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Sample records for composition measurements estudo

  1. Current body composition measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Thaisa; Gallagher, Dympna

    2017-10-01

    The current article reviews the most innovative and precise, available methods for quantification of in-vivo human body composition. Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected. Ongoing efforts involve multisegmental and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, quantitative magnetic resonance for total body water, fat, and lean tissue measurements, imaging to further define ectopic fat depots. Available techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. There is an ongoing need for methods that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. Based on the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians, and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning prior to conception, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods with application beginning during gestation, that is, fetal development.

  2. Sensor platform for gas composition measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, G.; Bakker, F.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    The gas sensor research presented here has a focus on the measurement of the composition of natural gas and gases from sustainable resources, such as biogas. For efficient and safe combustion, new sensor systems need to be developed to measure the composition of these new gases. In general about 6

  3. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Reliable and valid body composition assessment is important in both clinical and research settings. A multitude of methods and techniques for body composition measurement exist, all with inherent problems, whether in measurement methodology or in the assumptions upon which they are based. This re...... and radiation exposure. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed with these considerations in mind........ This review is focused on currently applied methods for in vivo measurement of body composition, including densitometry, bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance techniques and anthropometry. Multicompartment models including quantification of trace...

  4. Nutritional assessment with body composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizgal, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution provides an accurate and precise measure of both the nutritional state and the response to nutritional support. A multiple isotope dilution technique has been developed that permits measurement of the three major components of body composition: body fat, extracellular mass (ECM), and body cell mass (BCM). Normal body composition was defined by data obtained in 25 healthy volunteers. Malnutrition is characterized by a loss of BCM and an expansion of the ECM, and as a result the lean body mass is not significantly different from normal. The loss of body weight with malnutrition therefore often reflects the loss of body fat. The utility of body composition measurements was demonstrated by determining the effect of total parenteral nutrition on body composition to determine the relationship between caloric intake and the change in the BCM. A statistically significant relationship was developed which demonstrated that a caloric intake in the range of 30-40 cal/kg/day is required for maintenance. To restore a depleted or malnourished BCM requires a caloric intake in excess of that required for maintenance. The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution is complex and time consuming, and requires specialized laboratory facilities and specially trained personnel. As a result, these measurements are not suited for routine patient management, but should rather be reserved for research purposes

  5. Microwave Measurements of Ferrite Polymer Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Dosoudil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the microwave measurements performed on the nickel-zinc sintered ferrite with the chemical formula Ni0.3Zn0.7Fe2O4 produced by the ceramic technique and composite materials based on this ferrite and a non-magnetic polymer (polyvinyl chloride matrix. The prepared composite samples had the same particle size distribution 0-250um but different ferrite particle concentrations between 23 vol% and 80 vol%. The apparatus for measurement of the signal proportional to the absolute value of scattering parameter S11 (reflexion coefficient is described and the dependence of measured reflected signal on a bias magnetic field has been studied. By means of experiments, the resonances to be connected with the geometry of microwave experimental set-up were distinguished from ferromagnetic resonance arising in ferrite particles of composite structure. The role of local interaction fields of ferrite particles in composite material has been discussed.

  6. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Reliable and valid body composition assessment is important in both clinical and research settings. A multitude of methods and techniques for body composition measurement exist, all with inherent problems, whether in measurement methodology or in the assumptions upon which they are based. This review is focused on currently applied methods for in vivo measurement of body composition, including densitometry, bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance techniques and anthropometry. Multicompartment models including quantification of trace elements by in vivo neutron activation analysis, which are regarded as gold standard methods, are also summarized. The choice of a specific method or combination of methods for a particular study depends on various considerations including accuracy, precision, subject acceptability, convenience, cost and radiation exposure. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed with these considerations in mind. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Electromagnetic Shielding Efficiency Measurement of Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dřínovský, J.; Kejík, Z.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of the shielding efficiency measurements of construction composite materials. This contribution describes an alternative test method of these measurements by using the measurement circular flange. The measured results and parameters of coaxial test flange are also discussed. The measurement circular flange is described by measured scattering parameters in the frequency range from 9 kHz up to 1 GHz. The accuracy of the used shielding efficiency measurement method was checked by brass calibration ring. The suitability of the coaxial test setup was also checked by measurements on the EMC test chamber. This data was compared with the measured data on the real EMC chamber. The whole measurement of shielding efficiency was controlled by the program which runs on a personal computer. This program was created in the VEE Pro environment produced by © Agilent Technology.

  8. Cyclonic Capacitive Sensor for Multiphase Composition Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier ORTIZ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A Cyclonic Capacitive Sensor is proposed for real time multiphase composition measurement with a characteristic suitable for offshore installations. The sensor makes a novel use of an electrostatic technique that takes advantage of a non-linear distribution of phase-interfaces in a cyclonic multiphase flow stratifier. The novel sensor consists of a stack of ring electrodes confined into a cyclone-type phase stratifier. The capacitance detected at each ring electrode pair is a function of the phase volumetric fraction, the temperature and chemical composition dependent phase permittivities and the physical dimensions of the ring electrodes. If the number of electrodes is made proportional to the number of unknown parameters, a complete set of linearly independent equations can be established to resolve the desired parameters, mainly the composition. The robustness of such sensor can be improved by adding a redundant electrode pair. Analytical, numerical and experimental analyses are presented.

  9. Carbon fiber content measurement in composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiushi

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) have been widely used in various structural applications in industries such as aerospace and automotive because of their high specific stiffness and specific strength. Their mechanical properties are strongly influenced by the carbon fiber content in the composites. Measurement of the carbon fiber content in CFRPs is essential for product quality control and process optimization. In this work, a novel carbonization-in-nitrogen method (CIN) is developed to characterize the fiber content in carbon fiber reinforced thermoset and thermoplastic composites. In this method, a carbon fiber composite sample is carbonized in a nitrogen environment at elevated temperatures, alongside a neat resin sample. The carbon fibers are protected from oxidization while the resin (the neat resin and the resin matrix in the composite sample) is carbonized under the nitrogen environment. The residue of the carbonized neat resin sample is used to calibrate the resin carbonization rate and calculate the amount of the resin matrix in the composite sample. The new method has been validated on several thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems and found to yield an accurate measurement of fiber content in carbon fiber polymer composites. In order to further understand the thermal degradation behavior of the high temperature thermoplastic polymer during the carbonization process, the mechanism and the kinetic model of thermal degradation behavior of carbon fiber reinforced poly (phenylene sulfide) (CPPS) are studied using thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The CPPS is subjected to TGA in an air and nitrogen atmosphere at heating rates from 5 to 40°C min--1. The TGA curves obtained in air are different from those in nitrogen. This demonstrates that weight loss occurs in a single stage in nitrogen but in two stages in air. To elucidate this difference, thermal decomposition kinetics is analyzed by applying the Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Coat-Redfern and

  10. Compositions of nuclear maps with vector measures and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The properties of the compositions of nuclear maps, between two locally convex spaces, with vector measures and measurable functions are investigated. The composition with a vector measure has improved variational properties and a precompact range. The measurability and integrability properties of the composition of ...

  11. Measurement of Atmospheric Composition from Geostationary Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, P. K.; Kawa, S. R.; Janz, S.; Herman, J. R.; Gleason, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    Satellite instruments flown since 1970 have had great success in elucidating the processes that control stratospheric ozone. In contrast, space-based data for tropospheric constituents that affect air quality and climate have only recently become available. While these datasets highlight the rapidly advancing capabilities of spacebased tropospheric sensors, they are also pointing to the limitations of sun-synchronous, low-earth orbiting (SSO/LEO) satellite platforms for making such measurements. In our talk we will highlight the science requirements for new missions and the technological and algorithmic approaches that we are developing to meet these requirements. From these studies a clear need for advanced atmospheric composition sensors has emerged that can be put on geostationary (GEO) platforms to provide 5 km horizontal resolution with 15-60 minutes repeat cycle. Such measurements have been high priority in the recently released Decadal Survey report by the US National Research Council. The need for GEO is driven not only by the science requirements to track rapidly changing pollution events but also by the need to provide altitude-resolved information about tropospheric constituents. Currently, with the exception of aerosols, it is not possible to derive profile information about lower tropospheric constituents from satellite measurements. New algorithmic approaches are being developed to obtain this information by combining UV and IR data, by monitoring the spatial and temporal structures of the constituents, and by using low-level clouds to separate boundary layer constituents from free troposphere. All these approaches require better spatial and temporal resolution than that provided by LEO sensors.

  12. Growth performance, body measurements, carcass composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gizzard percentage was significantly greater in males, and heart percentage was significantly greater in females. Due to their high bodyweight, good FCR, and favourable carcass composition, SM3 Heavy male ducks are more useful as broiler duck than females. Keywords: carcasses, digestive system, growth, Pekin duck, ...

  13. A comparison of microhardness of indirect composite restorative materials Estudo comparativo da microdureza de materiais resinosos indiretos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Baptista Miranda

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the microhardness of four indirect composite resins. Forty cylindrical samples were prepared according to the manufacturer’s recommendations using a Teflon mold. Ten specimens were produced from each tested material, constituting four groups (n=10 as follows: G1 - Artglass; G2 - Sinfony; G3 - Solidex; G4 - Targis. Microhardness was determined by the Vickers indentation technique with a load of 300g for 10 seconds. Four indentations were made on each sample, determining the mean microhardness values for each specimen. Descriptive statistics data for the experimental conditions were: G1 - Artglass (mean ±standard deviation: 55.26 ± 1.15HVN; median: 52.6; G2 - Sinfony (31.22 ± 0.65HVN; 31.30; G3 - Solidex (52.25 ± 1.55HVN; 52.60; G4 - Targis (72.14 ± 2.82HVN; 73.30. An exploratory data analysis was performed to determine the most appropriate statistical test through: (I Levene's for homogeneity of variances; (II ANOVA on ranks (Kruskal-Wallis; (III Dunn's multiple comparison test (0.05. Targis presented the highest microhardness values while Sinfony presented the lowest. Artglass and Solidex were found as intermediate materials. These results indicate that distinct mechanical properties may be observed at specific materials. The composition of each material as well as variations on polymerization methods are possibly responsibles for the difference found in microhardness. Therefore, indirect composite resin materials that guarantee both good esthetics and adequate mechanical properties may be considered as substitutes of natural teeth.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a microdureza de 4 resinas compostas indiretas. Quarenta amostras cilíndricas foram obtidas com o auxílio de uma matriz de teflon, seguindo-se as recomendações dos fabricantes. Foram obtidas 10 amostras para cada material testado, contituindo-se 4 grupos (n=10 como se segue: G1-Artglass; G2-Sinfony; G3-Solidex; G4-Targis. A

  14. Conditional Standard Errors of Measurement for Composite Scores Using IRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Michael J.; Wang, Tianyou; Lee, Won-Chan

    2012-01-01

    Composite scores are often formed from test scores on educational achievement test batteries to provide a single index of achievement over two or more content areas or two or more item types on that test. Composite scores are subject to measurement error, and as with scores on individual tests, the amount of error variability typically depends on…

  15. Measurement of Plutonium Isotopic Composition - MGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Duc Ta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-21

    In this module, we will use the Canberra InSpector-2000 Multichannel Analyzer with a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) and the MGA isotopic anlysis software to assay a variety of plutonium samples. The module provides an understanding of the MGA method, its attributes and limitations. You will assess the system performance by measuring a range of materials similar to those you may assay in your work. During the final verification exercise, the results from MGA will be combined with the 240Pueff results from neutron coincidence or multiplicity counters so that measurements of the plutonium mass can be compared with the operator-declared (certified) values.

  16. Measurement of complex permittivity of composite materials using waveguide method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tereshchenko, O.V.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Complex dielectric permittivity of 4 different composite materials has been measured using the transmissionline method. A waveguide fixture in L, S, C and X band was used for the measurements. Measurement accuracy is influenced by air gaps between test fixtures and the materials tested. One of the

  17. Breast composition: Measurement and clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekpo, E.U.; Hogg, P.; Highnam, R.; McEntee, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Breast density is a measure of the extent of radiodense fibroglandular tissue in the breast. The risk of developing breast cancer and the risk of missing cancer at screening rise with higher breast density. In this paper, the historical background to breast density measurement is outlined and current evidence based practice is explained. The relevance of breast density knowledge to mammographic practice and image interpretation is considered in the light of clinical assessment and notification of mammographic breast density (MBD). The current work also discusses risk stratification for decision-making regarding screening frequency and better modalities for earlier detection of breast cancer in the dense breast. Automated volumetric approaches are explained while ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, molecular breast imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging are introduced as valuable adjuncts to digital mammography for imaging the dense breast. The work concludes on the important note that screened women should be notified of their breast density, and such notification should be accompanied with clear and adequate information about breast density and cancer risk, strategies associated with lower MBD, as well as best screening intervals and pathways for women with dense breasts. Adoption of these strategies may be crucial to early detection and treatment of cancer and improving survival from the disease. - Highlights: • Breast density is associated with breast cancer risk and interval breast cancer. • Breast density can be measured manually or automatically. • Radiographic exposure factors impact on breast density measurements. • Dense breast often require imaging with three-dimensional modalities. • National breast density data could enable breast cancer risk stratification.

  18. Can Composite Measures Provide a Different Perspective on Provider Performance Than Individual Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwartz, Michael; Rosen, Amy K; Burgess, James F

    2017-12-01

    Composite measures, which aggregate performance on individual measures into a summary score, are increasingly being used to evaluate facility performance. There is little understanding of the unique perspective that composite measures provide. To examine whether high/low (ie, high or low) performers on a composite measures are also high/low performers on most of the individual measures that comprise the composite. We used data from 2 previous studies, one involving 5 measures from 632 hospitals and one involving 28 measures from 112 Veterans Health Administration (VA) nursing homes; and new data on hospital readmissions for 3 conditions from 131 VA hospitals. To compare high/low performers on a composite to high/low performers on the component measures, we used 2-dimensional tables to categorize facilities into high/low performance on the composite and on the individual component measures. In the first study, over a third of the 162 hospitals in the top quintile based on the composite were in the top quintile on at most 1 of the 5 individual measures. In the second study, over 40% of the 27 high-performing nursing homes on the composite were high performers on 8 or fewer of the 28 individual measures. In the third study, 20% of the 61 low performers on the composite were low performers on only 1 of the 3 individual measures. Composite measures can identify as high/low performers facilities that perform "pretty well" (or "pretty poorly") across many individual measures but may not be high/low performers on most of them.

  19. Composition measurements of binary mixture droplets by rainbow refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, J; Weigand, B

    2007-04-10

    So far, refractive index measurements by rainbow refractometry have been used to determine the temperature of single droplets and ensembles of droplets. Rainbow refractometry is, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, applied to measure composition histories of evaporating, binary mixture droplets. An evaluation method is presented that makes use of Airy theory and the simultaneous size measurement by Mie scattering imaging. The method further includes an empirical correction function for a certain diameter and refractive index range. The measurement uncertainty was investigated by numerical simulations with Lorenz-Mie theory. For the experiments, an optical levitation setup was used allowing for long measurement periods. Temperature measurements of single-component droplets at different temperature levels are shown to demonstrate the accuracy of rainbow refractometry. Measurements of size and composition histories of binary mixture droplets are presented for two different mixtures. Experimental results show good agreement with numerical results using a rapid-mixing model.

  20. Composition measurements of binary mixture droplets by rainbow refractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilms, J.; Weigand, B.

    2007-01-01

    So far, refractive index measurements by rainbow refractometry have been used to determine the temperature of single droplets and ensembles of droplets. Rainbow refractometry is, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, applied to measure composition histories of evaporating, binary mixture droplets. An evaluation method is presented that makes use of Airy theory and the simultaneous size measurement by Mie scattering imaging. The method further includes an empirical correction function for a certain diameter and refractive index range. The measurement uncertainty was investigated by numerical simulations with Lorenz-Mie theory. For the experiments, an optical levitation setup was used allowing for long measurement periods. Temperature measurements of single-component droplets at different temperature levels are shown to demonstrate the accuracy of rainbow refractometry. Measurements of size and composition histories of binary mixture droplets are presented for two different mixtures. Experimental results show good agreement with numerical results using a rapid-mixing model

  1. Compositions of Conditional Risk Measures and Solvency Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Devolder

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider compositions of conditional risk measures in order to obtain time-consistent dynamic risk measures and determine the solvency capital of a life insurer selling pension liabilities or a pension fund with a single cash-flow at maturity. We first recall the notion of conditional, dynamic and time-consistent risk measures. We link the latter with its iterated property, which gives us a way to construct time-consistent dynamic risk measures from a backward iteration scheme with the composition of conditional risk measures. We then consider particular cases with the conditional version of the value at risk, tail value at risk and conditional expectation measures. We finally give an application of these measures with the determination of the solvency capital of a pension liability, which offers a fixed guaranteed rate without any intermediate cash-flow. We assume that the company is fully hedged against the mortality and underwriting risks.

  2. Influence of beverage composition on the results of erosive potential measurement by different measurement techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D. H. J.; Vieira, A. M.; Ruben, J. L.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of beverage composition on the measurement of erosive potential is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether beverage composition influences the measurement of erosive potential and to evaluate the influence of exposure in small and large volumes. Eleven beverages were

  3. Influence of beverage composition on the results of erosive potential measurement by different measurement techniques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.H.; Vieira, A.M.; Ruben, J.L.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of beverage composition on the measurement of erosive potential is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether beverage composition influences the measurement of erosive potential and to evaluate the influence of exposure in small and large volumes. Eleven beverages were

  4. Subsurface In Situ Elemental Composition Measurements with PING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Ann; McClanahan, Timothy; Bodnarik, Julia; Evans, Larry; Nowicki, Suzanne; Schweitzer, Jeffrey; Starr, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Probing In situ with Neutron and Gamma rays (PING) instrument, that can measure the subsurface elemental composition in situ for any rocky body in the solar system without the need for digging into the surface. PING consists of a Pulsed Neutron Generator (PNG), a gamma ray spectrometer and neutron detectors. Subsurface elements are stimulated by high-energy neutrons to emit gamma rays at characteristic energies. This paper will show how the detection of these gamma rays results in a measurement of elemental composition. Examples of the basalt to granite ratios for aluminum and silicon abundance are provided.

  5. The measurement of polymerization shrinkage of composite resins with ESPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhang; Yang, Guo Biao

    2008-09-01

    In the current study, we used the method of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) to measure polymerization shrinkage of composite resins. Standardized cavities were prepared and placed into the ESPI apparatus before the cavities were filled with composites (n=2) .The ESPI apparatus was constructed to measure the out-of-plane displacement of the resins surface during the polymerization. Experiments demonstrated that the ESPI technique was a viable method to measure the deformation of composite resins. It was responsive and sensitive to dimensional changes. We found that cavity shape, size and C- factor influenced the date of resins shrinkage. And the tooth deformation in response to polymerization of resins was measured by the ESPI too. We concluded that ESPI was a feasible method for assessing resins deformation induced by its polymerization shrinkage when it was bonded in tooth cavities. And the results were greatly influenced by the dimensions of cavities , or interface adhesive and so on. It could also measure the tooth deformation induced by shrinkage of bonded composite resins. We found that resins polymerization shrinkage date may overestimate shrinkage-induced tooth deformation.

  6. Association between blood pressure, measures of body composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease develop early in life and track into adulthood. This study investigated the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and measures of body composition in adolescents. The study participants were 307 adolescents. Blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric parameters: ...

  7. Experimental measurement of effective atomic number of composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... Experimental measurement of effective atomic number of composite materials for Compton effect in the -ray region 280–1115 keV by a new method ... J.S.S. Academy of Technical Education, Mylasandra, Bangalore 560 060, India; Department of Studies in Physics, Manasagangothri, University of Mysore, ...

  8. The Composite Measure of the Defense Mechanism Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, Samuel

    1982-01-01

    Reanalysis of previously published data suggests the Defense Mechanism Inventory can yield a composite measure of reaction to frustration by contrasting linearly the defenses Turning-against-object and Projection against those of Principalization and Reversal-of-affect. Factor-analytic and correlational data support the exclusion of…

  9. Body composition changes in pregnancy: measurement, predictors and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, EM; Gallagher, D

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen in the United States over the past few decades. Concurrent with this rise in obesity has been an increase in pregravid body mass index and gestational weight gain affecting maternal body composition changes in pregnancy. During pregnancy, many of the assumptions inherent in body composition estimation are violated, particularly the hydration of fat-free mass, and available methods are unable to disentangle maternal composition from fetus and supporting tissues; therefore, estimates of maternal body composition during pregnancy are prone to error. Here we review commonly used and available methods for assessing body composition changes in pregnancy, including: (1) anthropometry, (2) total body water, (3) densitometry, (4) imaging, (5) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, (6) bioelectrical impedance and (7) ultrasound. Several of these methods can measure regional changes in adipose tissue; however, most of these methods provide only whole-body estimates of fat and fat-free mass. Consideration is given to factors that may influence changes in maternal body composition, as well as long-term maternal and offspring outcomes. Finally, we provide recommendations for future research in this area. PMID:24667754

  10. Chemical Composition Measurements of LAWA44 Glass Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-11-15

    DOE is building the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Both low-activity and high-level wastes will then be vitrified into borosilicate glass using Joule-heated ceramic melters. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in the glass. One area of work is enhancing waste glass composition/property models and broadening the compositional regions over which those models are applicable. In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analysis results for several samples of a simulated low-activity waste glass, LAWA44, provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as part of an ongoing development task. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. A detailed review showed no indications of errors in the preparation or measurement of the study glasses. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 97.9 to 102.6 wt %, indicating acceptable recovery of the glass components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %. It was noted that the measured B2O3 concentrations are somewhat above the targeted values for the study glasses. No obvious trends were observed with regard to the multiple melting steps used to prepare the study glasses, indicating that any potential effects of volatility were below measurable thresholds.

  11. Measuring cross-border regional integration with composite indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    a sub-category for STI. Consequently, by ignoring cross-border innovation and knowledge flows, the Oresund integration index fails to take into account one of the most important drivers of economic growth in cross-border regions. Therefore, a new composite STI indicator (sub-category) was introduced......Earlier quantitative studies on cross-border regional integration processes have commonly neglected science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators: even the most notable example of a composite indicator approach to measuring cross-border regional integration, i.e. the Oresund index, lacks...

  12. A bedside measure of body composition in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah A; Davidson, Zoe E; Davies, Peter S W; Truby, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In clinical practice, monitoring body composition is a critical component of nutritional assessment and weight management in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a simple bedside measurement tool for body composition, namely bioelectrical impedance analysis, in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Measures of fat-free mass were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analysis machine and compared against estimations obtained from a reference body composition model. Additionally, the use of raw impedance values was analyzed using three existing predictive equations for the estimation of fat-free mass. Accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis was assessed by comparison against the reference model by calculation of biases and limits of agreement. Body composition was measured in 10 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, mean age 9.01 ± 2.34 years. The bioelectrical impedance analysis machine values of fat-free mass were on average 2.3 ± 14.1 kg higher than reference values. Limits of agreement (based on 95% confidence interval of the mean) were -7.4 to 2.9 kg. There was a significant correlation between the mean fat-free mass and difference in fat-free mass between the bioelectrical impedance analysis machine and the reference model (r = -0.86; P = 0.02) suggesting that the bias was not consistent across the range of measurements. The most accurate predictive equation for the estimation of fat-free mass using raw impedance values was the equation by Pietrobelli et al. (mean difference, -0.7 kg; 95% limits of agreement, -3.5 to 2.0 kg). In a clinical setting, where a rapid assessment of body composition is advantageous, the use of raw impedance values, combined with the equation by Pietrobelli et al., is recommended for the accurate estimation of fat-free mass, in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neutron stress measurement of W-fiber reinforced Cu composite

    CERN Document Server

    Nishida, M; Ikeuchi, Y; Minakawa, N

    2003-01-01

    Stress measurement methods using neutron and X-ray diffraction were examined by comparing the surface stresses with internal stresses in the continuous tungsten-fiber reinforced copper-matrix composite. Surface stresses were measured by X-ray stress measurement with the sin sup 2 psi method. Furthermore, the sin sup 2 psi method and the most common triaxal measurement method using Hooke's equation were employed for internal stress measurement by neutron diffraction. On the other hand, microstress distributions developed by the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients between these two phases were calculated by FEM. The weighted average strains and stresses were compared with the experimental results. The FEM results agreed with the experimental results qualitatively and confirmed the importance of the triaxial stress analysis in the neutron stress measurement. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Neutron stress measurement of W-fiber reinforced Cu composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, M.; Hanabusa, T.; Ikeuchi, Y.; Minakawa, N.

    2003-01-01

    Stress measurement methods using neutron and X-ray diffraction were examined by comparing the surface stresses with internal stresses in the continuous tungsten-fiber reinforced copper-matrix composite. Surface stresses were measured by X-ray stress measurement with the sin 2 ψ method. Furthermore, the sin 2 ψ method and the most common triaxal measurement method using Hooke's equation were employed for internal stress measurement by neutron diffraction. On the other hand, microstress distributions developed by the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients between these two phases were calculated by FEM. The weighted average strains and stresses were compared with the experimental results. The FEM results agreed with the experimental results qualitatively and confirmed the importance of the triaxial stress analysis in the neutron stress measurement. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Phase-contrast imaging for body composition measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huajie; Hu, Renfang; Wali, Faiz; Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Shenghao; Gu, Yonggang; Jin, Yi; Zhai, Chao

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for human body composition measurement, especially for the bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. The proposed method, using the absorption and differential phase information retrieved from X-ray grating-based interferometer (XGBI) to measure the BMD, has potential to replace dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), which is currently widely used for body composition measurement. The DEXA method employs two absorption images acquired at two different X-ray spectra (high energy and low energy) to calculate the human body composition. In this paper, a new method to calculate BMD using a single X-ray measurement is proposed. XGBI is a relatively new X-ray technique that provides absorption, phase and scattering information simultaneously using a single X-ray spectrum. With the absorption and differential phase information retrieved from XGBI, BMD can be measured using only one single X-ray spectrum. Numerical simulations are performed with a body phantom of bone (Cortical, ICRU-44) surrounded by soft tissue (Soft, ICRU-44). BMD is calculated with both the DEXA method and the proposed method. Results show that BMD can be measured accurately with the proposed method; moreover, better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is obtained compared to DEXA. With the proposed method, BMD can be measured with XGBI setup. Further, the proposed method can be realized using current X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) apparatus without any hardware modification, suggesting that this technique can be a promising supplementary function to current XPCI equipment. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A healthy lifestyle composite measure: Significance and potential uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mary L; Katz, David L; Shenson, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Our objective was to create and explore potential uses of a composite "Healthy Lifestyle" measure based on Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) Objectives for behaviors shown to be associated with morbidity and mortality. Data were from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (N=412,942) on five modifiable behaviors with HP2020 Objectives (leisure time exercise, eating fruits and vegetables 5 or more times/day, getting ≥7h of sleep/24h, not smoking and not drinking excessively). These indicators were combined to form an all-or-none composite Healthy Lifestyle (HLS) measure. Associations between the HLS measure and demographic and other measures, plus details of component measures, were reported. Results indicated that only 7.7% of adults reported a HLS with wide variation among states and demographic groups. Both unadjusted and logistic regression results found associations between a HLS and better health, lower rates of chronic disease and better access to health care. Over one fourth of all respondents (28.0%) needed to only improve fruit and vegetable consumption to be practicing a HLS. In conclusion, few adults were practicing five behaviors that are generally recognized as healthy. All-or-none metrics like this HLS measure offer a fresh perspective on modifiable behaviors and the need for improvement. Examination of measure components can help explain demographic differences and identify strategies for improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Body composition as measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Sawitsky, A.; Vartsky, D.; Yasumura, S.; Zanzi, I.; Gartenhaus, W.; Ellis, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A large scale study is currently underway on the changes in body composition resulting from the cachexia of malignancy. The ultimate objective of the overall project is to assess the changes in body composition associated with hyperalimentation and other modes of nutritional support to cancer patients. The first phase of this study is now in progress. In this phase, a study is being made of a control group of normal patients to provide baseline data against which data from cancer patients can be evaluated. Total body nitrogen and potassium are measured in a group of normal men and women, and are analyzed as a function of age. Additionally, changes in skeletal mass (total body calcium) are also recorded, and body water is measured simultaneously with the use of tritiated water

  18. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa and Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Hartle, R.; Lipatov, A.; Mahaffy, P.; Paterson, W.; Paschalidis, N.; Coplan, M.; Cassidy, T.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and ESA are planning the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) to the Jupiter system with specific emphasis to Europa and Ganymede, respectively. The Japanese Space Agency is also planning an orbiter mission to explore Jupiter's magnetosphere and the Galilean satellites. For NASA's Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) we are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) with two main goals which can also be applied to the other Galilean moons, 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter's magnetosphere and 2) infer the 4n surface composition to trace elemental [1] and significant isotopic levels. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, and between the moon surfaces and subsurface layers putatively including oceans. The measurement of the interactions for all the Galilean moons can be used to trace the in situ ion measurements of pickup ions back to either Europa's or Ganymede's surface from the respectively orbiting spacecraft. The IMS instrument, being developed under NASA's Astrobiology Instrument Development Program, would maximally achieve plasma measurement requirements for JEO and EJSM while moving forward our knowledge of Jupiter system composition and source processes to far higher levels than previously envisaged.

  19. Apparatus for gas sorption measurement with integrated gas composition measurement device and gas mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklash. II, Kenneth James; Dutton, Justin James; Kaye, Steven

    2014-06-03

    An apparatus for testing of multiple material samples includes a gas delivery control system operatively connectable to the multiple material samples and configured to provide gas to the multiple material samples. Both a gas composition measurement device and pressure measurement devices are included in the apparatus. The apparatus includes multiple selectively openable and closable valves and a series of conduits configured to selectively connect the multiple material samples individually to the gas composition device and the pressure measurement devices by operation of the valves. A mixing system is selectively connectable to the series of conduits and is operable to cause forced mixing of the gas within the series of conduits to achieve a predetermined uniformity of gas composition within the series of conduits and passages.

  20. Measuring Moisture Levels in Graphite Epoxy Composite Sandwich Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Graphite epoxy composite (GEC) materials are used in the construction of rocket fairings, nose cones, interstage adapters, and heat shields due to their high strength and light weight. However, they absorb moisture depending on the environmental conditions they are exposed to prior to launch. Too much moisture absorption can become a problem when temperature and pressure changes experienced during launch cause the water to vaporize. The rapid state change of the water can result in structural failure of the material. In addition, heat and moisture combine to weaken GEC structures. Diffusion models that predict the total accumulated moisture content based on the environmental conditions are one accepted method of determining if the material strength has been reduced to an unacceptable level. However, there currently doesn t exist any field measurement technique to estimate the actual moisture content of a composite structure. A multi-layer diffusion model was constructed with Mathematica to predict moisture absorption and desorption from the GEC sandwich structure. This model is used in conjunction with relative humidity/temperature sensors both on the inside and outside of the material to determine the moisture levels in the structure. Because the core materials have much higher diffusivity than the face sheets, a single relative humidity measurement will accurately reflect the moisture levels in the core. When combined with an external relative humidity measurement, the model can be used to determine the moisture levels in the face sheets. Since diffusion is temperaturedependent, the temperature measurements are used to determine the diffusivity of the face sheets for the model computations.

  1. Spectroscopic metrology for isotope composition measurements and transfer standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis; Balslev-Harder, David; Kääriäinen, Teemu; Richmond, Craig; Manninen, Albert; Mohn, Joachim; Kiseleva, Maria; Petersen, Jan C.; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-04-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has identified greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O as critical for global climate monitoring. Other molecules such as CO that has an indirect effect of enhancing global warming are also monitored. WMO has stated compatibility goals for atmospheric concentration and isotope ratio measurements of these gases, e.g. 0.1 ppm for CO2 concentration measurements in the northern hemisphere and 0.01 ‰ for δ13C-CO2. For measurements of the concentration of greenhouse gases, gas analysers are typically calibrated with static gas standards e.g. traceable to the WMO scale or to the International System of Units (SI) through a national metrology institute. However, concentrations of target components, e.g. CO, in static gas standards have been observed to drift, and typically the gas matrix as well as the isotopic composition of the target component does not always reflect field gas composition, leading to deviations of the analyser response, even after calibration. The deviations are dependent on the measurement technique. To address this issue, part of the HIGHGAS (Metrology for high-impact greenhouse gases) project [1] focused on the development of optical transfer standards (OTSs) for greenhouse gases, e.g. CO2 and CO, potentially complementing gas standards. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) [2] is currently used to provide state-of-the-art high precision (in the 0.01 ‰ range) measurements for the isotopic composition of greenhouse gases. However, there is a need for field-deployable techniques such as optical isotope ratio spectroscopy (OIRS) that can be combined with metrological measurement methods. Within the HIGHGAS project, OIRS methods and procedures based on e.g. cavity enhanced spectroscopy (CES) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), matched to metrological principles have been established for the measurement of 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios in CO2, 15N/14N ratios in N2O, and 13C/12C and 2H

  2. Composite measures of watershed health from a water quality perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallya, Ganeshchandra; Hantush, Mohamed; Govindaraju, Rao S

    2018-05-15

    Water quality data at gaging stations are typically compared with established federal, state, or local water quality standards to determine if violations (concentrations of specific constituents falling outside acceptable limits) have occurred. Based on the frequency and severity of water quality violations, risk metrics such as reliability, resilience, and vulnerability (R-R-V) are computed for assessing water quality-based watershed health. In this study, a modified methodology for computing R-R-V measures is presented, and a new composite watershed health index is proposed. Risk-based assessments for different water quality parameters are carried out using identified national sampling stations within the Upper Mississippi River Basin, the Maumee River Basin, and the Ohio River Basin. The distributional properties of risk measures with respect to water quality parameters are reported. Scaling behaviors of risk measures using stream order, specifically for the watershed health (WH) index, suggest that WH values increased with stream order for suspended sediment concentration, nitrogen, and orthophosphate in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Spatial distribution of risk measures enable identification of locations exhibiting poor watershed health with respect to the chosen numerical standard, and the role of land use characteristics within the watershed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement and model on thermal properties of sintered diamond composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, Tala; Garnier, Bertrand; Peerhossaini, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermal properties of sintered diamond used for grinding is studied. ► Flash method with infrared temperature measurement is used to investigate. ► Thermal conductivity increases with the amount of diamond. ► It is very sensitive to binder conductivity. ► Results agree with models assuming imperfect contact between matrix and particles. - Abstract: A prelude to the thermal management of grinding processes is measurement of the thermal properties of working materials. Indeed, tool materials must be chosen not only for their mechanical properties (abrasion performance, lifetime…) but also for thermal concerns (thermal conductivity) for efficient cooling that avoids excessive temperatures in the tool and workpiece. Sintered diamond is currently used for grinding tools since it yields higher performances and longer lifetimes than conventional materials (mineral or silicon carbide abrasives), but its thermal properties are not yet well known. Here the thermal conductivity, heat capacity and density of sintered diamond are measured as functions of the diamond content in composites and for two types of metallic binders: hard tungsten-based and soft cobalt-based binders. The measurement technique for thermal conductivity is derived from the flash method. After pulse heating, the temperature of the rear of the sample is measured with a noncontact method (infrared camera). A parameter estimation method associated with a three-layer nonstationary thermal model is used to obtain sample thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficient and absorbed energy. With the hard metallic binder, the thermal conductivity of sintered diamond increased by up to 64% for a diamond content increasing from 0 to 25%. The increase is much less for the soft binder: 35% for diamond volumes up to 25%. In addition, experimental data were found that were far below the value predicted by conventional analytical models for effective thermal conductivity. A possible explanation

  4. Preparation and Sensitivity Measurements of Graphene Oxide-RDX Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorainy Mahmoud Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of graphene oxide (GO on the safety characteristics of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX was studied in this work. Graphene oxide was prepared and was investigated to form a composite based on GO-RDX by solvent-antisolvent slurry technique. For comparison, different polymer bonded explosives (PBXs based on RDX bonded by viton A, fluorel or polymethyl-methacrylate binders were studied and designed as RDX-Viton, RDX-Fluorel and RDX-PMMA respectively. Sensitivities to impact and friction of the presented samples as well as the pure RDX was measured. The ignition temperatures were determined and the activation energies were calculated by using the ignition delay method. Results of x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope proved that RDX crystals were coated by a thin layer of GO. The impact sensitivity of GO-RDX composite is lower than that of the other studied samples while the friction sensitivity is slightly higher. The ignition temperature of GO-RDX was lower than the other studied samples which indicates that the GO caused accumulation of the decomposition gaseous products and accelerated the decomposition process of RDX. GO is an interesting candidate material to be used for coating the explosive crystals instead of the polymeric matrices.

  5. Medidas de rede e apoio social no Estudo Pró-Saúde: pré-testes e estudo piloto Social network and social support measures from the Pró-Saúde Study: pre-tests and pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra Chor

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, relatamos a metodologia de seleção de perguntas sobre rede e apoio social, incluídas em um estudo de coorte de 4.030 funcionários de uma universidade pública no Rio de Janeiro. Em primeiro lugar, a adequação de conceitos foi explorada em discussões de grupos de voluntários. Em seguida, o questionário do Medical Outcomes Study foi submetido a procedimentos padronizados de tradução e versão. As perguntas foram a seguir avaliadas em cinco etapas de pré-testes e estudo piloto. Nenhuma pergunta apresentou proporção de não-resposta acima de 5%. Os coeficientes de correlação de Pearson entre os itens foram distantes de zero e da unidade; a correlação entre cada item e o escore de sua dimensão foi superior a 0,80 em quase todos os casos. Finalmente, os coeficientes Alpha de Cronbach foram superiores a 0,70 em todas as dimensões. Os resultados sugerem que aspectos de rede e apoio social serão mensurados adequadamente, permitindo a investigação de suas associações com desenlaces relacionados à saúde em um grupo populacional no Brasil.We describe methodological steps in the selection of questions on social networks and support for a cohort study of 4,030 employees from a public university in Rio de Janeiro. First, group discussions with volunteers were conducted to explore the adequacy of related concepts. Next, questions in the Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire were submitted to standard "forward-" and "back-translation" procedures. The questions were subsequently evaluated through five stages of pre-tests and a pilot study. No question had a proportion of non-response greater than 5%. Pearson correlation coefficients between questions were distant from both zero and unity; correlation between all items and their dimension score was higher than 0.80 in most cases. Finally, Cronbach Alpha coefficients were above 0.70 within each dimension. Results suggest that social networks and support will be adequately

  6. Breast composition measurements using retrospective standard mammogram form (SMF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highnam, R; Pan, X; Warren, R; Jeffreys, M; Smith, G Davey; Brady, M

    2006-01-01

    The standard mammogram form (SMF) representation of an x-ray mammogram is a standardized, quantitative representation of the breast from which the volume of non-fat tissue and breast density can be easily estimated, both of which are of significant interest in determining breast cancer risk. Previous theoretical analysis of SMF had suggested that a complete and substantial set of calibration data (such as mAs and kVp) would be needed to generate realistic breast composition measures and yet there are many interesting trials that have retrospectively collected images with no calibration data. The main contribution of this paper is to revisit our previous theoretical analysis of SMF with respect to errors in the calibration data and to show how and why that theoretical analysis did not match the results from the practical implementations of SMF. In particular, we show how by estimating breast thickness for every image we are, effectively, compensating for any errors in the calibration data. To illustrate our findings, the current implementation of SMF (version 2.2β) was run over 4028 digitized film-screen mammograms taken from six sites over the years 1988-2002 with and without using the known calibration data. Results show that the SMF implementation running without any calibration data at all generates results which display a strong relationship with when running with a complete set of calibration data, and, most importantly, to an expert's visual assessment of breast composition using established techniques. SMF shows considerable promise in being of major use in large epidemiological studies related to breast cancer which require the automated analysis of large numbers of films from many years previously where little or no calibration data is available

  7. ANALISIS KUALITAS AUDIT TERHADAP MANAJEMEN LABA AKUNTANSI: STUDI PENDEKATAN COMPOSITE MEASURE VERSUS CONVENTIONAL MEASURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Herusetya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of audit quality on earnings management behavior using a variety of audit quality proxies, either using a single proxy or a joint test of some proxies of audit quality. The study proposed a new composite measure of audit quality called the Audit Quality Metric Score (AQMS, which represents the dimension of competence and independence of audit quality. The study compared the validity of the conventional and the multidimensional measurement of audit quality. With a sample of 1,152 firm-years panel data of non-financial companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX for the year 1999-2007, the study found a negative effect of audit quality over the accrual earnings management, whether using conventional or multidimensional measures of audit quality. These findings are consistent with the previous findings. The study did not find evidence that composite measure of audit quality has higher validity than conventional measures. Rather, we found evidence that Big 4 as a single proxy of audit quality has higher validity compared to the other proxies or using AQMS. The findings of this study are robust due to sensitivity test that support the main findings.

  8. Compositional segmentation and complexity measurement in stock indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Shang, Pengjian; Xia, Jianan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a complexity measure based on the entropic segmentation called sequence compositional complexity (SCC) into the analysis of financial time series. SCC was first used to deal directly with the complex heterogeneity in nonstationary DNA sequences. We already know that SCC was found to be higher in sequences with long-range correlation than those with low long-range correlation, especially in the DNA sequences. Now, we introduce this method into financial index data, subsequently, we find that the values of SCC of some mature stock indices, such as S & P 500 (simplified with S & P in the following) and HSI, are likely to be lower than the SCC value of Chinese index data (such as SSE). What is more, we find that, if we classify the indices with the method of SCC, the financial market of Hong Kong has more similarities with mature foreign markets than Chinese ones. So we believe that a good correspondence is found between the SCC of the index sequence and the complexity of the market involved.

  9. Stress Rupture Life Reliability Measures for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Thesken, John C.; Phoenix, S. Leigh; Grimes-Ledesma, Lorie

    2007-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases onboard spacecraft. Kevlar (DuPont), glass, carbon and other more recent fibers have all been used as overwraps. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads for an extended period during a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is therefore important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since the testing of each flight design cannot be completed on a practical time scale. The present paper examines specifically a Weibull statistics based stress rupture model and considers the various uncertainties associated with the model parameters. The paper also examines several reliability estimate measures that would be of use for the purpose of recertification and for qualifying flight worthiness of these vessels. Specifically, deterministic values for a point estimate, mean estimate and 90/95 percent confidence estimates of the reliability are all examined for a typical flight quality vessel under constant stress. The mean and the 90/95 percent confidence estimates are computed using Monte-Carlo simulation techniques by assuming distribution statistics of model parameters based also on simulation and on the available data, especially the sample sizes represented in the data. The data for the stress rupture model are obtained from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) stress rupture testing program, carried out for the past 35 years. Deterministic as well as probabilistic sensitivities are examined.

  10. Changes in body composition and other anthropometric measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. An understanding of the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on various aspects of health, including nutritional status, is needed to ensure that population-specific guidelines can be developed for South Africa. This study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and ...

  11. Measuring Feedback-Seeking Modes: An Alternative to Composite Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Rita K.

    An alternative to the use of traditional composite scales in creating scales from survey items was developed, using feedback seeking as an example. It is proposed that much more information can be obtained through Rasch techniques about feedback-seeking behaviors related to teaching. Data are from the New Faculty Project involving tenure-track…

  12. System Concept for Remote Measurement of Asteroid Molecular Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, G. B.; Lubin, P. M.; Zhang, Q.; Brashears, T.; Cohen, A. N.; Madajian, J.

    2016-12-01

    We propose a method for probing the molecular composition of cold solar system targets (asteroids, comets, planets, moons) from a distant vantage, such as from a spacecraft orbiting the object. A directed energy beam is focused on the target. With sufficient flux, the spot temperature rises rapidly, and evaporation of surface materials occurs. The melted spot creates a high-temperature blackbody source, and ejected material creates a plume of surface materials in front of the spot. Molecular and atomic absorption of the blackbody radiation occurs within the ejected plume. Bulk composition of the surface material is investigated by using a spectrometer to view the heated spot through the ejected material. Our proposed method differs from technologies such as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), which atomizes and ionizes materials in the target; scattered ions emit characteristic radiation, and the LIBS detector performs atomic composition analysis by observing emission spectra. Standoff distance for LIBS is limited by the strength of characteristic emission, and distances greater than 10 m are problematic. Our proposed method detects atomic and molecular absorption spectra in the plume; standoff distance is limited by the size of heated spot, and the plume opacity; distances on the order of tens of kilometers are immediately feasible. Simulations have been developed for laser heating of a rocky target, with concomitant evaporation. Evaporation rates lead to determination of plume density and opacity. Absorption profiles for selected materials are estimated from plume properties. Initial simulations of absorption profiles with laser heating show great promise for molecular composition analysis from tens of kilometers distance. This paper explores the feasibility a hypothetical mission that seeks to perform surface molecular composition analysis of a near-earth asteroid while the craft orbits the asteroid. Such a system has compelling potential benefit for

  13. Unique Fiber Optic Sensor System for Residual Stress Measurement on Graphite Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bullock, D

    1995-01-01

    .... Measurement of this strain through the thickness of a composite is not a trivial task. Foster-Miller has developed the basis for a residual strain measurement system utilizing embedded fiber optic Bragg grating technology...

  14. Study of flux and mud stone with potential for using in porcelainized stoneware tile compositions; Estudo de fundente e argilito com potencial para uso em formulacoes de porcelanato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, F.S.; Santos, G. dos; Morelli, M.R., E-mail: felipesh@gmail.com [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de S. Carlos - UFSCar, S. Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    The porcelain tile is distinguished in the current market for ceramic tiles, with excellent technical and esthetic characteristics. In the present study traditional ceramic raw materials were selected and a standard formulation conventionally reported in the literature was adopted aiming to replace the melting phase (feldspar) of the composition for a raw material that forms liquid phase at high temperature, and replacement of the clay fraction by a mudstone of lower refractoriness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of these materials as alternative techniques and lower cost, since, in a mass of porcelain tile, the amount of flux is very large (representing approximately 50% of total raw materials used). The nepheline syenite was the natural raw material selected to replace the feldspar due to the fact that it belongs to the family of feldspathoids, and has similar physicochemical characteristics, therefore, a high fluxing efficiency. To replace the clay fraction was chosen a mudstone naturally occurring, abundant in the region of Santa Gertrudes, SP. Substitutions to the feldspar and clay fraction were completely and/or partially by means of combinations between the flux and mud stones. The masses were processed from the mixing of powders, wet milling, drying, disagglomeration, compaction and firing. In addition to the vitrification curves, techniques such as dilatometry, measurements of porosity, flexure strength test, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the material after firing at various temperatures. The results showed that, in principle, it is possible the combination of raw materials such as nepheline and mudstone to replace potassium feldspar and S. Simao clay, as they provide the vitrification at lower temperatures. Compositions with both materials showed lower values of water absorption (<0.1%) and high mechanical strength (> 45 MPa), despite higher pyroplastic strain at 1150 deg C (author)

  15. Preparation and Sensitivity Measurements of Graphene Oxide-RDX Composite

    OpenAIRE

    Zorainy Mahmoud Y.; Aly Waleed F.; Elbeih Ahmed; Gobara Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The effect of graphene oxide (GO) on the safety characteristics of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX) was studied in this work. Graphene oxide was prepared and was investigated to form a composite based on GO-RDX by solvent-antisolvent slurry technique. For comparison, different polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) based on RDX bonded by viton A, fluorel or polymethyl-methacrylate binders were studied and designed as RDX-Viton, RDX-Fluorel and RDX-PMMA respectively. Sensitivities to impact and...

  16. Composite micro-sphere optical resonators for electric field measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, J.; Womack, D.; Ioppolo, T.; Ayaz, U.; Otugen, M. V.

    2012-02-01

    Polymer-based, multi-layered dielectric microspheres are investigated for high-resolution electric field sensing. The external electric field induces changes in the morphology of the spheres, leading to shifts in the whispering gallery modes (WGMs). Light from a distributed feedback (DFB) laser is sidecoupled into the microspheres using a tapered section of a single mode optical fiber to interrogate the optical modes. The base material of these multi-layered spheres is polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Three microsphere geometries are investigated: (1) cores comprised of a 60:1 volumetric ratio of PDMS-to-curing agent mixture that are mixed with varying amounts of barium titanate (BaTiO3) nano particles, (2) cores comprised of 60:1 PDMS that are coated with a thin layer of 60:1 PDMS that is mixed with varying amounts of barium titanate and (3) a composite Carbon Black-BaTiO3 prototype. The outermost layer for all sphere geometries is a thin coat of 60:1 PDMS which serves as the shell waveguide. Light from the tapered laser is coupled into this outermost shell that provides high optical quality factor WGM (Q ~ 106). The microspheres are poled for several hours at electric fields of ~ 1 MV/m to increase their sensitivity to electric field. Preliminary results show that electric fields of the order of 100 V/m can be detected using these composite micro-resonators.

  17. Single particle composition measurements of artificial Calcium Carbonate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, S. R.; Mentel, T. F.; Schwinger, T.; Croteau, P. L.; Jayne, J.; Worsnop, D. R.; Trimborn, A.

    2012-12-01

    Mineral dust, with an estimated total source from natural and anthropogenic emissions of up to 2800 Tg/yr, is one of the two largest contributors to total aerosol mass, with only Sea salt having a similar source strength (up to 2600 Tg/yr). The composition of dust particles varies strongly depending on the production process and, most importantly, the source location. Therefore, the composition of single dust particles can be used both to trace source regions of air masses as well as to identify chemical aging processes. Here we present results of laboratory studies on generating artificial calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles, a model compound for carbonaceous mineral dust particles. Particles were generated by atomizing an aqueous hydrogen carbonate solution. Water was removed using a silica diffusion dryer., then the particles were processed in an oven at temperatures up to 900°C, converting the hydrogen carbonate to its anhydrous form. The resulting aerosol was analyzed using an on-line single particle laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LAAPTOF). The results confirm the conversion to calcium carbonate, and validate that the produced particles indeed can be used as a model compound for carbonaceous dust aerosols.

  18. Estudo comparativo entre dois métodos de medida da distância interpupilar Comparative study between two measurement methods of interpupillary distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vieira Roehe

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo é realizar as medidas da Distância Interpupilar (DIP entre a régua milimetrada e o autorrefrator e comparar os resultados entre si. MÉTODOS: Cento e trinta e cinco pacientes foram submetidos à avaliação da DIP. Cada paciente foi examinado pelo mesmo examinador, com dois métodos: régua milimetrada e autorrefrator. RESULTADOS: Houve boa concordância entre as medidas apuradas pelos dois métodos, não apresentando diferença estatísticamente significante entre as médias e variabilidades. CONCLUSÃO: A inexatidão presente no método da régua milimetrada pode responder pelos casos com diferenças clinicamente significantes, porém proporcionalmente estes casos não invalidam a reprodutibilidade do autorrefrator.PURPOSE: There are several methods to measure the Interpupilary Distance (IPD, but the method used in most office is the milimetric ruler. Currently, the autorrefractor is used routinely to find for the subjective evaluation of the refractive error, but the IPD from the autorrefractor is often not compared with the traditional method of measurement.The objective of the study is to achieve the measures of IPD between the two methods and compare the results with each other. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five patients underwent the assessment of the DIP. Each patient was examined by the same examiner, with two methods: milimetric ruler and autorrefractor. RESULTS: There was good agreement between the measures cleared by the two methods, showing no statistically significant difference between mean and variability. CONCLUSION: The inaccuracy in the method of the present milimetric ruler can answer the cases with clinically significant differences, however proportionately these cases do not invalidate the reproducibility of the autorrefractor.

  19. Testing measurement invariance of composites using partial least squares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henseler, Jörg; Ringle, Christian M.; Sarstedt, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Research on international marketing usually involves comparing different groups of respondents. When using structural equation modeling (SEM), group comparisons can be misleading unless researchers establish the invariance of their measures. While methods have been proposed to analyze

  20. Evaluation of Two Methods for Modeling Measurement Errors When Testing Interaction Effects with Observed Composite Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Kwok, Oi-Man; Lai, Mark H. C.

    2018-01-01

    Path models with observed composites based on multiple items (e.g., mean or sum score of the items) are commonly used to test interaction effects. Under this practice, researchers generally assume that the observed composites are measured without errors. In this study, we reviewed and evaluated two alternative methods within the structural…

  1. Stiffness measurement and defect detection in laminated composites by dry-coupled plate waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.; Ziola, Steve M.; Dorighi, John F.; Gorman, Michael R.

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents a novel non-destruction technique for stiffness measurement and defect detection in laminated composite plates using dry-coupled ultrasonic plate waves. The technique involves using a pari of wide-band transducers normally-placed on the plate surface to generate and receive the lowest order flexural mode (A0 mode) at low frequencies. The stiffness measurement first experimentally determines the phase velocity of the A0 mode, then reconstructs the stiffness matrix components D11, D22, A44, and A55 utilizing the higher order plate wave solution for laminated composites and a nonlinear least-square optimization method. Such stiffness measurements can be used for quality control/quality assurance of in-service composite structures or composite manufacturing process, and for verification of composite design. As well as the stiffness measurements, the time-of- flight and amplitude measurements are achieved by keeping the pulser-receiver distance and pulsing frequency constant, and scanning the transducers over the plate surface. Since the plate wave measurements are based on the direct first arrival of the flexural mode, they are not limited by the thinness of the specimen as the conventional c-scan. Examples of stiffness measurement and defect detection are given, including cases of impact damage, delamination and debonding in composite structures. Finally the main hardware and software features of a recently-developed F-Scan system are also described.

  2. Measuring Body Composition in Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Faith Casey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research shows obesity to be more prevalent amongst individuals with intellectual disability (ID making correct measurement of body composition crucial. This study reviewed the validity and reliability of methods used for assessing body composition in individuals with ID. Methods. Authors conducted electronic searches through PubMed (1990 to present and PsycINFO (1990 to present and assessed relevant articles independently based on scoping review guidelines. Reviewers included primary research related to the validity and reliability of body composition measures on individuals with ID. Results. Searches identified six articles assessing body composition methods used on individuals with ID including body mass index (BMI, skinfold thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA, waist circumference, tibia length, and anthropometric girth measurements. BMI and waist circumference appear suitable measures but skinfold thickness measurements may not be advisable due to participants' noncompliance resulting in a lack of precision and inaccurate results. Conclusions. The current literature contains too few well-conducted studies to determine the precision and validity of body composition measures on individuals with ID. There may be a need to devise further regression equations that apply to individuals with specific types of ID in order to increase the reliability and validity of body composition measurements.

  3. Continuous measurements of isotopic composition of water vapour on the East Antarctic Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Casado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water stable isotopes in central Antarctic ice cores are critical to quantify past temperature changes. Accurate temperature reconstructions require one to understand the processes controlling surface snow isotopic composition. Isotopic fractionation processes occurring in the atmosphere and controlling snowfall isotopic composition are well understood theoretically and implemented in atmospheric models. However, post-deposition processes are poorly documented and understood. To quantitatively interpret the isotopic composition of water archived in ice cores, it is thus essential to study the continuum between surface water vapour, precipitation, surface snow and buried snow. Here, we target the isotopic composition of water vapour at Concordia Station, where the oldest EPICA Dome C ice cores have been retrieved. While snowfall and surface snow sampling is routinely performed, accurate measurements of surface water vapour are challenging in such cold and dry conditions. New developments in infrared spectroscopy enable now the measurement of isotopic composition in water vapour traces. Two infrared spectrometers have been deployed at Concordia, allowing continuous, in situ measurements for 1 month in December 2014–January 2015. Comparison of the results from infrared spectroscopy with laboratory measurements of discrete samples trapped using cryogenic sampling validates the relevance of the method to measure isotopic composition in dry conditions. We observe very large diurnal cycles in isotopic composition well correlated with temperature diurnal cycles. Identification of different behaviours of isotopic composition in the water vapour associated with turbulent or stratified regime indicates a strong impact of meteorological processes in local vapour/snow interaction. Even if the vapour isotopic composition seems to be, at least part of the time, at equilibrium with the local snow, the slope of δD against δ18O prevents us from identifying

  4. changes in body composition and other anthropometric measures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An understanding of the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on ... Subjects with lower CD4 lymphocyte counts experienced greater increases ... 37 ting in KwaZulu-Natal and to investigate associations between anthropometric measures and CD4 lymphocyte count. METHODS. STUDy pOpULATION.

  5. Experimental measurement of effective atomic number of composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-02

    Aug 2, 2011 ... Interestingly, the Zeff values so obtained for the inorganic compounds were found to be equal to the total ... S(X, Z) is the incoherent scattering function whose value is a measure of the electron binding effects in .... detector has been used to record the data along with a personal computer-based multichan-.

  6. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, R.F.; Kunigk, A.; Alspaugh, M.; Andronis, P.T.; Leitch, C.A.; Schoeller, D.A. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition.

  7. State-of-the-art measurements in human body composition: A moving frontier of clinical importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, D.; Shaheen, I.; Zafar, K.

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of human body composition allows for the estimation of body tissues, organs, and their distributions in living persons without inflicting harm. From a nutritional perspective, the interest in body composition has increased multi-fold with the global increase in the prevalence of obesity and its complications. The latter has driven in part the need for improved measurement methods with greater sensitivity and precision. There is no single gold standard for body-composition measurements in-vivo. All methods incorporate assumptions that do not apply in all individuals and the more accurate models are derived by using a combination of measurements, thereby reducing the importance of each assumption. This review will discuss why the measurement of body composition or human phenotyping is important; discuss new areas where the measurement of body composition (human phenotyping) is recognized as having important application; and will summarize recent advances made in new methodology. Reference will also be made to areas we cannot yet measure due to the lack of appropriate measurement methodologies, most especially measurements methods that provide information on kinetic states (not just static state) and metabolic function. PMID:21234275

  8. Temporally resolved plasma composition measurements by collective Thomson scattering in TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh

    2012-01-01

    Fusion plasma composition measurements by collective Thomson scattering (CTS) were demonstrated in recent proof-of-principle measurements in TEXTOR [S. B. Korsholm et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 165004 (2011)]. Such measurements rely on the ability to resolve and interpret ion cyclotron structure ...

  9. Measurements of interface fracture properties of composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkenazi, D.; Bank-Sills, L.; Travitzky, N.; Eliasi, R.

    1998-01-01

    In this investigation, interface Fracture properties are measured. To this end, glass/epoxy Brazilian disk specimens are studied. In order to calibrate the specimen, a numerical procedure is used. The finite element method is employed to derive stress intensity factors as a function of loading angle and crack length. By means of the weight friction method together with finite elements, a correction to the stress intensity factors for residual thermal stresses is obtained. These are combined to determine the critical interface energy release rate as a function of phase angle Tom the measured load and crack length at Fracture. A series of tests on a glass/epoxy material pair were carried out. It may be observed from the results that the residual thermal stresses resulting from the material mismatch greatly affect the interface toughness values

  10. Fabrication and measurement of a flexoelectric micro-pyramid composite

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbin Huang; Longlong Shu; Seol Ryung Kwon; Shujun Zhang; Fuh-Gwo Yuan; Xiaoning Jiang

    2014-01-01

    A fabrication method by combining precision mechanical dicing and wet etching was developed to prepare micro-pyramid structures based on (Ba0.67Sr0.33)TiO3 ceramics. The effective piezoelectric properties of flexoelectric pyramid structures in ten micrometers scale were investigated and measured through converse flexoelectric effect. The scaling effect of the flexoelectric response was demonstrated as the structure size shrinks down. The results do suggest the great potential of flexoelectric...

  11. Marine Corps Body Composition Program: The Flawed Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-07

    fitness expert and writer for ABC Bodybuilding , an error of 3% in a body fat evaluation is extreme and methods that have this margin of error should not...most other methods. In fact, bodybuilders use a seven to nine point skin fold measurement weekly during their training to monitor body fat...19.95 and recommended and endorsed by “Body-For-Life” and the World Natural Bodybuilding Federation. The caliper comes with detailed instructions

  12. Complex permittivity measurements of ferroelectric employing composite dielectric resonator technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupka, J.; Zychowicz, T.; Bovtun, Viktor; Veljko, Sergiy

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 10 (2006), s. 1883-1888 ISSN 0885-3010 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010213; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0993; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : dielectric resonator * ferroelectrics * microwave measurements Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.729, year: 2006

  13. Composite Measures of Health Care Provider Performance: A Description of Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwartz, Michael; Restuccia, Joseph D; Rosen, Amy K

    2015-12-01

    Since the Institute of Medicine's 2001 report Crossing the Quality Chasm, there has been a rapid proliferation of quality measures used in quality-monitoring, provider-profiling, and pay-for-performance (P4P) programs. Al-though individual performance measures are useful for identifying specific processes and outcomes for improvement and tracking progress, they do not easily provide an accessible overview of performance. Composite measures aggregate individual performance measures into a summary score. By reducing the amount of data that must be processed, they facilitate (1) benchmarking of an organization's performance, encouraging quality improvement initiatives to match performance against high-performing organizations, and (2) profiling and P4P programs based on an organization's overall performance. We describe different approaches to creating composite measures,discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and provide examples of their use. The major issues in creating composite measures are (1) whether to aggregate measures at the patient level through all-or-none approaches or the facility level, using one of the several possible weighting schemes; (2) when combining measures on different scales, how to rescale measures (using z scores,range percentages, ranks, or 5-star categorizations); and (3) whether to use shrinkage estimators, which increase precision by smoothing rates from smaller facilities but also decrease transparency. Because provider rankings and rewards under P4P programs may be sensitive to both context and the data, careful analysis is warranted before deciding to implement a particular method. A better understanding of both when and where to use composite measures and the incentives created by composite measures are likely to be important areas of research as the use of composite measures grows.

  14. Composite Measures of Health Care Provider Performance: A Description of Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwartz, Michael; Restuccia, Joseph D; Rosen, Amy K

    2015-01-01

    Context Since the Institute of Medicine’s 2001 report Crossing the Quality Chasm, there has been a rapid proliferation of quality measures used in quality-monitoring, provider-profiling, and pay-for-performance (P4P) programs. Although individual performance measures are useful for identifying specific processes and outcomes for improvement and tracking progress, they do not easily provide an accessible overview of performance. Composite measures aggregate individual performance measures into a summary score. By reducing the amount of data that must be processed, they facilitate (1) benchmarking of an organization’s performance, encouraging quality improvement initiatives to match performance against high-performing organizations, and (2) profiling and P4P programs based on an organization’s overall performance. Methods We describe different approaches to creating composite measures, discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and provide examples of their use. Findings The major issues in creating composite measures are (1) whether to aggregate measures at the patient level through all-or-none approaches or the facility level, using one of the several possible weighting schemes; (2) when combining measures on different scales, how to rescale measures (using z scores, range percentages, ranks, or 5-star categorizations); and (3) whether to use shrinkage estimators, which increase precision by smoothing rates from smaller facilities but also decrease transparency. Conclusions Because provider rankings and rewards under P4P programs may be sensitive to both context and the data, careful analysis is warranted before deciding to implement a particular method. A better understanding of both when and where to use composite measures and the incentives created by composite measures are likely to be important areas of research as the use of composite measures grows. PMID:26626986

  15. Fabrication and measurement of a flexoelectric micro-pyramid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenbin; Shu, Longlong; Ryung Kwon, Seol; Zhang, Shujun; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2014-12-01

    A fabrication method by combining precision mechanical dicing and wet etching was developed to prepare micro-pyramid structures based on (Ba0.67Sr0.33)TiO3 ceramics. The effective piezoelectric properties of flexoelectric pyramid structures in ten micrometers scale were investigated and measured through converse flexoelectric effect. The scaling effect of the flexoelectric response was demonstrated as the structure size shrinks down. The results do suggest the great potential of flexoelectric micro pyramids as an alternative to lead-free piezoelectric material.

  16. Fabrication and measurement of a flexoelectric micro-pyramid composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A fabrication method by combining precision mechanical dicing and wet etching was developed to prepare micro-pyramid structures based on (Ba0.67Sr0.33TiO3 ceramics. The effective piezoelectric properties of flexoelectric pyramid structures in ten micrometers scale were investigated and measured through converse flexoelectric effect. The scaling effect of the flexoelectric response was demonstrated as the structure size shrinks down. The results do suggest the great potential of flexoelectric micro pyramids as an alternative to lead-free piezoelectric material.

  17. Method and apparatus for real-time measurement of fuel gas compositions and heating values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Pratapas, John M.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Jangale, Vilas V.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary embodiment can be an apparatus for real-time, in situ measurement of gas compositions and heating values. The apparatus includes a near infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, a mid infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of carbon monoxide and a semiconductor based sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrogen gas. A data processor having a computer program for reducing the effects of cross-sensitivities of the sensors to components other than target components of the sensors is also included. Also provided are corresponding or associated methods for real-time, in situ determination of a composition and heating value of a fuel gas.

  18. Measuring body composition in overweight individuals by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownbill, Rhonda A; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2005-01-01

    Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely used for body composition measurements in normal-weight and overweight/obese individuals. The limitations of bone densitometers have been frequently addressed. However, the possible errors in assessing body composition in overweight individuals due to incorrect positioning or limitations of DXA to accurately assess both bone mineral density and body composition in obese individuals have not received much attention and are the focus of this report. We discuss proper ways of measuring overweight individuals and point to some studies where that might not have been the case. It appears that currently, the most prudent approach to assess body composition of large individuals who cannot fit under the scanning area would be to estimate regional fat, namely the regions of thigh and/or abdomen. Additionally, using two-half body scans, although time consuming, may provide a relatively accurate measurement of total body fat, however, more studies using this technique are needed to validate it. Researchers using bone densitometers for body composition measurements need to have an understanding of its limitations in overweight individuals and address them appropriately when interpreting their results. Studies on accuracy and precision in measurements of both bone and soft tissue composition in overweight individuals using available densitometers are needed

  19. Method for online measurement of the CHON composition of raw gas from biomass gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Daniel; Thunman, Henrik; Tarelho, Luís; Larsson, Anton; Seemann, Martin; Matos, Arlindo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Measuring the CHON composition of a raw gas by current methods is challenging. • An alternative method is to burn the raw gas before measuring the CHON composition. • The CHON contents of the raw gas can be accurately measured by the alternative method. • Measuring the CHON contents of the raw gas is now performed in a “one-step” analysis. • The new method is used to evaluate the operation of a dual fluidised bed gasifier. - Abstract: For unattended biomass gasification processes, rapid methods for monitoring the elemental composition (CHON) of the raw gas leaving the gasifier are needed. Conventional methods rely on time-consuming and costly laboratory procedures for analysing the condensable part of the raw gas. An alternative method, presented in this work, assesses the CHON composition of raw gas in a “one step” analysis without the need to previously characterise its chemical species composition. Our method is based on the quantitative conversion of a raw gas of complex chemical composition into CO 2 , H 2 O, and N 2 in a small combustor. The levels of these simple species can be measured with high accuracy and good time resolution, and the CHON composition of the raw gas can be determined from the mass balance across the combustor. To evaluate this method, an online combustion facility was built and used to analyse the raw gas from the Chalmers 2-MW th dual fluidised bed steam gasifier. Test runs of the developed facility demonstrated complete combustion of the raw gas and the measurements were both fast and reliable. The new method used in combination with zero-dimensional reactor modelling provides valuable data for the operational monitoring of gasification processes, such as the degree of fuel conversion, composition of the char exiting the gasifier, oxygen transport by catalytic bed material, and amount of condensables in raw gas

  20. Development of composite pipelines by filament winding: an study using neural networks; Desenvolvimento de dutos compositos por filament winding: um estudo atraves de redes neurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contant, Sheila [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Lona, Liliane M.F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Calado, Veronica M.A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2003-07-01

    The application of composite materials on pipeline systems for transportation of petroleum and natural gas is being pointed as one alternative to conventional materials, improving safety and reliability and reducing costs. Polymeric composite pipes can be manufactured by filament winding, a method that shows several advantages over other manufacturing processes such as low cost, high production rates and ability to produce high specific strength parts. Because of the many parameters involved in this process, among others aspects, mathematical modeling of filament winding process through conventional methods is complex task. In this work the process has been studied using neural networks, a computational technique inspired in human brain that presents several advantages when compared to conventional methods like a reduced processing time. Neural networks have been applied to prediction of mechanical properties of composite tubes and also to prediction of the thermal behavior of the parts during cure step. Results showed the efficacy of the proposed methodology. (author)

  1. Tribological study of PTFE composites loaded with porcelain tile waste; Estudo tribologico de compositos de PTFE carregados com rejeito de porcelanato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, P.M.; Araujo Neto, A.P.; Souza, J.R.; Medeiros, J.T.N., E-mail: plinio_rpg@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (GET/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos de Tribologia e Integridade Estrutural

    2016-07-01

    The Brazilian northeast is one of the largest producers of clays that burn in the white form and disposal of tailings from the process of polishing the ceramic pieces of porcelain stands out as a major source of environmental degradation. This problem can be reduced by adding such material as filler in composites, in order to improve the mechanical properties of the polymeric matrix. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is characterized as a good solid lubricant, because it has excellent properties such as low coefficient of friction (0.01 < μ < 0.1), thermal stability at high temperatures and chemical resistance. However, the pure PTFE has high wear rates (greater than 10-13m2/N) leading to early failures of various components. To reuse the Tailings of Porcelain (TP), composites of PTFE + TP were developed in three different compositions (85:15, 75:25 and 65:35). For this investigation the particle size distribution and some chemical characteristics of the tailings by testing XRD, XRF, SEM and EDS were performed, registering a large amount of silica, aluminum and other metals. Roughness, wettability and sclerometry also were performed. It was noted that the values of arithmetic average roughness, Ra, is higher for composites with higher percentage of TP, in addition they have a lower contact angle and higher surface energy to distilled water, characterized as hydrophilic. The results of energy of deformation provided by the sclerometry test were non-linear. (author)

  2. Electrophoretic deposition of 9-YSZ solid electrolyte on Ni- YSZ composite; Estudos de deposicao eletroforetica de ceramicas de 9-YSZ sobre Ni-YSZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, F.S.; Yoshito, W.K.; Lazar, D.R.R.; Ussui, V., E-mail: vussui@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCTM/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    9-YSZ ceramic and Ni-YSZ metal/ceramic composite are the more commonly used materials for the fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell electrolyte and anode, respectively. The main challenges for these applications are the forming of both materials as superposed double thin layers. In the present work ceramic powder of 9- YSZ was synthesized by a coprecipitation technique and the Ni O-YSZ composite by a combustion technique. The later was formed by uniaxial pressing as cylindrical pellets of 15 mm diameter. Thin ceramic layers of 9-YSZ were deposited on composite pellets from a suspension with 10% solid content by an Electrophoretic Deposition technique. Applied voltage varied in the range of 30 to 200 V and deposition time from 15 to 90 seconds, evaluating the deposited mass, porosity on the interface and adhesion of layers. Resulted ceramics were characterized by X-ray diffraction and were observed in a scanning electron microscope. Results showed that deposited layers are thin ({approx}20{mu}m), dense and have good adhesion on the surface of composite substrate. (author)

  3. Feasibility and Reliability of Body Composition Measurements in Adults with Severe Intellectual and Sensory Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waninge, A.; van der Weide, W.; Evenhuis, I. J.; van Wijck, R.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anthropometric measurements are widely used to reliably quantify body composition and to estimate risks of overweight in healthy subjects and in patients. However, information about the reliability of anthropometric measurements in subjects with severe intellectual and sensory disabilities is lacking. Objective: The purpose of this…

  4. Measuring housing system performance : Is a composite indicator a useful instrument?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.; Lennartz, C.; Dol, K.

    2012-01-01

    Housing outcomes are predominantly compared in terms of individual indicators, in-cluding such items as quality or affordability measures, where the outcomes of the individual measures are often not linked in a preceding research step. However, the creation of a composite indicator of housing

  5. A User’s Guide to the Galaxy of Conjoint Analysis and Compositional Preference Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Michael; Meißner, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Academics and practitioners aiming to measure preferences for the first time are faced with a ‘galaxy’ of conjoint analytic and alternative compositional preference measurement approaches. Potential users are confronted with questions, such as how to determine which approach to use, how to set up...

  6. Estudo de fundentes alternativos para uso em formulações de porcelanato Study of the use of alternative fluxing agents for feldspar in porcelainized stoneware tile compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Baucia Jr.

    2010-07-01

    stoneware has been outstanding in the current market of ceramic tiles because it offers excellent technical and esthetic features. In this research, traditional ceramic raw materials were selected and a standard formulation reported in the literature was adopted, aiming to replace the vitreous phase former (feldspar from the composition by two fluxing agents at high temperature. The objective was to evaluate these materials as a technical alternative at lower cost since, in the porcelain, the amount of flux former is very large, and represents approximately 50% of all raw materials used. The nepheline syenite was the natural raw material selected to replace the feldspar due to the fact that it belongs to the family of feldspathoids, and has similar physicochemical characteristics, and therefore a high fluxing efficiency. The second vitreous phase former was a synthetic material, named flux agent, with physical and chemical characteristics very different from those of the feldspar and even greater fluxing efficiency. The replacement of feldspar occurred in a complete and/or in part, through combinations of the alternative fluxes. The masses were processed from mixing of powders, wet milling, drying, desagglomeration, compaction and firing. In addition to the curves of vitrification, techniques, as sedimentometry, dilatometry, apparent porosity measurements, flexure strength test, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the material sintered at different temperatures. The most important results show that it is possible to combine nepheline and synthetic flux as an alternative material other than feldspar, because they promote vitrification at lower temperatures. Compositions with both fluxes showed low values of water absorption (< 0.1% and high mechanical strength (45 MPa when compared to the standard, despite of the higher pyroplastic deformation. The presence of nepheline does not change qualitatively the formation of phases and the synthetic

  7. Neonatal Body Composition: Measuring Lean Mass as a Tool to Guide Nutrition Management in the Neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Melissa S; Valentine, Christina J

    2015-10-01

    Neonatal nutrition adequacy is often determined by infant weight gain. The aim of this review is to summarize what is currently known about neonatal body composition and the use of body composition as a measure for adequate neonatal nutrition. Unlike traditional anthropometric measures of height and weight, body composition measurements account for fat vs nonfat mass gains. This provides a more accurate picture of neonatal composition of weight gain. Providing adequate neonatal nutrition in the form of quantity and composition can be a challenge, especially when considering the delicate balance of providing adequate nutrition to preterm infants for catch-up growth. Monitoring weight gain as fat mass and nonfat mass while documenting dietary intake of fat, protein, and carbohydrate in formulas may help provide the medical community the tools to provide optimal nutrition for catch-up growth and for improved neurodevelopmental outcomes. Tracking body composition in term and preterm infants may also provide critical future information concerning the nutritional state of infants who go on to develop future disease such as obesity, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia as adolescents or adults. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  8. Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hanqing; Guo, Yuanzheng

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was a literature study concerning composites. With composites becoming increasingly popular in various areas such as aerospace industry and construction, the research about composites has a significant meaning accordingly. This thesis was aim at introducing some basic information of polymer matrix composites including raw mate-rial, processing, testing, applications and recycling to make a rough understanding of this kind of material for readers. Polymeric matrices, fillers,...

  9. Measurement of moisture depth distribution in composite materials using positron lifetime technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.J.; Holt, W.H.; Mock, W. Jr.; Mall, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced resin matrix composites reportedly suffer significant degradation in their mechanical properties when exposed to hot, moist, environments for extended periods. Moisture weakens the fiber matrix bond as well as the matrix shear strength. An important factor in determining the extent of degradation is the depth distribution of moisture in the resin matrix. Despite the importance of measuring moisture distribution and its effects on composite material properties, not enough data are available on suitable nondestructive techniques for detecting and measuring moisture diffusion in organic composite materials. This paper addresses itself to the problem of measuring the moisture content of such materials, with special emphasis on its depth distribution, using positron lifetime technique

  10. In vivo ultrasound and biometric measurements predict the empty body chemical composition in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, A M; Francisco, C L; Branco, R H; Bonilha, S F M; Mercadante, M E Z; Meirelles, P R L; Pariz, C M; Jorge, A M

    2018-03-06

    Evaluation of the body chemical composition of beef cattle can only be measured postmortem and those data cannot be used in real production scenarios to adjust nutritional plans. The objective of this study was to develop multiple linear regression equations from in vivo measurements, such as ultrasound parameters [backfat thickness (uBFT, mm), rump fat thickness (uRF, mm), and ribeye area (uLMA, cm2)], shrunk body weight (SBW, kg), age (AG, d), hip height (HH, m), as well as from postmortem measurements (composition of the 9th to 11th rib section) to predict the empty body and carcass chemical composition for Nellore cattle. Thirty-three young bulls were used (339 ± 36.15 kg and 448 ± 17.78 d for initial weight and age, respectively). Empty body chemical composition (protein, fat, water, and ash in kg) was obtained by combining non-carcass and carcass components. Data were analyzed using the PROC REG procedure of SAS software. Mallows' Cp values were close to the ideal value of number of independent variables in the prediction equations plus one. Equations to predict chemical components of both empty body and carcass using in vivo measurements presented higher R2 values than those determined by postmortem measurements. Chemical composition of the empty body using in vivo measurements was predicted with R2 > 0.73. Equations to predict chemical composition of the carcass from in vivo measurements showed R2 lower (R2Chemical compounds from components of the empty body of Nellore cattle can be calculated by the following equations: Protein (kg) = 47.92 + 0.18 × SBW × 1.46 × uRF - 30.72 × HH (R2 = 0.94, RMSPE = 1.79); Fat (kg) = 11.33 + 0.16 × SBW + 2.09 × uRF - 0.06 × AG (R2 = 0.74, RMSPE = 4.18); Water (kg) = 34.00 + 0.55 × SBW + 0.10 × AG 2.34 × uRF (R2 = 0.96, RMSPE = 5.47). In conclusion, the coefficients of determination (for determining the chemical composition of the empty body) of the equations derived from in vivo measures were higher than those

  11. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Strategies are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them in full...

  12. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Memory Pieces are open compositions to be realised solo by an improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them...

  13. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2010-01-01

    New Year is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. It is included in "From the Danish Seasons" (see under this title). See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You...

  14. Study of the formation of secondary phases in the composite LSM/YSZ; Estudo da formacao de fases secundarias no composito LSM/YSZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Ranieri Andrade

    2007-07-01

    The composite of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (La{sub 1-x}SrxMnO{sub 3} - LSM) and Yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} - YSZ), is indicated as cathode of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). It presents better acting as cathode due to the Triple Phase Boundary (TPB) formed in the interface area between the cathode and the electrolyte. For the temperatures up to 1100 deg C, LSM and YSZ can react producing lanthanum zirconate (La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} - LZO) and strontium zirconate (SrZrO{sub 3} - SZO). In this sense, the present work intends to contribute in the study of the formation of phases LZO and SZO, studying different massic proportions between LSM and YSZ with sintering temperatures varying between 1000 deg C and 1400 deg C. For the obtention of the precursory powders the co-precipitation routes were adopted to obtain YSZ and conventional powder mixture for the preparation of LSM. The composite LSM/YSZ, studied in this work, is prepared with two concentrations of Sr for LSM (30 mol por cent - LSM7 and 40 mol por cent - LSM6) and one concentration of Yttria for YSZ (10 mol por cent). The results obtained by X-ray fluorescence showed that the routes adopted for synthesis of powders were effective in the obtention of the compositions LSM6, LSM7 and YSZ, with close values to the stoichiometric. The studied massic proportions were: 50 por cent of LSM and 50 por cent of YSZ (1:1), 25 por cent of LSM and 75 por cent of YSZ (1:3), and 75 por cent of LSM and 25 por cent of YSZ (3:1). Such proportions of mixtures were conformed and submitted at different conditions of temperatures and times of sintering: 1000 deg C, 1200 deg C, 1300 deg C, 1350 deg C and 1400 deg C for 4 and 8 hours. The values of medium size of the particles and the specific surface area values for the mixture of LSM6/YSZ and LSM7/YSZ, are of the same order of largeness after the mixture in a attrition mill and in different massic proportions. Secondary phases like LZO and

  15. Infra-red measurements of stratospheric composition. I - The balloon instrument and water vapour measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloner, C. P.; Drummond, J. R.; Houghton, J. T.; Roscoe, H. K.; Jarnot, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    The design and construction of a balloon-borne instrument for remote-sensing of stratospheric composition is described. Thermal emission from the constituents is detected and the spectral selectivity of the instrument is tailored to a specific gas by the use of a cell of the same gas in the optical path of the radiometer. The pressure of the gas in the cell is cycled and the resultant transmission function is shown to be highly selective to radiation from the same gas in the atmosphere. The first flight of the instrument and the retrieval of a water vapour profile in the range 15-40 km is described.

  16. Limits to prediction of energy balance from milk composition measures at individual cow level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, P; Ridder, C; Friggens, N C

    2010-01-01

    at each milking. Three breeds (Danish Red, Holstein-Friesian, and Jersey) of cows (299 cows, 623 lactations) in parities 1 to 4 were used. Milk data were smoothed using a rolling local regression. Energy balance based on milk composition was calculated using a partial least squares (PLS) model based......Frequently updated energy balance (EB) estimates for individual cows are especially useful for dairy herd management, and individual-level estimates form the basis for group-level EB estimates. The accuracy of EB estimates determines the value of this information for management decision support....... This study aimed to assess EB accuracy through ANOVA components and by comparing EB estimates based either on milk composition (EBalMilk) or on body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) (EBalBody). Energy balance based on milk composition was evaluated using data in which milk composition was measured...

  17. Chemical composition measurements of the low activity waste (LAW) EPA-Series glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analysis results for a series of simulated low activity waste glasses provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as part of an ongoing development task. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. A detailed review showed no indications of errors in the preparation or measurement of the study glasses. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 100.2 to 100.8 wt %, indicating recovery of all components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %.

  18. Quantum probabilities of composite events in quantum measurements with multimode states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D

    2013-01-01

    The problem of defining quantum probabilities of composite events is considered. This problem is of great importance for the theory of quantum measurements and for quantum decision theory, which is a part of measurement theory. We show that the Lüders probability of consecutive measurements is a transition probability between two quantum states and that this probability cannot be treated as a quantum extension of the classical conditional probability. The Wigner distribution is shown to be a weighted transition probability that cannot be accepted as a quantum extension of the classical joint probability. We suggest the definition of quantum joint probabilities by introducing composite events in multichannel measurements. The notion of measurements under uncertainty is defined. We demonstrate that the necessary condition for mode interference is the entanglement of the composite prospect together with the entanglement of the composite statistical state. As an illustration, we consider an example of a quantum game. Special attention is paid to the application of the approach to systems with multimode states, such as atoms, molecules, quantum dots, or trapped Bose-condensed atoms with several coherent modes. (paper)

  19. Study of mechanical properties of composite of poly (εcaprolactone) / cotton linter); Estudos das propriedades mecanicas de compositos de poli(ε-caprolactona)/linter de algodao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, E.B.; Franca, D.C.; Morais, D.D.S.; Araujo, E.M.; Rosa, M.F., E-mail: elieberbarros@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMat/UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    The environmental problem caused by the consumption and disposal of plastic in nature has been widely discussed due to the large impact that these have on the environment. Thus, research involving the use of biodegradable polymers to replace synthetic polymers are intensified. In this work, composites were obtained using the poly(ε-caprolactone) PCL and cotton linter. Initially, polymer master was prepared from PCL/cotton linters and this was added to the PCL at 1, 3 and 5 wt% of linter, in a co-rotating twin screw extruder and then was injection molded. The samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and evaluated mechanically. The XRD patterns showed the presence of two characteristic peaks related to the PCL. By impact strength test was observed that the presence of fiber reduced to this property. It was also observed an increase in flexural strength. (author)

  20. Medida Interpessoal de Psicopatia (IM-P: estudo preliminar no contexto brasileiro Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IM-P: preliminary study in the Brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tárcia Rita Davoglio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A observação direta do comportamento interpessoal é um recurso importante na descrição e diagnóstico da personalidade psicopática. A Medida Interpessoal de Psicopatia (Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy, IM-P é um instrumento psicométrico composto por 21 itens, desenvolvido para ser utilizado em associação com outras escalas de avaliação da psicopatia. Foca-se, especificamente, nos comportamentos interpessoais e aspectos não verbais evidentes na interação do entrevistador com indivíduos que apresentam características psicopáticas. OBJETIVO: Descrever resultados preliminares sobre a investigação de aspectos interpessoais da psicopatia mediante a utilização da IM-P, incluindo as etapas de tradução/adaptação e avaliação de confiabilidade interavaliadores da IM-P, em uma amostra de adolescentes brasileiros. MÉTODO: Trata-se de estudo transversal, descritivo e correlacional realizado com 20 adolescentes masculinos cumprindo medida socioeducativa com privação de liberdade na Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RS. Após os procedimentos de tradução da escala, treinamento dos pesquisadores e teste piloto por meio de uma entrevista semiestruturada, a IM-P foi pontuada por três juízes independentes. RESULTADOS: Os resultados estatísticos, obtidos através do coeficiente de concordância de Kendall, revelaram grau de concordância interavaliadores elevado e satisfatório para os escores totais da IM-P (W = 0,84; p INTRODUCTION: The direct observation of interpersonal behaviors is an important resource in the description and diagnosis of the psychopathic personality. The Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IM-P is a psychometric instrument comprised of 21 items, designed to be applied in association with other instruments that also evaluate psychopaths. It focuses specifically on interpersonal and non-verbal behaviors that become evident during the interaction between the interviewer and individuals

  1. Internal stress analysis of Cu/W composite by low temperature neutron in-situ measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Masayuki; Muslih, M. Refai; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Ikeuchi, Yasukazu; Hanabusa, Takao

    2004-01-01

    Properties of fiber-reinforced materials depend strongly on internal stress state due to residual stress caused by difference in thermal expansion coefficient between fibers and matrix. In this study, performance of the neutron diffraction apparatus of BATAN, a low temperature neutron in-situ measurement apparatus, was tested in comparison with similar one of JAERI, by measuring internal stress of Cu/W composite fabricated for this experiment was tested. The composite specimens were loaded by low temperature thermal cycles using a cryostat and the stress was in-situ measured. Strong [110] orientation was observed in W fibers. The initial stress in W fibers was about -400 MPa in compression state along fiber direction, and it changed from -600 MPa to -80 MPa with temperatures. The experiment showed that the apparatus of BATAN was available to measure the internal stress. (A. Hishinuma)

  2. Another Approach to Measuring Human Development: The Composite Dynamic Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao-Ubillos, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks mainly to contribute to the debate on how the relative degree of development of a country should be measured by proposing an indicator to build on the valuable starting point provided by the Human Development Index (HDI). The indicator proposed is called the "Composite, Dynamic Human Development Index". It incorporates in a simple…

  3. Forage Quality and Composition Measurements as Predictors of Ethanol Yield from Maize (Zea mays L.) Stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improvement of biofeedstock quality for cellulosic ethanol production will be facilitated by inexpensive and rapid methods of evaluation, such as those already employed in the field of ruminant nutrition. Our objective was to evaluate whether forage quality and compositional measurements could be u...

  4. Use of upper-arm anthropometry as measure of body-composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anthropometric measurements of height, weight, triceps and mid-upper-arm circumference were recorded. The upper-arm composition was assessed using standard equations. Nutritional status was assessed using standard classification of upper-arm muscle-area by height (UAMAH) and thinness (low BMI-for-age).

  5. QoS measurement of workflow-based web service compositions using Colored Petri net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematzadeh, Hossein; Motameni, Homayun; Mohamad, Radziah; Nematzadeh, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Workflow-based web service compositions (WB-WSCs) is one of the main composition categories in service oriented architecture (SOA). Eflow, polymorphic process model (PPM), and business process execution language (BPEL) are the main techniques of the category of WB-WSCs. Due to maturity of web services, measuring the quality of composite web services being developed by different techniques becomes one of the most important challenges in today's web environments. Business should try to provide good quality regarding the customers' requirements to a composed web service. Thus, quality of service (QoS) which refers to nonfunctional parameters is important to be measured since the quality degree of a certain web service composition could be achieved. This paper tried to find a deterministic analytical method for dependability and performance measurement using Colored Petri net (CPN) with explicit routing constructs and application of theory of probability. A computer tool called WSET was also developed for modeling and supporting QoS measurement through simulation.

  6. Assessment tools in obesity- psychological measures, diet, activity, and body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity has led to an increased need for measurement tools for research, management and treatment of the obese person. The physical size limitations imposed by obesity, variations in body composition from that of normal weight, and a complex psychopathology a...

  7. From measurements errors to a new strain gauge design for composite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard; Salviato, Marco; Gili, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    Significant over-prediction of the material stiffness in the order of 1-10% for polymer based composites has been experimentally observed and numerical determined when using strain gauges for strain measurements instead of non-contact methods such as digital image correlation or less stiff method...

  8. Fully integrated microfluidic measurement system for real-time determination of gas and liquid mixtures composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Groenesteijn, Jarno; van der Wouden, E.J.; Sparreboom, Wouter; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and realised a fully integrated microfluidic measurement system for real-time determination of both flow rate and composition of gas- and liquid mixtures. The system comprises relative permittivity sensors, pressure sensors, a Coriolis flow and density sensor, a thermal flow sensor

  9. Sintering study of NiO-YSZ composite obtained by coprecipitation route; Estudo de sinterabilidade do composito de NiO-YSZ obtido pela rota de coprecipitacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshito, W.K.; Resitivo, T.A.G.; Ussui, V.; Lazar, D.R.R.; Paschoal, J.O.A., E-mail: wyoshito@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCTM/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    NiO-YSZ composite is a widely used anode material for solid oxide fuel cell. The main purpose of the present work was the evaluation of the appropriate conditions of ceramic processing, by sintering behavior study of NiO-YSZ pressed powders, synthesized by hydroxide coprecipitation route. Using the empirical rate equation developed by Makipirtti-Meng, it was analyzed shrinkage rate in the temperature ranges of 900-1400 deg C as function of time. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, gas adsorption, laser diffraction and helium picnometry. The microstructural characterization of the samples was evaluated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and relative density by the Archimedes method. It was found that activation energy value is 48,3 kJ.mol{sup -1} in the temperature range of 900-950 deg C and 604,83 kJ.mol{sup -1} for 1000-1200 deg C. These values correspond to the change that occurs in the microstructure during the heat treatment process. The sintering process was evaluated by the dilatometry date treatment. (author)

  10. Comparison of three tissue composition measurement techniques using digital mammograms — A signal-to-noise study

    OpenAIRE

    Breitenstein, Darryl S.; Shaw, Chris C.

    1998-01-01

    Tissue composition measurement may provide a quantitatively and physically meaningful method to objectively determine the “mammographic density” linked to breast cancer risk. A single energy hybrid (SEH) technique is described for measuring the tissue composition on a pixel-by-pixel basis with a single digital mammogram. Theoretical models were derived and used to compute signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in tissue composition measurement using the SEH method. The results were compared with those...

  11. Real-time measurement of size-resolved elemental composition ratio for flame synthesized composite nanoparticle aggregates using a tandem SMPS-ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Nathan; Fang, Jiaxi; Chavalmane, Sanmathi; Biswas, Pratim

    2017-01-01

    Composite nanoparticles find application in catalysis, drug delivery, and energy storage and require increasingly fine control of their physical properties and composition. While composite nanoparticles have been widely synthesized and characterized, little work has systematically correlated the initial concentration of precursors and the final composition of flame synthesized composite nanoparticles. This relationship is explored in a diffusion flame aerosol reactor by coupling a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) with an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). A framework for studying the relationship between the initial precursor concentrations of different elements and the final nanoparticle composition is explored. The size-resolved elemental composition was measured by directly injecting size-selected fractions of aggregated magnetite and silicon dioxide composite nanoparticles into the ICP-OES plasma. This work showed a correlation between precursor molar ratio and the measured elemental ratio in the mobility size range of 50 to 140 nm. Building on previous work studying size resolved elemental composition of engineered nanoparticles, the analysis is extended to flame synthesized composite nanoparticle aggregates in this work.

  12. Coefficient of Friction Measurements for Thermoplastics and Fiber Composites under Low Sliding Velocity and High Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Svendsen, G.; Hiller, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    materials which are untypical for brake applications, like thermoplastics and fiber composites, can offer superior performance in terms of braking torque, wear resistance and cost than typical brake linings. In this paper coefficient of friction measurements for various thermoplastic and fiber composite......Friction materials for typical brake applications are normally designed considering thermal stability as the major performance criterion. There are however brake applications with very limited sliding velocities, where the generated heat is insignificant. In such cases it is possible that friction...

  13. The Measurement of Spectral Characteristics and Composition of Radiation in ATLAS with MEDIPIX2-USB Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, M.; Greiffenberg, D.; Heijne, E.; Holy, T.; Idárraga, J.; Jakubek, J.; Král, V.; Králík, M.; Lebel, C.; Leroy, C.; Llopart, X.; Lord, G.; Maneuski, D.; Ouellette, O.; Sochor, V.; Prospísil, S.; Suk, M; Tlustos, L.; Vykydal, Z.; Wilhelm, I.

    2008-01-01

    A network of devices to perform real-time measurements of the spectral characteristics and composition of radiation in the ATLAS detector and cavern during its operation is being built. This system of detectors will be a stand alone system fully capable of delivering real-time images of fluxes and spectral composition of different particle species including slow and fast neutrons. The devices are based on MEDIPIX2 pixel silicon detectors that will be operated via active USB cables and USB-Ethernet extenders through an Ethernet network by a PC located in the USA15 ATLAS control room. The installation of 14 devices inside ATLAS (detector and cavern) is in progress.

  14. Broadband Wireless Channel in Composite High-Speed Railway Scenario: Measurements, Simulation, and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of high-speed railway (HSR and train-ground communications with high reliability, safety, and capacity promotes the evolution of railway dedicated mobile communication systems from Global System for Mobile Communications-Railway (GSM-R to Long Term Evolution-Railway (LTE-R. The main challenges for LTE-R network planning are the rapidly time-varying channel and high mobility, because HSR lines consist of a variety of complex terrains, especially the composite scenarios where tunnels, cuttings, and viaducts are connected together within a short distance. Existing researches mainly focus on the path loss and delay spread for the individual HSR scenarios. In this paper, the broadband measurements are performed using a channel sounder at 950 MHz and 2150 MHz in a typical HSR composite scenario. Based on the measurements, the pivotal characteristics are analyzed for path loss exponent, power delay profile, and tap delay line model. Then, the deterministic channel model in which the 3D ray-tracing algorithm is applied in the composite scenario is presented and validated by the measurement data. Based on the ray-tracing simulations, statistical analysis of channel characteristics in delay and Doppler domain is carried out for the HSR composite scenario. The research results can be useful for radio interface design and optimization of LTE-R system.

  15. Measurement of natural carbon isotopic composition of acetone in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keita; Ohishi, Kazuki; Gilbert, Alexis; Akasaka, Mai; Yoshida, Naohiro; Yoshimura, Ryoko

    2016-02-01

    The natural carbon isotopic composition of acetone in urine was measured in healthy subjects using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry combined with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME-GC-C-IRMS). Before applying the technique to a urine sample, we optimized the measurement conditions of HS-SPME-GC-C-IRMS using aqueous solutions of commercial acetone reagents. The optimization enabled us to determine the carbon isotopic compositions within ±0.2 ‰ of precision and ±0.3‰ of error using 0.05 or 0.2 mL of aqueous solutions with acetone concentrations of 0.3-121 mg/L. For several days, we monitored the carbon isotopic compositions and concentrations of acetone in urine from three subjects who lived a daily life with no restrictions. We also monitored one subject for 3 days including a fasting period of 24 h. These results suggest that changes in the availability of glucose in the liver are reflected in changes in the carbon isotopic compositions of urine acetone. Results demonstrate that carbon isotopic measurement of metabolites in human biological samples at natural abundance levels has great potential as a tool for detecting metabolic changes caused by changes in physiological states and disease.

  16. Three-Axis Distributed Fiber Optic Strain Measurement in 3D Woven Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, Matt; Klute, Sandra; Lally, Evan M.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Lowry, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in composite materials technologies have broken further from traditional designs and require advanced instrumentation and analysis capabilities. Success or failure is highly dependent on design analysis and manufacturing processes. By monitoring smart structures throughout manufacturing and service life, residual and operational stresses can be assessed and structural integrity maintained. Composite smart structures can be manufactured by integrating fiber optic sensors into existing composite materials processes such as ply layup, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. In this work optical fiber was integrated into 3D woven composite parts at a commercial woven products manufacturing facility. The fiber was then used to monitor the structures during a VARTM manufacturing process, and subsequent static and dynamic testing. Low cost telecommunications-grade optical fiber acts as the sensor using a high resolution commercial Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) system providing distributed strain measurement at spatial resolutions as low as 2mm. Strain measurements using the optical fiber sensors are correlated to resistive strain gage measurements during static structural loading. Keywords: fiber optic, distributed strain sensing, Rayleigh scatter, optical frequency domain reflectometry

  17. Estudo de fundente e argilito com potencial para uso em formulações de porcelanato Study of flux and mudstone with potential for using in porcelainized stoneware tile compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Hoffmann

    2012-06-01

    baixas. Composições com ambas as matérias-primas apresentaram baixos valores de absorção de água ( 45 MPa, apesar de maior deformação piroplástica a 1150 ºC.The porcelain tile is distinguished in the current market for ceramic tiles, with excellent technical and esthetic characteristics. In the present study traditional ceramic raw materials were selected and a standard formulation conventionally reported in the literature was adopted aiming to replace the melting phase (feldspar of the composition for a raw material that forms liquid phase at high temperature, and replacement of the clay fraction by a mudstone of lower refractoriness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of these materials as alternative techniques and lower cost, since, in a mass of porcelain tile, the amount of flux is very large (representing approximately 50% of total raw materials used. The nepheline syenite was the natural raw material selected to replace the feldspar due to the fact that it belongs to the family of feldspathoids, and has similar physicochemical characteristics, therefore, a high fluxing efficiency. To replace the clay fraction was chosen a mudstone naturally occurring, abundant in the region of Santa Gertrudes, SP. Substitutions to the feldspar and clay fraction were completely and/or partially by means of combinations between the flux and mudstones. The masses were processed from the mixing of powders, wet milling, drying, disagglomeration, compaction and firing. In addition to the vitrification curves, techniques such as dilatometry, measurements of porosity, flexure strength test, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the material after firing at various temperatures. The results showed that, in principle, it is possible the combination of raw materials such as nepheline and mudstone to replace potassium feldspar and S. Simão clay, as they provide the vitrification at lower temperatures. Compositions with both materials showed

  18. Body composition measures of obese adolescents by the deuterium oxide dilution method and by bioelectrical impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, C M M; Camelo Júnior, J S; Vieira, M N C M; Ferriolli, E; Pfrimer, K; Perdoná, G S C; Monteiro, J P

    2011-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to describe and compare the body composition variables determined by bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and the deuterium dilution method (DDM), to identify possible correlations and agreement between the two methods, and to construct a linear regression model including anthropometric measures. Obese adolescents were evaluated by anthropometric measures, and body composition was assessed by BIA and DDM. Forty obese adolescents were included in the study. Comparison of the mean values for the following variables: fat body mass (FM; kg), fat-free mass (FFM; kg), and total body water (TBW; %) determined by DDM and by BIA revealed significant differences. BIA overestimated FFM and TBW and underestimated FM. When compared with data provided by DDM, the BIA data presented a significant correlation with FFM (r = 0.89; P obese adolescents determined by DDM can be predicted by using the measures provided by BIA through a regression equation.

  19. Martian Chronology and Atmospheric Composition: In Situ Measurements versus Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, Donald D.

    2008-01-01

    I examine two significant issues of martian science from the point of view of in situ measurements by robotic spacecraft versus sample return and analysis in terrestrial labs. (1) To define martian history, ages of geological processes and surface features are required. Estimated ages from surface crater densities have limitations, and the ages measured for martian meteorites cannot be associated with specific martian locales. Whereas returned martian rocks could be accurately dated, some have suggested sending a robotic spacecraft to Mars to measure rock ages using the classical K- Ar-40 technique, considered the easiest to implement. (2) To understand the evolution of the martian atmosphere and its interactions with the surface, requires precise measurements of atmospheric composition. A significant amount of information has derived from measurements by Viking and of martian meteorites. Instrumentation on the Mars Science Lander (MSL) spacecraft to be launched in the near future promises to determine atmospheric composition even more precisely. If MSL is successful, which questions about atmospheric composition will remain and thus will require atmospheric sample return to answer?

  20. Multi Parameter Flow Meter for On-Line Measurement of Gas Mixture Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egbert van der Wouden

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the development of a system and model to analyze the composition of gas mixtures up to four components. The system consists of a Coriolis mass flow sensor, density, pressure and thermal flow sensor. With this system it is possible to measure the viscosity, density, heat capacity and flow rate of the medium. In a next step the composition can be analyzed if the constituents of the mixture are known. This makes the approach universally applicable to all gasses as long as the number of components does not exceed the number of measured properties and as long as the properties are measured with a sufficient accuracy. We present measurements with binary and ternary gas mixtures, on compositions that range over an order of magnitude in value for the physical properties. Two platforms for analyses are presented. The first platform consists of sensors realized with MEMS fabrication technology. This approach allows for a system with a high level of integration. With this system we demonstrate a proof of principle for the analyses of binary mixtures with an accuracy of 10%. In the second platform we utilize more mature steel sensor technology to demonstrate the potential of this approach. We show that with this technique, binary mixtures can be measured within 1% and ternary gas mixtures within 3%.

  1. Influence study of the barite mortar composition on shielding thickness for diagnostic radiology energies;Estudo da influencia da composicao da argamassa baritada na espessura da blindagem para energias do radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Wedla P. de; Hoff, Gabriela [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC/RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    The photons transmission is one of the used parameters for calculate the shielding material thickness. Using the computational simulation method purposed in this work was generated transmission curves for different energies for monoenergetic beams, on diagnostic radiology range, for values between 60 and 150 keV, in steps of 10 keV, to verify this way the sensitivity of the beam radiation to the differences on barite mortar composition. The computational universe generated simulated a primary beam radiation irradiating directly the shielding wall, and the barite composition was defined base on an sample analyzed using the energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) measurements in a Philips XL 30 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The composition was analyzed for different sample areas, four different compositions for the same sample: one on open field view and three using focused field view. Was possible verify significant differences on transmission curves for the different studied energies and different compositions of barite mortar. We suggest futures works to study realistic spectra for different barite mortar compositions commercialized in Brazil. (author)

  2. Spinal muscular atrophy functional composite score: A functional measure in spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Jacqueline; Glanzman, Allan M; Mazzone, Elena S; Martens, William B; Dunaway, Sally; Pasternak, Amy; Riley, Susan O; Quigley, Janet; Pandya, Shree; De Vivo, Darryl C; Kaufmann, Petra; Chiriboga, Claudia A; Finkel, Richard S; Tennekoon, Gihan I; Darras, Basil T; Pane, Marika; Mercuri, Eugenio; Mcdermott, Michael P

    2015-12-01

    With clinical trials underway, our objective was to construct a composite score of global function that could discriminate among people with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Data were collected from 126 participants with SMA types 2 and 3. Scores from the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale-Expanded and Upper Limb Module were expressed as a percentage of the maximum score and 6-minute walk test as percent of predicted normal distance. A principal component analysis was performed on the correlation matrix for the 3 percentage scores. The first principal component yielded a composite score with approximately equal weighting of the 3 components and accounted for 82% of the total variability. The SMA functional composite score, an unweighted average of the 3 individual percentage scores, correlated almost perfectly with the first principal component. This combination of measures broadens the spectrum of ability that can be quantified in type 2 and 3 SMA patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Application of neutron diffraction to measure residual strains in high temperature composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saigal, A.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental neutron diffraction technique was used to measure residual thermal strains developed in high temperature composites during postfabrication cooling. Silicon carbide fiber-reinforced titanium aluminide (over the temperature range 20--950 degree C) and tungsten and saphikon fiber-reinforced nickel aluminide composites (at room temperature) were investigated. As a result of thermal expansion mismatch, compressive residual strains and stresses were generated in the silicon carbide fibers during cooldown. The axial residual strains were tensile in the matrix and were lower in nickel aluminide matrix as compared to those in titanium aluminide matrix. The average transverse residual strains in the matrix were compressive. Liquid-nitrogen dipping and thermal-cycling tend to reduce the fabrication-induced residual strains in silicon carbide fiber-reinforced titanium aluminide matrix composite. However, matrix cracking can occur as a result of these processes. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Neutron diffraction measurements and modeling of residual strains in metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigal, A.; Leisk, G. G.; Hubbard, C. R.; Misture, S. T.; Wang, X. L.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements at room temperature are used to characterize the residual strains in tungsten fiber-reinforced copper matrix, tungsten fiber-reinforced Kanthal matrix, and diamond particulate-reinforced copper matrix composites. Results of finite element modeling are compared with the neutron diffraction data. In tungsten/Kanthal composites, the fibers are in compression, the matrix is in tension, and the thermal residual strains are a strong function of the volume fraction of fibers. In copper matrix composites, the matrix is in tension and the stresses are independent of the volume fraction of tungsten fibers or diamond particles and the assumed stress free temperature because of the low yield strength of the matrix phase.

  5. Measuring Gas Composition and Pressure Within Sealed Containers Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veirs, D.K.; Heiple, C.R.; Rosenblatt, G.M.; Baiardo, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Interim and long-term storage of carefully prepared plutonium material within hermetically sealed containers may generate dangerous gas pressures and compositions. The authors have been investigating the application of acoustic resonance spectroscopy to non-intrusively monitor changes in these parameters within sealed containers. In this approach a drum-like gas cavity is formed within the storage container which is excited using a piezoelectric transducer mounted on the outside of the container. The frequency response spectrum contains a series of peaks whose positions and widths are determined by the composition of the gas and the geometry of the cylindrical resonator; the intensities are related to the gas pressure. Comparing observed gas frequencies with theory gives excellent agreement. Small changes in gas composition, better than 1:1000, are readily measurable

  6. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound/video files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample, or the visuals will not appear at all....... Please DOWNLOAD them to see/hear them in full length! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performance instructions as well as specially designated recordings, as long as the author is mentioned. Please see http...

  7. Dentin-composite bond strength measurement using the Brazilian disk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Carola A; Chen, Yung-Chung; Li, Yuping; Rudney, Joel; Aparicio, Conrado; Fok, Alex

    2016-09-01

    This study presents a variant of the Brazilian disk test (BDT) for assessing the bond strength between composite resins and dentin. Dentin-composite disks (ϕ 5mm×2mm) were prepared using either Z100 or Z250 (3M ESPE) in combination with one of three adhesives, Adper Easy Bond (EB), Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (MP) and Adper Single Bond (SB), and tested under diametral compression. Acoustic emission (AE) and digital image correlation (DIC) were used to monitor debonding of the composite from the dentin ring. A finite element (FE) model was created to calculate the bond strengths using the failure loads. Fracture modes were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Most specimens fractured along the dentin-resin composite interface. DIC and AE confirmed interfacial debonding immediately before fracture of the dentin ring. Results showed that the mean bond strength with EB (14.9±1.9MPa) was significantly higher than with MP (13.2±2.4MPa) or SB (12.9±3.0MPa) (p0.05). Z100 (14.5±2.3MPa) showed higher bond strength than Z250 (12.7±2.5MPa) (pstrength between dentin and composite, with zero premature failure, reduced variability in the measurements, and consistent failure at the dentin-composite interface. The new test could help to predict the clinical performance of adhesive systems more effectively and consistently by reducing the coefficient of variation in the measured bond strength. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrophobicity, surface tension, and zeta potential measurements of glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M A; Monteiro, F J; Santos, J D; Serro, A P; Saramago, B

    1999-06-15

    Wettability and zeta potential studies were performed to characterize the hydrophobicity, surface tension, and surface charge of P2O5-glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite composites. Quantitative phase analysis was performed by the Rietveld method using GSAS software applied to X-ray diffractograms. Surface charge was assessed by zeta potential measurements. Protein adsorption studies were performed using vitronectin. Contact angles and surface tensions variation with time were determined by the sessile and pendent drop techniques, respectively, using ADSA-P software. The highest (-18.1 mV) and lowest (-28.7 mV) values of zeta potential were found for hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), respectively, with composite materials presenting values in between. All studied bioceramic materials showed similar solid surface tension. For HA and beta-TCP, solid surface tensions of 46.7 and 45.3 mJ/m2, respectively, were obtained, while composites presented intermediate surface tension values. The dispersive component of surface tension was the predominant one for all materials studied. Adhesion work values between the vitronectin solution and HA and beta-TCP were found to be 79.8 and 88.0 mJ/m2, respectively, while the 4.0 wt % glass composites showed slightly lower values than the 2.5 wt % ones. The presence of beta-TCP influenced surface charge, hydrophobicity, and protein adsorption of the glass-reinforced HA composites, and therefore indirectly affected cell-biomaterial interactions.

  9. Design of pilot studies to inform the construction of composite outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edland, Steven D; Ard, M Colin; Li, Weiwei; Jiang, Lingjing

    2017-06-01

    Composite scales have recently been proposed as outcome measures for clinical trials. For example, the Prodromal Alzheimer's Cognitive Composite (PACC) is the sum of z-score normed component measures assessing episodic memory, timed executive function, and global cognition. Alternative methods of calculating composite total scores using the weighted sum of the component measures that maximize signal-to-noise of the resulting composite score have been proposed. Optimal weights can be estimated from pilot data, but it is an open question how large a pilot trial is required to calculate reliably optimal weights. In this manuscript, we describe the calculation of optimal weights, and use large-scale computer simulations to investigate the question of how large a pilot study sample is required to inform the calculation of optimal weights. The simulations are informed by the pattern of decline observed in cognitively normal subjects enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study (ADCS) Prevention Instrument cohort study, restricting to n=75 subjects age 75 and over with an ApoE E4 risk allele and therefore likely to have an underlying Alzheimer neurodegenerative process. In the context of secondary prevention trials in Alzheimer's disease, and using the components of the PACC, we found that pilot studies as small as 100 are sufficient to meaningfully inform weighting parameters. Regardless of the pilot study sample size used to inform weights, the optimally weighted PACC consistently outperformed the standard PACC in terms of statistical power to detect treatment effects in a clinical trial. Pilot studies of size 300 produced weights that achieved near-optimal statistical power, and reduced required sample size relative to the standard PACC by more than half. These simulations suggest that modestly sized pilot studies, comparable to that of a phase 2 clinical trial, are sufficient to inform the construction of composite outcome measures. Although these findings

  10. Impact of eating and drinking on body composition measurements by bioelectrical impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsos, O; Gerasimidis, K; Karanikolou, A; Reilly, J J; Edwards, C A

    2015-04-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis would be a more practical tool to measure body composition in clinical settings, dietetic practice and epidemiological studies if patients/subjects did not have to fast before measurements. The present study assessed whether the ingestion of food or drink had any biologically significant effect on bioimpedance measurements and body composition by the foot-to-foot method. Fifty-five healthy adults [30 males and 25 females; mean (SD) age 27.7 (7.1) years; mean (SD)body mass index 24 (3.8) kg m(-2)] were randomly assigned to a 2-day food trial (high-fat meal or high-carbohydrate meal) or a 2-day drink trial (water or high electrolyte drink). Body composition measurements were carried out in the fasting state, immediately after meal consumption and every 30 min for 2 h by the foot-to-foot single frequency bioimpedance technique. Bioimpedance increased significantly after the ingestion of food and fluid, although the changes were small. The electrolyte drink, high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals significantly increased the percentage body fat and fat mass. In all cases, the median percentage changes from baseline were approximately 1% in body fat percentage units. Although there were statistically significant changes in body composition estimates after food or drink consumption, these were small and within the imprecision of the impedance technique, and so are unlikely to be of clinical significance. The present study suggests that impedance measures of body fatness in clinical settings do not require strict adherence to fasting, and this should increase the opportunities for clinical application. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Measurement of linear polymerization shrinkage in light cure Ideal Makoo composite resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavam M.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available "nAbstract: Polymerization shrinkage of light cure composite resins causes many complications in conservative and esthetic restorations. The objective of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the polymerization shrinkage, degree of conversion and the amount of filler in IDM and tetric ceram composites. Ten disk shaped, uncured specimens (8mm×1.547mm of each composite were placed on glass slide in the center of the metal attached to it. Then specimens were light cured for 60s from underneath. After 30 minutes, the thickness of specimens, using a micrometer and the percent of the polymerization shrinkage of each sample were measured. Statistical analysis was carried out by t-test (P<0.05. Also the degree of conversion of specimens was evaluated with FTIR and the mineral filler content was measured by burning in electric oven. Polymerization shrinkage in IDM and tetric ceram was not significantly different. Degree of conversion and mineral filler content in tetric ceram was greater than that of IDM. "nIt is assumed that the low degree of conversion in IDM is due to its chemical composition and filler content. Also, the similarity in linear polymerization shrinkage between IDM and tetric ceram may be caused by the low degree of conversion in IDM.

  12. Direct spectrometry: a new alternative for measuring the fluorescence of composite resins and dental tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Tm; de Oliveira, Hpm; Severino, D; Balducci, I; Huhtala, Mfrl; Gonçalves, Sep

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluorescence intensity of different composite resins and compare those values with the fluorescence intensity of dental tissues. Different composite resins were used to make 10 discs (2 mm in depth and 4 mm in diameter) of each brand, divided into groups: 1) Z (Filtek Z350, 3M ESPE), 2) ES (Esthet-X, Dentsply), 3) A (Amelogen Plus, Ultradent), 4) DVS (Durafill-VS, Heraeus Kulzer) with 2 mm composite resin for enamel (A2), 5) OES ([Esthet-X] opaque-OA [1 mm] + enamel-A2 [1 mm]); 6) ODVSI ([Charisma-Opal/Durafill-VSI], opaque-OM (1 mm) + translucent [1mm]), and 7) DVSI ([Durafill- VSI] translucent [2 mm]). Dental tissue specimens were obtained from human anterior teeth cut in a mesiodistal direction to obtain enamel, dentin, and enamel/dentin samples (2 mm). The fluorescence intensity of specimens was directly measured using an optic fiber associated with a spectrometer (Ocean Optics USB 4000) and recorded in graphic form (Origin 8.0 program). Data were submitted to statistical analysis using Dunnet, Tukey, and Kruskall-Wallis tests. Light absorption of the composite resins was obtained in a spectral range from 250 to 450 nm, and that of dental tissues was between 250 and 300 nm. All composite resins were excited at 398 nm and exhibited maximum emissions of around 485 nm. Fluorescence intensity values for all of the resins showed statistically significant differences (measured in arbitrary units [AUs]), with the exception of groups Z and DVS. Group DVSI had the highest fluorescence intensity values (13539 AU), followed by ODVS (10440 AU), DVS (10146 AU), ES (3946 AU), OES (3841 AU), A (3540 AU), and Z (1146 AU). The fluorescence intensity values for the composite resins differed statistically from those of dental tissues (E=1380 AU; D=6262 AU; E/D=3251 AU). The opacity interfered with fluorescence intensity, and group Z demonstrated fluorescence intensity values closest to that of tooth enamel. It is concluded that the

  13. Technical note: Relating functional group measurements to carbon types for improved model-measurement comparisons of organic aerosol composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, Satoshi; Ruggeri, Giulia

    2017-04-01

    Functional group (FG) analysis provides a means by which functionalization in organic aerosol can be attributed to the abundances of its underlying molecular structures. However, performing this attribution requires additional, unobserved details about the molecular mixture to provide constraints in the estimation process. We present an approach for conceptualizing FG measurements of organic aerosol in terms of its functionalized carbon atoms. This reformulation facilitates estimation of mass recovery and biases in popular carbon-centric metrics that describe the extent of functionalization (such as oxygen to carbon ratio, organic mass to organic carbon mass ratio, and mean carbon oxidation state) for any given set of molecules and FGs analyzed. Furthermore, this approach allows development of parameterizations to more precisely estimate the organic carbon content from measured FG abundance. We use simulated photooxidation products of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol previously reported by Ruggeri et al. (2016) and FG measurements by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in chamber experiments by Sax et al. (2005) to infer the relationships among molecular composition, FG composition, and metrics of organic aerosol functionalization. We find that for this simulated system, ˜ 80 % of the carbon atoms should be detected by FGs for which calibration models are commonly developed, and ˜ 7 % of the carbon atoms are undetectable by FT-IR analysis because they are not associated with vibrational modes in the infrared. Estimated biases due to undetected carbon fraction for these simulations are used to make adjustments in these carbon-centric metrics such that model-measurement differences are framed in terms of unmeasured heteroatoms (e.g., in hydroperoxide and nitrate groups for the case studied in this demonstration). The formality of this method provides framework for extending FG analysis to not only model-measurement but also instrument

  14. Impact Strength of Natural Fibre Composites Measured by Different Test Methods: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaranjan Namasivayam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of impact test methods have been used in recent years to measure the impact resistance of natural fibre composites (NFCs. After reviewing the literature, the impact resistance of flax, hemp, sisal, wood and jute fibre composites that were measured using different test methods have been compared and discussed. It has been learned that the test methods were selected for research interest, industry requirement or availability of test equipment. Each method had its own advantages and limitations. The result from a particular test could be compared but not with the result from other test methods. Most impact test methods were developed for testing ductile-brittle transition of metals. However, each NFC has a different morphology and cannot be comparable to metals in failure mode and energy absorption characteristic during an impact test. A post evaluation of morphology of an NFC sample after an impact test is important to characterise the material.

  15. Body composition and bone mineral density measurements by using a multi-energy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, L.

    2003-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a major technique to evaluate bone mineral density, thus allowing diagnosis of bone decalcification ( osteoporosis). Recently, this method has proved useful to quantify body composition (fat ratio). However, these measurements suffer from artefacts which can lead to diagnosis errors in a number of cases. This work has aimed to improve both the reproducibility and the accuracy of bone mineral density and body composition measurements. To this avail, the acquisition conditions were optimised in order to ameliorate the results reproducibility and we have proposed a new method to correct inaccuracies in the determination of bone mineral density. Experimental validations yield encouraging results on both synthetic phantoms and biological samples. (author)

  16. A composite peripheral blood gene expression measure as a potential diagnostic biomarker in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Peijs, L; Vinberg, M

    2015-01-01

    as a diagnostic and state biomarker in bipolar disorder. First, messenger RNA levels of 19 candidate genes were assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients in different affective states (depression, mania and euthymia) during a 6-12-month period and in 40 age......- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Second, a composite gene expression measure was constructed in the first half study sample and independently validated in the second half of the sample. We found downregulation of POLG and OGG1 expression in bipolar disorder patients compared with healthy control...... subjects. In patients with bipolar disorder, upregulation of NDUFV2 was observed in a depressed state compared with a euthymic state. The composite gene expression measure for discrimination between patients and healthy control subjects on the basis of 19 genes generated an area under the receiver...

  17. Aerosol Composition and Variability in Baltimore Measured during DISCOVER-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Ziemba, L. D.; Chen, G.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Diskin, G. S.; Chatfield, R. B.; Natraj, V.; Anderson, B. E.

    2012-12-01

    In order to relate satellite-based measurements of aerosols to ground-level air quality, the correlation between aerosol optical properties (wavelength-dependent scattering and absorption measured by satellites) and mass measurements of aerosol loading (i.e. PM2.5 used for air quality monitoring) must be understood. This connection varies with many factors including those specific to the aerosol type (such as composition, size, hygroscopicity, and mass scattering and absorption efficiencies) and to the surrounding atmosphere (such as temperature, relative humidity and altitude). The DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from COlumn and VERtically resolved observations relevant to Air Quality) project was designed to provide a unique dataset for determining variability in and correlations between aerosol loading, composition, optical properties and meteorological conditions. Extensive in-situ profiling of the lower atmosphere in the Baltimore-Washington D.C. region was performed during fourteen flights during July 2011. Identical flight plans and profile locations throughout the campaign provide meaningful statistics for analysis. Measured aerosol mass was composed primarily of ammonium sulfate (campaign average of 36%) and water-soluble organics (58%). A distinct difference in composition was related to aerosol loading with high-loading days having a proportionally larger percentage of ammonium sulfate (up to 60%). This composition shift causes a change in the water-uptake potential (hygroscopicity) of the aerosols with higher relative organic composition decreasing water-uptake. On average, sulfate mass increased during the day due to increased photochemistry, while organics decreased. Analysis of the linkage between aerosol loading and optical properties was also performed. The absorption by black carbon was dependent on the amount of organic coating with an increase in mass absorption efficiency from 7.5 m2/g for bare soot to 16 m2/g at an

  18. Composition measurement of bicomponent droplets using laser-induced fluorescence of acetone

    OpenAIRE

    Maqua , C.; Depredurand , V.; Castanet , G.; Wolff , M.; Lemoine , F.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Commercial fuels are complex mixtures, the evaporation of which remains particularly difficult to model. Experimental characterization of the differential vaporization of the components is a problem that is seldom addressed. In this paper, the evaporation of binary droplets made of ethyl-alcohol and acetone is investigated using a technique of measurement of the droplet composition developed in purpose. This technique exploits the laser induced fluorescence of acetone ...

  19. Measuring and distinguishing compositional and maturity properties of lunar soils by remote VIS-NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Erich M.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1993-01-01

    Space weathering on the lunar surface affects the spectra/optical character of an exposed lunar soil in three ways: the reflectance is reduced, absorption band depths are reduced, and a red-sloped continuum is created and increased with exposure. As a result, the spectrum of a lunar soil is dependent upon both the degree of exposure at the lunar surface and the original composition. It is critical to the remote analysis of lunar soils to differentiate between the optical effects of maturity and the effects of composition. In the laboratory, it is possible to determine and consequently distinguish the degree of exposure, or soil maturity, as measured by parameters such as I(sub s)/FeO (e.g., 1; mature defined as I(sub s)/FeO greater than or equal to 60), and the composition, as measured by various chemical and petrographical techniques. Lunar soils returned by the Apollo missions provide important ground truth for developing methods for remotely measuring the maturity and the concentration of Fe-bearing minerals in lunar soil. The ground truth spectral data analyzed are from the John Adams lunar soil spectra collection. Soils collected from or near highland terrains are emphasized in the discussion. The mineralogical makeup of mare soils results in behavior somewhat different from highland soils.

  20. Measurement of pH, exudate composition and temperature in wound healing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, G; Moore, Z; O'Connor, T

    2017-07-02

    To assess the potential of measurements of pH, exudate composition and temperature in wounds to predict healing outcomes and to identify the methods that are employed to measure them. A systematic review based on the outcomes of a search strategy of quantitative primary research published in the English language was conducted. Inclusion criteria limited studies to those involving in vivo and human participants with an existing or intentionally provoked wound, defined as 'a break in the epithelial integrity of the skin', and excluded in vitro and animal studies. Data synthesis and analysis was performed using structured narrative summaries of each included study arranged by concept, pH, exudate composition and temperature. The Evidence Based Literature (EBL) Critical Appraisal Checklist was implemented to appraise the quality of the included studies. A total of 23 studies, three for pH (mean quality score 54.48%), 12 for exudate composition (mean quality score 46.54%) and eight for temperature (mean quality score 36.66%), were assessed as eligible for inclusion in this review. Findings suggest that reduced pH levels in wounds, from alkaline towards acidic, are associated with improvements in wound condition. Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), neutrophil elastase (NE) and albumin, in descending order, were the most frequently measured analytes in wounds. MMP-9 emerged as the analyte which offers the most potential as a biomarker of wound healing, with elevated levels observed in acute or non-healing wounds and decreasing levels in wounds progressing in healing. Combined measures of different exudate components, such as MMP/TIMP ratios, also appeared to offer substantial potential to indicate wound healing. Finally, temperature measurements are highest in non-healing, worsening or acute wounds and decrease as wounds progress towards healing. Methods used to measure pH, exudate composition and

  1. Bioelectrical impedance as a measure of change in body composition in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith-Jones, K A; Williams, S M; Taylor, R W

    2015-08-01

    The ability of bioelectrical impedance (BIA) to measure change in body composition in children has rarely been examined. Body composition was estimated by BIA (Tanita BC-418) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 187 children aged 4-8 years at baseline and at 12 months. Change in body composition was compared between the two methods using mixed models. Estimates of change in fat mass did not differ between BIA and DXA for overweight girls (mean difference between methods, 95% confidence interval: 0.04 kg, -0.19 to 0.28) or boys (0.07 kg, -0.14 to 0.27). BIA was also able to accurately detect change in fat-free mass, with no significant differences between methods (-0.14 kg, -0.10 to 0.38 in girls and -0.07 kg, -0.35 to -0.20 in boys). Change in percentage fat produced similar estimates in both genders (0.18%, -0.82 to 0.46 in girls and 0.38%, -0.37 to 1.13 in boys). BIA/DXA comparisons in normal weight children were also not significantly different, with the exception of percentage fat in girls, where BIA slightly underestimated change compared with DXA (0.7%, 0.02-0.37). BIA performed well as a measure of change in body composition, providing confidence for its use as an outcome measure in children. © 2014 World Obesity.

  2. Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communication: Journalism Education Today, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Considers how photography is more than just pointing a camera in the right direction. Explains that good pictures use elements of composition such as the Rule of Thirds, leading lines, framing and repetition of shapes. Presents 16 photographs from college and secondary school publications, and describes the techniques that makes them effective.…

  3. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa and the Other Galilean Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, Edward; Cooper, John; Hartle, Richard; Lipatov, Alexander; Mahaffy, Paul; Paterson, William; Pachalidis, Nick; Coplan, Mike; Cassidy, Tim

    2010-01-01

    NASA and ESA are planning the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) to the Jupiter system with specific emphasis to Europa and Ganymede, respectively. The Japanese Space Agency is also planning an orbiter mission to explore Jupiter's magnetosphere and the Galilean satellites. For NASA's Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) we are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) with two main goals which can also be applied to the other Galilean moons, 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter's magnetosphere and 2) infer the 4 pi surface composition to trace elemental and significant isotopic levels. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, and between the moon surfaces and subsurface layers putatively including oceans. The measurement of the interactions for all the Galilean moons can be used to trace the in situ ion measurements of pickup ions back to either Europa's or Ganymede's surface from the respectively orbiting spacecraft. The IMS instrument, being developed under NASA's Astrobiology Instrument Development Program, would maximally achieve plasma measurement requirements for JEO and EJSM while moving forward our knowledge of Jupiter system composition and source processes to far higher levels than previously envisaged. The composition of the global surfaces of Europa and Ganymede can be inferred from the measurement of ejected neutrals and pick-up ions using at minimum an in situ payload including MAG and IMS also fully capable of meeting Level 1 mission requirements for ocean detection and survey. Elemental and isotopic analysis of potentially extruded oceanic materials at the moon surfaces would further support the ocean objectives. These measurements should be made from a polar orbiting spacecraft about Europa or Ganymede at height 100 km. The ejecta produced by

  4. Composition-independent mean temperature measurements in laminar diffusion flames using spectral lineshape information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenak, D.; Narayanaswamy, V.

    2017-10-01

    Temperature is an important thermochemical property in combusting flows that holds the key to uncovering pollutant formation, flame extinction, and heat release. In a practical combustion environment, the local composition is typically unknown, which hinders the effectiveness of many traditional non-intrusive thermometry techniques. This study aims to offset this limitation by developing a laser-based thermometry technique that does not require prior knowledge of the local composition. Two methods for obtaining temperature are demonstrated in this work, both of which make use of the spectral line broadening of an absorbing species (krypton) seeded into the flow. In the first method, the local Doppler broadening is extracted from an excitation scan to yield the corresponding temperature, while the second method utilizes compositional scaling information of the collisional broadening and collisional shift to determine the temperature. Both methods are demonstrated by measuring the radial temperature profile of a steady laminar CH4/N2 diffusion flame with an air co-flow. The accuracy of the temperature measurements obtained using both methods are evaluated using corresponding temperature profiles determined from computational simulations.

  5. Single particle measurements of the chemical composition of cirrus ice residue during CRYSTAL-FACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cziczo, D. J.; Murphy, D. M.; Hudson, P. K.; Thomson, D. S.

    2004-02-01

    The first real-time, in situ, investigation of the chemical composition of the residue of cirrus ice crystals was performed during July 2002. This study was undertaken on a NASA WB-57F high-altitude research aircraft as part of CRYSTAL-FACE, a field campaign which sought to further our understanding of the relation of clouds, water vapor, and climate by characterizing, among other parameters, anvil cirrus formed about the Florida peninsula. A counter flow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to separate cirrus ice from the unactivated interstitial aerosol particles and evaporate condensed-phase water. Residual material, on a crystal-by-crystal basis, was subsequently analyzed using the NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory's Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument. Sampling was performed from 5 to 15 km altitude and from 12° to 28° north latitude within cirrus originating over land and ocean. Chemical composition measurements provided several important results. Sea salt was often incorporated into cirrus, consistent with homogeneous ice formation by aerosol particles from the marine boundary layer. Size measurements showed that large particles preferentially froze over smaller ones. Meteoritic material was found within ice crystals, indicative of a relation between stratospheric aerosol particles and tropospheric clouds. Mineral dust was the dominant residue observed in clouds formed during a dust transport event from the Sahara, consistent with a heterogeneous freezing mechanism. These results show that chemical composition and size are important determinants of which aerosol particles form cirrus ice crystals.

  6. Shrinkage of dental composite in simulated cavity measured with digital image correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianying; Thakur, Preetanjali; Fok, Alex S L

    2014-07-21

    Polymerization shrinkage of dental resin composites can lead to restoration debonding or cracked tooth tissues in composite-restored teeth. In order to understand where and how shrinkage strain and stress develop in such restored teeth, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was used to provide a comprehensive view of the displacement and strain distributions within model restorations that had undergone polymerization shrinkage. Specimens with model cavities were made of cylindrical glass rods with both diameter and length being 10 mm. The dimensions of the mesial-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavity prepared in each specimen measured 3 mm and 2 mm in width and depth, respectively. After filling the cavity with resin composite, the surface under observation was sprayed with first a thin layer of white paint and then fine black charcoal powder to create high-contrast speckles. Pictures of that surface were then taken before curing and 5 min after. Finally, the two pictures were correlated using DIC software to calculate the displacement and strain distributions. The resin composite shrunk vertically towards the bottom of the cavity, with the top center portion of the restoration having the largest downward displacement. At the same time, it shrunk horizontally towards its vertical midline. Shrinkage of the composite stretched the material in the vicinity of the "tooth-restoration" interface, resulting in cuspal deflections and high tensile strains around the restoration. Material close to the cavity walls or floor had direct strains mostly in the directions perpendicular to the interfaces. Summation of the two direct strain components showed a relatively uniform distribution around the restoration and its magnitude equaled approximately to the volumetric shrinkage strain of the material.

  7. Field-Dependent Measurement of GaAs Composition by Atom Probe Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Russo, Enrico; Blum, Ivan; Houard, Jonathan; Da Costa, Gérald; Blavette, Didier; Rigutti, Lorenzo

    2017-12-01

    The composition of GaAs measured by laser-assisted atom probe tomography may be inaccurate depending on the experimental conditions. In this work, we assess the role of the DC field and the impinging laser energy on such compositional bias. The DC field is found to have a major influence, while the laser energy has a weaker one within the range of parameters explored. The atomic fraction of Ga may vary from 0.55 at low-field conditions to 0.35 at high field. These results have been interpreted in terms of preferential evaporation of Ga at high field. The deficit of As is most likely explained by the formation of neutral As complexes either by direct ejection from the tip surface or upon the dissociation of large clusters. The study of multiple detection events supports this interpretation.

  8. Study of Wood Plastic Composites elastic behaviour using full field measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciaa A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the mechanical properties and microstructure of HDPE/wood fibre composites are investigated. The four-point bending and tensile behaviour of Wood Plastic Composite (WPC with or without additive are studied by using full-field strain measurements by 3-D Digital Image Correlation (3-D DIC. A non-linear behaviour is shown. The modulus of elasticity (MOE is calculated as the tangent at zero strain of a Maxwell-Bingham model fitted onto experimental data. Four-point bending tests are analyzed thanks to the spatial standard deviation of the longitudinal strain field to determine the degree of heterogeneity. Cyclic tensile tests have been performed in order to analyze the damage of the material. Moreover, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM is used to characterize the morphology of the wood fibre/HDPE matrix interface for specimens with maleic anhydride modified polyethylene additive (MAPE.

  9. Study of Wood Plastic Composites elastic behaviour using full field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mbarek, T.; Robert, L.; Hugot, F.; Orteu, J. J.; Sammouda, H.; Graciaa, A.; Charrier, B.

    2010-06-01

    In this study, the mechanical properties and microstructure of HDPE/wood fibre composites are investigated. The four-point bending and tensile behaviour of Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) with or without additive are studied by using full-field strain measurements by 3-D Digital Image Correlation (3-D DIC). A non-linear behaviour is shown. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) is calculated as the tangent at zero strain of a Maxwell-Bingham model fitted onto experimental data. Four-point bending tests are analyzed thanks to the spatial standard deviation of the longitudinal strain field to determine the degree of heterogeneity. Cyclic tensile tests have been performed in order to analyze the damage of the material. Moreover, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is used to characterize the morphology of the wood fibre/HDPE matrix interface for specimens with maleic anhydride modified polyethylene additive (MAPE).

  10. Combined fit of spectrum and composition data as measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, A. [Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP), Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Abreu, P.; Andringa, S. [Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas—LIP and Instituto Superior Técnico—IST, Universidade de Lisboa—UL (Portugal); Aglietta, M. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino (INAF), Torino (Italy); Samarai, I. Al [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et de Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Universités Paris 6 et Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3 (France); Albuquerque, I.F.M. [Universidade de São Paulo, Inst. de Física, São Paulo (Brazil); Allekotte, I. [Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET) (Argentina); Almela, A.; Andrada, B. [Instituto de Tecnologías en Detección y Astropartículas (CNEA, CONICET, UNSAM), Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Castillo, J. Alvarez [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Alvarez-Muñiz, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Anastasi, G.A. [Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); Anchordoqui, L., E-mail: auger_spokespersons@fnal.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York (United States); and others

    2017-04-01

    We present a combined fit of a simple astrophysical model of UHECR sources to both the energy spectrum and mass composition data measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The fit has been performed for energies above 5 ⋅ 10{sup 18} eV, i.e. the region of the all-particle spectrum above the so-called 'ankle' feature. The astrophysical model we adopted consists of identical sources uniformly distributed in a comoving volume, where nuclei are accelerated through a rigidity-dependent mechanism. The fit results suggest sources characterized by relatively low maximum injection energies, hard spectra and heavy chemical composition. We also show that uncertainties about physical quantities relevant to UHECR propagation and shower development have a non-negligible impact on the fit results.

  11. The Effects of Fiber Surface Modification and Thermal Aging on Composite Toughness and Its Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Madhukar, Madhu; Papadopolous, Demetrios S.; Inghram, Linda; Mccorkle, Linda

    1995-01-01

    A detailed experimental study was conducted to establish the structure-property relationships between elevated temperature aging and fiber-matrix bonding, Mode 2 interlaminar fracture toughness, and failure modes of carbon fiber/PMR-15 composites. The fiber-matrix adhesion was varied by using carbon fibers with different surface treatments. Short beam shear tests were used to quantify the interfacial shear strength afforded by the use of the different fiber surface treatments. The results of the short beam shear tests showed that, for times up to 1000 hr, the aging process caused no changes in the bulk of the three composite materials that would degrade the shear properties of the material. Comparisons between the interlaminar shear strengths (ILSS) measured by the short beam shear tests and the GIIC test results, as measured by the ENF test, indicated that the differences in the surface treatments significantly affected the fracture properties while the effect of the aging process was probably limited to changes at the starter crack tip. The fracture properties changed due to a shift in the fracture from an interfacial failure to a failure within the matrix when the fiber was changed from AU-4 to AS-4 or AS-4G. There appears to be an effect of the fiber/matrix bonding on the thermo-oxidative stability of the composites that were tested. The low bonding afforded by the AU 1 fiber resulted in weight losses about twice those experienced by the AS 1 reinforced composites, the ones with the best TOS.

  12. First Measurements of Osmium Concentration and Isotopic Composition in a Summit, Greenland Ice Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Sharma, M.; Hawley, R. L.; Courville, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Osmium (Os) is one of the rarer elements in the environment and therefore one of the most difficult to accurately measure, but its isotopically distinctive crustal, mantle-derived, and extra-terrestrial sources make it a valuable geochemical tracer. Recent state-of-the-art analyses of precipitation, river water, and ocean water samples from around the world have revealed elevated concentrations of Os with a characteristically low (unradiogenic) Os isotopic signature (187Os/188Os). This unusual low Os isotopic signal has been interpreted as evidence for widespread Os pollution due to the smelting of Platinum Group Element (PGE) sulfide ores for use in automobile catalytic converters. However, an environmental time series of Os concentrations and isotopic composition spanning the pre-industrial to modern era has not previously been developed to evaluate changes in atmospheric Os sources through time. Here we present the first measurements of Os concentration and isotopic composition (to our knowledge) in a 100 m-long ice core collected from Summit, Greenland, spanning from ca. 1700 to 2010 AD. Due to the extremely low Os concentrations in snow (10-15 g/g), these analyses have only recently become possible with advances in Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) and ultra-clean analytical procedures. Initial results indicate that the 187Os/188Os of Greenland snow was unradiogenic (187Os/188Os = 0.13-0.15) for at least several periods over the past 300 years, including both pre-anthropogenic and modern times. Os concentrations in the Summit ice core are relatively high (11-52 pg/kg) compared to previously measured precipitation in North America, Europe, Asia and Antarctic sea ice (0.35-23 pg/kg). The low (unradiogenic) isotopic composition are consistent with extraterrestrial (cosmic dust and meteorites; 187Os/188Os = 0.13) and possibly volcanic (187Os/188Os = 0.15-0.6) Os sources, although the Os isotopic composition of volcanic emissions is poorly constrained

  13. Dental composite resins: measuring the polymerization shrinkage using optical fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottevaere, H.; Tabak, M.; Chah, K.; Mégret, P.; Thienpont, H.

    2012-04-01

    Polymerization shrinkage of dental composite materials is recognized as one of the main reasons for the development of marginal leakage between a tooth and filling material. As an alternative to conventional measurement methods, we propose optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based sensors to perform real-time strain and shrinkage measurements during the curing process of dental resin cements. We introduce a fully automated set-up to measure the Bragg wavelength shift of the FBG strain sensors and to accurately monitor the linear strain and shrinkage of dental resins during curing. Three different dental resin materials were studied in this work: matrix-filled BisGMA-based resins, glass ionomers and organic modified ceramics.

  14. Dynamic measurement of coal thermal properties and elemental composition of volatile matter during coal pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Stanger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new technique that allows dynamic measurement of thermal properties, expansion and the elemental chemistry of the volatile matter being evolved as coal is pyrolysed is described. The thermal and other properties are measured dynamically as a function of temperature of the coal without the need for equilibration at temperature. In particular, the technique allows for continuous elemental characterisation of tars as they are evolved during pyrolysis and afterwards as a function of boiling point. The technique is demonstrated by measuring the properties of maceral concentrates from a coal. The variation in heats of reaction, thermal conductivity and expansion as a function of maceral composition is described. Combined with the elemental analysis, the results aid in the interpretation of the chemical processes contributing to the physical and thermal behaviour of the coal during pyrolysis. Potential applications in cokemaking studies are discussed.

  15. Optical Flow Cell for Measuring Size, Velocity and Composition of Flowing Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammer-ul Hassan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Here an optical flow cell with two light paths is reported that can accurately quantify the size and velocity of droplets flowing through a microchannel. The flow cell can measure the time taken for droplets to pass between and through two conjoined light paths, and thereby is capable of measuring the velocities (0.2–5.45 mm/s and sizes of droplets (length > 0.8 mm. The composition of the droplet can also be accurately quantified via optical absorption measurements. The device has a small footprint and uses low-powered, low-cost components, which make it ideally suited for use in field-deployable and portable analytical devices.

  16. Vibration measurement on composite material with embedded optical fiber based on phase-OTDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciscangelis, C.; Margulis, W.; Floridia, C.; Rosolem, J. B.; Salgado, F. C.; Nyman, T.; Petersson, M.; Hallander, P.; Hällstrom, S.; Söderquist, I.; Fruett, F.

    2017-04-01

    Distributed sensors based on phase-optical time-domain reflectometry (phase-OTDR) are suitable for aircraft health monitoring due to electromagnetic interference immunity, small dimensions, low weight and flexibility. These features allow the fiber embedment into aircraft structures in a nearly non-intrusive way to measure vibrations along its length. The capability of measuring vibrations on avionics structures is of interest for what concerns the study of material fatigue or the occurrence of undesirable phenomena like flutter. In this work, we employed the phase-OTDR technique to measure vibrations ranging from some dozens of Hz to kHz in two layers of composite material board with embedded polyimide coating 0.24 numerical aperture single-mode optical fiber.

  17. Comparison of different methods to estimate the uncertainty in composition measurement by chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Adriana Alexandra Aparicio; Ayala Blanco, Elizabeth; García Sánchez, Luis Eduardo; García Sánchez, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Natural gas is a mixture that contains hydrocarbons and other compounds, such as CO2 and N2. Natural gas composition is commonly measured by gas chromatography, and this measurement is important for the calculation of some thermodynamic properties that determine its commercial value. The estimation of uncertainty in chromatographic measurement is essential for an adequate presentation of the results and a necessary tool for supporting decision making. Various approaches have been proposed for the uncertainty estimation in chromatographic measurement. The present work is an evaluation of three approaches of uncertainty estimation, where two of them (guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement method and prediction method) were compared with the Monte Carlo method, which has a wider scope of application. The aforementioned methods for uncertainty estimation were applied to gas chromatography assays of three different samples of natural gas. The results indicated that the prediction method and the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement method (in the simple version used) are not adequate to calculate the uncertainty in chromatography measurement, because uncertainty estimations obtained by those approaches are in general lower than those given by the Monte Carlo method. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Composite measures of women's empowerment and their association with maternal mortality in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chiao-Wen; Tavrow, Paula

    2017-11-08

    Maternal mortality has declined significantly since 1990. While better access to emergency obstetrical care is partially responsible, women's empowerment might also be a contributing factor. Gender equality composite measures generally include various dimensions of women's advancement, including educational parity, formal employment, and political participation. In this paper, we compare several composite measures to assess which, if any, are associated with maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) in low-income countries, after controlling for other macro-level and direct determinants. Using data from 44 low-income countries (half in Africa), we assessed the correlation of three composite measures - the Gender Gap Index, the Gender Equity Index (GEI), and the Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) - with MMRs. We also examined two recognized contributors to reduce maternal mortality (skilled birth attendance (SBA) and total fertility rate (TFR)) as well as several economic and political variables (such as the Corruption Index) to see which tracked most closely with MMRs. We examined the countries altogether, and disaggregated by region. We then performed multivariate analysis to determine which measures were predictive. Two gender measures (GEI and SIGI) and GDP per capita were significantly correlated with MMRs for all countries. For African countries, the SIGI, TFR, and Corruption Index were significant, whereas the GEI, SBA, and TFR were significant in non-African countries. After controlling for all measures, SBA emerged as a predictor of log MMR for non-African countries (β = -0.04, P = 0.01). However, for African countries, only the Corruption Index was a predictor (β = -0.04, P = 0.04). No gender measure was significant. In African countries, corruption is undermining the quality of maternal care, the availability of critical drugs and equipment, and pregnant women's motivation to deliver in a hospital setting. Improving gender equality and

  19. Measurement of the isotopic composition of dissolved iron in the open ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacan, F.; Radic, A.; Jeandel, C.; Poitrasson, F.; Sarthou, G.; Pradoux, C.; Freydier, R.

    2008-12-01

    This work demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of the measurement of the isotopic composition of dissolved iron in seawater for a typical open ocean Fe concentration range (0.1-1 nM). It also presents the first data of this kind. Iron is preconcentrated using a Nitriloacetic Acid Superflow resin and purified using an AG1x4 anion exchange resin. The isotopic ratios are measured with a MC-ICPMS Neptune, coupled with a desolvator (Aridus II), using a 57Fe-58Fe double spike mass bias correction. Measurement precision (0.13‰, 2SD) allows resolving small iron isotopic composition variations within the water column, in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean (from δ 57Fe = -0.19 to +0.32‰). Isotopically light iron found in the Upper Circumpolar Deep Water is hypothesized to result from organic matter remineralization. Shallow samples suggest that, if occurring, an iron isotopic fractionation during iron uptake by phytoplankton is characterized by a fractionation factor, such as: |Δ57Fe(plankton-seawater)| < 0.48‰.

  20. Microscopic composition measurements of organic individual particles collected in the Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, D.; China, S.; Fraund, M. W.; Pham, D.; Kulkarni, G.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.; Moffet, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) Campaign was carried out to gain a better understanding of the lifecycle of shallow clouds. The HISCALE experiment was designed to contrast two seasons, wet and dry, and determine their effect on atmospheric cloud and aerosol processes. The spring component to HISCALE was selected to characterize mixing state for particles collected onto substrates. Sampling was performed before and after rain events to obtain airborne soil organic particles (ASOP), which are ejected after rain events. The unique composition of the ASOP may affect optical properties and/or hygroscopic properties. The collection of particles took place at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains (ARM SGP) field site. The Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscope (STXM) was used to image the samples collected during the first HI-SCALE Campaign to determine the carbonaceous mixing state. Scanning Electron Microscopy Energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) analysis is more sensitive to the inorganic makeup of particles, while STXM renders a more comprehensive analysis of the organics. Measurements such as nephelometry, Particle Soot Absorption Photometry (PSAP), and Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) from the ARM archive will be correlated with microscopy measurements. The primary focus is the relation between composition and morphology of ASOP with hygroscopicity and optical properties. Further investigation of these organic particles will be performed to provide a mixing state parameterization and aid in the advancement of current climate models.

  1. Chemical composition of aerosol measurements in the air pollution plume during KORUS-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T.; Lee, J. B.; Lim, Y. J.; Ahn, J.; Park, J. S.; Soo, C. J.; Kim, J.; Park, S.; Lee, Y.; Desyaterik, Y.; Collett, J. L., Jr.; Lee, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Korean peninsula is a great place to study different sources of the aerosols: urban, rural and marine. In addition, Seoul is one of the large metropolitan areas in the world and has a variety of sources because half of the Korean population lives in Seoul, which comprises only 12% of the country's area. To understand the chemical composition of aerosol form long-range transport and local sources better, an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed on an airborne platform (NASA DC-8 aircraft). The HR-ToF-AMS is capable of measuring non-refractory size resolved chemical composition of submicron particle(NR-PM1) in the air pollution plume, including mass concentration of organic carbon, nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium with 10 seconds time resolution. The measurements were performed twenty times research flight for understanding characteristic of the air pollution from May to June, 2016 on the South Korean peninsula during KORUS-AQ 2016 campaign. The scientific goal of this study is to characterize aerosol chemical properties and mass concentration in order to understand the role of the long-range transport from northeast Asia to South Korea, and influence of the local sources. To brief, organics dominated during all of flights. Also, organics and nitrate were dominant around energy industrial complex near by Taean, South Korea. The presentation will provide an overview of the composition of NR-PM1 measured in air pollution plumes, and deliver detail information about width, depth and spatial distribution of the pollutant in the air pollution plumes. The results of this study will provide high temporal and spatial resolved details on the air pollution plumes, which are valuable input parameters of aerosol properties for the current air quality models.

  2. Real-time measurement of dentinal fluid flow during amalgam and composite restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Young; Ferracane, Jack; Kim, Hae-Young; Lee, In-Bog

    2010-04-01

    This study examined changes in the dentinal fluid flow (DFF) during restorative procedures and compared permeability after restoration among restorative materials and adhesives. A class 1 cavity was prepared and restored with either amalgam (Bestaloy), or composite (Z-250) with one of two etch-and-rinse adhesives (Scotchbond MultiPurpose: MP and Single Bond 2: SB) or one of two self-etch adhesives (Clearfil SE Bond: CE and Easy Bond: EB) on an extracted human third molar which was connected to a sub-nanoliter fluid flow measuring device (NFMD) under 20 cm water pressure. DFF was measured from the intact tooth state through the restoration procedures to 30 min after restoration, and re-measured at 3 and 7 days post-restoration. Inward flow during cavity preparation was followed by outward flow after preparation. In amalgam restoration, the outward flow changed into an inward flow during amalgam filling, which was followed by a slight outward flow after finishing. In composite restoration, MP and SB showed an inward flow and outward flow for the rinsing and drying steps, respectively. Application of a hydrophobic bonding resin in the MP and CE systems caused a decrease in the flow rate. Air-drying of solvent for the CE and EB systems caused a sudden outward flow, whereas light-curing of the adhesive and composite caused an abrupt inward flow. Each restorative step clearly changed the direction and the rate of the DFF during restoration, which could be well identified with NFMD. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Body composition measures of obese adolescents by the deuterium oxide dilution method and by bioelectrical impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.M. Resende

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to describe and compare the body composition variables determined by bioelectrical impedance (BIA and the deuterium dilution method (DDM, to identify possible correlations and agreement between the two methods, and to construct a linear regression model including anthropometric measures. Obese adolescents were evaluated by anthropometric measures, and body composition was assessed by BIA and DDM. Forty obese adolescents were included in the study. Comparison of the mean values for the following variables: fat body mass (FM; kg, fat-free mass (FFM; kg, and total body water (TBW; % determined by DDM and by BIA revealed significant differences. BIA overestimated FFM and TBW and underestimated FM. When compared with data provided by DDM, the BIA data presented a significant correlation with FFM (r = 0.89; P < 0.001, FM (r = 0.93; P < 0.001 and TBW (r = 0.62; P < 0.001. The Bland-Altman plot showed no agreement for FFM, FM or TBW between data provided by BIA and DDM. The linear regression models proposed in our study with respect to FFM, FM, and TBW were well adjusted. FFM obtained by DDM = 0.842 x FFM obtained by BIA. FM obtained by DDM = 0.855 x FM obtained by BIA + 0.152 x weight (kg. TBW obtained by DDM = 0.813 x TBW obtained by BIA. The body composition results of obese adolescents determined by DDM can be predicted by using the measures provided by BIA through a regression equation.

  4. Maternal fuels and metabolic measures during pregnancy and neonatal body composition: the healthy start study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crume, Tessa L; Shapiro, Allison L; Brinton, John T; Glueck, Deborah H; Martinez, Mercedes; Kohn, Mary; Harrod, Curtis; Friedman, Jacob E; Dabelea, Dana

    2015-04-01

    The impact of specific maternal fuels and metabolic measures during early and late gestation on neonatal body composition is not well defined. To determine how circulating maternal glucose, lipids, and insulin resistance in the first and second halves of pregnancy influence neonatal body composition. A prospective pre-birth cohort enrolling pregnant women, the Healthy Start Study, was conducted, in which fasting maternal serum samples were collected twice during pregnancy to measure glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and free fatty acids. Neonatal body composition was measured with air displacement plethysmography. An observational epidemiology study of pregnant women attending obstetric clinics at the University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Center. This analysis includes 804 maternal-neonate pairs. A strong positive linear relationship between maternal estimated insulin resistance (homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance) in the first half of pregnancy and neonatal fat mass (FM) and FM percentage (FM%) was detected, independent of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). In the second half of pregnancy, positive linear relationships between maternal glucose levels and offspring FM and FM% were observed, independent of prepregnancy BMI. An inverse relationship was detected between high-density lipoprotein in the first half of pregnancy and FM, independent of prepregnancy BMI. Free fatty acid levels in the second half of pregnancy were positively associated with higher birth weight, independent of prepregnancy BMI. Maternal insulin resistance in the first half of pregnancy is highly predictive of neonatal FM%, whereas maternal glycemia, even within the normal range, is an important driver of neonatal adiposity in later pregnancy, independent of prepregnancy BMI. Our data provide additional insights on potential maternal factors responsible for fetal fat accretion and early development of adiposity.

  5. Coefficient of Friction Measurements for Thermoplastics and Fibre Composites Under Low Sliding Velocity and High Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Svendsen, Gustav Winther; Hiller, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    that friction materials which are untypical for brake applications, like thermoplastics and fibre composites, can offer superior performance in terms of braking torque, wear resistance and cost than typical brake linings. In this paper coefficient of friction measurements for various thermoplastic and fibre......Friction materials for typical brake applications are normally designed considering thermal stability as the major performance criterion. There are, however, brake applications with very limited sliding velocities, where the generated heat is insignificant. In such cases it is possible...... in order to interpret the changes of friction observed during the running-in phase....

  6. The stable isotopic composition of respired CO2 - measurements on ecosystem scale using IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden-Behrens, J.; Knohl, A.; Mandic, M.; Jost, H. J. H.

    2016-12-01

    Stable isotopes are a useful tool to provide insights into ecosystem gas exchanges and carbon allocation. The isotopic composition of 13C in respired CO2 for example, has been used to quantify the time lag between assimilation and respiration to be around three days for mature trees. Using the field-deployable Thermo Scientific Delta Ray Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometer (IRIS) with automatic calibration, we measured the isotopic composition of 13C and 18O in CO2 in nine inlet heights ranging from 0.1 to 45 m. These measurements were done for a three month period in autumn 2015 in a managed beech forest in Thuringia, Germany. The night-time Keeling-Plot intercept reflecting the 13C and 18O isotopic composition of ecosystem respiration spanned a considerable large range from app. -26 to -32‰ VPDB for 13δC and from app. -8 to -49 VPDP-CO2 for 18δO. Our set up enabled us to calculate Keeling-Plot intercepts with a temporal resolution of 90 minutes accurately with standard errors that had their medians below 0.8 ‰ for both, 13δC and 18δO. The first snow event in fall had a large impact on both delta values of respired CO2. The 18δO value was strongly decreased by app. 30 ‰ and it took 2-3 weeks until the value rose to a similar range than before the snow event. In the case of the 13δC value of ecosystem respiration, we found a qualitatively different behaviour before and after the snow event by analysing the potential meteorological drivers of the 13C composition of respiration. Before the snow event, the 13C signature was significantly correlated to the two-day-sum of radiation two to four days before the measurement. After the first snow event, this correlation vanished abruptly. The time lag of the observed correlation of two to four days is in the expected range for the time lag between assimilation and respiration. To further understand this correlation, we use the multi-layer biosphere-atmosphere model CANOAK to compare the modelled 13δC of

  7. The freshwater composition of the Fram Strait outflow derived from a decade of tracer measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodd, Paul A.; Rabe, Benjamin; Hansen, Edmond

    2012-01-01

    The composition of the Fram Strait freshwater outflow is investigated by comparing 10 sections of concurrent salinity, δ18O, nitrate and phosphate measurements collected between 1997 and 2011. The largest inventories of net sea ice meltwater are found in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The 2009–2011 sections...... meltwater inventories, suggesting that meteoric water and brine may be delivered to Fram Strait together from a common source. We find that the freshwater outflow at Fram Strait exhibits a similar meteoric water to net sea ice meltwater ratio as the central Arctic Ocean and Siberian shelves, suggesting...

  8. High speed 2-dimensional temperature measurements of nanothermite composites: Probing thermal vs. Gas generation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Rohit J.; Kline, Dylan J.; Zachariah, Michael R.

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates the reaction dynamics of metastable intermolecular composites through high speed spectrometry, pressure measurements, and high-speed color camera pyrometry. Eight mixtures including Al/CuO and Al/Fe2O3/xWO3 (x being the oxidizer mol. %) were reacted in a constant volume pressure cell as a means of tuning gas release and adiabatic temperature. A direct correlation between gas release, peak pressure, and pressurization rate was observed, but it did not correlate with temperature. When WO3 was varied as part of the stoichiometric oxidizer content, it was found that Al/Fe2O3/70% WO3 achieved the highest pressures and shortest burn time despite a fairly constant temperature between mixtures, suggesting an interplay between the endothermic Fe2O3 decomposition and the higher adiabatic flame temperature sustained by the Al/WO3 reaction in the composite. It is proposed that the lower ignition temperature of Al/WO3 leads to the initiation of the composite and its higher flame temperature enhances the gasification of Fe2O3, thus improving advection and propagation as part of a feedback loop that drives the reaction. Direct evidence of such gas release promoting reactivity was obtained through high speed pyrometry videos of the reaction. These results set the stage for nanoenergetic materials that can be tuned for specific applications through carefully chosen oxidizer mixtures.

  9. Estudo do uso de plastificantes de fontes renovável em composições de PVC Study of the use of plasticizer from renewable sources in PVC compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Madaleno

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polímeros sintéticos são largamente utilizados em diversos produtos devido às suas propriedades físicas, químicas e facilidade de transformação. O poli(cloreto de vinila, conhecido como PVC, é um dos polímeros mais versáteis desenvolvidos pelo homem, de grande utilidade para a sociedade moderna. Suas aplicações incluem: janelas, calhas de chuva, revestimentos de paredes, portas, papel de parede, mangueiras, brinquedos, calçados, bolsas de sangue e tubos para condução de água. Em todas estas aplicações são utilizados aditivos junto à resina de PVC, sendo que um dos aditivos mais utilizados é o plastificante. Este estudo apresenta a análise comparativa de formulações flexíveis de PVC, baseada em dois plastificantes de origem renovável (óleo vegetal modificado - OVM e óleo vegetal modificado e epoxidado - OVME, e também dois plastificantes petroquímicos convencionais, di(2-etilhexil ftalato - (DEHP ou DOP e di(2-etilhexil adipato - (DEHA ou DOA. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre as propriedades mecânicas das formulações. Os diferentes plastificantes demonstram influenciar na dureza e resistência química das formulações, sendo que o grupo epóxi e a maior massa molar no plastificante vegetal apresentam maior compatibilidade com a resina de PVC. A análise de MEV apresenta uma provável exudação do plastificante OVM da matriz do PVC.Synthetic polymers have been widely used in manufactured products because of their physical and chemical properties and low cost of production. Poly(vinyl chloride, called PVC, is a versatile, inexpensive plastic whose use has become pervasive in modern society. Its applications include window frames, rain gutters, wall paneling, doors, wallpapers, flooring, garden furniture, toys, blood bags and pipes. In all of these applications additives are used, with plasticizers being among the most important. This work shows a comparative study among distinct

  10. Measuring Nanomaterial Release from Carbon Nanotube Composites: Review of the State of the Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Stacey; Wohlleben, Wendel; Doa, Maria; Nowack, Bernd; Clancy, Shaun; Canady, Richard; Maynard, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Hazard studies of “as-produced” nanomaterials are increasingly available, yet a critical gap exists in exposure science that may impede safe development of nanomaterials. The gap is that we do not understand what is actually released because nanomaterials can change when released in ways that are not understood. We also generally do not have methods capable of quantitatively measuring what is released to support dose assessment. This review presents a case study of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for the measurement challenge to bridge this gap. As the use and value of MWCNTs increases, methods to measure what is released in ways relevant to risk evaluation are critically needed if products containing these materials are to be economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. This review draws on the input of over 50 experts engaged in a program of workshops and technical report writing to address the release of MWCNTs from nanocomposite materials across their life cycle. The expert analyses reveals that new and sophisticated methods are required to measure and assess MWCNT exposures for realistic exposure scenarios. Furthermore, method requirements vary with the materials and conditions of release across life cycle stages of products. While review shows that the likelihood of significant release of MWCNTs appears to be low for many stages of composite life cycle, measurement methods are needed so that exposures from MWCNT-composites are understood and managed. In addition, there is an immediate need to refocus attention from study of “as-produced” nanomaterials to coordinated research on actual release scenarios. (paper)

  11. Low Temperature In-Situ Stress Measurement of W/Cu Composite by Neutron Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Masayuki; Muslih, M. Rifai; Ikeuchi, Yasukazu; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Hanabusa, Takao

    The internal stresses in the continuous tungsten-fiber reinforced copper-matrix composite were examined by the Neutron stress measurement method. The Neutron diffraction apparatus ND1, which is abbreviated from the Neutron Diffraction system No.1 designed and manufactured by the National Nuclear Energy Agency in Indonesia (Badan Tenage Nuklir Nasional, BATAN), was used in the present study. The most common 3-axes measurement method with Hooke's equation was used to measure stresses in the both of tungsten-fiber and copper-matrix. The tungsten-fiber became the situation of heavy 110 priority orientation. The other hand, copper-matrix became the large crystal grain. Thermal stress alterations caused form low temperature cycling was measured by in-situ stress measurement method making use of a cryostat system. The thermal residual stresses of tungsten-fiber and copper-matrix in longitudinal direction were compressive and tensile state respectively. Results of in-situ thermal stress measurement were agreed with a calculated result of simple elastic theory qualitatively.

  12. The isotopic composition of methane in the stratosphere: high-altitude balloon sample measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic composition of stratospheric methane has been determined on a large suite of air samples from stratospheric balloon flights covering subtropical to polar latitudes and a time period of 16 yr. 154 samples were analyzed for δ13C and 119 samples for δD, increasing the previously published dataset for balloon borne samples by an order of magnitude, and more than doubling the total available stratospheric data (including aircraft samples published to date. The samples also cover a large range in mixing ratio from tropospheric values near 1800 ppb down to only 250 ppb, and the strong isotope fractionation processes accordingly increase the isotopic composition up to δ13C = −14‰ and δD = +190‰, the largest enrichments observed for atmospheric CH4 so far. When analyzing and comparing kinetic isotope effects (KIEs derived from single balloon profiles, it is necessary to take into account the residence time in the stratosphere in combination with the observed mixing ratio and isotope trends in the troposphere, and the range of isotope values covered by the individual profile. The isotopic composition of CH4 in the stratosphere is affected by both chemical and dynamical processes. This severely hampers interpretation of the data in terms of the relative fractions of the three important sink mechanisms (reaction with OH, O(1D and Cl. It is shown that a formal sink partitioning using the measured data severely underestimates the fraction removed by OH, which is likely due to the insensitivity of the measurements to the kinetic fractionation in the lower stratosphere. Full quantitative interpretation of the CH4 isotope data in terms of the three sink reactions requires a global model.

  13. Estudo antropométrico do crânio de recém-nascidos normais em Sergipe Anthropometric cranial measurements of normal newborn in Sergipe - Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A. Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo antropométrico do crânio é fundamental para a avaliação do recém-nascido. As medidas antropométricas usadas na atualidade são baseadas em resultados obtidos há mais de cinco décadas, os quais não são capazes de determinar um padrão nacional em decorrência de possíveis influências de algumas etnias. Realizamos estudo descritivo analítico em uma Maternidade em Aracaju-SE, com medidas de perímetro cefálico, distancia biauricular e anteroposterior, índice cefálico e medida da fontanela; foram examinadas 450 recém-nascidos com idade gestacional entre 37 e 42 semanas; 49,3% era do gênero masculino e 50,6% do feminino. O perímetro cefálico variou entre 30,0 cm e 39,8 cm com média de 34,14±2,48 com P50 34 cm. O índice cefálico variou entre 0,69 e 1,13 com média de 0,98±0,06 com P50 1. Foi feito uma comparação entre os estudos estrangeiros e brasileiros; o recém-nascido sergipano aproxima-se mais dos resultados obtidos nos estudos da região sudeste do que dos resultados da região nordeste, geograficamente semelhante. A possibilidade de influencias étnicas foi levantada, como também a necessidade de realizar um estudo multicêntrico para criar um perfil antropométrico do recém-nascido brasileiro.The anthropometric mesureaments of the skull is essential for the evaluation of the newborn. The anthropometrics measureaments utilized at the present time are based in the results obtained for more than five decades, which are not able to determine a national pattern mostly likely due to some ethnic influences. We carried out an analytical descriptive study in a maternity hospital in Aracaju-Sergipe, Northeast of Brazil. Measurements of cephalic perimeter, biauricular and anteroposterior distances, cephalic index and fontanels were obtained from 450 newborns with gestacional age from 37 and 42 weeks; 49.3% were male and 50.6% female. The cephalic perimeter ranged from 30.0 cm to 39.8 cm with mean value of 34.14±2

  14. Dynamic cure measurement of dental polymer composites using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlins, Peter H.; Palin, Will M.; Shortall, Adrian C.

    2008-02-01

    Dental amalgam is being increasingly replaced by Light-activated resin-based dental composites. However, these materials are limited by inefficient setting reactions as a function of depth, constraining the maximum extent of cure and reducing biocompatibility. In this paper we demonstrate a novel metrological tool for dynamic monitoring of refractive index and thickness change through curing resins using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. We present real-time measurements from pre- to post-cure of a series of un-filled bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether dimethacrylate (bisGMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) resins with different inhibitor concentrations. Our results demonstrate that refractive index measurements are sensitive to the extent of cure of such resins and that the inhibitor concentration strongly affects the cure dynamics and final extent of cure.

  15. The geographical origin and chemical composition in phellinus mushrooms measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.M.; Sun, G.M.; Moon, J.H.; Chung, Y.S.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, K.H.

    2012-01-01

    In order to expand the utilization of phellinus mushrooms as a dietary supplement, we attempted to evaluate the chemical composition by measuring its inorganic elemental content with the aid of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Twenty seven phellinus mushrooms samples were collected from Korea, Cambodia, and Vietnam. A total of 28 elements were analyzed in the phellinus mushroom samples using the INAA. The concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg are much higher than those of other elements in phellinus mushroom samples. The sum of determined elemental concentration in Cambodia samples was about 2-6 times higher than those in Korea and Vietnam samples, respectively. Based on our measurement data, we attempted to discriminate the geographical origin using principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The geographical origins of all samples were clearly classified with correct classification rate of 100%. (author)

  16. Non-invasive techniques for measuring body composition: state of the art and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    In the past 20 years, in vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation has become an important tool in medical research. In particular, it provides a much needed means to make quantitative assessments of body composition of human beings in vivo. The data are useful both for basic physiological understanding and for diagnosis and management of a variety of diseases and disorders. This paper traces the development of the in vivo neutron activation technique from basic systems to the present state of the art facilities. A scan of some of the numerous clinical applications that have been made with this technique, reveals the broad potentialities of in vivo neutron activation. The paper also considers alternative routes of future development and raises some of the questions now faced in making the techniques more widely available to both medical practitioners and medical investigators. In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into the modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. 18 refs., 7 figs.

  17. On the detectability of transverse cracks in laminated composites through measurements of electrical potential change

    KAUST Repository

    Selvakumaran, Lakshmi

    2015-01-07

    For structures made of laminated composites, real-time structural health monitoring is necessary as significant damage may occur without any visible signs on the surface. Inspection by electrical tomography seems a viable approach as the technique relies on voltage measurements from a network of electrodes over the boundary of the inspected domain to infer the change in conductivity within the bulk material. The change in conductivity, if significant, can be correlated to the degradation state of the material, allowing damage detection. We focus here on the detection of the transverse cracking mechanism which modifies the in-plane transverse conductivity of ply. The quality of detection is directly related to the sensitivity of the voltage measurements with respect to the presence of cracks. We demonstrate here from numerical experiments that the sensitivity depends on several parameters, such as the anisotropy in the electrical conductivity of the baseline composite ply or the geometricalparameters of the structure. Based on these results, applicability of electrical tomography to detect transverse cracks in a laminate is discussed.

  18. Non-invasive techniques for measuring body composition: state of the art and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    In the past 20 years, in vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation has become an important tool in medical research. In particular, it provides a much needed means to make quantitative assessments of body composition of human beings in vivo. The data are useful both for basic physiological understanding and for diagnosis and management of a variety of diseases and disorders. This paper traces the development of the in vivo neutron activation technique from basic systems to the present state of the art facilities. A scan of some of the numerous clinical applications that have been made with this technique, reveals the broad potentialities of in vivo neutron activation. The paper also considers alternative routes of future development and raises some of the questions now faced in making the techniques more widely available to both medical practitioners and medical investigators. In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into the modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. 18 refs., 7 figs

  19. A numerical study on the influence of vulnerable plaque composition on intravascular thermography measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Have, A G ten; Gijsen, F J H; Wentzel, J J; Slager, C J; Serruys, P W; Steen, A F W van der

    2006-01-01

    Intracoronary thermography is a technique that measures lumen wall temperatures for vulnerable plaque detection. In this paper the influence of vulnerable plaque composition on lumen wall temperatures was studied numerically. Concerning the vulnerable plaque heat generation, the location of the heat source and its heat production were varied. Concerning the heat transfer, the thermal properties of the lipid core and the location of the vasa vasorum were studied. The heat source location was the main determinant of the lumen wall temperature distribution. The strongest effect was noted when the heat producing macrophages were located in the shoulder region leading to focal spots of higher temperature. The maximal lumen wall temperature was mainly determined by the heat production of the macrophages and the cooling effect of blood. The insulating properties of the lipid core increased lumen wall temperatures when the heat source was located in the cap and the presence of vasa vasorum lowered the temperatures. These results show that the lumen wall temperature distribution is influenced by vulnerable plaque composition and that intracoronary thermography techniques require a high spatial resolution. To be able to couple temperature measurements to plaque vulnerability, intracoronary thermography needs to be combined with an imaging modality

  20. Associations of Body Composition Measurements with Serum Lipid, Glucose and Insulin Profile: A Chinese Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunxiao; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Bin; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To quantitate and compare the associations of various body composition measurements with serum metabolites and to what degree genetic or environmental factors affect obesity-metabolite relation. Methods Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean body mass (LBM), percent body fat (PBF), fasting serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin and lifestyle factors were assessed in 903 twins from Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting serum glucose and insulin. Linear regression models and bivariate structural equation models were used to examine the relation of various body composition measurements with serum metabolite levels and genetic/environmental influences on these associations, respectively. Results At individual level, adiposity measurements (BMI, WC and PBF) showed significant associations with serum metabolite concentrations in both sexes and the associations still existed in male twins when using within-MZ twin pair comparison analyses. Associations of BMI with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly stronger in male twins compared to female twins (BMI-by-sex interaction p = 0.043, 0.020 and 0.019, respectively). Comparison of various adiposity measurements with levels of serum metabolites revealed that WC explained the largest fraction of variance in serum LDL-C, TG, TC and glucose concentrations while BMI performed best in explaining variance in serum HDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR levels. Of these phenotypic correlations, 64–81% were attributed to genetic factors, whereas 19–36% were attributed to unique environmental factors. Conclusions We observed different associations between adiposity and serum metabolite profile and demonstrated that WC and BMI explained the largest fraction of variance in serum lipid profile and insulin

  1. Genetic association between body composition measured by ultrasound and visual scores in Brazilian Nelore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, D G M; Baldi, F; Lôbo, R B; Koury Filho, W; Sainz, R D; Albuquerque, L G

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability of body composition traits measured by ultrasound, growth traits, and visual scores as well as their genetic associations in Nelore cattle. A total of 9,765, 13,285, 13,061, 12,811, 3,484, 3,484, 3,483, and 3,303 records of weight at time of ultrasound measure (W550), 12th-13th rib LM area (LMA), backfat thickness (BF), rump fat thickness (RF), visual scores for body structure (BS), finishing precocity (FP), muscling (MS), and sheath and navel characteristics (SN), respectively, were used. The model included contemporary group (defined as year and season of birth, sex, and management group) as a fixed effect and age of dam at calving and age of the animal (linear and quadratic effects) as covariates. The direct additive genetic effect was included as a random effect. The analyses also included 46,157 observations of BW adjusted to 120 d. The (co)variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a multitrait animal model. Heritability estimates for W550, LMA, BF, RF, BS, FP, MS, and SN were 0.37 ± 0.030, 0.33 ± 0.03, 0.24 ± 0.02, 0.28 ± 0.03, 0.24 ± 0.04, 0.38 ± 0.05, 0.29 ± 0.05, and 0.38 ± 0.06, respectively. The estimated genetic correlations between visual scores and LMA were moderate and positive, ranging from 0.37 to 0.44. Similar results were obtained for the estimated genetic correlations between FP and MS with fat thickness measures (BF and RF). Low genetic correlations were estimated between SN and BS and between SN and the body composition traits, indicating that selection for body composition traits and BS will not affect sheath and navel size. The estimated genetic correlations between weight adjusted to 120 d of age (W120) and W550 and BS were high (0.87 and 0.91) and moderate with LMA (0.49 and 0.55), FP (0.37 and 0.41), and MS (0.47 and 0.55). The visual scores and ultrasound-measured body composition traits have enough genetic variation for

  2. Measuring of roundness after turning of composite material with natural fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mital

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on practical requirements from the reason of unequally removed material during the turning of the wood plastic composite (WPC. This results in geometrical deviations of the WPC bar diameter. WPC represents a relatively new group of materials that has been at the market for almost 30 years. In 1983 Lear Corporation in Wisconsine, USA made for the first time the interior panels of cars from composite materials – PP matrix with organic filler – 50 % wood flour. WPCs displace traditional materials such as wood, steel and cement materials in the marina industry. Designers are not limited technology of production from construction aspect, because different shapes and profiles can be produced by injection (resp. process of extrusion, but in the process of machining were monitored problems with tolerances. Mixed colors can be achieved by using of different pigments and one feels that this is real wood. Technologists begin to use convention technologies – drilling, milling and turning, as tendency of application of WPC increased. Knowledges about machining of WPC are not elaborate as deep as machining of metals or plastics. And this is a reason for orientation in this direction too. Commercial wood plastic composite MEGAWOOD (70 % wood flour, 30 % HDPE was a sample material in current investigation of roundness after turning of WPC. HSS EN ISO HS6-5-2 cutting tool was used. The geometry of the cutting tool was γ0 = 20°, α0 = 8°, κr = 45°, rε = 0,5 mm, εr = 90°. Cutting conditions during turning were as follows: cutting speed n = 900 m/min (constant, feed f = 0,1 to 0,61 mm, depth of cut ap = 0,5 mm for turning of final diameter d = 36 mm. It was dry turning. Roundness/cylindricity measuring system RA – 120 was used for measuring of roundness deviation. It was found that the roundness deviation increases with feed increasing. Popped heat was not used during the turning to final diameter – 36 mm. Using of popped heat

  3. Rapid, high-precision measurements of boron isotopic compositions in marine carbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Malcolm T; Holcomb, Michael; Rankenburg, Kai; Trotter, Julie A

    2014-12-30

    The isotopic composition and elemental abundance of boron (B) in marine carbonates provide a powerful tool for tracking changes in seawater pH and carbonate chemistry. Progress in this field has, however, been hampered by the volatile nature of B, its persistent memory, and other uncertainties associated with conventional chemical extraction and mass spectrometric measurements. Here we show that for marine carbonates, these limitations can be overcome by using a simplified, low-blank, chemical extraction technique combined with robust multi-collector inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) methods. Samples are dissolved in dilute HNO3 and loaded first onto on a cation-exchange column with the major cations (Ca, Mg, Sr, Na) being quantitatively retained while the B fraction is carried in the eluent. The eluent is then passed directly through an anion column ensuring that any residual anions, such as SO4(2-), are removed. Isotopic measurements of (11)B/(10)B ratios are undertaken by matching both the B concentration and the isotopic compositions of the samples with the bracketing standard, thereby minimising corrections for cross-contamination. The veracity of the MC-ICPMS procedure is demonstrated using a gravimetrically prepared laboratory standard, UWA24.7, relative to the international reference standard NIST SRM 951 (δ(11)B = 0‰). This gives values consistent with gravimetry (δ(11)B = 24.7 ± 0.3‰ 2sd) for solutions ranging in concentration from 50 to 500 ppb, equivalent to ~2-10 mg size coral samples. The overall integrity of the method for carbonate analysis is demonstrated by measurements of the international carbonate standard JCp-1 (δ(11)B = 24.3 ± 0.34‰ 2sd). A streamlined, integrated approach is described here that enables rapid, accurate, high-precision measurements of boron isotopic compositions and elemental abundances in commonly analysed biogenic carbonates, such as corals, bivalves, and large benthic forams. The overall

  4. Measurement of breast tissue composition with dual energy cone-beam computed tomography: A postmortem study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Huanjun; Ducote, Justin L.; Molloi, Sabee [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of a three-material compositional measurement of water, lipid, and protein content of breast tissue with dual kVp cone-beam computed tomography (CT) for diagnostic purposes. Methods: Simulations were performed on a flat panel-based computed tomography system with a dual kVp technique in order to guide the selection of experimental acquisition parameters. The expected errors induced by using the proposed calibration materials were also estimated by simulation. Twenty pairs of postmortem breast samples were imaged with a flat-panel based dual kVp cone-beam CT system, followed by image-based material decomposition using calibration data obtained from a three-material phantom consisting of water, vegetable oil, and polyoxymethylene plastic. The tissue samples were then chemically decomposed into their respective water, lipid, and protein contents after imaging to allow direct comparison with data from dual energy decomposition. Results: Guided by results from simulation, the beam energies for the dual kVp cone-beam CT system were selected to be 50 and 120 kVp with the mean glandular dose divided equally between each exposure. The simulation also suggested that the use of polyoxymethylene as the calibration material for the measurement of pure protein may introduce an error of -11.0%. However, the tissue decomposition experiments, which employed a calibration phantom made out of water, oil, and polyoxymethylene, exhibited strong correlation with data from the chemical analysis. The average root-mean-square percentage error for water, lipid, and protein contents was 3.58% as compared with chemical analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the water, lipid, and protein contents can be accurately measured using dual kVp cone-beam CT. The tissue compositional information may improve the sensitivity and specificity for breast cancer diagnosis.

  5. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa and the Other Galilean Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, Edward; Cooper, John; Hartle, Richard; Lipatov, Alexander; Mahaffy, Paul; Paterson, William; Pachalidis, Nick; Coplan, Mike; Cassidy, Tim

    2010-05-01

    NASA and ESA are planning the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) to the Jupiter system with specific emphasis to Europa and Ganymede, respectively. The Japanese Space Agency is also planning an orbiter mission to explore Jupiter's magnetosphere and the Galilean satellites. For NASA's Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) we are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) with two main goals which can also be applied to the other Galilean moons, 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter's magnetosphere and 2) infer the 4? surface composition to trace elemental [1] and significant isotopic levels. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, and between the moon surfaces and subsurface layers putatively including oceans. The measurement of the interactions for all the Galilean moons can be used to trace the in situ ion measurements of pickup ions back to either Europa's or Ganymede's surface from the respectively orbiting spacecraft. The IMS instrument, being developed under NASA's Astrobiology Instrument Development Program, would maximally achieve plasma measurement requirements for JEO and EJSM while moving forward our knowledge of Jupiter system composition and source processes to far higher levels than previously envisaged. The composition of the global surfaces of Europa and Ganymede can be inferred from the measurement of ejected neutrals and pick-up ions using at minimum an in situ payload including MAG and IMS also fully capable of meeting Level 1 mission requirements for ocean detection and survey. Elemental and isotopic analysis of potentially extruded oceanic materials at the moon surfaces would further support the ocean objectives. These measurements should be made from a polar orbiting spacecraft about Europa or Ganymede at height ~ 100 km. The ejecta produced by

  6. Laboratory investigations of Titan haze formation: In situ measurement of gas and particle composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörst, Sarah M.; Yoon, Y. Heidi; Ugelow, Melissa S.; Parker, Alex H.; Li, Rui; de Gouw, Joost A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2018-02-01

    Prior to the arrival of the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft, aerosol production in Titan's atmosphere was believed to begin in the stratosphere where chemical processes are predominantly initiated by far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation. However, measurements taken by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) indicate that haze formation initiates in the thermosphere where there is a greater flux of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons and energetic particles available to initiate chemical reactions, including the destruction of N2. The discovery of previously unpredicted nitrogen species in measurements of Titan's atmosphere by the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) indicates that nitrogen participates in the chemistry to a much greater extent than was appreciated before Cassini. The degree of nitrogen incorporation in the haze particles is important for understanding the diversity of molecules that may be present in Titan's atmosphere and on its surface. We have conducted a series of Titan atmosphere simulation experiments using either spark discharge (Tesla coil) or FUV photons (deuterium lamp) to initiate chemistry in CH4/N2 gas mixtures ranging from 0.01% CH4/99.99% N2 to 10% CH4/90% N2. We obtained in situ real-time measurements using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) to measure the particle composition as a function of particle size and a proton-transfer ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) to measure the composition of gas phase products. These two techniques allow us to investigate the effect of energy source and initial CH4 concentration on the degree of nitrogen incorporation in both the gas and solid phase products. The results presented here confirm that FUV photons produce not only solid phase nitrogen bearing products but also gas phase nitrogen species. We find that in both the gas and solid phase, nitrogen is found in nitriles rather than amines and that both the

  7. In-situ soil composition and moisture measurement by surface neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, C.; Smith, C.; Marks, A.

    2009-04-01

    Neutron activation analysis is widely known as a laboratory technique dependent upon a nuclear reactor to provide the neutron flux and capable of precise elemental analysis. Less well known in-situ geochemical analysis is possible with isotopic (252Cf & 241Am) or compact accelerator (D-T, D-D fusion reaction) neutron sources. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) geophysical borehole logging has been applied to mining issues for >15 years (CSIRO) using isotopic neutron sources and more recently to environmental and hydro-geological applications by ANSTO. Similarly, sophisticated geophysical borehole logging equipment based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS) has been applied in the oil and gas industry by large oilfield services companies to measure oil saturation indices (carbon/oxygen) using accelerator neutron sources. Recent advances in scintillation detector spectral performance has enabled improved precision and detection limits for elements likely to be present in soil profiles (H, Si, Al, Fe, Cl) and possible detection of many minor to trace elements if sufficiently abundant (Na, K, Mg, Ca, S, N, + ). To measure carbon an accelerator neutron source is required to provide fast neutrons above 4.8 MeV. CSIRO and ANSTO propose building a soil geochemical analysis system based on experience gained from building and applying PGNA borehole logging equipment. A soil geochemical analysis system could effectively map the 2D geochemical composition of the top 50cm of soil by dragging the 1D logging equipment across the ground surface. Substituting an isotopic neutron source for a D-T accelerator neutron source would enable the additional measurement of elemental carbon. Many potential ambiguities with other geophysical proxies for soil moisture may be resolved by direct geochemical measurement of H. Many other applications may be possible including time series in-situ measurements of soil moisture for differential drainage, hydrology, land surface

  8. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography method for measuring the composition of aquatic humic substances

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Renqi

    2015-01-01

    A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method was developed to measure the composition of humic substances from river, reservoir, and treated wastewater based on their physicochemical properties. The current method fractionates the humic substances into four well-defined groups based on parallel analyses with a neutral and a cationic HILIC column, using mobile phases of varied compositions and pH. The results indicate that: (i) the proportion of carboxylic acids in the humic substances from terrestrial origins is less than half of that from treated wastewater (Jeddah, KSA), (ii) a higher content of basic compounds was observed in the humic substances from treated wastewater and Ribou Reservoir (Cholet, France) than in the sample from Loire River (France), (iii) a higher percentage of hydrophobic macromolecules were found in the humic substances from Loire River than in the other samples, and (iv) humic substances of treated wastewater contained less ionic neutral compounds (i.e., pKa 5-9) than the waters from terrestrial origins. The physicochemical property disparity amongst the compounds in each humic substances sample was also evaluated. The humic substances from the lightly humic Loire river displayed the highest disparity, whereas the highly humic Suwannee river (Georgia, USA) showed the most homogeneous humic substances.

  9. Ultrasonic measurement of elastic constants in fiber-reinforced polymer composites under influence of absorbed moisture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.A.; Toftegaard, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an attempt to quantify hygral aging in fiber-reinforced polymer composites by the elastic constants C-11 and C-33. Quantitative ultrasonic measurements of the elastic constants for three different unidirectional as well as three different cross-ply specimens were compared. The......, and typically moisture expansion coefficients are reported. Moreover, as the ultrasonic pulse form changed in the anisotropic materials, different broadband methods were used to calculate the elastic constants. (C) 2000 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved........ The specimens were manufactured with different moisture resistant surfaces and immersed in water for 24 h. By calculating the elastic constants, it was taken into account that hygral aging was accompanied by absorption of moisture in the polymer matrix. Moisture changed the laminate dimensions significantly...

  10. Direct measurement of chemical composition of SOx in impact vapor using a laser gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Sohsuke; Kadono, Toshihiko; Kurosawa, Kosuke; Hamura, Taiga; Sakaiya, Tatsuhiro; Sugita, Seiji; Shigemori, Keisuke; Hironaka, Yoichiro; Watari, Takeshi; Matsui, Takafumi

    2011-06-01

    The SO3/SO2 ratio of the impact vapor cloud is a key parameter for understanding the environmental perturbation caused by the impact-induced SOx and the killing mechanism of. the mass extinction at the K-Pg boundary. We conducted hypervelocity impact experiments using a high-speed laser gun (GEKKO XII-HIPER, ILE, Osaka University) and measured the chemical compositions of the SOx released from CaSO4. The experimental result indicates that SOx are dominated by SO3. It implies that the SOx generated by the K-Pg impact would have been also dominated by SO3, because the SO3/SO2 ratio of natural planetary scale impact vapor clouds would have been larger than that of the experimental result of this study.

  11. In situ observation and measurement of composites subjected to extremely high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xufei; Yu, Helong; Zhang, Guobing; Su, Hengqiang; Tang, Hongxiang; Feng, Xue

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we develop an instrument to study the ablation and oxidation process of materials such as C/SiC (carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composites) and ultra-high temperature ceramic in extremely high temperature environment. The instrument is integrated with high speed cameras with filtering lens, infrared thermometers and water vapor generator for image capture, temperature measurement, and humid atmosphere, respectively. The ablation process and thermal shock as well as the temperature on both sides of the specimen can be in situ monitored. The results show clearly the dynamic ablation and liquid oxide flowing. In addition, we develop an algorithm for the post-processing of the captured images to obtain the deformation of the specimens, in order to better understand the behavior of the specimen subjected to high temperature.

  12. Residual stresses in a composite steel tube measured by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taran, Yu.V.; Balagurov, A.M.; Zlokazov, V.B.; Schreiber, J.; Stuhr, U.; Kockelmann, H.

    2006-01-01

    The triaxial residual stresses in a composite tube from an austenitic stainless steel with a welded ferritic steel cladding were measured by the time-of-flight neutron diffraction method on the POLDI instrument at the PSI SINQ facility. The POLDI results are compared to the results obtained by the destructive turning out method and theoretical predictions of calculations by the finite element method. Only for the tangential component of the stress tensor the semiquantitative agreement of all used methods was observed. There is a clear discrepancy between the results of the different methods in the axial component. For the radial component all methods reveal quite small stresses, however, with some distinct differences in their distributions

  13. Modeled and Measured Dynamics of a Composite Beam with Periodically Varying Foam Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Randolph H.; Cano, Roberto J.; Schiller, Noah H.; Roberts Gary D.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of a sandwich beam with carbon fiber composite facesheets and foam core with periodic variations in material properties are studied. The purpose of the study is to compare finite element predictions with experimental measurements on fabricated beam specimens. For the study, three beams were fabricated: one with a compliant foam core, a second with a stiffer core, and a third with the two cores alternating down the length of the beam to create a periodic variation in properties. This periodic variation produces a bandgap in the frequency domain where vibrational energy does not readily propagate down the length of the beam. Mode shapes and natural frequencies are compared, as well as frequency responses from point force input to velocity response at the opposite end of the beam.

  14. Comparative Study of Anthropometric Measurement and Body Composition between Elite Handball and Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldijana Muratovic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe anthropometric characteristics and body composition of elite handball and basketball players as well as to make comparisons between them. Fifty-nine males were enrolled in the study, divided into three groups: fifteen handball players, fourteen basketball players and thirty healthy sedentary subjects. The descriptive statistics were expressed as a mean (SD for each variable, while the ANOVA and LSD Post Hoc tests were carried out to detect the effects of each type of sport. The results showed there was no significant difference in body mass index among the groups, while a significant difference was found for body height and body weight as well as for all three of the body contents measured (muscle, bone and fat among the groups. These findings may give coaches from the region better working knowledge and suggest to them to follow recent selection process methods and to be more careful during the recruitment.

  15. Rural measurements of the chemical composition of airborne particles in the Eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, G.T.; Kelly, N.A.; Ferman, M.A.; Morrissey, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of particulate composition was made at three rural sites: in central South Dakota, on the Louisiana Gulf Coastal, and in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia. The first two sites were selected to determine background concentrations in continental polar and maritime tropical air masses, respectively, which affect the eastern United State during the summer. The Virginia site was selected as a receptor site, downwind of the midwestern source area. The South Dakota data established the background concentrations. These concentrations were similar to the levels in Louisiana when air parcels arrived from the Gulf of Mexico, without recently passing over the United States. Levels of fine particles (diameters less than 2.5 μm) were highest in Virginia and were due chiefly to sulfate. Using trajectory and statistical analyses, it is shown that the residence time of an air parcel over the midwestern source area was the most important variable in determining the sulface levels in the Blue Ridge Mountains

  16. Results of the international Pu-2000 exercise for plutonium isotopic composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, J.; Bickel, M.; Hill, C.; Verbruggen, A.

    2004-01-01

    An international comparison for plutonium isotopic composition measurement, known as the Pu-2000 exercise, was organized by the ESARDA NDA-WG (European Safeguards Research and Development Association, Working Group on Techniques and Standards for Non-Destructive Assay). The aim of this comparison was to test X- and γ-ray spectrometry methods over a large range of isotopic ratios. These methods are based on the complex analysis of several X- and γ-rays in the KX region of the plutonium spectrum and also in the 120-700 keV energy range. The results obtained by the participants with their corresponding uncertainties are presented in this document and compared to the declared values. The main conclusions of the work are also given. No important bias due to an inadequate knowledge of the nuclear data for plutonium isotopes was observed

  17. Um estudo numa IPSS

    OpenAIRE

    Casadinho, Anabela Gertrudes Vaqueirinho Bilro

    2014-01-01

    Atualmente, o sucesso das organizações está dependente em grande parte do potencial humano lá existente, ou seja, são esperados resultados mais positivos quando existem ambientes saudáveis de participação, colaboração e cooperação. Este estudo foi inicialmente pensado para investigar o problema das relações com o trabalho em contexto organizacional. A hipótese considerada, é de existirem diferentes modos de relação com o trabalho e que esta se articula com as pertenças sociais. Desta forma...

  18. The effects of polyethylene glycosylated creatine supplementation on anaerobic performance measures and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camic, Clayton L; Housh, Terry J; Zuniga, Jorge M; Traylor, Daniel A; Bergstrom, Haley C; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O; Housh, Dona J

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 28 days of polyethylene glycosylated creatine (PEG-creatine) supplementation (1.25 and 2.50 g·d) on anaerobic performance measures (vertical and broad jumps, 40-yard dash, 20-yard shuttle run, and 3-cone drill), upper- and lower-body muscular strength and endurance (bench press and leg extension), and body composition. This study used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design. Seventy-seven adult men (mean age ± SD, 22.1 ± 2.5 years; body mass, 81.7 ± 10.8 kg) volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to a placebo (n = 23), 1.25 g·d of PEG-creatine (n = 27), or 2.50 g·d of PEG-creatine (n = 27) group. The subjects performed anaerobic performance measures, muscular strength (one-repetition maximum [1RM]), and endurance (80% 1RM) tests for bench press and leg extension, and underwater weighing for the determination of body composition at day 0 (baseline), day 14, and day 28. The results indicated that there were improvements (p yard shuttle run, 3-cone drill, muscular endurance for bench press, and body mass for at least one of the PEG-creatine groups without changes for the placebo group. Thus, the present results demonstrated that PEG-creatine supplementation at 1.25 or 2.50 g·d had an ergogenic effect on lower-body vertical power, agility, change-of-direction ability, upper-body muscular endurance, and body mass.

  19. Precision of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition measurements in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, N.C.; Vasconcellos, R.S.; Canola, J.C.; Carciofi, A.C.; Pereira, G.T.; Paula, F.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    A short-term precision error of the individual subject and the DEXA technique, such as the effect of the repositioning of the cat on the examination table, were established. Four neutered adult cats (BW=4342 g) and three females (BW=3459 g) were submitted to five repeated scans with and without repositioning between them. Precision was estimated from the mean of the five measurements and expressed by the individual coefficient of variation (CV). The precision error of the technique was estimated by the variance of scan pool (n=35) and expressed in CV for the technique (CVt). The degrees of freedom and confidence intervals were determined to avoid underestimation of precision errors. Bone mineral content (BMC), lean mass (LM), and fat mass (FM) averages were higher (P<0.05) when animals were repositioned. The CVt was significantly higher (P<0.05) for bone mineral density (BMD), LM, and FM when the animals were repositioned. For short-term precision measurements, the repositioning of the animal was important to establish the precision of the technique. The dual energy xray absorptiometry method provided precision for body composition measurements in adult cats. (author)

  20. Effect of size and composition of the body on absolute measurement of calcium in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of size and composition of the body on the measurement of total calcium in absolute units by neutron activation analysis is described. The neutron beam, produced from a cyclotron, was of mean energy 7.5 MeV. Counting of the activities induced in a patient was carried out with a multidetector whole body counter. Calibration of the system was achieved by using two phantoms of different sizes containing known quantities of calcium. The dimensions of various phantom sections were varied to determine the effect on efficiency of activation, an approximately linear relationship with body thickness being found. The influence of body habitus on counting efficiency was assessed by counting different patients who had been given known quantities of 42 K. The effects of (a) the non-uniform distribution of calcium and (b) the variation in density of different tissues on both activation and counting efficiency are discussed. It is estimated that the 68% confidence limits on the measurement of 49 Ca count rate per unit neutron fluence is +- 3.0% and on the measurement of calcium in grams +- 8.2%. (author)

  1. On the detectability of transverse cracks in laminated composites using electrical potential change measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Selvakumaran, Lakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Real-time health monitoring of structures made of laminated composites is necessary as significant damage may occur without any visible signs on the surface. Inspection by electrical tomography (ET) seems a viable approach that relies on voltage measurements from a network of electrodes across the inspected domain to infer conductivity change within the bulk material. If conductivity decreases significantly with increasing damage, the obtained conductivity map can be correlated to the degradation state of the material. We focus here on detection of transverse cracks. As transverse cracks modify the in-plane transverse conductivity of a single ply, we expect them to be detectable by electrical measurements. Yet, the quality of detection is directly related to the sensitivity of the measurements to the presence of cracks. We use numerical experiments to demonstrate that the sensitivity depends on several material and geometrical parameters. Based on the results, the applicability of ET to detect transverse cracks is discussed. One conclusion from the study is that detecting transverse cracks using ET is more reliable in some laminate configurations than in others. Recommendations about the properties of either the pristine material or the inspected structures are provided to establish if ET is reliable in detecting transverse cracks.

  2. Potassium Stable Isotopic Compositions Measured by High-Resolution MC-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Leah E.; Lloyd, Nicholas S.; Ellam, Robert M.; Simon, Justin I.

    2012-01-01

    Potassium isotopic (K-41/K-39) compositions are notoriously difficult to measure. TIMS measurements are hindered by variable fractionation patterns throughout individual runs and too few isotopes to apply an internal spike method for instrumental mass fractionation corrections. Internal fractionation corrections via the K-40/K-39 ratio can provide precise values but assume identical K-40/K-39 ratios (e.g. 0.05% (1sigma) in [1]); this is appropriate in some cases (e.g. identifying excess K-41) but not others (e.g., determining mass fractionation effects and metrologically traceable isotopic abundances). SIMS analyses have yielded measurements with 0.25% precisions (1sigma) [2]. ICP-MS analyses are significantly affected by interferences from molecular species such as Ar-38H(+) and Ar-40H(+) and instrument mass bias. Single collector ICP-MS instruments in "cold plasma" mode have yielded uncertainties as low as 2% (1sigma, e.g. [3]). Although these precisions may be acceptable for some concentration determinations, they do not resolve isotopic variation in terrestrial materials. Here we present data from a series of measurements made on the Thermo Scientific NEPTUNE Plus multi-collector ICP-MS that demonstrate the ability to make K-41/K-39 ratio measurements with 0.07% precisions (1sigma). These data, collected on NIST K standards, indicate the potential for MC-ICP-MS measurements to look for K isotopic variations at the sub-permil level. The NEPTUNE Plus can sufficiently resolve 39K and 41K from the interfering 38ArH+ and 40ArH+ peaks in wet cold plasma and high-resolution mode. Measurements were made on small but flat, interference-free, plateaus (ca. 50 ppm by mass width for K-41). Although ICP-MS does not yield accurate K-41/K-39 values due to significant instrumental mass fractionation (ca. 6%), this bias can be sufficiently stable over the time required for several measurements so that relative K-41/K-39 values can be precisely determined via sample

  3. Confiabilidade teste-reteste de aspectos da rede social no Estudo Pró-Saúde Test-retest reliability of measures of social network in the "Pró-Saúde" Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Harter Griep

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os níveis de confiabilidade teste-reteste de informações relativas à rede social no Estudo Pró-saúde. MÉTODOS: Foi estimada a confiabilidade pelo estudo teste-reteste por meio de questionário multidimensional aplicado a uma coorte de trabalhadores de uma universidade. O mesmo questionário foi preenchido duas vezes por 192 funcionários não efetivos da universidade, com duas semanas de intervalo entre as aplicações. A concordância foi estimada pela estatística Kappa (variáveis categóricas, estatística Kappa ponderado e modelos log-lineares (variáveis ordinais, e coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (variáveis discretas. RESULTADOS: As medidas de concordância situaram-se acima de 0,70 para a maioria das variáveis. Estratificando-se as informações segundo gênero, idade e escolaridade, observou-se que a confiabilidade não apresentou padrão consistente de variabilidade. A aplicação de modelos log-lineares indicou que, para as variáveis ordinais do estudo, o modelo de melhor ajuste foi o de "concordância diagonal mais associação linear por linear". CONCLUSÕES: Os altos níveis de confiabilidade estimados permitem concluir que o processo de aferição dos itens sobre rede social foi adequado para as características investigadas. Estudos de validação em andamento complementarão a avaliação da qualidade dessas informações.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate test-retest reliability of social network-related information of the" Pró-Saúde" study. METHODS: A test-retest reliability study was conducted using a multidimensional questionnaire applied to a cohort of university employees. The same questionnaire was filled out twice by 192 non-permanent employees with two weeks apart. Agreement was estimated using kappa statistics (categorical variables, weighted kappa statistics, log-linear models (ordinal variables, and intraclass correlation coefficient (discrete variables. RESULTS: Estimates of reliability

  4. Measuring body composition and energy expenditure in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieken, Rob; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Schierbeek, Henk; Willemsen, Sten P.; Calis, Elsbeth A. C.; Tibboel, Dick; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine

    2011-01-01

    Accurate prediction equations for estimating body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE) in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability are currently lacking. The objective was to develop group-specific equations to predict body composition by using

  5. Measurement of the dijet angular distributions and search for quark compositeness with the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzmann, Andreas Dominik

    2011-10-07

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire (CERN) allows to study the interactions of quarks and gluons in a yet unexplored energy regime. In 2010, the LHC delivered an integrated luminosity of more than 36 pb{sup -1} of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=7 TeV. In these proton-proton collisions, the interactions of the constituent quarks and gluons produced a considerable amount of jets of particles with transverse momenta above 1 TeV. Well suited for the study of these jet processes is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment situated at the LHC point 5 as it can measure jets with the necessary energy and angular resolutions over a large range of transverse momentum ({proportional_to}30 GeVcompositeness). Models describing quarks as bound states of constituent particles may be able to explain the number of quark generations, quark masses and charges. A common signature of these models are additional contact interactions between quarks in high-momentum-transfer interactions, observable in the cross section of jet processes. Inspired by the Rutherford experiment, the scattering angle of two-jet processes (dijets) is measured to study the point-like quark and gluon scattering processes predicted by QCD. The dijet scattering angle is expressed in terms of {chi}{sub dijet} = e {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup y{sub 1}-y

  6. Metabolic Rather Than Body Composition Measurements Are Associated With Lower Serum Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations in Normal Weight and Obese Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla L; Nielsen, Søren J; Andersen, Ulrik B

    2014-01-01

    men (BMI ≥ 30kg/m(2)), we determined body composition (total, android, and gynoid fat mass) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning, and we measured fasting serum concentrations of midregional proatrial NP (MR-proANP) and insulin, as well as fasting plasma glucose concentrations. RESULTS: Mean.......0001) and plasma glucose concentrations (β = -0.21; P = 0.02) but not with total (β = 0.00), android (β = -0.01), or gynoid (β = 0.03) fat mass percentage (P > 0.76). No significant interaction effects between metabolic measurements or body composition measurements and weight status on MR-proANP concentrations...

  7. Repeatability of Volume and Regional Body Composition Measurements of the Lower Limb Using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjorup, Caroline A; Zerahn, Bo; Juul, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    technique allowing multiple measurements of the lower limbs. This study investigated the repeatability of duplicate volume and regional body composition measurements of the lower limb using the GE Lunar Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner Prodigy (GE Medical Systems, Madison, WI). Twenty...

  8. Phantom Effects in School Composition Research: Consequences of Failure to Control Biases Due to Measurement Error in Traditional Multilevel Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Televantou, Ioulia; Marsh, Herbert W.; Kyriakides, Leonidas; Nagengast, Benjamin; Fletcher, John; Malmberg, Lars-Erik

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to quantify the impact of failing to account for measurement error on school compositional effects. Multilevel structural equation models were incorporated to control for measurement error and/or sampling error. Study 1, a large sample of English primary students in Years 1 and 4, revealed a significantly…

  9. Measurement of body composition in cats using computed tomography and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buelund, Lene E; Nielsen, Dorte H; McEvoy, Fintan

    2011-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is a reference method for assessing body composition but is seldom `accessible in veterinary settings. Computed tomography (CT) can provide similar body composition estimates and we propose that it can be used in body composition studies in animals. We...

  10. Two-color, Polarimetric Laser Altimeter Measurements of Forest Canopy Structure and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, P.; Yu, A. W.; Harding, D. J.; Valett, S. R.; Hicks, E.; Shuman, C. A.; Vasilyev, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past decade lidar remote sensing has proven to be a highly effective method for characterization of forest canopy structure and estimation of biomass stocks. However, traditional measurements only provide information on the vertical distribution of surfaces without ability to differentiate surface types. Also, an unresolved aspect of traditional measurements is the contribution of within-canopy multiple scattering to the lidar profiles of canopy structure. Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL) data was acquired in July and August, 2010 for three sites with well-characterized forest structure in order to address these issues. SIMPL is an airborne, four-beam laser altimeter developed through the NASA Earth Science Technology Office Instrument Incubator Program. It acquires single-photon laser ranging data at 532 and 1064 nm, recording range-resolved measurements of reflected energy parallel and perpendicular to the transmit pulse polarization plane. Prior work with a non-ranging, multi-wavelength laser polarimetry demonstrated differentiation of tree species types based on depolarization differences related to surface and volume multiple scattering at the leaf scale. By adding the ranging component, SIMPL provides a means to investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution of optical scattering properties to better understand the interaction of pulsed laser energy with the foliage, stem and branch components of forest canopies. Data were acquired for the deciduous forest cover at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Maryland and mixed deciduous and pine cover in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, two sites being used by the ICESat-2 project to assess micropulse, single-photon measurements of forest canopies. A third site, in the Huron National Forest in Michigan, has had diverse forest silviculture management practices applied to pine stands. The contrasts in forest stands between these sites will be used to illustrate

  11. Agreement of dietary fiber and calorie intake values according to the choice of nutrient composition and household measure tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele DREHMER

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the variations in the daily intake of dietary fiber and calories according to the different nutrient composition and homemade measure tables. Methods: Five different methods based on different nutrient composition and household measure tables were used to calculate daily calorie and fiber intake, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, of 633 pregnant women receiving care in primary health care units in the Southern region of Brazil; they were selected to participate in a cohort study. The agreement between the five methods was evaluated using the Kappa and weighted Kappa coefficients. The Nutritional Support Table, a Brazilian traditional food composition table and the Brazilian household expenditure survey were used in Method 1. Brazilian Food Composition Table and the Table for the Assessment of Household Measures (Pinheiro were used in Methods 2 and 3. The average values of all subtypes of food listed in the Brazilian Food Composition Table for each corresponding item in the food frequency questionnaire were calculated in the method 3. The United States Department of Agriculture Food Composition Table and the table complied by Pinheiro were used in Method 4. The Brazilian Food Composition Table and the Brazilian household expenditure survey were used in Method 5. Results: The highest agreement of calorie intake values were found between Methods 2 and 3 (Kappa=0.94; 0.92-0.95, and the lowest agreement was found between Methods 4 and 5 (Kappa=0.46; 0.42-0.50. As for the fiber intake, the highest agreement was found between Methods 2 and 5 (Kappa=0.87; 0.82-0.90, and the lowest agreement was observed between Methods 1 and 4 (Kappa=0.36; 0.3-0.43. Conclusion: Considerable differences were found between the nutritional composition tables. Therefore, the choice of the table can influence the comparability between studies.

  12. Feasibility study on measuring axial and transverse stress/strain components in composite materials using Bragg sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, G.; Degrieck, J.; De Waele, W.; Van Paepegem, W.; Van Roosbroeck, J.; Chah, K.; Vlekken, J.; McKenzie, I.; Obst, A.

    2017-11-01

    A fibre optic sensor design is proposed for simultaneously measuring the 3D stress (or strain) components and temperature inside thermo hardened composite materials. The sensor is based on two fibre Bragg gratings written in polarisation maintaining fibre. Based on calculations of the condition number, it will be shown that reasonable accuracies are to be expected. First tests on the bare sensors and on the sensors embedded in composite material, which confirm the expected behaviour, will be presented.

  13. Quantitative measurement of carbon nanotubes released from their composites by thermal carbon analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, I; Ata, S; Honda, K; Kotake, M

    2017-01-01

    The release of free carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and CNTs partly embedded in matrix debris into the air may occur during mechanical and abrasion processes involving CNT composites. Since the harmful effects of CNT-matrix mixtures have not yet been fully evaluated, it is considered that any exposure to CNTs, including CNT-matrix mixtures, should be measured and controlled. Thermal carbon analysis, such as Method 5040 of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, is one of the most reliable quantitative methods for measuring CNTs in the air. However, when CNTs are released together with polymer matrices, this technique may be inapplicable. In this study, we evaluated the potential for using thermal carbon analysis to determine CNTs in the presence of polymer matrices. Our results showed that thermal carbon analysis was potentially capable of determining CNTs in distinction from polyamide 12, polybutylene terephthalate, polypropylene, and polyoxymethylene. However, it was difficult to determine CNTs in the presence of polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate, polyetheretherketone, or polyamide 6. (paper)

  14. Identification of impact force acting on composite laminated plates using the radiated sound measured with microphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atobe, Satoshi; Nonami, Shunsuke; Hu, Ning; Fukunaga, Hisao

    2017-09-01

    Foreign object impact events are serious threats to composite laminates because impact damage leads to significant degradation of the mechanical properties of the structure. Identification of the location and force history of the impact that was applied to the structure can provide useful information for assessing the structural integrity. This study proposes a method for identifying impact forces acting on CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) laminated plates on the basis of the sound radiated from the impacted structure. Identification of the impact location and force history is performed using the sound pressure measured with microphones. To devise a method for identifying the impact location from the difference in the arrival times of the sound wave detected with the microphones, the propagation path of the sound wave from the impacted point to the sensor is examined. For the identification of the force history, an experimentally constructed transfer matrix is employed to relate the force history to the corresponding sound pressure. To verify the validity of the proposed method, impact tests are conducted by using a CFRP cross-ply laminate as the specimen, and an impulse hammer as the impactor. The experimental results confirm the validity of the present method for identifying the impact location from the arrival time of the sound wave detected with the microphones. Moreover, the results of force history identification show the feasibility of identifying the force history accurately from the measured sound pressure using the experimental transfer matrix.

  15. Measurement of the optical density of packable composites: comparison between direct and indirect digital systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziottin Luiz Felipe Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the optical density of four packable composite resins with widths of 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm, by means of Digora® (direct and DentScan DentView® (indirect digital imaging systems, in order to compare both methods. Twenty acrylic plates, with the proposed thicknesses, were used, each one containing a sample of each resin. Each acrylic plate was radiographed three times, under a standardized technique. For the Digora® system, an optical plate was used under each resin sample, and, for the DentScan DentView® system, occlusal films were employed, totalizing 60 exposures for each system. Optical plates and films were scanned and three consecutive optical readouts were carried out, totalizing 1,440 readouts. The results were submitted to statistical analysis and revealed that the average optical density of the four resins always increased as thickness increased. Regarding the comparisons between the composite resins, in both analysis the resin with the greater optical density was SurefilTM followed by ProdigyTM Condensable, AlertTM and Solitaire®. The correlations between the results of Digora® and DentScan DentView® were significant for the different thicknesses and materials. The observed tendency is that as the values obtained with the Digora® system increase, so do the values obtained with DentScan DentView®. While thickness increased, the values of optical density in both Digora® and DentScan DentView® tended to approach each other. The Digora® system presented smaller amplitude between the results obtained in adjacent thicknesses.

  16. Estudo comparativo das medidas manual e digital da fenda palpebral A comparative study of the manual and digital measurements of the palpebral fissure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Pereira Nunes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a medida manual do comprimento vertical da fenda palpebral e sua medida obtida por meio de processamento computadorizado de imagens de indivíduos sem alterações palpebrais. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 102 fendas palpebrais de 51 indivíduos normais. A faixa etária variou entre 17 e 84 anos, sendo 25 (49% do sexo masculino e 26 (51% do sexo feminino. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as medidas manuais da fenda palpebral e as obtidas por meio de processamento computadorizado de imagens. Também não se observou diferença entre ambos os sexos e a faixa etária. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados obtidos com estes dois métodos podem ser comparados entre si devida à equivalência estatística das medidas.PURPOSE: To compare the measurement of the palpebral fissure done either manually and by computer analysis of image of individuals without lid alterations. METHODS: One hundred two palpebral fissures from 51 normal subjects have been analyzed. The patients' age ranged from 17 to 84 years, with 25 (49% males and 26 (51% females. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the measurements done either manually or by computer analysis of images, neither, when we grouped the patients by sex or age. Also we did not observe difference between males and females, and regarding age. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained by both methods are comparable and reliable due to the statistical equivalence of the obtained measurements.

  17. A PRESSURE ULCER AND FALL RATE QUALITY COMPOSITE INDEX FOR ACUTE CARE UNITS: A MEASURE DEVELOPMENT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardhana, Ananda; Burman, Mary E.; Dunton, Nancy E.; Staggs, Vincent S.; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra; Gajewski, Byron J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Composite indices are single measures that combine the strengths of two or more individual measures and provide broader, easy-to-use measures for evaluation of provider performance and comparisons across units and hospitals to support quality improvement. Objective The study objective was to develop a unit-level inpatient composite nursing care quality performance index – the Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index. Design Two-phase measure development study. Settings 5,144 patient care units in 857 United States hospitals participating in the National Database of Nursing Quality Indictors® during the year 2013. Methods The Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index was developed in two phases. In Phase 1 the formula was generated using a utility function and generalized penalty analysis. Experts with experience in healthcare quality measurement provided the point of indicator equivalence. In Phase 2 initial validity evidence was gathered based on hypothesized relationships between the Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index and other variables using two-level (unit, hospital) hierarchical linear mixed modeling. Results The Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index = 100 − PUR − FR, where PUR is pressure ulcer rate and FR is total fall rate. Higher scores indicate better quality. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated agreement between pairs of experts and provided evidence for inter-rater reliability of the formula. The validation process demonstrated that higher registered nurse skill mix, higher percent of registered nurses with a baccalaureate in nursing or higher degree, higher percent of registered nurses with national specialty certification, and lower percent of hours supplied by agency staff were significantly associated with higher Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index scores. Higher percentages of unit patients at risk for a hospital-acquired pressure ulcer and higher unit rates of

  18. Curiosity and the Four Seasons: In Situ Measurements of the Atmospheric Composition over Three Mars Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainer, M. G.; Franz, H. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Malespin, C.; Wong, M. H.; Atreya, S. K.; Becker, R. H.; Conrad, P. G.; Lefèvre, F.; Manning, H. L. K.; Martin-Torres, F. J.; McConnochie, T.; McKay, C.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Pepin, R. O.; Webster, C. R.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover measures the chemical composition of major atmospheric species in the vicinity of the rover through a dedicated atmospheric inlet. We report here on measurements of atmospheric volume mixing ratios in Gale Crater using the SAM quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), over a period of nearly three Mars years (5 Earth years) from landing. The observation period spans the southern winter of MY 31, solar longitude (Ls) of 175° through southern fall of MY 34, Ls = 12°. The initial mixing ratios measured by the SAM QMS were reported for the first 105 sols of the mission [1], and were updated to account for newly developed calibration factors [2]. The SAM QMS atmospheric measurements were continued, periodically interspersed between solid sample measurements and other rover activities, with a cumulative coverage of 4 or 5 experiments per season. The three major volatiles - CO2, N2, and 40Ar - are compatible with the annual pressure cycle but with a repeatable lag that indicates incomplete mixing and the influences of seasonal circulation patterns. The mixing ratios for the two inert, non-condensable species are qualitatively consistent with what is predicted from annual cycle of CO2 deposition and sublimation at the poles, which is manifested in a large enhancement of Ar mixing ratio at the winter poles (and assumed for N2) [3]. The mixing ratio for the minor species O2 appears to follow a distinct seasonal trend and may be indicative of possible deviations from known atmospheric chemistry or a surface flux of oxygen from an unknown source, or both. This unprecedented seasonal coverage and precision in mixing ratio determination provides valuable data for understanding the seasonal chemical and dynamics cycles. Further, this measurement campaign supplies useful ground-truth data for global climate model simulations, which can study atmospheric effects for other locations on Mars

  19. Comparison of the guaranteed analysis with the measured nutrient composition of commercial pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Richard C; Choate, Christina J; Scott, Karen C; Molenberghs, Geert

    2009-02-01

    To compare guaranteed and measured concentrations of nutrients in commercial pet foods. Cross-sectional study. Annual inspection reports of pet food analyses from 5 states. Guaranteed and measured concentrations of crude protein (CP), crude fat (CF), crude fiber (CFb), moisture, and ash in pet foods were compared. The concentration difference for each nutrient was compared among types of food, target species, target life stages, manufacturers, and laboratories. The guaranteed and measured concentrations of nutrients were significantly different. For all foods, mean concentration differences were as follows: CP, 1.5%; CF, 1.0%; CFb, -0.7%; moisture, -4.0%; and ash, -0.5%. Crude protein difference for treats was significantly larger than differences for dry and canned foods. Crude fat difference for dry foods was significantly less than differences for canned foods and treats. Crude fiber and moisture differences for canned foods were significantly less than the corresponding differences for dry foods and treats. Only CFb differences differed among target species, life stages, manufacturers, or laboratories. Addition of 1.5% and 1% to the guaranteed minimums for CP and CF, respectively; subtraction of 0.7%, 4%, and 0.5% from the guaranteed maximums for CFb, moisture, and ash, respectively; and addition of 0.23 kcal/g to the as-fed metabolizable energy value calculated by use of modified Atwater factors from guaranteed analyses provides a more accurate estimate of the nutrient and metabolizable energy content of commercial pet foods. Nevertheless, the actual composition of a food should be determined whenever possible.

  20. Laser distance measurement using a newly developed composite-type optical fiberscope for fetoscopic laser surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Takeshi; Oka, Kiyoshi; Naganawa, Akihiro; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Kim, Keri; Chiba, Toshio

    2010-10-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a condition of twins disproportionately sharing blood by the communicating vessels in the shared placenta and resulting in the significantly high fetal and perinatal mortality rate. Fetoscopic laser surgery is performed to block these communicating vessels. It is difficult, however, to perceive the distance from the tip of the fetoscope to the placental surface with only a two-dimensional fetoscopic view. When the distance is too short it causes excessive irradiation and even the risk of inadvertent damage to the placenta. On the other hand, not only target vessels but also adjacent tissues can be irradiated when it is too long. We have developed a composite-type optical fiberscope (COF) that was able to observe the target area and also to perform laser irradiation at the same time. In this paper, we studied a method to estimate the distance from the tip of the COF to the target area. We combined the COF with a laser blood-flow meter. Using laser light from the meter, we measured the total amount of light received ("REFLEX") and estimated the relation between the "REFLEX" value and the laser irradiation distance. Further in vivo experiments were subsequently carried out using porcine mesenteric blood vessels. The results showed that the distance and the "REFLEX" value were inversely proportional, irrespective of the experimental environment (e.g. in air, water and amniotic fluid-like solution) and the target object. In the in vivo experiments, we quantitatively measured the distance within an accuracy of ±1 mm (approximately 10%). In conclusion, our new system was able to measure the distance in vivo enabling a surgeon to safely and effectively perform laser irradiation at a suitable distance. The system can be used not only for fetoscopic surgery but also for general endoscopic surgery.

  1. Measurement of the cosmic ray composition at the knee with the SPASE-2/AMANDA-B10 detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, J; Andrés, E; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Bay, R C; Becka, T; Becker, K H; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Binon, F; Biron, A; Boersma, D J; Boser, S; Botner, O; Bouchta, A; Bouhali, O; Burgess, T; Carius, S; Castermans, T; Chirkin, D; Conrad, J; Cooley, J; Cowen, D F; Davour, A; De Clercq, C; De Young, T R; Desiati, P; Dewulf, J P; Dickinson, E; Ekstrom, P; Engel, R; Evenson, P; Feser, T; Gaisser, T K; Ganugapati, R; Gaug, M; Geenen, H; Gerhardt, L; Goldschmidt, A; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Hardtke, R; Hauschildt, T; Hellwig, M; Herquet, P; Hill, G C; Hinton, J A; Hubert, D; Hughey, B; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hundertmark, S; Jacobsen, J; Karle, A; Kim, J; Köpke, L; Kowalski, M; Kühn, K; Lamoureux, J I; Leich, H; Leuthold, M; Lindahl, P; Liubarsky, I; Lloyd Evans, J; Madsen, J; Mandli, K; Marciniewski, P; Martino, J R; Matis, H S; McParland, C P; Messarius, T; Miller, T C; Minaeva, Y; Miocinovic, P; Mock, P C; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Neunhoffer, T; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Ogleman, H; Olbrechts, P; Pohl, A C; Porrata, R; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richter, S; Rochester, K; Ross, D; Sander, H G; Schinarakis, K; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidt, T; Schneider, D; Schwarz, R; Silvestri, A; Solarz, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Steele, D; Steffen, P; Stokstad, R G; Sulanke, K H; Taboada, I; Tilav, S; Wagner, W; Walck, C; Wang, Y R; Watson, A A; Wiebusch, C; Wiedemann, C; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Wu, W; Yodh, G; Young, S; Pérez de los Heros, C; 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2004.04.007

    2004-01-01

    The mass composition of high-energy cosmic rays at energies above 10 /sup 15/ eV can provide crucial information for the understanding of their origin. Air showers were measured simultaneously with the SPASE-2 air shower array and the AMANDA-B10 Cherenkov telescope at the South Pole. This combination has the advantage to sample almost all high-energy shower muons and is thus a new approach to the determination of the cosmic ray composition. The change in the cosmic ray mass composition was measured versus existing data from direct measurements at low energies. Our data show an increase of the mean log atomic mass by about 0.8 between 500 TeV and 5 PeV. This trend of an increasing mass through the "knee" region is robust against a variety of systematic effects.

  2. High-precision measurements of seawater Pb isotope compositions by double spike thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Maxence; Bridgestock, Luke; Rehkämper, Mark; van DeFlierdt, Tina; Weiss, Dominik

    2015-03-10

    A new method for the determination of seawater Pb isotope compositions and concentrations was developed, which combines and optimizes previously published protocols for the separation and isotopic analysis of this element. For isotopic analysis, the procedure involves initial separation of Pb from 1 to 2L of seawater by co-precipitation with Mg hydroxide and further purification by a two stage anion exchange procedure. The Pb isotope measurements are subsequently carried out by thermal ionization mass spectrometry using a (207)Pb-(204)Pb double spike for correction of instrumental mass fractionation. These methods are associated with a total procedural Pb blank of 28±21 pg (1sd) and typical Pb recoveries of 40-60%. The Pb concentrations are determined by isotope dilution (ID) on 50 mL of seawater, using a simplified version of above methods. Analyses of multiple aliquots of six seawater samples yield a reproducibility of about ±1 to ±10% (1sd) for Pb concentrations of between 7 and 50 pmol/kg, where precision was primarily limited by the uncertainty of the blank correction (12±4 pg; 1sd). For the Pb isotope analyses, typical reproducibilities (±2sd) of 700-1500 ppm and 1000-2000 ppm were achieved for (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (207)Pb/(204)Pb, (208)Pb/(204)Pb, respectively. These results are superior to literature data that were obtained using plasma source mass spectrometry and they are at least a factor of five more precise for ratios involving the minor (204)Pb isotope. Both Pb concentration and isotope data, furthermore, show good agreement with published results for two seawater intercomparison samples of the GEOTRACES program. Finally, the new methods were applied to a seawater depth profile from the eastern South Atlantic. Both Pb contents and isotope compositions display a smooth evolution with depth, and no obvious outliers. Compared to previous Pb isotope data for seawater, the (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratios are well correlated

  3. Developing a Workflow Composite Score to Measure Clinical Information Logistics. A Top-down Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, J D; Hübner, U; Straede, M C; Thye, J

    2015-01-01

    Availability and usage of individual IT applications have been studied intensively in the past years. Recently, IT support of clinical processes is attaining increasing attention. The underlying construct that describes the IT support of clinical workflows is clinical information logistics. This construct needs to be better understood, operationalised and measured. It is therefore the aim of this study to propose and develop a workflow composite score (WCS) for measuring clinical information logistics and to examine its quality based on reliability and validity analyses. We largely followed the procedural model of MacKenzie and colleagues (2011) for defining and conceptualising the construct domain, for developing the measurement instrument, assessing the content validity, pretesting the instrument, specifying the model, capturing the data and computing the WCS and testing the reliability and validity. Clinical information logistics was decomposed into the descriptors data and information, function, integration and distribution, which embraced the framework validated by an analysis of the international literature. This framework was refined selecting representative clinical processes. We chose ward rounds, pre- and post-surgery processes and discharge as sample processes that served as concrete instances for the measurements. They are sufficiently complex, represent core clinical processes and involve different professions, departments and settings. The score was computed on the basis of data from 183 hospitals of different size, ownership, location and teaching status. Testing the reliability and validity yielded encouraging results: the reliability was high with r(split-half) = 0.89, the WCS discriminated between groups; the WCS correlated significantly and moderately with two EHR models and the WCS received good evaluation results by a sample of chief information officers (n = 67). These findings suggest the further utilisation of the WCS. As the WCS does not

  4. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa, Ganymede, and the Jovian Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Hartle, R.; Paterson ,W.; Christian, E.; Mahaffy, P.; Paschalidis, N.; Lipatov, A.; Sarantos, M.; Coplan, M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    NASA and ESA are now planning a reduced version of the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), potentially including a radically descoped Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) but still with magnetometer and plasma instruments. Similar field and plasma instrumentation would also reside on ESA's Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO), which conceivably could carry out multiple flybys of Europa before entering orbit at Ganymede. We are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) designed to measure both major and minor ion species within the high radiation environment of Jupiter s magnetosphere and the icy Galilean moons. The IMS covers the energy range from 10 eV to 30 keV, wide field-ofview (FOV) capability and 10-60 sec time resolution for major ions. This instrument has two main goals: 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter s magnetosphere and 2) infer the global surface composition to trace elemental and significant isotopic levels; these goals are also applicable for in-situ measurements at Ganymede and Callisto, and remotely everywhere via the iogenic plasma for Io. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second goal gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, e.g. mainly from Io to the other moons, and further allows detection of oceanic materials emergent to the moon surfaces from subsurface layers putatively including salt water oceans. Outgassed exospheric materials are probed by the IMS by measuring pickup ions accelerated up to spacecraft altitudes of approximately 100-200 km in electric fields extending through the local magnetospheric environment and moon exosphere to the surface. Our 3D hybrid kinetic model of the moon-magnetosphere interaction is used to construct a global model of electric and magnetic fields for tracing of pickup ion trajectories back to the sources at approximate surface resolution of 100 km. We

  5. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa, Ganymede, and the Jovian System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Cooper, J. F.; Hartle, R. E.; Paterson, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Lipatov, A. S.; Mahaffy, P R.; Paschalidis, N.; Sarantos, M.; Coplan, M. A.; hide

    2011-01-01

    NASA and ESA are now planning a reduced version of the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), potentially including a radically descoped Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) but still with magnetometer and plasma instruments. Similar field and plasma instrumentation would also reside on ESA's Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO), which conceivably could carry out multiple flybys of Europa before entering orbit at Ganymede. We are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) designed to measure both major and minor ion species within the high radiation environment of Jupiter's magnetosphere and the icy Galilean moons. The IMS covers the energy range from 10 eV to 30 keY, wide field-of-view (FOV) capability and 10-60 sec time resolution for major ions. This instrument has two main goals: 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter's magnetosphere and 2) infer the global surface composition to trace elemental and significant isotopic levels; these goals are also applicable for in-situ measurements at Ganymede and Callisto, and remotely everywhere via the iogenic plasma for 10. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second goal gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, e.g. mainly from 10 to the other moons, and further allows detection of oceanic materials emergent to the moon surfaces from subsurface layers putatively including salt water oceans. Outgassed exospheric materials are probed by the IMS by measuring pickup ions accelerated up to spacecraft altitudes of approximately 100-200 km in electric fields extending through the local magnetospheric environment and moon exosphere to the surface. Our 3D hybrid kinetic model of the moon-magnetosphere interaction is used to construct a global model of electric and magnetic fields for tracing of pickup ion trajectories back to the sources at approximate surface resolution of 100 km. We

  6. Measuring effectiveness of electronic medical records systems: towards building a composite index for benchmarking hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, George Ochieng; Hinako, Toyama; Motohiro, Asonuma; Daisuke, Koide; Keiko, Naitoh

    2008-10-01

    Many hospitals are currently in the process of developing and implementing electronic medical records (EMR) systems. This is a critical time for developing a framework that can measure and allow for comparison the effectiveness of EMR systems across hospitals that have implemented these systems. The motivation for this study comes from the realization that there is limited research on the understanding of the effectiveness of EMR systems, and a lack of appropriate reference theoretical framework for measuring the effectiveness of EMR systems. In this paper, we propose a conceptual framework for generating a composite index (CI) for measuring the effectiveness of EMR systems in hospitals. Data used to test the framework and associated research objectives were derived from a cross-sectional survey of five stakeholders of EMR systems including chief medical officers, chief nursing officers, chief information officers, doctors and nurses in 20 Japanese hospitals. Using statistical means of standardization and principal component analysis (PCA) procedure, CI was developed by summing up the scores of four dimensions-system quality, information quality, use and user satisfaction. The process included formulating items for each dimension, condensing the data into factors relevant to the dimension and calculating the CI by summing up the product of each dimension with its respective principal component score coefficient. The Cronbach's alpha for the four dimensions used in developing CI was .843. Validation of CI revealed that it was correlated to internal dimensions (system quality, R=.828; information quality, R=.909; use, R=.969; and user satisfaction, R=.679) and to external factors (JAHIS level, R=.832 and patient safety culture, R=.585). These results suggest that CI could be a reliable and valid measure of the effectiveness of EMR systems in the responding hospitals. On benchmarking of hospitals, 30.0% (6/20) of the responding hospitals performed less than

  7. Direct measurement of elastic modulus of Nb 3Sn using extracted filaments from superconducting composite wire and resin impregnation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Tanaka, M.; Sugano, M.; Ochiai, S.; Miyashita, K.

    2006-10-01

    Young's modulus of Nb3Sn filaments in Nb3Sn/Cu superconducting composite wire was investigated in detail. Nb3Sn filaments were first extracted from composite wire. Nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid were used to remove copper stabilizer, Nb3Sn/Nb barrier and bronze. Then, Nb3Sn filaments were impregnated with epoxy resin to form simple filament bundle composite rods. A large difference in Young's moduli of filaments and epoxy resin enhance the accuracy of the measurement of Nb3Sn filament modulus. The ratio of Nb3Sn to Nb in filaments and the number of filaments in the fiber bundle composite rods were used in the final calculation of the Young's modulus of Nb3Sn. The obtained modulus of 127 GPa was the lower bound of the already reported values.

  8. Direct measurement of elastic modulus of Nb3Sn using extracted filaments from superconducting composite wire and resin impregnation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Tanaka, M.; Sugano, M.; Ochiai, S.; Miyashita, K.

    2006-01-01

    Young's modulus of Nb 3 Sn filaments in Nb 3 Sn/Cu superconducting composite wire was investigated in detail. Nb 3 Sn filaments were first extracted from composite wire. Nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid were used to remove copper stabilizer, Nb 3 Sn/Nb barrier and bronze. Then, Nb 3 Sn filaments were impregnated with epoxy resin to form simple filament bundle composite rods. A large difference in Young's moduli of filaments and epoxy resin enhance the accuracy of the measurement of Nb 3 Sn filament modulus. The ratio of Nb 3 Sn to Nb in filaments and the number of filaments in the fiber bundle composite rods were used in the final calculation of the Young's modulus of Nb 3 Sn. The obtained modulus of 127 GPa was the lower bound of the already reported values

  9. Composition measurement in substitutionally disordered materials by atomic resolution energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Taplin, D J; Weyland, M; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D

    2017-05-01

    The increasing use of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy invites the question of whether its success in precision composition determination at lower magnifications can be replicated in the atomic resolution regime. In this paper, we explore, through simulation, the prospects for composition measurement via the model system of Al x Ga 1-x As, discussing the approximations used in the modelling, the variability in the signal due to changes in configuration at constant composition, and the ability to distinguish between different compositions. Results are presented in such a way that the number of X-ray counts, and thus the expected variation due to counting statistics, can be gauged for a range of operating conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Light composite Higgs boson from higher representations versus electroweak precision measurements: Predictions for CERN LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, Dennis D.; Sannino, Francesco; Tuominen, Kimmo

    2005-01-01

    neutrino. Extensions with a larger value of the hypercharge naturally featuring doubly charged leptons are also favored by precision measurements. We also propose theories in which the critical number of flavors needed to enter the conformal window is higher than the one with fermions in the two-index symmetric representation, but lower than in the walking technicolor theories with fermions only in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. The simplest theories are the ones in which we add a (techni)gluino to the theory, while the rest of the matter fermions remain in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. Although these theories share some features with split supersymmetric theories, they are introduced here to address the hierarchy problem. Because of the near-conformal/chiral phase transition, we show that the composite Higgs is very light compared to the intrinsic scale of the technicolor theory. For the two technicolor theory we predict the composite Higgs mass not to exceed 150 GeV. We also provide estimates for the Higgs mass in walking technicolor theories with fermions in the fundamental representation and show that in this case the mass is around 400 GeV

  11. Field effect measurements on charge carrier mobilities in various polymer-fullerene blend compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauff, Elizabeth von; Parisi, Juergen; Dyakonov, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated materials typically used in polymer photovoltaics. Field effect measurements were performed in order to determine the hole mobilities in the conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the electron mobilities in the methanofullerene[6,6]-phenyl C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), and, particularly, in the polymer-fullerene composite blends. Regarding the pure films, electron mobilities in PCBM were found to be in the 10 -2 cm 2 /Vs range, and hole mobilities in P3HT were found to be in the 10 -3 cm2/Vs range. In the PCBM:P3HT blends, it was found that varying the PCBM content in PCBM:P3HT blends led to a steep increase in electron mobility with increasing PCBM content, while the hole mobility was found to slightly decrease with the increasing PCBM concentration. In 2:1 PCBM:P3HT tempered blends, the charge carrier mobilities were found to be roughly balanced, at 10 -3 cm 2 /Vs. For improved electron transport in the blends, tempering was found to be crucial

  12. Method to measure composition modifications in polyethylene terephthalate during ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdesselam, M.; Stoquert, J. P.; Chami, S.; Djebara, M.; Chami, A. C.; Siad, M.

    2009-01-01

    Matter losses of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, Mylar) films induced by 1600 keV deuteron beams have been investigated in situ simultaneously by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), deuteron forward elastic scattering (DFES) and hydrogen elastic recoil detection (HERD) in the fluence range from 1 × 10 14 to 9 × 10 16 cm -2. Volatile degradation products escape from the polymeric film, mostly as hydrogen-, oxygen- and carbon-containing molecules. Appropriate experimental conditions for observing the composition and thickness changes during irradiation are determined. 16O(d,p 0) 17O, 16O(d,p 1) 17O and 12C(d,p 0) 13C nuclear reactions were used to monitor the oxygen and carbon content as a function of deuteron fluence. Hydrogen release was determined simultaneously by H(d,d)H DFES and H(d,H)d HERD. Comparisons between NRA, DFES and HERD measurements show that the polymer carbonizes at high fluences because most of the oxygen and hydrogen depletion has already occured below a fluence of 3 × 10 16 cm -2. Release curves for each element are determined. Experimental results are consistent with the bulk molecular recombination (BMR) model.

  13. The GOES-16 Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) Ion Composition and Flux Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) was built by the University of New Hampshire, subcontracted to Assurance Technology Corporation, as part of the Space Environmental In-Situ Suite (SEISS) on the new GOES-16 satellite (formerly GOES-R) in Geostationary orbit. EHIS measures energetic ions over the range 10-200 MeV for protons, and energy ranges for heavy ions corresponding to the same stopping range (e.g., 19-207 MeV/u for carbon and 38-488 MeV/u for iron). EHIS uses the Angle Detecting Inclined Sensors (ADIS) technique to provide single-element charge resolution. Though on an operational mission for Space Weather monitoring, EHIS can thus provide a new source of high quality Solar Particle Event (SPE) data for science studies. With a high rate of on-board processing ( 2000 events/s), EHIS will provide exceptional statistics for ion composition measurements in large SPEs. For the GOES Level 1-B and Level 2 data products, heavy ions are distinguished in EHIS using pulse-height analysis with on-board processing producing charge histograms for five energy bands. Fits to these data are normalized to priority rate data on the ground. The instrumental cadence for histograms is 1 minute and the primary Level 1-B heavy ion data products are 1-minute and 5-minute averages. We discuss the preliminary EHIS heavy ion data results which show elemental peaks from H to Fe, with peaks for the isotopes D and 3He. (GOES-16 was launched in 19 November, 2016 and data has, though July 2017, been dominated by Galactic Cosmic Rays.) The EHIS instrument development project was funded by NASA under contract NNG06HX01C.

  14. Relationships between measures of fitness, physical activity, body composition and vascular function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, N D; Stratton, G; Tinken, T M; McWhannell, N; Ridgers, N D; Graves, L E F; George, K; Cable, N T; Green, D J

    2009-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity in Western countries has increased rapidly. Both are modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis begins in childhood and endothelial dysfunction is its earliest detectable manifestation. We assessed flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 129 children (75 female; 10.3+0.3 yrs; 54 male; 10.4; 0.3 yrs). FMD was normalised for differences in the eliciting shear rate stimulus between subjects (SR(AUC)). Fitness was assessed as peak oxygen uptake during an incremental treadmill exercise test (V O(2)peak). Body composition was measured using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. Physical activity (PA) was assessed using Actigraph accelerometers. The cohort was split into tertiles according to FMD% and also FMD% corrected for SR(AUC) to gain insight into the determinants of vascular function. Across the cohort, significant correlations were observed between FMD%/SR(AUC) and DEXA percentage fat (r=-0.23, p=0.009) and percentage lean mass (r=0.21, p=0.008), and also with PA performed at moderate-to-high intensity (r=0.363, p=0.001). For children in the lowest FMD%/SR(AUC) tertile, a stronger relationship with all PA measures was observed, particularly with high intensity PA (r=0.572, P=0.003). Regression analysis revealed that high intensity PA was the only predictor of impaired FMD%/SR(AUC). These data suggest that traditional risk factors for CHD in adult populations impact upon vascular function in young people. Furthermore, it appears that individuals with impaired FMD may benefit from performing high intensity PA, whereas no relationships exist between FMD and lower intensities of PA or between PA and FMD in those subjects who possess preserved vascular function a priori.

  15. Natural Ca Isotope Composition of Urine as a Rapid Measure of Bone Mineral Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Morgan, J.; Romaniello, S. J.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Naturally occurring stable Ca isotope variations in urine are emerging as a powerful tool to detect changes in bone mineral balance. Bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases isotopically light Ca into soft tissue. Previously published work found that variations in Ca isotope composition could be detected at 4 weeks of bed rest in a 90-day bed rest study (data collected at 4, 8 and 12 weeks). A new 30-day bed rest study involved 12 patients on a controlled diet, monitored for 7 days prior to bed rest and 7 days post bed rest. Samples of urine, blood and food were collected throughout the study. Four times daily blood samples and per void urine samples were collected to monitor diurnal or high frequency variations. An improved chemical purification protocol, followed by measurement using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) allowed accurate and precise determinations of mass-dependent Ca isotope variations in these biological samples to better than ±0.2% (δ44/42Ca) on biomarker. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged over this period. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Using a mass-balance model, our results indicate an average loss of 0.62 ± 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. This is consistent with the rate of bone loss in longer-term studies as seen by X-ray measurements. This Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  16. Spectral analysis of atmospheric composition: application to surface ozone model–measurement comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Bowdalo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Models of atmospheric composition play an essential role in our scientific understanding of atmospheric processes and in providing policy strategies to deal with societally relevant problems such as climate change, air quality, and ecosystem degradation. The fidelity of these models needs to be assessed against observations to ensure that errors in model formulations are found and that model limitations are understood. A range of approaches are necessary for these comparisons. Here, we apply a spectral analysis methodology for this comparison. We use the Lomb–Scargle periodogram, a method similar to a Fourier transform, but better suited to deal with the gapped data sets typical of observational data. We apply this methodology to long-term hourly ozone observations and the equivalent model (GEOS-Chem output. We show that the spectrally transformed observational data show a distinct power spectrum with regimes indicative of meteorological processes (weather, macroweather and specific peaks observed at the daily and annual timescales together with corresponding harmonic peaks at one-half, one-third, etc., of these frequencies. Model output shows corresponding features. A comparison between the amplitude and phase of these peaks introduces a new comparison methodology between model and measurements. We focus on the amplitude and phase of diurnal and seasonal cycles and present observational/model comparisons and discuss model performance. We find large biases notably for the seasonal cycle in the mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere where the amplitudes are generally overestimated by up to 16 ppbv, and phases are too late on the order of 1–5 months. This spectral methodology can be applied to a range of model–measurement applications and is highly suitable for Multimodel Intercomparison Projects (MIPs.

  17. Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinne, S.; Toon, O.B.; Toon, G.C.; Farmer, C.B.; Browell, E.V.; McCormick, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The attenuation of solar radiation between 1.8- and 15-μm wavelength was measured with the airborne Jet Propulsion Laboratory Mark IV interferometer during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Expedition in 1987. The measurements not only provide information about the abundance of stratospheric gases, but also about the optical depths of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) at wavelengths of negligible gas absorption. The spectral dependence of the PSC optical depth contains information about PSC particle size and particle composition. Thirty-three PSC cases were analyzed and categorized into two types. Type I clouds contain particles with radii of about 0.5 μm and nitric acid concentrations greater than 40%. Type II clouds contain particles composed of water ice with radii of 6 μm and larger. Cloud altitudes were determined from 1.064-μm backscattering observations of the airborne Langley DIAL lidar system. Based on the PSC geometrical thickness, both mass and particle density were estimated. Type I clouds typically had visible wavelength optical depths of about 0.008, mass densities of about 20 ppb, and about 2 particles/cm 3 . The observed type II clouds had optical depths of about 0.03, mass densities of about 400 ppb mass, and about 0.03 particles/cm 3 . The detected PSC type I clouds extended to altitudes of 21 km and were nearly in the ozone-depleted region of the polar stratosphere. The observed type II cases during September were predominantly found at altitudes below 15 km

  18. A new composite measure of colonoscopy: the Performance Indicator of Colonic Intubation (PICI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valori, Roland M; Damery, Sarah; Gavin, Daniel R; Anderson, John T; Donnelly, Mark T; Williams, J Graham; Swarbrick, Edwin T

    2018-01-01

     Cecal intubation rate (CIR) is an established performance indicator of colonoscopy. In some patients, cecal intubation with acceptable tolerance is only achieved with additional sedation. This study proposes a composite Performance Indicator of Colonic Intubation (PICI), which combines CIR, comfort, and sedation. METHODS : Data from 20 085 colonoscopies reported in the 2011 UK national audit were analyzed. PICI was defined as the percentage of procedures achieving cecal intubation with median dose (2 mg) of midazolam or less, and nurse-assessed comfort score of 1 - 3/5. Multivariate logistic regression analysis evaluated possible associations between PICI and patient, unit, colonoscopist, and diagnostic factors. RESULTS : PICI was achieved in 54.1 % of procedures. PICI identified factors affecting performance more frequently than single measures such as CIR and polyp detection, or CIR + comfort alone. Older age, male sex, adequate bowel preparation, and a positive fecal occult blood test as indication were associated with a higher PICI. Unit accreditation, the presence of magnetic imagers in the unit, greater annual volume, fewer years' experience, and higher training/trainer status were associated with higher PICI rates. Procedures in which PICI was achieved were associated with significantly higher polyp detection rates than when PICI was not achieved. CONCLUSIONS : PICI provides a simpler picture of performance of colonoscopic intubation than separate measures of CIR, comfort, and sedation. It is associated with more factors that are amenable to change that might improve performance and with higher likelihood of polyp detection. It is proposed that PICI becomes the key performance indicator for intubation of the colon in colonoscopy quality improvement initiatives. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Biobased carbon content of resin extracted from polyethylene composite by carbon-14 concentration measurements using accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Kazuhiro; Kunioka, Masao; Funabashi, Masahiro; Ninomiya, Fumi

    2014-01-01

    An estimation procedure for biobased carbon content of polyethylene composite was studied using carbon-14 ((14)C) concentration ratios as measured by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS). Prior to the measurement, additives and fillers in composites should be removed because they often contain a large amount of biobased carbon and may shift the estimation. Samples of resin with purity suitable for measurement were isolated from composites with a Soxhlet extractor using heated cyclohexanone. After cooling of extraction solutions, the resin was recovered as a fine semi-crystalline precipitate, which was easily filtered. Recovery rates were almost identical (99%), even for low-density polyethylene and linear low-density polyethylene, which may have lower crystallinity. This procedure could provide a suitable approach for estimation of biobased carbon content by AMS on the basis of the standard ASTM D 6866. The biobased carbon content for resin extracted from polyethylene composites allow for the calculation of biosynthetic polymer content, which is an indicator of mass percentage of the biobased plastic resin in the composite.

  20. Relação entre sistemas de medição de desempenho e projetos Seis Sigma: estudo de caso múltiplo The relationship between performance measurement systems and Six Sigma projects: multiple case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Coser Mergulhão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é investigar a relação existente entre sistemas de medição de desempenho e desenvolvimento dos projetos seis sigma por meio de estudo de caso múltiplo. O relacionamento mútuo estabelecido a partir do referencial teórico foi observado na pesquisa de campo. Além disto, observou-se que existe um caráter temporal nessa relação. O sistema de medição de desempenho exerce influência primeiro. O relacionamento se dá por meio de fatores que exercem influência positiva e negativa sobre o desenvolvimento dos projetos. Já os projetos seis sigma atuam como alavancas externas na reflexão após o uso do sistema nos projetos levando a modificações no sistema de medição de desempenho.This paper aims to investigate the relationship between performance measurement systems and development of six sigma projects. Five case studies were carried out in Brazilian companies. The empirical findings supported the mutual relationship established after the literature review. Furthermore, a delay was observed in the relationship. The performance measurement system influences first the development of projects. There are factors which exerts both negative and positive influences on projects. In other hand, the six sigma projects play a role of external leverage during the reflection of using performance measurement system which leads to change of such systems.

  1. Importance of the inverted control in measuring holistic face processing with the composite effect and part-whole effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor eMcKone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Holistic coding for faces is shown in several illusions that demonstrate integration of the percept across the entire face. The illusions occur upright but, crucially, not inverted. Converting the illusions into experimental tasks that measure their strength – and thus index degree of holistic coding – is often considered straightforward yet in fact relies on a hidden assumption, namely that there is no contribution to the experimental measure from secondary cognitive factors. For the composite effect, a relevant secondary factor is size of the "spotlight" of visuospatial attention. The composite task assumes this spotlight can be easily restricted to the target half (e.g., top half of the compound face stimulus. Yet, if this assumption were not true then a large spotlight, in the absence of holistic perception, could produce a false composite effect, present even for inverted faces and contributing partially to the score for upright faces. We review evidence that various factors can influence spotlight size: race/culture (Asians often prefer a more global distribution of attention than Caucasians; sex (females can be more global; appearance of the join or gap between face halves; and location of the eyes, which typically attract attention. Results from 5 experiments then show inverted faces can sometimes produce large false composite effects, and imply that whether this happens or not depends on complex interactions between causal factors. We also report, for both identity and expression, that only top-half-face targets (containing eyes produce valid composite measures. A sixth experiment demonstrates an example of a false inverted part-whole effect, where encoding-specificity is the secondary cognitive factor. We conclude the inverted face control should be tested in all composite and part-whole studies, and an effect for upright faces should be interpreted as a pure measure of holistic processing only when the experimental design produces

  2. Comparison of Body Composition Measurements Using a New Caliper, Two Established Calipers, Hydrostatic Weighing, and BodPod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Erin E; Flynn, Michael G; Bell, Jeffrey W; Carrillo, Andres E; Dill, Marquita D; Christensen, Christiania N; Thompson, Colleen M

    2009-01-01

    (1) To compare the Lafayette Instruments (LI) skinfold caliper to the Lange (L) and Harpenden (H) calipers using a diverse subject population. (2) To determine the validity of the LI caliper in a subset of subjects by comparing body compositions from skinfold thicknesses to those measured by hydrostatic weighing (HW) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP). (3) To compare measurements obtained by experienced (EX) and inexperienced (IX) technicians using all three calipers. Skinfold measurements were performed by both EX and IX technicians using three different calipers on 21 younger (21.2 ± 1.5 yrs) and 20 older (59.2 ± 4 yrs) subjects. Body compositions were calculated using the Jackson-Pollock seven-site and three-site formulas. HW and ADP tests were performed on a subset of subjects (10 younger, 10 older). No significant differences existed between LI and L or H when measurements were made by EX. Further, the LI-EX measurements were highly correlated to both H-EX and L-EX. No significant differences existed in the subgroup between LI-EX and HW or ADP. Skinfold determinations made by EX and IX were similar. Similar body compositions determined using LI, H, and L suggest that LI determines body composition as effectively as H and L. High correlations between the three calipers support this notion. Similar results between LI and HW/ADP subgroup suggest that the LI caliper may be a valid method of measuring body composition. Overall, performance by IX was similar to EX and suggests similar ease of use for all three calipers.

  3. Evaluation of composite measures of treatment response without acute-phase reactants in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Jeffrey D.; Harrold, Leslie R.; Bentley, Mary J.; Kremer, Joel; Reed, George; Strand, Vibeke

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate composite measures of response without acute-phase reactants in RA patients. Specifically, Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI)-derived response criteria were compared with the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria, and the modified ACR (mACR) response criteria were compared to the ACR response criteria.

  4. A Computational Tool to Interpret the Bulk Composition of Solid Exoplanets based on Mass and Radius Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Li; Seager, Sara

    2008-01-01

    The prospects for finding transiting exoplanets in the range of a few to 20 Earth masses is growing rapidly with both ground-based and spaced-based efforts. We describe a publicly available computer code to compute and quantify the compositional ambiguities for differentiated solid exoplanets with a measured mass and radius, including the mass and radius uncertainties.

  5. Intermediate strain rate testing methodologies and full-field optical strain measurement techniques for composite materials characterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Longana, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Two optical full-field strain measurement techniques, Digital Image Correlation and the Grid Method, are applied to characterise the strain-rate dependent constitutive behaviour of composite materials. Optical strain measurement techniques based on full-field images are well established for material characterisation in the quasi-static strain rate region, however in this work they are developed to study the material behaviour at intermediate strain rates, which is relatively unexplored. For t...

  6. Tracking nitrous oxide emission processes at a suburban site with semicontinuous, in situ measurements of isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eliza; Henne, Stephan; Hüglin, Christoph; Zellweger, Christoph; Tuzson, Béla; Ibraim, Erkan; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    The isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) was measured semicontinuously, at ˜35 min frequency in intermittent periods of 1-6 days over one and a half years, using preconcentration coupled to a quantum cascade laser spectrometer at the suburban site of Dübendorf, Switzerland. The achieved measurement repeatability was 0.08‰, 0.11‰, and 0.10‰ for δ18O, site preference, and δ15Nbulk respectively, which is better than or equal to standard flask sampling-based isotope ratio mass spectrometry performance. The observed mean diurnal cycle reflected the buildup of N2O from isotopically light sources on an isotopically heavy tropospheric background. The measurements were used to determine the source isotopic composition, which varied significantly compared to chemical and meteorological parameters monitored at the site. FLEXPART-COSMO transport modeling in combination with modified Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research inventory emissions was used to model N2O mole fractions at the site. Additionally, isotopic signatures were estimated for different source categories using literature data and used to simulate N2O isotopic composition over the measurement period. The model was able to capture variability in N2O mole fraction well, but simulations of isotopic composition showed little agreement with observations. In particular, measured source isotopic composition exhibited one magnitude larger variability than simulated, clearly indicating that the range of isotopic source signatures estimated from literature significantly underestimates true variability of source signatures. Source δ18O signature was found to be the most sensitive tracer for urban/industry versus agricultural N2O. δ15Nbulk and site preference may provide more insight into microbial and chemical emission processes than partitioning of anthropogenic source categories.

  7. Using Imaging Spectrometry measurements of Ecosystem Composition to constrain Regional Predictions of Carbon, Water and Energy Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, A. S.; Bogan, S.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystem composition is a key attribute of terrestrial ecosystems, influencing the fluxes of carbon, water, and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. The description of current ecosystem composition has traditionally come from relatively few ground-based inventories of the plant canopy, but are spatially limited and do not provide a comprehensive picture of ecosystem composition at regional or global scales. In this analysis, imaging spectrometry measurements, collected as part of the HyspIRI Preparatory Mission, are used to provide spatially-resolved estimates of plant functional type composition providing an important constraint on terrestrial biosphere model predictions of carbon, water and energy fluxes across the heterogeneous landscapes of the Californian Sierras. These landscapes include oak savannas, mid-elevation mixed pines, fir-cedar forests, and high elevation pines. Our results show that imaging spectrometry measurements can be successfully used to estimate regional-scale variation in ecosystem composition and resulting spatial heterogeneity in patterns of carbon, water and energy fluxes and ecosystem dynamics. Simulations at four flux tower sites within the study region yield patterns of seasonal and inter-annual variation in carbon and water fluxes that have comparable accuracy to simulations initialized from ground-based inventory measurements. Finally, results indicate that during the 2012-2015 Californian drought, regional net carbon fluxes fell by 84%, evaporation and transpiration fluxes fell by 53% and 33% respectively, and sensible heat increase by 51%. This study provides a framework for assimilating near-future global satellite imagery estimates of ecosystem composition with terrestrial biosphere models, constraining and improving their predictions of large-scale ecosystem dynamics and functioning.

  8. Blowing Snow and Aerosol Composition: Bulk and Single Particle Measurements in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, P. F.; Giordano, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that aerosol concentration and composition in the cryosphere is influenced by blowing snow, though the mechanisms remain unclear. Changes in aerosol composition due to blowing snow may significantly alter local and regional aerosol production, processing, transport, and lifetimes in the cryosphere. This presentation will focus on both bulk composition changes and single particle results from deploying an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to the Antarctic sea ice during the 2ODIAC campaign, with a focus on blowing snow events. With this first on-line analysis, blowing snow clearly enhances the submicron sea salt (Na and Cl) concentrations in Antarctic aerosols. These bulk composition changes are shown to be independent from air mass origins. Single particle results from the AMS show a variety of chemical species in addition to sulfates in the submicron aerosol mass. K-means cluster analysis also shows distinct changes in the overall aerosol mass spectra during to blowing snow events.

  9. The mechanical properties measurement of multiwall carbon nanotube reinforced nanocrystalline aluminum matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Manjula; Pal, Hemant; Sharma, Vimal

    2015-01-01

    Nanocrystalline aluminum matrix composite containing carbon nanotubes were fabricated using physical mixing method followed by cold pressing. The microstructure of the composite has been investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy techniques. These studies revealed that the carbon nanotubes were homogeneously dispersed throughout the metal matrix. The consolidated samples were pressureless sintered in inert atmosphere to further actuate a strong interface between carbon nanotubes and aluminum matrix. The nanoindentation tests carried out on considered samples showed that with the addition of 0.5 wt% carbon nanotubes, the hardness and elastic modulus of the aluminum matrix increased by 21.2 % and 2 % repectively. The scratch tests revealed a decrease in the friction coefficient of the carbon nanotubes reinforced composite due to the presence of lubricating interfacial layer. The prepared composites were promising entities to be used in the field of sporting goods, construction materials and automobile industries

  10. Measurements of the stress supported by the crush zone in open hole composite laminates loaded in compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, E. Gail; Bradley, Walter L.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the stress supported by the crush zone in open hole specimens loaded in compression were carried out on two composite laminates, AS4/PEEK and IM6/HST-7, containing circular holes of three different diameters. Compression tests were conducted in a specially designed high-axial-alignment material test system machine. Results indicated that the local stress supported in the crush zone is much less than the stress required to initiate the crush, providing the reason for the finding of Guynn et al. (1987) that the Dugdale model does not accurately predict the load-damage size relationship of open hole composite specimens loaded in compression.

  11. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain in glass fiber/epoxy composites by embedded fiber optic sensors: I. Cure monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanini, R.; D'Acquisto, L.

    2007-10-01

    In this paper (Part I) the use of fiber optic sensors for real-time monitoring of the cure kinetics of GFRP composites is explored. The proposed sensing system allows the simultaneous measurement of both temperature and strain by monitoring the change in reflected wavelength from two coupled fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors that have been embedded into the composite laminate. Instrumented GFRP laminates with 12, 18 and 24 reinforcing plies, respectively, were prepared by means of the vacuum bagging technique. Samples were cured in a thermally controlled oven at 80 °C and 30 kPa for 240 min (isothermal stage) and then cooled down to ambient temperature by turning off the heating source (cooling stage). The obtained results, combined with proper data post-processing, have proven the effectiveness and potentiality of the proposed sensing system to measure the progression of the composite cure kinetics. It was shown that temperature within the specimen can differ significantly from the set-point temperature inside the oven because of the heat released during the exothermal reticulation of the epoxy resin. The combined sensing system also allowed the residual strain accumulated within the composite during the cooling stage to be accurately measured. Once the laminate had been cured, the embedded optical sensing system reveals itself purposeful for real-time structural health monitoring and damage assessment of the finished component. This aspect is discussed with more detail in the accompanying paper (Part II).

  12. One- and two-year change in body composition as measured by DXA in a population-based cohort of older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Pahor, Marco; Tylavsky, Frances A; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Cauley, Jane A; Newman, Anne B; Blunt, Barbara A; Harris, Tamara B

    Changing body composition has been suggested as a pathway to explain age-related functional decline. No data are available on the expected changes in body composition as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a population-based cohort of older persons. Body composition data at

  13. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) and Subsequent Bias in Group Comparisons using a Composite Measurement Scale: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette, Alexandra; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Coste, Joel

    To determine the conditions in which the estimation of a difference between groups for a construct evaluated using a composite measurement scale is biased if the presence of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) is not taken into account. Datasets were generated using the Partial Credit Model to simulate 642 realistic scenarios. The effect of seven factors on the bias on the estimated difference between groups was evaluated using ANOVA: sample size, true difference between groups, number of items in the scale, proportion of items showing DIF, DIF-size for these items, position of these items location parameters along the latent trait, and uniform/non-uniform DIF. For uniform DIF, only the DIF-size and the proportion of items showing DIF (and their interaction term) had meaningful effects. The effect of non-uniform DIF was negligible. The measurement bias resulting from DIF was quantified in various realistic conditions of composite measurement scale use.

  14. MEASUREMENT OF THE ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN AND HELIUM NUCLEI IN COSMIC RAYS WITH THE PAMELA EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriani, O.; Bongi, M. [Department of Physics, University of Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Barbarino, G. C. [Department of Physics, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , I-80126 Naples (Italy); Bazilevskaya, G. A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, RU-119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bellotti, R.; Bruno, A. [Department of Physics, University of Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Carbone, R. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Bogomolov, E. A. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RU-194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Borisov, S.; Casolino, M.; De Pascale, M. P. [INFN, Sezione di Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bottai, S. [INFN, Sezione di Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Cafagna, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Campana, D. [INFN, Sezione di Naples, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Carlson, P. [KTH, Department of Physics, and the Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Castellini, G. [IFAC, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Danilchenko, I. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, RU-115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); De Santis, C. [Department of Physics, University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); and others

    2013-06-10

    The satellite-borne experiment PAMELA has been used to make new measurements of cosmic ray H and He isotopes. The isotopic composition was measured between 100 and 600 MeV/n for hydrogen and between 100 and 900 MeV/n for helium isotopes over the 23rd solar minimum from 2006 July to 2007 December. The energy spectrum of these components carries fundamental information regarding the propagation of cosmic rays in the galaxy which are competitive with those obtained from other secondary to primary measurements such as B/C.

  15. Estudo comparativo experimental de compósito bioativo de matriz polimérica para aplicação em cirurgia plástica ocular na substituição tecidual Experimental comparative study of bioactive composite with polymeric matrix for applications to oculoplastic surgery for tissue replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valênio Pérez França

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar dois novos biomateriais: compósito a 10% (Escola de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG - Brasil e compósito a 20% (Escola de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG - Brasil, a dois materiais controles: Medpor® (Porex Surgical Inc. - EUA e Polipore® (Homus Com. Ind. Ltda - Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental randomizado duplo cego: em 28 coelhos, 56 implantes foram colocados por via transconjuntival após a remoção de fragmento de cartilagem da reborda orbitária superior de ambas as órbitas, formando-se 4 grupos: Grupo I: Compósito a 10%/Medpor®; Grupo II: Compósito a 10%/Polipore®; Grupo III: Compósito a 20%/Medpor®; Grupo IV: Compósito a 20%/Polipore®. Após permanência média de 19,7 semanas, o material explantado foi avaliado histomorfometricamente em microscopia óptica, e o estudo estatístico foi feito pelo teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: Nenhum implante sofreu extrusão, ocorrendo uma única exposição (Compósito a 20%. Comprovado similar biocompatibilidade dos materiais nos quatro grupos. A histomorfometria no entanto revelou nos compósitos a presença estatisticamente significativa de pseudocápsula mais espessa, com aumento do número de fibroblastos, maior quantidade de colágeno e neovasos, e menor número de células inflamatórias. Foi possível detectar na interface implante-tecido nos compósitos, a presença de camada de hidroxiapatita carbonatada, funcionando como cola biológica. A integração tecidual dos implantes através dos poros foi maior nos controles que nos compósitos. CONCLUSÃO: Os compósitos foram aprovados quanto a biocompatibilidade, e apresentaram adicionalmente algumas vantagens sobre o Medpor® e o Polipore®.PURPOSE: To compare two new biomaterials: Composite 10% (Engineering School - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG - Brazil and Composite 20% (Engineering School - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG

  16. Feasibility study of use alumina waste in compositions containing clay for the mullite synthesis; Estudo da viabilidade do uso de residuo de alumina em composicoes contendo argilas destinadas a sintese de mulita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, V.J.; Dias, G.; Goncalves, W.P.; Santana, L.N.L., E-mail: valmir_jspb@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2016-07-01

    The reuse of alumina residue in addition to reducing environmental impacts can be used as raw material in ceramic masses to mullite produce. This study aims to obtain mullite from compositions containing clays and alumina residue used heating in a conventional oven. The raw materials were processed and characterized. Subsequently, these compositions were formulated containing precursors in appropriate proportions based on the stoichiometry of the mullite 3:2. Then, heat treatment was performed at temperatures of 1300 to 1400°C and 5°C rate/min. The products obtained were characterized by XRD, analyzing qualitatively and quantitatively the phases formed. The results showed that is possible, from compositions containing clays and alumina residue to obtain mullite as major phase (>70%) and high crystallinity (> 80%) The percentage of mullite approached the values obtained with the compositions containing alumina and clays. (author)

  17. Constraints on Vesta's elemental composition: Fast neutron measurements by Dawn's gamma ray and neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J; Peplowski, Patrick N; Prettyman, Thomas H; Feldman, William C; Bazell, David; Mittlefehldt, David W; Reedy, Robert C; Yamashita, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Surface composition information from Vesta is reported using fast neutron data collected by the gamma ray and neutron detector on the Dawn spacecraft. After correcting for variations due to hydrogen, fast neutrons show a compositional dynamic range and spatial variability that is consistent with variations in average atomic mass from howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites. These data provide additional compositional evidence that Vesta is the parent body to HED meteorites. A subset of fast neutron data having lower statistical precision show spatial variations that are consistent with a 400 ppm variability in hydrogen concentrations across Vesta and supports the idea that Vesta's hydrogen is due to long-term delivery of carbonaceous chondrite material. PMID:26074718

  18. Overview of Approaches to Incorporate Dynamics into the Measurement of Complex Phenomena with the Use of Composite Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Łatuszyńska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite indices have substantially gained in popularity in recent years. Despite their alleged disadvantages, they appear to be very useful in measuring the level of certain phenomena that are too complex to express with a single indicator. Most rankings based on composite indicators are created at regular intervals, such as every month, every quarter or every year. A common approach is to base rankings solely on the most current values of single indicators, making no reference to previous results. The absence of dynamics from such measurements deprives studies of information on change in these phenomena and may limit the stability of classifications. This article presents the possibility of creating reliable, dynamic rankings of measured items and measuring the complex phenomena with the use of composite indices. Potential solutions are presented on the basis of a review of the international literature. Some advantages and disadvantages of the presented solutions are described and an example of a new approach is shown.

  19. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors: Automated measurement development for full field digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E. E.; Sellers, T. A.; Lu, B.; Heine, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors are used for standardized mammographic reporting and are assessed visually. This reporting is clinically relevant because breast composition can impact mammographic sensitivity and is a breast cancer risk factor. New techniques are presented and evaluated for generating automated BI-RADS breast composition descriptors using both raw and calibrated full field digital mammography (FFDM) image data.Methods: A matched case-control dataset with FFDM images was used to develop three automated measures for the BI-RADS breast composition descriptors. Histograms of each calibrated mammogram in the percent glandular (pg) representation were processed to create the new BR pg measure. Two previously validated measures of breast density derived from calibrated and raw mammograms were converted to the new BR vc and BR vr measures, respectively. These three measures were compared with the radiologist-reported BI-RADS compositions assessments from the patient records. The authors used two optimization strategies with differential evolution to create these measures: method-1 used breast cancer status; and method-2 matched the reported BI-RADS descriptors. Weighted kappa (κ) analysis was used to assess the agreement between the new measures and the reported measures. Each measure's association with breast cancer was evaluated with odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for body mass index, breast area, and menopausal status. ORs were estimated as per unit increase with 95% confidence intervals.Results: The three BI-RADS measures generated by method-1 had κ between 0.25–0.34. These measures were significantly associated with breast cancer status in the adjusted models: (a) OR = 1.87 (1.34, 2.59) for BR pg ; (b) OR = 1.93 (1.36, 2.74) for BR vc ; and (c) OR = 1.37 (1.05, 1.80) for BR vr . The measures generated by method-2 had κ between 0.42–0.45. Two of these measures were significantly

  20. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors: Automated measurement development for full field digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, E. E.; Sellers, T. A.; Lu, B. [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Division of Population Sciences, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Heine, J. J. [Department of Cancer Imaging and Metabolism, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors are used for standardized mammographic reporting and are assessed visually. This reporting is clinically relevant because breast composition can impact mammographic sensitivity and is a breast cancer risk factor. New techniques are presented and evaluated for generating automated BI-RADS breast composition descriptors using both raw and calibrated full field digital mammography (FFDM) image data.Methods: A matched case-control dataset with FFDM images was used to develop three automated measures for the BI-RADS breast composition descriptors. Histograms of each calibrated mammogram in the percent glandular (pg) representation were processed to create the new BR{sub pg} measure. Two previously validated measures of breast density derived from calibrated and raw mammograms were converted to the new BR{sub vc} and BR{sub vr} measures, respectively. These three measures were compared with the radiologist-reported BI-RADS compositions assessments from the patient records. The authors used two optimization strategies with differential evolution to create these measures: method-1 used breast cancer status; and method-2 matched the reported BI-RADS descriptors. Weighted kappa (κ) analysis was used to assess the agreement between the new measures and the reported measures. Each measure's association with breast cancer was evaluated with odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for body mass index, breast area, and menopausal status. ORs were estimated as per unit increase with 95% confidence intervals.Results: The three BI-RADS measures generated by method-1 had κ between 0.25–0.34. These measures were significantly associated with breast cancer status in the adjusted models: (a) OR = 1.87 (1.34, 2.59) for BR{sub pg}; (b) OR = 1.93 (1.36, 2.74) for BR{sub vc}; and (c) OR = 1.37 (1.05, 1.80) for BR{sub vr}. The measures generated by method-2 had κ between 0.42–0.45. Two of these

  1. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors: automated measurement development for full field digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, E E; Sellers, T A; Lu, B; Heine, J J

    2013-11-01

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors are used for standardized mammographic reporting and are assessed visually. This reporting is clinically relevant because breast composition can impact mammographic sensitivity and is a breast cancer risk factor. New techniques are presented and evaluated for generating automated BI-RADS breast composition descriptors using both raw and calibrated full field digital mammography (FFDM) image data. A matched case-control dataset with FFDM images was used to develop three automated measures for the BI-RADS breast composition descriptors. Histograms of each calibrated mammogram in the percent glandular (pg) representation were processed to create the new BR(pg) measure. Two previously validated measures of breast density derived from calibrated and raw mammograms were converted to the new BR(vc) and BR(vr) measures, respectively. These three measures were compared with the radiologist-reported BI-RADS compositions assessments from the patient records. The authors used two optimization strategies with differential evolution to create these measures: method-1 used breast cancer status; and method-2 matched the reported BI-RADS descriptors. Weighted kappa (κ) analysis was used to assess the agreement between the new measures and the reported measures. Each measure's association with breast cancer was evaluated with odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for body mass index, breast area, and menopausal status. ORs were estimated as per unit increase with 95% confidence intervals. The three BI-RADS measures generated by method-1 had κ between 0.25-0.34. These measures were significantly associated with breast cancer status in the adjusted models: (a) OR = 1.87 (1.34, 2.59) for BR(pg); (b) OR = 1.93 (1.36, 2.74) for BR(vc); and (c) OR = 1.37 (1.05, 1.80) for BR(vr). The measures generated by method-2 had κ between 0.42-0.45. Two of these measures were significantly associated with breast cancer

  2. Child Feeding and Parenting Style Outcomes and Composite Score Measurement in the 'Feeding Healthy Food to Kids Randomised Controlled Trial'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Kerith; Burrows, Tracy L; Collins, Clare E

    2016-11-10

    Child feeding practices and parenting style each have an impact on child dietary intake, but it is unclear whether they influence each other or are amenable to change. The aims of this study were to measure child feeding and parenting styles in the Feeding Healthy Food to Kids (FHFK) Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) and test a composite child feeding score and a composite parenting style score. Child feeding and parenting style data from 146 parent-child dyads (76 boys, aged 2.0-5.9 years) in the FHFK study were collected over a 12-month intervention. Parenting style was measured using parenting questions from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) was used to measure child feeding practices. Data for both measures were collected at baseline, 3 and 12 months and then modelled to develop a composite child feeding score and a parenting score. Multivariate mixed effects linear regression was used to measure associations between variables over time. All child feeding domains from the CFQ were consistent between baseline and 12 months ( p parenting style domain scores were consistent over 12 months ( p parenting style score within the FHFK RCT. In conclusion, composite scores have potential applications in the analysis of relationships between child feeding and dietary or anthropometric data in intervention studies aimed at improving child feeding or parenting style. These applications have the potential to make a substantial contribution to the understanding of child feeding practices and parenting style, in relation to each other and to dietary intake and health outcomes amongst pre-school aged children.

  3. Tuberculose infantil: estudo retrospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boaventura Antonio dos Santos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A tuberculose (TB infantil permanece como uma das doenças mais prevalentes e preocupantes no mundo, sobretudo em nações em desenvolvimento, onde as taxas são ainda mais elevadas e os casos descritos subestimados pela dificuldade em se estabelecer um diagnóstico definitivo. Dessa forma, este estudo tem como objetivo descrever o perfil clínico e epidemiológico dos pacientes com TB infantil pulmonar e extrapulmonar. Métodos: Foram avaliados retrospectivamente, através de questionário, pacientes com idade de até 15 anos, internados no Serviço de Pediatria do HCPA, no período de janeiro de 2002 a setembro de 2007.   Resultados: Dos 52 pacientes incluídos, 63% apresentavam TB pulmonar. Das formas extra-pulmonares, a meningoencefalite foi a mais prevalente (22%. Comorbidades foram dectadas em 31 (60% pacientes, dos quais 15 (29% apresentavam desnutrição grave, 9 (18% HIV positivo e 7 (13% pneumopatia crônica. Das manifestações clínicas, febre e tosse estavam presentes na maioria dos pacientes. O padrão radiológico predominante foi o de consolidação pulmonar (51%. A maioria dos pacientes referia história de contato com paciente bacilífero (64%. Conclusão: A TB pulmonar representa a principal forma de apresentação clínica da TB, sendo o diagnóstico feito de forma presuntiva na maioria dos casos. O diagnóstico baseado na comprovação bacteriológica foi obtido numa minoria de pacientes, demonstrando a importância dos achados clínico-laboratoriais, história epidemiológica e vacinal para o diagnóstico. Nesse sentido, a criação de escores tem se tornado uma ferramenta de fácil acesso e com razoável acurácia para auxiliar o diagnóstico de TB em serviços de baixa complexidade, especialmente o ambulatorial.

  4. Semiquantitative and quantitative measurements for EDXRF in elemental chemical composition of pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Elizabeth Cristina Soares da

    2005-02-01

    X-Ray fluorescence technique is largely used in the characterization of art and archaeological objects for restoration and conservation, allowing a multi-elemental, simultaneous and non destructive analysis. In this work it was used a portable XRF equipment of XRF that consists of a 238 Pu source ( 13,6 and 17,2 keV; 95 mCi) and a SI-PIN detector coupled to a 8 k multichannel analyser. The results were collected by a palmtop computer and later analysed in a PC, through the program AXIL-QXAS. The acquisition time for each measurement was 500 s. The measurements were accomplished in a wood sculpture (Santa Luzia image, number 164) from the collection of the Museu de Etnologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo (MAE-USP), in the following regions: (STL1) inferior side of the wood base exposed without finishing, (STL2) frontal inferior base of the pedestal (dark blue) (STL3), inferior part of the frontal dress (gold), (STL4) medium part of the dress (clear blue) (STL5) mantle (red), (STL6) back central lock of the hair in the backs (black), (STL7) right cheek (flesh-coloured) and (STL8) mantle (gold). The elements found in the STL1 region were: Al, Ca, Fe and a high concentration of Zn. In the region STL2 were found Al, C, Fe, Zn and the key element Cu. In the region STL3 - Ca, Zn and the key element Au. In the region STL4 it was found Zn and the key element Cu. In the region STL5 the key element S and Hg. In the region STL6 were found Fe, Ca, S and Hg. In the region STL 7 were found Al, Cu, Hg and Zn. In the region STL8 were found Ca, Al and Au, with high concentration. It was concluded that the possible pigments would be: STL2 and STL4 - CuCO 3 . Cu(OH) 2 + ZnO; STL3 and STL8 - Au; STL5 - HgS, STL6 - HgS mixed with other oxides, possibly of Fe and Mn, and STL 7 - HgS + ZnO. Standard samples of wood painted with pigments of the colors white, blue, red, rose, flesh color and green were also made. Through the XRF method it was verified that the white pigment is TiO 2 , the

  5. Confiabilidade das aferições de estudo sobre violência familiar e desnutrição severa na infância Measurement reliability in a study on family violence and severe acute malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Hasselmann

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Como parte do programa de investigação sobre violência familiar e desnutrição severa na infância, especificamente um estudo do tipo caso-controle foi avaliada a confiabilidade dos instrumentos utilizados no processo de obtenção de dados. Estudou-se a confiabilidade de quatro componentes do instrumento principal: (a as Escalas sobre Táticas de Conflitos (Conflicts Tactics Scales - CTS que medem o grau de conflito/violência familiar; (b o instrumento CAGE (Cut-down; Annoyed; Guilty & Eye-opener usado para indicar suspeição de alcoolismo; (c o NSDUQ (Non-student Drugs Use Questionnaire que visa aferir o uso de drogas ilícitas; e (d a medida antropométrica de comprimento. MÉTODO: Para os três primeiros componentes citados foram avaliadas a estabilidade (confiabilidade intra-observador ou teste-reteste e a equivalência (confiabilidade inter-observador, usando-se os 50 primeiros sujeitos captados no estudo caso-controle de fundo. Para a análise, usou-se o índice Kappa (k com ajustamento (pseudo-Bayes para lidar com problemas de estimabilidade. Em relação ao componente "d", foi estudada somente a equivalência (n=73, usando-se o Coeficiente de Correlação Intraclasse (Intra-class Correlation Coefficient - ICC como estimador. RESULTADOS: Todos os componentes mostraram estabilidade e equivalência aceitáveis. Quanto à estabilidade das CTS, CAGE e NSDUQ, as estimações de k foram em torno de 0,70, 0,78 e 0,85, respectivamente. Em relação à equivalência, encontrou-se os valores de 1,0 para as CTS e NSDUQ e 0,75 para CAGE. A equivalência estimada através do ICC para comprimento foi de 0,99. Algumas situações desviantes foram observadas. Os resultados apontam para uma adequada padronização dos observadores e refletem a boa qualidade do processo de aferição referente ao estudo de fundo, encorajando a equipe de pesquisa a prosseguir com maior segurança.INTRODUCTION: This study is nested within a research

  6. Diet induced thermogenesis measured over 24h in a respiration chamber: effect of diet composition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Wilson, S.A.; Rolland, V.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of diet composition on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) over 24h in a respiration chamber. SUBJECTS: Eight healthy female volunteers (age 27 +/- 3 y; body mass index, BMI 23 +/- 3 kg/m2). DIETS: A

  7. Developing a year-round objective measure of Colorado rangeland nutrient composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    A goal for any rangeland grazing operation is to attain an appropriate balance among available forage resources where forage nutrient composition and supplementation (i.e. if needed) meets daily nutritional demands of livestock. To accomplish this on a short-term basis, the producer needs to have in...

  8. Multi-response data treatment of dynamic and steady state permeation measurement on composite membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fíla, V.; Bernauer, B.; Hrabánek, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 200, 1-3 (2006), s. 120-121 ISSN 0011-9164 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS401250509 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : composite membrane * physical chemistry * Wicke-Kalenbach permeation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.917, year: 2006

  9. Measurement of Dynamic Viscoelasticity of Full-Size Wood Composite Panels Using a Vibration Testing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Guan; Houjiang Zhang; John F. Hunt; Lujing Zhou; Dan Feng

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic viscoelasticity of full-size wood composite panels (WCPs) under the free-free vibrational state were determined by a vibration testing method. Vibration detection tests were performed on 194 pieces of three types of full-size WCPs (particleboard, medium density fiberboard, and plywood (PW)). The dynamic viscoelasticity from smaller specimens cut from the...

  10. Temperature and chemical composition of droplets by optical measurement techniques: a state-of-the-art review

    OpenAIRE

    Lemoine , Fabrice; Castanet , Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The measurement of the sizes and the velocities of droplets relies upon widespread and well-established techniques, but characterizing their temperature and their composition remains challenging. The lack of standard methods is particularly detrimental, given the importance of these parameters for validating models and numerical simulations of many spray processes. Heat and mass transfers are dominant aspects in applications such as spray combustion in IC engines, spra...

  11. A Supra-Thermal Energetic Particle detector (STEP) for composition measurements in the range approximately 20 keV/nucleon to 1 MeV/nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.

    1981-01-01

    A detector system is described, employing a time-of-flight versus residual energy technique which allows measurement of particle composition (H-Fe), energy spectral and anisotropies in an energy range unaccessible with previously flown sensors. Applications of this method to measurements of the solar wind ion composition are discussed.

  12. A supra-thermal energetic particle detector /STEP/ for composition measurements in the range of about 20 keV/nucleon to 1 MeV/nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.

    1981-01-01

    A novel detector system is described, employing a time-of-flight versus residual energy technique which allows measurement of particle composition (H-Fe), energy spectra and anisotropies in an energy range unaccessible with previously flown sensors. Applications of this method to measurements of the solar wind ion composition are also discussed.

  13. Analytical methods for the measurement of polymerization kinetics and stresses of dental resin-based composites: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrsima Ghavami-Lahiji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resin-based composites are commonly used restorative materials in dentistry. Such tooth-colored restorations can adhere to the dental tissues. One drawback is that the polymerization shrinkage and induced stresses during the curing procedure is an inherent property of resin composite materials that might impair their performance. This review focuses on the significant developments of laboratory tools in the measurement of polymerization shrinkage and stresses of dental resin-based materials during polymerization. An electronic search of publications from January 1977 to July 2016 was made using ScienceDirect, PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar databases. The search included only English-language articles. Only studies that performed laboratory methods to evaluate the amount of the polymerization shrinkage and/or stresses of dental resin-based materials during polymerization were selected. The results indicated that various techniques have been introduced with different mechanical/physical bases. Besides, there are factors that may contribute the differences between the various methods in measuring the amount of shrinkages and stresses of resin composites. The search for an ideal and standard apparatus for measuring shrinkage stress and volumetric polymerization shrinkage of resin-based materials in dentistry is still required. Researchers and clinicians must be aware of differences between analytical methods to make proper interpretation and indications of each technique relevant to a clinical situation.

  14. Compositional accuracy of atom probe tomography measurements in GaN: Impact of experimental parameters and multiple evaporation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, E Di; Blum, I; Houard, J; Gilbert, M; Da Costa, G; Blavette, D; Rigutti, L

    2018-04-01

    A systematic study of the biases occurring in the measurement of the composition of GaN by Atom Probe Tomography was carried out, in which the role of surface electric field and laser pulse intensity has been investigated. Our data confirm that the electric field is the main factor influencing the measured composition, which exhibits a deficiency of N at low field and a deficiency of Ga at high field. The deficiency of Ga at high field is interpreted in terms of preferential evaporation of Ga. The detailed analysis of multiple evaporation events reveals that the measured composition is not affected by pile-up phenomena occurring in detection system. The analysis of correlation histograms yields the signature of the production of neutral N 2 due to the dissociation of GaN 3 2+ ions. However, the amount of N 2 neutral molecules that can be detected cannot account for the N deficiency found at low field. Therefore, we propose that further mechanisms of neutral N evaporation could be represented by dissociation reactions such as GaN + → Ga + + N and GaN 2+ → Ga 2 + + N. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterizing microscale aluminum composite layer properties on silicon solar cells with hybrid 3D scanning force measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung-Kuk; Choi, Beomjoon; Chung, Haseung; Shin, Seungwon; Song, Hee-Eun; Seo, Jung Hwan

    2016-03-01

    This article presents a novel technique to estimate the mechanical properties of the aluminum composite layer on silicon solar cells by using a hybrid 3-dimensional laser scanning force measurement (3-D LSFM) system. The 3-D LSFM system measures the material properties of sub-layers constituting a solar cell. This measurement is critical for realizing high-efficient ultra-thin solar cells. The screen-printed aluminum layer, which significantly affects the bowing phenomenon, is separated from the complete solar cell by removing the silicon (Si) layer with deep reactive ion etching. An elastic modulus of ~15.1 GPa and a yield strength of ~35.0 MPa for the aluminum (Al) composite layer were obtained by the 3-D LSFM system. In experiments performed for 6-inch Si solar cells, the bowing distances decreased from 12.02 to 1.18 mm while the Si layer thicknesses increased from 90 to 190 μm. These results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions for ultra-thin Si thickness (90 μm) based on the obtained Al composite layer properties.

  16. The Gut-Brain Axis in Healthy Females: Lack of Significant Association between Microbial Composition and Diversity with Psychiatric Measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C Kleiman

    Full Text Available This study examined associations between the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota and measures of depression, anxiety, eating disorder psychopathology, stress, and personality in a group of healthy adult females.Female participants (n = 91 ages 19-50 years with BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2 were recruited from central North Carolina between July 2014 and March 2015. Participants provided a single fecal sample and completed an online psychiatric questionnaire that included five measures: (i Beck Anxiety Inventory; (ii Beck Depression Inventory-II; (iii Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; (iv Perceived Stress Scale; and (v Mini International Personality Item Pool. Bacterial composition and diversity were characterized by Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and associations were examined using Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficient, in conjunction with Benjamini and Hochberg's False Discovery Rate procedure.We found no significant associations between microbial markers of gut composition and diversity and scores on psychiatric measures of anxiety, depression, eating-related thoughts and behaviors, stress, or personality in a large cohort of healthy adult females.This study was the first specifically to examine associations between the intestinal microbiota and psychiatric measures in healthy females, and based on 16S rRNA taxonomic abundances and diversity measures, our results do not suggest a strong role for the enteric microbe-gut-brain axis in normal variation on responses to psychiatric measures in this population. However, the role of the intestinal microbiota in the pathophysiology of psychiatric illness may be limited to more severe psychopathology.

  17. Non-contact measurement of partial gas pressure and distribution of elemental composition using energy-resolved neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremsin, A. S.; Losko, A. S.; Vogel, S. C.; Byler, D. D.; McClellan, K. J.; Bourke, M. A. M.; Vallerga, J. V.

    2017-01-01

    Neutron resonance absorption imaging is a non-destructive technique that can characterize the elemental composition of a sample by measuring nuclear resonances in the spectrum of a transmitted beam. Recent developments in pixelated time-of-flight imaging detectors coupled with pulsed neutron sources pose new opportunities for energy-resolved imaging. In this paper we demonstrate non-contact measurements of the partial pressure of xenon and krypton gases encapsulated in a steel pipe while simultaneously passing the neutron beam through high-Z materials. The configuration was chosen as a proof of principle demonstration of the potential to make non-destructive measurement of gas composition in nuclear fuel rods. The pressure measured from neutron transmission spectra (˜739 ± 98 kPa and ˜751 ± 154 kPa for two Xe resonances) is in relatively good agreement with the pressure value of ˜758 ± 21 kPa measured by a pressure gauge. This type of imaging has been performed previously for solids with a spatial resolution of ˜ 100 μm. In the present study it is demonstrated that the high penetration capability of epithermal neutrons enables quantitative mapping of gases encapsulate within high-Z materials such as steel, tungsten, urania and others. This technique may be beneficial for the non-destructive testing of bulk composition of objects (such as spent nuclear fuel assemblies and others) containing various elements opaque to other more conventional imaging techniques. The ability to image the gaseous substances concealed within solid materials also allows non-destructive leak testing of various containers and ultimately measurement of gas partial pressures with sub-mm spatial resolution.

  18. Non-contact measurement of partial gas pressure and distribution of elemental composition using energy-resolved neutron imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Tremsin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron resonance absorption imaging is a non-destructive technique that can characterize the elemental composition of a sample by measuring nuclear resonances in the spectrum of a transmitted beam. Recent developments in pixelated time-of-flight imaging detectors coupled with pulsed neutron sources pose new opportunities for energy-resolved imaging. In this paper we demonstrate non-contact measurements of the partial pressure of xenon and krypton gases encapsulated in a steel pipe while simultaneously passing the neutron beam through high-Z materials. The configuration was chosen as a proof of principle demonstration of the potential to make non-destructive measurement of gas composition in nuclear fuel rods. The pressure measured from neutron transmission spectra (∼739 ± 98 kPa and ∼751 ± 154 kPa for two Xe resonances is in relatively good agreement with the pressure value of ∼758 ± 21 kPa measured by a pressure gauge. This type of imaging has been performed previously for solids with a spatial resolution of ∼ 100 μm. In the present study it is demonstrated that the high penetration capability of epithermal neutrons enables quantitative mapping of gases encapsulate within high-Z materials such as steel, tungsten, urania and others. This technique may be beneficial for the non-destructive testing of bulk composition of objects (such as spent nuclear fuel assemblies and others containing various elements opaque to other more conventional imaging techniques. The ability to image the gaseous substances concealed within solid materials also allows non-destructive leak testing of various containers and ultimately measurement of gas partial pressures with sub-mm spatial resolution.

  19. Study of characteristics of a two phase biomaterial hydroxyapatite / β -tricalcium phosphate 60/40 the composition in volume; Estudo de caracterizacao de um biomaterial bifasico hidroxiapatita/fosfato tricalcio - β na composicao 60/40 em volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmonico, G.M.L.; Passoni, L.; Prandi, R.G.; Camargo, N.H.A.; Gemelli, E., E-mail: gidalmonico@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (CCT/UDESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Engenharia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    This work has developed on the preparation and characterization of the composition of biphasic hydroxyapatite /β-calcium phosphate = 60/40%. The mixture composition was performed using the mechanical fragmentation process in an attrition mill for 1 hour. The powder recovered from the biphasic attrition mill after drying, was subjected to compression, to obtain the specimens, the dimensions of 10mm height and 5mm in diameter. The specimens obtained from compaction were sintered at temperature of 1100 ° C/2h. The recovered material was subjected to sintering studies of characterization: compression, hardness and porosity. The results showed a breakdown voltage greater than 76.27 ± 13.56, higher than the microhardness 572.80 ± 13.31 MPa and the porosity of around 40% by volume. The results of the composition biphasic hydroxyapatite /β-calcium phosphate are encouraging, since the biomaterial presented favorable conditions for biomedical applications in the reconstitution of the bone structure. (author)

  20. Delamination Detection in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composites Using Electrical Resistance Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalovs, A; Rucevskis, S; Kulakov, V; Aniskevich, A

    2016-01-01

    In the present study 2-D numerical analysis of strip-type laminated composite specimens with and without damage is considered and numerical investigation is carried out by using a finite element method. The surface and oblique resistances are numerically calculated according to the two-probe and four-probe methods. The electrical conductivity of the composite laminate in the longitudinal direction is constant, while the electrical conductivity in the through-thickness direction is used as a variable in the parametric study. The resistance change due to delamination for each case is estimated by comparing the obtained resistance with the corresponding resistance of the specimen without delamination. Applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method are investigated by using various lengths of a delaminated crack in the specimen. (paper)

  1. Measurement and analysis of thrust force in drilling sisal-glass fiber reinforced polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, M.; Gopinath, A.

    2017-05-01

    Drilling of composite materials is difficult when compared to the conventional materials because of its in-homogeneous nature. The force developed during drilling play a major role in the surface quality of the hole and minimizing the damages around the surface. This paper focuses the effect of drilling parameters on thrust force in drilling of sisal-glass fiber reinforced polymer composite laminates. The quadratic response models are developed by using response surface methodology (RSM) to predict the influence of cutting parameters on thrust force. The adequacy of the models is checked by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA). A scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis is carried out to analyze the quality of the drilled surface. From the results, it is found that, the feed rate is the most influencing parameter followed by spindle speed and the drill diameter is the least influencing parameter on the thrust force.

  2. Three Cs in Measurement Models: Causal Indicators, Composite Indicators, and Covariates

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, Kenneth A.; Bauldry, Shawn

    2011-01-01

    In the last two decades attention to causal (and formative) indicators has grown. Accompanying this growth has been the belief that we can classify indicators into two categories, effect (reflective) indicators and causal (formative) indicators. This paper argues that the dichotomous view is too simple. Instead, there are effect indicators and three types of variables on which a latent variable depends: causal indicators, composite (formative) indicators, and covariates (the “three Cs”). Caus...

  3. Measuring oxygen surface exchange kinetics on mixed-conducting composites by electrical conductivity relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Bobing; Wang, Yunlong; Zhu, Zhuoying; Xia, Changrong; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The oxygen release kinetics of mixed-conducting Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6 d–Sm0.2Ce0.8O2 d (SFM–SDC) dualphase composites has been investigated, at 750 C, as a function of the SDC phase volume fraction using electrical conductivity relaxation (ECR) under reducing atmospheres, extending our previous work on

  4. Modifications of system for elevated temperature tensile testing and stress-strain measurement of metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, J. O.

    1985-01-01

    Composites consisting of tungsten alloy wires in superalloy matrices are being studied because they offer the potential for increased strength compared to current materials used at temperatures up to at least 1093 C (2000F). Previous research at the NASA Lewis Research Center and at other laboratories in the U.S., Europe, and Japan has demonstrated laboratory feasibility for fiber reinforced superalloys (FRS). The data for the mechanical and physical properties used to evaluate candidate materials is limited and a need exists for a more detailed and complete data base. The focus of this work is to develop a test procedure to provide a more complete FRS data base to quantitatively evaluate the composite's potential for component applications. This paper will describe and discuss the equipment and procedures under development to obtain elevated temperature tensile stress-strain, strength and modulus data for the first generation of tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy composite (TFRS) materials. Tensile stress-strain tests are conducted using a constant crosshead speed tensile testing machine and a modified load-strain measuring apparatus. Elevated temperature tensile tests are performed using a resistance wound commercial furnace capable of heating test specimens up to 1093 C (2000 F). Tensile stress-strain data are obtained for hollow tubular stainless steel specimens serving as a prototype for future composite specimens.

  5. High temporal resolution measurements of the isotopic composition of CH4 at the Lutjewad station, The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röckmann, Thomas; van der Veen, Carina; Chen, Huilin; Scheeren, Bert

    2017-04-01

    Isotope measurements can help constraining the atmospheric budget of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) because different sources emit CH4 with slightly different isotopic composition. In the past, high precision isotope measurements have primarily been carried out by isotope ratio mass spectrometry on flask samples that are usually collected at relatively low temporal resolution. We have recently developed a fully automated gas chromatography - isotope ratio mass spectrometry system (GC-IRMS) for autonomous and unattended CH4 isotope measurements (δD and δ13C) in the field. The first deployment at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) indicated that CH4 emissions from fossil fuel sources are overestimated in this region [1]. To further exploit the potential of this approach, the in situ system has been installed in November 2016 at the Lutjewad atmospheric monitoring and sampling site in the North of the Netherlands. This site is expected to sample also emissions from the large Groningen gas fields. The isotope measurements are expected to allow distinguishing these emissions from the agricultural emissions, which are also strong in this region. We will present the results from these ongoing measurements of δD and δ13C in CH4.. 1. Röckmann, T., et al., In situ observations of the isotopic composition of methane at the Cabauw tall tower site, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2016. 16: 10469-10487.

  6. Malnutrition risk questionnaire combined with body composition measurement in malnutrition screening in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csontos, Ágnes Anna; Molnár, Andrea; Piri, Zsolt; Pálfi, Erzsébet; Miheller, Pál

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of malnutrition screening is to predict the probability of a worse outcome due to nutritional factors. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) can be used for screening in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, it does not provide details about body composition. Our aim was to assess the body composition and combine this with the MUST method to screen risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia. A total of 173 IBD outpatients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The MUST scale indicated 21.4% of IBD patients to be at risk of malnutrition. A risk of sarcopenia was detected in 27.7%. However, one third of these patients were not considered to be at risk by their MUST score. Furthermore, Crohn's disease (CD) patients had a strongly unfavorable fat-free mass index (FFMI) value compared to ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and these differences were significant among men (FFMI: 18.62 ± 2.16 vs 19.85 ± 2.22, p = 0.02, in CD and UC males, respectively). As sarcopenia is a relevant prognostic factor, the MUST method should be expanded to include body composition analysis to detect more IBD patients at risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia in order to start their nutritional therapy immediately.

  7. Precision Error in Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Body Composition Measurements in Elite Male Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Matthew J; Oldroyd, Brian; Smith, Debbie; Lees, Matthew J; Brightmore, Amy; Till, Kevin; Jones, Benjamin; Hind, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Body composition analysis using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is becoming increasingly popular in both clinical and sports science settings. Obesity, characterized by high fat mass (FM), is associated with larger precision errors; however, precision error for athletic groups with high levels of lean mass (LM) are unclear. Total (TB) and regional (limbs and trunk) body composition were determined from 2 consecutive total body scans (GE Lunar iDXA) with re-positioning in 45 elite male rugby league players (age: 21.8 ± 5.4 yr; body mass index: 27.8 ± 2.5 kg m(-1)). The root mean squared standard deviation (percentage co-efficient of variation) were TB bone mineral content: 24g (1.7%), TB LM: 321 g (1.6%), and TB FM: 280 g (2.3%). Regional precision values were superior for measurements of bone mineral content: 4.7-16.3 g (1.7-2.1%) and LM: 137-402 g (2.0-2.4%), than for FM: 63-299 g (3.1-4.1%). Precision error of DXA body composition measurements in elite male rugby players is higher than those reported elsewhere for normal adult populations and similar to those reported in those who are obese. It is advised that caution is applied when interpreting longitudinal DXA-derived body composition measurements in male rugby players and population-specific least significant change should be adopted. Copyright © 2015 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact on hospital ranking of basing readmission measures on a composite endpoint of death or readmission versus readmissions alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glance, Laurent G; Li, Yue; Dick, Andrew W

    2017-05-05

    Readmission penalties are central to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) efforts to improve patient outcomes and reduce health care spending. However, many clinicians believe that readmission metrics may unfairly penalize low-mortality hospitals because mortality and readmission are competing risks. The objective of this study is to compare hospital ranking based on a composite outcome of death or readmission versus readmission alone. We performed a retrospective observational study of 344,565 admissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), or pneumoniae (PNEU) using population-based data from the New York State Inpatient Database (NY SID) between 2011 and 2013. Hierarchical logistic regression modeling was used to estimate separate risk-adjustment models for the (1) composite outcome (in-hospital death or readmission within 7-days), and (2) 7-day readmission. Hospital rankings based on the composite measure and the readmission measure were compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient and kappa analysis. Using data from all AMI, CHF, and PNEU admissions, there was substantial agreement between hospital adjusted odds ratio (AOR) based on the composite outcome versus the readmission outcome (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] 0.67; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.75). For patients admitted with AMI, there was moderate agreement (ICC 0.53; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.62); for CHF, substantial agreement (ICC 0.72; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.78); and for PNEU, substantial agreement (ICC 0.71; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.78). There was moderate agreement when the composite and readmission metrics were used to classify hospitals as high, average, and low-performance hospitals (κ = 0.54, SE = 0.050). For patients admitted with AMI, there was slight agreement (κ = 0.14, SE = 0.037) between the two metrics. Hospital performance on readmissions is significantly different from hospital performance on a composite metric based on readmissions and

  9. Wide range of body composition measures are associated with cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Huiloo; Abdul Manaf, Zahara; Mat Ludin, Arimi Fitri; Shahar, Suzana

    2017-04-01

    Studies of the association between body composition, both body fat and body muscle, and cognitive function are rarely reported. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between a wide range of body composition measures with cognitive function in older adults. A total of 2322 Malaysian older adults aged 60 years and older were recruited using multistage random sampling in a population-based cross-sectional study. Out of 2322 older adults recruited, 2309 (48% men) completed assessments on cognitive function and body composition. Cognitive functions were assessed using the Malay version of the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Bahasa Malaysia version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Digit Span Test, Digit Symbol Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Body composition included body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference, calf circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, percentage body fat and skeletal muscle mass. The association between body composition and cognitive functions was analyzed using multiple linear regression. After adjustment for age, education years, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, depression, smoking status and alcohol consumption, we found that calf circumference appeared as a significant predictor for all cognitive tests among both men and women (P < 0.05), except for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Waist-to-hip ratio was detected as a significant predictor for all cognitive tests among women (P < 0.05), but was only a significant predictor for the Bahasa Malaysia version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment among men (P < 0.05). These results suggest that there is a need to maintain muscle mass and lower adipose tissue among older adults for optimal cognitive function. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 554-560. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. In situ chemical composition measurement of individual cloud residue particles at a mountain site, southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qinhao; Zhang, Guohua; Peng, Long; Bi, Xinhui; Wang, Xinming; Brechtel, Fred J.; Li, Mei; Chen, Duohong; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying; Zhou, Zhen

    2017-07-01

    To investigate how atmospheric aerosol particles interact with chemical composition of cloud droplets, a ground-based counterflow virtual impactor (GCVI) coupled with a real-time single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was used to assess the chemical composition and mixing state of individual cloud residue particles in the Nanling Mountains (1690 m a. s. l. ), southern China, in January 2016. The cloud residues were classified into nine particle types: aged elemental carbon (EC), potassium-rich (K-rich), amine, dust, Pb, Fe, organic carbon (OC), sodium-rich (Na-rich) and Other. The largest fraction of the total cloud residues was the aged EC type (49.3 %), followed by the K-rich type (33.9 %). Abundant aged EC cloud residues that mixed internally with inorganic salts were found in air masses from northerly polluted areas. The number fraction (NF) of the K-rich cloud residues increased within southwesterly air masses from fire activities in Southeast Asia. When air masses changed from northerly polluted areas to southwesterly ocean and livestock areas, the amine particles increased from 0.2 to 15.1 % of the total cloud residues. The dust, Fe, Pb, Na-rich and OC particle types had a low contribution (0.5-4.1 %) to the total cloud residues. Higher fraction of nitrate (88-89 %) was found in the dust and Na-rich cloud residues relative to sulfate (41-42 %) and ammonium (15-23 %). Higher intensity of nitrate was found in the cloud residues relative to the ambient particles. Compared with nonactivated particles, nitrate intensity decreased in all cloud residues except for dust type. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on in situ observation of the chemical composition and mixing state of individual cloud residue particles in China.

  11. A composite measure to explore visual disability in primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poretto, Valentina; Petracca, Maria; Saiote, Catarina; Mormina, Enricomaria; Howard, Jonathan; Miller, Aaron; Lublin, Fred D; Inglese, Matilde

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide complementary information on visual system damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of this paper is to determine whether a composite OCT/MRI score, reflecting cumulative damage along the entire visual pathway, can predict visual deficits in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). Twenty-five PPMS patients and 20 age-matched controls underwent neuro-ophthalmologic evaluation, spectral-domain OCT, and 3T brain MRI. Differences between groups were assessed by univariate general linear model and principal component analysis (PCA) grouped instrumental variables into main components. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between low-contrast visual acuity (LCVA), OCT/MRI-derived metrics and PCA-derived composite scores. PCA identified four main components explaining 80.69% of data variance. Considering each variable independently, LCVA 1.25% was significantly predicted by ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness, thalamic volume and optic radiation (OR) lesion volume (adjusted R 2 0.328, p  = 0.00004; adjusted R 2 0.187, p  = 0.002 and adjusted R 2 0.180, p  = 0.002). The PCA composite score of global visual pathway damage independently predicted both LCVA 1.25% (adjusted R 2 value 0.361, p  = 0.00001) and LCVA 2.50% (adjusted R 2 value 0.323, p  = 0.00003). A multiparametric score represents a more comprehensive and effective tool to explain visual disability than a single instrumental metric in PPMS.

  12. Design and evaluation of three-level composite filters obtained by optimizing a compromise average performance measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Charles D.; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.

    1994-06-01

    Correlation filters with three transmittance levels (+1, 0, and -1) are of interest in optical pattern recognition because they can be implemented on available spatial light modulators and because the zero level allows us to include a region of support (ROS). The ROS can provide additional control over the filter's noise tolerance and peak sharpness. A new algorithm based on optimizing a compromise average performance measure (CAPM) is proposed for designing three-level composite filters. The performance of this algorithm is compared to other three-level composite filter designs using a common image database and using figures of merit such as the Fisher ratio, error rate, and light efficiency. It is shown that the CAPM algorithm yields better results.

  13. Nanotechnology and construction: use of nanoindentation measurements to predict macroscale elastic properties of high strength cementitious composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. L. da Silva

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the experimental results involving the use of nanoindentation measurements and prediction of macroscale elastic properties of high performance cementitious composites (HPCC. The elastic properties of HPCC mixture were evaluated at different length scales by nanoindentation (microscale, and elastic moduli and compressive strength tests (macroscale. The nanoindentation results, obtained by grid indentation with subsequent phase deconvolution, were complemented by an independent porosimetry test and inserted into a two-step analytical homogenization scheme to predict the overall macroscale properties. The final results show that the presented method allows a reliable advanced prediction of HPCC elastic properties indicating, thus, that inserting nanotechnology in the concrete industry can be promising, since it would allow the production of a more predictable composite in an easier and less expensive way.

  14. Delamination measurement of a laminates composite panel due to hole punching based on the focus variation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. B.; Zain, M. S. M.; Abdullah, M. S.; Samad, Z.

    2017-07-01

    Structural materials, such as composite panels, must be assembled, and such panels are typically constructed via the insertion of a fastener through a drilled hole. The main problem encountered in drilling is delamination, which affects assembly strength. The cost of drilling is also high because of the severe wear on drill bits. The main goal of this research is to develop a new punching method as an alternative to drilling during hole preparation. In this study, the main objective is to investigate the effect of different puncher profiles on the quality of holes punched into carbon fiber reinforcement polymer (CFRP) composite panels. Six types of puncher profiles were fabricated with minimum die clearance (1%), and two quality aspects, namely, incomplete shearing and delamination factor, were measured. The conical puncher incurred the least defects in terms of delamination and yielded an acceptable amount of incomplete shearing in comparison with the other punchers.

  15. UVO radiation effects on carbon nanotube/PMMA composites and their neutron reflectivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, Ebi; Koo, J. S.; Shin, K. W.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotube(CNT)-Poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) nanocomposite thin films have been studied. By irradiation of short wavelength ultraviolet(UV) light with ozone, the surface modification and stripping effects on their CNT/PMMA thin films was studied as a function of weight % of CNT in PMMA matrices. The experimental evidence indicates that the presence of CNT in PMMA matrix lowers significantly the stripping rate of the composites. In addition, changes of the rheological properties (i.e. diffusion coefficient) of PMMA molecules due to the presence of CNTs were also studied, in order to determine the microscopic interaction between diffusion coefficients of PMMA with and without CNTs was minimal

  16. Measurement of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray carbon, nitrogen and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedenbeck, M.E.; Greiner, D.E.; Bieser, F.S.; Crawford, H.J.; Heckman, H.H.; Lindstrom, P.J.

    1979-06-01

    The results of an investigation of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray carbon, nitrogen and oxygen (E approx. 80 to 230 MeV/amu) made using the U.C. Berkeley HKH instrument aboard the ISEE-3 spacecraft are reported. The combination of high mass resolution and a large statistical sample makes possible a precise determination of the relative isotopic abundances for these elements. In local interplanetary space we find: 13 C/C = 0.067 +- 0.008, 15 N/N = 0.54 +- 0.03, 17 O/O 18 O/O = 0.019 +- 0.003

  17. A measurement of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray carbon, nitrogen and oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Greiner, D. E.; Bieser, F. S.; Crawford, H. J.; Heckman, H. H.; Lindstrom, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper reports the results of an investigation of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray carbon, nitrogen and oxygen (80-230 MeV/amu) made using the U.C. Berkeley HKH instrument aboard the ISEE-3 spacecraft. The combination of high mass resolution and a large statistical sample makes possible a precise determination of the relative isotopic abundances for these elements. In local interplanetary space the following values are found: C-13/C = 0.067 + or - 0.008, N-15/N = 0.54 + or - 0.03, O-17/O less than 0.027, and O-18/O - 0.019 + or - 0.003.

  18. Characterization of the dynamic behaviour of flax fibre reinforced composites using vibration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hafidi, Ali; Birame Gning, Papa; Piezel, Benoit; Fontaine, Stéphane

    2017-10-01

    Experimental and numerical methods to identify the linear viscoelastic properties of flax fibre reinforced epoxy (FFRE) composite are presented in this study. The method relies on the evolution of storage modulus and loss factor as observed through the frequency response. Free-free symmetrically guided beams were excited on the dynamic range of 10 Hz to 4 kHz with a swept sine excitation focused around their first modes. A fractional derivative Zener model has been identified to predict the complex moduli. A modified ply constitutive law has been then implemented in a classical laminates theory calculation (CLT) routine.

  19. Evaluation of composite measures of treatment response without acute-phase reactants in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Harrold, Leslie R; Bentley, Mary J; Kremer, Joel; Reed, George; Strand, Vibeke

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate composite measures of response without acute-phase reactants in RA patients. Specifically, Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI)-derived response criteria were compared with the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria, and the modified ACR (mACR) response criteria were compared to the ACR response criteria. Data from 10 108 RA patients enrolled in the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America registry were examined, including 649 patients initiating DMARD therapy. CDAI cut-off points for disease activity levels and responses were derived using receiver operating characteristic curves with the DAS28 and EULAR response criteria as gold standards. The kappa-statistics were applied to assess agreement between CDAI-derived and EULAR-defined responses, as well as ACR20 and ACR50 with mACR20- and mACR50-defined responses, respectively. For the components of the EULAR response, the derived CDAI cut-off points for DAS28 levels of 3.2 and 5.1 were 7.6 and 19.6, respectively. The derived CDAI cut-off points were 4.3 and 10.0 for DAS28 changes of 0.6 and 1.2, respectively. There were moderate to substantial agreements between CDAI-derived and EULAR responses (kappa = 0.57-0.71). Agreement of ACR20 and ACR50 with mACR20 and mACR50 responses, respectively, was excellent (kappa = 0.88-0.95). Agreement between composite measures of response without acute-phase reactants and standard measures ranged from moderate to excellent. The mACR20 and mACR50 criteria as well as CDAI-derived response criteria, can serve as composite measures of response in clinical practice and research settings without access to acute-phase reactants.

  20. Textile electrode straps for wrist-to-ankle bioimpedance measurements for Body Composition Analysis. Initial validation & experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, J C; Ferreira, J; Seoane, F; Buendia, R; Lindecrantz, K

    2010-01-01

    Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) is one of the non-invasive monitoring technologies that could benefit from the emerging textile based measurement systems. If reliable and reproducible EBI measurements could be done with textile electrodes, that would facilitate the utilization of EBI-based personalized healthcare monitoring applications. In this work the performance of a custom-made dry-textile electrode prototype is tested. Four-electrodes ankle-to-wrist EBI measurements have been taken on healthy subjects with the Impedimed spectrometer SFB7 in the frequency range 5 kHz to 1 MHz. The EBI spectroscopy measurements taken with dry electrodes were analyzed via the Cole and Body Composition Analysis (BCA) parameters, which were compared with EBI measurements obtained with standard electrolytic electrodes. The analysis of the obtained results indicate that even when dry textile electrodes may be used for EBI spectroscopy measurements, the measurements present remarkable differences that influence in the Cole parameter estimation process and in the final production of the BCA parameters. These initial results indicate that more research work must be done to in order to obtain a textile-based electrode that ensures reliable and reproducible EBI spectroscopy measurements.

  1. A New Measurement Method of Relative Volume Wear Ratio Based on Discharge Debris Composition Analysis in Micro-EDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In microelectrical discharge machining (micro-EDM milling process, due to the unavoidability of electrode wear, selection of electrode with high electrical erosion resistance and accurate electrode compensation is entitled to be conducted to ensure high precision and high quality. The RVWR is used as criterion for electrode wear characteristics and is fundamental to achieve accurate electrode compensation; however, it is hardly measured accurately with conventional methods. In this paper, firstly, the error of RVWR measured by conventional measurement method is analyzed. Thereafter, for accurately measuring RVWR, a new measurement method is proposed based on electrical debris composition analysis. The RVWR of widely used tungsten, molybdenum, and copper electrode in machining different materials is measured, respectively, and the optimum electrode is selected based on the measuring results. Finally, microgrooves on different materials are machined with tungsten electrode, and the experiment results show that the microstructures have good bottom surface profiles, which indicates that the proposed method is effective to precisely measure the RVWR and guarantee accurate electrode compensation in micro-EDM process.

  2. Measuring health workers' motivation composition: validation of a scale based on Self-Determination Theory in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Julia; Souares, Aurélia; Tiendrebéogo, Justin; Houlfort, Nathalie; Robyn, Paul Jacob; Somda, Serge M A; De Allegri, Manuela

    2017-05-22

    Although motivation of health workers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has become a topic of increasing interest by policy makers and researchers in recent years, many aspects are not well understood to date. This is partly due to a lack of appropriate measurement instruments. This article presents evidence on the construct validity of a psychometric scale developed to measure motivation composition, i.e., the extent to which motivation of different origin within and outside of a person contributes to their overall work motivation. It is theoretically grounded in Self-Determination Theory (SDT). We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1142 nurses in 522 government health facilities in 24 districts of Burkina Faso. We assessed the scale's validity in a confirmatory factor analysis framework, investigating whether the scale measures what it was intended to measure (content, structural, and convergent/discriminant validity) and whether it does so equally well across health worker subgroups (measurement invariance). Our results show that the scale measures a slightly modified version of the SDT continuum of motivation well. Measurements were overall comparable between subgroups, but results indicate that caution is warranted if a comparison of motivation scores between groups is the focus of analysis. The scale is a valuable addition to the repository of measurement tools for health worker motivation in LMICs. We expect it to prove useful in the quest for a more comprehensive understanding of motivation as well as of the effects and potential side effects of interventions intended to enhance motivation.

  3. Assessment of EchoMRI-AH versus dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure human body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, J E; Smith, S R; Ravussin, E

    2011-09-01

    The sensitivity to detect small changes in body composition (fat mass and fat-free mass) largely depends on the precision of the instrument. We compared EchoMRI-AH and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-4500A) for estimating fat mass in 301 volunteers. Body composition was evaluated in 136 males and 165 females with a large range of body mass index (BMI) (19-49 kg m(-2)) and age (19-91 years old) using DXA and EchoMRI-AH. In a subsample of 13 lean (BMI=19-25 kg m(-2)) and 21 overweight/obese (BMI>25 kg m(-2)) individuals, within-subject precision was evaluated from repeated measurements taken within 1 h (n=3) and 1 week apart (mean of three measurements taken on each day). Using Bland-Altman analysis, we compared the mean of the fat mass measurements versus the difference in fat mass measured by both instruments. We found that EchoMRI-AH quantified larger amount of fat versus DXA in non-obese (BMI<30 kg m(-2) (1.1 kg, 95% confidence interval (CI(95)):-3.7 to 6.0)) and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg m(-2) (4.2 kg, CI(95):-1.4 to 9.8)) participants. Within-subject precision (coefficient of variation, %) in fat mass measured within 1 h was remarkably better when measured by EchoMRI-AH than DXA (<0.5 versus <1.5%, respectively; P<0.001). However, 1-week apart within-subject variability showed similar values for both instruments (<2.2%; P=0.15). EchoMRI-AH yielded greater fat mass values when compared with DXA (Hologic QDR-4500A), particularly in fatter subjects. EchoMRI-AH and DXA showed similar 1-week apart precision when fat mass was measured both in lean and overweight/obese individuals.

  4. Quantifying complexity of financial short-term time series by composite multiscale entropy measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun

    2015-05-01

    It is significant to study the complexity of financial time series since the financial market is a complex evolved dynamic system. Multiscale entropy is a prevailing method used to quantify the complexity of a time series. Due to its less reliability of entropy estimation for short-term time series at large time scales, a modification method, the composite multiscale entropy, is applied to the financial market. To qualify its effectiveness, its applications in the synthetic white noise and 1 / f noise with different data lengths are reproduced first in the present paper. Then it is introduced for the first time to make a reliability test with two Chinese stock indices. After conducting on short-time return series, the CMSE method shows the advantages in reducing deviations of entropy estimation and demonstrates more stable and reliable results when compared with the conventional MSE algorithm. Finally, the composite multiscale entropy of six important stock indices from the world financial markets is investigated, and some useful and interesting empirical results are obtained.

  5. Investigation of test methods for measuring compressive strength and modulus of two-dimensional carbon-carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Sawyer, James Wayne; Yamaki, Y. Robert

    1989-01-01

    An experimental evaluation has been conducted to ascertain the the usefulness of two techniques for measuring in-plane compressive failure strength and modulus in coated and uncoated carbon-carbon composites. The techniques involved testing specimens with potted ends as well as testing them in a novel clamping fixture; specimen shape, length, gage width, and thickness were the test parameters investigated for both coated and uncoated 0/90 deg and +/-45 deg laminates. It is found that specimen shape does not have a significant effect on the measured compressive properties. The potting of specimen ends results in slightly higher measured compressive strengths than those obtained with the new clamping fixture. Comparable modulus values are obtained by both techniques.

  6. Evaluating indices that measure departure of current landscape composition from historical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Lisa Holsinger; Russell A. Parsons

    2011-01-01

    A measure of the degree of departure of a landscape from its range of historical conditions can provide a means for prioritizing and planning areas for restoration treatments. There are few statistics or indices that provide a quantitative context for measuring departure across landscapes. This study evaluated a set of five similarity indices commonly used in...

  7. Multi-domain spectroscopy for composition measurement of water-containing bio-ethanol fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, L.M.; de Graaf, G.; Bossche, A.; Bastemeijer, J.; Ghaderi, M.; Wolffenbuttel, F.S.; Visser, Jaco; Soltis, R.E.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the ethanol/water ratio in biofuel of high ethanol content, such as E85, is important when used in a flex-fuel engine. A capacitive probe is generally used for measuring the ethanol/gasoline ratio. However, the water content in E85 biofuel cannot be disregarded or considered constant and

  8. Validity of total and segmental impedance measurements for prediction of body composition across ethnic population groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.R.M.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schouten, F.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Methods: Anthropometric parameters were measured in addition to impedance (100 kHz) of the total body, arms and legs. Impedance indexes were calculated as height2/impedance. Arm length (span) and leg length (sitting height), wrist and knee width were measured from which body build indices were

  9. Using Google Analytics to measure visitor statistics: The case of food composition websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakkala, H.; Presser, K.; Christensen, Tue

    2012-01-01

    Measuring visitor statistics is a core activity for any website provider. However, the analytical methods have so far been quite limited, difficult, expensive, or cumbersome. Google Analytics (GA) offers a free tool for measuring and analysing visitor statistics. GA was tested on three food...

  10. Medição de desempenho em cadeias de suprimentos: um estudo na indústria automobilística Performance measurement in supply chains: a study in the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sacomano Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Muito da base conceitual sobre medição de desempenho nas empresas industriais foi construído sob a perspectiva interna, ou seja, empresas tratadas individualmente. Com o advento e expansão do conceito de gestão da cadeia de suprimentos, cresceu a demanda por uma revisão do conhecimento e dos sistemas de medição à luz da cadeia como um todo. Por sua vez, a introdução dos novos arranjos produtivos na indústria automobilística, como os condomínios industriais, estimulou o desenvolvimento de novos padrões de relacionamento nas cadeias de suprimentos, trazendo consigo novas formas de se conduzir a gestão de desempenho entre empresas. Nesse contexto, a pesquisa realizada teve como propósito principal identificar a ocorrência e analisar as principais características da medição de desempenho em uma representativa cadeia de suprimentos da indústria automobilística brasileira, a qual utiliza um sistema de montagem do tipo condomínio industrial. A pesquisa teve um caráter exploratório, descritivo, e a coleta de dados foi realizada principalmente por meio de entrevistas (seguindo um questionário semiestruturado com executivos envolvidos com o tema de estudo nas referidas empresas. Como principal resultado, a pesquisa não identificou a ocorrência de um sistema único de medição de desempenho da cadeia de suprimentos estudada. O constatado é que o sistema de medição de desempenho interno da montadora desdobra-se a montante e a jusante, com claras implicações nos sistemas de medição de desempenho dos quatro fornecedores e da concessionária estudados. A partir dos indicadores de desempenho das empresas, pode-se constatar que as medidas a montante são fortemente direcionadas para os aspectos operacionais relacionados à qualidade, produção e desempenho das entregas e as medidas a jusante apresentam um caráter mais estratégico e mercadológico. Também, tem-se que a medição de desempenho na cadeia tende a ser mais

  11. Colour measurement of colostrum for estimation of colostral IgG and colostrum composition in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Josef J; Kessler, Evelyne C; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2014-11-01

    Instruments for on-farm determination of colostrum quality such as refractometers and densimeters are increasingly used in dairy farms. The colour of colostrum is also supposed to reflect its quality. A paler or mature milk-like colour is associated with a lower colostrum value in terms of its general composition compared with a more yellowish and darker colour. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between colour measurement of colostrum using the CIELAB colour space (CIE L*=from white to black, a*=from red to green, b*=from yellow to blue, chroma value G=visual perceived colourfulness) and its composition. Dairy cow colostrum samples (n=117) obtained at 4·7±1·5 h after parturition were analysed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) by ELISA and for fat, protein and lactose by infrared spectroscopy. For colour measurements, a calibrated spectrophotometer was used. At a cut-off value of 50 mg IgG/ml, colour measurement had a sensitivity of 50·0%, a specificity of 49·5%, and a negative predictive value of 87·9%. Colostral IgG concentration was not correlated with the chroma value G, but with relative lightness L*. While milk fat content showed a relationship to the parameters L*, a*, b* and G from the colour measurement, milk protein content was not correlated with a*, but with L*, b*, and G. Lactose concentration in colostrum showed only a relationship with b* and G. In conclusion, parameters of the colour measurement showed clear relationships to colostral IgG, fat, protein and lactose concentration in dairy cows. Implementation of colour measuring devices in automatic milking systems and milking parlours might be a potential instrument to access colostrum quality as well as detecting abnormal milk.

  12. A balloon measurement of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray boron, carbon and nitrogen. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberge, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    The isotopic compositions of galactic cosmic ray boron, carbon, and nitrogen were measured at energies near 300 MeV amu, using a balloon-borne instrument at an atmospheric depth of approximately 5 g/sq cm. The calibrations of the detectors comprising the instrument are described. The saturation properties of the cesium iodide scintillators used for measurement of particle energy are studied in the context of analyzing the data for mass. The achieved rms mass resolution varies from approximately 0.3 amu at boron to approximately 0.5 amu at nitrogen, consistent with a theoretical analysis of the contributing factors. Corrected for detector interactions and the effects of the residual atmosphere the results are B-10/B=0.33 (+0.17, -0.11), C-13/C=0.06 (+0.13, -0.11), and N-15/N=0.42 (+0.19, -0.17). A model of galactic propagation and solar modulation is described. Assuming a cosmic ray source composition of solar-like isotopic abundances, the model predicts abundances near Earth consistent with the measurements.

  13. A preliminary biomechanical assessment of a polymer composite hip implant using an infrared thermography technique validated by strain gage measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougherara, Habiba; Rahim, Ehsan; Shah, Suraj; Dubov, Anton; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Rad

    2011-07-01

    With the resurgence of composite materials in orthopaedic applications, a rigorous assessment of stress is needed to predict any failure of bone-implant systems. For current biomechanics research, strain gage measurements are employed to experimentally validate finite element models, which then characterize stress in the bone and implant. Our preliminary study experimentally validates a relatively new nondestructive testing technique for orthopaedic implants. Lock-in infrared (IR) thermography validated with strain gage measurements was used to investigate the stress and strain patterns in a novel composite hip implant made of carbon fiber reinforced polyamide 12 (CF/PA12). The hip implant was instrumented with strain gages and mechanically tested using average axial cyclic forces of 840 N, 1500 N, and 2100 N with the implant at an adduction angle of 15 deg to simulate the single-legged stance phase of walking gait. Three-dimensional surface stress maps were also obtained using an IR thermography camera. Results showed almost perfect agreement of IR thermography versus strain gage data with a Pearson correlation of R(2) = 0.96 and a slope = 1.01 for the line of best fit. IR thermography detected hip implant peak stresses on the inferior-medial side just distal to the neck region of 31.14 MPa (at 840 N), 72.16 MPa (at 1500 N), and 119.86 MPa (at 2100 N). There was strong correlation between IR thermography-measured stresses and force application level at key locations on the implant along the medial (R(2) = 0.99) and lateral (R(2) = 0.83 to 0.99) surface, as well as at the peak stress point (R(2) = 0.81 to 0.97). This is the first study to experimentally validate and demonstrate the use of lock-in IR thermography to obtain three-dimensional stress fields of an orthopaedic device manufactured from a composite material.

  14. Electrical impedance spectroscopy for measuring the impedance response of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer composite laminates

    KAUST Repository

    Almuhammadi, Khaled

    2017-02-16

    Techniques that monitor the change in the electrical properties of materials are promising for both non-destructive testing and structural health monitoring of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs). However, achieving reliable monitoring using these techniques requires an in-depth understanding of the impedance response of these materials when subjected to an alternating electrical excitation, information that is only partially available in the literature. In this work, we investigate the electrical impedance spectroscopy response at various frequencies of laminates chosen to be representative of classical layups employed in composite structures. We clarify the relationship between the frequency of the electrical current, the conductivity of the surface ply and the probing depth for different CFRP configurations for more efficient electrical signal-based inspections. We also investigate the effect of the amplitude of the input signal.

  15. High precision analysis of isotopic composition for samples used for nuclear cross-section measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibahara Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the accuracy improvement of nuclear data of minor actinides and long-lived fission products in the project of “Research and development for Accuracy Improvement of neutron nuclear data on Minor Actinides”, the isotopic compositions of two Am samples (241Am sample and 243Am sample were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Only the peak of 241Am was observed in the analysis of 241Am sample, and level of isotopic impurities were improved from 0.1% to 0.0004%. In the analysis of 243Am sample, the peak of unreported isotope of 242mAm was observed in addition to the peaks of 243Am and 241Am. The mass spectrometry also showed that 243Am sample has other unreported impurities such as 239Pu and 240Pu.

  16. Neutron beam measurement of industrial polymer materials for composition and bulk integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogante, M; Rosta, L; Heaton, M E

    2013-01-01

    Neutron beam techniques, among other non-destructive diagnostics, are particularly irreplaceable in the complete analysis of industrial materials and components when supplying fundamental information. In this paper, nanoscale small-angle neutron scattering analysis and prompt gamma activation analysis for the characterization of industrial polymers are considered. The basic theoretical aspects are briefly introduced and some applications are presented. The investigations of the SU-8 polymer in axial airflow microturbines—i.e. microelectromechanical systems—are presented foremost. Also presented are full and feasibility studies on polyurethanes, composites based on cross-linked polymers reinforced by carbon fibres and polymer cement concrete. The obtained results have provided a substantial contribution to the improvement of the considered materials, and indeed confirmed the industrial applicability of the adopted techniques in the analysis of polymers. (paper)

  17. Neutron beam measurement of industrial polymer materials for composition and bulk integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogante, M.; Rosta, L.; Heaton, M. E.

    2013-10-01

    Neutron beam techniques, among other non-destructive diagnostics, are particularly irreplaceable in the complete analysis of industrial materials and components when supplying fundamental information. In this paper, nanoscale small-angle neutron scattering analysis and prompt gamma activation analysis for the characterization of industrial polymers are considered. The basic theoretical aspects are briefly introduced and some applications are presented. The investigations of the SU-8 polymer in axial airflow microturbines—i.e. microelectromechanical systems—are presented foremost. Also presented are full and feasibility studies on polyurethanes, composites based on cross-linked polymers reinforced by carbon fibres and polymer cement concrete. The obtained results have provided a substantial contribution to the improvement of the considered materials, and indeed confirmed the industrial applicability of the adopted techniques in the analysis of polymers.

  18. Computational evaluation of the compositional factors in fracture healing affecting ultrasound axial transmission measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Christiano Bittencourt; de Albuquerque Pereira, Wagner Coelho; Talmant, Maryline; Padilla, Frédéric; Laugier, Pascal

    2010-08-01

    This work aimed at computationally evaluating the compositional factors in fracture healing affecting ultrasound axial transmission (UAT), using four numerical daily-changing healing models, representing more realistic clinical conditions. Using two-dimensional (2-D) simulations, a 1-MHz source and a receiver were positioned parallel to the bone surface to detect the first arriving signal (FAS). The time-of-flight of the FAS (TOF(FAS)) was found to be sensitive only to superficial modifications in the propagation path. It was also shown that callus mature bone better explained alone the variation in TOF(FAS) (R(2) >or= 0.70, p consolidation delays and nonunions. Copyright 2010 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biogenic carbon in combustible waste: Waste composition, variability and measurement uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Fuglsang, Karsten; Pedersen, Niels H.

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining accurate data for the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon in thermally-treated waste is essential for determination of the environmental profile of waste technologies. Relations between the variability of waste chemistry and the biogenic and fossil carbon emissions are not well...... described in the literature. This study addressed the variability of biogenic and fossil carbon in combustible waste received at a municipal solid waste incinerator. Two approaches were compared: (1) radiocarbon dating (14C analysis) of carbon dioxide sampled from the flue gas, and (2) mass and energy...... balance calculations using the balance method. The ability of the two approaches to accurately describe short-term day-to-day variations in carbon emissions, and to which extent these short-term variations could be explained by controlled changes in waste input composition, was evaluated. Finally...

  20. Measurements of Erosion Wear Volume Loss on Bare and Coated Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Sutter, James K.; Mondry, Richard J.; Bowman, Cheryl; Ma, Kong; Horan, Richard A.; Naik, Subhash K.; Cupp, Randall J.

    2003-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the erosion behavior of uncoated and coated polymer matrix composite (PMC) specimens subjected to solid particle impingement using air jets. The PMCs were carbon-Kevlar (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) fiber-epoxy resin composites with a temperature capability up to 393 K (248 F). Tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) was the primary topcoat constituent. Bondcoats were applied to the PMC substrates to improve coating adhesion; then, erosion testing was performed at the University of Cincinnati. All erosion tests were conducted with Arizona road-dust (ARD), impinging at angles of 20 and 90 on both uncoated and two-layer coated PMCs at a velocity of 229 m/s and at a temperature of 366 K (200 F). ARD contains primarily 10-m aluminum oxide powders. Vertically scanning interference microscopy (noncontact, optical profilometry) was used to evaluate surface characteristics, such as erosion wear volume loss and depth, surface topography, and surface roughness. The results indicate that noncontact, optical interferometry can be used to make an accurate determination of the erosion wear volume loss of PMCs with multilayered structures while preserving the specimens. The two-layered (WC-Co topcoat and metal bondcoat) coatings on PMCs remarkably reduced the erosion volume loss by a factor of approximately 10. The tenfold increase in erosion resistance will contribute to longer PMC component lives, lower air friction, reduced related breakdowns, decreased maintenance costs, and increased PMC reliability. The decrease in the surface roughness of the coated vanes will lead to lower air friction and will subsequently reduce energy consumption. Eventually, the coatings could lead to overall economic savings.

  1. Measurement of nonlinear optical refraction of composite material based on sapphire with silver by Kerr-lens autocorrelation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-xiang; Wang, Yu-hua

    2014-01-13

    Silver nanoparticles synthesized in a synthetic sapphire matrix were fabricated by ion implantation using the metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. The optical absorption spectrum of the Ag: Al2O3 composite material has been measured. The analysis of the supercontinuum spectrum displayed the nonlinear refractive property of this kind of sample. Nonlinear optical refraction index was identified at 800 nm excitation using the Kerr-lens autocorrelation (KLAC) technique. The spectrum showed that the material possessed self-defocusing property (n(2) = -1.1 × 10(-15) cm(2)W). The mechanism of nonlinear refraction has been discussed.

  2. In situ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of chemical compositions in stainless steels during tungsten inert gas welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taparli, Ugur Alp; Jacobsen, Lars; Griesche, Axel; Michalik, Katarzyna; Mory, David; Kannengiesser, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system was combined with a bead-on-plate Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding process for the in situ measurement of chemical compositions in austenitic stainless steels during welding. Monitoring the weld pool's chemical composition allows governing the weld pool solidification behavior, and thus enables the reduction of susceptibility to weld defects. Conventional inspection methods for weld seams (e.g. ultrasonic inspection) cannot be performed during the welding process. The analysis system also allows in situ study of the correlation between the occurrence of weld defects and changes in the chemical composition in the weld pool or in the two-phase region where solid and liquid phase coexist. First experiments showed that both the shielding Ar gas and the welding arc plasma have a significant effect on the selected Cr II, Ni II and Mn II characteristic emissions, namely an artificial increase of intensity values via unspecific emission in the spectra. In situ investigations showed that this artificial intensity increase reached a maximum in presence of weld plume. Moreover, an explicit decay has been observed with the termination of the welding plume due to infrared radiation during sample cooling. Furthermore, LIBS can be used after welding to map element distribution. For austenitic stainless steels, Mn accumulations on both sides of the weld could be detected between the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the base material.

  3. Origin of magnetite in oxidized CV chondrites: in situ measurement of oxygen isotope compositions of Allende magnetite and olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, B. G.; McKeegan, K. D.; Leshin, L. A.; Wasson, J. T.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetite in the oxidized CV chondrite Allende mainly occurs as spherical nodules in porphyritic-olivine (PO) chondrules, where it is associated with Ni-rich metal and/or sulfides. To help constrain the origin of the magnetite, we measured oxygen isotopic compositions of magnetite and coexisting olivine grains in PO chondrules of Allende by an in situ ion microprobe technique. Five magnetite nodules form a relatively tight cluster in oxygen isotopic composition with delta 18O values from -4.8 to -7.1% and delta 17O values from -2.9 to -6.3%. Seven coexisting olivine grains have oxygen isotopic compositions from -0.9 to -6.3% in delta 18O and from -4.6 to -7.9% in delta 17O. The delta 17O values of the magnetite and coexisting olivine do not overlap; they range from -0.4 to -2.6%, and from -4.0 to -5.7%, respectively. Thus, the magnetite is not in isotopic equilibrium with the olivine in PO chondrules, implying that it formed after the chondrule formation. The delta 17O of the magnetite is somewhat more negative than estimates for the ambient solar nebula gas. We infer that the magnetite formed on the parent asteroid by oxidation of metal by H2O which had previously experienced minor O isotope exchange with fine-grained silicates.

  4. Magnetic properties measurement of soft magnetic composite material (SOMALOY 700) by using 3-D tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Ashraf; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2017-08-01

    Core losses of rotating electrical machine can be predicted by identifying the magnetic properties of the magnetic material. The magnetic properties should be properly measured since there are some variations of vector flux density in the rotating machine. In this paper, the SOMALOY 700 material has been measured under x, y and z- axes flux density penetration by using the 3-D tester. The calibrated sensing coils are used in detecting the flux densities which have been generated by the Labview software. The measured sensing voltages are used in obtaining the magnetic properties of the sample such as magnetic flux density B, magnetic field strength H, hysteresis loop which can be used to calculate the total core loss of the sample. The results of the measurement are analyzed by using the Mathcad software before being compared to another material.

  5. Chemical composition of wildland and agricultural biomass burning particles measured downwind during the BBOP study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onasch, T. B.; Shilling, J. E.; Wormhoudt, J.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Fortner, E.; Pekour, M. S.; Chand, D.; Zhou, S.; Collier, S.; Zhang, Q.; Kleinman, L. I.; Lewis, E. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.; Freedman, A.; Williams, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored study, measured emissions from wildland fires in the Pacific Northwest and agricultural burns in the Central Southeastern US from the DOE Gulfstream-1 airborne platform over a four month period in 2013. Rapid physical, chemical and optical changes in biomass burning particles were measured downwind (tar balls and SP-AMS OA quantification while operating with both laser and tungsten vaporizers.

  6. The precise measurement of TL isotopic compositions by MC-ICPMS: Application to the analysis of geological materials and meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkämper, Mark; Halliday, Alex N.

    1999-07-01

    The precision of Tl isotopic measurements by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) is severely limited by the fact that Tl possesses only two naturally occurring isotopes, such that there is no invariant isotope ratio that can be used to correct for instrumental mass discrimination. In this paper we describe new chemical and mass spectrometric techniques for the determination of Tl isotopic compositions at a level of precision hitherto unattained. Thallium is first separated from the geological matrix using a two-stage anion-exchange procedure. Thallium isotopic compositions are then determined by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with correction for mass discrimination using the known isotopic composition of Pb that is admixed to the sample solutions. With these procedures we achieve a precision of 0.01-0.02% for Tl isotope ratio measurements in geological samples and this is a factor of ≥3-4 better than the best published results by TIMS. However, without adequate precautions, experimental artifacts can be generated that result in apparent Tl isotopic fractionations of up to one per mil. Analysis of five terrestrial samples indicate the existence of Tl isotopic variations related to natural fractionation processes on the Earth. Two of the three igneous rocks analyzed in this study display Tl isotopic compositions indistinguishable from our laboratory standard, the reference material NIST-997 Tl. A third sample, however, is characterized by ɛ Tl ≈ 2.5 ± 1.5, where ɛ Tl represents the deviation of the 205Tl/ 203Tl ratio of the sample relative to NIST-997 Tl in parts per 10 4. Even larger deviations were identified for two ferromanganese crusts from the Pacific Ocean, which display ɛ Tl-values of +5.0 ± 1.5 and +11.7 ± 1.3. We suggest that the large variability of Tl isotopic compositions in the latter samples are caused by low-temperature processes related to the formation of the Fe-Mn crusts by precipitation and

  7. Body composition in sport: a comparison of a novel ultrasound imaging technique to measure subcutaneous fat tissue compared with skinfold measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Wolfram; Horn, Martin; Fürhapter-Rieger, Alfred; Kainz, Philipp; Kröpfl, Julia M; Maughan, Ronald J; Ahammer, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    Extremely low weight and rapid changes in weight and body composition have become major concerns in many sports, but sufficiently accurate field methods for body composition assessment in athletes are missing. This study aimed to explore the use of ultrasound methods for assessment of body fat content in athletes. 19 female athletes (stature: 1.67(± 0.06) m, weight: 59.6(± 7.6) kg; age: 19.5(± 3.3) years) were investigated by three observers using a novel ultrasound method for thickness measurement of uncompressed subcutaneous adipose tissue and of embedded structures. Two observers also measured skinfold thickness at eight International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthrometry (ISAK) sites; mean skinfold values were compared to mean subcutaneous adipose tissue thicknesses measured by ultrasound. Interobserver reliability of imaging and evaluation obtained by this ultrasound technique: intraclass correlation coefficient ICC=0.968 (95% CI 0.957 to 0.977); evaluation of given images: ICC=0.997 (0.993 to 0.999). Skinfold compared to ultrasound thickness showed that compressibility of subcutaneous adipose tissue depends largely on the site and the person: regression slopes ranged from 0.61 (biceps) to 1.59 (thigh) and CIs were large. Limits of agreement ranged from 2.6 to 8.6 mm. Regression lines did not intercept the skinfold axis at zero because of the skin thickness being included in the skinfold. The four ISAK trunk sites caused ultrasound imaging problems in 13 of 152 sites (8 ISAK sites, 19 athletes). The ultrasound method allows measurement of uncompressed subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness with an accuracy of 0.1-0.5 mm, depending on the probe frequency. Compressibility of the skinfold depends on the anatomical site, and skin thickness varies by a factor of two. This inevitably limits the skinfold methods for body fat estimation. Ultrasound accuracy for subcutaneous adipose tissue measurement is limited by the plasticity of fat and furrowed tissue

  8. Effects of external atmosphere on the metallization phenomenology of composite pellets containing fines of iron ore and coal; Estudo do efeito da atmosfera gasosa na fenomenologia da metalizacao de pelotas auto-redutoras de minerio de ferro e carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Abreu, Jose C.; Oliveira, Luiz M.R. de [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia

    1996-12-31

    This work presents the effects of temperature, time and CO/CO{sub 2} ratio on metallization and morphology of metallic iron produced by reduction of composite pellets containing fines of iron and anthracite coal. The experiments were conducted in a temperature range of 950 - 1250 deg C, and maximum time of 60 minutes. On the other hand, mixtures of CO/CO{sub 2}, from 100% CO{sub 2} up to 100% CO, were used in the experiments, conducted in an appropriate electrically heated furnace apparatus. In order to fulfill the objectives, the reduced pellets were chemically analyzed before observed in optical and scanning electronic microscopes and the results presented in graphics of percentage metallization versus . The following main results may be drawn from this work: (a) the type of external atmosphere exert a major influence on the reduction rates and metallization of the composite pellets: (i) when CO is raised in the mixture, there is an increase in metallization and reaction rate and the metallization continue unchanged; (ii) and uniform internal reduction mechanism occurs. (b) when CO is decreased in CO-CO{sub 2} mixture, the reduction led to a superficial metallic layer, the metallization, initially high, drops and a topochemical mechanism of re-oxidation occurs. (c) the scanning electronic microscopy allowed to observe that calcium is always present in the root of whiskers. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Measurements of matrix cracking and delamination caused by impact on composite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsi-Yung T.; Springer, George S.

    1988-01-01

    Tests were performed measuring the locations and extents of delaminations and matrix crackings in 3-in. by 3-in. Fiberite T300/934 graphite/epoxy plates impacted by 1/2-in. diameter aluminum spheres. Plates with six ply orientations were tested. The impactor speeds ranged from 700 to 1300 in/sec. The plates were inspected by C-scan both before and after impact. The plates were also dissected after impact and examined visually for damage. In addition, the longitudinal and transverse tensile, compressive, and shear properties of the material were measured.

  10. Measurement and modification of first-wall surface composition in the Oak Ridge Tokamak (ORMAK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausing, R.E.; Emerson, L.C.; Heatherly, L.; Colchin, R.J.; Twichell, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Impurities coming into the plasma from the walls of present-day toroidal plasma confinement devices modify plasma behavior substantially. Small fractions of high-Z ions in the plasma greatly decrease plasma temperatures and increase plasma energy losses. Impurities from the ''first-wall'' in ORMAK were studied. Auger electron spectroscopy, soft x-ray appearance potential spectroscopy, and other surface sensitive techniques were used to characterize the surface composition of the first wall and to develop methods to remove carbon and oxygen. Oxygen glow discharge cleaning has been shown, in the laboratory, to be an effective way of removing carbon from gold films (simulated ORMAK linear material) and the use of oxygen discharge cleaning in ORMAK has resulted in a decrease in plasma contamination, a 50 percent increase in plasma current and an accompanying increase in plasma temperature. In spite of these improvements the walls of ORMAK are far from clean. Substantial amounts of carbon, oxygen, iron and other elements remain. (auth)

  11. The measured compositions of Uranus and Neptune from their formation on the CO ice line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali-Dib, Mohamad; Mousis, Olivier; Petit, Jean-Marc; Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2014-01-01

    The formation mechanisms of the ice giants Uranus and Neptune, and the origin of their elemental and isotopic compositions, have long been debated. The density of solids in the outer protosolar nebula is too low to explain their formation, and spectroscopic observations show that both planets are highly enriched in carbon, very poor in nitrogen, and the ices from which they originally formed might have had deuterium-to-hydrogen ratios lower than the predicted cometary value, unexplained properties that were observed in no other planets. Here, we show that all these properties can be explained naturally if Uranus and Neptune both formed at the carbon monoxide ice line. Due to the diffusive redistribution of vapors, this outer region of the protosolar nebula intrinsically has enough surface density to form both planets from carbon-rich solids but nitrogen-depleted gas, in abundances consistent with their observed values. Water-rich interiors originating mostly from transformed CO ices reconcile the D/H value of Uranus's and Neptune's building blocks with the cometary value. Finally, our scenario generalizes a well known hypothesis that Jupiter formed on an ice line (water snow line) for the two ice giants, and might be a first step toward generalizing this mechanism for other giant planets.

  12. Body composition measurement using computed tomography: Does the phase of the scan matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Katie E; Javanmard-Emamghissi, Hannah; Awwad, Amir; Macdonald, Ian A; Fearon, Kenneth C H; Lobo, Dileep N

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, from the methodologic standpoint, the effect of the presence or absence of intravenous contrast on body composition variables obtained by analysis of computed tomography (CT) images. Triphasic abdominal (noncontrast, arterial phase, and portovenous phase contrast) CT scans from 111 patients were analyzed by two independent assessors at the third lumbar vertebral level using SliceOmatic software (version 5.0, TomoVision, Montreal, Canada). Variables included skeletal muscle index (SMI), fat and fat-free mass (FM and FFM, respectively), and mean skeletal muscle Hounsfield units (SMHU). Mean SMHU was lowest in the noncontrast phase (29.4, standard deviation [SD] 8.9 HU), followed by arterial (32.4, SD 9.3 HU) then portovenous phases (34.9, SD 9.4 HU). The mean skeletal muscle attenuation was significantly different depending on the phase of the scan in which the images were obtained. Calculated FM was significantly lower in both arterial (28.6, SD 8.8 kg, P definition of myosteatosis should include a standardized phase of CT for analysis and this should be incorporated within its definition. However, as the magnitudes of the differences were relatively small, the effect of the phase of the scan on predicting outcome needs to be determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measured body composition and geometrical data of four "virtual family" members for thermoregulatory modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Rioux, Timothy P; MacLeod, Tynan; Patel, Tejash; Rome, Maxwell N; Potter, Adam W

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a database of tissue composition, distribution, volume, surface area, and skin thickness from anatomically correct human models, the virtual family. These models were based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of human volunteers, including two adults (male and female) and two children (boy and girl). In the segmented image dataset, each voxel is associated with a label which refers to a tissue type that occupies up that specific cubic millimeter of the body. The tissue volume was calculated from the number of the voxels with the same label. Volumes of 24 organs in body and volumes of 7 tissues in 10 specific body regions were calculated. Surface area was calculated from the collection of voxels that are touching the exterior air. Skin thicknesses were estimated from its volume and surface area. The differences between the calculated and original masses were about 3 % or less for tissues or organs that are important to thermoregulatory modeling, e.g., muscle, skin, and fat. This accurate database of body tissue distributions and geometry is essential for the development of human thermoregulatory models. Data derived from medical imaging provide new effective tools to enhance thermal physiology research and gain deeper insight into the mechanisms of how the human body maintains heat balance.

  14. Short term in vivo precision of whole body composition measurements on the Horizon A densitometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowitz, Michael; Monahan, Paula

    2017-07-29

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is increasingly being used to assess abnormalities in body composition associated with a wide variety of conditions including obesity, sarcopenia, diabetes, anorexia, human immunodeficiency virus lipodystrophy, malabsorption and neuromuscular disorders . The objective of this study was to determine the short-term in vivo precision and least significant change in serial body composition measurements provided by the Hologic Horizon A densitometer as there is no published, peer reviewed body composition precision data on Horizon scanners in the medical literature. After acquiring two new Hologic Horizon A densitometers, short term precision scanning was performed on the two scanners using different groups of 30 volunteers, who had duplicate scans with all scans performed by the same operator. Using the International Society of Clinical Densitometry's advanced precision tool, the scan data were recorded and the coefficient of variation (CV) and least significant change (LSC) determined for total fat, lean and bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). Coefficients of variation of 0.78% and 0.77% were achieved for total fat (LSC at 95% confidence 2.15%) and 0.52% and 0.40% for total lean (LSC at 95% confidence 1.45% and 1.11%). These results indicate that the two Horizon A scanners in this study exceeded the minimum acceptable precision values by roughly a factor of four and are therefore capable of detecting small differences in lean and fat mass of 1-2% between two measurements at 95% confidence. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  15. Structure and composition analysis of natural gas hydrates: 13C NMR spectroscopic and gas uptake measurements of mixed gas hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yutaek; Kang, Seong-Pil; Jang, Wonho

    2009-09-03

    Gas hydrates are becoming an attractive way of storing and transporting large quantities of natural gas, although there has been little effort to understand the preferential occupation of heavy hydrocarbon molecules in hydrate cages. In this work, we present the formation kinetics of mixed hydrate based on a gas uptake measurement during hydrate formation, and how the compositions of the hydrate phase are varied under corresponding formation conditions. We also examine the effect of silica gel pores on the physical properties of mixed hydrate, including thermodynamic equilibrium, formation kinetics, and hydrate compositions. It is expected that the enclathration of ethane and propane is faster than that of methane early stage hydrate formation, and later methane becomes the dominant component to be enclathrated due to depletion of heavy hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. The composition of the hydrate phase seems to be affected by the consumed amount of natural gas, which results in a variation of heating value of retrieved gas from mixed hydrates as a function of formation temperature. 13C NMR experiments were used to measure the distribution of hydrocarbon molecules over the cages of hydrate structure when it forms either from bulk water or water in silica gel pores. We confirm that 70% of large cages of mixed hydrate are occupied by methane molecules when it forms from bulk water; however, only 19% of large cages of mixed hydrate are occupied by methane molecules when it forms from water in silica gel pores. This result indicates that the fractionation of the hydrate phase with heavy hydrocarbon molecules is enhanced in silica gel pores. In addition when heavy hydrocarbon molecules are depleted in the vapor phase during the formation of mixed hydrate, structure I methane hydrate forms instead of structure II mixed hydrate and both structures coexist together, which is also confirmed by 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis.

  16. Sensory Properties and Color Measurements of Dietary Chocolates with Different Compositions During Storage for Up to 360 Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanka V. Popov-Raljić

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work sensory characteristics (appearance – color, brilliance, shape and surface; texture – structure, break, firmness and chewiness; aroma – odor and taste of dietary chocolates of different compositions were evaluated, in parallel with color parameter measurements. Color was determined instrumentally on the top and bottom surfaces, using a "MINOLTA" Chroma meter CR 400 thristimulus colorimeter. Sensory evaluation was performed by a group of experienced panelists immediately after the production (0 – 30 days, and then after 90, 180, 270 and 360 days of storage under ambient conditions (t = 18 – 20°C. Results were statistically analyzed by the two-factorial analysis of variance (MANOVA and with the LSD – test. It was concluded that the storage time up to one year had statistically highly significant (p < 0.01 effects on the sensory attributes of chocolate, as well as on instrumentally measured color parameters.

  17. Development of certified reference material of mineral composition of natural water designed to control of turbidity measurement accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila I. Gorjaeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The results of development of a certified reference material (CRM of mineral composition of natural water are presented. A solution prepared from the material of the CRM specimen imitates mineral composition of natural surface water. The certified values are mass fractions of nitrate ions, chloride ions, fluoride ions, and total iron and turbidity according to formazine scale. Materials and methods. The certified values of mass concentrations of the components were determined using calculated experimental evaluation procedure;the certified turbidity value was determinedusing the certified turbidimetric method. Results. The relative expanded uncertainty (k = 2 of the certified turbidity values does not exceed 5 %, the same value for mass concentrationsis not more than 3.5 %. Relative standard uncertainty from heterogeneity does not exceed 1.0 %. The shelf life of the developed CRM is set to 3 years. Discussion and conclusion. Developed CRM was registered in the State Register of CRM's as GSO 10815-2016. The CRM is designed to control the accuracy of results of the certified characteristics measurements, including proficiency testing of laboratories using interlaboratory comparative tests. The CRM can be used for validation of measurement procedures.

  18. Ghrelin and measures of satiety are altered in polycystic ovary syndrome but not differentially affected by diet composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, L J; Noakes, M; Clifton, P M; Wittert, G A; Tomlinson, L; Galletly, C; Luscombe, N D; Norman, R J

    2004-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition in women of reproductive age associated with obesity. It may involve dysregulation of ghrelin, a hormone implicated in appetite regulation. The effect of diet composition on ghrelin is unclear. Overweight women with and without PCOS were randomized to a high-protein (40% carbohydrate, 30% protein; 10 PCOS, six non-PCOS) or standard protein diet (55% carbohydrate, 15% protein; 10 PCOS, six non-PCOS) for 12 wk of energy restriction and 4 wk of weight maintenance. Diet composition had no effect on fasting or postprandial ghrelin or measures of satiety. Non-PCOS subjects had a 70% higher fasting baseline ghrelin (P = 0.011), greater increase in fasting ghrelin (57.5 vs. 34.0%, P = 0.033), and greater maximal decrease in postprandial ghrelin after weight loss (-144.1 +/- 58.4 vs. -28.9 +/- 14.2 pg/ml, P = 0.02) than subjects with PCOS. Subjects with PCOS were less satiated (P = 0.001) and more hungry (P = 0.007) after a test meal at wk 0 and 16 than subjects without PCOS. Appetite regulation, as measured by subjective short-term hunger and satiety and ghrelin homeostasis, may be impaired in PCOS.

  19. Voyager measurements of the isotopic composition of cosmic-ray aluminum and implications for the propagation of cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasiak, A.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Webber, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    We report a new measurement of the cosmic-ray isotopic composition of aluminum in the low-energy range form 75 to 206 MeV per nucleon.This measurement was made using the high-energy telescope of the CRS experiment on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft during the time period from 1977 to 1993 with an average solar modulation level about 497 MV, roughly the same as at Earth near sunspot minimum. We obtain approximately 430 Al events of which approximately 35 are Al-26 and 395 are Al-27. The Al isotopes were separated with an average mass resolution sigma of 0.35 amu. Our interpretation of the isotopic composition of cosmic-ray aluminum is based on a standard Leaky-Box model for the interstellar propagation of cosmic-ray nuclei using the latest cross sections of the New Mexico-Saclay collaboration as well as a disk-halo diffusion model. From our observed ratio Al-26/Al-27 of 8.3 +/- 2.4 % we deduce an average interstellar density of about 0.52 (+0.26, -0.2) atoms per cu cm. This density is larger than the value of 0.28 (+0.14, -0.11) atoms per cu cm we found from an analysis of the observed abundance of the longer lived Be-10 made using data from the Voyager detectors over almost the same time interval and using essentially the same propagation program.

  20. Impact of Alternative Jet Fuels on Engine Exhaust Composition During the 2015 ECLIF Ground-Based Measurements Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripp, Tobias; Anderson, Bruce; Crosbie, Ewan C; Moore, Richard H; Herrmann, Friederike; Oßwald, Patrick; Wahl, Claus; Kapernaum, Manfred; Köhler, Markus; Le Clercq, Patrick; Rauch, Bastian; Eichler, Philipp; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin

    2018-04-17

    The application of fuels from renewable sources ("alternative fuels") in aviation is important for the reduction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, but may also attribute to reduced release of particles from jet engines. The present experiment describes ground-based measurements in the framework of the ECLIF (Emission and Climate Impact of Alternative Fuels) campaign using an Airbus A320 (V2527-A5 engines) burning six fuels of chemically different composition. Two reference Jet A-1 with slightly different chemical parameters were applied and further used in combination with a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic paraffinic kerosene (FT-SPK) to prepare three semi synthetic jet fuels (SSJF) of different aromatic content. In addition, one commercially available fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF) featured the lowest aromatic content of the fuel selection. Neither the release of nitrogen oxide or carbon monoxide was significantly affected by the different fuel composition. The measured particle emission indices showed a reduction up to 50% (number) and 70% (mass) for two alternative jet fuels (FSJF, SSJF2) at low power settings in comparison to the reference fuels. The reduction is less pronounced at higher operating conditions but the release of particle number and particle mass is still significantly lower for the alternative fuels than for both reference fuels. The observed correlation between emitted particle mass and fuel aromatics is not strict. Here, the H/C ratio is a better indicator for soot emission.

  1. Optical coherence elastography for measuring the deformation within glass fiber composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, P.; Groves, R.M.; Benedictus, R.

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) has been applied to the study of microscopic deformation in biological tissue under compressive stress for more than a decade. In this paper, OCE has been extended for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, to deformation measurement in a glass fiber

  2. A composite score for a measuring instrument utilizing re-scaled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A methodology is proposed to develop a measuring instrument (metric) for evaluating subjects from a population that cannot provide data to facilitate the development of such a metric (e.g. preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit). Central to this methodology is the employment of an expert group that decides on ...

  3. Composition and Sources of Particulate Matter Measured near Houston, TX: Anthropogenic-Biogenic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K. Bean

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter was measured in Conroe, Texas (~60 km north of downtown Houston, Texas during the September 2013 DISCOVER-AQ campaign to determine the sources of particulate matter in the region. The measurement site is influenced by high biogenic emission rates as well as transport of anthropogenic pollutants from the Houston metropolitan area and is therefore an ideal location to study anthropogenic-biogenic interactions. Data from an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM suggest that on average 64 percent of non-refractory PM1 was organic material, including a high fraction (27%–41% of organic nitrates. There was little diurnal variation in the concentrations of ammonium sulfate; however, concentrations of organic and organic nitrate aerosol were consistently higher at night than during the day. Potential explanations for the higher organic aerosol loadings at night include changing boundary layer height, increased partitioning to the particle phase at lower temperatures, and differences between daytime and nighttime chemical processes such as nitrate radical chemistry. Positive matrix factorization was applied to the organic aerosol mass spectra measured by the ACSM and three factors were resolved—two factors representing oxygenated organic aerosol and one factor representing hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol. The factors suggest that the measured aerosol was well mixed and highly processed, consistent with the distance from the site to major aerosol sources, as well as the high photochemical activity.

  4. Field effect measurements on charge carrier mobilities in various polymer-fullerene blend compositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Hauff, E; Parisi, J.; Dyakonov, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated materials typically used in polymer photovoltaics. Field effect measurements were performed in order to determine the hole mobilities in the conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the electron mobilities in the methanofullerene[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid

  5. Body composition in hemodialysis patients measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenver, Doris Irene; Gotfredsen, Arne; Hilsted, J

    1995-01-01

    to patients with end-stage renal failure. Twenty dialysis patients were examined by DXA before and after one hemodialysis session. A highly significant positive correlation between weight measurements performed by conventional scales and DXA was found. A positive correlation between fluid loss during dialysis...

  6. Os estudos latinos no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tuffani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se da importância do ensino do Latim no periodo colonial, enfatizando o papel da Companhia de Jesus. É discutido o longo processo da reorganização do ensino secundário e da implantação dos estudos superiores. Apresenta-se a época que vai do fim do secundário de tradição literária à fundação dos primeiros cursos de Letras e Filosofia. Faz-se um balanco dos estudos latinos de 1940 a 1970, período de sua maior vitalidade no Brasil, tratando da Lei Capanema de 1942 e da antiga Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional. É fechado o panorama com o relato das atividades ate 1996, considerando o quadro por ocasião da nova LDB.

  7. Institutional Fit and River Basin Governance: a New Approach Using Multiple Composite Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Lebel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The notion that effective environmental governance depends in part on achieving a reasonable fit between institutional arrangements and the features of ecosystems and their interconnections with users has been central to much thinking about social-ecological systems for more than a decade. Based on expert consultations this study proposes a set of six dimensions of fit for water governance regimes and then empirically explores variation in measures of these in 28 case studies of national parts of river basins in Europe, Asia, Latin America, and Africa drawing on a database compiled by the Twin2Go project. The six measures capture different but potentially important dimensions of fit: allocation, integration, conservation, basinization, participation, and adaptation. Based on combinations of responses to a standard questionnaire filled in by groups of experts in each basin we derived quantitative measures for each indicator. Substantial variation in these measures of fit was apparent among basins in developing and developed countries. Geographical location is not a barrier to high institutional fit; but within basins different measures of fit often diverge. This suggests it is difficult, but not impossible, to simultaneously achieve a high fit against multiple challenging conditions. Comparing multidimensional fit profiles give a sense of how well water governance regimes are equipped for dealing with a range of natural resource and use-related conditions and suggests areas for priority intervention. The findings of this study thus confirm and help explain previous work that has concluded that context is important for understanding the variable consequences of institutional reform on water governance practices as well as on social and environmental outcomes.

  8. Radiochromic film for dosimetric measurements in radiation shielding composites synthesized for applied in radiology procedures of high dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontainha, C. C. P. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Baptista N, A. T.; Faria, L. O., E-mail: crissia@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Medical radiology offers great benefit to patients. However, although specifics procedures of high dose, as fluoroscopy, Interventional Radiology, Computed Tomography (CT) make up a small percent of the imaging procedures, they contribute to significantly increase dose to population. The patients may suffer tissue damage. The probability of deterministic effects incidence depends on the type of procedure performed, exposure time, and the amount of applied dose at the irradiated area. Calibrated radiochromic films can identify size and distribution of the radiated fields and measure intensities of doses. Radiochromic films are sensitive for doses ranging from 0.1 to 20 c Gy and they have the same response for X-rays effective energies ranging from 20 to 100 keV. New radiation attenuators materials have been widely investigated resulting in dose reduction entrance skin dose. In this work, Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2}:8 % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were obtained by mixing them with P(VDF-Tr Fe) copolymers matrix from casting method and then characterized by Ftir. Dosimetric measurements were obtained with Xr-Q A2 Gafchromic radiochromic films. In this setup, one radiochromic film is directly exposed to the X-rays beam and another one measures the attenuated beam were exposed to an absorbed dose of 10 mGy of RQR5 beam quality (70 kV X-ray beam). Under the same conditions, irradiated Xr-Q A2 films were stored and scanned measurement in order to obtain a more reliable result. The attenuation factors, evaluated by Xr-Q A2 radiochromic films, indicate that both composites are good candidates for use as patient radiation shielding in high dose medical procedures. (Author)

  9. Revisiting the multiple sclerosis functional composite: proceedings from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society (NMSS) Task Force on Clinical Disability Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontaneda, D; LaRocca, N; Coetzee, T; Rudick, Ra

    2012-08-01

    This article describes proceedings from a meeting of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society (NMSS) Task Force on Clinical Disability Measures (the TF). The TF was appointed by the NMSS Research Programs Advisory Committee with the goal of pooling and analyzing existing datasets to explore the utility of novel disability outcome measures based on the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) approach. The TF seeks to determine the suitability of the MSFC approach as a primary clinical outcome measure for registration trials in MS. The TF met in Washington, DC, Dec. 14 and 15, 2011, and provided unanimous support for a collaborative approach involving representatives from academic medicine, the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory agencies, the NMSS and the Critical Path Institute. There was also unanimous agreement that analysis of existing datasets would be useful in making progress toward the objective. The TF placed high value on determining the clinical meaning of individual component measures for the MSFC, and in establishing optimal analysis methods for MSFC so that scores would be more interpretable than the originally recommended z-score method. The background for a collaborative project aimed at developing an improved disability outcome measure is described in this paper.

  10. Relationships among dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance (BIA), and ultrasound measurements of body composition of swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    In three separate studies (156 pigs total), DXA, BIA, and ultrasound were compared as methods for measuring live body composition of pigs at 60 and 100-110 kg BWt. DXA measured total body fat and lean content, BIA measurements of resistance (Rs) and reactance (Xc) were used to calculate total body l...

  11. Development of a composite measure of physical functioning for older persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alden L.; Jones, Richard N.; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    We scaled a measure of physical functioning to a population-based normative sample by extending self-reported basic and instrumental activities of daily living with items from the MOS SF-12. We used item response theory to place items administered to a sample of older elective surgery patients on a common metric linked to the PROMIS normative sample using published data. The summary measure for physical functioning was internally consist (Cronbach’s alpha=0.83), reliable across a broad range of functioning, and was moderately correlated with walking speed (r=0.52) and energy expenditure (r=0.40). Demonstrating predictive criterion validity, less impaired scores were associated with lower risk of discharge to a rehabilitation facility (OR=0.38, 95% CI: 0.22,0.66) and shorter hospital stays (IRR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.79,0.97). Our approach may facilitate direct comparison of physical functioning measures across existing and future studies using a common, population-based metric, when overlapping items with the NIH PROMIS item bank are present. PMID:25651587

  12. Exospheric temperature inferred from the Aeros-A neutral composition measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, S.; Spencer, N.W.

    1975-01-01

    The derivation of exospheric temperature from satellite drag measurements is based on an assumption of invariant conditions of the neutral atmosphere at 120 km. Since it has been established that atomic oxygen, which is usually the major neutral constituent in the region of drag measurements, is subject to considerable variability with season, latitude, and solar and geomagnetic activity in the altitude region of 120 km, its value as an indicator of exospheric temperature is questionable. Ogo 6 neutral mass spectrometer measurements revealed that molecular nitrogen is a better indicator of exospheric temperature, since it is not subject to changes caused by eddy mixing and is therefore relatively less variable near the turbopause. However, theoretical arguments show that argon, even though it is a minor constituent, is relatively less variable with respect to changes in eddy diffusion coefficient and hence a better indicator of exospheric temperature than O and N 2 . In this paper the relative merits of these gases for deriving exospheric temperature are investigated by using observational data from the Aeros-A Nate experiment. It is shown that the temperatures derived from Ar and N 2 are very close to each other and show very similar seasonal, latitudinal, and day to night variations under both quiet and moderately disturbed conditions

  13. A Measuring Tourism Specialization: a Composite Indicator for the Spanish Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pérez-Dacal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tourism sector is playing a key role in the development of a region, therefore tourism activities continue to growth in the last year despite the actual crisis (UNWTO 2011. Also, Spain maintains in the better positions of the world ranking. Furthermore, Tourism activities generate around 10% of GPD and represents 11.5% of total workers of the Spanish Economy in 2011. Nevertheless, this is not true for all the Spanish Regions. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the tourism specialization in the Spanish Provinces. In general previous literature supports the idea that tourism enhances economic growth (Neves & Maças 2008. Given that we are able to define Tourism specialization from very different perspectives, it is essential to review the previous literature and clarify which indicators are the best ones to measure tourism specialization. In order to measure tourism specialization from a wide point of view, we account for both demand and supply side variables for tourism sector, and amenities. We developed principal component analysis (PCA in order to summarize the information provided by the different measures. It is essential to understand the relationship between tourism characteristics, amenities and its economic impacts for public policies and tourism managing. 

  14. X-ray microprobe measurements of the chemical compositions of ALH84001 carbonate globules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, G.J.; Sutton, S.R.; Keller, L.P.

    2004-01-01

    We measured minor element contents of carbonate from ALH84001 and report trends in tbe Ca, V, Mn and Sr in carbonate and the associated magnetite bands. McKay et al. suggested that carbonate globules in the ALH84001 meteorite from Mars contained evidence consistent with the development of bacterial life early in the history of Mars. This result provoked an extensive study of the ALH84001 meteorite. More recently Thomas-Keprta et al. have published a study showing that the magnetite associated with carbonate rims are of the size and shape produced by terrestrial bacteria. This paper has revived interest in ALH84001. The typical ALH84001 carbonate globule consists of four regions: a core of Fe-rich carbonate, a thin magnetite-rich band, a rim of Mn-rich carbonate, and another thin magnetite-rich band. Trace element analysis of each of these phases may allow us to address several important questions about these carbonates: (1) The origin of the magnetite-rich bands in the ALH84001 carbonate globules. If the magnetites are derived from the underlying carbonate through thermal decomposition (as proposed by Golden et al.), then we expect to see 'inherited' trace elements in these magnetite bands. (2) The origin of the rim carbonate, by determining whether the carbonate in the core has the same trace elements as the rim carbonates. (3) The age of the rim carbonate. Borg et al. dated the formation of the rim carbonate using the Rb/Sr chronometer. Borg et al. performed their measurements on an aliquot of what they called a high-Rb, low-Sr carbonate separate from the rim. We previously measured the trace element contents of chips from core and rim carbonates from an ALH84001 carbonate globule using an X-Ray Microprobe on Beamline X26A at the National Synchrotron Light Source. These measurements showed the rim carbonate had a very low Rb content, with Sr>>Rb, inconsistent with the ∼5 ppm Rb reported by Borg et al. in the sample they dated by the Rb/Sr chronometer. The large

  15. Inorganic composition determination and evaluation of the biological activity of Peperomia pellucida in the Aspergillus flavus growth; Estudo da composicao inorganica e avaliacao da atividade biologica de Peperomia pellucida no crescimento de Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio Vitorio

    2011-07-01

    In recent decades, there has been a great advancement in research in developing drugs from plants. Nevertheless, little significant care exists in the literature about the stable concentration of elements, as well as the activity concentration of '2{sup 38}U and {sup 232}Th decay products in plants used for this purpose in Brazil. The presence of stable elements and radionuclides in plants constitutes the pathway for their migration to humans, via uptake of tea or remedies made with medicinal herbs. Peperomia pellucida, whose popular name is 'erva de jabuti', is a plant known by its medicinal usages, such as healing and analgesic properties plus antibacterial and antifungal activities against food fungi. In this study, the elemental composition of Peperomia pellucida and surrounding soil samples collected in the Botanical Garden in Rio de Janeiro was determined; the elemental concentration in the alcoholic extract and infusion processes of dry plants was also determined. The elemental concentration of As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn was determined in the leaves, aerial parts, including leaves, stems and roots of Peperomia pellucida, in their extracts obtained by maceration and infusions and in the surrounding soil by the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analytical methodology used to determine the elements Cd, Hg and Pb was the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS); the activities of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were carried out by gross alpha and beta counting, after radiochemical separation. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen, IAEA-Soil-7, IAEA-326 Radionuclides in soil, NIST 1515 Apple Leaves and NIST 1542 Peach Leaves. The relative standard deviations and the relative errors obtained in these analyses indicated good precision and accuracy of the results. The essential

  16. Estudo de sinterização do compósito Si3N4/TiC Sintering studies of the Si3N4/TiC composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. S. Coutinho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A busca por melhores propriedades mecânicas e maior confiabilidade de cerâmicas à base de Si3N4 faz com que seus compósitos sejam desenvolvidos e intensivamente estudados. A maioria das pesquisas realizadas foca as interações e propriedades mecânicas obtidas, mas interações químicas entre as fases foram pouco estudadas. O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar as interações químicas que ocorrem durante a sinterização do compósito Si3N4-20%vol. TiC. A cinética de sinterização foi estudada por dilatometria, com patamar a 1750 °C/1 h em atmosfera dinâmica de N2. Os resultados de dilatometria indicam alterações na cinética de sinterização, quando comparado ao Si3N4 monolítico. Para avaliar as fases que se formam em temperaturas intermediárias, os compósitos foram tratados termicamente entre 1400 °C e 1850 °C. As amostras foram caracterizadas por difração de raios X. Foi observada a formação da solução sólida TiCN e da fase SiC.During the last years much attention was given towards the better properties and reliability of Si3N4 based composites. Most of the research focus on the improvement of the mechanical properties but not on the chemical interaction between the phases of the composite. The purpose of this work is to study the chemical interactions between Si3N4 and TiC during the sintering process. The kinetics of sintering was studied by means of dilatometry, at 1750 °C/1 h in a dynamic atmosphere of N2. Thermal treatments were carried out in the temperature range 1400 - 1850 °C to analyze the reactions. The phases were determined by X-ray diffraction. Alterations on the sintering kinetics due to the presence of the second phase were observed. These alterations must be related to the formation of the TiCN solid solution and SiC, observed in X-ray diffraction.

  17. Influence of sulfur-bearing polyatomic species on high precision measurements of Cu isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribil, M.J.; Wanty, R.B.; Ridley, W.I.; Borrok, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    An increased interest in high precision Cu isotope ratio measurements using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) has developed recently for various natural geologic systems and environmental applications, these typically contain high concentrations of sulfur, particularly in the form of sulfate (SO42-) and sulfide (S). For example, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) can range from 100??g/L to greater than 50mg/L with sulfur species concentrations reaching greater than 1000mg/L. Routine separation of Cu, Fe and Zn from AMD, Cu-sulfide minerals and other geological matrices usually incorporates single anion exchange resin column chromatography for metal separation. During chromatographic separation, variable breakthrough of SO42- during anion exchange resin column chromatography into the Cu fractions was observed as a function of the initial sulfur to Cu ratio, column properties, and the sample matrix. SO42- present in the Cu fraction can form a polyatomic 32S-14N-16O-1H species causing a direct mass interference with 63Cu and producing artificially light ??65Cu values. Here we report the extent of the mass interference caused by SO42- breakthrough when measuring ??65Cu on natural samples and NIST SRM 976 Cu isotope spiked with SO42- after both single anion column chromatography and double anion column chromatography. A set of five 100??g/L Cu SRM 976 samples spiked with 500mg/L SO42- resulted in an average ??65Cu of -3.50?????5.42??? following single anion column separation with variable SO42- breakthrough but an average concentration of 770??g/L. Following double anion column separation, the average SO42-concentration of 13??g/L resulted in better precision and accuracy for the measured ??65Cu value of 0.01?????0.02??? relative to the expected 0??? for SRM 976. We conclude that attention to SO42- breakthrough on sulfur-rich samples is necessary for accurate and precise measurements of ??65Cu and may require

  18. The association between self-rated health and different anthropometric and body composition measures in the Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Tang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze the strength of association between self-rated health and six anthropometric and body composition measures to explore the best indicator. Methods Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data from the China Kadoorie Biobank Study and approximately 300,000 adults were analyzed. Logistics regression was used to analyze the association between self-rated health (good or poor and anthropometric and body composition measures (height, weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, hip circumference (HC and body fat percentage, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio. Stratified analyses were undertaken to understand the effect modification of socioeconomic status on the association. Result Odds ratio of self-rated better health had an inverted U-shape association with weight, BMI, WC and body fat, with weight levels increasing until around 73.8 and 65.7 kg for male and female, BMI around 26.8 kg/m2, WC around 85.8 and 87.6 cm, body fat around 24.3 and 36.3%, and then declining thereafter. Height and HC also indicated a slightly inverted U-shape association. The strongest association was observed after adjustment was weight, with one standard deviation greater weight associated with 10.2% and 10.6% increased odds in male and female. Conclusions Being underweight and overweight are both risk factors for poor self-rated health in males and females, and weight is the best indicator of self-rated health compared with other measures.

  19. Residual stress measurements by X-ray and neutron diffractions in heat-treated SiCw/A2014 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Takahisa; Fujita, Motoo; Tomota, Yo; Ono, Masayoshi

    1998-01-01

    Residual stresses due to various heat treatments in a 22 volume percent SiC whisker/A2014 metal matrix composite (MMC) were measured by using X-ray and neutron diffractions. Micro residual stresses generated from the differences in thermal expansion coefficients of the constituents and macro residual stresses associated with different cooling rates in the outer and inner regions of an MMC specimen must be distinguished in X-ray stress measurements. The conventional sin 2 ψ method under an assumption of plane stress condition has been found not to be applicable to the present MMC, because interactions among whiskers in the X-ray penetrating area yields σ 33 where the x 3 -axis is normal with respect to specimen's surface. An average value of σ 33 can be measured by X-ray diffraction technique, but does not seem enough to evaluate micro residual stresses. It is found that neutron diffraction is the most powerful method to measure micro residual stresses in the constituents. Elastic residual strains obtained by neutron diffraction in solution treated or T6 heat treated samples show good agreements with predictions calculated by using Eshelby inclusion theory coupled with the Mori-Tanaka mean field concept, indicating that the influence of stress relaxation is negligible. In addition, internal stresses relaxations during holding at room temperature, slow cooling from solution treatment temperature, or subzero cooling are discussed. (author)

  20. Intracellular Water Exchange for Measuring the Dry Mass, Water Mass and Changes in Chemical Composition of Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Vivian C.; Son, Sungmin; Li, Yingzhong; Knudsen, Scott M.; Olcum, Selim; Higgins, John M.; Chen, Jianzhu; Grover, William H.; Manalis, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for direct non-optical quantification of dry mass, dry density and water mass of single living cells in suspension. Dry mass and dry density are obtained simultaneously by measuring a cell’s buoyant mass sequentially in an H2O-based fluid and a D2O-based fluid. Rapid exchange of intracellular H2O for D2O renders the cell’s water content neutrally buoyant in both measurements, and thus the paired measurements yield the mass and density of the cell’s dry material alone. Utilizing this same property of rapid water exchange, we also demonstrate the quantification of intracellular water mass. In a population of E. coli, we paired these measurements to estimate the percent dry weight by mass and volume. We then focused on cellular dry density – the average density of all cellular biomolecules, weighted by their relative abundances. Given that densities vary across biomolecule types (RNA, DNA, protein), we investigated whether we could detect changes in biomolecular composition in bacteria, fungi, and mammalian cells. In E. coli, and S. cerevisiae, dry density increases from stationary to exponential phase, consistent with previously known increases in the RNA/protein ratio from up-regulated ribosome production. For mammalian cells, changes in growth conditions cause substantial shifts in dry density, suggesting concurrent changes in the protein, nucleic acid and lipid content of the cell. PMID:23844039

  1. Intracellular water exchange for measuring the dry mass, water mass and changes in chemical composition of living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó Delgado, Francisco; Cermak, Nathan; Hecht, Vivian C; Son, Sungmin; Li, Yingzhong; Knudsen, Scott M; Olcum, Selim; Higgins, John M; Chen, Jianzhu; Grover, William H; Manalis, Scott R

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for direct non-optical quantification of dry mass, dry density and water mass of single living cells in suspension. Dry mass and dry density are obtained simultaneously by measuring a cell's buoyant mass sequentially in an H2O-based fluid and a D2O-based fluid. Rapid exchange of intracellular H2O for D2O renders the cell's water content neutrally buoyant in both measurements, and thus the paired measurements yield the mass and density of the cell's dry material alone. Utilizing this same property of rapid water exchange, we also demonstrate the quantification of intracellular water mass. In a population of E. coli, we paired these measurements to estimate the percent dry weight by mass and volume. We then focused on cellular dry density - the average density of all cellular biomolecules, weighted by their relative abundances. Given that densities vary across biomolecule types (RNA, DNA, protein), we investigated whether we could detect changes in biomolecular composition in bacteria, fungi, and mammalian cells. In E. coli, and S. cerevisiae, dry density increases from stationary to exponential phase, consistent with previously known increases in the RNA/protein ratio from up-regulated ribosome production. For mammalian cells, changes in growth conditions cause substantial shifts in dry density, suggesting concurrent changes in the protein, nucleic acid and lipid content of the cell.

  2. Continuous measurement of number concentrations and elemental composition of aerosol particles for a dust storm event in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renjian; Han, Zhiwei; Shen, Zhenxing; Cao, Junji

    2008-01-01

    A continuous measurement of number size distributions and chemical composition of aerosol particles was conducted in Beijing in a dust storm event during 21-26 March 2001. The number concentration of coarse particles (>2 μm) increased more significantly than fine particles (dust storm due to dust weather, while the anthropogenic aerosols collected during the non-dust-storm period tended to be associated with fine particles. Elemental compositions were analyzed by using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The results show that 20 elements in the dust storm were much higher than in the non-dust-storm period. The calculated soil dust concentration during the dust storm was, on average, 251.8 μg m-3, while it was only 52.1 μg m-3 on non-dust-storm days. The enrichment factors for Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cl, Cu, Pb, and Zn show small variations between the dust storm and the non-dust-storm period, while those for Ca, Ni and Cr in the dust storm were much lower than those in the non-dust-storm period due to significant local emission sources. A high concentration and enrichment factor for S were observed during the dust storm, which implies that the dust particles were contaminated by aerosol particles from anthropogenic emissions during the long-range transport. A statistical analysis shows that the elemental composition of particles collected during the dust storm in Beijing were better correlated with those of desert soil colleted from desert regions in Inner Mongolia. Air mass back-trajectory analysis further confirmed that this dust storm event could be identified as streaks of dust plumes originating from Inner Mongolia.

  3. Comparison of measured and calculated composition of irradiated EBR-II blanket assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K. N.

    1998-01-01

    In anticipation of processing irradiated EBR-II depleted uranium blanket subassemblies in the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at ANL-West, it has been possible to obtain a limited set of destructive chemical analyses of samples from a single EBR-II blanket subassembly. Comparison of calculated values with these measurements is being used to validate a depletion methodology based on a limited number of generic models of EBR-II to simulate the irradiation history of these subassemblies. Initial comparisons indicate these methods are adequate to meet the operations and material control and accountancy (MC and A) requirements for the FCF, but also indicate several shortcomings which may be corrected or improved

  4. Measurement of wood/plant cell or composite material attributes with computer assisted tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Darrell C.; Paulus, Michael J.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Wimmer, Rupert

    2004-06-08

    A method for obtaining wood-cell attributes from cellulose containing samples includes the steps of radiating a cellulose containing sample with a beam of radiation. Radiation attenuation information is collected from radiation which passes through the sample. The source is rotated relative to the sample and the radiation and collecting steps repeated. A projected image of the sample is formed from the collected radiation attenuation information, the projected image including resolvable features of the cellulose containing sample. Cell wall thickness, cell diameter (length) and cell vacoule diameter can be determined. A system for obtaining physical measures from cellulose containing samples includes a radiation source, a radiation detector, and structure for rotating the source relative to said sample. The system forms an image of the sample from the radiation attenuation information, the image including resolvable features of the sample.

  5. Influence Factor Analysis on Microbond Test Measuring Interfacial Shear Strengths of Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIAO Yue-yue

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial shear strengths between two kinds of mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers and epoxy resin matrix were respectively measured by microbond test. The forces when microdebonding occurring between resin microdroplets and carbon fibers were obtained from the load-displacement curve,and the morphologies of debonded microdroplets and carbon fibers were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Then,the average interfacial shear strength,standard deviation and coefficient of variation for samples were quantitatively calculated. Moreover,the relationships between interfacial shear strength and the lengths, diameters of microdroplets, carbon fiber diameter were analyzed. The results show that interfacial shear strength is proportional to the ratio of length-to-diameter of the resin microdroplet,and inversely proportional to the carbon fiber diameter,to the ratio of the microdroplet length-to-carbon fiber diameter,and to the ratio of the microdroplet diameter-to-carbon fiber diameter.

  6. Elemental composition of ambient aerosols measured with high temporal resolution using an online XRF spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Furger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Xact 625 Ambient Metals Monitor was tested during a 3-week field campaign at the rural, traffic-influenced site Härkingen in Switzerland during the summer of 2015. The field campaign encompassed the Swiss National Day fireworks event, providing increased concentrations and unique chemical signatures compared to non-fireworks (or background periods. The objective was to evaluate the data quality by intercomparison with other independent measurements and test its applicability for aerosol source quantification. The Xact was configured to measure 24 elements in PM10 with 1 h time resolution. Data quality was evaluated for 10 24 h averages of Xact data by intercomparison with 24 h PM10 filter data analysed with ICP-OES for major elements, ICP-MS for trace elements, and gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry for Hg. Ten elements (S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, Pb showed excellent correlation between the compared methods, with r2 values  ≥  0.95. However, the slopes of the regressions between Xact 625 and ICP data varied from 0.97 to 1.8 (average 1.28 and thus indicated generally higher Xact elemental concentrations than ICP for these elements. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed, but further investigations are needed. For the remaining elements no conclusions could be drawn about their quantification for various reasons, mainly detection limit issues. An indirect intercomparison of hourly values was performed for the fireworks peak, which brought good agreement of total masses when the Xact data were corrected with the regressions from the 24 h value intercomparison. The results demonstrate that multi-metal characterization at high-time-resolution capability of Xact is a valuable and practical tool for ambient monitoring.

  7. Elemental composition of ambient aerosols measured with high temporal resolution using an online XRF spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furger, Markus; Cruz Minguillón, María; Yadav, Varun; Slowik, Jay G.; Hüglin, Christoph; Fröhlich, Roman; Petterson, Krag; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2017-06-01

    The Xact 625 Ambient Metals Monitor was tested during a 3-week field campaign at the rural, traffic-influenced site Härkingen in Switzerland during the summer of 2015. The field campaign encompassed the Swiss National Day fireworks event, providing increased concentrations and unique chemical signatures compared to non-fireworks (or background) periods. The objective was to evaluate the data quality by intercomparison with other independent measurements and test its applicability for aerosol source quantification. The Xact was configured to measure 24 elements in PM10 with 1 h time resolution. Data quality was evaluated for 10 24 h averages of Xact data by intercomparison with 24 h PM10 filter data analysed with ICP-OES for major elements, ICP-MS for trace elements, and gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry for Hg. Ten elements (S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, Pb) showed excellent correlation between the compared methods, with r2 values ≥ 0.95. However, the slopes of the regressions between Xact 625 and ICP data varied from 0.97 to 1.8 (average 1.28) and thus indicated generally higher Xact elemental concentrations than ICP for these elements. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed, but further investigations are needed. For the remaining elements no conclusions could be drawn about their quantification for various reasons, mainly detection limit issues. An indirect intercomparison of hourly values was performed for the fireworks peak, which brought good agreement of total masses when the Xact data were corrected with the regressions from the 24 h value intercomparison. The results demonstrate that multi-metal characterization at high-time-resolution capability of Xact is a valuable and practical tool for ambient monitoring.

  8. Quantitative measurement of carbon isotopic composition in CO2 gas reservoir by Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Li, Rongxi; Zhao, Bangsheng; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Shuan; Cheng, Jinghua; Wu, Xiaoli

    2018-04-01

    The use of Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy technology for quantitatively determining gas carbon isotope composition is presented. In this study, 12CO2 and 13CO2 were mixed with N2 at various molar fraction ratios to obtain Raman quantification factors (F12CO2 and F13CO2), which provide a theoretical basis for calculating the δ13C value. And the corresponding values were 0.523 (0 CO2/CN2 CO2/CN2 CO2/12CO2 binary mixtures when F12CO2/F13CO2 is 0.466972625. In addition, measurement of δ13C values by Micro-Laser Raman analysis were carried out on natural CO2 gas from Shengli Oil-field at room temperature under different pressures. The δ13C values obtained by Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy technology and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) technology are in good agreement with each other, and the relative errors range of δ13C values is 1.232%-6.964%. This research provides a fundamental analysis tool for determining gas carbon isotope composition (δ13C values) quantitatively by using Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy. Experiment of results demonstrates that this method has the potential for obtaining δ13C values in natural CO2 gas reservoirs.

  9. Constraining the mass scale of a Lorentz-violating Hamiltonian with the measurement of astrophysical neutrino-flavor composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lai, Wei-Hao; Lin, Guey-Lin

    2017-12-01

    We study Lorentz violation effects on flavor transitions of high energy astrophysical neutrinos. It is shown that the appearance of a Lorentz-violating Hamiltonian can drastically change the flavor transition probabilities of astrophysical neutrinos. Predictions of Lorentz-violation effects on flavor compositions of astrophysical neutrinos arriving on Earth are compared with IceCube flavor composition measurement which analyzes astrophysical neutrino events in the energy range between 25 TeV and 2.8 PeV. Such a comparison indicates that the future IceCube-Gen2 will be able to place stringent constraints on a Lorentz-violating Hamiltonian in the neutrino sector. We work out the expected sensitivities by IceCube-Gen2 on dimension-3 C P T -odd and dimension-4 C P T -even operators in a Lorentz-violating Hamiltonian. The expected sensitivities can improve on the current constraints obtained from other types of experiments by more than two orders of magnitudes for certain ranges of the parameter space.

  10. EMF measurements across the front of combustion wave during layer by layer surface laser sintering of exothermal powder compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkovskiy, I.; Sherbakov, V.; Morozov, Yu.

    2007-06-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) and manufacturing (M) is a novel layer-by-layer fabrication technique which has become increasingly popular due to its inherent flexibility for the manufacture of simple and complex 3D parts. Early we had been shown opportunity of selective laser sintering (SLS) of different type powder systems (intermetallics, ceramics, ferrites, high-temperature superconductors), traditional use for self-propagated high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The non-thermal heating affect of an external electromagnetic field during SHS is related to the specific system under study due to differences in movement of defects and ions at the 'plasma-like' molten combustion wave front. We have developed and refined the testing scheme for electro-thermal phenomena studies which can directly influence on the SHS combustion wave front. This work studies electromotive force (EMF) measurements across the front of combustion wave during layer by layer surface laser sintering of exothermal powder compositions (Ni-Ti, Ni-Al). Analysis using an analog-digital-analog computer converter allowed some control of the laser movement and hence some control of the exothermal reaction - in so doing it provided near optimum conditions for forming layered 3D articles. Comparative results of structural-phase transformation during laser control SHS in reaction-capable compositions are presented.

  11. Electrical resistivity and ultrasonic measurements during sequential fracture test of cementitious composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Veselý

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cracks in cover of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete structures significantly influence the ingress of deleterious species causing decrease in durability of these structures. The paper is focused on the effect of fracture process on two selected physical parameters of concrete – the electrical resistivity and the ultrasonic pulse passing time – which might be employed as the quality indicator of concrete cover within (nondestructive procedure(s of assessment of the structural durability. The concrete electrical resistivity and ultrasonic passing time were investigated here with respect to two variants of treatment of the test specimens’ surface (the pre-dried surface and the wet surface. Test configuration of three-point bending of notched beam was utilized to control the crack propagation; the fracture process passed through several loading–unloading sequences between which the electrical resistivity and ultrasonic passing time readings over the fractured region were performed. Equivalent elastic crack model was used for estimation of the fracture advance (described via the effective crack length at the loading stages corresponding to the resistivity and ultrasonic measurements. Relationships between changes of both the concrete resistivity and ultrasonic pulse passing time and the effective crack length is determined and discussed.

  12. Composition measurements of the 1989 Arctic winter stratosphere by airborne infrared solar absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, G. C.; Farmer, C. B.; Schaper, P. W.; Lowes, L. L.; Norton, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports simultaneous measurements of the stratospheric burdens of H2O, HDO, OCS, CO2, O3, N2O, CO, CH4, CF2Cl2, CFCl3, CHF2Cl, C2H6, HCN, NO, NO2, HNO3, ClNO3, HOCl, HCl, and HF made by the JPL MkIV interferometer on board the NASA DC-8 aircraft during January and early February 1989 as part of the Airborne Arctic Stratosphere Experiment. Data were obtained on 11 flights at altitudes of up to 12 km over a geographic region covering the NE Atlantic Ocean, Iceland, and Greenland. Analyses of the chemically active gases reveal highly perturbed conditions within the vortex. The ClNO3 abundance was chemically enhanced near the edge of the vortex but was then depleted inside. NO2 was severely depleted inside the vortex. In contrast to Antarctica, H2O and HNO3 were both more abundant inside the vortex than outside. It is suggested that although the Arctic vortex did not get cold enough to produce any dehydration, or as vertically extensive denitrification as occurred in Antarctica, nevertheless, enough heterogeneous chemistry occurred to convert over 90 percent of the inorganic chlorine to active forms in the 14- to 27-km altitude range by early February 1989.

  13. Composite Match Index with Application of Interior Deformation Field Measurement from Magnetic Resonance Volumetric Images of Human Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penglin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas a variety of different feature-point matching approaches have been reported in computer vision, few feature-point matching approaches employed in images from nonrigid, nonuniform human tissues have been reported. The present work is concerned with interior deformation field measurement of complex human tissues from three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR volumetric images. To improve the reliability of matching results, this paper proposes composite match index (CMI as the foundation of multimethod fusion methods to increase the reliability of these various methods. Thereinto, we discuss the definition, components, and weight determination of CMI. To test the validity of the proposed approach, it is applied to actual MR volumetric images obtained from a volunteer’s calf. The main result is consistent with the actual condition.

  14. Mesospheric H2O and H2O2 densities inferred from in situ positive ion composition measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, E.

    1984-01-01

    A model for production and loss of oxonium ions in the high-latitude D-region is developed, based on the observed excess of 34(+) which has been interpreted as H2O2(+). The loss mechanism suggested in the study is the attachment of N2 and/or CO2 in three-body reactions. Furthermore, mesospheric water vapor and H2O2 densities are inferred from measurements of four high-latitude ion compositions, based on the oxonium model. Mixing ratios of hydrogen peroxide of up to two orders of magnitude higher than previous values were obtained. A number of reactions, reaction constants, and a block diagram of the oxonium ion chemistry in the D-region are given.

  15. Activation method for measuring the reaction rates and studying the neutron spectra parameters, based on using the unified composition detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidov, A.M.; Dikarev, V.S.; Efimov, B.V.; Ionov, V.S.; Marin, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    The method proposed for estimation of parameters thermal and epithermal parts of energy distribution of neutrons is described. The method based on application of activation measuring with use of unified composition detectors (UCD) and samples of fuel. The method is applicable for definition of neutron spectrum parameters and velocities of division in fuel of nuclear installations. Theoretical bases and the description of a method, expedients of manufacturing and calibration for the detectors, the experimental data, carried out in RRC KI are given and processing of experimental data, and also. The parametric model of a spectrum constructed on the basis of Westcott's formalism is described. The parameter of stiffness is entered and its role for temperature of neutron gas, spectral coefficients of isotopes of detectors, the transition area thermal and epithermal parts of neutron spectra is observationally appreciated. It is offered to confirm the found results by calculations with use of MCU Monte Carlo code [ru

  16. From the Sun’s south to the north pole – Ulysses COSPIN/LET composition measurements at solar maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Hofer

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on elemental abundance ratios derived from the Ulysses COSPIN/LET measurements, we classified the energetic particle populations during and after the socalled Fast Latitude Scan – the time period during which the Ulysses spacecraft traveled from the highest heliolatitude south to maximum northern latitude, i.e. 27 November 2000 to 13 October 2001 – as being mixed between solar energetic particles (major component and particles accelerated at stream interaction regions. During the fast latitude scan, the Ulysses spacecraft made the first transit in heliolatitude from pole to pole during solar activity maximum conditions, providing a unique opportunity to acquire energetic particle composition data over a maximum range of heliolatitudes in the inner heliosphere. At low latitudes, based on our elemental abundance analysis, we found that while solar energetic particles dominated, there were indications for particle acceleration at single compression regions in a few instances. In the high heliolatitude range the observed elemental particle compositions are mainly of the solar energetic particle type. Within the statistical errors, the observed abundance ratios were independent of latitude, and were characteristic of solar energetic particles. These observations raise an important question for the theories of particle propagation in the inner heliosphere. The daily elemental abundance ratios of S/O, Mg/O and Si/O shown here are the first measured ratios at high heliolatitudes in the energy range from 13.0 to 30.0 MeV/n.Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles; interplanetary shocks – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (flares and mass ejections

  17. A measurement based analysis of the spatial distribution, temporal variation and chemical composition of particulate matter in Munich and Augsburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Schäfer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the studies presented in this paper is to present an analysis of spatial distribution and temporal variation of particulate matter in Munich and Augsburg, Germany, and to identify and discuss the factors determining the aerosol pollution in both areas. Surface-based in-situ and remote sensing measurements of particle mass and particle size distribution have been performed in, around, and above the two cities. Two measurement campaigns were conducted in Munich, one in late spring and one in winter 2003. Another campaign has been on-going in Augsburg since 2004. Spatial and temporal variations are analyzed from this data (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1. There are higher particle mass concentrations at the urban site than at the surrounding rural sites, especially in winter. No significant difference in the major ionic composition of the particles between the urban and the rural site was detected. This is considered to be related to the spatial distribution of secondary inorganic aerosol that is more homogeneous than aerosol resulting from other sources like traffic or urban releases in general. During the measurement campaigns mixing layer heights were determined continuously by remote sensing (SODAR, ceilometer, RASS. Significant dependence of particle size distribution and particle mass concentration on mixing layer height was found. This finding paves the way to new applications of satellite remote sensing products.

  18. Long-term measurement of aerosol chemical composition in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevopoulou, Despina; Liakakou, Eleni; Theodosi, Christina; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    this first analysis of the aforementioned acquired data, the dominant components of fine particulate matter were carbonaceous aerosol, dust and sulfate anions. The average mass concentration of PM2.5 was 20μg/m3 for the whole studied period while, about 23%, 20% and 15% of the total mass is due to POM, dust and nssSO4-2, respectively. As a result of the mass closure exercise the measured PM2.5 fraction, collected in the studied site, was feasible to be reconstructed to a large extent.

  19. Long-term cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, particle number size distribution and chemical composition measurements at regionally representative observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Henning, Silvia; Decesari, Stefano; Henzing, Bas; Keskinen, Helmi; Sellegri, Karine; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Brito, Joel; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Kristensson, Adam; Kalivitis, Nikos; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Carbone, Samara; Jefferson, Anne; Park, Minsu; Schlag, Patrick; Iwamoto, Yoko; Aalto, Pasi; Äijälä, Mikko; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Ehn, Mikael; Frank, Göran; Fröhlich, Roman; Frumau, Arnoud; Herrmann, Erik; Herrmann, Hartmut; Holzinger, Rupert; Kos, Gerard; Kulmala, Markku; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Nenes, Athanasios; O'Dowd, Colin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Picard, David; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöschl, Ulrich; Poulain, Laurent; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Swietlicki, Erik; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Ogren, John; Matsuki, Atsushi; Yum, Seong Soo; Stratmann, Frank; Baltensperger, Urs; Gysel, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) constitute the single largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing. To reduce the uncertainties and gain more confidence in the simulation of ACI, models need to be evaluated against observations, in particular against measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here we present a data set - ready to be used for model validation - of long-term observations of CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites on 3 continents. Studied environments include coastal background, rural background, alpine sites, remote forests and an urban surrounding. Expectedly, CCN characteristics are highly variable across site categories. However, they also vary within them, most strongly in the coastal background group, where CCN number concentrations can vary by up to a factor of 30 within one season. In terms of particle activation behaviour, most continental stations exhibit very similar activation ratios (relative to particles > 20 nm) across the range of 0.1 to 1.0 % supersaturation. At the coastal sites the transition from particles being CCN inactive to becoming CCN active occurs over a wider range of the supersaturation spectrum. Several stations show strong seasonal cycles of CCN number concentrations and particle number size distributions, e.g. at Barrow (Arctic haze in spring), at the alpine stations (stronger influence of polluted boundary layer air masses in summer), the rain forest (wet and dry season) or Finokalia (wildfire influence in autumn). The rural background and urban sites exhibit relatively little variability throughout the year, while short-term variability can be high especially at the urban site. The average hygroscopicity parameter, κ, calculated from the chemical composition of submicron particles was highest at the coastal site of Mace Head (0.6) and lowest at the rain forest station ATTO (0.2-0.3). We performed closure studies based on κ-Köhler theory

  20. Beyond Body Mass Index: Using Anthropometric Measures and Body Composition Indicators to Assess Odds of an Endometriosis Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Hediger, Mary L; Chen, Zhen; Lauver, Diane R; Sun, Liping; Peterson, C Matthew; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2017-09-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and endometriosis have been inversely associated. To address gaps in this research, we examined associations among body composition, endometriosis, and physical activity. Women from 14 clinical sites in the Salt Lake City, Utah and San Francisco, California areas and scheduled for laparoscopy/laparotomy were recruited during 2007-2009. Participants (N = 473) underwent standardized anthropometric assessments to estimate body composition before surgery. Using a cross-sectional design, odds of an endometriosis diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]) were calculated for anthropometric and body composition measures (weight in kg; height in cm; mid upper arm, waist, hip, and chest circumferences in cm; subscapular, suprailiac, and triceps skinfold thicknesses in mm; arm muscle and fat areas in cm 2 ; centripetal fat, chest-to-waist, chest-to-hip, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios; arm fat index; and BMI in kg/m 2 ). Physical activity (metabolic equivalent of task-minutes/week) and sedentariness (average minutes sitting on a weekday) were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form. Measures were modeled continuously and in quartiles based on sample estimates. Adjusted models were controlled for age (years, continuous), site (Utah/California), smoking history (never, former, or current smoker), and income (below, within 180%, and above of the poverty line). Findings were standardized by dividing variables by their respective standard deviations. We used adjusted models to examine whether odds of an endometriosis diagnosis were moderated by physical activity or sedentariness. Inverse relationships were observed between endometriosis and standardized: weight (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.88); subscapular skinfold thickness (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.98); waist and hip circumferences (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.98 and aOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.94, respectively); total

  1. Estudo da composição química de flocos de cereais com ênfase nos teores de fenilalanina Study on the chemical composition of breakfast cereals with emphasis on their phenylalanine contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Maria LANFER MARQUEZ

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a composição química e o teor de fenilalanina em 13 tipos de flocos de cereais produzidos no país e disponíveis no comércio de São Paulo. Todos os produtos contêm elevado teor de carboidratos totais, superior a 77%, fornecendo no mínimo 345 kcal/100g. Os seus teores protéicos (Nx5,7 são variáveis e se situam entre 3,8 e 7,3%. Os teores de fenilalanina variam entre 224 e 451 mg/100g de produto, sendo os valores mais baixos encontrados nos cereais com o menor teor protéico, que correspondem aos flocos de milho com maior concentração de açúcar. Através da análise de aminoácidos, foram encontrados em média 5,96g de fenilalanina/100g de aminoácidos recuperados. As diferenças em torno desta média não foram estatisticamente significativas e mostraram-se independentes do cereal que deu origem aos produtos. Houve correlação linear entre o teor de nitrogênio (micro-Kjeldahl e a concentração de fenilalanina nas amostras (coef. correl. 0,9887 o que permite estimar o teor de fenilalanina unicamente a partir da análise de nitrogênio, adotando o teor de 5,96g de fenilalanina/100g aminoácidos. Os cálculos resultaram nos teores de fenilalanina dos 13 produtos, que não diferiram estatisticamente dos obtidos pela análise de aminoácidos.The chemical composition and the amount of phenylalanine in 13 types of breakfast cereals produced in Brazil and marketed in São Paulo were studied. All products showed high amounts of carbohydrates, higher than 77%, supplying a minimum of 345 kcal/100g. The protein contents (Nx5.7 ranged from 3.8 to 7.3%. The phenylalanine levels varied between 224 and 451 mg/100g of the products and the lowest levels were detected in cereals with a reduced protein content, corresponding to cereal flakes with high sugar contents. The amino acid analysis revealed that phenylalanine accounted for 5.96±0.12 g/100g recovered amino acids, with no significant statistical differences among the 13

  2. Estudo comparativo de diferentes tipos de silos sobre a composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo da silagem de milho Comparative studies on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Melotti

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Três diferentes tipos de silos de laboratório, confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos, sacos plásticos e manilhas de concreto com revestimento plástico, em dois diferentes graus de compactação (400 ou 600 kg de silagem/m3, foram comparados com o silo comercial tipo trincheira amostrado a 0, 50 e 100 cm da sua superfície. A planta de milho (27,3% de MS e 8,4% de PB foi picada, homogeneizada e utilizada para encher quatro silos por tratamento. Depois de abertos, estes foram amostrados para análise da composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo. Os teores de MS e PB variaram entre os diferentes extratos do silo comercial e foram intermediários nos silos laboratoriais, indicando maior translocação de água e nutrientes naquele do que nestes. Os silos laboratoriais representaram bem os comerciais, quanto aos componentes da parede celular, amido, carboidratos solúveis e DIVMS. O pH foi menor na silagem obtida no extrato médio, intermediário no profundo e maior na superfície do silo comercial. Silagens obtidas no extrato médio também apresentaram maiores teores de nitrogênio amoniacal e ácido lático, enquanto que as obtidas no extrato profundo apresentaram as concentrações mais elevadas de ácido acético. De forma geral, os silos laboratoriais representaram bem o perfil de fermentação dos silos comerciais (pH, concentração de etanol, acético, propiônico, butírico, lático e N amoniacal, já que a maior variabilidade de resposta foi observada entre os extratos do silo comercialA commercial bunker silo and three types of experimental silos were used for determination of chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of corn silage (27.3% DM and 8.4% CP ensiled in two different densities (400 or 600kg of silage/m3: 1 commercial bunker silo sampled at 0, 50 and 100 cm from the top; 2 plastic silo with bulsen valve; 3 plastic bag; and 4 concrete pipe. Dry matter and CP concentration showed larger variation

  3. Estudo das propriedades mecânicas e térmicas do polímero Poli-3-hidroxibutirato (PHB e de compósitos PHB/pó de madeira Study of mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB and PHB/wood flour composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam L. C. Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O PHB (Poli-3-hidroxibutirato é um termoplástico biodegradável sintetizado por fermentação submersa a partir de matérias-primas renováveis. A utilização de fibras naturais tem sido pesquisada visando melhorar as propriedades e reduzir o custo do PHB. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o estudo das propriedades mecânicas (resistência à tração, térmicas (Análise termogravimétrica,TGA, e Calorimetria Exploratória Diferencial, DSC e reológicas (torque em câmera de mistura e Índice de Fluidez do PHB e de compósitos de PHB/pó de madeira processados e irradiados. Foram preparados compósitos com concentrações de PHB/pó de madeira de 90/10, 80/20 e 70/30 (m/m. Os materiais foram processados através das seguintes etapas de processamento: calandragem, fragmentação, extrusão, granulação, secagem e moldagem por injeção para confecção dos corpos de prova. A incorporação do pó de madeira aumentou o grau de cristalinidade e a temperatura de cristalização do polímero, e nos compósitos PHB/pó de madeira 80/20 e 70/30 a rigidez do material aumentou. A irradiação após o processamento (dose de 30 kGy provocou aumento da rigidez do PHB puro e dos compósitos PHB/pó de madeira 90/10 e 80/20, embora outras propriedades tenham decrescido. O compósito PHB/pó de madeira 70/30 apresentou os melhores resultados em termos econômicos e de processamento.PHB (Polyhydroxybutyrate is a biodegradable thermoplastic synthesized by submerse fermentation of renewable raw materials. The use of natural fibers has been largely researched to improve PHB properties, as well as reducing its cost. The purpose of this work was the study of the mechanical, thermal properties and rheological analyses (torque in mixer camera and melt flow index of processed and irradiated PHB, as well as PHB/wood flour composites. PHB/wood flour composites were prepared with PHB/wood relation of 90/10, 80/20 and 70/30 (w/w. Both pure PHB and composites were

  4. Estudo multicasos sobre atividades inovativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina Hierro Parolin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Em estudos sobre competitividade argumenta-se que as empresas necessitam de estratégias baseadas em inovações e de capacidades internas em constantes e intensas transformações, não somente nos padrões tecnológicos, mas também no encadeamento do processo de gestão das atividades inovativas, como processos dinâmicos, não lineares e diversificados, em função de múltiplos fatores dos ambientes interno e externo. Para contribuir com essas discussões, neste artigo apresenta-se um estudo multicasos em quatro indústrias de médio e grande portes, de segmentos, densidades tecnológicas e históricos com inovações diferentes entre si. Como principais resultados, salientam-se o encadeamento das atividades inovativas como parte de uma estratégia organizacional para obter resultados com inovação e a afluência de todas as pessoas, e não somente as alocadas em pesquisa e desenvolvimento, para o cumprimento dessa estratégia.

  5. Use of upper-arm anthropometry as measure of body-composition and nutritional assessment in children and adolescents (6-20 years) of Assam, Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswant, Singh; Nitish, Mondal

    2014-07-01

    Upper-arm muscle area (UMA), upper-arm fat area (UFA), arm-fat index (AFI), upper-arm fat estimate (UFE) and upper-arm muscle estimate (UME) was introduced for the assessment of body-composition. This cross-sectional study assessed age-sex specific upper-arm composition and nutritional status among children and adolescents. The present cross-sectional study was conducted among 1545 (770 boys; 775 girls) Sonowal Kacharis of Dibrugarh District, Assam, Northeast-India, using multi-stage stratified random sampling method. The anthropometric measurements of height, weight, triceps and mid-upper-arm circumference were recorded. The upper-arm composition was assessed using standard equations. Nutritional status was assessed using standard classification of upper-arm muscle-area by height (UAMAH) and thinness (low BMI-for-age). Age and sex-specific muscularity were found significantly greater among boys than girls (p0.05). Body-composition and nutritional status of these children and adolescents were found markedly unsatisfactory using upper-arm composition, UAMAH and thinness. The combination of upper-arm composition and conventional anthropometric measures appear to be useful for body-composition and nutritional status assessment.

  6. A Model Based Deconvolution Approach for Creating Surface Composition Maps of Irregularly Shaped Bodies from Limited Orbiting Nuclear Spectrometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmann, N. A.; Carlsten, B. E.; Stonehill, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    Orbiting nuclear spectrometers have contributed significantly to our understanding of the composition of solar system bodies. Gamma rays and neutrons are produced within the surfaces of bodies by impacting galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and by intrinsic radionuclide decay. Measuring the flux and energy spectrum of these products at one point in an orbit elucidates the elemental content of the area in view. Deconvolution of measurements from many spatially registered orbit points can produce detailed maps of elemental abundances. In applying these well-established techniques to small and irregularly shaped bodies like Phobos, one encounters unique challenges beyond those of a large spheroid. Polar mapping orbits are not possible for Phobos and quasistatic orbits will realize only modest inclinations unavoidably limiting surface coverage and creating North-South ambiguities in deconvolution. The irregular shape causes self-shadowing both of the body to the spectrometer but also of the body to the incoming GCR. The view angle to the surface normal as well as the distance between the surface and the spectrometer is highly irregular. These characteristics can be synthesized into a complicated and continuously changing measurement system point spread function. We have begun to explore different model-based, statistically rigorous, iterative deconvolution methods to produce elemental abundance maps for a proposed future investigation of Phobos. By incorporating the satellite orbit, the existing high accuracy shape-models of Phobos, and the spectrometer response function, a detailed and accurate system model can be constructed. Many aspects of this model formation are particularly well suited to modern graphics processing techniques and parallel processing. We will present the current status and preliminary visualizations of the Phobos measurement system model. We will also discuss different deconvolution strategies and their relative merit in statistical rigor, stability

  7. The influence of anthropometric factors on postural balance: the relationship between body composition and posturographic measurements in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Castilho Alonso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of anthropometric characteristics and gender on postural balance in adults. One hundred individuals were examined (50 males, 50 females; age range 20-40 years. METHODS: The following body composition measurements were collected (using bone densitometry measurements: fat percentage (% fat, tissue (g, fat (g, lean mass (g, bone mineral content (g, and bone mineral density (g/cm2. In addition, the following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (kg, height (cm, length of the trunk-cephalic region (cm, length of the lower limbs (cm and length of the upper limbs (cm. The following indices were calculated: body mass index (kg/m², waist-hip ratio and the support base (cm². Also, a postural balance test was performed using posturography variables with open and closed eyes. RESULTS: The analysis revealed poor correlations between postural balance and the anthropometric variables. A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the whole group (female and male height explained 12% of the medial-lateral displacement, 10% of the speed of oscillation, and 11% of the displacement area. The length of the trunk-cephalic length explained 6% of the displacement in the anteroposterior direction. With eyes closed, the support base and height explained 18% of the medial displacement, and the lateral height explained 10% of the displacement speed and 5% of the scroll area. CONCLUSION: Measured using posturography, the postural balance was only slightly influenced by the anthropometric variables, both with open and closed eyes. Height was the anthropometric variable that most influenced postural balance, both in the whole group and separately for each gender. Postural balance was more influenced by anthropometric factors in males than females.

  8. Mars Atmospheric Composition, Isotope Ratios and Seasonal Variations: Overview and Updates of the SAM Measurements at Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We will summarize the in situ measurements of atmospheric composition and the isotopic ratios of D/H in water, C-13/C-12, O-18/O-16, O-17 / O-16, and C-13 O-18 / C-12 O-16 in carbon dioxide, and Ar-38 / Ar-36, Kr-x / Kr-84, and N-15 / N-14 made in the martian atmosphere at Gale Crater from the Curiosity Rover using the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM)'s Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS) and Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS). With data over 700 sols since the Curiosity landing, we will discuss evidence and implications for changes on seasonal and other timescales. We will also present results for continued methane and methane enrichment experiments over this time period. Comparison between our measurements in the modern atmosphere and those of martian meteorites like ALH 84001 implies that the martian reservoirs of CO2 and H2O were largely established approximately 4 billion years ago, but that atmospheric loss or surface interaction may be still ongoing.

  9. Barely visible impact damage detection for composite sandwich structures by optical-fiber-based distributed strain measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakuchi, S; Mizutani, T; Okabe, Y; Takeda, N

    2009-01-01

    The authors developed an impact damage-detection system for large-scale composite sandwich structures using an optical fiber network running throughout the structure. A Brillouin-based sensing system with high spatial resolution (pre-pump pulse Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (PPP-BOTDA)) was utilized for distributed strain measurement. The PPP-BOTDA sensing system can measure axial strain along the optical fiber by employing stimulated Brillouin scattering. The system realizes a spatial resolution of 10 cm, a sampling interval of 5 cm, and a sensing range of more than 1 km. Our previous study revealed that a non-uniform axial strain within centimeter spatial resolution broadens the width of the Brillouin gain spectrum, which is the output of the PPP-BOTDA. The specific response of the PPP-BOTDA was employed to detect non-uniform strain distribution along a residual facesheet dent in a damaged area. First, the response of the optical fiber sensor network, formed in the adhesive layer, was simulated to clarify the effectiveness and limitations of the proposed damage-detection technique. The system was then validated by an experiment. As the damage became larger, the width of the Brillouin gain spectra became broader. Consequently, the location and size of barely visible damage could be estimated. The system developed is quite useful for a first inspection of large-scale sandwich structures in aerospace and marine applications

  10. Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum and chemical composition in the 1015-1018 eV energy range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiavassa Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmic ray in the 1015–1018 eV energy range can only be detected with ground based experiments, sampling Extensive Air Showers (EAS particles. The interest in this energetic interval is related to the search of the knee of the iron component of cosmic ray and to the study of the transition between galactic and extra-galactic primaries. The energy and mass calibration of these arrays can only be performed with complete EAS simulations as no sources are available for an absolute calibration. The systematic error on the energy assignment can be estimated around 30 ± 10%. The all particle spectrum measured in this energy range is more structured than previously thought, showing some faint features: a hardening slightly above 1016 eV and a steepening below 1017 eV. The studies of the primary chemical composition are quickly evolving towards the measurements of the primary spectra of different mass groups: up to now we are able to separate (on a event by event basis light and heavy primaries. Above the knee a steepening of the heavy primary spectrum and a hardening of the light ones have been detected.

  11. A Modified Edge Crack Torsion Test for Measurement of Mode III Fracture Toughness of Laminated Tape Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czabaj, Michael W.; Davidson, Barry D.; Ratcliffe, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Modifications to the edge crack torsion (ECT) test are studied to improve the reliability of this test for measuring the mode-III fracture toughness, G (sub IIIc), of laminated tape fiber-reinforced polymeric (FRP) composites. First, the data reduction methods currently used in the ECT test are evaluated and deficiencies in their accuracy are discussed. An alternative data reduction technique, which uses a polynomial form to represent ECT specimen compliance solution, is evaluated and compared to FEA (finite element analysis) results. Second, seven batches of ECT specimens are tested, each batch containing specimens with a preimplanted midplane edge delamination and midplane plies with orientations of plus theta divided by minus theta, with theta ranging from 0 degrees to 90 degrees in 15-degree increments. Tests on these specimens show that intralaminar cracking occurs in specimens from all batches except for which theta = 15 degrees and 30 degrees. Tests on specimens of these two batches are shown to result in mode-III delamination growth at the intended ply interface. The findings from this study are encouraging steps towards the use of the ECT test as a standardized method for measuring G (sub IIIc), although further modification to the data reduction method is required to make it suitable for use as part of a standardized test method.

  12. Fluoro-apatite surface composition in aqueous solution deduced from potentiometric, electrokinetic, and solubility measurements, and spectroscopic observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chairat, C.; Oelkers, E.H.; Schott, J.; Lartigue, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    The surface chemistry of fluoro-apatite in aqueous solution was investigated using electrokinetic techniques, potentiometric titrations, solubility measurements, and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. All methods indicate the formation of Ca/F depleted, P enriched altered layer via exchange reactions between H + and Ca 2+ , and OH - and F - at the fluoro-apatite (FAP) surface. Observations suggest that this leached layer has a di-calcium phosphate (CaHPO 4 ) composition and that it controls the apparent solubility of FAP. Electrokinetic measurements yield an iso-electric point value of 1 ± 0.5 consistent with a negatively charged FAP surface at pH ≥ 1. In contrast, surface titrations give an apparent pH of point of zero charge of similar to 7.7, consistent with a positively charged surface at pH ≤ 7.7. These differences are shown to stem from proton consumption by both proton exchange and dissolution reactions at the FAP surface. After taking account for these effects, FAP surface charge is shown to be negative to at least pH 4 by surface titration analysis. (authors)

  13. Quantitative measurement of carbon isotopic composition in CO2gas reservoir by Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Li, Rongxi; Zhao, Bangsheng; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Shuan; Cheng, Jinghua; Wu, Xiaoli

    2018-04-15

    The use of Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy technology for quantitatively determining gas carbon isotope composition is presented. In this study, 12 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 were mixed with N 2 at various molar fraction ratios to obtain Raman quantification factors (F 12CO2 and F 13CO2 ), which provide a theoretical basis for calculating the δ 13 C value. And the corresponding values were 0.523 (0measurement of δ 13 C values by Micro-Laser Raman analysis were carried out on natural CO 2 gas from Shengli Oil-field at room temperature under different pressures. The δ 13 C values obtained by Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy technology and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) technology are in good agreement with each other, and the relative errors range of δ 13 C values is 1.232%-6.964%. This research provides a fundamental analysis tool for determining gas carbon isotope composition (δ 13 C values) quantitatively by using Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy. Experiment of results demonstrates that this method has the potential for obtaining δ 13 C values in natural CO 2 gas reservoirs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis/Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Consensus-Based Recommendations and Research Agenda for Use of Composite Measures and Treatment Targets in Psoriatic Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coates, Laura C; FitzGerald, Oliver; Merola, Joseph F

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A meeting was convened by the Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA) and Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) to further the development of consensus among physicians and patients regarding composite disease activity measures and targets i...

  15. Colestase neonatal prolongada: estudo prospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRADO Elizabeth Teixeira Mendes Livramento

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Em razão da urgência de se decidir por um tratamento clínico ou por uma intervenção cirúrgica imediata, o estudo da colestase neonatal prolongada envolve dois objetivos básicos: o diagnóstico diferencial entre atresia biliar e hepatite neonatal e a pesquisa dos agentes etiológicos associados. Desta maneira, através de estudo prospectivo desenvolvido na década de 1970, foram avaliadas 77 crianças portadoras de colestase neonatal prolongada para estabelecer o diagnóstico diferencial entre atresia biliar e hepatite neonatal e, numa segunda fase, 108 crianças, visando esclarecer a etiopatogenia da colestase neonatal prolongada. Os resultados do diagnóstico diferencial revelaram que, dos 18 atributos avaliados, apenas oito mostraram-se bons indicadores de atresia biliar, em ordem decrescente: ductos proliferados (espaço-porta, fibrose (espaço-porta, colestase (espaço-porta, cor das fezes -- acolia, hepatomegalia, colestase canalicular (lóbulo, infiltrado (espaço-porta, células gigantes (lóbulo. Estes oito atributos foram então compostos, mediante uma ponderação, em um único indicador de grande poder discriminativo, capaz de decidir o diagnóstico diferencial em 99% dos casos. Quanto à etiopatogenia, registrou-se: vírus rubéola 0%, vírus herpes simples 0%, listeriose 0%, citomegalovirose 2,2%, vírus hepatite B 2,4%, toxoplasmose 2,8%, deficiência de alfa-1-antitripsina 13,1%, sífilis 21,1 %, auto-anticorpos hepáticos 58,4%. O trabalho desenvolvido mostra que as 8 variáveis mais decisivas, como indicadoras diferenciais entre atresia biliar e hepatite neonatal, permanecem como índices fundamentais, auxiliando, em conjunto com novos métodos diagnósticos, na composição de uma estratégia multifatorial cada vez menos invasiva e mais precisa. O estudo da etiopatogenia, dependente das condições epidemiológicas locais e da época, com a introdução de novos métodos diagnósticos, torna-se atualmente cada vez mais

  16. Forecasting the atmospheric composition of southern West Africa with COSMO-ART during the DACCIWA measurement campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetz, Konrad; Vogel, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    The Dynamics-aerosol-chemistry-cloud interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project (Knippertz et al., 2015) investigates the influence of anthropogenic and natural emissions on the atmospheric composition over Southern West Africa (SWA). Between 1 June and 31 July 2016 the DACCIWA measurement campaign took place in SWA, including ground based and airborne observations. By using the regional scale comprehensive model system COSMO-ART (Vogel et al., 2009), operational numerical forecasts of the atmospheric composition including aerosols and gas phase compounds were conducted between 8 May and 31 July 2016. The forecasts cover the domain 25°W to 35°E and 20°S to 30°N with a grid mesh size of 28km and a lead time of 57h. The primary assignment of the forecasts was to support the DACCIWA aircraft campaign (27 June to 17 July 2016) in terms of the decision making of the flight routes of the research aircrafts. Visualizations of the forecast results were daily uploaded to the public available server dacciwa.sedoo.fr. Apart from the support of the DACCIWA measurement campaign, the COSMO-ART model dataset is highly valuable for identifying time periods feasible for post-campaign case study simulations, the extensive validation of COSMO-ART with observational data and the derivation of model climatologies to raise knowledge in meteorological and the atmospheric composition characteristics of SWA. The presentation will show validation results of the COSMO-ART forecasts with ground based and airborne measurements from the DACCIWA campaign as well as remote sensing observations. COSMO-ART well reproduces the diurnal cycle of the observed ozone concentration at Savé site and shows very good agreement of mineral dust AOD compared to CAMS model results whereas the anthropogenic aerosol seems to be overestimated by COSMO-ART compared to MODIS AOD and AERONET observations. We will present model climatologies of the NLLS characteristics and the spatial structure of the pollution

  17. High-resolution measurements of atmospheric molecular hydrogen and its isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Walter

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oceans are a net source of molecular hydrogen (H2 to the atmosphere, where nitrogen (N2 fixation is assumed to be the main biological production pathway followed by photochemical production from organic material. The sources can be distinguished using isotope measurements because of clearly differing isotopic signatures of the produced hydrogen. Here we present the first ship-borne measurements of atmospheric molecular H2 mixing ratio and isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania (16–25° W, 17–24° N. This area is one of the biologically most active regions of the world's oceans with seasonal upwelling events and characterized by strongly differing hydrographical/biological properties and phytoplankton community structures. The aim of this study was to identify areas of H2 production and distinguish H2 sources by isotopic signatures of atmospheric H2. For this more than 100 air samples were taken during two cruises in February 2007 and 2008. During both cruises a transect from the Cape Verde Islands towards the Mauritanian Coast was sampled to cover differing oceanic regions such as upwelling and oligotrophic regimes. In 2007, additionally, four days were sampled at high resolution of one sample per hour to investigate a possible diurnal cycle of atmospheric H2. Our results indicate the influence of local sources and suggest the Banc d'Arguin as a pool for precursors for photochemical H2 production, whereas oceanic N2 fixation could not be identified as a source for atmospheric H2 during these two cruises. The variability in diurnal cycles is probably influenced by released precursors for photochemical H2 production and also affected by a varying origin of air masses. This means for future investigations that only measuring the mixing ratio of H2 is insufficient to explain the variability of an atmospheric diurnal cycle and support is needed, e.g. by isotopic measurements. Nevertheless, measurements of atmospheric H2

  18. Environmental effects on composite airframes: A study conducted for the ARM UAV Program (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    Composite materials are affected by environments differently than conventional airframe structural materials are. This study identifies the environmental conditions which the composite-airframe ARM UAV may encounter, and discusses the potential degradation processes composite materials may undergo when subjected to those environments. This information is intended to be useful in a follow-on program to develop equipment and procedures to prevent, detect, or otherwise mitigate significant degradation with the ultimate goal of preventing catastrophic aircraft failure.

  19. A REVIEW OF THE MEASUREMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTALLINITY AND ITS RELATION TO PROPERTIES IN NEAT POLY(PHENYLENE SULFIDE) AND ITS FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruiell, J.E.

    2005-01-31

    This literature review paper was prepared for the Department of Energy Automotive Lightweighting Program to address materials interest expressed by the Automotive Composites Consortium and it summarizes the measurement and development of crystallinity and its relation to properties in poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS) and its fiber reinforced composites. The objective of this effort was to broaden the understanding of low-cost, semi-crystalline thermoplastic resins and composites for use in potential future automotive applications. PPS has an excellent combination of attributes including good mechanical properties and thermal stability, high chemical resistance, low moisture absorption, good weathering resistance, high dimensional stability, low flammability, and excellent processability. Specific areas addressed in this report include: Structure of PPS; Techniques for measuring crystallinity; Crystallinity as a function of prior treatment; Crystallization kinetics and morphology; Effect of variation of crystallinity on properties of PPS and its composites; Environmental stability; Unusual effects of cooling rates and degree of crystallinity on mechanical properties of AS4/PPS composites; Recent PPS laminate data (Ten Cate Advanced Composites); and Recommendations for future research.

  20. The effect orientation of features in reconstructed atom probe data on the resolution and measured composition of T1 plates in an A2198 aluminium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Maria A; Araullo-Peters, Vicente J; Gault, Baptiste; Cairney, Julie M

    2015-12-01

    Artefacts in atom probe tomography can impact the compositional analysis of microstructure in atom probe studies. To determine the integrity of information obtained, it is essential to understand how the positioning of features influences compositional analysis. By investigating the influence of feature orientation within atom probe data on measured composition in microstructural features within an AA2198 Al alloy, this study shows differences in the composition of T1 (Al2CuLi) plates that indicates imperfections in atom probe reconstructions. The data fits a model of an exponentially-modified Gaussian that scales with the difference in evaporation field between solutes and matrix. This information provides a guide for obtaining the most accurate information possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlação e concordância entre medidas ecocardiográficas obtidas durante o exame no ecocardiógrafo com medidas de imagens digitalizadas: estudo transversal Correlation and concordance between echocardiographic measurements obtained during echocardiography and digitized image measurements: transversal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amélia Bulhões Hatem

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a correlação e concordância entre medidas ecocardiográficas das dimensões cardíacas, obtidas através do aplicativo Echo off-line (programa para obtenção de medidas de imagens digitalizadas em estação de trabalho dedicada, com as realizadas convencionalmente. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, contemporâneo, sendo randomizados 56 pacientes. Através do programa Echo off-line foram mensuradas as medidas ao modo M e 2D ao nível dos ventrículos, do átrio esquerdo e da aorta. Estas medidas foram comparadas às realizadas por outro profissional, através do teste de correlação de Pearson (r, com alfa crítico de 0,05 e pela análise de concordância (Bland e Altman. RESULTADOS: As mensurações realizadas no sistema Echo off-line demonstraram r de 0,85 a 0,98. A análise de concordância mostrou que, para a maioria das medidas, a diferença média entre os métodos foi aproximadamente zero. A variação de valores absolutos não apresentou, em média, significância clínica. O aplicativo Echo off-line permite uma redução de, aproximadamente, 30% no tempo para realização das medidas. CONCLUSÃO: Este trabalho demonstrou a acurácia do programa Echo off-line para mensurar as dimensões cardíacas em estação de trabalho dedicada, podendo ser utilizado rotineiramente nos laboratórios de ecocardiografia.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation and concordance between the measurements of echocardiographic analysis of cardiac dimensions obtained through the Echo off-line applicative (software for obtaining digitized image measurements in a dedicated workstation available to public domain, and those obtained through the conventional method. METHOD: Transversal contemporary study, of 56 randomized patients whose images were obtained during examina-tions. The measurements of the M mode and 2D, were done in the ventricles, left atrium, and aorta by the Echo off-line program. These measurements were compared to those obtained

  2. Long-term cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, particle number size distribution and chemical composition measurements at regionally representative observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmale

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol–cloud interactions (ACI constitute the single largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing. To reduce the uncertainties and gain more confidence in the simulation of ACI, models need to be evaluated against observations, in particular against measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Here we present a data set – ready to be used for model validation – of long-term observations of CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites on 3 continents. Studied environments include coastal background, rural background, alpine sites, remote forests and an urban surrounding. Expectedly, CCN characteristics are highly variable across site categories. However, they also vary within them, most strongly in the coastal background group, where CCN number concentrations can vary by up to a factor of 30 within one season. In terms of particle activation behaviour, most continental stations exhibit very similar activation ratios (relative to particles  > 20 nm across the range of 0.1 to 1.0 % supersaturation. At the coastal sites the transition from particles being CCN inactive to becoming CCN active occurs over a wider range of the supersaturation spectrum. Several stations show strong seasonal cycles of CCN number concentrations and particle number size distributions, e.g. at Barrow (Arctic haze in spring, at the alpine stations (stronger influence of polluted boundary layer air masses in summer, the rain forest (wet and dry season or Finokalia (wildfire influence in autumn. The rural background and urban sites exhibit relatively little variability throughout the year, while short-term variability can be high especially at the urban site. The average hygroscopicity parameter, κ, calculated from the chemical composition of submicron particles was highest at the coastal site of Mace Head (0.6 and lowest at the rain forest station ATTO (0.2–0.3. We performed closure

  3. Assessment of impacts of tsetse and trypanosomosis control measures on cattle herd composition and performance in southern region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Messele; Belihu, Kelay; Bekana, Merga; Sheferaw, Desie

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to assess the impact of tsetse and trypanosomosis control measures on cattle herd size and composition, herd dynamics, and milk yield in Wolaita and Gamogofa Zones, southern Ethiopia. The study showed that the average number of cattle herd size in tsetse challenged areas was significantly higher than those in tsetse-controlled areas. The number of non-pregnant dry cows, bulls and oxen were significantly higher in tsetse challenged areas than the other two study areas. The rate of cattle addition to and disposal from the herd were significantly higher in tsetse challenged areas. Cows in Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP) and community tsetse controlled areas were able to give 26-27 %, 25-29 % and 17-21 % more daily milk yield at the beginning, middle and end of lactation, respectively, than those in tsetse-challenged areas. In addition, cows in STEP and community tsetse controlled areas had lactation length longer by 1.20 to 1.35 months; age at first calving was shorter by 5.30 to 5.10 months; and calving interval was shorter by 4.20 to 3.20 months than cows in tsetse-challenged area, respectively. Hence, tsetse and trypanosomosis control both by the community and project would play key role in the improvement of cattle productivity.

  4. PRELIMINARY RESULTS IN SYNCHROTRON X-RAY DIFFRACTION MEASUREMENTS OF RUBBER COMPOSITES STRUCTURE BEFORE AND AFTER EXPOSURE TO HYDROGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cosmi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In future years, fuel cells are expected to represent a promising technology as a source of heat and electricity in buildings and of electrical power for vehicles, since fossil fuels are exhausting and significantly degrade air quality. It is well known that, when exposed to a hydrogen environment, hydrogen embrittlerment may affect materials such as iron and steel. But these are not the only materials that are used for hydrogen equipment. In particular, the rubber materials used for O–rings that seal high pressure hydrogen gas equipment show problems of internal fracture, called blister fracture, when the gas is rapidly decompressed. As many different kinds of fillers can be used, in this work we started to investigate the influence of the type of filler on the rubber composites structure, by means of X-ray diffraction measurements performed at the Elettra synchrotron radiation facility in Trieste. In this preliminary study, three kinds of samples were analyzed before and after exposure to hydrogen: Sulphur vulcanized EPDM, Peroxide vulcanized EPDM and Sulphur vulcanized NBR. While Peroxide vulcanized samples did not show significant differences in the diffraction pattern, changes could be detected in the cristalline form of Sulfure vulcanized rubber.

  5. Civic Competence of Youth in Europe: Measuring Cross National Variation Through the Creation of a Composite Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Bryony; Saisana, Michaela; Villalba, Cynthia M H

    This article develops a composite indicator to monitor the levels of civic competence of young people in Europe using the IEA ICCS 2009 study. The measurement model combines the traditions in Europe of liberal, civic republican and critical/cosmopolitan models of citizenship. The results indicate that social justice values and citizenship knowledge and skills of students are facilitated within the Nordic system that combines a stable democracy and economic prosperity with a democratically based education systems in which teachers prioritise promoting autonomous critical thinking in citizenship education. In contrast, medium term democracies with civic republican tradition, such as Italy and Greece gain more positive results on citizenship values and participatory attitudes. This is also the case for some recent former communist countries that retain ethnic notions of citizenship. In a final step we go on to argue that the Nordic teachers' priority on developing critical and autonomous citizens perhaps facilitates 14 years olds qualities of cognition on citizenship and the values of equality but may not be the most fruitful approach to enhance participatory attitudes or concepts of a good citizen which may be better supported by the Italian teachers' priority on civic responsibility.

  6. Unique Patterns of Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements During Maturation in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Neonates: Opportunities for Modifying Nutritional Therapy and Influencing Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algotar, Anushree; Shaikhkhalil, Ala K; Siler-Wurst, Kim; Sitaram, Swetha; Gulati, Ish; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R

    2018-01-01

    Body composition is an important predictor of long-term outcomes in neonates and may be altered by several factors. Innovative methods like air displacement plethysmography (ADP) can safely and reliably measure body composition, potentially assisting in individualization of nutrition therapy. 1) To characterize patterns of body composition change in convalescing neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and examine factors leading to variation. 2) To evaluate if the time interval between 2 measurements via ADP can detect significant changes. NICU infants underwent anthropometry and body composition measurements by ADP at 37.5±0.7 weeks (Time 1) and 41.0±0.7 weeks (Time 2) postmenstrual age. Nutrition data were recorded. Data were analyzed using paired t-tests and linear regression models, presented as mean±SE, median (IQR), or %. Twenty-two neonates (54% males, 32.2±0.9 weeks gestation) were evaluated with a median interval of 3.6 (2.9-4.0) weeks between studies. Mean weight and % body fat increased significantly. There was no significant difference between mean weight and mean % body fat compared with normal references. Abdominal girth increased and mid-arm circumference decreased (pcomposition can effectively assess nutrition status of fragile NICU infants. Although, an interval of 2.9-4.0 weeks between consecutive measurements detected significant changes in body composition, more frequent measurements are needed to determine nutrition factors responsible for body composition changes. © 2017 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  7. Evaluation of measured LWR spent fuel composition data for use in code validation end-user manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, O.W.; DeHart, M.D.; Murphy, B.D.

    1998-02-01

    Burnup credit (BUC) is a concept applied in the criticality safety analysis of spent nuclear fuel in which credit or partial credit is taken for the reduced reactivity worth of the fuel due to both fissile depletion and the buildup of actinides and fission products that act as net neutron absorbers. Typically, a two-step process is applied in BUC analysis: first, depletion calculations are performed to estimate the isotopic content of spent fuel based on its burnup history; second, three-dimensional (3-D) criticality calculations are performed based on specific spent fuel packaging configurations. In seeking licensing approval of any BUC approach (e.g., disposal, transportation, or storage) both of these two computational procedures must be validated. This report was prepared in support of the validation process for depletion methods applied in the analysis of spent fuel from commercial light-water-reactor (LWR) designs. Such validation requires the comparison of computed isotopic compositions with those measured via radiochemical assay to assess the ability of a computer code to predict the contents of spent fuel samples. The purpose of this report is to address the availability and appropriateness of measured data for use in the validation of isotopic depletion methods. Although validation efforts to date at ORNL have been based on calculations using the SAS2H depletion sequence of the SCALE code system, this report has been prepared as an overview of potential sources of validation data independent of the code system used. However, data that are identified as in use in this report refer to earlier validation work performed using SAS2H in support of BUC. This report is the result of a study of available assay data, using the experience gained in spent fuel isotopic validation and with a consideration of the validation issues described earlier. This report recommends the suitability of each set of data for validation work similar in scope to the earlier work

  8. Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis/Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Consensus-Based Recommendations and Research Agenda for Use of Composite Measures and Treatment Targets in Psoriatic Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Laura C; FitzGerald, Oliver; Merola, Joseph F; Smolen, Josef; van Mens, Leonieke J J; Bertheussen, Heidi; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning; Callis Duffin, Kristina; Campbell, Willemina; de Wit, Maarten; Gladman, Dafna; Gottlieb, Alice; James, Jana; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Kristensen, Lars Erik; Kvien, Tore K; Luger, Thomas; McHugh, Neil; Mease, Philip; Nash, Peter; Ogdie, Alexis; Rosen, Cheryl F; Strand, Vibeke; Tillett, William; Veale, Douglas J; Helliwell, Philip S

    2018-03-01

    A meeting was convened by the Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA) and Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) to further the development of consensus among physicians and patients regarding composite disease activity measures and targets in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Prior to the meeting, physicians and patients completed surveys on outcome measures. A consensus meeting of 26 rheumatologists, dermatologists, and patient research partners reviewed evidence on composite measures and potential treatment targets plus results of the surveys. The meeting consisted of plenary presentations, breakout sessions, and group discussions. International experts including members of GRAPPA and OMERACT were invited to the meeting, including the developers of all of the measures discussed. After discussions, participants voted on proposals for use, and consensus was established in a second survey. Survey results from 128 health care professionals and 139 patients were analyzed alongside a systematic literature review summarizing evidence. A weighted vote was cast for composite measures. For randomized controlled trials, the most popular measures were the PsA disease activity score (40 votes) and the GRAPPA composite index (28 votes). For clinical practice, the most popular measures were an average of scores on 3 visual analog scales (45 votes) and the disease activity in PsA score (26 votes). After discussion, there was no consensus on a composite measure. The group agreed that several composite measures could be used and that future studies should allow further validation and comparison. The group unanimously agreed that remission should be the ideal target, with minimal disease activity (MDA)/low disease activity as a feasible alternative. The target should include assessment of musculoskeletal disease, skin disease, and health-related quality of life. The group recommended a treatment target of very low disease activity (VLDA) or

  9. Hydrothermal Habitats: Measurements of Bulk Microbial Elemental Composition, and Models of Hydrothermal Influences on the Evolution of Dwarf Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Marc Francois Laurent

    Finding habitable worlds is a key driver of solar system exploration. Many solar system missions seek environments providing liquid water, energy, and nutrients, the three ingredients necessary to sustain life. Such environments include hydrothermal systems, spatially-confined systems where hot aqueous fluid circulates through rock by convection. I sought to characterize hydrothermal microbial communities, collected in hot spring sediments and mats at Yellowstone National Park, USA, by measuring their bulk elemental composition. To do so, one must minimize the contribution of non-biological material to the samples analyzed. I demonstrate that this can be achieved using a separation method that takes advantage of the density contrast between cells and sediment and preserves cellular elemental contents. Using this method, I show that in spite of the tremendous physical, chemical, and taxonomic diversity of Yellowstone hot springs, the composition of microorganisms there is surprisingly ordinary. This suggests the existence of a stoichiometric envelope common to all life as we know it. Thus, future planetary investigations could use elemental fingerprints to assess the astrobiological potential of hydrothermal settings beyond Earth. Indeed, hydrothermal activity may be widespread in the solar system. Most solar system worlds larger than 200 km in radius are dwarf planets, likely composed of an icy, cometary mantle surrounding a rocky, chondritic core. I enhance a dwarf planet evolution code, including the effects of core fracturing and hydrothermal circulation, to demonstrate that dwarf planets likely have undergone extensive water-rock interaction. This supports observations of aqueous products on their surfaces. I simulate the alteration of chondritic rock by pure water or cometary fluid to show that aqueous alteration feeds back on geophysical evolution: it modifies the fluid antifreeze content, affecting its persistence over geological timescales; and the

  10. Origin of energetic ions in the polar cusp inferred from ion composition measurements by the Viking satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kremser

    Full Text Available The magnetospheric ion composition spectrometer MICS on the Swedish Viking satellite provided measurements of the ion composition in the energy range 10.1 keV/eleqE/Qleq326.0 keV/e. Data obtained during orbit 842 were used to investigate the ion distribution in the northern polar cusp and its vicinity. The satellite traversed the outer ring current, boundary region, cusp proper and plasma mantle during its poleward movement. H+ and He++ ions were encountered in all of these regions. He+ ions were present only in the ring current. The number of O+ and O++ ions was very small. Heavy high-charge state ions typical for the solar wind were observed for the first time, most of them in the poleward part of the boundary region and in the cusp proper. The H+ ions exhibited two periods with high intensities. One of them, called the BR/CP event, appeared at energies up to 50 keV. It started at the equatorward limit of the boundary region and continued into the cusp proper. Energy spectra indicate a ring current origin for the BR/CP event. Pitch angle distributions show downward streaming of H+ ions at its equatorward limit and upward streaming on the poleward side. This event is interpreted as the result of pitch angle scattering of ring current ions by fluctuations in the magnetopause current layer in combination with poleward convection. The other of the two periods with high H+ ion intensities, called the accelerated ion event, was superimposed on the BR/CP event. It was restricted to energies leq15 keV and occurred in the poleward part of the boundary region. This event is regarded as the high-energy tail of magnetosheath ions that were accelerated while penetrating into the magnetosphere. The cusp region thus contains ions of magnetospheric as well as of magnetosheath origin. The appearance of the ions depends, in addition to the ion source, on the

  11. The effects of propidium monoazide treatment on the measured composition of polymicrobial biofilms after treatment with chlorhexidine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exterkate, R.A.M.; Zaura, E.; Buijs, M.J.; Koopman, J.; Crielaard, W.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The treatment of polymicrobial biofilms with antimicrobial compounds results in not only an overall loss of viability, but also compositional shifts. While DNA-based technologies may be more appropriate for the assessment of bacterial composition than culturing, these techniques amplify

  12. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Body Composition of Canadian Shift Workers: Data From the Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycles 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil-Sztramko, Sarah E; Gotay, Carolyn C; Demers, Paul A; Campbell, Kristin L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, physical fitness, and body composition in shift workers (SWs) with those who work regular days. Population-based, cross-sectional data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (n = 4323) were used. Univariate and multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to compare outcomes between SWs and day workers. In unweighted analyses, SWs were more likely to have poor body composition, although had fewer minutes per week of sedentary time. Despite no differences in physical activity, SWs had a lower aerobic capacity. In weighted analyses, only differences in aerobic capacity were observed. This analysis confirms previous findings that SWs have poorer body composition than day workers, and suggest that SWs may need to engage in more physical activity to achieve the same aerobic capacity as day workers.

  13. Effect of compatibilizer, bamboo fiber size and content on the mechanical properties of PP-g-MA compatibilized polypropylene/bamboo fiber composites; Estudo da influencia dos teores de fibra, agente compatibilizante e tamanho de fibra nas propriedades de compositos de polipropileno com fiobra de bambu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caranti, Lilian R.A.; Bonse, Baltus C.; Costa, Ricardo A. da, E-mail: prebbonse@fei.edu.br [Dept. da Engenharia dos Materiais, Centro Universitario de FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The contemporary need for ecological preservation is a challenge to the realms of science to develop environmentally sustainable materials and processes. Research on composites reinforced with natural cellulosic fibers seeks to meet that need. An investigation was performed on the mechanical and thermal behavior of a composite comprising a polypropylene thermoplastic matrix and bamboo fibers (Phyllostachys Edulis). Interfacial adhesion between the two materials was achieved by the addition of compatibilizer maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene PPg- MA. An investigation was carried out with 8 compositions by varying the average fiber size (lower level = 0.94 mm and upper level = 2.19 mm), fiber content (20 and 40 weight %) and compatibilizer PP-g-MA (1 and 4 weight %). The mechanical behavior of the composites was studied by carrying out tensile, flexural, impact and fatigue tests. Thermal behavior was investigated by heat deflection temperature tests. Crystallinity was measured by means of X Ray diffraction and fractured surfaces were observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  14. Measurement of J-integral in CAD/CAM dental ceramics and composite resin by digital image correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanxia; Akkus, Anna; Roperto, Renato; Akkus, Ozan; Li, Bo; Lang, Lisa; Teich, Sorin

    2016-09-01

    Ceramic and composite resin blocks for CAD/CAM machining of dental restorations are becoming more common. The sample sizes affordable by these blocks are smaller than ideal for stress intensity factor (SIF) based tests. The J-integral measurement calls for full field strain measurement, making it challenging to conduct. Accordingly, the J-integral values of dental restoration materials used in CAD/CAM restorations have not been reported to date. Digital image correlation (DIC) provides full field strain maps, making it possible to calculate the J-integral value. The aim of this study was to measure the J-integral value for CAD/CAM restorative materials. Four types of materials (sintered IPS E-MAX CAD, non-sintered IPS E-MAX CAD, Vita Mark II and Paradigm MZ100) were used to prepare beam samples for three-point bending tests. J-integrals were calculated for different integral path size and locations with respect to the crack tip. J-integral at path 1 for each material was 1.26±0.31×10(-4)MPam for MZ 100, 0.59±0.28×10(-4)MPam for sintered E-MAX, 0.19±0.07×10(-4)MPam for VM II, and 0.21±0.05×10(-4)MPam for non-sintered E-MAX. There were no significant differences between different integral path size, except for the non-sintered E-MAX group. J-integral paths of non-sintered E-MAX located within 42% of the height of the sample provided consistent values whereas outside this range resulted in lower J-integral values. Moreover, no significant difference was found among different integral path locations. The critical SIF was calculated from J-integral (KJ) along with geometry derived SIF values (KI). KI values were comparable with KJ and geometry based SIF values obtained from literature. Therefore, DIC derived J-integral is a reliable way to assess the fracture toughness of small sized specimens for dental CAD/CAM restorative materials; however, with caution applied to the selection of J-integral path. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of carbon fiber composite minielectrodes for measurement of kinetic constants of nitric oxide decay in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoping; El-Sherbiny, Gamal A; Collard, Eric; Huang, Xin; Follmer, Douglas; El-Mahdy, Mohamed; Zweier, Jay L

    2010-12-15

    Carbon fiber microelectrodes and carbon fiber composite minielectrodes (CFM/CFCM) have been generally used for measurements of nitric oxide (NO) concentration in chemical and biological systems. The response time of a CFM/CFCM is usually from milliseconds to seconds depending on the electrode size, the thickness of coating layers on the electrode, and NO diffusion coefficients of the coating layers. As a result, the time course of recoded current changes (I-t curves) by the CFM/CFCM may be different from the actual time course of NO concentration changes (c-t curves) if the half-life of NO decay is close to or shorter than the response time of the electrode used. This adds complexity to the process for determining rate constants of NO decay kinetics from the recorded current curves (I-t curves). By computer simulations based on a mathematical model, an approximation method was developed for determining rate constants of NO decay from the recorded current curves. This method was first tested and valuated using a commercial CFCM in several simple reaction systems with known rate constants. The response time of the CFCM was measured as 4.7±0.7 s (n=5). The determined rate constants of NO volatilization and NO autoxidation in our measurement system at 37 °C are (1.9±0.1)×10(-3) s(-1) (n=4) and (2.0±0.3)×10(3) M(-1) s(-1) (n=7), which are close to the reported rate constants. The method was then applied to determine the rate of NO decay in blood samples from control and smoking exposed mice. It was observed that the NO decay rate in the smoking group is >20% higher than that in control group, and the increased NO decay rate in the smoking group was reversed by 10 μM diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), an inhibitor of flavin enzymes such as leukocyte NADPH oxidase. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fundamental Movement Skill Proficiency and Body Composition Measured by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Eight-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotte, Sari; Sääkslahti, Arja; Metsämuuronen, Jari; Rintala, Pauli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main aim was to examine the association between fundamental movement skills (FMS) and objectively measured body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods: A study of 304 eight-year-old children in Finland. FMS were assessed with the "Test of gross motor development," 2nd ed. Total body fat…

  17. Vegetation Species Composition and Canopy Architecture Information Expressed in Leaf Water Absorption Measured in the 1000nm and 2200 nm Spectral Region by an Imaging Spectometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. O.; Roberts, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    Plant species composition and plant architectural attributes are critical parameters required for the measuring, monitoring and modeling of terrestrial ecosystems. Remote sensing is commonly cited as an important tool for deriving vegetation properties at an appropriate scale for ecosystem studies, ranging from local, to regional and even synoptic scales (e.g. Wessman 1992).

  18. Intake of ruminant trans-fatty acids, assessed by diet history interview, and changes in measured body size, shape and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla P; Heitmann, Berit L; Sørensen, Thorkild IA

    2016-01-01

    composition (body fat percentage). DESIGN: A 6-year follow-up study. Information on dietary intake was collected through diet history interviews, and anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements were obtained by trained technicians at baseline (1987-1988) and at follow-up (1993-1994). Multiple...

  19. Microstructure and property measurements on in situ TiB2/70Si–Al composite for electronic packaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Gan, G.S.; Yang, B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► 2.0 wt.%TiB 2 /70Si–Al composite is prepared by a novel reactive technique. ► In situ TiB 2 particles can refine effectively the primary Si phase. ► The composite exhibited attractive physical and mechanical properties. -- Abstract: A novel reactive technique has been employed in fabrication of 2.0 wt.%TiB 2 /70Si–Al composite for electronic packaging applications. The microstructure and properties of composite were studied using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, coefficient of thermal expansion and thermal conductivity measurements, and 3-point bending tests. The results indicate that the in situ TiB 2 particles can effectively refine the primary Si phase. The property measurements results indicate that the 2.0 wt.%TiB 2 /70Si–Al composite has advantageous physical and mechanical properties, including low density, low coefficient of thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity, high Flexural strength and Brinell hardness.

  20. The effect orientation of features in reconstructed atom probe data on the resolution and measured composition of T{sub 1} plates in an A2198 aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, Maria A.; Araullo-Peters, Vicente J. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Madsen Building F09, NSW 2006 (Australia); Gault, Baptiste [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX13PH Oxford (United Kingdom); Cairney, Julie M. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Madsen Building F09, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Artefacts in atom probe tomography can impact the compositional analysis of microstructure in atom probe studies. To determine the integrity of information obtained, it is essential to understand how the positioning of features influences compositional analysis. By investigating the influence of feature orientation within atom probe data on measured composition in microstructural features within an AA2198 Al alloy, this study shows differences in the composition of T{sub 1} (Al{sub 2}CuLi) plates that indicates imperfections in atom probe reconstructions. The data fits a model of an exponentially-modified Gaussian that scales with the difference in evaporation field between solutes and matrix. This information provides a guide for obtaining the most accurate information possible. - Highlights: • The measured composition of precipitates changes as a function of the orientation in an atom probe dataset. • Spatial resolution is best when planar features are oriented perpendicular to the analysis direction. • The errors can be modelled by application of an exponentially-modified Gaussian. • These artefacts are likely to play a role for any microstructural feature that is sufficiently small.

  1. Elemental composition of Arctic soils and aerosols in Ny-Ålesund measured using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gibaek; Yoon, Young-Jun; Kim, Hyun-A.; Cho, Hee-joo; Park, Kihong

    2017-08-01

    Two laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) systems (soil LIBS and aerosol LIBS) were used to determine the elemental composition of soils and ambient aerosols less than 2.5 μm in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (the world's most northerly human settlement). For soil LIBS measurements, matrix effects such as moisture content, soil grain size, and surrounding gas on the LIBS response were minimized. When Ar gas was supplied onto the soil sample surfaces, a significant enhancement in LIBS emission lines was observed. Arctic soil samples were collected at 10 locations, and various elements (Al, Ba, C, Ca, Cu, Fe, H, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, O, Pb, and Si) were detected in soils. The elemental distribution in arctic soils was clearly distinguishable from those in urban and abandoned mining soils in Korea. Moreover, the concentrations of most of anthropogenic metals were fairly low, and localized sources in extremely close proximity affected the elevated level of Cu in the soil samples derived from Ny-Ålesund. The number of elements detected in aerosols (C, Ca, H, K, Mg, Na, and O) was lower than those determined in soils. The elements in aerosols can mainly originate from minerals and sea salts. The elemental distribution in aerosols was also clearly distinguishable from that in soils, suggesting that the resuspension of local soil particles by wind erosion into aerosols was minimal. The daily variation of particle number concentration (RSD = 71%) and the elements in aerosols (RSD = 25%) varied substantially, possibly due to fluctuating air masses and meteorological conditions.

  2. New insight into PM2.5pollution patterns in Beijing based on one-year measurement of chemical compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianyi; Hu, Min; Li, Mengren; Guo, Qingfeng; Wu, Yusheng; Fang, Xin; Gu, Fangting; Wang, Yu; Wu, Zhijun

    2018-04-15

    In recent years, air pollution has become a major concern in China, especially in the capital city of Beijing. Haze events occur in Beijing over all four seasons, exhibiting distinct characteristics. In this study, the typical evolution patterns of atmospheric particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5μm (PM 2.5 ) in each season were illustrated by episode-based analysis. In addition, a novel method was developed to elucidate the driving species of pollution, which is the largest contributor to the incremental PM 2.5 (ΔPM 2.5 ), not PM 2.5 . This method revealed a temporal variation of the driving species throughout the year: nitrate-driven spring, sulfate-driven summer, nitrate-driven early fall, and organic matters (OM)-driven late fall and winter. These results suggested that primary organic particles or volatile organic compounds emissions were dominant in the heating season due to residential heating, while NOx and SO 2 emissions dominated in the other seasons. Besides, nitrate formation seemed more significant than sulfate formation during severe pollution episodes. It was also found that the pollution formation mechanism in the winter showed some unique features in comparison with the other seasons: aqueous reactions were more important in the winter, while multiple pathways coexisted in the other seasons. Furthermore, this study confirmed that the PM 2.5 in Beijing was moderately acidic despite a fully neutralized system. In addition, the acidity variation during pollution episodes displayed different patterns between seasons and was driven by both the variation of aerosol water and chemical compositions. These results provide a new perspective to understand the characteristics and mechanisms of aerosol pollution in Beijing. However, more accurate measurements are necessary for effective air pollution control that depends on the seasonal variation of fine particle formation in Beijing and the surrounding areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  3. Analysis of the composition of organic aerosol from long term measurements at the rural Cabauw site in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kangming; Holzinger, Rupert

    2017-04-01

    Observations of organic aerosol (OA) chemical composition were performed as part of the European ACTRIS-2 program with a thermal-desorption proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (TD-PTR-MS) in Cabauw, a rural atmospheric observation site in the western part of the Netherlands (51.971 °N, 4.927 °E). The campaign lasted 10 months from December 2015 to October 2016. During the whole campaign, 1280 individual ions in the range of 14-653 Da were quantified and only 56 (4.4%) ions were classified as inorganic compounds. The typically observed aerosol concentrations ranged from 200 ng/m3 to 3000 ng/m3 detected by the TD-PTR-MS, excluding a few high-pollution events. The organic compounds were released from the particle collection-thermal-desorption cell (CTD-cell) by uniformly ramping the temperature up to 350 °C (15.5 °C/min). We divided the whole temperature range into 7 equal temperature intervals. Masses released at the 200 °C temperature interval accounted for the largest proportion of the total concentration, approximately 30% of the total measured burden. The higher the OA concentration was, the higher was the fraction that desorbed at lower temperatures which is related to more volatile organic compounds. Among the "clean" days, a larger fraction was desorbed at higher temperatures (250 °C or 300 °C). Many individual organic compounds exhibited an obvious character of oscillation which showed a strong dependency on diurnal changes.

  4. A miniaturized laser-ablation mass spectrometer for in-situ measurements of isotope composition on solar body surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedo, A.; Meyer, S.; Tulej, M.; Neuland, M.; Bieler, A.; Iakovleva, M.; Wurz, P.

    2012-04-01

    space instrument would have a cylindrical shape with a length of 120 mm, and a diameter of 60 mm, and a weight of about 1.5 kg (all electronics included). The mass analyzer supports high dynamic range of about 107 and a typical mass resolution of m/Δm~700. A computer-controlled optimizer controls the reproducibility of the performance of the mass analyzer, the laser fluence and the positioning of the sample. The system supports highly sensitive studies of elemental composition with sub-ppm detection limits. Our studies show that high accuracy and precision measurements can also be achieved in the investigations of isotopic patterns. Our initial studies of lead isotopic pattern indicated an accuracy and precision in the per mile range, which are comparable to that achieved by other - well known in isotopic analysis - mass spectrometric techniques, i.e., TIMS, SIMS, LA-ICP-MS used in the laboratory. The initial studies were conducted with Galena minerals and NIST standards. Hence, the miniaturized laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer is a powerful instrument for in-situ measurements for the further investigation in surface characterization.

  5. Methodological challenges in the use of hip-specific composite outcomes: linking measurements from hip fracture trials to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang-Kim, Amy; Schemitsch, Emil; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Beaton, Dorcas

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of hip-specific outcome measures in randomized trials reflects what directs our outcome assessment following a hip fracture. The present study provides an overview on the most commonly-used hip-specific outcome instruments used for postoperative assessment of hip fracture with respect to their covered contents. This can facilitate the selection of appropriate items for specific purposes in clinical as well as research settings. We used the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model to distinguish concepts within the instrument. All items from the questionnaires were categorized into one of three categories using the ICF linking rules for a standardized approach. The hip-specific composites measures were also compared to other types of prevalent measures: generic and patient-based instruments. All of the items in the instruments could be mapped to the ICF. We report the highest frequency of ICF activity and participation (71%) within the Harris hip score (HHS) which is similar to the frequency of ICF content found in the generic measures (82%). Hip-specific composites focused mostly on walking and moving long and short distances, while in patient-reported measures there was a concentration on the concept of sensation of pain and pain in body parts. The prevalent use of the HHS, over the other hip-specific instruments, could be attributed to its likeness in concept to other generic measures. The dominance of the ICF category of activity and participation reflects what is important to clinicians treating a hip fracture. Composite scores remain problematic as they cut across different ICF concepts. As long as the popularity of composite scoring systems continues, an overall score may not represent the true patient preferences and concerns in clinical trials. Future studies could apply the results from this study for the creation of an ICF category-based item banking or investigators could operationalize the ICF

  6. A study to compare the reliability of composite finger flexion with goniometry for measurement of range of motion in the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bridget; Bruton, Anne

    2002-08-01

    To establish the intra- and inter-rater reliability of composite finger flexion (CFF), and to compare this with goniometry. Fifty-one physiotherapists and occupational therapists took part in the study. The hand of a normal subject was splinted in three different positions. Using a goniometer and a ruler alternately, each therapist measured both the proximal interphalangeal joint and CFF of three digits, following a standardized protocol. This process was repeated three times. Eighteen NHS hospital sites in the UK. The two measurement methods produced different ranges and standard deviations for each digit. The repeatability coefficient shows that repeated intra-rater goniometric measures fall within 4-5 degrees of each other 95% of the time. Inter-rater goniometric measures fall within 7-9 degrees. Repeated intra-rater CFF measures fall within 5-6 mm of each other, whereas inter-rater fall within 7-9 mm. The influence of occupation, experience in hand therapy, years of practice and routine use were found to have no effect on reliability. Scaling of the two methods of measurement allowed comparison between them to be made. CFF and goniometry are equally reliable when comparing inter-rater reliability, but goniometry displays less variability than composite finger flexion for intra-rater measurements. In this study involving a subject with normal joints, goniometry is more reliable than CFF when only one measurer is involved. However, CFF may be a useful alternative where multiple joint measures are required, or when goniometry is impracticable.

  7. Effect of laser pulsing on the composition measurement of an Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy using three-dimensional atom probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, G; Ringer, S P

    2009-04-01

    The effect of laser pulse energy on the composition measurement of an Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy (AA6111) specimen has been investigated over a base temperature range of 20-80K and a voltage range of 2.5-5kV. Laser pulse energy must be sufficiently higher to achieve pulse-controlled field evaporation, which is at least 0.9nJ with a beam spot size of about 5microm, providing an equivalent voltage pulse fraction, approximately 14% at 80K for the alloy specimen. In contrast to the cluster composition, the measured specimen composition is sensitive to base temperature and laser energy changes. The exchange charge state under the influence of laser pulsing makes the detection of Si better at low base temperature, but detection of Cr and Mn is better at a higher temperature and using higher laser energy. No such effect occurs for detection of Mg and Cu under laser pulsing, although Mg concentration is sensitive to the analysis temperature under voltage pulsing. Mass resolution at full-width half-maximum is sensitive to local taper angle near the apex, but has little effect on composition measurement.

  8. Effect of laser pulsing on the composition measurement of an Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy using three-dimensional atom probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, G.; Ringer, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of laser pulse energy on the composition measurement of an Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy (AA6111) specimen has been investigated over a base temperature range of 20-80 K and a voltage range of 2.5-5 kV. Laser pulse energy must be sufficiently higher to achieve pulse-controlled field evaporation, which is at least 0.9 nJ with a beam spot size of about 5 μm, providing an equivalent voltage pulse fraction, ∼14% at 80 K for the alloy specimen. In contrast to the cluster composition, the measured specimen composition is sensitive to base temperature and laser energy changes. The exchange charge state under the influence of laser pulsing makes the detection of Si better at low base temperature, but detection of Cr and Mn is better at a higher temperature and using higher laser energy. No such effect occurs for detection of Mg and Cu under laser pulsing, although Mg concentration is sensitive to the analysis temperature under voltage pulsing. Mass resolution at full-width half-maximum is sensitive to local taper angle near the apex, but has little effect on composition measurement.

  9. Effect of ¹⁸F-FDG administration on measurements of bone mineral density and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Weung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Seong Su; Mo, Eun Hee; Lee, Chun Ho; Kim, Chang Guhn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether antecedent administration of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) used in positron emission tomography (PET) scanning results in corruption of bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system. DXA measurements of BMD and body composition had been performed twice, before and after ¹⁸F-FDG PET scan in 30 patients. The comparison of pre-values and post-values of all BMD values showed a decrease after the injection. However, only the decrease of whole-body BMD (WB-BMD) was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Whole-body fat mass had increased and whole-body lean body mass had decreased after the injection of ¹⁸F-FDG, and these were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There is statistically significant correlation between the injected ¹⁸F-FDG dose and a decrease of WB-BMD (r = -0.405; p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that when both ¹⁸F-FDG PET and DXA measurements for whole-body composition are performed in close-time proximity, ¹⁸F-FDG PET scans should follow the DXA measurement. Otherwise, BMD measurements of total femur or lumbar spine could be followed by ¹⁸F-FDG PET in close-time proximity. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations between family eating behaviours and body composition measures in peri-adolescents: results from a community-based study of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajna, Samantha; Leblanc, Paul J; Faught, Brent E; Merchant, Anwar T; Cairney, John; Hay, John; Liu, Jian

    2014-01-10

    To identify key eating behaviours in children and their parents and to determine the associations between these behaviours and measures of body composition in children. Data were collected on a sample of 431 peri-adolescent children (12.4±0.3 years) and their parents from the Niagara Region. Body composition was assessed by trained research assistants. Eating behaviours were assessed using a revised version of the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire. Principal component analyses were used to identify key eating behaviours among children, mothers and fathers. Linear regression models were used to assess their associations with body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio, waist girth, and hip girth measures in children. Emotional/uncontrolled eating and eating by the television in children and their mothers were positively associated with measures of body composition in children. Other eating behaviours that were associated with larger measures of body composition in children included low frequency of eating meals with parents, frequent sweet beverage consumption and snacking and eating "on-the-go" in children, eating "on-the-go" in mothers, and emotional eating and eating by the television/late at night in fathers. The eating behaviours of children and mothers, and to a lesser degree fathers, are important predictors of children's body composition. Public health interventions designed to help mothers and children reduce the frequency of emotional/uncontrolled eating and eating by the television may be effective means of facilitating positive weight outcomes in children.

  11. Disturbios da olfacao: estudo retrospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lobato Gregorio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O olfato, fenômeno subjetivo de grande importância, é pouco compreendido e estudado no ser humano. Médicos com maior conhecimento sobre os distúrbios desse sentido tendem a considerar a doença mais importante e manejar melhor o diagnóstico e o tratamento. Objetivo: Descrever a amostra dos pacientes com queixa principal de distúrbios do olfato e mostrar a experiência do serviço no manejo e tratamento. Delineamento: Estudo retrospectivo de coorte histórica com corte transversal. Materiais e métodos: Descrição da amostra e avaliação de resposta ao tratamento de pacientes com queixa principal de hiposmia ou anosmia atendidos no ambulatório de Rinologia no período de janeiro de 2005 a outubro de 2011. Resultados: Dos 38 pacientes com distúrbio da olfação, 68,4% dos pacientes apresentaram queixa de hiposmia e 31,5% de anosmia, com duração média de 30,8 meses. Os diagnósticos etiológicos principais foram idiopática (31,5%, rinopatia alérgica (28,9% e RSC com pólipos (10,5%. As respostas ao tratamento com corticosteroide tópico e ácido alfa-lipoico foram variáveis, assim como na literatura. Conclusão: Maior importância deve ser dada aos distúrbios do olfato na prática do otorrinolaringologista, uma vez que o diagnóstico diferencial é amplo e pode trazer grande morbidade ao paciente, com impacto na sua qualidade de vida.

  12. Estudo comparativo da resistência adesiva da interface resina/braquete, sob esforços de cisalhamento, empregando três resinas compostas e três tipos de tratamento na base do braquete Comparative study of the shear bond strength of the resin/bracket interface, using three different resin composites and three different treatments in the base of the bracket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Lia Mondelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: considerando que, até o momento, a união braquete/resina é conseguida mecânica e quimicamente, esse estudo propôs avaliar: 1 a eficiência da metodologia empregada para avaliação da força de união da interface resina/braquete; 2 a resistência adesiva da interface resina/braquete sob esforços de cisalhamento, empregando três marcas comerciais de resina composta (Concise ortodôntico, Transbond-XT e Filtek-Z-250; 3 o efeito, nesta resistência adesiva, do jateamento com óxido de alumínio, aplicado na base do braquete metálico, associado ou não ao sistema adesivo resinoso dentário. METODOLOGIA: para avaliar a união adesiva, especificamente na interface resina/braquete, empregou-se uma máquina universal de ensaios e o teste preconizado foi o de cisalhamento. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: após análise estatística (análise de Variância e, posteriormente, teste de Tukey e discussão dos resultados, conclui-se que: a ocorrência de 12,5% de fraturas coesivas pode ser considerada mínima, indicando que a metodologia empregada pode ser considerada confiável para avaliar especificamente a força de união da interface resina/braquete; em relação aos tipos de materiais empregados, sem nenhum tratamento prévio, as resinas compostas Concise ortodôntico, Transbond-XT e Filtek-Z-250 apresentaram valores similares de resistência adesiva sob esforços de cisalhamento; os tratamentos que incluíam a aplicação do adesivo específico, com ou sem jateamento com óxido de alumínio na base do braquete, foram mais efetivos para a resina composta Concise ortodôntico, quando comparados ao seu grupo controle; os tratamentos de jateamento com óxido de alumínio, associado ou não ao adesivo específico na base do braquete, foram mais efetivos estatisticamente para a resina composta Transbond-XT, quando comparados ao seu grupo controle; para a resina composta Filtek-Z-250, quando utilizado o adesivo Single Bond na base do braquete

  13. Um estudo sobre o processo administrativo

    OpenAIRE

    Blasi, Ana Cristina Ferro

    1995-01-01

    Dissertação(mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciencias Juridicas Análise do fenômeno da processualização da atividade administrativa, com ênfase ao estudo do processo administrativo e dos princípios a ele inerentes, além do estudo da possibilidade de aplicação do princípio da legitimidade como norteador do exercício da atividade administrativa.

  14. Utilização do planejamento experimental no estudo do efeito da composição de misturas de bentonitas na reologia de fluidos de perfuração. Parte II: composições ternárias Experimental design applied to the study of composition effect of bentonite on the rheology of drilling fluids. Part II: ternary compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. A. Campos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar o planejamento experimental para avaliar o efeito da composição de misturas ternárias de bentonitas na reologia de fluidos de perfuração de poços de petróleo. Por meio do planejamento foram determinadas as proporções dos componentes nas misturas ternárias das argilas e então ajustados modelos de regressão relacionando viscosidade aparente, viscosidade plástica e volume de filtrado com a proporção de cada argila. A aplicação da modelagem de misturas, incluindo composições ternárias, aliada a metodologia de superfícies de resposta e otimização matemática e gráfica permitiu delimitar uma gama de composições de argilas que favorece a melhoria das propriedades reológicas e de filtração dos fluidos estudados.The purpose of this work was to study of composition effect of ternary bentonite mixtures on the rheology of drilling fluids. Through the experimental design were defined the components proportions in the ternary clays mixtures and then adjusted regression models relating apparent and plastic viscosities and water loss, with the proportion of each clay. The application of mixture experimental design, include ternary composition, response surface methodology, graphic and mathematical optimization allowed to delimit a strip of compositions that favors the improvement of the rheological properties of the drilling fluids.

  15. Compressive strength measurements of hybrid dental composites treated with dry heat and light emitting diodes (LED post cure treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Krisnawaty

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid composites are mostly used on large cavities as restorative dental materials, whether it is used directly or indirectly. The mechanical properties of composite resin shall increase if it is treated with post cure treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate compressive strength differences between dry heat and Light Emitting Diodes (LED treatment on the hybrid dental composite. A quasi-experimental was applied on this research with a total of 30 samples that were divided into two groups. Each sample was tested using LLOYD Universal Testing Machine with 1 mm/min speed to evaluate the compressive strength. The compressive strength results were marked when the sample was broken. The results of two groups were then analyzed using t-test statistical calculation. The results of this study show that post cure treatment on hybrid composite using LED light box (194.138 MPa was lower than dry heat treatment (227.339 MPa, which was also significantly different from statistical analysis. It can be concluded that compressive strength of LED light box was lower than dry heat post-cure treatment on the hybrid composite resin.

  16. Measurements and Analysis of Chemical Composition of Particulate Matter during High Pollution Events at Guanzhong Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junji, C.

    2017-12-01

    Particulate matter pollution is a serious environmental problem which influencing air quality, regional and global climates, and human health. PM2.5 samples were collected at Guanzhong Plain with six sampling sites atdifferent cities in the year scale from 2012 to 2014. All of the six sites exhibited highest organic carbon (OC)and elemental carbon (EC) values in winter and lowest values in summer. OC correlates well with EC indicating similar emission sources. The contributions of secondary species SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ in total ions were greatest, and the high concentrations in winter were mainly due to emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning.During autumn the haze days were severest in Xi'an city with similar tendency of PM2.5 variations, and it was proved that biomass burning may be the main emission source of the regional pollution. In winter pollution episodes, the pollution patterns in Guanzhong Plain were similar which was resulted from strong secondary reactions and coal burning.Source apportionment using a positive matrix factorizationreceptor model indicates that on average secondary aerosol was the main source of PM2.5 (39.3%), followed by coal burning (17.3%), motor vehicle/industrial emissions (15.7%), fugitive dust (14.9%), and biomass burning (12.8%). The online, in situ measurement airborne species, especially the chemical composition of non-refectory submicron aerosol, during a heavyhaze-fog event, was analyzed in detailed.The formation of secondary sulfate and organic aerosol were observed during the event. The sulfur oxidation ratio (SOR), defined as sulfate/(SO2+sulfate) were mostly over 0.10, with a maximum of 0.30, when relative humidity > 80%. The aging product of organic aerosol (OA) were also observed in the event. The wet scattering coefficient was influenced by secondary sulfate, in the form of (NH4)2SO4, with contribution of 48.9% of wet particulate phase scattering. Thus decreased the visibility dramatically with a minimum of

  17. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastics particles during the expeditionary measurement program in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiukova, Elena; Bagaeva, Margarita; Chubarenko, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    According to the tasks of the Russian Science Foundation project "Physical and dynamical properties of marine microplastics particles and their transport in a basin with vertical and horizontal salinity gradient on the example of the Baltic Sea" number 15-17-10020, a comprehensive expeditionary program of measurements in the South-Eastern Baltic started. The project is aimed at finding solutions for a number of problems caused by superfluous plastic pollution in the World Ocean and, in particular, in the Baltic Sea. This pollution has been accumulating for years and just recently it has become obvious that only multidisciplinary approach (geographical, biological, chemical, etc.) to the issues related to the processes of transformation of properties and propagation of plastic particles will allow the study of physical aspects of the problem. During the first stage of the study samples should be selected from the water surface, water column at various horizons, bottom sediments in the Baltic Sea, from different areas at the beaches - in order to further examine the qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastic particles in different seasons for different hydrophysical situations. Reconnaissance survey was begun to choose the fields for research close to point and distributed sources of microplastics. Preference is given to those beaches that are exposed to maximum anthropogenic pollution: areas around the town of Baltiysk, the northern part of the Vistula Spit (near the settlement of Kosa), and the Sambia peninsula coast (settlements of Yantarny, Donskoye, Primorye, Kulikovo, towns of Svetlogorsk, Pionersky, Zelenogradsk). Locations for experimental sites were found in order to assess time for formation of microplastics (Vistula Spit, Kosa settlement). In June-November, 2015 there were 5 expeditions in the waters of the South-Eastern Baltic, 7 expeditions along the coast line of the Baltic Sea (in Kaliningrad Oblast), and 5 expeditions to the Vistula

  18. Assessment of MODIS-EVI, MODIS-NDVI and VEGETATION-NDVI composite data using agricultural measurements: an example at corn fields in western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Yu; Fedosejevs, Gunar; Tiscareño-López, Mario; Arnold, Jeffrey G

    2006-08-01

    Although several types of satellite data provide temporal information of the land use at no cost, digital satellite data applications for agricultural studies are limited compared to applications for forest management. This study assessed the suitability of vegetation indices derived from the TERRA-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor and SPOT-VEGETATION (VGT) sensor for identifying corn growth in western Mexico. Overall, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites from the VGT sensor based on bi-directional compositing method produced vegetation information most closely resembling actual crop conditions. The NDVI composites from the MODIS sensor exhibited saturated signals starting 30 days after planting, but corresponded to green leaf senescence in April. The temporal NDVI composites from the VGT sensor based on the maximum value method had a maximum plateau for 80 days, which masked the important crop transformation from vegetative stage to reproductive stage. The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) composites from the MODIS sensor reached a maximum plateau 40 days earlier than the occurrence of maximum leaf area index (LAI) and maximum intercepted fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR) derived from in-situ measurements. The results of this study showed that the 250-m resolution MODIS data did not provide more accurate vegetation information for corn growth description than the 500-m and 1000-m resolution MODIS data.

  19. Marginal leakage of polyacid-modified composite resin restorations in primary molars: an in vitro study Infiltração marginal em restaurações de resinas compostas modificadas por poliácidos, em molares decíduos: estudo in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Cristina R. Martinhon

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the marginal leakage in primary molars restored with 2 polyacid-modified composite resins (Dyract AP - Dentsply and F2000 - 3M and a composite resin (Filtek Z250 - 3M as control. First and second primary molars were used for preparation of cavities on the proximal surfaces, with extension of the gingival margin to the cementoenamel junction. Restorations were accomplished after total etching and application of the respective adhesive system, and were divided into groups according to the restorative system and the number of adhesive layers used. The teeth were stored in distilled water for 7 days, followed by thermocycling with 500 cycles at 5ºC - 55ºC, with one minute in each bath. Thereafter, teeth were prepared for immersion in 0.5% methylene blue solution for four hours. The teeth were sectioned in mesiodistal direction for assessment of dye penetration. According to the results of the Kruskal-Wallis test, the three restorative materials employed did not completely avoid marginal leakage at the gingival margin of primary molars. The marginal leakage of PMCR F2000 (4.06 and 3.95 displayed to be higher than the marginal leakage observed for the materials Dyract AP (2.7 and 2.55 and Filtek Z250 (2.25 and 2.43. The number of adhesive layers did not influence the degree of leakage of the three materials.O estudo in vitro avaliou a infiltração marginal em molares decíduos restaurados com três materiais resinosos: as resinas compostas modificadas por poliácidos (Dyract AP - Dentsply e F2000 - 3M e uma resina composta (Filtek Z 250 como grupo controle. Foram utilizados primeiros e segundos molares decíduos hígidos e as cavidades foram confeccionadas nas faces proximais, estendendo-se até a junção amelo-cementária. As restaurações foram realizadas após o condicionamento ácido total e a aplicação dos sistemas adesivos divididas em grupos de acordo com o sistema restaurador e o n

  20. Wear properties of alumina/zirconia composite ceramics for joint prostheses measured with an end-face apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yusuke; Nakata, Kenichi; Kim, Yoon-Ho; Sekino, Tohru; Niihara, Koichi; Ikeuchi, Ken

    2004-01-01

    While only alumina is applied to all-ceramic joint prostheses at present, a stronger ceramic is required to prevent fracture and chipping due to impingement and stress concentration. Zirconia could be a potential substitute for alumina because it has high strength and fracture toughness. However, the wear of zirconia/zirconia combination is too high for clinical use. Although some investigations on composite ceramics revealed that mixing of different ceramics was able to improve the mechanical properties of ceramics, there are few reports about wear properties of composite ceramics for joint prosthesis. Since acetabular cup and femoral head of artificial hip joint are finished precisely, they indicate high geometric conformity. Therefore, wear test under flat contact was carried out with an end-face wear testing apparatus for four kinds of ceramics: alumina monolith, zirconia monolith, alumina-based composite ceramic, and zirconia based composite ceramic. Mean contact pressure was 10 MPa and sliding velocity was 40 mm/s. The wear test continued for 72 hours and total sliding distance was 10 km. After the test, the wear factor was calculated. Worn surfaces were observed with a scanning electron micrograph (SEM). The results of this wear test show that the wear factors of the both composite ceramics are similarly low and their mechanical properties are much better than those of the alumina monolith and the zirconia monolith. According to these results, it is predicted that joint prostheses of the composite ceramics are safer against break down and have longer lifetime compared with alumina/alumina joint prostheses.

  1. Child Feeding and Parenting Style Outcomes and Composite Score Measurement in the ‘Feeding Healthy Food to Kids Randomised Controlled Trial’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Kerith; Burrows, Tracy L.; Collins, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Child feeding practices and parenting style each have an impact on child dietary intake, but it is unclear whether they influence each other or are amenable to change. The aims of this study were to measure child feeding and parenting styles in the Feeding Healthy Food to Kids (FHFK) Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) and test a composite child feeding score and a composite parenting style score. Child feeding and parenting style data from 146 parent-child dyads (76 boys, aged 2.0–5.9 years) in the FHFK study were collected over a 12-month intervention. Parenting style was measured using parenting questions from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) was used to measure child feeding practices. Data for both measures were collected at baseline, 3 and 12 months and then modelled to develop a composite child feeding score and a parenting score. Multivariate mixed effects linear regression was used to measure associations between variables over time. All child feeding domains from the CFQ were consistent between baseline and 12 months (p parenting style domain scores were consistent over 12 months (p parenting style score within the FHFK RCT. In conclusion, composite scores have potential applications in the analysis of relationships between child feeding and dietary or anthropometric data in intervention studies aimed at improving child feeding or parenting style. These applications have the potential to make a substantial contribution to the understanding of child feeding practices and parenting style, in relation to each other and to dietary intake and health outcomes amongst pre-school aged children. PMID:27834906

  2. Child Feeding and Parenting Style Outcomes and Composite Score Measurement in the ‘Feeding Healthy Food to Kids Randomised Controlled Trial’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerith Duncanson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Child feeding practices and parenting style each have an impact on child dietary intake, but it is unclear whether they influence each other or are amenable to change. The aims of this study were to measure child feeding and parenting styles in the Feeding Healthy Food to Kids (FHFK Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT and test a composite child feeding score and a composite parenting style score. Child feeding and parenting style data from 146 parent-child dyads (76 boys, aged 2.0–5.9 years in the FHFK study were collected over a 12-month intervention. Parenting style was measured using parenting questions from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ was used to measure child feeding practices. Data for both measures were collected at baseline, 3 and 12 months and then modelled to develop a composite child feeding score and a parenting score. Multivariate mixed effects linear regression was used to measure associations between variables over time. All child feeding domains from the CFQ were consistent between baseline and 12 months (p < 0.001, except for monitoring (0.12, p = 0.44. All parenting style domain scores were consistent over 12 months (p < 0.001, except for overprotection (0.22, p = 0.16. A significant correlation (r = 0.42, p < 0.0001 existed between child feeding score and parenting style score within the FHFK RCT. In conclusion, composite scores have potential applications in the analysis of relationships between child feeding and dietary or anthropometric data in intervention studies aimed at improving child feeding or parenting style. These applications have the potential to make a substantial contribution to the understanding of child feeding practices and parenting style, in relation to each other and to dietary intake and health outcomes amongst pre-school aged children.

  3. Mass composition studies of Ultra High Energy cosmic rays through the measurement of the Muon Production Depths at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collica, Laura [Univ. of Milan (Italy); Paris Diderot Univ. (France)

    2014-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory (Auger) in Argentina studies Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) physics. The flux of cosmic rays at these energies (above 1018 eV) is very low (less than 100 particle/km2-year) and UHECR properties must be inferred from the measurements of the secondary particles that the cosmic ray primary produces in the atmosphere. These particles cascades are called Extensive Air Showers (EAS) and can be studied at ground by deploying detectors covering large areas. The EAS physics is complex, and the properties of secondary particles depend strongly on the first interaction, which takes place at an energy beyond the ones reached at accelerators. As a consequence, the analysis of UHECRs is subject to large uncertainties and hence many of their properties, in particular their composition, are still unclear. Two complementary techniques are used at Auger to detect EAS initiated by UHE- CRs: a 3000 km2 surface detector (SD) array of water Cherenkov tanks which samples particles at ground level and fluorescence detectors (FD) which collect the ultraviolet light emitted by the de-excitation of nitrogen nuclei in the atmosphere, and can operate only in clear, moonless nights. Auger is the largest cosmic rays detector ever built and it provides high-quality data together with unprecedented statistics. The main goal of this thesis is the measurement of UHECR mass composition using data from the SD of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Measuring the cosmic ray composition at the highest energies is of fundamental importance from the astrophysical point of view, since it could discriminate between different scenarios of origin and propagation of cosmic rays. Moreover, mass composition studies are of utmost importance for particle physics. As a matter of fact, knowing the composition helps in exploring the hadronic interactions at ultra-high energies, inaccessible to present accelerator experiments.

  4. Variability explained by strength, body composition and gait impairment in activity and participation measures for children with cerebral palsy: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeffinger, Donna; Gorton, George; Hassani, Sahar; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; Johnson, Barbara; Whitmer, Megan; Romness, Mark; Kryscio, Dick; Tylkowski, Chester; Bagley, Anita

    2014-10-01

    To determine the amount of variability in scores on activity and participation measures used to assess ambulatory individuals with cerebral palsy explained by strength, body composition, gait impairment and participant characteristics. Multicentre prospective cross-sectional study. Seven paediatric-orthopaedic specialty hospitals. Three hundred and seventy-seven ambulatory individuals (241 males, 136 females) with cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-III (I = 148, II = 153, III = 76), ages 8-18 years (mean 12 years 9 months, SD 2 years 8 months). Participants completed assessments of GMFCS level, patient history, lower extremity muscle strength, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66), Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), instrumented gait analysis, 1 minute walk test, Timed Up-and-Go and body composition. Multiple linear regression and bootstrap analyses were performed for each outcome measure, stratified by GMFCS level. The amount of variability in outcome measures explained by participant characteristics, strength, and gait impairment ranged from 11% to 50%. Gait impairment was the most common predictor variable and frequently explained the greatest variance across all outcome measures and GMFCS levels. As gait impairment increased, scores on outcome measures decreased. Strength findings were inconsistent and not a primary factor. Body composition contributed minimally (cerebral palsy type, gestational age and age at walking onset), were significant predictor variables in several models. Variability in outcome measure scores is multifaceted and only partially explained by strength and gait impairment illustrating the challenges of attempting to explain variation within this heterogeneous population. Clinicians treating individuals with cerebral palsy should consider this when developing treatment paradigms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Measurements of local chemistry and structure in Ni(O)-YSZ composites during reduction using energy-filtered environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Quentin; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2014-01-01

    Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy images are acquired during the reduction of a NiO-YSZ composite in H-2 up to 600 degrees C. Temperature-resolved quantitative information about both chemistry and structure is extracted with nm spatial resolution from the data, paving the way...

  6. Measurements of local chemistry and structure in Ni(O)-YSZ composites during reduction using energy-filtered environmental TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeangros, Quentin; Hansen, Thomas W; Wagner, Jakob B; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Hébert, Cécile; Van Herle, Jan; Hessler-Wyser, Aïcha

    2014-02-21

    Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy images are acquired during the reduction of a NiO-YSZ composite in H2 up to 600 °C. Temperature-resolved quantitative information about both chemistry and structure is extracted with nm spatial resolution from the data, paving the way for the development of detailed reduction models.

  7. A Study of Summer and Winter Highly Time-resolved Submicron Aerosol Composition Measured at a Suburban Site in Prague

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubelová, Lucie; Vodička, Petr; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Cusack, Michael; Makeš, Otakar; Ondráček, Jakub; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 118, OCT 2015 (2015), s. 45-57 ISSN 1352-2310 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/11/1342 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : atmospheric aerosol * chemical composition * size distribution Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.459, year: 2015

  8. Tunable diode laser IR spectrometer for in situ measurements of the gas phase composition and particle size distribution of Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Christopher R.; Sander, Stanley P.; Beer, Reinhard; May, Randy D.; Knollenberg, Robert G.

    1990-01-01

    A new instrument, the Probe Infrared Laser Spectrometer (PIRLS), is described for in situ sensing of the gas composition and particle size distribution of Titan's atmosphere on the NASA/ESA Cassini mission. For gas composition measurements, several narrow-band (0.0001/cm) tunable lead-salt diode lasers operating near 80 K at selected mid-IR wavelengths are directed over a path length defined by a small reflector extending over the edge of the probe spacecraft platform; volume mixing ratios of 10 to the -9th should be measurable for several species of interest. A cloud-particle-size spectrometer using a diode laser source at 780 nm shares the optical path and deployed reflector; a combination of imaging and light scattering techniques is used to determine sizes of haze and cloud particles and their number density as a function of altitude.

  9. The cosmic ray spectrum and composition measured by KASCADE-Grande between 10{sup 16} eV and 10{sup 18} eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertaina, M., E-mail: bertaina@to.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Apel, W.D. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C. [Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia (Mexico); Bekk, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Blümer, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Cantoni, E. [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Souza, V. de [Universidade São Paulo, Instituto de Física de São Carlos (Brazil); and others

    2014-11-15

    The shape and composition of the primary spectrum of cosmic rays are key elements to understand the origin, acceleration and propagation of the Galactic cosmic rays. Besides the well known knee and ankle features, the recent results of KASCADE-Grande indicate that the measured energy spectrum exhibits also a less pronounced but still clear deviation from a single power law between the knee and the ankle, with a spectral hardening at 2 × 10{sup 16} eV and a steepening at 10{sup 17} eV. The average mass composition gets heavier after the knee till 10{sup 17} eV where a bending of the heavy component is observed. An indication of a hardening of the light component just above 10{sup 17} eV has been measured as well. In this paper the major results obtained so far by the KASCADE-Grande experiment are reviewed.

  10. Development of a Lifespan-Based Novel Composite Person-Reported Outcome Measure using Data from the CINRG Duchenne Natural History Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Write several lines Wipe nose Brush teeth Take money from a wallet from your pocket to pay for something Scratch head Take a book out of a bag on...successful completion of the U.S. Department of Education Grant “Rehabilitation Research & Training Center – Enhancing Health & Wellness of Individuals...AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0589 TITLE: Development of a lifespan-based novel composite person-reported outcome measure using

  11. Development of a Lifespan-Based Novel Composite Person-Reported Outcome Measure Using Data from the CINRG Duchenne Natural History Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    composite person - reported outcome measure using data from the CINRG Duchenne natural history study 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Craig...history studies and clinical trials for persons with DMD. Aim 3.1: Perform a CAT simulation from data obtained from the comprehensive PRO item banks...inclusion in natural history studies and clinical trials for persons with DMD. Accomplishments and Results: The Cooperative International

  12. First results on the element composition of Halley comet dust particles measured by PUMA instruments on the board of Vega space probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Kissel', I.; Berto, Zh. L.

    1986-01-01

    Already the raw data of the ''Puma'' instruments reveal unexpected and striking features of cometary dust particles. Firstly it seems that particles below 10 -14 g are much more abundand that anticipated by the models. Secondly most of the particles are rich in light elements such as H, C, N and O giving hints to the validity of models describing the cometary material as made from radiation processed ices. Three examples of original measurements for typical compositions are given

  13. Experimental Study on Welded Headed Studs Used In Steel Plate-Concrete Composite Structures Compared with Contactless Method of Measuring Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisała, Dawid; Tekieli, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Steel plate-concrete composite structures are a new innovative design concept in which a thin steel plate is attached to the reinforced concrete beam by means of welded headed studs. The comparison between experimental studies and theoretical analysis of this type of structures shows that their behaviour is dependent on the load-slip relationship of the shear connectors used to ensure sufficient bond between the concrete and steel parts of the structure. The aim of this paper is to describe an experimental study on headed studs used in steel plate-concrete composite structures. Push-out tests were carried out to investigate the behaviour of shear connectors. The test specimens were prepared according to standard push-out tests, however, instead of I-beam, a steel plate 16 mm thick was used to better reflect the conditions in the real structure. The test specimens were produced in two batches using concrete with significantly different compressive strength. The experimental study was carried out on twelve specimens. Besides the traditional measurements based on LVDT sensors, optical measurements based on the digital image correlation method (DIC) and pattern tracking methods were used. DIC is a full-field contactless optical method for measuring displacements in experimental testing, based on the correlation of the digital images taken during test execution. With respect to conventional methods, optical measurements offer a wider scope of results and can give more information about the material or construction behaviour during the test. The ultimate load capacity and load-slip curves obtained from the experiments were compared with the values calculated based on Eurocodes, American and Chinese design specifications. It was observed that the use of the relationships developed for the traditional steel-concrete composite structures is justified in the case of ultimate load capacity of shear connectors in steel plate-concrete composite structures.

  14. Study of a new technique for measuring the travel time of ultrasonic waves using the frequency spectrum; Estudo de uma nova tecnica de medida do tempo de percurso da onda ultra-sonica usando o espectro de frequencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Allan Xavier dos

    2010-07-01

    During the operation of a nuclear plant and other industrial plants, the operational time and the exposition to severe working conditions may cause the wear of its components, consequently, compromising the safety and the performance of the installation. The implementation of periodical inspections helps to ensure the safe operation and the best performance of the plant. In this way, the use of ultrasonic techniques for inspection and materials characterization becomes more and more attractive, since they offer quick, precise results and are technically ease to implement. The usual ultrasonic techniques, need to the measure the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave in the material examined in order to extract information useful to characterize it. Thus, the measurement of the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave is the overriding factor in most of the applications made with ultrasound. In this work a new technique was developed for measuring the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave using a Fourier's Fast Transformer (FFT). It will be shown mathematically and experimentally that it is possible to use the ultrasonic signal in the frequency domain to determine the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave. Five experiments were carried out for the experimental validation of this new technique. The materials used were 20 ceramic pastilles with different porosities and 3 aluminum plates of different thicknesses. The obtained results have shown that the new technique proposed in this work was able to determine the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave with the same precision as the conventional technique. It was shown, furthermore, that this new technique is able to measure the travelling time of the ultrasonic wave in situations where the conventional technique cannot be applied greatly expanding the range of application of ultrasonic testing and inspections. (author)

  15. Precision errors, least significant change, and monitoring time interval in pediatric measurements of bone mineral density, body composition, and mechanostat parameters by GE lunar prodigy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Maciej; Pludowski, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method is widely used in pediatrics in the study of bone density and body composition. However, there is a limit to how precise DXA can estimate bone and body composition measures in children. The study was aimed to (1) evaluate precision errors for bone mineral density, bone mass and bone area, body composition, and mechanostat parameters, (2) assess the relationships between precision errors and anthropometric parameters, and (3) calculate a "least significant change" and "monitoring time interval" values for DXA measures in children of wide age range (5-18yr) using GE Lunar Prodigy densitometer. It is observed that absolute precision error values were different for thin and standard technical modes of DXA measures and depended on age, body weight, and height. In contrast, relative precision error values expressed in percentages were similar for thin and standard modes (except total body bone mineral density [TBBMD]) and were not related to anthropometric variables (except TBBMD). Concluding, due to stability of percentage coefficient of variation values in wide range of age, the use of precision error expressed in percentages, instead of absolute error, appeared as convenient in pediatric population. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Using semi-continuous, in-situ measurements of nitrous oxide isotopic composition at a suburban site to track emission processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eliza; Henne, Stephan; Christoph, Hüglin; Christoph, Zellweger; Béla, Tuzson; Erkan, Ibraim; Lukas, Emmenegger; Joachim, Mohn

    2017-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas and the strongest ozone-destroying substance emitted this century. The atmospheric N2O mole fraction has been increasing at a rate of 0.2-0.3% per year over the past decades due to anthropogenic emissions; in addition, recent results suggest that the rate of increase is rising - therefore effective mitigation of N2O emissions is a critical point for environmental policy. However, N2O sources are poorly defined and disperse, complicating the development of targeted mitigation strategies. Online isotopic measurements using preconcentration and laser spectroscopy [1,2,3] have great potential to unravel spatial and temporal variations in sources, sinks and chemistry of trace gases such as N2O. Semi-continuous, real-time measurements of N2O isotopic composition (δ18O, site preference [SP = 14N15N16O - 15N14N16O] and δ15Nbulk) were performed at the suburban site of Dübendorf, Switzerland, for 19 months between July 2014 and February 2016. The data precision reached 0.1‰ in the final months, thus the results could clearly identify nocturnal build-up of N2O, with a corresponding decrease in δ18O, SP and δ15Nbulk due to isotopically depleted anthropogenic sources. Daily mean source isotopic composition was calculated by considering the measured and the background mole fraction and isotopic composition. Delta values of the mean emission source were highest in winter, with a seasonal cycle of 12, 8 and 5‰ for δ18O, SP and δ15Nbulk respectively. The chemical and meteorological parameters controlling source isotopic composition were considered using data from the Swiss National Air Pollution Monitoring Network (NABEL) as well as a transport regime cluster analysis. A clear spatial distribution for source isotopic composition was observed for δ18O, as well as a significant relationship with the level of urban pollution, indicating δ18O may be a strong indicator of combustion/industrial vs. agricultural N2O. In contrast

  17. The effects of materials' composition and some external factors on measuring precision for nuclear conveyor belt scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongming; Hong Pingshun; Wang Min

    1997-01-01

    The effects of some external factors on the metrological precision of a nuclear conveyor belt scale were verified with a series of tests. It is shown that the precision is related not only with the moisture content and composition of the covered materials, but also with the belt's deviation and the evenness of the materials. Mild wind seems to have no effect on the precision

  18. Changes in fat-free mass in obese subjects after weight loss : a comparison of body composition measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Deurenberg, P.; Seidell, J C; Westerterp, K R; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    Estimates of body composition by densitometry were made in 84 apparently healthy subjects (42 men, 42 women) with a mean age of 40 +/- 6 years (mean +/- s.d.), before and after weight loss. The initial body mass index (BMI) was 30.7 +/- 2.3 kg/m2 and the achieved weight loss on a 4.2 MJ/day energy

  19. The relation between dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of body fat composition and plasma ghrelin in patients with end-stage renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, Naglaa M.; Hamed, Soha T.; El-Khatib, Mohamed M.; El-Shehaby, Amal M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective was to clarify the role of ghrelin in malnutrition in uremia and its relationship to fat composition using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This is a cohort study including Group I: 60 patients with end stage renal disease (30 on hemodialysis [group IA] and 30 pre-dialysis [group IB]) and Group II: 20 controls. This study was carried out in Cairo University Hospital, Kasr Al-Aini, Cairo, Egypt in 2007. Body fat composition (total, differential and lean body mass) was assessed using DXA and plasma ghrelin was measured. Ghrelin was significantly higher in hemodialysis and pre-dialysis groups compared to the control group and higher in hemodialysis group compared to the pre-dialysis group. In hemodialysis, ghrelin was negatively correlated with weight, body mass index (BMI), and truncal fat mass, and positively correlated with serum creatinine, lean body mass. In control, plasma ghrelin showed negative correlation with weight, BMI, truncal fat mass and positive correlation with lean body mass. Ghrelin was markedly elevated in renal failure due to its decrease in excretion. Negative correlation between ghrelin and fat mass composition was detected in dialysis patients. Serial evaluation of body fat mass composition using DXA is recommended for assessment of nutritional status of those patients. (author)

  20. Assessment of measurement result uncertainty in determination of 210Pb with the focus on matrix composition effect in gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iurian, A.R.; Pitois, A.; Kis-Benedek, G.; Migliori, A.; Padilla-Alvarez, R.; Ceccatelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    Reference materials were used to assess measurement result uncertainty in determination of 210 Pb by gamma-ray spectrometry, liquid scintillation counting, or indirectly by alpha-particle spectrometry, using its daughter 210 Po in radioactive equilibrium. Combined standard uncertainties of 210 Pb massic activities obtained by liquid scintillation counting are in the range 2–12%, depending on matrices and massic activity values. They are in the range 1–3% for the measurement of its daughter 210 Po using alpha-particle spectrometry. Three approaches (direct computation of counting efficiency and efficiency transfer approaches based on the computation and, respectively, experimental determination of the efficiency transfer factors) were applied for the evaluation of 210 Pb using gamma-ray spectrometry. Combined standard uncertainties of gamma-ray spectrometry results were found in the range 2–17%. The effect of matrix composition on self-attenuation was investigated and a detailed assessment of uncertainty components was performed. - Highlights: • Confirmed 210 Pb certified values by LSC and alpha-particle spectrometry ( 210 Po). • Assessed 210 Po measurement result uncertainty by alpha-particle spectrometry. • Matrix composition effect on gamma-ray spectrometry measurement result uncertainty. • Assessment of 210 Pb measurement result uncertainty by gamma-ray spectrometry. • Comparison of techniques and approaches: ‘fit-for-purpose’ considerations.

  1. Paloma: an instrument to measure the molecular, elemental and isotopic composition of the mars atmosphere from a landed platform (MSL 09, EXOMARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabroux, J.Ch.

    2003-01-01

    An instrument to analyze the molecular, elemental and isotopic composition of Mars atmosphere from a landed platform is being developed under CNES funding. This instrument, called PALOMA (Payload for Local Observation of Mars Atmosphere), will be proposed in response to the AO for the instrumentation of the NASA Mars Smart Lander mission, planned to be launched in 2009. It might be part as well of the EXOMARS mission presently studied at ESA in the frame of the Aurora program. Noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Xr, Xe) and stable isotopes (C, H, O, N) will be analyzed by using a system of gas purification and separation, coupled with a mass spectrometer. The heaviest, radioactive, noble gas (Rn) and its short-lived daughters will be measured using a small additional device (alpha particle detector). Detailed search for trace constituents of astro-biological interest, like CH 4 , H 2 CO, N 2 O, H 2 S (abundances, isotopic ratios, time variability) will be done on a regular temporal basis during one Martian year. Isotopic ratios will be measured with an accuracy of about 1 ppm, or better, in order to provide a clear diagnosis of possible life signatures, to allow a detailed comparison of Earth and Mars atmospheric fractionation patterns and, finally, to accurately disentangle escape, climatic, geochemical and hypothesized biological effects. High sensitivity is required for elemental and isotopic compositions of trace gases of interest. Such an accurate monitoring of Mars atmosphere volatile composition is expected to provide the necessary reference for future composition studies of minerals, soils, bio-markers, polar cap material, either by in-situ measurement, or from laboratory analyses of returned samples. (author)

  2. Noise suppression in curved glass shells using macro-fiber-composite actuators studied by the means of digital holography and acoustic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrý, P.; Psota, P.; Steiger, K.; Václavík, J.; Doleček, R.; Lédl, V.; Šulc, M.

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents methods and experimental results of the semi-active control of noise transmission in a curved glass shell with attached piezoelectric macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators. The semi-active noise control is achieved via active elasticity control of piezoelectric actuators by connecting them to an active electric shunt circuit that has a negative effective capacitance. Using this approach, it is possible to suppress the vibration of the glass shell in the normal direction with respect to its surface and to increase the acoustic transmission loss of the piezoelectric MFC-glass composite structure. The effect of the MFC actuators connected to the negative capacitance shunt circuit on the surface distribution of the normal vibration amplitude is studied using frequency-shifted digital holography (FSDH). The principle of the used FSDH method is described in the paper. The frequency dependence of the acoustic transmission loss through the piezoelectric MFC-glass composite structure is estimated using measurements of the specific acoustic impedance of the curved glass shell. The specific acoustic impedance is measured using two microphones and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). The results from the LDV measurements are compared with the FSDH data. The results of the experiments show that using this approach, the acoustic transmission loss in a glass shell can be increased by 36 dB in the frequency range around 247 Hz and by 25 dB in the frequency range around 258 Hz. The experiments indicate that FSDH measurements provide an efficient tool that can be used for fast and accurate measurements of the acoustic transmission loss in large planar structures.

  3. Measurement of body composition changes during weight loss in obese men using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and multi-compartment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Alexandra M; Faber, Peter; Gibney, Eileen R; Lobley, Gerald E; Stubbs, R James; Siervo, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The accurate measurement of changes in body composition is important to assess the contribution of fat and fat free mass to total body mass change as a measure of the effectiveness of weight loss programmes. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a rapid and non-invasive technique which could be applied to assess body composition changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of the BIS for the measurement of fat mass (FM), total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) changes induced by different degrees of caloric deficit in obese men. Three groups of six, obese men participated in either (i) a total fast (for 6 days); (ii) a VLCD (2.5 MJ/day for 3 weeks); or (iii) LCD (5.2 MJ/day for 6 weeks). FM was measured using a 4-compartment (4-C) model. TBW and ECW were determined by dilution methods, respectively. TBW, ECW and FM were also assessed with BIS. Body weight loss in the fasting group was 6.0 ± 1.3 kg over 6 days; the VLCD group lost 9.2 ± 1.2 kg over 21 days and the LCD group lost 12.6 ± 2.4 kg over 42 days. BIS underestimated FM changes (bias = -3.3 ± 3.8 kg) and overestimated changes in TBW and ECW by +1.8 ± 4.8 kg and +2.3 ± 6.4 kg, respectively. The measurement error was consistently larger in the fasting group and the magnitude of the bias interacted significantly with the rate of weight loss. Rapid weight loss affects the accuracy of the BIS in detecting changes in body composition. A careful interpretation of the results is needed when sizable changes in body water compartments occurs. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Noise suppression in curved glass shells using macro-fiber-composite actuators studied by the means of digital holography and acoustic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mokrý

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents methods and experimental results of the semi-active control of noise transmission in a curved glass shell with attached piezoelectric macro fiber composite (MFC actuators. The semi-active noise control is achieved via active elasticity control of piezoelectric actuators by connecting them to an active electric shunt circuit that has a negative effective capacitance. Using this approach, it is possible to suppress the vibration of the glass shell in the normal direction with respect to its surface and to increase the acoustic transmission loss of the piezoelectric MFC-glass composite structure. The effect of the MFC actuators connected to the negative capacitance shunt circuit on the surface distribution of the normal vibration amplitude is studied using frequency-shifted digital holography (FSDH. The principle of the used FSDH method is described in the paper. The frequency dependence of the acoustic transmission loss through the piezoelectric MFC-glass composite structure is estimated using measurements of the specific acoustic impedance of the curved glass shell. The specific acoustic impedance is measured using two microphones and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV. The results from the LDV measurements are compared with the FSDH data. The results of the experiments show that using this approach, the acoustic transmission loss in a glass shell can be increased by 36 dB in the frequency range around 247 Hz and by 25 dB in the frequency range around 258 Hz. The experiments indicate that FSDH measurements provide an efficient tool that can be used for fast and accurate measurements of the acoustic transmission loss in large planar structures.

  5. Understanding the Essential Meaning of Measured Changes in Weight and Body Composition Among Women During and After Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Groenkjaer, Mette; Falkmer, Ursula; Delmar, Charlotte

    Changes in weight and body composition among women during and after adjuvant antineoplastic treatment for breast cancer may influence long-term survival and quality of life. Research on factual weight changes is diverse and contrasting, and their influence on women's perception of body and self seems to be insufficiently explored. The aim of this study was to expand the understanding of the association between changes in weight and body composition and the women's perception of body and selves. A mixed-methods research design was used. Data consisted of weight and body composition measures from 95 women with breast cancer during 18 months past surgery. Twelve women from this cohort were interviewed individually at 12 months. Linear mixed model and logistic regression were used to estimate changes of repeated measures and odds ratio. Interviews were analyzed guided by existential phenomenology. Joint displays and integrative mixed-methods interpretation demonstrated that even small weight gains, extended waist, and weight loss were associated with fearing recurrence of breast cancer. Perceiving an ambiguous transforming body, the women moved between a unified body subject and the body as an object dissociated in "I" and "it" while fighting against or accepting the body changes. Integrating findings demonstrated that factual weight changes do not correspond with the perceived changes and may trigger existential threats. Transition to a new habitual body demand health practitioners to enter a joint narrative work to reveal how the changes impact on the women's body and self-perception independent of how they are displayed quantitatively.

  6. ESTUDOS ESTILÍSTICOS NO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Falcão Uchôa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva mostrar os inícios e a progressão dos estudos estilísticos no Brasil. Após uma introdução sobre o surgimento, na Europa, da Estilística como disciplina de pesquisa no campo da linguagem, detém-se, sucessivamente, nas contribuições de filólogos, linguistas, teóricos da literatura e gramáticos para o estudo dos mais variados recursos estilísticos ocorrentes sobretudo em autores brasileiros.

  7. Study of a 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system for absolute radionuclide activity measurement using plastic scintillators; Estudo de um sistema de coincidencias 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} para a medida absoluta de atividade de radionuclideos empregando cintiladores plasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piuvezam Filho, Helio

    2007-07-01

    The present work was intended to study a coincidence system 4{pi}(PS){beta}-{gamma} for absolute activity measurement using plastic scintillators in 4{pi} geometry. Along with experiments on the coincidence system, simulations were also performed applying the Monte Carlo Method, by means of codes PENELOPE and ESQUEMA. These simulations were performed in order to calculate the extrapolation curve of the coincidence system 4{pi}(PS){beta}-{gamma} and compare it to experimental data. A new geometry was proposed to the coincidence system adding up a second photomultiplier tube to the previous system for improving light collection from the plastic scintillator, as this system presented limitations in the minimum detected energy due to the presence of electronic noise and low gain. The results show that an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio was obtained, as well as in the minimum detected energy. Moreover, there was an increase in the detection efficiency. With these modifications, it is now possible to calibrate radionuclides which emit low energy electrons or X-rays, increasing the number of radionuclides that can be standardized with this type of system.(author)

  8. In situ chemical composition measurement of individual cloud residue particles at a mountain site, southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate how atmospheric aerosol particles interact with chemical composition of cloud droplets, a ground-based counterflow virtual impactor (GCVI coupled with a real-time single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS was used to assess the chemical composition and mixing state of individual cloud residue particles in the Nanling Mountains (1690 m a. s. l. , southern China, in January 2016. The cloud residues were classified into nine particle types: aged elemental carbon (EC, potassium-rich (K-rich, amine, dust, Pb, Fe, organic carbon (OC, sodium-rich (Na-rich and Other. The largest fraction of the total cloud residues was the aged EC type (49.3 %, followed by the K-rich type (33.9 %. Abundant aged EC cloud residues that mixed internally with inorganic salts were found in air masses from northerly polluted areas. The number fraction (NF of the K-rich cloud residues increased within southwesterly air masses from fire activities in Southeast Asia. When air masses changed from northerly polluted areas to southwesterly ocean and livestock areas, the amine particles increased from 0.2 to 15.1 % of the total cloud residues. The dust, Fe, Pb, Na-rich and OC particle types had a low contribution (0.5–4.1 % to the total cloud residues. Higher fraction of nitrate (88–89 % was found in the dust and Na-rich cloud residues relative to sulfate (41–42 % and ammonium (15–23 %. Higher intensity of nitrate was found in the cloud residues relative to the ambient particles. Compared with nonactivated particles, nitrate intensity decreased in all cloud residues except for dust type. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on in situ observation of the chemical composition and mixing state of individual cloud residue particles in China.

  9. Evaluation of relative isotopic abundance measurements in a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer for elemental composition determination of natural products in traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Jun; Huo, Jia-Li; Chen, Jian-Zhong; Li, Na; Fang, Dong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Zhen; Zhang, Guo-Lin; Wang, Jian-Hua; Xu, Xiao-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The relative isotopic abundance (RIA) measurement errors of a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-ToF) instrument incorporating analog-to-digital converter detectors were systemically evaluated by stochastically collecting about 200 data in positive ion mass spectrometry (MS) mode. Errors varied with peak intensities at definite spectral acquisition rates but were very close, even if peak intensities changed sharply at different spectral acquisition rates with the same concentration. Intensity thresholds were systematically defined at 1 Hz of spectral acquisition rates. RIA measurement errors were also evaluated using peak area. It seemed that peak area was better adapted for the high-intensity ions while peak intensity was suited for very low-intensity ions. Several known compounds were selected for RIA measurements for product ions in tandem mass spectropmetry (MS/MS) mode. An extract of a representative traditional Chinese medicinal, Paederia scandens was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-QToF-MS/MS. The unique elemental compositions of some compounds could not be identified even with exact masses and MS/MS spectra of measured and reference compounds. RIA errors, especially of (M+2)M(-1), provided vital information for determining the elemental composition.

  10. A fundamental study on measurement of internal residual stress of sintered Fe-Cr/TiN composite material with neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takago, Shigeki; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Hirose, Yukio; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Morii, Yukio

    2001-01-01

    The Neutron diffraction technique was applied for the internal stress measurements of a composite material consisted of chromium alloy and titanium nitride manufactured by the powder metallurgy. The material has been developed for the valve seat insert of diesel engines in automobiles, because material has high wear-resistance and heat-resistance. In this study, the influence of the titanium nitride on the stresses in each phase was investigated. The Fe-Cr 200 diffraction peak occurs at 2θ=93.4 deg. and the TiN 311 diffraction peak at 2θ=109.5 deg are available. Neutron diffraction data obtained from both phases were compared to the Micromechanics model based on Eshelby's approach and the Mori-Tanaka theorem. It was found that experimental phase stress agrees well with the theoretical estimation. It has been shown that neutron diffraction method is suitable to determine the residual stress of composite materials. (author)

  11. Solid state {sup 31}P MAS NMR spectroscopy and conductivity measurements on NbOPO{sub 4} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risskov Sørensen, Daniel [Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohrs Allé 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark); Nielsen, Ulla Gro [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, Campusvej 55, University of Southern Denmark, 5230 Odense M (Denmark); Skou, Eivind M., E-mail: ems@kbm.sdu.dk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohrs Allé 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2014-11-15

    A systematic study of composite powders of niobium oxide phosphate (NbOPO{sub 4}) and phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) has been performed in order to characterize the material's ability to perform as an electrolyte material in medium temperature fuel cells and electrolyzers. Powders of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} contents between 13.1 and 74.2 M% were produced and characterized with powder X-ray diffraction, {sup 31}P MAS NMR and impedance spectroscopy. NMR revealed that a significant degree of dehydration and vaporization of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} takes place above 200 °C, and increases with temperature. At 500 °C the NbOPO{sub 4} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} has reacted to form niobium pyrophosphate (Nb{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 15}). Impedance spectroscopy showed an increase in conductivity with increasing acid concentration, whereas the conductivity decreased slightly with increasing temperature. The highest conductivity measured was 2.5·10{sup −3} S/cm for a sample containing 74.2 M% of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Lastly, it was shown that NbOPO{sub 4} has no significant conductivity of its own. - Graphical abstract: Conductivity of NbOPO{sub 4}/H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} composites as a function of equivalent P{sub 2}O{sub 5} content. The conductivity is insignificant for pure NbOPO{sub 4}. - Highlights: • Composites have been made from NbOPO{sub 4} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • The composites composition has been investigated with solid state NMR. • The composites have shown clear signs of acid dehydration upon heating. • The conductivity of the composites increases for increasing acid content. • NbOPO{sub 4} has no significant conductivity of its own.

  12. An Investigation Into the Differences in Bone Density and Body Composition Measurements Between 2 GE Lunar Densitometers and Their Comparison to a 4-Component Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laura P E; Venables, Michelle C; Murgatroyd, Peter R

    We describe a study to assess the precision of the GE Lunar iDXA and the agreement between the iDXA and GE Lunar Prodigy densitometers for the measurement of regional- and total-body bone and body composition in normal to obese healthy adults. We compare the whole-body fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measurements by a 4-component (4-C) model. Sixty-nine participants, aged 37 ± 12 yr, with a body mass index of 26.2 ± 5.1 kg/cm 2 , were measured once on the Prodigy and twice on the iDXA. The 4-C model estimated fat mass from body mass, total body water by deuterium dilution, body volume by air displacement plethysmography, and bone mass by DXA. Agreements between measurements made on the 2 instruments and by the 4-C model were analyzed by Bland-Altman and linear regression analyses. Where appropriate, translational cross-calibration equations were derived. Differences between DXA software versions were investigated. iDXA precision was less than 2% of the measured value for all regional- and whole-body bone and body composition measurements with the exception of arm fat mass (2.28%). We found significant differences between iDXA and Prodigy (p Prodigy overestimated FM and underestimated lean mass. However, compared to 4-C, iDXA showed a smaller bias and narrower limits of agreement than Prodigy. No significant differences between software versions in FM estimations existed. Our results demonstrate excellent iDXA precision. However, significant differences exist between the 2 GE Lunar instruments, Prodigy and iDXA measurement values. A divergence from the reference 4-C observations remains in FM estimations made by DXA even following the recent advances in technology. Further studies are particularly warranted in individuals with large FM contents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Estudo da confiabilidade e validade da utilização do hidropletismômetro para medida de edema no tornozelo Study of the reliability and validity of the water plethysmographer for use in measurement of the edema at the ankle/foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Lara Lamounier Andrade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Instrumentos confiáveis e válidos são necessários para avaliar a efetividade das técnicas de reabilitação. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a confiabilidade e a validade do Hidropletismômetro. Quatorze sujeitos com idade entre 18 e 59 anos foram selecionados para participar do estudo. Os tornozelos foram avaliados por dois examinadores treinados com o Hidropletismômetro. Três medidas de cada tornozelo foram obtidas pelos examinadores de forma aleatória para investigar a confiabilidade intra e inter-examinadores. Foram também obtidas vinte e seis medidas com o Hidropletismômetro e comparadas com as medidas obtidas com o Deslocador de Água considerado "padrão ouro", através de provetas de vidro graduadas de 10 ml a 1000 ml. A confiabilidade intra e inter-examinadores foi realizada através do Coeficiente de Correlação Intraclasse (CCI e a validade através do teste t pareado. O Coeficiente de Correlação de Pearson foi utilizado para estabelecer a associação entre os dois instrumentos. Os dados demonstraram níveis de confiabilidade intra e inter-examinadores com (CCI3,1 = 0,99 e (CCI3,2 = 0,99, respectivamente. Nenhuma diferença foi encontrada entre as medidas obtidas com o Hidropletismômetro e as obtidas com as provetas (p=0,404. A Correlação de Coeficiente de Pearson mostrou alta magnitute e nível de significância entre as medidas (r=1,0; pReliable and valid instruments are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of the rehabilitation techniques.The objective this study was to evaluate the reliability and the validity of the water plethysmography. Fourteen subjects between the ages of 18 and 59 years were selected to participate in the study. Ankles were assessed by two trained examiners with the water plethysmography. Three measures of each ankle were obtained by the two investigators to evaluate intra- and inter-raters reliability. Twenty-six measures were obtained with the water plethysmography and compared with

  14. The chemical composition and mineralogy of meteorites measured with very high spatial resolution by a laser mass spectrometer for in situ planetary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigitte Neuland, Maike; Mezger, Klaus; Tulej, Marek; Frey, Samira; Riedo, Andreas; Wurz, Peter; Wiesendanger, Reto

    2017-04-01

    The knowledge of the chemical composition of moons, comets, asteroids or other planetary bodies is of particular importance for the investigation of the origin and evolution of the Solar System. High resolution in situ studies on planetary surfaces can yield important information on surface heterogeneity, basic grain mineralogy and chemical composition of surface and subsurface. In turn, these data are the basis for our understanding of the physical and chemical processes which led to the formation and alteration of planetary material [1]. We investigated samples of Allende and Sayh al Uhaymir with a highly miniaturised laser mass spectrometer (LMS), which has been designed and built for in situ space research [2,3]. Both meteorite samples were investigated with a spatial resolution of about 10μm in lateral direction. The high sensitivity and high dynamic range of the LMS allow for quantitative measurements of the abundances of the rock-forming and minor and trace elements with high accuracy [4]. From the data, the modal mineralogy of micrometre-sized chondrules can be inferred [5], conclusions about the condensation sequence of the material are possible and the sensitivity for radiogenic elements allows for dating analyses of the investigated material. We measured the composition of various chondrules in Allende, offering valuable clues about the condensation sequence of the different components of the meteorite. We explicitly investigated the chemical composition and heterogeneity of the Allende matrix with an accuracy that cannot be reached by the mechanical analysis methods that were and are widely used in meteoritic research. We demonstrate the capabilities for dating analyses with the LMS. By applying the U-Th-dating method, the age of the SaU169 sample could be determined. Our analyses show that the LMS would be a suitable instrument for high-quality quantitative chemical composition measurements on the surface of a celestial body like a planet, moon or

  15. Whole Body Computed Tomography with Advanced Imaging Techniques: A Research Tool for Measuring Body Composition in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharma Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computed tomography (CT to evaluate obesity in canines is limited. Traditional CT image analysis is cumbersome and uses prediction equations that require manual calculations. In order to overcome this, our study investigated the use of advanced image analysis software programs to determine body composition in dogs with an application to canine obesity research. Beagles and greyhounds were chosen for their differences in morphology and propensity to obesity. Whole body CT scans with regular intervals were performed on six beagles and six greyhounds that were subjected to a 28-day weight-gain protocol. The CT images obtained at days 0 and 28 were analyzed using software programs OsiriX, ImageJ, and AutoCAT. The CT scanning technique was able to differentiate bone, lean, and fat tissue in dogs and proved sensitive enough to detect increases in both lean and fat during weight gain over a short period. A significant difference in lean : fat ratio was observed between the two breeds on both days 0 and 28 (P<0.01. Therefore, CT and advanced image analysis proved useful in the current study for the estimation of body composition in dogs and has the potential to be used in canine obesity research.

  16. Medida da função motora: versão da escala para o português e estudo de confiabilidade Motor function measure scale: portuguese version and reliability analysis

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    C Iwabe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Instrumentos de avaliação funcional de pacientes com doenças neuromusculares são escassos. A escala Medida da Função Motora (MFM está disponível no original francês e nas versões inglesa e espanhola. OBJETIVOS: Realizar a versão da escala para o português e identificar a confiabilidade de sua aplicação intra e interexaminador. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Duas traduções da MFM de 2004 foram realizadas em separado, por neurologistas proficientes na língua francesa, resultando em texto consensual, após avaliação dos autores. A escala em português foi aplicada em 58 pacientes de seis a 61 anos, com diagnósticos clínico-laboratoriais de variados tipos de distrofias musculares e miopatias congênitas, documentados em vídeo. O primeiro autor realizou o teste e reteste e outros três fisioterapeutas analisaram os mesmos vídeos para confiabilidade interexaminador. Para análises estatísticas foram utilizados os coeficientes de Kendall, Kappa e Pearson. RESULTADOS: Apresenta-se a escala em seus 32 itens e três dimensões. Os coeficientes de concordância de Kendall para a análise interexaminador e os coeficientes Kappa e de Pearson para o teste e reteste foram estatisticamente significativos (p-valorBACKGROUND: Functional evaluation instruments for patients with neuromuscular disorders are rare. The Motor Function Measure (MFM scale is available in the original French and in English and Spanish translations. OBJECTIVE: To make a Portuguese translation of the MFM and to identify its intra and inter-examiner reliability. METHODS: Two translations of the 2004 MFM were produced separately by neurologists who were proficient in French. This procedure resulted in a consensual text after evaluation by the authors. The MFM in Portuguese was applied to 58 patients aged six to 61 years, with clinical and laboratory diagnoses of various types of muscular dystrophy and congenital myopathy that were documented on video. The

  17. O desamparo aprendido revisitado: estudos com animais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena L