage but was not significantly affected in the late lactating period. Breast massage caused a significant increase in total solids from the first day to 11 months post partum. The gross energy in the late lactating period was significantly increased by breast massage but not in the early lactating period. Lactose was not significantly changed by breast massage. Breast massage improves the quality of human milk by significantly increasing total solids, lipids, and casein concentration and gross energy. The milk of mothers treated by Oketani breast massage may improve the growth and development of infants.

  6. Human Milk Composition and Preservation: Evaluation of High-pressure Processing as a Nonthermal Pasteurization Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sílvia G; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is seen not only as a food, but as a functional and dynamic biologic system. It provides nutrients, bioactive components, and immune factors, promoting adequate and healthy growth of newborn infants. When mothers cannot supply their children, donated breast milk is the nutrition recommended by the World Health Organization, as it is a better alternative than infant formula. However, because of the manner in which donor milk is handled in human milk banks (HMB) many of the properties ascribed to mother's own milk are diminished or destroyed. The major process responsible for these losses is Holder pasteurization. High-pressure processing (HPP) is a novel nonthermal pasteurization technology that is being increasingly applied in food industries worldwide, primarily as an alternative to thermal treatment. This is due to its capacity to inactivate microorganisms while preserving both nutritional and bioactive components of foods. This review describes human milk composition and preservation, and critically discusses HMB importance and practices, highlighting HPP as a potential nonthermal pasteurization technology for human milk preservation. HPP technology is described and the few currently existing studies of its effects in human milk are presented.

  7. Genotype x environment interactions in milk yield and quality in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows on different forage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    2001-07-01

    Milk yield and quality were observed on 93 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows over 3 yr to evaluate the interactions of direct and maternal breed effects and heterosis with forage environment. Forage environments were common bermudagrass (BG), endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+), and a rotational system (ROT) of both forages, in which each forage (BG or E+) was grazed during its appropriate season, usually June through October for BG and November through May for E+. Milk yield was estimated each of 6 mo (April through September) via milking machine and converted to a 24-h basis. Milk fat, milk protein, and somatic cell count were analyzed by a commercial laboratory. Heterosis for milk yield was similar among forages, averaging 2.4 kg (P 0.30). Heterosis for somatic cell counts as percentages of purebred means was similar for BG (-68.3%) and E+ (-68.9%) and less favorable for ROT (-31.6%). Maternal breed effects for somatic cell count favored Angus on ROT (P < 0.10) with a similar nonsignificant trend on BG and E+. Direct breed effects for somatic cell count favored Brahman on ROT (P < 0.10) with similar nonsignificant trends on BG and E+. These results suggested that a rotation of cows from E+ to BG in the summer can partially alleviate negative effects of E+ on milk yield. Conclusions also indicated an advantage to crossbred cows in somatic cell count and provided evidence of both direct and maternal breed effects for this trait. The results also suggested that direct breed effects for milk yield, milk fat, and somatic cell count and heterosis for milk yield and somatic cell count (as percentages of purebred means) tended to vary with forage environment, indicating a potential for genotype x environment interaction for these traits.

  8. Evaluation of two milk replacers fed to hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus): nutrient composition, apparent total tract digestibility and comparison to maternal cheetah milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, K.M.; Rutherfurd, S.M.; Cottam, Y.H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Commercially prepared milk replacers are frequently used to provide the sole source of nutrition for hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus). The nutrient composition of two commonly used milk replacers was determined. Using titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker, nutrient digestibility was

  9. Macro- and Micronutrients of Human Milk Composition: Are They Related to Maternal Diet? A Comprehensive Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keikha, Mojtaba; Bahreynian, Maryam; Saleki, Mohammad; Kelishadi, Roya

    2017-11-01

    This study aims at systematically reviewing the observational and interventional studies on the association of maternal macro- and micronutrient intake with breast milk content. We systematically searched the Medline via PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge till October 2016 with the following search strategy: ("human milk" OR "breast milk" OR "breast milk composition" OR "human breast milk composition" OR "composition breast milk" OR "mother milk" OR "human breast milk") AND ("maternal diet" OR "maternal nutrition"). We also searched Google scholar for increasing the sensitivity of our search. The search was not limited to title and abstract due to the possibility that the desired outcome might have been considered a secondary aim. We excluded conference papers, editorials, letters, commentary, short survey, and notes. The search was refined to English language, and we did not consider any time limitation. To increase the sensitivity and to select more studies, the reference list of the published studies was checked as well. This review included 59 observational and 43 interventional studies on maternal diet related to breast milk composition. Different studies determined the associations and effects of some maternal dietary intake of micro and macronutrients and its reflection in human milk. Maternal dietary intake, particularly fatty acids, and some micronutrients, including fat soluble vitamins, vitamin B 1 , and vitamin C, was related to their content in breast milk composition.

  10. Nitrogen balance and milk composition of dairy cows fed urea and soybean meal and two protein levels using sugar cane based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Andreucci Conti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of feeding two levels of crude protein (CP (low: 142 g CP/kg DM; and high: 156 g CP/kg DM and two nitrogen sources (soybean meal and urea to dairy cows using sugar cane as forage on microbial protein synthesis, the composition of the milk nitrogen fraction, nitrogen (N balance and blood parameters. Twelve Holstein cows with an average milk yield of 22.0 ± 2.3 kg/day, and with 235 ± 40 days in milk were included in this study. The animals were grouped into three balanced and contemporary 4x4 Latin squares for an experimental period of 21 days. On the 15th day of each period, milk and urine samples were collected for microbial protein synthesis determination. Total excretion of urine (L/day, milk urea nitrogen (MUN and blood urea were higher for the diets with high CP, regardless of the nitrogen source. Nitrogen efficiency was higher for cows fed diets with low CP. Cows in the final third of lactation can be fed diets with reduced CP levels, regardless of the nitrogen source, soybean meal or urea, without influencing the synthesis of microbial protein or the composition of the nitrogen fraction of milk.

  11. Potentials to differentiate milk composition by different feeding strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slots, Tina; Butler, G.; Leifert, C.

    2009-01-01

    parameters. Production of milk based on feeding a high intake of cereals, pasture, and grass silage resulted in milk with a high concentration of alpha-linolenic acid (9.4 +/- 0.2 mg/kg of fatty acids), polyunsaturated fatty acids (3.66 +/- 0.07 mg/kg of fatty acids), and natural stereoisomer of alpha...... (27.5 +/- 0.3 mg/kg of fatty acids), and a high ratio between LA and alpha-linolenic acid (4.7 +/- 0.2). Comparing these 2 production systems with a very extensive nonorganic milk production system relying on pasture as almost the sole feed (95 +/- 4% dry matter intake), it was found...

  12. Variation in phosphorus content of milk from dairy cattle as affected by differences in milk composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.; Ellis, J.L.; Blok, M.C.; Brandsma, G.G.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, J.

    2014-01-01

    In view of environmental concerns with regard to phosphorus (P) pollution and the expected global P scarcity, there is increasing interest in improving P utilization in dairy cattle. In high-producing dairy cows, P requirements for milk production comprise a significant fraction of total dietary P

  13. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance quantitative trait loci on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Naveen K; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S; Sahana, Goutam

    2015-12-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve. Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis and milk yield on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter but not the former situation, undesirable genetic correlation could potentially be broken by selecting animals that have favorable variants for both traits. First, we performed a within-breed association study using a haplotype-based method in Danish Holstein cattle (HOL). Next, we analyzed Nordic Red dairy cattle (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50K; Illumina, San Diego, CA), which identifies 1,568 single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA20. Data were combined, phased, and clustered into haplotype states, followed by within- and across-breed haplotype-based association analyses using a linear mixed model. Association signals for both clinical mastitis and milk yield peaked in the 26- to 40-Mb region on BTA20 in HOL. Single-variant association analyses were carried out in the QTL region using whole sequence level variants imputed from references of 2,036 HD genotypes (BovineHD BeadChip; Illumina) and 242 whole-genome sequences. The milk QTL were also segregating in RDC and JER on the BTA20-targeted region; however, an indication of differences in the causal factor(s) was observed across breeds. A previously reported F279Y mutation (rs385640152) within the growth hormone

  14. Short communication: Suitability of fluorescence spectroscopy for characterization of commercial milk of different composition and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntakatsane, M P; Yang, X Q; Lin, M; Liu, X M; Zhou, P

    2011-11-01

    Thirteen milk brands comprising 76 pasteurized and UHT milk samples of various compositions (whole, reduced fat, skimmed, low lactose, and high protein) were obtained from local supermarkets, and milk samples manufactured in various countries were discriminated using front-face fluorescence spectroscopy (FFFS) coupled with chemometric tools. The emission spectra of Maillard reaction products and riboflavin (MRP/RF; 400 to 600 nm) and tryptophan (300 to 400 nm) were recorded using FFFS, and the excitation wavelengths were set at 360 nm for MRP/RF and 290 nm for tryptophan. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to analyze the normalized spectra. The PCA of spectral information from MRP/RF discriminated the milk samples originating in different countries, and PCA of spectral information from tryptophan discriminated the samples according to composition. The fluorescence spectral data were compared with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry results for the glycation extent of the milk samples, and a positive association (R(2)=0.84) was found between the degree of glycation of α-lactalbumin and the MRP/RF spectral data. This study demonstrates the ability and sensitivity of FFFS to rapidly discriminate and classify commercial milk with various compositions and processing conditions. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. How do characteristics of donors and their children influence volume and composition of banked milk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqua Anna Quitadamo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available When own mother’s milk is not available, donor human milk (DHM is the first choice in preterm infant feeding. Although worldwide strong efforts have been made to implement human milk (HM donation, there is currently little available research on donors characteristics and their influence on volume and composition of DHM. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between social-demographic variables of donating mothers (age, residence, job, number of children, as well as gestational age and birth weight of their babies, and volume and composition of donated HM.The analysis of data revealed a statistically significant impact of maternal age and profession, as well as babies’ birth weight and donation duration, on the volume of milk donation, but no effect of donor’s place of residence. Gestational age also had an effect on the volume of milk donation, but the effect was not statistically significant (p-value on the verge of significance.Regarding milk composition, gestational age < 29 weeks, low birth weight and overall donation period were statistically correlated to higher protein content. Statistical analysis of other DHM components did not result significant except for carbohydrates, being their content inversely associated with birth weight, with p-value at the margin of significance.

  16. INFLUENCE OF SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN THE COMPOSITION OF GIROLANDO COW’S MILK IN TROPICAL ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Nunes Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine mastitis has been identified as the main disease affecting dairy cattle worldwide. Somatic Cell Count (SCC in milk is one of the most important indicators to evaluate the udder health of cows due to the high direct correlation with the mammary gland’s degree of infection. This study aimed to evaluate the different ranges of somatic cell count (SCC on the composition of bovine milk as well as finding a correlation between somatic cell count and body condition score on milk production and composition of this species. The experiment was conducted on a commercial farm located in São José de Mipibu, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The same cows were milked mechanically, obtaining a milk production record for the period of December 2011 to May 2012. For this, 24 Girolando breed cows (3/4 and 7/8 were used, being 50% primiparous and 50% multiparous with average production 7.51 ± 2.58 kg day-1 and 10.98 ± 2.49 kg day-1, respectively. The cows were milked mechanically, obtaining a record of milk production over a period of five months, and milk samples were collected and sent for laboratory analysis. The levels of milk composition were evaluated. Lactose, non-fat solids and milk urea nitrogen were influenced by different intervals of somatic cell count of milk. In milk samples from primiparous and multiparous cows, positive correlations between somatic cell count and some components were found. As for body condition score, significant correlations were also found for milk production and composition. It was concluded the different levels of somatic cell count influenced the percentage of lactose, non-fat solids and milk urea nitrogen. Somatic cell count and body condition score also showed significant correlations with milk production and composition.

  17. Fast pyrolysis of linseed. Product yields and compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acikgoz, C.; Onay, O.; Kockar, O.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Iki Eylul Campus, Anadolu University, Eskisehir 26470 (Turkey)

    2004-06-01

    Fixed-bed fast pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) to determine particularly the effect of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on the pyrolysis product yields and their compositions. The maximum oil yield of 57.7wt.% was obtained at a final pyrolysis temperature of 550C, particle size range 0.6mm

  18. Yield Stress Model for Molten Composition B-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephen; Zerkle, David

    2017-06-01

    Composition B-3 (Comp B-3) is a melt-castable explosive composed of 60/40 wt% RDX/TNT (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine/2,4,6-trinitrotoluene). During casting operations thermal conditions are controlled which along with the low melting point of TNT and the insensitivity of the mixture to external stimuli leading to safe use. Outside these standard operating conditions a more rigorous model of Comp B-3 rheological properties is necessary to model thermal transport as Comp B-3 evolves from quiescent solid through vaporization/decomposition upon heating. One particular rheological phenomena of interest is Bingham plasticity, where a material behaves as a quiescent solid unless a sufficient load is applied, resulting in fluid flow. In this study falling ball viscometer data is used to model the change in Bingham plastic yield stresses as a function of RDX particle volume fraction; a function of temperature. Results show the yield stress of Comp B-3 (τy) follows the expression τy = B ϕ -ϕc N , where Φ and Φc are the volume fraction of RDX and a critical volume fraction, respectively and B and N are experimentally evaluated constants.

  19. Comparison of parametric, orthogonal, and spline functions to model individual lactation curves for milk yield in Canadian Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Dimauro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Test day records for milk yield of 57,390 first lactation Canadian Holsteins were analyzed with a linear model that included the fixed effects of herd-test date and days in milk (DIM interval nested within age and calving season. Residuals from this model were analyzed as a new variable and fitted with a five parameter model, fourth-order Legendre polynomials, with linear, quadratic and cubic spline models with three knots. The fit of the models was rather poor, with about 30-40% of the curves showing an adjusted R-square lower than 0.20 across all models. Results underline a great difficulty in modelling individual deviations around the mean curve for milk yield. However, the Ali and Schaeffer (5 parameter model and the fourth-order Legendre polynomials were able to detect two basic shapes of individual deviations among the mean curve. Quadratic and, especially, cubic spline functions had better fitting performances but a poor predictive ability due to their great flexibility that results in an abrupt change of the estimated curve when data are missing. Parametric and orthogonal polynomials seem to be robust and affordable under this standpoint.

  20. Amiata donkeys: fat globule characteristics, milk gross composition and fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Martini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Amiata donkeys are a native breed reared in central Italy. Safeguarding native donkey breeds represents an opportunity for the development of marginal areas, especially given that donkey milk is now appearing on the market due to its potential benefits for human health. To date, only a few studies have focused on the characteristics of the milk fat globules (MFGs in the donkey species. The aim of this study was to assess the morphometric characteristics of the fat globules, gross composition and fatty acid classes in milk from Amiata donkeys reared according to the typical farming and feeding systems of the area of origin. Individual milk samples, collected from 28 Amiata donkeys between 90 and 150 days of lactation, showed the following average composition (g/100 mL: 9.47 dry matter, 1.63 protein, 0.78 casein, 0.53 fat, 7.12 lactose, and 0.36 ash. The unsaturated:saturated fatty acids ratio in milk was close to 1. The percentage of short chains was 12.29, and the percentage of long chain fatty acids was 47.64. The donkey MFGs showed an average diameter of 1.92 μm, and a number of 2.18*109/mL. Regarding MFG distribution, 70% of the globules donkey of milk are smaller than 2 μm. In conclusion, the gross composition and fatty acids of Amiata donkey milk showed similarities with milk from other Italian donkey breeds, with the exception of the monounsaturated fatty acid values which were slightly higher. Donkey MFGs had a smaller diameter and were fewer than in the ruminant species.

  1. Milk fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... particularly the CLA, omega-3 and omega-6 FA content of the milk fat of Jersey and Fleckvieh x Jersey (F x J) cows in a pasture-based feeding system. All cows were fed the same diet consisting of kikuyu-ryegrass pasture in a rotational grazing system supplemented with a standard commercial concentrate mixture at 7 kg ...

  2. Comparison of the milk composition of free-ranging indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In ruminants, de novo synthesis of medium chain fatty acids is performed .... Extraction of total fat from the milk was performed quantitatively according to Folch et al. ...... supplements on levels of n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, trans acids and ...

  3. Effect of Calving Interval on Milk Yield and Quality Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Baul

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Researches were made on 125 lactations from Romanian Black Spotted cows, aimed at studying the evolution of the interval between calving on milk quantity and quality. Data were recorded and statistically analyzed by means of ANOVA / MANOVA determining the average values and dispersion indices. Based on averages parameters of lactation curves were calculated using the mathematical model proposed by Wood, called the incomplete gamma function. The interval between calving significantly influenced (p < 0.05 lactation curve aspect for the percentage of dry defatted from milk for the daily growth rate (parameter c between calving interval 351 to 450 days and of over 450 days (0.00008. Also we’ve met significant differences (p < 0.05 for the initial concentration of the percentage of total solids in milk for parameter a from the interval between calving up to 350 days and calving interval 351-450 days (0.80101.

  4. Phyto-oestrogens and their metabolites in milk produced on two pastures with different botanical compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S. A.; Purup, S.; Hansen-Møller, J.

    2014-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to assess the effects of grazing a recently established pasture containing red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and an older pasture containing a variety of sown and unsown plant species on milk concentrations of phyto-oestrogens. Sixteen Norwegian Red dairy cows [mean (standard......Phyto-oestrogens are a group of secondary plant metabolites that may bind to oestrogen receptors and exert oestrogenic or anti-oestrogenic effects in humans and can protect against cancer diseases. When ingested by dairy cows, phyto-oestrogens can be metabolised and transferred to the milk...... deviation); body weight 599 (45.1). kg, stage of lactation 73 (15.0) d in milk, milk yield 29.9 (2.90) kg/d at the start of the experiment] were divided into two groups and grazed either a short-term pasture (SP) or a long-term pasture (LP). The SP was representative of organically managed leys in Norway...

  5. A two-diet feeding regime for lactating sows reduced nutrient deficiency in early lactation and improved milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Sønderby Bruun, Thomas; Feyera, Takele

    2016-01-01

    was recorded weekly. In addition, weekly milk samples and blood samples on d 3 and 17 were collected. Furthermore, sows were enriched with D2O (deuterated water) on d 2 and 28 after parturition to calculate body pools of fat and protein. Sows’ feed intake and weight loss interacted with diet regime across wk......The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a new feeding concept composed of two dietary components fed daily throughout lactation could minimize sow weight loss and increase milk yield (MY) and piglet weight gain. In total, 14 sows were included in the experiment from parturition...... until weaning 28 d later. The sows were fed one of two dietary feeding regimes from lactation d 2 and throughout lactation. The 1-diet feeding regime represented the Danish feeding standards and recommendations. The new 2-diet regime supplied sows feed and nutrients (ME and AA) according...

  6. Genetic Analysis of Milk Yield Using Random Regression Test Day Model in Tehran Province Holstein Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Seyeddokht

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research a random regression test day model was used to estimate heritability values and calculation genetic correlations between test day milk records. a total of 140357 monthly test day milk records belonging to 28292 first lactation Holstein cattle(trice time a day milking distributed in 165 herd and calved from 2001 to 2010 belonging to the herds of Tehran province were used. The fixed effects of herd-year-month of calving as contemporary group and age at calving and Holstein gene percentage as covariate were fitted. Orthogonal legendre polynomial with a 4th-order was implemented to take account of genetic and environmental aspects of milk production over the course of lactation. RRM using Legendre polynomials as base functions appears to be the most adequate to describe the covariance structure of the data. The results showed that the average of heritability for the second half of lactation period was higher than that of the first half. The heritability value for the first month was lowest (0.117 and for the eighth month of the lactation was highest (0.230 compared to the other months of lactation. Because of genetic variation was increased gradually, and residual variance was high in the first months of lactation, heritabilities were different over the course of lactation. The RRMs with a higher number of parameters were more useful to describe the genetic variation of test-day milk yield throughout the lactation. In this research estimation of genetic parameters, and calculation genetic correlations were implemented by random regression test day model, therefore using this method is the exact way to take account of parameters rather than the other ways.

  7. Associations of soft flooring materials in free stalls with milk yield, clinical mastitis, teat lesions, and removal of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, L E; Bøe, K E; Osterås, O

    2010-04-01

    The objective was to test if there was an association between free-stall base softness and milk yield, incidence of clinical mastitis (CM), teat lesions, and removal of cows. In a questionnaire sent to 1,923 dairy farms presumed to be using free-stall housing, farmers were asked for information regarding housing and stall base; for example, the year of installation and the product name or brand of their mats or mattresses. This information was merged with data for milk yield, CM, teat lesions, and removal of cows extracted from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System for the years after installation of mats or mattresses. After exclusion of invalid contributions, the data set consisted of 29,326 lactations for milk yield distributed over 363 free-stalled herds in Norway. The farms were stratified into 5 categories according to the softness of the stall surface measured as millimeter impact of a sphere with a diameter of 120 mm at 2-kN load: 1=concrete, softness of 0mm; 2=rubber, softness of 1 to 8mm; 3=soft mats, softness of 9 to 16 mm; 4=multilayer mats, softness of 17 to 24 mm; and 5=mattresses, softness over 24 mm. Lactation curves were estimated as modified Wood's lactation curves using test-day data and mixed models with repeated measurements, adjusting for days in milk, parity, and softness of free-stall flooring. Herds on concrete free-stall bases yielded 6,727+/-146 kg of milk from 5 to 305 days in milk. In comparison, herds showed a decrease of 0.3% on rubber, an increase of 2.4% on soft mats, an increase of 4.5% on multilayer mats, and an increase of 3.9% on mattresses. Compared with concrete, the hazard ratio (HR) of CM was less on rubber, multilayer mats, and mattresses [HR=0.89 (0.79-0.99), 0.85 (0.73-0.996), and 0.80 (0.73-0.88), respectively]. Compared with concrete, the HR of teat lesions was less on rubber, soft mats, multilayer mats, and mattresses [HR=0.41 (0.26-0.65), 0.33 (0.24-0.44), 0.12 (0.04-0.38), and 0.47 (0.33-0.67), respectively]. The

  8. Effect of a phase I Coxiella burnetii inactivated vaccine on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, L S-Ch; Borchardt, S; Ouellet, V; Heuwieser, W

    2016-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. The pathogen is prevalent in ruminants (goats, sheep, cows), which are the main sources of human infection. In the cattle industry around the world, animal (15 to 20%) and herd (38 to 72%) level prevalences of C. burnetii are high. Vaccination of ruminants against Q fever is considered important to prevent spreading of the disease and risk of infection in humans. However, published information on side effects of the Q fever vaccination under field conditions is limited for cows. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the phase I C. burnetii inactivated vaccine Coxevac on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows. In 2 experiments, a total of 508 cows were randomly divided into 2 groups to determine the effect of first vaccination on body temperature and milk yield. The C. burnetii serostatus of all cows was tested before vaccination with an indirect ELISA. The first experiment took place in the teaching and research barn of the Clinic of Animal Reproduction at the Freie Universität Berlin. Temperature was measured vaginally in 10 cows in a crossover design. The second experiment was conducted on a commercial dairy farm. Milk yield of 498 cows was measured 1 wk before and 1 wk after vaccination. In a subset of 41 cows, temperature was measured rectally. In both experiments, body temperature increased significantly after vaccination (1.0 ± 0.9°C and 0.7 ± 0.8°C). A significant difference was also found in body temperature between vaccinated and control cows. Thirty percent of the vaccinated animals in experiment 1 showed reversible swelling at the injection site as a reaction to the vaccination. The results indicate that vaccination against Q fever causes a transient increase of body temperature that peaks in the first 12 to 24h and declines after that. In experiment 2, vaccinated cows (26.8 ± 0.39 kg/d) produced significantly less milk than did control cows (28.2 ± 0.44 kg

  9. e-Cow: an animal model that predicts herbage intake, milk yield and live weight change in dairy cows grazing temperate pastures, with and without supplementary feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudracco, J; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Comeron, E A; Macdonald, K A; Barry, T N; Friggens, N C

    2012-06-01

    This animal simulation model, named e-Cow, represents a single dairy cow at grazing. The model integrates algorithms from three previously published models: a model that predicts herbage dry matter (DM) intake by grazing dairy cows, a mammary gland model that predicts potential milk yield and a body lipid model that predicts genetically driven live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS). Both nutritional and genetic drives are accounted for in the prediction of energy intake and its partitioning. The main inputs are herbage allowance (HA; kg DM offered/cow per day), metabolisable energy and NDF concentrations in herbage and supplements, supplements offered (kg DM/cow per day), type of pasture (ryegrass or lucerne), days in milk, days pregnant, lactation number, BCS and LW at calving, breed or strain of cow and genetic merit, that is, potential yields of milk, fat and protein. Separate equations are used to predict herbage intake, depending on the cutting heights at which HA is expressed. The e-Cow model is written in Visual Basic programming language within Microsoft Excel®. The model predicts whole-lactation performance of dairy cows on a daily basis, and the main outputs are the daily and annual DM intake, milk yield and changes in BCS and LW. In the e-Cow model, neither herbage DM intake nor milk yield or LW change are needed as inputs; instead, they are predicted by the e-Cow model. The e-Cow model was validated against experimental data for Holstein-Friesian cows with both North American (NA) and New Zealand (NZ) genetics grazing ryegrass-based pastures, with or without supplementary feeding and for three complete lactations, divided into weekly periods. The model was able to predict animal performance with satisfactory accuracy, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.81, 0.76 and 0.62 for herbage DM intake, milk yield and LW change, respectively. Simulations performed with the model showed that it is sensitive to genotype by feeding environment

  10. Optimization of vegetable milk extraction from whole and dehulled Mucuna pruriens (Var Cochinchinensis) flours using central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Dimitry Y; Abdou, Armand B; Njintang, Nicolas Y; Djiogue, Edith J M; Panyo, Emmanuel A; Bernard, Clemence; Ndjouenkeu, Robert; Loura, Benoît B; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2016-01-01

    Extraction conditions for maximum values of protein yield, protein content, sugar content and dry matter of vegetable milk extracts from dehulled Mucuna cochinchinensis bean flour and whole Mucuna cochinchinensis bean flour were investigated using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Design (CCFD) with three factors: temperature (25 to 95 °C); extraction time (6 to 74 min.) and water to flour ratio (6 to 24 mL/g) were used. Data analysis showed that all the factors significantly (p < 0.05) affected the responses variables. The optimal conditions determined for extraction were temperature 63-66 °C, water to flour ratio 12-13 mL/g and extraction time of 57-67 min. At these optimum points the protein and sugar contents, extraction yield of protein and dry matter were respectively 14.0 g/100 mL, 4.8 g/100 mL, 53.8 g/100 g, 12.1 g/100 g for vegetable milk produced from dehulled M. cochinchinensis bean flour and 6.4 g/100 mL, 3.5 g/100 mL, 50.0 g/100 g and 8.0 g/100 g for vegetable milk extracted from whole M. cochinchinensis bean flour milk. The optimal condition was verified at the optimum points for model validation and the response values were not significantly different from the predicted values.

  11. Effect of diet supplementation with Ascophyllum nodosum on cow milk composition and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves Lopez, Clemencia; Serio, Annalisa; Rossi, Chiara; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Marchetti, Sonia; Castellani, Federica; Grotta, Lisa; Fiorentino, Francesco Paolo; Paparella, Antonello; Martino, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Iodine deficiency remains a major public health concern in many countries, including some European regions. This study aimed at understanding the effect of a supplement of marine alga Ascophyllum nodosum as a iodine fortifier in the cow diet, on the compositional and microbiological quality of milk. The results obtained in this work indicated that the dietary inclusion of A. nodosum exerted significant effects on cow milk composition. In particular, it increased iodine content and reduced the quantity of free amino acids without modifying the free fatty acid content. From a microbiological point of view, statistically significant differences were found in presumptive mesophilic lactobacilli, mesophilic lactococci, and Pseudomonas spp. counts. Based on a culture-independent method, milk obtained after dietary inclusion of A. nodosum harbored the highest number of Firmicutes (e.g., Lactococcus lactis) and the lowest number of Proteobacteria (e.g., Pseudomonas). In addition to changes in bacterial population, diet supplementation with A. nodosum changed the catabolic profiles of the milk community, according to Biolog Ecoplate (Biolog Inc., Hayward, CA) results. The results of this study suggest that the dietary inclusion of the marine alga A. nodosum led to an improvement of the iodine content in milk, and to a modification of its microbiota with a positive effect on milk hygiene and transformation. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intake, milk yield, and physiological parameters of lactating cows fed on diets containing different quantities of xiquexique (Pilosocereus gounellei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Furtado

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of substituting Tifton-85 grass hay with different quantities of xiquexique (Pilosocereus gounellei (0, 12, 24, and 36% on the nutrient intake and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous crossbred cows at approximately 100 days in milk, with an average milk yield of 15 kg of milk per day-1, and an average body weight (BW of 465.20 ± 39.37 kg, were distributed in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted 16 days, consisting of 10 days for adaptation and 6 days for data collection, giving a total of 64 experimental days. The roughage: concentrate ratio was 60:40, on a dry matter (DM basis. The DM intake, expressed in kg day-1, was affected quadratically by the levels of xiquexique in the diets. The intakes of DM, expressed in % BW and g kg-0.75, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF in the three units analyzed (kg day-1, % BW, and g kg-0.75, as well as the intakes of organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, and total carbohydrates (TC, expressed in kg/day-1, decreased linearly with the levels of xiquexique in the diet. Milk yield (kg day-1 was reduced by the addition of xiquexique into the diet, but feed efficiency was not influenced. Water intake from feed (WIFeed, expressed in kg day-1 and % BW, incresed linearly with increasing levels of xiquexique in the total diet, while voluntary water intake, expressed in kg day-1 and % BW (WIVoluntary, decreased linearly. The total water intake (WITotal was not affected by experimental treatments. Participation of WIVoluntary in the WITotal linearly reduced with Xiquexique levels in the diet. The respiratory rate and surface temperature during both periods of the day (morning and afternoon, and rectal temperature during the morning were not influenced by the levels of xiquexique in the diet. Therefore, xiquexique can be utilized in the feeding of medium and high producing dairy cows

  13. Milk yield and blood urea nitrogen in crossbred cows grazing Leucaena leucocephala in a silvopastoral system in the Mexican tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B. Bottini-Luzardo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess milk yields, estimate the intake of crude protein (CP and determine the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN in early post-partum crossbred cows grazing irrigated Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena in a silvopastoral system relative to those in an irrigated grass monoculture.  Twenty-four multiparous cows were randomly allotted at calving on the basis of previous milk yields to 2 grazing treatments: grass monoculture system (MS of Cynodon nlemfuensis (n=12; and an intensive silvopastoral system (ISS composed of leucaena and C. nlemfuensis (n=12.  Cows were supplemented with sorghum grain (ISS or a conventional concentrate (MS during milking to ensure availability of metabolizable energy (ME and CP required for milk production.  Mean estimated intake of leucaena was 5.1±1.3 kg DM/d and estimated CP intakes were 1,479±3.3 and 1,258±3.3 g/d for ISS and MS, respectively (P>0.05, while estimated intakes of ME were 161±1.3 and 131±1.4 MJ/d for ISS and MS, respectively (P<0.05.  Milk yields were 13.5 and 14.5 kg/cow/d for cows on ISS and MS, respectively (P>0.05.  Concentrations of BUN were 19.1 mg/dL for cows in ISS and 15.3 mg/dL for cows in MS (P<0.05.  We conclude that intake of leucaena and sorghum grain in an irrigated silvopastoral system was sufficient to substitute for expensive concentrate in the diets of lactating cows grazing irrigated grass monoculture.  However, the higher levels of BUN found in ISS suggest a lower efficiency of N utilization in this treatment.  Restricting consumption of leucaena might be a means of improving efficiency of its use and this warrants investigation. Keywords: Cattle, crude protein, Cynodon nlemfuensis, leucaena, tropical pasturesDOI: 10.17138/TGFT(4159-167

  14. Extreme antagonistic pleiotropy effects of DGAT1 on fat, milk and protein yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large-scale analysis using 294,079 first lactation Holstein cows, as well as a group of contemporary Holsteins and a Holstein line unselected since 1964, were used to study the genetic architecture associated with a mutation in the DGAT1 gene that has large effects on milk production. The ‘G’ alle...

  15. DYNAMICS OF OPTIMAL INTERACTIONS BETWEEN PASTURE PRODUCTION AND MILK YIELDS OF AUSTRALIAN DAIRY FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Tozer, Peter R.; Huffaker, Ray G.

    1998-01-01

    Deregulation of the Australian dairy industry could effect the utilization of resources by milk producers. In this study we examine the feed input mix dairy producers use, both pastures and supplements, prior to and after deregulation. We are particularly interested in the interaction of pasture utilization and farm profitability.

  16. Effect of mastitis treatment and somatic cell counts on milk yield in Danish organic dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennedsgaard, T W; Enevoldsen, C; Thamsborg, S M; Vaarst, M

    2003-10-01

    Production and disease data from 17,488 lactations in 48 Danish organic dairy herds from 1997 to 2001 were analyzed to obtain estimates on the effect of somatic cell counts (SCC) and mastitis treatment on milk production. A multilevel three-parameter piecewise random coefficients linear model with energy-corrected milk (ECM) as dependent variable and herd, lactation, and test days as levels, was used to model the lactation curve. Covariates related to production, SCC, veterinary treatments, and reproductive performance in the previous lactation as well as information on other diseases in the current lactation were included to describe the production capacity of the individual cow. The average daily milk production at herd level was 20.8, 24.2, and 25.8 kg of ECM/d in first, second, and third or later lactation. The estimates for production losses were on average 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 kg of ECM/d in first, second, and third or later lactation with each twofold increase in SCC between 100,000 and 1,500,000 cells/ml. The effect varied with the stage of lactation and was nonsignificant around 60 d postpartum and highest at the end of the lactation. The production losses in cows treated for mastitis varied with parity and stage of lactation and were modified by the SCC after treatment. For a cow in third lactation with a SCC below 100,000 cells/ ml before treatment at days in milk = 15, the predicted loss was 435 kg of ECM, including a loss of 135 kg of ECM because of higher SCC compared with the level before treatment. Most of the variation in production related to SCC and mastitis was at the lactation level, and no significant differences were found between herds grouped according to milk production level, SCC, or prevalence of mastitis treatment.

  17. The effect of paternal bull on milk fat composition of dairy cows of different breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kirchnerová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Intake of milk fat in human nutrition is important because of unsaturated and especially essential fatty acids (FAs, linoleic and α-linolenic acid, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of paternal bulls on fatty acids composition in milk fat of dairy cows of different breeds. The milk samples were taken in total from 299 dairy cows from 11 dairy farms. In experiment Holstein (H, n = 105, Red Holstein (R, n = 120 and Pinzgau (P, n = 74 breeds originated from different bulls were used. Individual milk samples were analyzed for fatty acids in milk fat using gas chromatography (apparatus GC Varian 3800, Techtron, USA, using FID detector in capillary column Omegawax 530; 30 m. In the chromatography records there were identified 54 fatty acids inclusive of particular isomers. Their relative proportions were expressed in percent's (%. Among the studied breeds, the highest content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA - 0.67%, essential FAs (EFA - 2.98%, monounsaturated FAs (MUFA - 25.84% and the lowest atherogenic index (AI - 3.10 was at breed P. Within this breed there was high variability and daughters of bull COS1 achieved significant above-average values of CLA content 1.07%, EFA 3.71%, MUFA 29.93% and under breed average AI = 2.40. The group of daughters of NOB3 was significant lower in CLA, 0.50% as compared with an average of P breed. . From the breed H bull MTY2 showed significantly higher value of 0.62% CLA, EFA 3.42%, 34.29% MUFA and lower value of AI, 1.9 as compared to H breed average. Statistically significantly lower levels of CLA 0.29% and 21.46% MUFA and higher AI 3.72 in milk fat of his daughters, bull STY3 may be considered as potential worser of these properties. At the breed R bull MOR506 showed in compar to the breed average significantly higher value of the EFA 3.80% and also the higher content of CLA 0.50% and MUFA 25

  18. Fructose in Breast Milk Is Positively Associated with Infant Body Composition at 6 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Michael I; Martin, Ashley A; Alderete, Tanya L; Fujiwara, Hideji; Fields, David A

    2017-02-16

    Dietary sugars have been shown to promote excess adiposity among children and adults; however, no study has examined fructose in human milk and its effects on body composition during infancy. Twenty-five mother-infant dyads attended clinical visits to the Oklahoma Health Sciences Center at 1 and 6 months of infant age. Infants were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and sugars in breast milk (i.e., fructose, glucose, lactose) were measured by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and glucose oxidase. Infant body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 1 and 6 months. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between breast milk sugars and infant body composition at 6 months of age. Fructose, glucose, and lactose were present in breast milk and stable across visits (means = 6.7 μg/mL, 255.2 μg/mL, and 7.6 g/dL, respectively). Despite its very low concentration, fructose was the only sugar significantly associated with infant body composition. A 1-μg/mL higher breast milk fructose was associated with a 257 g higher body weight ( p = 0.02), 170 g higher lean mass ( p = 0.01), 131 g higher fat mass ( p = 0.05), and 5 g higher bone mineral content ( p = 0.03). In conclusion, fructose is detectable in human breast milk and is positively associated with all components of body composition at 6 months of age.

  19. Variation in the composition of milk of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) throughout lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondanza, Frances N; Power, Michael L; Dickson, Melissa A; Brown, Janine; Oftedal, Olav T

    2013-01-01

    We investigated milk nutrient composition from three Asian elephant cows over the first 3 years of lactation, including two consecutive lactations in one cow. Body mass gain is presented for three calves during the first year. Milk samples (n = 74) were analyzed for dry matter (DM), fat, crude protein (CP), sugar, ash, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K); gross energy (GE) was calculated. Concentrations of most nutrients changed over lactation: DM, fat, CP, Ca, P, and GE were positively correlated to calf age; sugar was negatively correlated to calf age. GE doubled between birth (1 kcal/g) and 2 years of age (2 kcal/g). After accounting for calf age, GE, fat, Ca, and P concentrations differed among the cows. Milk composition also differed between two lactations from the same cow. When milk nutrients were expressed on a mg per kcal basis, the pattern changes: CP, Ca, and P remained relatively constant over lactation on a per energy basis. Calf mass quadrupled over the first year of life; mass gain was linear at 0.9 kg/day. Asian elephant milk composition is variable, both across lactations and between cows, complicating efforts to determine representative values for comparative studies and for the formulation of elephant milk formulas. The fact that CP, Ca, and P were all relatively constant when expressed on a per energy basis may be of biological significance. The increase in nutrient density over lactation undoubtedly limits maternal water loss, reducing the volume of milk necessary to support the calf. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Milk production of dairy cows as affected by the length of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the duration of the dry period (DP) on the milk yield and milk composition during the following lactation. Milk performance records of 561 Holstein cows, with a previous DP from the Elsenburg Research Farm obtained from the National Milk Recording Scheme, were ...

  1. Microstructure and Composition of Full Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Ultrafiltered Milk Retentate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Lydia; Dagastine, Raymond R.; Kentish, Sandra E.; Gras, Sally L.

    2013-01-01

    Milk protein is often standardised prior to cheese-making using low concentration factor ultrafiltration retentate (LCUFR) but the effect of LCUFR addition on the microstructure of full fat gel, curd and Cheddar cheese is not known. In this work, Cheddar cheeses were made from cheese-milk with or without LCUFR addition using a protein concentration of 3.7%–5.8% w/w. The fat lost to sweet whey was higher in cheese made from cheese-milk without LCUFR or from cheese-milk with 5.8% w/w protein. At 5.8% w/w protein concentration, the porosity of the gel increased significantly and the fat globules within the gel and curd tended to pool together, which possibly contributed to the higher fat loss in the sweet whey. The microstructure of cheese from cheese-milk with a higher protein concentration was more compact, consistent with the increased hardness, although the cohesiveness was lower. These results highlight the potential use of LCUFR for the standardization of protein concentration in cheese-milk to 4%–5% w/w (equivalent to a casein to total protein ratio of 77%–79% w/w) to increase yield. Beyond this concentration, significant changes in the gel microstructure, cheese texture and fat loss were observed. PMID:28239117

  2. Effects of fat supplementations on milk production and composition, ruminal and plasma parameters of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bailoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects on milk yield and quality caused by the same amount (325 g/d/cow of lipids provided by 3 different fat sources (hydrogenate palm fat, HF; calcium salt palm fat, CaSF; full-fat toasted soybean, TS, top dressed to a common total mixed ration, were investigated. Supplementations did not affect feed intake and milk yield, but markedly changed the acidic profile of milk fat. CaSF and TS significantly increased the proportions of unsaturated fatty acids of milk fat with respect to control and to HF. The 3 fat sources did not affect the concentrations of ammonia and VFA of rumen fluid. TS only slightly increased (P<0.10 plasma urea content because of a higher dietary protein supply, with respect to the other treatments. The use of a low amount of toasted and cracked full fat soybean seem to be interesting to increase the energy concentration of diets in replacement to commercial fat products and it can be use to modify the milk fat quality increasing the fraction with benefit effects on human health.

  3. EFFECT OF PROTEIN UNDEGRADED SUPPLEMENTATION ON PRODUCTION AND COMPOSITION OF MILK IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Widyobroto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to examine the effect of undegraded protein supplementation on nutrientsintake, production and milk composition in dairy cows. The purpose of this research was to provideinformation on the undegraded protein supplementation to increase milk production and composition indairy cows. The research was conducted for 3 months in Boyolali-Central Java. The study used 20lactation cows (<3 months of lactation, aged 3 to 3.5 years with body weight from 350 to 400 kg. Thecows were then randomly divided into 2 groups of ten based on their body weight, milk production,lactation period and age. The first group (control and the second group (treated, both were fed dietbased on NRC (1987. The second group was added undegraded protein (UDP of 30 g/l milk that mixedby concentrate. The observed variables were dry matter intake (DM, organic matter (OM, crudeprotein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, milk production and milk composition including fat, proteinand solid non fat (SNF. Data obtained were examined by t-test.The results showed that intake of DM, OM, and the NDF of treated and control groups were notdifferent (9.57; 8.49; 4.98 vs 9.44; 8.38; 5.40 kg/cow/d, respectively; however, protein intake of treatedgroup was higher (P<0.01 than that of the control group (1097 vs. 1210g/cow/d. Milk production ofcows receiving UDP supplementation tended to be higher than that in the control group (+ 1:45kg/cow/d. Although they tended to be lower in fat (4.13 vs. 3.88%, protein (2.45 vs. 2.27% and SNF(7.26 vs. 6.94%, but protein and fat production were higher for cows receiving UDP supplementation(366 each; 214 vs. 330; 196g/cow/d. It can be concluded that UDP supplementation increased milk, fatproduction and milk protein but it tended to reduce the level of fat, protein and SNF milk.

  4. Models to estimate lactation curves of milk yield and somatic cell count in dairy cows at the herd level for the use in simulations and predictive models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Græsbøll

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Typically, central milk recording data from dairy herds are recorded less than monthly. Over-fitting early in lactation periods is a challenge, which we explored in different ways by reducing the number of parameters needed to describe the milk yield and somatic cell count of individual cows. Furthermore, we investigated how the parameters of lactation models correlate between parities and from dam to offspring. The aim of the study was to provide simple and robust models for cow level milk yield and somatic cell count (SCC for fitting to sparse data to parameterise herd- and cow-specific simulation of dairy herds.Data from 610 Danish Holstein herds were used to determine parity traits in milk production regarding milk yield and SCC of individual cows. Parity was stratified in first, second and third and higher for milk, and first to sixth and higher for SCC. Fitting of herd level parameters allowed for cow level lactation curves with three, two or one-parameters per lactation. Correlations of milk yield and SCC were estimated between lactations and between dam and offspring.The shape of the lactation curves varied markedly between farms. The correlation between lactations for milk yield and SCC were 0.2-0.6 and significant on more than 95% of farms. The variation in the daily milk yield was observed to be a source of variation to the SCC, and the total SCC was less correlated with the milk production than somatic cells per ml. A positive correlation was found between relative levels of the total SCC and the milk yield.The variation of lactation and SCC curves between farms highlights the importance of a herd level approach. The one-parameter per cow model using a herd level curve allows for estimating the cow production level from first the recording in the parity, while a two-parameter model requires more recordings for a credible estimate, but may more precisely predict persistence, and given the independence of parameters, these can be

  5. Winter feeding systems and dairy cow breed have an impact on milk composition and flavour of two Protected Designation of Origin French cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtaud, C; Peyraud, J L; Michel, G; Berthelot, D; Delaby, L

    2009-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of two feeding systems and two dairy cow breeds on milk yield and composition, physical and sensorial properties of Camembert and Pont-l'Evêque cheeses. The experiment consisted of a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. A low energy grass diet with only 15% of concentrate (LowGS) was compared with a high-energy maize silage diet with 30% concentrate (HighMS). Thirty-four Holstein (Ho) and 34 Normande (No) cows in early lactation were assigned to one of two feeding systems for a 6-week period. Cows on the LowGS feeding system had lower milk yield, fat and protein content. In both feeding systems, No cows had lower milk yields but higher milk protein contents than Ho cows. The LowGS feeding system altered milk fatty acid (FA) composition by reducing saturated FA. Breed had only a small impact on milk FA. Concerning milk coagulating properties, only the firmness was reduced by the LowGS feeding and the Ho breed. The effects of breed and feeding system on the protein content of cheeses were more marked in Camembert cheese than in Pont-l'Evêque cheese. However, the Camembert cheese from Ho-LowGS was, in fact, characterized especially by lower protein content. LowGS feeding system and No breed produced more yellow cheeses. Feeding systems had limited effects on the firmness of Camembert and Pont-l'Evêque cheeses measured by penetrometry. In sensory analysis, Ho breed and LowGS feeding produced a Camembert cheese with a more melting texture in the mouth due to the increase of spreadability index and of proteolysis. The type of cheese also had an influence: the effects were more important on Camembert cheese than on Pont-l'Evêque cheese. Only the Ho-LowGS treatment produced a very specific Camembert cheese different from the others. The feeding systems and breed of dairy cow have no determinant effect on PDO (protected designation of origin) Camembert and Pont-l'Evêque cheeses, especially regarding taste. In this kind of

  6. Seasonal variations of Saanen goat milk composition and the impact of climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kljajevic, Nemanja V; Tomasevic, Igor B; Miloradovic, Zorana N; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Miocinovic, Jelena B; Jovanovic, Snezana T

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of climatic conditions and their impact on seasonal variations of physico-chemical characteristics of Saanen goat milk produced over a period of 4 years. Lactation period (early, mid and late) and year were considered as factors that influence physico-chemical composition of milk. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was calculated between the physico-chemical characteristics of milk (fat, proteins, lactose, non-fat dry matter, density, freezing point, pH, titrable acidity) and climatic condition parameters (air temperature, temperature humidity index-THI, solar radiation duration, relative humidity). Results showed that all physico-chemical characteristics of Saanen goat milk varied significantly throughout the lactation period and years. The decrease of fat, protein, non-fat dry matter and lactose content in goat milk during the mid-lactation period was more pronounced than was previously reported in the literature. The highest values for these characteristics were recorded in the late lactation period. Observed variations were explained by negative correlation between THI and the physico-chemical characteristics of Saanen goat milk. This indicated that Saanen goats were very prone to heat stress, which implied the decrease of physico-chemical characteristics during hot summers.

  7. Chemical Composition and Rheological Properties of Set Yoghurt Prepared from Skimmed Milk Treated with Horseradish Peroxidase

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    Yan Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine the impact of an enzymatic treatment on the fermentation and rheological properties of set yoghurt prepared from skimmed milk. Skimmed bovine milk was treated with horseradish peroxidase added at the level of 645 U per g of proteins in the presence (addition level of 7.8 mmol per L of milk or absence of ferulic acid as a cross-linking agent, and used to prepare set yoghurt with commercial direct vat set starter culture. The evaluation showed that the treatment of skimmed milk with horseradish peroxidase enhanced its apparent viscosity, and storage and loss moduli. The prepared yoghurt contained protein, fat and total solids at 3.49–3.59, 0.46–0.52 and 15.23–15.43 %, respectively, had titratable acidity of 0.83–0.88 %, and no significant difference in the composition was found among the yoghurt samples (p>0.05. Compared to the control yoghurt, the yoghurt prepared from the milk treated with horseradish peroxidase had a higher apparent viscosity, storage and loss moduli and flow behavior indices, especially when ferulic acid was added. Yoghurt samples from the skimmed milk treated either with horseradish peroxidase only or with the additional ferulic acid treatment had better structural reversibility, because their hysteresis loop area during rheological analysis was larger (p<0.05.

  8. A survey on the microbiological and chemical composition of buffalo milk in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.Z.; Meng, Y.; Li, M.; Yang, Y.; Ren, F.; Zeng, Q.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    One hundred and twelve samples of raw buffalo milk were collected at four locations in China, and their microbiological and chemical composition was analyzed. Average levels of major components were: fat 7.59% (v/v), crude protein 4.86% (w/w), lactose 4.74% (w/w), total solids 18.44% (w/w), ash

  9. Composition and specific gravity of milk of West African Dwarf sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contents of total solids, solid non-fat, fat and protein were positively correlated with. On the other hand, phenotypic correlations between lactose, protein and fat were negative. It was concluded that stage of lactation exerts significant influence on specific gravity and composition of milk of WAD sheep while parity did not.

  10. [Body condition and metabolic stability as the basis for high milk yield and undisturbed fertility in dairy cows--a contribution for deduction of reference values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenbiel, R; Arndt, G; Schröder, U; Gelfert, C C

    2004-05-01

    The target of this study was to describe the interactions between body condition and various descriptors of yield and fertility. It was aimed to identify an optimal conditional range to be used in herd management which combines high milk yield with acceptable fertility traits and general health. For this purpose, backfat thickness was measured by ultrasound at 46111 dairy cows on 78 different farms and was subsequently related to production variables. Negative energy balance is getting more intense and prolonged with increasing milk yield. However a conditional nadir below 10 mm leads to decreased milk production. To reach a high production level without an increasing incidence of health disorders, conditional nadir should not decline below 13 mm backfat thickness on herd average. Lower value only lead to negligibly higher milk yield but cause a distinctively higher risk of fertility problems and culling. High herd yields do not have to be at expense of reproduction performance and can be achieved without extreme body condition losses. An efficient herd management can offset depression in fertility, which commonly is combined with increasing milk yield. A standard curve for backfat thickness throughout lactation is suggested to be used in dairy herd management.

  11. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  12. Production and composition of buffalo milk supplemented with agro industrial byproducts of the african palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Bustamante Hinojosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal for this applied research was to assess the production and composition of buffalo milk when Oil Palm kernel flour and Oil Palm kernel cake are supplemented to their diet. Thirty buffaloes from the grasslands of the Andes valleys in Colombia with 1 to 3 lactations and an average weight of 575 kg were selected for the experimental. The animals were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: (T1 Control Group with no diet supplements, (T2 1000 g·day-1 of oil palm kernel cake and 350 g·day-1 of molasses diet supplement, and (T3 1150 g·day-1 of oil palm kernel flour. During the first 100 days of lactation, the milk livestock were individually weighed and milked. Milking was scheduled every 15 days, for a total of seven samples. The supplement consumption was recorded and a bromatological analysis of grasses was performed. The chemical composition of the milk was determined using an ultrasonic Ekomilk analyzer and a fatty acid full profile analysis was made using High Liquid Pressure Chromatography (HLPC. A 7 x 3 multiple variable statistical analysis was performed by sampling seven fifteen day periods and three types of diet. The average values of milk components observed were: 3.54% protein; 7.4% fat; total solids 16.9%; non-fat solids 9.5%; 2.1 fats to protein ratio. The profile of fatty acids showed 2.34% of polyunsaturated; 33.1% of monounsaturated; 64.6% of unsaturated fatty acids; and 0.96% of Omega 6 acids. In conclusion was observed partial effect to fat supplementation in the buffaloes milk production.

  13. Random regression models to account for the effect of genotype by environment interaction due to heat stress on the milk yield of Holstein cows under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Mário L; Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; Pereira, Rodrigo Junqueira; Menéndez-Buxadera, Alberto; El Faro, Lenira

    2016-02-01

    The present study had the following objectives: to compare random regression models (RRM) considering the time-dependent (days in milk, DIM) and/or temperature × humidity-dependent (THI) covariate for genetic evaluation; to identify the effect of genotype by environment interaction (G×E) due to heat stress on milk yield; and to quantify the loss of milk yield due to heat stress across lactation of cows under tropical conditions. A total of 937,771 test-day records from 3603 first lactations of Brazilian Holstein cows obtained between 2007 and 2013 were analyzed. An important reduction in milk yield due to heat stress was observed for THI values above 66 (-0.23 kg/day/THI). Three phases of milk yield loss were identified during lactation, the most damaging one at the end of lactation (-0.27 kg/day/THI). Using the most complex RRM, the additive genetic variance could be altered simultaneously as a function of both DIM and THI values. This model could be recommended for the genetic evaluation taking into account the effect of G×E. The response to selection in the comfort zone (THI ≤ 66) is expected to be higher than that obtained in the heat stress zone (THI > 66) of the animals. The genetic correlations between milk yield in the comfort and heat stress zones were less than unity at opposite extremes of the environmental gradient. Thus, the best animals for milk yield in the comfort zone are not necessarily the best in the zone of heat stress and, therefore, G×E due to heat stress should not be neglected in the genetic evaluation.

  14. A field trial on the effect of propylene glycol on milk yield and resolution of ketosis in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Ospina, P A; Oetzel, G R

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of oral propylene glycol (PG) administration on ketosis resolution and milk yield in cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis (SCK). Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 d in milk on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. Subclinical ketosis was defined as a β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L, [corrected] and clinical ketosis was defined as ≥ 3.0 mmol/L. [corrected]. Cows with SCK were randomized to the treatment group (oral PG) or control group (no PG); treatment cows were drenched with 300 mL of PG once daily from the day they tested 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L [corrected] until the day they tested ketosis than control cows. Across the 3 herds measuring individual milk weights, treated cows produced 0.23 kg more milk per milking in the first 30 d of lactation than control cows, for a total difference of 0.69 kg/cow per day. After identification of a treatment by herd interaction, stratification by herd showed that treated cows produced more milk per milking on farm A (0.44 kg) and farm B (0.53 kg) in the first 30 d of lactation than control cows, for a total difference of 1.34 and 1.59 kg/d, respectively; milk production did not differ (0.02 kg per milking) between the 2 groups on farm D. These results show the positive effects of oral PG administration in fresh cows with SCK by helping to resolve SCK and preventing clinical ketosis. In addition, oral PG improves milk yield during early lactation in cows diagnosed with SCK. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acid-base balance of dairy cows and its relationship with alcoholic stability and mineral composition of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fagnani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to associate the occurrence of acid-base disorders with the alcoholic stability of milk from animals in the field, and to evaluate differences between the mineral composition of milk that was both stable and unstable in alcohol. The sample comprised 96 dairy cows, where the milk and blood of each corresponding animal was collected. The mineral composition of stable and unstable milk in alcohol was different and may be related to acid-base disturbances. The average amount of phosphate was lower in the milk that was unstable in alcohol, while potassium was greater. Frequency of the alcoholically unstable milk cases was higher in the cows with acid-base disturbances. Respiratory alkalosis was the disorder that was most observed.

  16. Nutrition-induced Changes of Growth from Birth to First Calving and Its Impact on Mammary Development and First-lactation Milk Yield in Dairy Heifers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohakare, J D; Südekum, K-H; Pattanaik, A K

    2012-09-01

    This review focuses on the nutritional effects from birth until age at first calving on growth, mammary developmental changes, and first-lactation milk yield in heifer calves. The advancement in the genetic potential and the nutritional requirements of the animals has hastened the growth rate. Genetic selection for high milk yield has suggested higher growth capacity and hence increasing nutritional inputs are required. Rapid rearing by feeding high energy or high concentrate diets not only reduces the age of sexual maturity but also lowers the time period of attaining the age of first calving. However, high energy diets may cause undesirable fat deposition thereby affecting future milk yield potential. Discrepancies exist whether overfed or overweight heifers at puberty can influence the mammary development and future milk yield potential and performance. The data on post-pubertal nutritional management suggested that body weight at calving and post-pubertal growth rate is important in first lactation milk yield. There is a continuous research need for strategic feeding that accelerates growth of dairy heifers without reduction in subsequent production. Nutritional management from birth, across puberty and during pregnancy is critical for mammary growth and for producing a successful cow. This review will mostly highlight studies carried out on dairy breeds and possible available opportunities to manipulate nutritional status from birth until age at first calving.

  17. Effect of lauric acid and coconut oil on ruminal fermentation, digestion, ammonia losses from manure, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Vander Pol, M; Agle, M; Zaman, S; Schneider, C; Ndegwa, P; Vaddella, V K; Johnson, K; Shingfield, K J; Karnati, S K R

    2009-11-01

    This experiment (replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design) was conducted to investigate the effects of lauric acid (LA) or coconut oil (CO) on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, ammonia losses from manure, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition in lactating cows. Treatments consisted of intraruminal doses of 240 g of stearic acid/d (SA; control), 240 g of LA/d, or 530 g of CO/d administered once daily, before feeding. Between periods, cows were inoculated with ruminal contents from donor cows and allowed a 7-d recovery period. Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, or milk composition. Ruminal pH was slightly increased by CO compared with the other treatments, whereas LA and CO decreased ruminal ammonia concentration compared with SA. Both LA and CO decreased protozoal counts by 80% or more compared with SA. Methane production rate in the rumen was reduced by CO compared with LA and SA, with no differences between LA and SA. Treatments had no effect on total tract apparent dry matter, organic matter, N, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility coefficients or on cumulative (15 d) in vitro ammonia losses from manure. Compared with SA, LA and CO increased milk fat 12:0, cis-9 12:1, and trans-9 12:1 content and decreased 6:0, 8:0, 10:0, cis-9 10:1, 16:0, 18:0, cis 18:1, total 18:2, 18:3 n-3 and total polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Administration of LA and 14:0 (as CO) in the rumen were apparently transferred into milk fat with a mean efficiency of 18 and 15%, respectively. In conclusion, current data confirmed that LA and CO exhibit strong antiprotozoal activity when dosed intraruminally, an effect that is accompanied by decreases in ammonia concentration and, for CO, lowered methane production. Administration of LA and CO in the rumen also altered milk FA composition.

  18. Use of multiple-trait animal models for genetic evaluation of milk, fat and protein lactation yields of dairy cattle in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Coenraets

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of computation time between single-trait and multiple-trait evaluations showed that with the use of the canonicat transformation associated with multiple diagonalization of (covariance matrices, multiple-trait analysis for milk, fat and protein yields is not more expensive than three single-trait analyzes. Rank correlations between breeding values for 54,820 cows with records (for their 1,406 sires estimated with the single-trait and multiple-trait models were over .98 (.99 in fat yield and over .99 (.99 in milk and protein yields. The relative gain expressed as reduction in mean prediction error variance was 3% (1% in milk yield, 6% (3% in fat yield, and .4% (.2% in protein yield for cows (for sires. Relative genetic gains were 3% (1%, 6% (2% and .5% (.2% respectively in milk, fat and protein yields for cows (for sires. The use of multiple-trait models bas therefore the advantages of improved precision and reduced selection bics. Multiple-trait analysis could be extended for the analyzes of test-day records. Results show that this or similar multiple-trait animal model could be implemented immediately in Belgium at low computing cost, using the proposed algorithme and could be the first step to new, more advanced evaluation methods.

  19. Casein SNP in Norwegian goats: additive and dominance effects on milk composition and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The four casein proteins in goat milk are encoded by four closely linked casein loci (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2 and CSN3) within 250 kb on caprine chromosome 6. A deletion in exon 12 of CSN1S1, so far reported only in Norwegian goats, has been found at high frequency (0.73). Such a high frequency is difficult to explain because the national breeding goal selects against the variant's effect. Methods In this study, 575 goats were genotyped for 38 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) located within the four casein genes. Milk production records of these goats were obtained from the Norwegian Dairy Goat Control. Test-day mixed models with additive and dominance fixed effects of single SNP were fitted in a model including polygenic effects. Results Significant additive effects of single SNP within CSN1S1 and CSN3 were found for fat % and protein %, milk yield and milk taste. The allele with the deletion showed additive and dominance effects on protein % and fat %, and overdominance effects on milk quantity (kg) and lactose %. At its current frequency, the observed dominance (overdominance) effects of the deletion allele reduced its substitution effect (and additive genetic variance available for selection) in the population substantially. Conclusions The selection pressure of conventional breeding on the allele with the deletion is limited due to the observed dominance (overdominance) effects. Inclusion of molecular information in the national breeding scheme will reduce the frequency of this deletion in the population. PMID:21864407

  20. Brown midrib corn silage fed during the peripartal period increased intake and resulted in a persistent increase in milk solids yield of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W C; Chase, L E; Overton, T R; Nestor, K E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate transition cow performance when brown midrib corn silage (BMRCS; Mycogen F2F444) was included in the diet during the transition period, and to determine if any production response occurring during the first 3 wk of lactation would persist from wk 4 to 15 when a common diet was fed. Seventy Holstein dairy cows were blocked by parity (either second or third and greater) and calving date and randomly assigned to the CCS (a mixture of varieties of conventional corn silage) or BMRCS treatment. Diets were formulated with the objective of keeping all ration parameters the same, with the exception of neutral detergent fiber digestibility. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility values (30 h) for CCS and BMRCS averaged 56.8 and 73.8%, respectively. Prepartum rations contained 47% corn silage, 18% wheat straw, 7% alfalfa haylage, and 28% concentrate, and averaged 45% neutral detergent fiber (DM basis). Postpartum rations contained 40% corn silage, 15% alfalfa haylage, 1% straw, and 44% concentrate. Milk weights (3×/d) and dry matter intake were recorded daily, and milk composition was measured weekly. Cows fed BMRCS had higher dry matter intake during the 2-wk period before calving (14.3 vs. 13.2 kg/d) and the 3-wk period after calving (20.1 vs. 18.1 kg/d) than did cows fed CCS. Yields of milk, solids, and lactose were increased, whereas a trend was observed for a reduction in somatic cell counts and linear scores in the postpartum period for cows receiving BMRCS during the transition. A significant carryover effect of BMRCS was observed on production from wk 4 to 15 when the common diet was fed, with yields of protein (1.36 vs. 1.30 kg/d), lactose (2.24 vs. 2.12 kg/d), and solids (5.82 vs. 5.51 kg/d) increasing significantly, and yields of fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and fat tending to increase during this period for cows that had been fed BMRCS. The increased intakes during the last 2 wk of the prepartum period in

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Lauritzen, Lotte; Brasholt, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate the rela...... the relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children.......The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate...

  2. Milk composition and its relationship with weaning weight in Charolais catte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Inocencio Pacheco Contreras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of a number of non-genetic factors on milk components and estimate their indirect relationships with weaning weight (WW205, the percentages of protein, fat, lactose and solids non-fat in Charolais cows from Mexico were estimated. Lactation period (LP and calving season (CS had significant effects on protein and fat, whereas lactose and solids non-fat were only affected by the LP. Sire line and age of the dam had significant effects on calf birth weight, while CS affected WW205. Residual correlations between milk components and WW205 suggest a low but significant correlation with lactose. These results demonstrate the importance of several non-genetic factors on the composition of milk from Charolais cows managed under extensive cow-calf production systems and the indirect relationships between these factors and the weaning weight of a calf.

  3. Effect of total mixed ration composition and daily grazing pattern on milk production, composition and fatty acids profile of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; González, Amelia; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M; Argamentería, Alejandro; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña; Vicente, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    The possibilities of using high quality pastures in conjunction with total mixed ration (TMR) during the grazing season have been examined. An experiment with sixteen Holstein cows blocked and randomly assigned to four treatments in a factorial arrangement was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of grazing time of day (day or night) and type of silage (maize or Italian ryegrass) included in the TMR of dairy cows grazing 12 h daily on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile. The silage type had no effect on the dry matter intake, milk yield and fat and protein proportions. However, cows grazing during the night ate more grass than cows grazing during the day (8·53 vs. 5·65 kg DM/d; Pdairy cows grazing at night-time than grazing at day-time, especially 18:2n-6 (2·37 vs. 2·12 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05) and 18:2cis9trans11 (2·08 vs. 1·74 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05).

  4. Fatty acid composition, fat soluble vitamin concentrations and oxidative stability in bovine milk produced on two pastures with different botanical composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S A; Dahl, A V; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-01-01

    to oxidation. Two groups of 8 multiparous Norwegian Red dairy cows [mean (standard deviation); 599 (45.1) kg body weight, 73 (15.0) d in milk, 29.9 (2.90) kg milk/d at experiment start] grazed either a short-term pasture (SP) or a long-term pasture (LP). Both pastures were organically managed, meaning......Previous research has shown that grazing pastures compared to feeding preserved forages has large impact on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, but differences between grazing red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) or white clover (Trifolium repens L.) are small, whereas the herbage proportions...... of dicotyledon botanical families is positively correlated with the milk-fat proportions of total polyunsaturated FA when grazing pastures in the Alps. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of botanically different pastures on bovine milk composition and milk susceptibility...

  5. Phospholipids in Milk Fat: Composition, Biological and Technological Significance, and Analytical Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Contarini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids are quantitatively the most important phospholipids (PLs in milk. They are located on the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM and in other membranous material of the skim milk phase. They include principally phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine, while sphingomyelin is the dominant species of sphingolipids There is considerable evidence that PLs have beneficial health effects, such as regulation of the inflammatory reactions, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity on some types of cancer, and inhibition of the cholesterol absorption. PLs show good emulsifying properties and can be used as a delivery system for liposoluble constituents. Due to the amphiphilic characteristics of these molecules, their extraction, separation and detection are critical points in the analytical approach. The extraction by using chloroform and methanol, followed by the determination by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC, coupled with evaporative light scattering (ELSD or mass detector (MS, are the most applied procedures for the PL evaluation. More recently, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR was also used, but despite it demonstrating high sensitivity, it requires more studies to obtain accurate results. This review is focused on milk fat phospholipids; their composition, biological activity, technological properties, and significance in the structure of milk fat. Different analytical methodologies are also discussed.

  6. Evolution of increased competitiveness in cows trades off with reduced milk yield, fertility and more masculine morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Cristina; Mazza, Serena; Guzzo, Nadia; Mantovani, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    In some species females compete for food, foraging territories, mating, and nesting sites. Competing females can exhibit morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations typical of males, which are commonly considered as secondary sexual traits. Competition and the development of traits increasing competitiveness require much energy and may exert adverse effects on fecundity and survival. From an evolutionary perspective, positive selection for increased competitiveness would then result in evolution of reduced values for traits related to fitness such as fecundity and survival. There is recent evidence for such evolutionary trade-offs involving male competition, but no study has considered competing females so far. Using data from competitions for dominance in cows (Bos taurus), we found negative genetic correlations between traits providing success in competition, that is, fighting ability and fitness traits related to milk production and with fertility (the inverse of parity-conception interval). Fighting ability also showed low but positive genetic correlations with "masculine" morphological traits, and negative correlations with "feminine" traits. A genetic change in traits over time has occurred due to selection on competitiveness, corresponding to an evolutionary process of "masculinization" counteracting the official selection for milk yield. Similar evolutionary trade-off between success in competition and fitness components may be present in various species experiencing female competition. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Genome-wide association and biological pathway analysis for milk-fat composition in Danish Holstein and Danish Jersey cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Bart; Janss, Luc L G; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    provide new possibilities to change the milk fat composition by selective breeding. In this study a genome wide association scan (GWAS) in the DH and DJ was performed for a detailed milk fatty acid (FA) profile using the HD bovine SNP array and subsequently a biological pathway analysis based on the SNP...

  8. Genomics of lactation: role of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics in the fatty acid composition of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Castillo, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina

    2017-08-01

    Human milk covers the infant's nutrient requirements during the first 6 months of life. The composition of human milk progressively changes during lactation and it is influenced by maternal nutritional factors. Nowadays, it is well known that nutrients have the ability to interact with genes and modulate molecular mechanisms impacting physiological functions. This has led to a growing interest among researchers in exploring nutrition at a molecular level and to the development of two fields of study: nutrigenomics, which evaluates the influence of nutrients on gene expression, and nutrigenetics, which evaluates the heterogeneous individual response to nutrients due to genetic variation. Fatty acids are one of the nutrients most studied in relation to lactation given their biologically important roles during early postnatal life. Fatty acids modulate transcription factors involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism, which in turn causes a variation in the proportion of lipids in milk. This review focuses on understanding, on the one hand, the gene transcription mechanisms activated by maternal dietary fatty acids and, on the other hand, the interaction between dietary fatty acids and genetic variation in genes involved in lipid metabolism. Both of these mechanisms affect the fatty acid composition of human milk.

  9. Effects of feeding hull-less barley on production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Corl, B A; Thomason, W E; Griffey, C A

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing dairy cows consuming diets containing corn and hull-less barley (cultivar Amaze 10) in different proportions as the grain source. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed once daily (1200 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). All diets contained ∼20% grain (dry matter basis). Treatments consisted of 100% corn (0B), 67% corn and 33% hull-less barley (33B), 33% corn and 67% hull-less barley (67B), and 100% hull-less barley (100B) as the grain sources. Total-tract nutrient digestibility was estimated using lanthanum chloride (LaCl 3 ) as an external marker. Dry matter intake differed quadratically among treatments, being lowest for 67B and highest for 0B and 100B. Feeding hull-less barley did not affect milk yield, and milk fat concentration differed cubically among treatments. The cubic response was attributed to the higher milk fat concentration observed for the diet containing 67B. Neither the concentrations in milk of protein and lactose nor the yields of protein and lactose differed among treatments. The proportion of de novo synthesized fatty acids in milk did not differ among treatments. The apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber did not differ among treatments. Although a quadratic effect was observed, starch digestibility was minimally affected by treatments. In conclusion, this study indicates that hull-less barley grain is as good as corn grain as an energy source when formulating diets for high-producing dairy cows. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical and amino acid composition of colostrum and mature milk differ only slightly in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Rikke; Rasmussen, Alice Neess; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2007-01-01

    To determine differences in chemical composition between colostrum and mature milk in mink, milk samples were collected from 12 dams as close to the end of parturition as possible (n = 12), and at 24 h (n = 3), 48 h (n = 3) and 1 week (n = 12) postpartum. The milk samples were analysed for dry......, the differences between colostrum and mature milk were less pronounced in the mink than in many other species. Thus, colostrum seems to be of little importance in the mink in conferring passive immunity and hence for kit survival....

  11. Covariance functions across herd production levels for test day records on milk, fat, and protein yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Goddard, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    Multiple-trait BLUP evaluations of test day records require a large number of genetic parameters. This study estimated covariances with a reduced model that included covariance functions in two dimensions (stage of lactation and herd production level) and all three yield traits. Records came from

  12. Determination of Some Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Capacity, of Organic and Conventional Milk in Turkey Produced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Ürkek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, determination of effect of production systems (conventional and organic and time of milk collection on some physicochemical properties, fatty acids and antioxidant capacity of conventional and organic raw milk in produced Turkey were aimed. In this research, the milk samples was collected from nine conventional farms and nine organic farms at bimonthly years for one year. Fatty acid composition, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic matter, dry matter, fat, protein, ash, titratable acidity (lactic acid % and pH values of organic and conventional milk were investigated. According to results of this research, the mean values of conventional and organic milk samples respectively for dry matter, fat, protein, ash, specific gravity, acidity and pH was determined as 12.06-11.97%, 3.67-3.50%, 3.33-3.34%, 0.67-0.66%, 1.0381-1.0381 g mL-1, 0.18-0.16% and 6.67-6.73, respectively. Conjugated linoliec acid proportions changed between 1.39% and 2.87% in organic milk, between 1.67% and 2.96% in conventional milk. Consequently, the farm production type did not have effects on the milk compassion (dry matter, fat, protein and ash, fatty acid composition, EC50 and total phenolic compounds. On the other hand, the significant variations in the fat, protein, fatty acid proportions, EC50, inhibition and total phenolic compound values were determined as regarding time of milk collection.

  13. Effect of high-oleic-acid soybeans on production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and enteric methane emission in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, J C; Harper, M T; Giallongo, F; Oh, J; Smith, L; Ortega-Perez, A M; Harper, S A; Melgar, A; Kniffen, D M; Fabin, R A; Hristov, A N

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 3 soybean sources differing in fatty acid profile and processing method on productivity, milk composition, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and enteric methane emission in lactating dairy cows. The soybean sources were conventional, high-linoleic-acid variety extruded soybean meal (ESBM; 8.7% ether extract with 15% oleic and 54% linoleic acids); extruded Plenish (DuPont Pioneer, Johnston, IA), high-oleic-acid variety soybean meal (EPSBM; 8.4% ether extract with 73% oleic and 8% linoleic acids); and whole, heated Plenish soybeans (WPSB; 20.2% ether extract). The study involved 15 Holstein cows in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods. The inclusion rate of the soybean sources in the diet was (dry matter basis) 17.1, 17.1, and 7.4% for ESBM, EPSBM, and WPSB, respectively, which resulted in ether extract concentration of the diets of 3.99, 3.94, and 4.18%, respectively. Compared with ESBM, the Plenish diets tended to increase dry matter intake and decreased feed efficiency (but had no effect on energy-corrected milk feed efficiency). The Plenish diets increased milk fat concentration on average by 5.6% and tended to increase milk fat yield, compared with ESBM. The WPSB diet tended to increased milk true protein compared with the extruded soybean meal diets. Treatments had no effect on rumen fermentation and enteric methane or carbon dioxide emissions, except pH was higher for WPSB versus EPSBM. The Plenish diets decreased the prevalence of Ruminococcus and increased that of Eubacterium and Treponema in whole ruminal contents. Total-tract apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein were decreased by WPSB compared with ESBM and EPSBM. Compared with the other treatments, urinary N excretion was increased by EPSBM and fecal N excretion was greater for WPSB. Treatments had marked effects on milk fatty acid profile. Generally, the Plenish diets increased mono

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of various kinds of milk fat. II. Fatty acids composition of milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgis, E.S.; Rady, A.H.; Kamal, T.H.; Shehata, T.E.; Ibrahim, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    Fresh cow's, buffalo's and goat's milk fat were subjected to ascendent doses of 8-rays of 250, 500 and 750 K.rad as compared to raw milk samples (control). The methyl esters of fats separated from these samples were analyzed using gas liquid chromatographic technique. Total saturated fatty acids (T.S.F.A.) were 70.46%, 67.44% and 72.85%, while total unsaturated fatty acid (T.U.F.A.) were 29.51%, 32.54% and 27.15% for cow's buffalo's and goat's raw milk fats, respectively. Water insoluble volatile fatty acids (W.I.V.F.A.) were much higher in goat's raw milk fat (23.24%) than in cows (6.34%) and buffaloes (5.25%) ones. Palmitic acid represents the predominant saturated fatty acid, while oleic acid represents the major unsaturated fatty acids in the three kinds of milk fat. Linoleic acid was present only in buffalo's and goat's raw milk fat. The exposure of buffalo's and goat's milk to 8-rays doses increased TSFA and decreased TUFA of their fats. Meanwhile the same doses induced a minor change in both TSFA and TUFA of cow's milk one. Also, 8-irradiation increased the relative percentage of Palmitic acid in the three types of milk fat, while linoleic acid decreased in buffalo's and goat's milk fat. Besides, W.I.V.F.A. showed a gradual decrease, when the three types of milk were exposed to ascendent doses of 8-rays

  15. effects of preharvest treatments on yield and chemical composition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    altitude of 1197 m above sea level and lies at 9o6'N ... widest point form the upper, middle and lower part of the plant was ... heated in boiling water bath for sufficient time until the ..... al., 1970 reported yield increase in tomato due to nitrogen ...

  16. Face compression yield strength of the copper-Inconel composite specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, T.

    1987-05-01

    A new equation for the face compression yield strength of copper-Inconel composite material has been derived. Elastic-plastic finite element analyses were also made for composite specimens with various aspect ratios to examine the edge effect of the specimen. According to the results of both the new equation and the analyses, the face compression yield strength of the composite should be decreased by about 25% from the value obtained with Becker's equation

  17. Milk fat globules: fatty acid composition, size and in vivo regulation of fat liquidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmen, H; Patton, S

    1988-07-01

    Populations of large and small milk fat globules were isolated and analyzed to determine differences in fatty acid composition. Globule samples were obtained by centrifugation from milks of a herd and of individual animals produced under both pasture and barn feeding. Triacylglycerols of total globule lipids were prepared by thin layer chromatography and analyzed for fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Using content of the acids in large globules as 100%, small globules contained fewer short-chain acids, -5.9%, less stearic acid, -22.7%, and more oleic acids, +4.6%, mean values for five trials. These differences are consistent with alternative use of short-chain acids or oleic acid converted from stearic acid to maintain liquidity at body temperature of milk fat globules and their precursors, intracellular lipid droplets. Stearyl-CoA desaturase (EC 1.14.99.5), which maintains fluidity of cellular endoplasmic reticulum membrane, is suggested to play a key role in regulating globule fat liquidity. Possible origins of differences between individual globules in fatty acid composition of their triacylglycerols are discussed.

  18. Variation of milk coagulation properties, cheese yield, and nutrients recovery in curd of cows of different breeds before, during and after transhumance to highland summer pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendri, Francesco; Ramanzin, Maurizio; Cipolat-Gotet, Claudio; Sturaro, Enrico

    2017-02-01

    This paper aimed at evaluating the effect of summer transhumance to mountain pastures of dairy cows of different breeds on cheese-making ability of milk. Data were from 649 dairy cows of specialized (Holstein Friesian and Brown Swiss) dual purpose (Simmental) and local (mostly Rendena and Alpine Grey) breeds. The Fourier-Transform Infra-Red Spectra (FTIRS) of their milk samples were collected before and after transhumance in 109 permanent dairy farms, and during transhumance in 14 summer farms (with multi-breeds herds) of the Trento Province, north-eastern Italy. A variety of 18 traits describing milk coagulation, curd firming, cheese yield and nutrients recovery in curd/loss in whey were predicted on the basis of FTIRS collected at the individual cow level. Moving the cows to summer farms improved curd firming traits but reduced cheese yields because of an increase of water and fat lost in the whey. During summer grazing, most of cheese-making traits improved, often non-linearly. The milk from summer farms supplementing cows with more concentrates showed better curd firming and cheese yield, because of lower fat lost in the whey. The breed of cows affected almost all the traits with a worst cheese-making ability for milk samples of Holsteins through all the trial, and interacted with concentrate supplementation because increasing compound feed tended to improve cheese-making traits for all breed, with the exception of local breeds for coagulation time and of Brown Swiss for curd firming time. In general, summer transhumance caused a favourable effect on cheese-making aptitude of milk, even though with some difference according to parity, initial days in milk, breed and concentrate supplementation of cows.

  19. Differences of some indicators of raw milk properties and especially mineral composition between small ruminants as compared to cows in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat farming is returning back into the Czech Republic (CR because of positive effects of alternative milk consumption on human health. Especially the elements Ca and Mg are important for nutrition. Paper presents the comparison of mineral milk composition of goats (White short–haired–W, n = 60, sheep (Tsigai–C, n = 60 and cows (Holstein–H, n = 36; Czech Fleckvieh–B, n = 93. Cow milk results were considered as reference. The herds were kept at altitude 260 m (H, 360 m (B, and 572 m above sea level (W, C with total precipitation 449, 700 and 1200 mm per year and mean air temperatures 9.6, 7.0 and 3.7 °C. Bulk milk samples (4–8 animals in sample from the first two thirds of the lactation and the winter and summer season were investigated. Goat milk freezing point differed from other species (P < 0.001, −0.6048 for C < −0.5544 W < −0.5320 H < −0.5221 °C for B. Cow milk Ca values were comparable to former results although milk yield (MY was higher. Along lower MY the Ca was higher (1299.6 > 1172.0 mg . kg−1; P < 0.001 in B than H, similar trend was in Mg (122.0 > 107.4 mg . kg−1; P<0.001. Differences (P > 0.05 between species were in Ni and also mostly in Cu. Iodine results differed between species but not between cow breeds (P < 0.001; 462.8 H and 434.9 B > 126.0 W and 164.2 μg . l−1 C. It could be explainable by using of I disinfection at teat treatment in cows and absence of treatment in small ruminants. Macroelements were mostly highest (Ca, P, Na, Mg in sheep milk, with exception of K. Phosphorus values (950.1 H, 1016.9 B, 1042.6 W and 1596.7 mg . kg−1 C in species were linked with crude or true protein and casein values. Small ruminant milk could be good source of minerals for human nutrition, especially in the case of Ca and Mg of sheep and goat milk.

  20. Supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol of dairy cows in early lactation - Effects on metabolic status, body condition, and milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol to dairy cows in early lactation on metabolic status, body condition and milk yield. In total, 673 newly calved cows from 12 commercial Swedish dairy herds were randomized to daily....... No differences in BCS or HG or in plasma concentrations of glucose, BHBA, NEFA, or IGF-1 were found between the control group and any of the treatment groups. Cows in the GLY group had lower plasma insulin concentrations during DIM 0 to 63 compared with group CON, but no difference in insulin was found between...... supplementation with 450 g of glycerol (GLY), 300 g of propylene glycol (PG), or nothing (control, CON). Supplements were fed twice daily from 0 to 21 d in milk (DIM) as a top dress on concentrates. For each cow, data on parity, breed, calving date, monthly test-day milk yield, and cases of diseases were...

  1. Effects of varying forage particle size and fermentable carbohydrates on feed sorting, ruminal fermentation, and milk and component yields of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulfair, D D; Heinrichs, A J

    2013-05-01

    Ration sorting is thought to affect ruminal fermentation in such a manner that milk yield milk and components are often decreased. However, the influence of ruminally degradable starch on ration sorting has not been studied. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the interactions between forage particle size (FPS) and ruminally fermentable carbohydrates (RFC) for dry matter intake (DMI), ration sorting, ruminal fermentation, chewing activity, and milk yield and components. In this study, 12 (8 ruminally cannulated) multiparous, lactating Holstein cows were fed a total mixed ration that varied in FPS and RFC. Two lengths of corn silage were used to alter FPS and 2 grind sizes of corn grain were used to alter RFC. It was determined that increasing RFC increased ruminating time and did not affect eating time, whereas increasing FPS increased eating time and did not affect ruminating time. Ruminal fermentation did not differ by altering either FPS or RFC. However, increasing FPS tended to increase mean and maximum ruminal pH and increasing RFC tended to decrease minimum ruminal pH. Particle size distribution became more diverse and neutral detergent fiber content of refusals increased over time, whereas starch content decreased, indicating that cows were sorting against physically effective neutral detergent fiber and for RFC. Selection indices determined that virtually no interactions occurred between FPS and RFC and that despite significant sorting throughout the day, by 24h after feeding cows had consumed a ration very similar to what was offered. This theory was reinforced by particle fraction intakes that very closely resembled the proportions of particle fractions in the offered total mixed ration. An interaction between FPS and RFC was observed for DMI, as DMI decreased with increasing FPS when the diet included low RFC and did not change when the diet included high RFC. Dry matter intake increased with RFC for long diets and did not change

  2. Amino acid composition of casein isolated from the milks of different species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, B H; Baker, B E

    1977-01-01

    Casein was isolated from the milks of the following species: cow, horse, pig, reindeer, caribou, moose, harp seal, musk-ox, polar bear, dall sheep, and fin whale. The caseins were subjected to acid hydrolysis, the resultant amino acids were converted to their n-butyl-N-trifluoroacetyl esters, and the amino acid composition of the caseins was determined by gas chromatographic analysis of these esters. Notable among the results was the close similarity, with respect to amino acid composition, of reindeer and caribou caseins. The results of the amino acid analyses of the other caseins are presented and discussed.

  3. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of Saanen goat milk fed with Cacti varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catunda, Karen Luanna Marinho; de Aguiar, Emerson Moreira; de Góes Neto, Pedro Etelvino; da Silva, José Geraldo Medeiros; Moreira, José Aparecido; do Nascimento Rangel, Adriano Henrique; de Lima Júnior, Dorgival Morais

    2016-08-01

    The use of cactus is an alternative for sustainable production systems in Northeast Brazil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of supplying five cacti species from the Brazilian semi-arid northeast region on the physical-chemical sensory characteristics and the profile of fatty acids of Saanen goat milk. Five multiparous goats were used, confined, and distributed in a Latin square 5 × 5 design, with five experimental diets and five periods. Treatments consisted of 473 to 501 g/kg of a cactaceous mix (Pilosocereus gounellei, Cereus jamacaru, Cereus squamosus, Nopalea cochenillifera, or Opuntia stricta) added to 187.8 to 197.9 g/kg of "Sabiá" (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) hay and 311 to 329 g/kg of concentrate. No effects of experimental diets (P > 0.05) were evidenced in the physical and chemical composition of milk for fat, total solids, or salt levels. However, protein, lactose, solids-not-fat levels, and cryoscopy point were influenced by diet (P  0.05) in the profile of fatty acids between treatments for all acids found, except for butyric acid. Diets also did not (P > 0.05) confer sensory changes in milk characteristics. The use of the native cacti in the dairy goats' diet did not influence the sensory characteristics or lipid profile of milk.

  4. Changes in the sterol compositions of milk thistle oil (Silybium marianum L.) during seed maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrabi, S.; Curtis, S.; Hayet, F.; Mayer, P.M.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the total lipid content and sterol compositions were determined during the development of milk thistle seeds. The oil content increased to a maximum value of 36±1.7% and then declined to reach a value of 30.5±0.9% at full maturity. The sterol content of milk thistle seeds was affected by the ripening degree of the seeds. At the early stages of seed maturation, Δ7 -stigmastenol was the most abundant sterol followed by β-sitosterol. However, at full maturity, β-sitosterol was the most predominant sterol (46.50±0.8%). As the seed developed, campesterol and stigmasterol amounts increased, while Δ7 -avenasterol content decreased. It can be concluded that milk thistle seed oil has a characteristic sterol pattern comparable to the ones elucidated for olive oil and corn oil. The extracted oil from milk thistle seeds is rich in phytosterols and could be used in foodpreparation and human nutrition. (Author)

  5. Evaluation of a continuous indicator for syndromic surveillance through simulation. application to vector borne disease emergence detection in cattle using milk yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Madouasse

    Full Text Available Two vector borne diseases, caused by the Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses respectively, have emerged in the European ruminant populations since 2006. Several diseases are transmitted by the same vectors and could emerge in the future. Syndromic surveillance, which consists in the routine monitoring of indicators for the detection of adverse health events, may allow an early detection. Milk yield is routinely measured in a large proportion of dairy herds and could be incorporated as an indicator in a surveillance system. However, few studies have evaluated continuous indicators for syndromic surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for the quantification of both disease characteristics and model predictive abilities that are important for a continuous indicator to be sensitive, timely and specific for the detection of a vector-borne disease emergence. Emergences with a range of spread characteristics and effects on milk production were simulated. Milk yields collected monthly in 48 713 French dairy herds were used to simulate 576 disease emergence scenarios. First, the effect of disease characteristics on the sensitivity and timeliness of detection were assessed: Spatio-temporal clusters of low milk production were detected with a scan statistic using the difference between observed and simulated milk yields as input. In a second step, the system specificity was evaluated by running the scan statistic on the difference between observed and predicted milk yields, in the absence of simulated emergence. The timeliness of detection depended mostly on how easily the disease spread between and within herds. The time and location of the emergence or adding random noise to the simulated effects had a limited impact on the timeliness of detection. The main limitation of the system was the low specificity i.e. the high number of clusters detected from the difference between observed and predicted productions, in the absence of

  6. MILK KEFIR: COMPOSITION, MICROBIAL CULTURES, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND RELATED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  7. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Maria R; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir's exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir's microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  8. STARTER CULTURES COMPOSITIONS WITH PROBIOTICS FOR FERMENTED MILK PRODUCTS AND COSMETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tkachenko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The expediency of optimization of starter cultures composition of mixed cultures Lactococcus sp. and mixed cultures Bifidobacterium bifidum BB 01 + Bifidobacterium longum BL 01 + Bifidobacterium breve BR 01 for the manufacture of fermented milk products and cosmetics for teenagers and people under the age of 40-45 years with probiotics has been substantiated.The value of titratable acidity, number of viable cells of bifidobacteria has been determined, as well as the most probable number of lactobacterium in fermented probiotic clots obtained with different ratios of mixed cultures Lactococcus sp. and mixed cultures of Bifidobacterium sp. in starter cultures compositions (the initial concentration of the mixed cultures (MC Lactococcus sp. and MC Bifidobacterium sp. varied within the range of 1×105 – 1×106 CFU/cm3 of the inoculated milk, enriched with fructose as a growth factor of bifidobacteria. The high content of probiotics and the lowest values of titratable acidity are typical of the fermented milk clots obtained using starter cultures composition with a ratio of MC Lactococcus sp. : MC Bifidobacterium sp. 1 : 10. The maximum number of lactococci viable cells is observed in clots obtained using starter cultures composition with the initial ratio of MC Lactococcus sp. : MC Bifidobacterium sp. 10 : 1. The optimum ratio of MC Lactococcus sp. and MC Bifidobacterium sp. – 1 : 10 has been established (initial concentration of the cultures at inoculation – 1×105 and 1×106 CFU/cm3, respectively for the production of fermented milk products and cosmetics with probiotics, where the maximum value of the quality aggregated factor – 7, 12 is noted.It is shown that a fermented probiotic milk clots obtained using starter cultures composition with an optimum ratio of cultures of lacto- and bifidobacteria (1 : 10 have good sensory characteristics, contain a high number of viable cells of bifidobacteria and lactobacteria – (9,15±0,14×109 and

  9. Effect of increased intake of skimmed milk, casein, whey or water on body composition and leptin in overweight adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS: Dairy proteins may support muscle protein synthesis and improve satiety in adults. However, there are limited studies using exact measures of body composition, especially in adolescents. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the effect of milk proteins and water on body composition...... and leptin in overweight adolescents. METHODS: Subjects (n = 193) aged 12-15 years were randomized to drink 1 L d(-1) of skimmed milk, whey, casein (all milk-based drinks 35 g protein L(-1) ) or water for 12 weeks. Twenty participants dropped out. A pre-test control group of 32 adolescents was examined 12...... weeks before start of intervention. Outcomes included leptin and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. The effects of the milk-based drinks on body composition and leptin were compared with baseline, pre-test control and water. RESULTS: Lean mass index (LMI) increased compared to baseline (all 95...

  10. Evaluation of two milk replacers fed to hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus): nutrient composition, apparent total tract digestibility, and comparison to maternal cheetah milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Katherine M; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Cottam, Yvette H; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2011-01-01

    Commercially prepared milk replacers are frequently used to provide the sole source of nutrition for hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus). The nutrient composition of two commonly used milk replacers was determined. Using titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker, nutrient digestibility was calculated from the analyses of fecal samples collected from each cub (n = 4 on formula 1, and n = 2 on formula 2). Mean apparent total tract digestibility for both formulas was >90% for all nutrients analyzed (crude protein, amino acids, crude fat (CF), and dry matter). However, the total CF content and the concentration of the essential fatty acids, such as α-linolenic, linolenic, and arachidonic acid, of both formulas was lower than reported for maternal cheetah milk. Additionally, one formula contained a comparatively high amount of carbohydrate, at the expense of protein. Although data were lacking for cheetah maternal milk, comparison with domestic cat milk revealed high concentrations of a number of minerals (K, Fe, Zn, and Cu), while vitamin D(3) was not detected in one formula. Both formulas were low in the majority of essential amino acids compared with domestic cat maternal milk. Despite their apparently high digestibility, neither formula was complete or balanced in terms of nutrient concentrations and ratios when maternal cheetah milk and/or the requirements established for growth in domestic cats were used as estimates of ideal. On this basis, although all cubs in this study were healthy and maintained good body conditions for the duration of the trial, the results of dietary analyses indicate that these milk replacers may not provide optimal nutrition for growth in cheetah cubs when used for extended periods. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol of dairy cows in early lactation--effects on metabolic status, body condition, and milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomander, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, K L; Gustafsson, H; Svensson, C

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol to dairy cows in early lactation on metabolic status, body condition and milk yield. In total, 673 newly calved cows from 12 commercial Swedish dairy herds were randomized to daily supplementation with 450 g of glycerol (GLY), 300 g of propylene glycol (PG), or nothing (control, CON). Supplements were fed twice daily from 0 to 21 d in milk (DIM) as a top dress on concentrates. For each cow, data on parity, breed, calving date, monthly test-day milk yield, and cases of diseases were collected. Blood samples were taken at approximately 2, 5, and 8 wk postpartum (pp) and analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and insulin. Samples taken within 3 wk pp were also analyzed for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Measurements of body condition score (BCS) and heart girth (HG) were obtained at approximately 2 and 5 wk pp and at time of first insemination. The effects of supplemental feeding with GLY or PG on the plasma concentrations of glucose, NEFA, BHBA, insulin, and IGF-1, and BCS, HG, and occurrence of disease were analyzed. No differences in BCS or HG or in plasma concentrations of glucose, BHBA, NEFA, or IGF-1 were found between the control group and any of the treatment groups. Cows in the GLY group had lower plasma insulin concentrations during DIM 0 to 63 compared with group CON, but no difference in insulin was found between the PG group and the CON group. Cows supplemented with GLY had a higher milk yield (kg of milk and kg of energy-corrected milk) during the first 90 DIM. Cows in the PG group tended to yield more milk during the same period. No differences in the occurrence of diseases were seen between the groups. In conclusion, supplementation with GLY in early lactation did increase milk yield without a subsequent decrease of metabolic status, and supplementation with PG tended to do the same

  12. Colostrum immunoglobulin G concentration of multiparous Jersey cows at first and second milking is associated with parity, colostrum yield, and time of first milking, and can be estimated with Brix refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Del-Río, N; Rolle, D; García-Muñoz, A; Rodríguez-Jiménez, S; Valldecabres, A; Lago, A; Pandey, P

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate colostrum IgG concentration harvested at first and second milking from multiparous Jersey cows, the dam's lactation number, colostrum yield, and time of first milking. In addition, we validated the use of a Brix refractometer to estimate IgG concentration in colostrum from multiparous Jersey cows using radial immunodiffusion as the reference method. Colostrum samples and total weight of colostrum harvested at first (n = 134) and second (n = 68) milking were collected from 134 multiparous Jersey cows housed in a California herd. Fresh colostrum samples were analyzed for IgG concentration with Brix refractometry and frozen samples by radial immunodiffusion. A total of 90.4 and 42.7% of the samples from first and second milking met industry standards of quality for IgG concentration (>50 g/L). Second and third lactation cows had similar colostrum IgG concentration but lower than cows on their fourth and greater lactation. At second milking, 56.4% of cows on their fourth or greater lactation had colostrum IgG concentrations >50 g/L. When colostrum yield increased from low (6 kg), IgG concentration decreased. Higher IgG concentration was observed on colostrum harvested at 50 IgG g/L was 20.9% based on logit equations with Youden's index criterion and 18.0% based on accuracy criterion. For colostrum harvested at second milking, similar Brix thresholds were obtained, 19.2 and 19.0%, regardless of whether Youden's index or accuracy was used as the selection criterion. Our results indicate that the dam's lactation number, colostrum yield, and time of first milking relative to calving are associated with IgG concentration in colostrum from multiparous Jersey cows. Second milking colostrum from mature Jersey cows should be evaluated to extend colostrum supply on dairies especially during times of shortage. Readings of %Brix can be used to rapidly estimate IgG concentration in Jersey colostrum harvested at first and second milking

  13. Phospholipid classes and fatty acid composition of ewe’s and goat’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zancada, L.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The content, distribution of individual species, and the fatty acid composition of phospholipids (PL from ewe’s and goat’s milk were analyzed. The binding of enterotoxigenic and uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains to PL and the inhibition of bacterial hemagglutination by PL were addressed using high performance thin-layer chromatography-overlay assays and microtiter plates, respectively. Ovine and caprine milk contained more PL than bovine milk but less than human milk. The profile of individual PL was similar, including sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol in both ovine and caprine milk. Regarding the fatty acid composition, a high content of long-chain fatty acids (more than C16 and unsaturated fatty acids, with C18:1 as the most abundant was found in ovine and caprine milk PL. Ovine milk has longer and less saturated fatty acids while caprine milk has shorter and more saturated ones. Neither the adhesion of any bacterial strains assayed to the individual PL from ovine or caprine milk nor the inhibition of bacterial hemagglutination by PL were observed. These are important constituents of the milk fat globule membrane, but it seems that they do not play a role in the defence of new-borns against bacteria if the results obtained are taken into account.Se ha analizado el contenido, distribución de las especies individuales y la composición en ácidos grasos de los fosfolípidos (FL de la leche de oveja y de cabra. Se ha estudiado también la unión de cepas enterotoxigénicas y uropatogénicas de Escherichia coli a estos compuestos y el efecto de los FL sobre la hemaglutinación provocada por estas bacterias mediante inmunodetección en placa y ensayos en placas multipocillo, respectivamente. La leche de oveja y de cabra contiene más FL que la de vaca, pero menos que la leche humana. El perfil de FL individuales es similar en la leche de oveja y de cabra e incluye

  14. Composition and fatty acid profile of milk from cows on pasture subjected to licuri oil supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano dos Santos Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the best level of oil licuri concentrate on dairy cows. The best level was determined through an analysis of the milk's chemical composition and fatty acid profile. Sixteen lactating cows from the Holstein × Zebu cross breed kept on Tanzania grass pastures were divided into four 4 × 4 Latin squares, which were formed by four experimental periods of 21 days. The 21-day experimental periods were divided into 17 days for adaptation and four days for collection. Cows received three kg of concentrate per day, at the time of milking. Treatments consisted of four types of feed containing the following levels: 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% inclusion of dry matter (DM licuri oil concentrate. The licuri oil levels changed the fatty acids' profile with a linear increase in the short-chain fatty acid and medium and linearly reduced the concentration of LCFA. The highest level of licuri oil was 4.5% of DM concentrate, which changed the composition of milk through an increase in the percentage of fat and total solids. This result is of prominent notice to the dairy industry.

  15. Effects of ewes grazing sulla or ryegrass pasture for different daily durations on forage intake, milk production and fatty acid composition of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, A; Di Grigoli, A; Mazza, F; De Pasquale, C; Giosuè, C; Vitale, F; Alabiso, M

    2016-12-01

    Sulla (Sulla coronarium L.) forage is valued for its positive impact on ruminant production, in part due to its moderate content of condensed tannin (CT). The duration of daily grazing is a factor affecting the feed intake and milk production of ewes. In this study, the effects of grazing sulla pasture compared with annual ryegrass, and the extension of grazing from 8 to 22 h/day, were evaluated with regard to ewe forage intake and milk production, as well as the physicochemical properties and fatty acid (FA) composition of cheese. During 42 days in the spring, 28 ewes of the Comisana breed were divided into four groups (S8, S22, R8 and R22) that grazed sulla (S) or ryegrass (R) for 8 (0800 to 1600 h) or 22 h/day, and received no feeding supplement. In six cheese-making sessions, cheeses were manufactured from the 48 h bulk milk of each group. Compared with ewes grazing ryegrass, those grazing sulla had higher dry matter (DM) intake, intake rate and milk yield, and produced milk that was lower in fat and higher in casein. Ewes grazing for 22 h spent more time eating, which reduced the intake rate, increased DM and nutrient intake and milk yield, and reduced milk fat. Due to the ability of CT to inhibit the complete ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the FA composition of sulla cheese was more beneficial for consumer health compared with ryegrass cheese, having lower levels of saturated fatty acids and higher levels of PUFA and n-3 FA. The FA profile of S8 cheese was better than that of S22 cheese, as it was higher in branched-chain FA, monounsaturated FA, PUFA, rumenic acid (c9,t11-C18:2), and had a greater health-promoting index. The effect of short grazing time on sulla was attributed to major inhibition of PUFA biohydrogenating ruminal bacteria, presumably stimulated by the higher accumulation of sulla CT in the rumen, which is related to a higher intake rate over a shorter eating time. Thus, grazing sulla improved the performance of

  16. Associations between human milk oligosaccharides and infant body composition in the first 6 mo of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, Tanya L; Autran, Chloe; Brekke, Benjamin E; Knight, Rob; Bode, Lars; Goran, Michael I; Fields, David A

    2015-12-01

    Evidence linking breastfeeding to reduced risk of developing childhood obesity is inconclusive, yet previous studies have not considered variation in specific components of breast milk that may affect early development. We examined whether differences in the composition of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) correlate with infant growth and body composition at 1 and 6 mo of age. Twenty-five mother-infant dyads were recruited from the University Hospital at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. Infants were breastfed for 6 mo. Breast-milk and infant measures were obtained at 1 and 6 mo of infant age. HMO composition was analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and infant growth (length and weight) and body composition (percentage fat, total fat, lean mass) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Relations between HMOs and infant growth and body composition were examined by using multiple linear regression. A priori covariates included maternal prepregnancy body mass index, pregnancy weight gain, and infant age and sex. Higher HMO diversity and evenness at 1 mo were associated with lower total and percentage fat mass at 1 mo. At 1 mo, each 1-μg/mL increase in lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) I was associated with a 0.40-kg lower infant weight (P = 0.03). At 6 mo, each 1-μg/mL increase in LNFPI was associated with a 1.11-kg lower weight (P = 0.03) and a 0.85-g lower lean mass (P = 0.01). At 6 mo, each 1-μg/mL increase in LNFPI was associated with a 0.79-g lower fat mass (P = 0.02), whereas disialyl-lacto-N-tetraose and LNFPII were associated with a 1.92-g (P = 0.02) and 0.42-g (P = 0.02) greater fat mass, respectively. At 6 mo, each 1-μg/mL increase in fucosyl-disialyl-lacto-N-hexaose and lacto-N-neotetraose was associated with 0.04% higher (P = 0.03) and 0.03% lower (P milk are associated with infant growth and body composition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02535637. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory analysis of goat milk in goats fed buriti oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, J S; Bezerra, L R; Silva, A M A; Araújo, M J; Oliveira, R L; Edvan, R L; Torreão, J N C; Lanna, D P D

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with buriti oil ( L.) on feed intake and digestibility and on the production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of goat milk. A double Latin square (4 × 4) was used; eight goats were distributed in a completely randomized design. The square comprised four periods and four buriti oil concentration (0.00; 1.50; 3.00 and 4.50% of total DM) replacing corn. Intakes of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, non-fibrous carboydrates (NFC) and TDN were not affected by the replacement of corn with oil in the diet. However, lipids intake was increased ( goats with 4.50% oil inclusion, as total DM. DM and CP digestibility were similar between the buriti oil concentrations. However, lipid digestibility increased linearly ( = 0.01) and may have contributed to a quadratic reduction in NDF digestibility ( = 0.01) and a linear reduction of NFC ( = 0.04) with buriti oil content in the goat feed. Goat milk production, corrected production and chemical composition were not influenced by the concentration of buriti oil replacement; however, milk fat concentration ( = 0.04) and feed efficiency ( goat's diet. In contrast, the fatty acids C18:0 ( goats that were fed with buriti oil. However, CLA ( 0.05) by the replacement of corn with buriti oil in the goats' diet. It is recommended to replace corn with buriti oil in goat feed by up to 4.5% of total DM, resulting in improved feed efficiency and milk fat without affecting production; this recommendation satisfies the minimum requirements of the industry and preserves the organoleptic characteristics of the milk and its acceptability for human consumption. In addition, buriti oil replacing ground corn by up to 4.5% DM in the diet of lactating goats decrease medium-chain SFA which are hypercholesterolemic and increase the concentrations of the C18:19, CLA and DFA in goat milk fat, helping to protect against cardiovascular disease.

  18. A longitudinal study of factors influencing the result of a Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis antibody ELISA in milk or dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenberg, S.W.F.; Veldman, E.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Koets, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of milk yield and milk composition on the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by milk ELISA in the context of the total IgG secretion patterns in milk throughout lactation and serum concentrations were investigated. A 2-yr trial was performed in which 1,410

  19. Effect of the type of silage on milk yield, intake and rumen metabolism of dairy cows grazing swards with low herbage mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Albarrán, Miguel; Balocchi, Oscar A; Noro, Mirela; Wittwer, Fernando; Pulido, Rubén G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of herbage allowance (HA) and type of silage supplemented (TS) on milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI) and metabolism of dairy cows in early lactation. Thirty-six Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to four treatments derived from an arrangement of two HA (LHA = 17 or HHA = 25 kg of DM/cow/day) and two TS (grass (GS) or maize (MS)). Herbage allowance had no effect on DMI or milk yield. Rumen pH and NH3 -N concentration were not affected by HA. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen (microbial protein (MP)) was affected by HA with 21.5 and 23.9 g microbial nitrogen per kg ruminal digestible organic matter for LHA and HHA, respectively (P content by 0.10 % (P < 0.023) and herbage DMI by 2.2 kg/cow/day, and showed lower values for milk urea compared to GS (P < 0.001). The former results suggest that TS had a greater effect on milk yield, total feed intake and energy intake than increase in herbage allowance; however, increase in HA had greater effects on MP than TS. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Some effects of partial suckling on milk yield, reproduction and calf growth in crossbred dairy cattle in north east coastal Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, M.J.; Msanga, Y.N.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments are described where a progeny of Bos taurus x Bos indicus crossbred cows were reared by partial suckling or bucket rearing (Experiment I), and partially suckled calves were weaned at 12 or 24 weeks of age (Experiment II). The results of Experiment I suggest that calf rearing method had no significant effect in the yield of milk extracted from the cows by hand milking although there were effects on the shape of the lactation curve. Cows showed similar patterns of live weight and body condition losses and gains and there were no significant effects on the length of the post partum interval. Suckled calves were lighter at weaning (P <0.01) but there were no differences in live weight between treatments at 52 weeks of age. The main advantage of partial suckling was that the calves took advantage of residual milk which was estimated as 28-29% of the total yield. The results from Experiment II suggest that there were no advantages in terms of milk yield or calf growth by extending the suckling period to 24 weeks. The post partum intervals observed in Experiment II were substantially longer than those in Experiment I, possibly because of greater live weight/body condition losses experienced by cows in the second experiment. (author)

  1. Some effects of partial suckling on milk yield, reproduction and calf growth in crossbred dairy cattle in north east coastal Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, M J [Department of Agriculture, University of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom); Msanga, Y N [Livestock Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Tanga (Tanzania)

    1999-07-01

    Two experiments are described where a progeny of Bos taurus x Bos indicus crossbred cows were reared by partial suckling or bucket rearing (Experiment I), and partially suckled calves were weaned at 12 or 24 weeks of age (Experiment II). The results of Experiment I suggest that calf rearing method had no significant effect in the yield of milk extracted from the cows by hand milking although there were effects on the shape of the lactation curve. Cows showed similar patterns of live weight and body condition losses and gains and there were no significant effects on the length of the post partum interval. Suckled calves were lighter at weaning (P <0.01) but there were no differences in live weight between treatments at 52 weeks of age. The main advantage of partial suckling was that the calves took advantage of residual milk which was estimated as 28-29% of the total yield. The results from Experiment II suggest that there were no advantages in terms of milk yield or calf growth by extending the suckling period to 24 weeks. The post partum intervals observed in Experiment II were substantially longer than those in Experiment I, possibly because of greater live weight/body condition losses experienced by cows in the second experiment. (author) 22 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Effect of seasonal variation on the composition and properties of raw milk destined for processing in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biye; Lewis, Michael J; Grandison, Alistair S

    2014-09-01

    The composition and physical properties of raw milk from a commercial herd were studied over a 1 year period in order to understand how best to utilise milk for processing throughout the year. Protein and fat levels demonstrated seasonal trends, while minerals and many physical properties displayed considerable variations, which were apparently unrelated to season. However, rennet clotting time, ethanol stability and foaming ability were subject to seasonal variation. Many significant interrelationships in physico-chemical properties were found. It is clear that the milk supply may be more suited to the manufacture of different products at different times of the year or even on a day to day basis. Subsequent studies will report on variation in production and quality of products manufactured from the same milk samples described in the current study and will thus highlight potential advantages of seasonal processing of raw milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fatty acid, tocopherol and carotenoid content in herbage and milk affected by sward composition and season of grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Fretté, Xavier; Kristensen, Troels

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present work was to study to what extent grazing large amounts ofwhite clover (WCL), red clover (RCL), lucerne (LUC) or chicory (CHI) was suitable for production of bovine milk with a high milk fat content of tocopherols, carotenoids, α-linolenic acid and conjugated......), carotenoids (6 μg g−1) and α-tocopherol (21 μg g−1 milk fat). There were minor differences between herbage types and periods, but multivariate analysis of these data showed no clear grouping. Chemical composition of herbage varied with species as well as period, but it was not possible to relatemilk and feed...... contents of specific fatty acids, carotenoids or tocopherols. CONCLUSION: All four herbages tested were suitable for production of milk with a high content of beneficial compounds. Thus any of these herbages could be used in production of such differentiated milk based on a large proportion of grazing...

  4. ELECTROLYTE AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF TERM DONOR HUMAN MILK BEFORE AND AFTER PASTEURIZATION AND OF RAW MILK OF PRETERM MOTHERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codo, Carla Regina Bianchi; Caldas, Jamil Pedro de Siqueira; Peixoto, Rafaella Regina Alves; Sanches, Vitor Lacerda; Guiraldelo, Tamara Cristina; Cadore, Solange; Marba, Sérgio Tadeu Martins

    2018-02-22

    To determine and compare the concentrations of electrolytes and minerals in three different types of maternal milk samples: term donor milk before pasteurization, term donor milk after pasteurization and raw milk of mothers of preterm newborns at bedside. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Concentrations of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were measured in random samples of three human breast milk groups. Samples were analyzed using acid mineralization assisted by microwave radiation and further analysis by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Concentrations were expressed in mg/L, described as mean and standard deviation. The one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-test were applied to determine the variability between the means of each group. Significance level was set at 5%. There was a significant reduction in the content of Ca (259.4±96.8 vs. 217.0±54.9; p=0.003), P (139.1±51.7 vs. 116.8±33.3; p=0.004) and K (580.8±177.1 vs. 470.9±109.4; ppasteurization. Samples of raw milk presented higher contents of Na than the donated milk (twice). The elements P and Ca would only reach the daily intake levels recommended by the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition if at least 60 mL of milk could be offered every 3 hours. Mg levels were not different between the three groups. There was a significant reduction in Ca, P and K levels in samples after pasteurization. The Na value in raw milk, collected at bedside, was higher than in the samples of donor's milk before pasteurization.

  5. Winter feeding systems and dairy cow breed have an impact on milk composition and flavour of two Protected Designation of Origin French cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Peyraud, Jean-Louis; Michel, Guillaume; Berthelot, D.; Delaby, Luc

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two feeding systems and two dairy cow breeds on milk yield and composition, physical and sensorial properties of Camembert and Pont-l'Eveque cheeses. The experiment consisted of a 2 X 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. A low energy grass diet with only 15% of concentrate (LowGS) was compared with a high-energy maize silage diet with 30% concentrate (HighMS). Thirty-four Holstein (Hp) and 34 Normande (No) cows in early lactation were assigned to one o...

  6. Milk removal

    OpenAIRE

    Ferneborg, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Milk from dairy cows is a staple dietary component for humans all over the world. Regardless of whether milk is consumed in its purest, unaltered form or as high-end products such as fine cheese or ice cream, it needs to be of high quality when taken from the cow, produced at a low price and produced in a system that consider aspects such as animal health, animal welfare and sustainability. This thesis investigated the role of milk removal and the importance of residual milk on milk yield...

  7. Long term effect of reduced dietary phosphorus on feed intake and milk yield in dry and lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puggaard, Liselotte; Lund, Peter; Liesegang, A.

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows were used to study the long term effect of reducing dietary P concentration on intake of DM and milk yield, on blood levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi), Ca, vitamin D3, parathyroid hormone (PTH) as well as assessing bone turnover by the use of bone formation......) (2.1g P/kg DM) and High P (HP) (2.5g P/kg DM). After parturition and throughout lactation treatments were LP (2.3g P/kg DM), MP (2.8g P/kg DM) and HP (3.4g P/kg DM). Differences in dietary P were obtained by adding 0.60 and 1.19% mono-sodium phosphate per kg DM to MP and HP, respectively. The cows...... were fed restrictively pre-partum and for ad libitum intake from one week before expected calving and throughout the experiment. Due to a high number of health problems, LP treatment was terminated after sampling in week 12, and cows were shifted to HP and continued on this treatment until week 36...

  8. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randby, A T; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P

    2012-01-01

    was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy......The main objective was to evaluate the potential of grass silages of very high quality to support a high milk yield with a low or moderate, or even without concentrate supplementation. Production responses to increased levels of concentrate supplementation with 3 primary growth grass silages...... differing in digestibility were studied using 66 Norwegian Red dairy cows. Roundbale silage was produced from a timothy-dominated sward at very early (H1), early (H2), and normal (H3) stages of crop maturity. Crops were rapidly wilted (h) and a formic acid-based additive was applied. All silages were...

  9. Detrimental effect of selection for milk yield on genetic tolerance to heat stress in purebred Zebu cattle: Genetic parameters and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Pereira, R J; Bignardi, A B; Filho, A E Vercesi; Menéndez-Buxadera, A; El Faro, L

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt to determine the possible detrimental effects of continuous selection for milk yield on the genetic tolerance of Zebu cattle to heat stress, genetic parameters and trends of the response to heat stress for 86,950 test-day (TD) milk yield records from 14,670 first lactations of purebred dairy Gir cows were estimated. A random regression model with regression on days in milk (DIM) and temperature-humidity index (THI) values was applied to the data. The most detrimental effect of THI on milk yield was observed in the stage of lactation with higher milk production, DIM 61 to 120 (-0.099kg/d per THI). Although modest variations were observed for the THI scale, a reduction in additive genetic variance as well as in permanent environmental and residual variance was observed with increasing THI values. The heritability estimates showed a slight increase with increasing THI values for any DIM. The correlations between additive genetic effects across the THI scale showed that, for most of the THI values, genotype by environment interactions due to heat stress were less important for the ranking of bulls. However, for extreme THI values, this type of genotype by environment interaction may lead to an important error in selection. As a result of the selection for milk yield practiced in the dairy Gir population for 3 decades, the genetic trend of cumulative milk yield was significantly positive for production in both high (51.81kg/yr) and low THI values (78.48kg/yr). However, the difference between the breeding values of animals at high and low THI may be considered alarming (355kg in 2011). The genetic trends observed for the regression coefficients related to general production level (intercept of the reaction norm) and specific ability to respond to heat stress (slope of the reaction norm) indicate that the dairy Gir population is heading toward a higher production level at the expense of lower tolerance to heat stress. These trends reflect the genetic

  10. Effect of storage on the yield and the elemental composition of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The yield of the volatile oils of Eucalyptus citrodora and lemon grass obtained from a locally constructed apparatus is presented. Hydro distillation of the fresh and dried leaves at room temperature (25°C) gave a better yield with dried leaves. Elemental composition of the crude and rectified volatile oils of the predominant ...

  11. Lowering rumen-degradable protein maintained energy-corrected milk yield and improved nitrogen-use efficiency in multiparous lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J D; Kassube, K R; Ríus, A G

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of reducing rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) proportions on feed intake, milk production, and N-use efficiency in primiparous and multiparous cows exposed to warm climates. Eighteen primiparous and 30 multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments formulated to contain 2 proportions of RDP (10 and 8%) and 2 proportions RUP (8 and 6%) of dry matter (DM) indicated as follows: (1) 10% RDP, 8% RUP; (2) 8% RDP, 8% RUP; (3) 10% RDP, 6% RUP; and (4) 8% RDP, 6% RUP. Protein sources were manipulated to obtain desired RDP and RUP proportions. Diets were isoenergetic and contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate (DM basis). Cows were individually fed the 10% RDP, 8% RUP diet 3 wk before treatment allocation. Cows were exposed to the prevailing Tennessee July and August temperature and humidity in a freestall barn with no supplemental cooling. Main effects and their interaction were tested using the Mixed procedure of SAS (least squares means ± standard error of the mean; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Observed values of nutrient intake and milk production were used to obtain NRC (2001) model predictions. Cows showed signs of heat stress throughout the study. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased dry matter intake (DMI; 0.9 kg/d) at 8% RUP, but increased DMI (2.6 kg/d) at 6% RUP in primiparous cows. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased milk yield (10%) at 8% RUP, but increased yield (14%) at 6% RUP. Treatments did not affect yield of energy-corrected milk. For multiparous cows, treatments did not affect DMI. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased yield of energy-corrected milk (3.4%) at 8% RUP, but increased yield (8.8%) at 6% RUP. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP and 8 to 6% RUP both increased N-use efficiency for primiparous and multiparous cows. The NRC

  12. Homogenization conditions affect the oxidative stability of fish oil enriched milk emulsions: Oxidation linked to changes in protein composition at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Baron, Caroline; Bruni Let, Mette

    2007-01-01

    Fish oil was incorporated into milk under different homogenization temperatures (50 and 72 °C) and pressures (5, 15, and 22.5 MPa). Subsequently, the oxidative stability of the milk and changes in the protein composition of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) were examined. Results showed...

  13. Effects of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) and its isopropyl ester on milk production and composition by Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, N R; Sylvester, J T

    2005-07-01

    The esterification of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMB) to isopropanol (HMBi) decreases the rate and extent of its ruminal breakdown. The modes of action of HMB and HMBi appear to be different. The quantification of the production response to HMBi has not been done. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the lactation response to HMB, (2) to determine the lactation response to HMBi, and (3) to evaluate whether the response to HMBi is affected by HMB in the diet. Sixty-one Holstein cows (24 primiparous, 37 multiparous) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments 21 to 28 d after calving. The base diet consisted of [on a dry matter (DM) basis] 32.5% corn silage, 17.5% alfalfa hay, 10% whole cottonseed, and 40% of a pelleted concentrate made primarily of ground corn, soybean meal, and blood meal, and was fed for 16 wk as a control diet. To prepare the dietary treatments, the base diet was supplemented with 0.1% of diet DM with HMB (treatment 2), with 0.15% HMBi (treatment 3), or with 0.045% HMB and 0.15% HMBi (treatment 4). Results showed a significant increase in milk yield (2.9 kg/d), protein content (0.15%), protein yield (115 g/d), fat yield (165 g/d), and lactose yield (182 g/d) from HMBi. Supplementation of HMB had small and nonsignificant effects on milk yield and composition. There were no significant interaction effects of HMB with HMBi on any of the production traits measured in this experiment. Plasma free Met as a proportion of essential amino acids was increased by HMBi, but not by HMB. Dietary supplementation of HMBi increased gross N efficiency expressed as the proportion of ingested N secreted in milk. Consequently, HMBi significantly improved N efficiency.

  14. Production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk highly enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids from dairy cows fed alfalfa protein concentrate or supplemental vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, M-C; Gervais, R; Rico, D E; Lebeuf, Y; Chouinard, P Y

    2016-06-01

    Given its elevated content of carotenoids, alfalfa protein concentrates (APC) have the potential to prevent oxidation of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The effects of feeding APC or supplemental vitamin E on production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids were evaluated using 6 lactating Holstein cows (224±18d in milk) in a replicated 3×3 Latin square (21-d periods, 14d for adaptation). Treatment diets contained (dry matter basis) (1) 9% soybean meal (control, CTL); (2) 9% soybean meal + 300 IU of vitamin E/kg (VitE treatment); or (3) 9% APC (APC treatment). Cows received a continuous abomasal infusion of 450g/d of linseed oil. As a result, milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 increased from 1.08±0.13 to 3.9±0.40% (mean ± SD), whereas cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased from 0.40±0.04 to 14.27±1.81% during the experimental period compared with the pretrial period. Milk yield tended to be higher for APC (14.7kg/d) compared with CTL (13.4kg/d), and was greater than that for VitE (13.0kg/d). Protein yield was higher in cows fed APC (518g/d) compared with VitE (445g/d) but was not different from that in cows fed CTL (483g/d). These effects resulted in improved milk N efficiency in cows fed APC (26.1% of N intake secreted in milk) compared with CTL (23.0%) and VitE (22.9%). Feeding APC increased milk fat content of lutein (252μg/g) compared with CTL (204μg/g) and VitE (190μg/g). Milk fat content of vitamin E was higher for APC (34.5μg/g) compared with CTL (19.0μg/g) and tended to be lower than that with VitE (44.9μg/g). Redox potential of fresh milk from cows fed APC (152mV) was similar to that of VitE (144mV), but lower than that of CTL (189mV). Treatments had no effect on fresh milk contents of dissolved oxygen (8.1±1.5mg/L), and conjugated diene hydroperoxides (2.7±0.5mmol/L). The concentrations of volatile lipid oxidation products (propanal, hexanal, hept-cis-4-enal, 1-octen-3-one) tended

  15. Test-day somatic cell score, fat-to-protein ratio and milk yield as indicator traits for sub-clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, J; Schaeffer, L R

    2012-02-01

    Test-day (TD) records of milk, fat-to-protein ratio (F:P) and somatic cell score (SCS) of first-lactation Canadian Holstein cows were analysed by a three-trait finite mixture random regression model, with the purpose of revealing hidden structures in the data owing to putative, sub-clinical mastitis. Different distributions of the data were allowed in 30 intervals of days in milk (DIM), covering the lactation from 5 to 305 days. Bayesian analysis with Gibbs sampling was used for model inferences. Estimated proportion of TD records originated from cows infected with mastitis was 0.66 in DIM from 5 to 15 and averaged 0.2 in the remaining part of lactation. Data from healthy and mastitic cows exhibited markedly different distributions, with respect to both average value and the variance, across all parts of lactation. Heterogeneity of distributions for infected cows was also apparent in different DIM intervals. Cows with mastitis were characterized by smaller milk yield (down to -5 kg) and larger F:P (up to 0.13) and SCS (up to 1.3) compared with healthy contemporaries. Differences in averages between healthy and infected cows for F:P were the most profound at the beginning of lactation, when a dairy cow suffers the strongest energy deficit and is therefore more prone to mammary infection. Residual variances for data from infected cows were substantially larger than for the other mixture components. Fat-to-protein ratio had a significant genetic component, with estimates of heritability that were larger or comparable with milk yield, and was not strongly correlated with milk and SCS on both genetic and environmental scales. Daily milk, F:P and SCS are easily available from milk-recording data for most breeding schemes in dairy cattle. Fat-to-protein ratio can potentially be a valuable addition to SCS and milk yield as an indicator trait for selection against mastitis. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Distinct composition of bovine milk from Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cows with good, poor or non-coagulation properties as reflected in protein genetic variants and isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Bak; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Andersen, Kell Kleiner

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine variation in overall milk, protein, and mineral composition of bovine milk in relation to rennet-induced coagulation, with the aim of elucidating the underlying causes of milk with impaired coagulation abilities. On the basis of an initial screening of 892...... of minerals (Ca, P, Mg) were identified in poorly coagulating and noncoagulating milk in comparison with milk with good coagulation properties. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of a great variety of genetic variants of the major milk proteins, namely, αS1...... milk samples from 42 herds with Danish Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cows, a subset of 102 samples was selected to represent milk with good, poor, or noncoagulating properties (i.e., samples that within each breed represented the most extremes in regard to coagulation properties). Milk with good...

  17. Komposisi Kimiawi dan Fraksinasi Protein Susu Kuda Sumba (THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PROTEIN FRACTIONATION OF SUMBA MARE’S MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annytha Ina Rohi Detha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine both chemical composition and fraction of the proteincompounds of sumba mare’s milk. Determination of the chemical compositions of sumba mare’s milk havedone by analyzing protein content using the Kjeldahl method, fat content using Gerber method, lactosecontent and the total solids content. Identification of antimicrobial compounds of whey proteins in milkusing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method. The results showed that the average ofsumba mare’s milk contained protein, fat, lactose and total solids were; 1.82%, 1.67%, 6.48% and 11.37%respectively. The average value of protein and fat in sumba mare’s milk was decrease significantly at fifthmonth of lactation period. Based on identification of antimicrobial compounds using HPLC method, thereare six main peaks with different polarities and retention times. In conclusion, sumba mare’s milk havea balance composition that can be used as a source of nutritious food and the milk likely also has six mainantimicrobial compounds in its whey protein.

  18. The association of hoof lesions at claw trimming with test-day milk yield in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Capion, Nynne; Hill, Ashley E.

    2007-01-01

    on the stage of lactation in which the lesions were diagnosed; during the first 100 days in milk, between days 101 and 200 and between days 201 and 305. Associations between the presence of hoof lesions at trimming and milk production were analyzed by linear mixed modeling at the cow level, clustered within...

  19. Comparative 2D-DIGE proteomic analysis of bovine mammary epithelial cells during lactation reveals protein signatures for lactation persistency and milk yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesh Janjanam

    Full Text Available Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end with alveoli which surrounds the lumen. These alveolar mammary epithelial cells (MEC reflect the milk producing ability of farm animals. In this study, we have used 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry to identify the protein changes in MEC during immediate early, peak and late stages of lactation and also compared differentially expressed proteins in MEC isolated from milk of high and low milk producing cows. We have identified 41 differentially expressed proteins during lactation stages and 22 proteins in high and low milk yielding cows. Bioinformatics analysis showed that a majority of the differentially expressed proteins are associated in metabolic process, catalytic and binding activity. The differentially expressed proteins were mapped to the available biological pathways and networks involved in lactation. The proteins up-regulated during late stage of lactation are associated with NF-κB stress induced signaling pathways and whereas Akt, PI3K and p38/MAPK signaling pathways are associated with high milk production mediated through insulin hormone signaling.

  20. Effect of maize, rumen-protected fat and whey permeate on energy utilisation and milk fat composition in lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Battelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of utilisation of diets with different proportions of energy sources (starch, fat, lactose was studied with three pairs of lactating Saanen goats; the animals were fed, in a Latin square design, 3 silage-based diets containing (on DM basis the following energy sources: 32% maize meal (diet M; 4.7% rumen-protected fat (Megalac® and 23.5% maize meal (diet F; 9.8% milk whey permeate powder and 22.3% maize meal (diet W. During each of the three experimental periods, 8 days of total collection balance trials were conducted during which goats were allocated for 72 h (three 24 h cycles in open circuit respiration chambers to determine methane and heat production and, hence, the energy balance. Diet F, in comparison with diets M and W, significantly increased the milk fat content (4.13 vs 3.11 and 3.14%, P<0.001 and the 4%-FCM yield (3367 vs 2927 and 3055 g/d, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively, while no relevant changes were observed for milk protein content and yield. Energy digestibility was equal in diets F and W. Megalac® did not decrease fibre digestibility. The partition of the gross energy intake (EI differed significantly between diets: diet M had lower DE (72.4 vs 74.3 and 74.3%; P<0.01 and ME (62.1 vs 64.7 and 63.5%; P<0.05 in comparison with diets F and W, respectively. Energy lost as methane was not significantly decreased by the inclusion of rumen- protected fat in the diet, although a trend for a reduction of methanogenesis was observed. Heat production deter- mined by treatment F was lower in comparison with the other treatments. This difference was almost significant (P=0.056 when expressed as a percentage of the ME. Milk energy output increased significantly (+12%, P<0.001 by including fat in the diet, as compared with treatments M and W: 21.4 vs 19.1 and 19.0% of the EI. The net ener- gy content of the protected fat was 27.94 MJ NEl/kg DM (+340% vs maize meal; its kl value resulted 0.77. The corresponding values for whey

  1. Relationship of goat milk flow emission variables with milking routine, milking parameters, milking machine characteristics and goat physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, G; Panzalis, R; Ruegg, P

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the relationship between milk flow emission variables recorded during milking of dairy goats with variables related to milking routine, goat physiology, milking parameters and milking machine characteristics, to determine the variables affecting milking performance and help the goat industry pinpoint farm and milking practices that improve milking performance. In total, 19 farms were visited once during the evening milking. Milking parameters (vacuum level (VL), pulsation ratio and pulsation rate, vacuum drop), milk emission flow variables (milking time, milk yield, maximum milk flow (MMF), average milk flow (AVMF), time until 500 g/min milk flow is established (TS500)), doe characteristics of 8 to 10 goats/farm (breed, days in milk and parity), milking practices (overmilking, overstripping, pre-lag time) and milking machine characteristics (line height, presence of claw) were recorded on every farm. The relationships between recorded variables and farm were analysed by a one-way ANOVA analysis. The relationships of milk yield, MMF, milking time and TS500 with goat physiology, milking routine, milking parameters and milking machine design were analysed using a linear mixed model, considering the farm as the random effect. Farm was significant (Pfarms, being similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Few milking parameters and milking machine characteristics affected the tested variables: average vacuum level only showed tendency on MMF, and milk pipeline height on TS500. Milk yield (MY) was mainly affected by parity, as the interaction of days in milk with parity was also significant. Milking time was mainly affected by milk yield and breed. Also significant were parity, the interaction of days in milk with parity and overstripping, whereas overmilking showed a slight tendency. We concluded that most of the studied variables were mainly related to goat physiology characteristics, as the effects of milking parameters and

  2. Effects of composite casein and beta-lactoglobulin genotypes on renneting properties and composition of bovine milk by assuming an animal model

    OpenAIRE

    T. IKONEN; M. OJALA; E.-L. SYVÄOJA

    2008-01-01

    The effects of kappa-beta-casein genotypes and b-lactoglobulin genotypes on the renneting properties and composition of milk were estimated for 174 and 155 milk samples of 59 Finnish Ayrshire and 55 Finnish Friesian cows, respectively. As well as the random additive genetic and permanent environmental effects of a cow, the model included the fixed effects for parity, lactation stage, season, kappa-beta-casein genotypes and b-lactoglobulin genotypes. Favourable renneting properties were associ...

  3. Effect of camelina oil or live yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on ruminal methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, A R; Kairenius, P; Stefański, T; Leskinen, H; Comtet-Marre, S; Forano, E; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Shingfield, K J

    2015-05-01

    The potential of dietary supplements of 2 live yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or camelina oil to lower ruminal methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) production and the associated effects on animal performance, rumen fermentation, rumen microbial populations, nutrient metabolism, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of cows fed grass silage-based diets were examined. Four Finnish Ayrshire cows (53±7 d in milk) fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4×4 Latin square with four 42-d periods. Cows received a basal total mixed ration (control treatment) with a 50:50 forage-to-concentrate ratio [on a dry matter (DM) basis] containing grass silage, the same basal total mixed ration supplemented with 1 of 2 live yeasts, A or B, administered directly in the rumen at 10(10) cfu/d (treatments A and B), or supplements of 60g of camelina oil/kg of diet DM that replaced concentrate ingredients in the basal total mixed ration (treatment CO). Relative to the control, treatments A and B had no effects on DM intake, rumen fermentation, ruminal gas production, or apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility. In contrast, treatment CO lowered DM intake and ruminal CH4 and CO2 production, responses associated with numerical nonsignificant decreases in total-tract organic matter digestibility, but no alterations in rumen fermentation characteristics or changes in the total numbers of rumen bacteria, methanogens, protozoa, and fungi. Compared with the control, treatment CO decreased the yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and protein. Relative to treatment B, treatment CO improved nitrogen utilization due to a lower crude protein intake. Treatment A had no influence on milk FA composition, whereas treatment B increased cis-9 10:1 and decreased 11-cyclohexyl 11:0 and 24:0 concentrations. Treatment CO decreased milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and total saturated FA, and increased 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, conjugated linoleic acid, 18:3n-3, and trans FA concentrations. Decreases in ruminal CH4

  4. Supplementary feeding of farmed fallow deer: effect on milk composition and fawn performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bovolenta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this trial was to study the effect of supplementary feeding offered to farmed fallow deer does on milk characteristics and on male and female fawns performance. During two years, 40 females were divided in two groups and assigned to two homogeneous paddocks of the same pasture: SUP group received 0.5 kg/d per female of supplement that was raised to 0.7 kg/d from the third month of fawns age, while HER group was fed only on herbage. Herbage availability and composition were monitored by exclusion cages. Female performance (body weight, body condition score and milk composition was recorded. Further, during the first year, performance and hematological parameters (non-esterified fatty acids and urea nitrogen were assessed. Fawns were weighed every 45 days until the end of the experiment, when the characteristics of their carcasses were recorded. Supplementary feeding reduced herbage gathering and quality, but allowed a full recovery of body weight and condition of does. The milk provided by the HER does to their female offspring was richer in fat (16.1 vs 14.2 g/100 mL and protein (8.76 vs 8.04 g/100 mL than that furnished to male fawns; the opposite condition happened for SUP does (12.6 vs 13.3 g/100 mL for fat and 8.04 vs 8.35 g/100 mL for protein. At slaughter, SUP fawns showed higher carcass weight (14.10 vs 11.26 kg, greater conformation score (2.1 vs 1.6 points and higher fat score (2.0 vs 1.2 points than HER ones, moreover male fawns presented higher carcass weight than female (13.62 vs 11.74 kg.

  5. Rumen-protected lysine, methionine, and histidine increase milk protein yield in dairy cows fed a metabolizable protein-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Cassidy, T W; Heyler, K S; Lapierre, H; Varga, G A; de Veth, M J; Patton, R A; Parys, C

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of supplementing a metabolizable protein (MP)-deficient diet with rumen-protected (RP) Lys, Met, and specifically His on dairy cow performance. The experiment was conducted for 12 wk with 48 Holstein cows. Following a 2-wk covariate period, cows were blocked by DIM and milk yield and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets, based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage: control, MP-adequate diet (ADMP; MP balance: +9 g/d); MP-deficient diet (DMP; MP balance: -317 g/d); DMP supplemented with RPLys (AminoShure-L, Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY) and RPMet (Mepron; Evonik Industries AG, Hanau, Germany; DMPLM); and DMPLM supplemented with an experimental RPHis preparation (DMPLMH). The analyzed crude protein content of the ADMP and DMP diets was 15.7 and 13.5 to 13.6%, respectively. The apparent total-tract digestibility of all measured nutrients, plasma urea-N, and urinary N excretion were decreased by the DMP diets compared with ADMP. Milk N secretion as a proportion of N intake was greater for the DMP diets compared with ADMP. Compared with ADMP, dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be lower for DMP, but was similar for DMPLM and DMPLMH (24.5, 23.0, 23.7, and 24.3 kg/d, respectively). Milk yield was decreased by DMP (35.2 kg/d), but was similar to ADMP (38.8 kg/d) for DMPLM and DMPLMH (36.9 and 38.5kg/d, respectively), paralleling the trend in DMI. The National Research Council 2001model underpredicted milk yield of the DMP cows by an average (±SE) of 10.3 ± 0.75 kg/d. Milk fat and true protein content did not differ among treatments, but milk protein yield was increased by DMPLM and DMPLMH compared with DMP and was not different from ADMP. Plasma essential amino acids (AA), Lys, and His were lower for DMP compared with ADMP. Supplementation of the DMP diets with RP AA increased plasma Lys, Met, and His. In conclusion, MP deficiency, approximately 15% below the National Research Council requirements from 2001, decreased

  6. Landscape crop composition effects on cotton yield, Lygus hesperus densities and pesticide use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Matthew H; Zaviezo, Tania; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2017-01-01

    Landscape crop composition surrounding agricultural fields is known to affect the density of crop pests, but quantifying these effects, as well as measuring how they translate to changes in yield, is difficult. Using a large dataset consisting of 1498 records of commercial cotton production in California between 1997 and 2008, we explored the relationship between landscape composition and cotton yield, the density of Lygus hesperus (a key cotton pest) at field-level and within-field spatial scales and pesticide use. We found that the crop composition immediately adjacent to a cotton field was associated with substantial differences in cotton yield, L. hesperus density and pesticide use. Furthermore, crops that tended to be associated with increased L. hesperus density also tended to be associated with increased pesticide use and decreased cotton yield. Our results suggest a possible mechanism by which landscape composition can affect cotton yield: by increasing the density of pests which in turn damage cotton plants. Our quantification of how surrounding crops affect pest densities, and in turn yield, in cotton fields has significant impacts for cotton farmers, who can use this information to help optimize crop selection and ranch layout. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Research on the preparation, uniformity and stability of mixed standard substance for rapid detection of goat milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuying; Wang, Jianmin; Wang, Cunfang

    2018-05-01

    Taking fresh goat milk as raw material after filtering, centrifuging, hollow fiber ultrafiltration, allocating formula, value detection and preparation processing, a set of 10 goat milk mixed standard substances was prepared on the basis of one-factor-at-a-time using a uniform design method, and its accuracy, uniformity and stability were evaluated by paired t-test and F-test of one-way analysis of variance. The results showed that three milk composition contents of these standard products were independent of each other, and the preparation using the quasi-level design method, and without emulsifier was the best program. Compared with detection value by cow milk standards for calibration fast analyzer, the calibration by goat milk mixed standard was more applicable to rapid detection of goat milk composition, detection value was more accurate and the deviation showed less error. Single factor analysis of variance showed that the uniformity and stability of the mixed standard substance were better; it could be stored for 15 days at 4°C. The uniformity and stability of the in-units and inter-units could meet the requirements of the preparation of national standard products. © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Effect of dietary protein level on ewe milk yield and on air quality under different ventilation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of dietary N utilization for milk protein synthesis in dairy animals is quite low (15 to 35% (NRC, 1988; Tamminga, 1992, therefore farmers are driven to use high protein level diets for sustaining milk production in lactating animals. Previous experiments have demonstrated that an increase in the protein level of diet from 13 to 16% resulted in higher blood urea concentrations (Jaime and Purroy, 1995 and increased N excretion in urine in sheep (Gonzalez et al., 1984.

  9. Effect of forage/concentrate ratio and soybean oil supplementation on milk yield and quality from dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Secchiari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary energy level is a limiting factor of milk production mainly in early lactation goats. Energy intake may be increased by incorporation of fat in ration. Currently, rumen protected fat is mainly adopted in goats nutrition, since the several studies have clearly confirmed that supplies of protected fat markedly improved the fat percentage of goat milk (Schmidely and Sauvant, 2001; Chilliard et al., 2003.

  10. Yield and nutritional composition of oyster mushroom strains newly introduced in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostak Ahmed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate yield and chemical composition of oyster mushroom strains newly introduced in Bangladesh. Strains of Pleurotus high‑king (strain PHK, P. ostreatus (strain PO2, and P. geesteranus (strains PG1 and PG3 were evaluated as to yield components and proximate composition. Pleurotus ostreatus was used as control. Pleurotus high‑king showed fastest growth of primordia, but moderate flush of effective fruiting bodies. Pleurotus geesteranus (PG1 showed higher economic yield and biological performance, and better chemical composition, especially in terms of protein and mineral contents. Pleurotus geesteranus (PG1 shows better performance than P. ostreatus (PO2, the most commercially cultivated edible species in Bangladesh, and, therefore, it should be recommended for commercial cultivation.

  11. Yield strengths of tungsten-base composites determined from bend tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukas, E.G.; Eash, D.T.

    1976-08-01

    The variation in yield strength with either strain rate or temperature was determined for a number of tungsten-base composites by use of the simple three-point bend test. The yield strengths were comparable with those obtained in standard tensile tests. Additional studies on 1019 steel, either in the as-rolled or annealed condition, gave results in agreement with handbook values, as did two aluminum alloys. These results demonstrate that the bend test deserves wider acceptance in materials testing programs

  12. CYTOLOGICAL QUALITY OF GOAT MILK ON THE BASIS OF THE SOMATIC CELL COUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka BERNACKA

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the cytological quality of goat milk based on the somatic cell count in respective months of lactation. Besides there was defined the effect of somatic cell on the milk production and chemical composition of milk. The research covered goats of color improved breed in the 2nd and 3rd lactation. Daily milk yield, chemical composition of milk and its somatic cell count were defined based on monthly morning and evening control milkings from both teats, following the A4 method applied in District Animal Evaluation Stations. The research indicated that the greater the somatic cell count in milk, the lower the daily milk yield, however the greater the somatic cell count, the greater the percentage content of fat and dry matter and the lower the content of lactose.

  13. Hydrodistillation extraction time effect on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of coriander oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a major essential oil crop grown throughout the world. Coriander essential oil is extracted from coriander fruits via hydrodistillation, with the industry using 180-240 min of distillation time (DT), but the optimum DT for maximizing essential oil yield, composition of constituents, and antioxidant activities are not known. This research was conducted to determine the effect of DT on coriander oil yield, composition, and bioactivity. The results show that essential oil yield at the shorter DT was low and generally increased with increasing DT with the maximum yields achieved at DT between 40 and 160 min. The concentrations of the low-boiling point essential oil constituents: α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, para-cymene, limonene, and γ-terpinene were higher at shorter DT (essential oil constituent, linalool, was 51% at DT 1.15 min, and increased steadily to 68% with increasing DT. In conclusion, 40 min DT is sufficient to maximize yield of essential oil; and different DT can be used to obtain essential oil with differential composition. Its antioxidant capacity was affected by the DT, with 20 and 240 min DT showing higher antioxidant activity. Comparisons of coriander essential oil composition must consider the length of the DT.

  14. Point prevalence of bovine fascioliasis and the influence of chemotherapy on the milk yield in a lactating bovine population from the district of Toba Tek Singh, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M K; Sajid, M S; Khan, M N; Iqbal, Z; Arshad, M; Hussain, A

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides an estimation of the point prevalence of fascioliasis and its economic impact in terms of increased milk yield after chemotherapy of a bovine population from the district of Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 2400 cattle and buffaloes were examined quantitatively using the McMaster egg-counting technique. Infected cattle and buffaloes (50 of each) were randomly selected and each divided into two groups of 25 animals. Groups A (buffaloes) and C (cattle) were treated with oxyclozanide (orally, 16.6 mg kg- 1 body weight). Groups B and D served as negative controls for buffaloes and cattle, respectively. Pre- and post-treatment milk yield was recorded to determine if there were any changes in milk yield after treatment. Of 2400 faecal samples analysed, 654 (27.25%) were positive for Fasciola spp. with a mean number of eggs per gram (EPG) of 503.2. The point prevalence and worm burden of fascioliasis was significantly higher (OR = 2.13; P < 0.05) in buffaloes (34.58%; 415/1200; mean EPG maximum likelihood = 521.4) as compared to that of cattle (19.92%; 239/1200; mean EPG maximum likelihood = 415.8). Among the parasite species, F. gigantica (19.88%; 477/2400) was predominant (OR = 3.12; P < 0.05) as compared to F. hepatica (7.38%; 177/2400). An average daily increase of 0.67 and 0.87 litres of milk, with 0.41% and 0.37% more fat per animal, was observed in oxyclozanide-treated buffaloes and cattle, respectively. The economic value of reduced production of infected animals was estimated as US$0.33 and 0.32 per animal per day for cattle and buffaloes, respectively.

  15. Prediction of milk, fat and protein yields in first lactation from serum ß-lactoglobulin concentrations during gestation in Italian Brown heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Superchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Authors report the results of a study carried out on 23 pregnant Italian Brown heifers, with the aim to determine the relationships between blood serum ß-lactoglobulin (ß-LG concentrations during first gestation and subsequent milk production and quality in first lactation, in order to obtain an improved selection method for replacement heifers. At weeks 20, 26 and 32 of gestation, ß-LG concentrations (±SE were 706±78, 753±66 and 772±63 ng/ml, respectively (P>0.05. High and significant (P≤0.05 correlation coefficients were observed only between ß-LG content at week 32 and total milk and protein yields in first lactation. Prediction equations of milk, fat and protein production in first lactation from log10 ß-LG content at week 32 of gestation, from parent average genetic indexes and from both were calculated by means of multiple regression analysis. When the contribution of both ß-LG content and predicted genetic indexes were considered, the regression equations gave generally a better estimate of the production parameters in first lactation (higher R2, lower SE of estimate than the above mentioned parameters alone. These results suggest that it is valuable to pre-estimate milk, fat and protein production in Italian Brown first lactating cows by means of the analysis of serum ß-LG content during gestation.

  16. Bacteriological cure rate and changes in milk composition in mastitis vaccinated ewes affected with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekish, Myassar O; Ismail, Z Bani; Hammouri, H M; Daradka, M H; Taha, S Al; Olymat, I

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of using a commercially-available polyvalent mastitis vaccine on the bacteriological cure rate of existing subclinical mastitis in Awassi sheep. A total of 164 lactating ewes were divided into two main groups according to udder health and milk somatic cell count (SCC): Group 1=normal (N; n=80) and Group 2=subclinical mastitis (SC; n=84). Each group was then subdivided randomly into two treatment groups: N vaccinated (N vax ; n=38), N non-vaccinated (N nvax ; n=42), SC vaccinated (SC vax ; n=42), and SC non-vaccinated (SC nvax ; n=42). The vaccine was administered as per manufacturer's recommendations. Milk samples were collected aseptically from all ewes before vaccine administration (T0) and again on days 28 (T2) and 42 (T3) of the experiment. In the SC group, the bacteriological cure rates in vaccinated and non-vaccinated ewes were 76% and 69%, respectively. In N group, the new intramammary infection rates in vaccinated and non-vaccinated ewes were 48% and 50%, respectively. Vaccination of normal ewes resulted in a significant (pewes on days 28 and 42 was 19% and 20%, respectively. The prevalence of new intramammary infection rate in N nvax group on days 28 and 42 was 33% and 30%, respectively. In SC vax group, the bacterial growth rate on days 28 and 42 was 44% and 35%, respectively. In SC nvax group, the bacterial growth rate on days 28 and 42 was 27% and 32%, respectively. There was no statistically significant effect of vaccination on any of the studied milk composition parameters. This is a preliminary study that indicated a possible protective effect of vaccination against mastitis in sheep. Further, case-controlled studies are indicated to estimate the level of immunity this vaccine provides to vaccinated sheep.

  17. The impact of atomization on the surface composition of spray-dried milk droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Martin; Gengenbach, Thomas; Woo, Meng Wai; Selomulya, Cordelia

    2016-04-01

    The dominant presence of fat at the surface of spray-dried milk powders has been widely reported in the literature and described as resulting in unfavourable powder properties. The mechanism(s) causing this phenomenon are yet to be clearly identified. A systematic investigation of the component distribution in atomized droplets and spray-dried particles consisting of model milk systems with different fat contents demonstrated that atomization strongly influences the final surface composition. Cryogenic flash-freezing of uniform droplets from a microfluidic jet nozzle directly after atomization helped to distinguish the influence of the atomization stage from the drying stage. It was confirmed that the overrepresentation of fat on the surface is independent of the atomization technique, including a pressure-swirl single-fluid spray nozzle and a pilot-scale rotary disk spray dryer commonly used in industry. It is proposed that during the atomization stage a disintegration mechanism along the oil-water interface of the fat globules causes the surface predominance of fat. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements detected the outermost fat layer and some adjacent protein present on both atomized droplets and spray-dried particles. Confocal laser scanning microscopy gave a qualitative insight into the protein and fat distribution throughout the cross-sections, and confirmed the presence of a fat film along the particle surface. The film remained on the surface in the subsequent drying stage, while protein accumulated underneath, driven by diffusion. The results demonstrated that atomization induces component segregation and fat-rich surfaces in spray-dried milk powders, and thus these cannot be prevented by adjusting the spray drying conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacterial microbiota compositions of naturally fermented milk are shaped by both geographic origin and sample type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Z; Hou, Q; Kwok, L; Yu, Z; Zheng, Y; Sun, Z; Menghe, B; Zhang, H

    2016-10-01

    Naturally fermented dairy products contain a rich microbial biodiversity. This study aimed to provide an overview on the bacterial microbiota biodiversity of 85 samples, previously collected across a wide region of China, Mongolia, and Russia. Data from these 85 samples, including 55 yogurts, 18 naturally fermented yak milks, 6 koumisses, and 6 cheeses, were retrieved and collectively analyzed. The most prevalent phyla shared across samples were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, which together accounted for 99% of bacterial sequences. The predominant genera were Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Acetobacter, Acinetobacter, Leuconostoc, and Macrococcus, which together corresponded to 96.63% of bacterial sequences. Further multivariate statistical analyses revealed significant differences in the microbiota structure across sample geographic origin and type. First, on the principal coordinate score plot, samples representing the 3 main sample collection regions (Russia, Xinjiang, and Tibet) were mostly located respectively in the upper left, lower right, and lower left quadrants, although slight overlapping occurred. In contrast, samples from the minor sampling areas (Inner Mongolia, Mongolia, Gansu, and Sichuan) were predominantly distributed in the lower left quadrant. These results suggest a possible association between sample geographical origin and microbiota composition. Second, bacterial microbiota structure was stratified by sample type. In particular, the microbiota of cheese was largely distinct from the other sample types due to its high abundances of Lactococcus and Streptococcus. The fermented yak milk microbiota was most like that of the yogurts. Koumiss samples had the lowest microbial diversity and richness. In conclusion, both geographic origin and sample type shape the microbial diversity of naturally fermented milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Reproductive traits of Holsteins and Jerseys. Effects of age, milk yield, and clinical abnormalities on involution of cervix and uterus, ovulation, estrous cycles, detection of estrus, conception rate, and days open.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, F A; Britt, J H; McDaniel, B T; Wilk, J C; Rakes, A H

    1983-05-01

    Two hundred and twelve Holstein and Jersey cows were in a study to determine factors that affected reproductive traits. First ovulation occurred about 3 wk postpartum, and interval to first ovulation was greater in cows that had clinical abnormalities postpartum than in normal cows. Jerseys producing more milk ovulated sooner postpartum than lower producing herdmates. Involution of cervix and uterus occurred later postpartum in cows that had clinical problems postpartum. Involution of genital tract occurred later postpartum in older cows and sooner postpartum in cows that had higher milk yields. Duration of first postpartum estrous cycle was 4 days less than for second postpartum cycle. Percentages of estrous cycles detected by standing estrus were 43 and 73% for Holsteins and Jerseys. Estrous detection rates were highest for cows that produced slightly above the mean milk yield and did not differ between cows in highest and lowest milk production quartiles. First detected estrus and days to first insemination occurred later postpartum in Holsteins as milk yield deviation from herdmates increased, regardless of sign. In Jerseys, days to first insemination and days open increased linearly as milk yield increased. Days to first insemination and conception were greater in cows with postpartum clinical problems. Conception rate at first insemination postpartum increased in proportion to concentration of progesterone in blood samples collected during 12 days before first insemination. Overall, clinical problems at parturition and postpartum lowered reproductive performance in both breeds. There was a slight antagonism between milk yield and reproductive performance (days open) in Jerseys but not in Holsteins.

  20. Significant rising antibody titres to influenza A are associated with an acute reduction in milk yield in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Timothy R; Brown, Ian H; Essen, Steve C; Young, Stuart C L

    2008-10-01

    Sporadic cases of an acute fall in milk production, "milk drop", were investigated in a Holstein Friesian dairy herd in Devon. The investigation was a case control study with two controls per case. Paired blood samples demonstrated that rising antibody titres to human influenza A/England/333/80 (H1N1) and human influenza A/Eng/427/88 (H3N2) were associated with an acute fall in milk production. Rising titres to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and parainfluenza virus 3 (PI3) were not associated with an acute fall in milk production. Cases with rises in antibody to influenza A had significantly higher respiratory scores and rectal temperatures than their controls. The mean loss of milk production for the cases with rises in antibody to influenza A compared to their controls was 159.9L. This study provides further evidence that influenza A persists in cattle and causes clinical disease.

  1. Formation of the texture of fermented milk and cereal product by varying the particle size distribution of cereal compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pas'ko O. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining animal and plant components is a promising direction of creating specialized foods of high biological and nutritional value. In this regard, research aimed at developing a fermented product technology based on combination of raw milk and grain products is relevant. In researches a set of generally accepted standard methods including physical-chemical, microbiological, biochemical, rheological, and mathematical methods of statistical processing of research results and development of mathematical models has been applied. The paper presents the results of research aimed at developing the technology of fermented milk – cereal product. In the first phase of research to substantiate product composition the systematic approach has been applied considering components of the product, changes of their status and properties as the current biotechnological systems (BPS. Selection of the grains' optimum ratio in the composition has been carried out on the basis of a set of indicators: the chemical composition and energy value, the content of B vitamins and dietary fibers, the indicator of biological value, organoleptic characteristics. Analysis of the combined results allows choose cereal flakes composition ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 (Oatmeal : Barley : Rye for further studies. As the main source of carbohydrate honey is used, it also improves the organoleptic properties of the product. Nutritional supplement glycine is used as a modifier of taste and smell. It has been found that introduction of glycine at 0.1 % in the BPS "milk – cereal composition" naturally decreases the intensity of taste and smell of cereal composition. The effect of particle size distribution of cereal composition on properties of the biotechnological system of milky cereal product has been established as well. For technology of the developed product the fraction selected cereal composition (Oatmeal : Barley : Rye as a 1 : 1 : 1 with a particle size of 670–1 000 microns has

  2. Influence of supplemental canola or soybean oil on milk yield, fatty acid profile and postpartum weight changes in grazing dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-Reyes, Israel; Mendoza-Martínez, German D; Rojo-Rubio, Rolado; Mejia, Mario; García-Lopez, J C; Lee-Rangel, Héctor A

    2018-02-01

    This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with soybean or canola oil on milk production and the composition of long chain fatty acids as well as weight changes in the goats and their kids. Thirty nine mulitparous crossed Alpine×Nubian goats (initial body weight [BW] 43.5±1.7 kg) from the day of parturition were assigned to the treatments: grazing control (n = 15); grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental soybean oil (n = 12); and grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental canola oil (n = 12) from November 26, 2014 to March 7, 2015. The planned contrasts were: CI (control vs supplemented with oils); CII (soybean vs canola oil) to compare the treatment effects. The vegetable oil supplementation reduced weight losses in lactating goats (CI: -0.060 vs 0.090 kg/d; p = 0.03) but did not improve milk production or affect kids' growth. The content of C4, C6, C8, C10, C11, C14, and C18:1n9t in the milk was increased (poils compared to the control group. Supplementation with 20 mL/d of soybean or canola oil did not affect milk production or kids' performance; however, it increased CLA concentration and reduced the reduced weight losses in lactating goats.

  3. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Short- and long-term effects of forage supplementation of calves during the preweaning period on performance, reproduction, and milk yield at first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Ll; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2015-07-01

    Sixty female Holstein calves [body weight (BW)=39.5±3.76kg] were fed a ground starter concentrate [19% crude protein, 19% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] during the preweaning period. Furthermore, oats hay (68% NDF) was supplemented only during the postweaning period (CON) or during both pre- and postweaning periods (OH) to evaluate performance until first breeding, diet digestibility after weaning, reproductive performance, and milk yield at first lactation. Calves were individually housed and bedded with wood shavings. All calves were offered 6 L/d of milk replacer (MR) at 12% dry matter (DM) in 2 feedings until 28d of age, 3 L/d of MR at 12% DM in 2 feedings from 29 to 44d of age calves, and 1.5 L of MR at 12% DM in 1 feeding from 45 to 51d of age. Animals were weaned at 52d of age. Starter concentrate and forage intake were recorded daily and BW weekly until 65d of age. Two weeks after weaning, total-tract apparent digestibility was determined in 6 calves per treatment. Heifer BW was recorded at 10 mo of age. Breeding and milk yield at first lactation were also recorded. Starter concentrate intake was greater in OH compared with CON animals during the preweaning period. As a result, calves in the OH treatment had greater average daily gain (ADG) than CON animals during the preweaning period. After weaning, OH calves consumed more forage than CON animals, but we found no differences between treatments in ADG and starter concentrate intake. Similarly, total-tract apparent digestibility did not differ between treatments, and BW and ADG from 2wk after weaning to 10mo of age did not differ between treatments. Moreover, no differences in reproductive performance [age at first artificial insemination (AI), age at fertile insemination, conception rate at first AI, and number of AI] or milk yield at first lactation were observed between treatments, although a positive relationship between growth rate early in life and future energy-corrected milk yield was found. We

  5. Camel milk and milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Brezovečki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk and camel milk products have always been highly esteemed playing even today an important role in the diet of the population in the rural areas of Africa, Asia and the Middle East, with scarce agricultural areas, high temperatures and small amount of precipitation. In aggravated environmental circumstances, camels may produce more milk than any other species, while their demand for food is very modest. A camel produces between 1000 and 2000 L of milk during the lactation period of 8 to 18 months, while the daily production of milk is between 3 and 10 L. The goal of the overview is to present the chemical composition of camel milk, and products made from camel milk. On average camel milk contains 81.4-87 % water, 10.4 % dry matter, 1.2-6.4 % milk fat, 2.15-4.90 % protein, 1.63-2.76 % casein, 0.65-0.80 % whey protein, 2.90-5.80 % lactose and 0.60-0.90 % ash. Variations in the contents of camel milk may be attributed to several factors such as analytical methods, geographical area, nutrition conditions, breed, lactation stage, age and number of calvings. Camel milk is becoming an increasingly interesting product in the world, not only for its good nutritive properties, but also for its interesting and tasteful products.

  6. Effects of feeding hulled and hull-less barley with low- and high-forage diets on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Corl, B A; Thomason, W E; Griffey, C A

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and milk fatty acid composition of high-producing dairy cows consuming diets containing hulled or hull-less barley as the grain source when feeding low-forage (LF) or high-forage (HF) diets. Eight primiparous (610 ± 40 kg of body weight and 72 ± 14 d in milk) and 16 multiparous (650 ± 58 kg of body weight and 58 ± 16 d in milk) Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to squares based on parity (1, 2, and ≥3) and days in milk. Diets were formulated to contain on a dry matter basis (1) 45% forage and hulled barley as the sole grain source, (2) 65% forage and hulled barley as the sole grain source, (3) 45% forage and hull-less barley as the sole grain source, and (4) 65% forage and hull-less barley as the sole grain source. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for the diet with 65% forage and hulled barley than for the rest of the diets (24.4 vs. 26.6 kg/d). Neither the type of barley nor the forage-to-concentrate ratio affected milk yield (41.7 kg/d). Barley type did not affect milk fat or protein concentrations. Feeding LF diets decreased milk fat concentration from 3.91% to 3.50%. This decrease was less than anticipated and resulted in a 7% decrease in milk fat yield relative to cows consuming HF diets (1.60 and 1.49 kg/d for HF and LF diets, respectively). Feeding LF diets increased the concentration of C18:1 trans-10 in milk fat, suggesting that feeding LF diets may have marginally altered rumen function. In conclusion, LF diets containing barley grains can marginally decrease milk fat concentration. Overall, and based on the conditions of this study, there is limited evidence to anticipate a dramatic or acute milk fat depression when feeding hull-less barley as the grain source in diets for high-producing dairy cows. Copyright

  7. Milk production and composition in Danish Holstein, Danish Red, and Danish Jersey cows supplemented with saturated or unsaturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Hymøller, Lone

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study the response in milk production and composition of substituting barley with either saturated or unsaturated fat in mixed rations (MR) for dairy cows. The experiment included 35 Danish Holstein (DH), 39 Danish Red (DR), and 31 Danish Jersey (DJ) cows from...

  8. Characteristics and fatty acid composition of milk fat from Saudi Aradi goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sbihi, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Goat milk is the second most prevalent edible milk in Saudi Arabia and is one of the most prominently produced milks in the world. Few studies have focused on the physicochemical properties of goat milk fat (GMF. Samples of Saudi Aradi goat milk were obtained during the spring dairy season to determine the physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of the GMF. The physicochemical properties of Saudi Aradi GMF were as follows: iodine value, 23.2 g of I2·100 g−1 of fat; saponification value, 213.2 mg KOH·g−1 of fat; refractive index (25 °C, 1.4583; unsaponifiable matter, 0.54%; acidity, 0.52%; and peroxide value, 2.07 meq O2·kg−1 of fat. α-Tocopherol was the major tocol (70.9%, followed by β-tocopherol (22.02%. GMF had significant contents of polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA (6.16%, conjugated linolenic acid (0.36%, saturated FA (67.04% and branched FA (1.98%. The thermal profiles of the Saudi Aradi GMF samples were examined using a thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Saudi Aradi GMF showed some absorbance in the UV-C range. This study demonstrated that the milk fat from the Saudi goat has physically and chemically favorable properties, as well as good nutritional properties, as a source of essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamin E.La leche de cabra es la segunda leche comestible predominante en Arabia Saudí y es una de las leches de mayor producción en el mundo. Pocos estudios se han centrado en las propiedades físico-químicas de la grasa de leche de cabra (GLC. Muestras de leche de cabra Arabia Saudí fueron obtenidas durante la temporada de mayor producción lechera, durante la primavera, y se determinaron sus características físico- químicas y la composición de ácidos grasos de la GLC. Las propiedades fisicoquímicas determinadas de la GLC de Arabia Aradi fueron las siguientes: índice de yodo, 23,2 g de I2·100 g−1 de grasa; índice de saponificación: 213

  9. Nutritional status, yield and composition of peach fruit subjected to the application of organic compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Wellington Bastos de Melo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional state, yield and composition of peaches on peach trees subjected to the application of organic compost to the soil. This experiment was conducted during the 2008 and 2009 cropping season in an orchard containing Chimarrita cultivars grafted onto Capdeboscq rootstocks and Haplumbrept soils in the municipality of Farroupilha (RS, Brazil. The treatments included 0, 9, 18, 36, 72 and 144 liters of organic compost per plant-1 year-1. The total nutrient contents in the leaves, yield components, yields per plant and hectare and compositions of the fruits were evaluated in 2008 and 2009 soon after harvest and after 30 days of storage. The application of organic compost to the soil increased the yield components and the yields per plant and hectare in the two treatments with the highest compost additions, which indicated that the addition of 72 L of compost per plant-1 is ideal economically. The organic compost had little effect on the composition of the peach fruit after harvest and after 30 days of storage.

  10. The influence of day/night cycles on biomass yield and composition of Neochloris oleoabundans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de Lenneke; Dominguez Teles, Iago; Martens, Dirk E.; Wijffels, René H.; Barbosa, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Day/night cycles regulate the circadian clock of organisms to program daily activities. Many species of microalgae have a synchronized cell division when grown under a day/night cycle, and synchronization might influence biomass yield and composition. Therefore, the aim of this study

  11. Berry composition and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec in response to water deficit severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water supply is a production tool used in arid climates to elicit desirable, water-deficit related changes in berry composition and yield; however, response to water deficit is known to vary by cultivar. The objectives of this research were to determine whether cultivars differed in their relations...

  12. Modification of yield and composition of essential oils by distillation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to model the length of the steam distillation time (DT) on essential oil yield and oil composition of peppermint, lemongrass, and palmarosa oils. The DTs tested were 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min for peppermint, and 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40...

  13. Effect of size grading on the essential oil yield and composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil of freshly harvested 12 months mature ginger rhizomes graded based on their thickness, according to three commonly occuring sizes (big, medium and small) were extracted and subjected to GC-MS evaluation, in order to establish likely variation in yield and identify possible compositional differences ...

  14. Genetic, Genomic, and Breeding Approaches to Further Explore Kernel Composition Traits and Grain Yield in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Helena Sofia Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Maize ("Zea mays L.") is a model species well suited for the dissection of complex traits which are often of commercial value. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic control of maize kernel composition traits starch, protein, and oil concentration, and also kernel weight and grain yield. Germplasm with…

  15. Hot topic: Bovine milk samples yielding negative or nonspecific results in bacterial culturing--the possible role of PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism in mastitis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, K; Wimmer, M; Huber-Schlenstedt, R; Fehlings, K; Hölzel, C S; Bauer, J

    2012-01-01

    A large proportion of mastitis milk samples yield negative or nonspecific results (i.e., no mastitis pathogen can be identified) in bacterial culturing. Therefore, the culture-independent PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism method was applied to the investigation of bovine mastitis milk samples. In addition to the known mastitis pathogens, the method was suitable for the detection of fastidious bacteria such as Mycoplasma spp., which are often missed by conventional culturing methods. The detection of Helcococcus ovis in 4 samples might indicate an involvement of this species in pathogenesis of bovine mastitis. In conclusion, PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism is a promising tool for gaining new insights into the bacteriological etiology of mastitis. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk assessment of postpartum uterine disease and consequences of puerperal metritis for subsequent metabolic status, reproduction and milk yield in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyves, László; Szenci, Ottó; Jurkovich, Viktor; Tegzes, Lászlóné; Tirián, Attila; Solymosi, Norbert; Gyulay, Gyula; Brydl, Endre

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine some metabolic and other factors predicting the risk of postpartum uterine disease (PUD), and the effects of puerperal metritis (PM) on metabolic status, reproduction and milk yield were analysed. A total of 105 Holstein-Friesian cows were included, and sampled on day metabolic tests. From day 4 the development of PUD, and from days 28-35 the ovarian activity was monitored. When grade > or = 1 + ketonuria was present on day 4 postpartum, this indicated a higher probability of PUD [odds ratio (OR) 2.64; P 0.200 mmol/l on days diseases (OR: 3.44; P or = 1.0 occurred between days cows with retained placenta. The risk of uterine diseases was lower in multiparous than in primiparous cows (OR: 0.29; P Cows affected with PM (PM+ cows) showed lower milk production on day 4 (kg; P cows.

  17. Rumen volatile fatty acids and milk composition from cows fed hay, haylage, or urea-treated corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schingoethe, D J; Voelker, H H; Beardsley, G L; Parsons, J G

    1976-05-01

    Alfalfa-brome hay, haylage, .5% urea-treated corn silage, or .5% urea plus 1% dried whey-treated corn silage was fed as the only forage to one of four groups of 10 lactating cows per group for a lactation trial of 10 wk. Rumen samples were collected via stomach tube 3 to 4 h after the morning feeding. The pH of the rumen samples from cows fed hay was higher than for cows fed haylage, urea-treated corn silage, and urea-whey corn silage, 6.69 versus 6.36, 6.40, and 6.50. Total volatile fatty acids and propionate were highest from cows fed urea-whey corn silage and were higher on all three fermented forages than cows fed hay. Acetate/propionate ratio was highest from cows fed hay and lowest from cows fed corn silages. Butyrate was highest from cows fed haylage or hay. Milk protein composition was not affected by ration although nonprotein nitrogen of milk was highest from cows fed the urea-treated corn silages. Oleic acid and total unsaturated fatty acids were lowest in milk fat from cows fed hay while palmitic acid was highest from cows fed hay and haylage. These results suggest that type of forage fed may cause small changes in rumen fermentation and in milk composition. The importance of these changes is unknown but may affect properties of dairy products produced from this milk.

  18. Relation of chemical composition of milk with the level of production stage of lactation and parity order cows crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeline Fernandes Cabral

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the physical and chemical composition of the raw milk of crossbred cows in different production levels and influence of parity order and stage of lactation on milk chemical composition of high producing cows. The search was conducted in the municipality of Rio Verde in southwestern Goiás, 784 samples were collected from raw milk of crossbred cows in experiment I and were divided into three levels of production. In the second experimental procedure, the samples resulted in 657 samples of raw milk, being divided into 4 stages of lactation stage of the cows and divided into eight parity order in which first-calf heifers corresponded to first order, and multiparous cows from the second until the eighth creates. For analysis of variance and mean comparison was used lineation all casualized and we used the Tukey test at 5% probability, using the software SISVAR. The different levels of production resulted in physico-chemical differences of the constituents of milk, thus the percentages found may be related not only the level but also at the stage of lactation and parity order of the animals.

  19. Maternal stress and high-fat diet effect on maternal behavior, milk composition, and pup ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Ryan H; Sun, Bo; Pass, Lauren L; Power, Michael L; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L K

    2011-09-01

    Chronic variable prenatal stress or maternal high-fat diet results in offspring that are significantly heavier by the end of the first postnatal week with increased adiposity by weaning. It is unclear, however, what role maternal care and diet play in the ontogenesis of this phenotype and what contributions come from differences already established in the rat pups. In the present studies, we examined maternal behavior and milk composition as well as offspring ingestive behavior. Our aim was to better understand the development of the obese phenotype in offspring from dams subjected to prenatal stress and/or fed a high-fat (HF) diet during gestation and lactation. We found that dams maintained on a HF diet through gestation and lactation spent significantly more time nursing their pups during the first postnatal week. In addition, offspring of prenatal stress dams consumed more milk at postnatal day (PND) 3 and offspring of HF dams consume more milk on PND 7 in an independent ingestion test. Milk from HF dams showed a significant increase in fat content from PND 10-21. Together these results suggest that gestational dietary or stress manipulations can alter the rat offspring's developmental environment, evidence of which is apparent by PND 3. Alterations in maternal care, milk composition, and pup consumption during the early postnatal period may contribute to long-term changes in body weight and adiposity induced by maternal prenatal stress or high-fat diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of pasture versus indoor feeding systems on raw milk composition and quality over an entire lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Tom F; Hennessy, Deirdre; McAuliffe, Stephen; Kilcawley, Kieran N; O'Donovan, Michael; Dillon, Pat; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different feeding systems on milk quality and composition. Fifty-four multiparous and primiparous Friesian lactating cows were divided into 3 groups (n=18) to study the effects of 3 feeding systems over a full lactation. Group 1 was housed indoors and offered a total mixed ration diet (TMR), group 2 was maintained outdoors on a perennial ryegrass pasture (referred to as grass), and group 3 was also grazed outdoors on a perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture (referred to as clover). Bulk milk samples were collected from each group at morning and afternoon milkings once weekly from March 11 to October 28 in 2015. Milk from pasture-fed cows (grass and clover) had significantly higher concentrations of fat, protein, true protein, and casein. The pasture feeding systems induced significantly higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids C11:0, C13:0, C15:0, C17:0, C23:0, and unsaturated fatty acids C18:2n-6 trans, C18:3n-3, C20:1, and C20:4n-6 and a greater than 2-fold increase in the conjugated linoleic acid C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 content of milk compared with that of the TMR feeding system. The TMR feeding system resulted in milks with increased concentrations of C16:0, C18:2n-6 cis, C18:3n-6 cis, C22:0 C22:1n-9, and C18:2 cis-10,trans-12. Principal component analysis of average fatty acid profiles showed clear separation of milks from the grazed pasture-based diets to that of a TMR system throughout lactation, offering further insight into the ability to verify pasture-derived milk by fatty acid profiling. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of maternal breast milk and serum levels of macronutrients, hormones, and maternal body composition with infant's body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi, Adeleh; Mehrad-Majd, Hassan; Vahid, Farhad; Safarian, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the association of maternal serum and breast-milk levels of macronutrients, hormones, growth factors, and maternal body composition with infant's body weight. Eighty mother-infant pairs comprised 40 with overweight or obese infant and 40 with normal-weight infant were enrolled in this study. The level of ghrelin, Leptin, adiponectin, EGF, and IGF1 in plasma and breast milk were assessed. Daily breast milk intake and macronutrient concentration along with anthropometric indices of mother-infant pairs were also assessed. No significant differences were observed in concentrations of serum hormones between two groups (p > 0.05). However, hormones levels in maternal serum were higher than those in breast milk. A significant positive correlation was found between serum EGF and ghrelin (r = 0.57, p = 0 macronutrient content was not comparable between two groups. However, the average daily breast milk consumption in obese infants was higher than normals (p = 0.001). Milk EGF and leptin were related to a decrease of 59% and 46% the odds of obese infant development, respectively. There was a significant association of milk EGF and ghrelin with birth weight (B = -0.19, p = 0.04 and B = -0.2, p = 0.04, respectively), and also serum leptin with infant's body weight at the 6th month. Our findings provide a positive association of maternal weight, daily breast milk intake, EGF, and ghrelin with infant's body weight.

  2. Yields, photosynthetic efficiencies, and proximate chemical composition of dense cultures of marine microalgae. A subcontract report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, W.H.; Seibert, D.L.R.; Alden, M.; Eldridge, P.; Neori, A.

    1983-07-01

    The yields, photosynthetic efficiencies, and proximate composition of several microalgae were compared in dense cultures grown at light intensities up to 70% sunlight. Yields ranged from 3.4 to 21.7 g dry weight/m/sup 2/ day. The highest yield was obtained with Phaeodactylum; the lowest in Botryococcus cultures. The same species had the highest and lowest efficiencies of utilization of photosynthetically active radiation. In nitrogen-sufficient cells of all but one species, most of the dry weight consisted of protein. Lipid content of all species was 20 to 29%, and carbohydrate content 11 to 23%. Lipid content increased somewhat in N-deficient Phaeodactylum and Isochrysis cells, but decreased in deficient Monallanthus cells. Because the overall dry weight yield was reduced by deficiency, lipid yields did not increase. However, since the carbohydrate content increased to about 65% in N-deficient Dunaliella and Tetraselmis cells, the carbohydrate yield increased. In Phaeodactylum the optimum light intensity was about 40% of full sunlight. Most experimets with this alga included a CUSO/sub 4/ filter to decrease infrared irradiance. When this filter was removed, the yield increased because more red light in the photosynthetically active spectral range was included. These results should prove useful to workers attempting to maximize yields and efficiencies, but additional studies are needed. 69 references, 27 figures, 18 tables.

  3. Feeding dairy cows with full fat extruded or toasted soybean seeds as replacement of soybean meal and effects on milk yield, fatty acid profile and CLA content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the replacement of about 70% of soybean meal (SBM with extruded(ES or toasted (TS full-fat soybean seeds in diets for lactating cows on milk quality, fatty acid profile, and conjugatedlinoleic acid (CLA content. Eighteen lactating cows were assigned to 3 groups which received a basal diet, supplementedwith 1.8, 2.1 and 2.1 kg/head, respectively, of SBM, ES and TS. There was no significant effect on milk yield,calculated as the difference between daily yield during the experimental period and the mean of the last 5 days of adaptation(-1.65, -1.29 and -0.20 kg/d, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; P>0.10 and milk quality parameters (fat, protein,urea and cheese making parameters among treatments. In the ES group there was a decrease in the short chainFA content (from C4 to C13 in milk fat (9.2 vs 11.0 and 10.8 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, SBM and TS; PMedium chain FA (from C14 to C17 content in milk fat was lower for ES and TS groups compared with SBM (46.8 and48.0 vs 54.8 g/100 g lipids respectively; PSBM group compared to the others (34.3 vs 44.2 and 41.2 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; PThe replacement of SBM with ES enhanced oleic and linoleic acid and, particularly, CLA content. Intermediate values wereobserved for the TS group. CLA content (0.91, 0.62 and 0.56 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pincreased throughout the trial in all groups. ES also reduced the proportion of SFA with respect to SBM (65.2, 68.2 and70.9 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pin the same order; Pimproving the health-quality of milk. The various soybean products did not affect either metabolic profile (protein, urea,glucose, cholesterol, NEFA, triglycerides, liver parameters and mineral serum content or rumen parameters (pH, ammoniaand VFAs. The replacement of SBM with ES and TS permitted an improvement in the nutritional properties of milkwithout negatively

  4. INTERNAL MILIEAU OF DAIRY COWS AT THE BEGINNING OF LACTATION AND ITS INFLUENCE ON COMPOSITION OF RAW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tušimová Eva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate selected blood biochemical parameters and milk composition of dairy cows at the beginning of lactation and to observe the correlations between blood and milk parameters. In total, 15 Holstein cows at the beginning of lactation were chosen. Blood and milk samples were collected. Energetic (glucose - GLU, d-beta-hydroxybutyrate - D-BHB, triglycerides - TG, nitrogenous (total proteins - TP, UREA, hepatic (aspartate aminotransferase - AST, alanine aminotransferase - ALT, gamma-glutamyltransferase - GGT, alkaline phosphatase - ALP, bilirubin - BILI, cholesterol - CHOL and mineral (sodium - Na, potassium - K, chlorides - Cl-, calcium – Ca, phosphorus – P, magnesium - Mg profiles were determined in the blood serum. Levels of lactose, fat, proteins and minerals (sodium - Na, potassium – K, calcium – Ca, phosphorus – P, magnesium - Mg were determined in milk. Most of the parameters outside physiological limits were found among mineral and hepatic profile. Levels of calcium, phosphorus and sodium were decreased in comparison to reference values. Average concentration of urea was also lower. On the other hand, increase of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase were observed. Levels of lactose (4.82 g.100g-1, fat (4.21 g.100g-1, protein (3.14 g.100g-1 and calcium (4.82 g.l-1 in milk complied with Slovak national standard (STN 57 0529. In our study, ratio of fat to protein lower than 0.75 was observed in 13 % of cows (risk of ketosis and higher than 1.4 in 40 % (NEB. Strong negative correlation between serum cholesterol and milk fat (-0.716; P<0.01 and middle strong negative correlation between cholesterol and milk protein (-0.397; P<0.01 were observed. ALT affected negatively amount of phosphorus in milk (-0.417; P<0.001, which complied with demineralization of the organism and following restriction of liver detoxification activity. On the other hand, strong positive correlation was observed

  5. Effect of oilseed type on milk fatty acid composition of individual cows, and also bulk tank milk fatty acid composition from commercial farms

    OpenAIRE

    Kliem, K. E.; Humphries, D. J.; Reynolds, C. K.; Morgan, R.; Givens, D. I.

    2016-01-01

    Supplementing dairy cow diets with oilseed preparations has been shown to replace milk saturated fatty acids (SFA) with mono- and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA), which may reduce risk factors associated with cardio-metabolic diseases in humans consuming milk and dairy products. Previous studies demonstrating this are largely detailed, highly controlled experiments involving small numbers of animals, but in order to transfer this feeding strategy to commercial situations further s...

  6. Association between isolation of Staphylococcus aureus one week after calving and milk yield, somatic cell count, clinical mastitis, and culling through the remaining lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whist, Anne Cathrine; Osterås, Olav; Sølverød, Liv

    2009-02-01

    Cows with isolation of Staphylococcus aureus approximately 1 week after calving and milk yield, somatic cell count (SCC), clinical mastitis (CM), and culling risk through the remaining lactation were assessed in 178 Norwegian dairy herds. Mixed models with repeated measures were used to compare milk yield and SCC, and survival analyses were used to estimate the hazard ratio for CM and culling. On average, cows with an isolate of Staph. aureus had a significantly higher SCC than culture-negative cows. If no post-milking teat disinfection (PMTD) was used, the mean values of SCC were 42,000, 61,000, 68,000 and 77,000 cells/ml for cows with no Staph. aureus isolate, with Staph. aureus isolated in 1 quarter, in 2 quarters and more than 2 quarters respectively. If iodine PMTD was used, SCC means were 36,000; 63,000; 70,000 and 122,000, respectively. Primiparous cows testing positive for Staph. aureus had the same milk yield curve as culture-negative cows, except for those with Staph. aureus isolated in more than 2 quarters. They produced 229 kg less during a 305-d lactation. Multiparous cows with isolation of Staph. aureus in at least 1 quarter produced 94-161 kg less milk in 2nd and >3rd parity, respectively, and those with isolation in more than 2 quarters produced 303-390 kg less than multiparous culture-negative animals during a 305-d lactation. Compared with culture-negative cows, the hazard ratio for CM and culling in cows with isolation of Staph. aureus in at least 1 quarter was 2.0 (1.6-2.4) and 1.7 (1.5-1.9), respectively. There was a decrease in the SCC and in the CM risk in culture-negative cows where iodine PMTD had been used, indicating that iodine PMTD has a preventive effect on already healthy cows. For cows testing positive for Staph. aureus in more than 2 quarters at calving, iodine PMTD had a negative effect on the CM risk and on the SCC through the remaining lactation.

  7. Effects of first postpartum progesterone rise, metabolites, milk yield, and body condition score on the subsequent ovarian activity and fertility in lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafi, Mojtaba; Mirzaei, Abdolah

    2010-04-01

    Seventy multiparous healthy lactating Holstein cows (fat-corrected milk yield = 7,561.8 kg) were monitored from 14 days before to 70 days after calving. Transrectal ultrasound scanning was performed twice weekly from 7 to 65 days postpartum. Blood samples were also collected twice weekly to measure serum P(4) and biweekly to detect serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (betaHB) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. Body condition score (BCS) was taken biweekly after calving. Based on the serum P(4) profile of 59 cows (11 cows were excluded due to the occurrence of postpartum diseases) studied, 27 (45.8%) had normal ovarian activity, while 21 (35.6%), six (10.1%), three (5.1%), and two (3.4%) had delayed ovulation (DOV), prolonged luteal phase (PLP), short luteal phase (SLP), and cessation of ovarian activity, respectively. Cows with PLP had an earlier ovulation compared to that of cows with normal ovarian activity (23.16 +/- 4.02 vs 31.9 +/- 8.35 days; P cows also had a greater mean +/- standard deviation peak milk yield (44.2 +/- 5.8 vs 37.2 +/- 5.7 kg/day, 75 days postpartum; P cows with normal postpartum ovarian activity. The PLP group also had greater milk production in the previous lactation period. Logistic regression analysis indicated that cows with P(4) concentration > or =1 ng/ml on day 24 after calving were more at risk for PLP by 1.1 for each 1 kg increase in mean peak milk yield during 75 days after calving. BCS was lower in cows with DOV compared to that of cows with normal ovarian activity at any time after calving (P cows were significantly higher than that of normal cows on day 42 after calving (0.69 +/- 0.29 vs 0.54 +/- 0.12 mmol/L, P cows in different groups at any time after calving (P > 0.05). The concentrations of P(4) on days 28 and 31 were negatively correlated with betaHB concentration on day 42 after calving in cows with normal ovarian activity (R = -0.44, P = 0.02). In conclusion, these findings suggest that early ovulation and hence

  8. Influence of carbohydrates on feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk performance in high-yielding dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de H.

    1993-01-01

    Food for human consumption originates directly from plants, after processing, or indirectly by conversion of plant materials into food of animal origin through livestock. An important example of food of animal origin are dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter, yoghurt,

  9. Meta-analysis of relationships between enteric methane yield and milk fatty acid profile in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lingen, van H.J.; Crompton, L.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Reynolds, C.K.; Dijkstra, J.

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have indicated a relationship between enteric methane (CH4) production and milk fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cattle. However, the number of studies investigating such a relationship is limited and the direct relationships reported are mainly obtained by variation in CH4