WorldWideScience

Sample records for composite wood products

  1. Wood-based composite materials : panel products, glued-laminated timber, structural composite lumber, and wood-nonwood composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Zhiyong Cai; Charles Carll

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the general types and composition of wood-based composite products and the materials and processes used to manufacture them. It describes conventional wood-based composite panels and structural composite materials intended for general construction, interior use, or both. This chapter also describes wood–nonwood composites. Mechanical...

  2. Air quality and composite wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa G. D. Baumann

    1999-01-01

    Research at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) is being conducted to identify the compounds emitted from wood products during their manufacture and subsequent use. The FPL researchers are measuring the types and quantities of VOCs that are emitted from particleboard and MDF products to provide quantitative emissions information. This information...

  3. Wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  4. Hot water extracted wood fiber for production of wood plastic composites (WPCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Eini Lowell; Thomas E. Amidon; Timothy L. Chaffee

    2013-01-01

    Undebarked ponderosa pine chips were treated by hot water extraction to modify the chemical composition. In the treated pine (TP) , the mass was reduced by approximately 20%, and the extract was composed mainly of degradation products of hemicelluloses. Wood flour produced from TP and unextracted chips (untreated pine, UP) was blended with high-density polyethylene (...

  5. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Rodney E. Jacobson; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood-plastic composites” refers to any number of composites that contain wood (of any form) and either thermoset or thermoplastic polymers. Thermosets or thermoset polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins, such as epoxies and phenolics, plastics with which the forest products industry is most familiar (...

  6. Recent activities in flame retardancy of wood-plastic composites at the Forest Products Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Nicole M. Stark; Nadir Ayrilmis

    2011-01-01

    For a variety of reasons, wood-plastic composite (WPC) products are widely available for some building applications. In applications such as outdoor decking, WPCs have gained a significant share of the market. As an option to improve the efficient use of wood fiber, the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), has an extensive research program on WPCs....

  7. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Roger M. Rowell

    2010-01-01

    The wood industry can expand into new sustainable markets with the formation of a new class of composites with the marriage of the wood industry and the plastics industry. The wood component, usually a flour or fiber, is combined with a thermoplastic to form an extrudable, injectable or thermoformable composite that can be used in many non-structural applications....

  8. Wood Composite Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  9. Cone calorimeter tests of wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Kuma Sumathipala

    2013-01-01

    The cone calorimeter is widely used for the determination of the heat release rate (HRR) of building products and other materials. As part of an effort to increase the availability of cone calorimeter data on wood products, the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory and the American Wood Council conducted this study on composite wood products in cooperation with the Composite...

  10. Some Exploitation Properties of Wood Plastic Hybrid Composites Based on Polypropylene and Plywood Production Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajaks, Janis; Kalnins, Karlis; Uzulis, Sandris; Matvejs, Juris

    2015-12-01

    During the last 20-30 years many researchers have paid attention to the studies of properties of thewood polymer composites (WPC). A lot of works are closely related to investigations of exploitation properties of wood fibres or wood flour containing polyolefine composites [1, 2]. The most useful from wide selection of polyolefines are polypropylenes, but timber industry waste materials comprising lignocellulose fibres are often used as reinforcement of WPC [3-12]. Plywood industry is not an exception - part of waste materials (by-products) are used for heat energy, i.e. burned. In this work we have approbated reinforcing of polypropylene (PP) with one of the plywood industry by-products, such as birch plywood sawdust (PSWD),which containswood fibre fractions with different length [13]. The main fraction (50%) includes fibres with length l = 0.5 - 1 mm. Our previous study [13] has confirmed that PSWD is a promising filler for PP reinforcing. Addition of PSWD up to 40-50 wt.% has increased WPC tensile and flexural modulus, but decreased deformation ability of PP matrix, impact strength, water resistance and fluidity of composite melts. It was shown [13] that modification of the composites with interfacial modifier - coupling agent maleated polypropylene (MAPP content up to 5-7 wt.%) considerably improved all the abovementioned properties. SEM investigations also confirmed positive action of coupling agent on strengthening of adhesion interaction between components wood and PP matrix. Another way how to make better properties of the WPC is to form hybridcomposites [1, 14-24]. Very popular WPC modifiers are nanoparticle additions like organonanoclays, which increase WPC physical-mechanical properties - microhardness, water resistance and diminish barrier properties and combustibility [1, 2, 14-17, 19, 20]. The goal of this study was to investigate organonanoclays influence on plywood production industry by-product birch plywood sawdust (PSWD) containing

  11. Partial-impregnation techniques in the production of wood-polymer composites through gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Du Toit, G.S.; Jurriaanse, A.

    1977-04-01

    Radiation-processed wood-polymer composites produced from various partially impregnated Pinus species grown in South Africa were investigated and compared to a number of locally available noble hardwoods in respect of dimensional stability, hardness, homogeneity and weathering properties. This investigation clearly demonstrates that, through partial-impregnation techniques, wood-polymer composites can be formed from the locally grown Pinus species with a considerable saving in monomer costs without sacrificing most of the important physical properties of these materials [af

  12. Production of palm frond based wood plastic composite by using twin screw extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russita, M.; Bahruddin

    2018-04-01

    Wood plastic composite (WPC) is the blending product from wood as filler and polymer thermoplastic as matric. Palm frond waste is a material with selulose about 68%, so it has potential to be developed as raw material for WPC. The purpose of this research was to learn how to produce WPC based on palm frond use twin screw extruder. It used popropilen as matric. As for aditif, it used Maleated Polypropilene (MAPP) as compatibilizer and paraffin as plasticizer. The size of palm frond is 40 – 80 mesh. WPC is made from blending polipropylene, palm frond, MAPP and paraffin with dry mixing method in room temperature. Then, PP, Palm frond and additive from dry mixing is fed into twin screw extruder at 190°C and 60 rpm. It use palm frond/polypropylene 60/40, MAPP 5% w/w and paraffin 2% w/w. From the result, it shown that WPC based on palm frond met the standards forcommercial WPC. It has tensile strength up to 19.2 MPa, bending strength 43.6 MPa and water adsorption 0,32% w/w. So, WPC based on palm frond has prospective to be developed for commercial WPC.

  13. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  14. Composites from wood and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2010-01-01

    Composites made from thermoplastics and fillers or reinforcements derived from wood or other natural fibers are a dynamic research area encompassing a wide variety of composite materials. For example, as the use of biopolymers grows, wood and other natural fiber sources are being investigated as renewable sources of fillers and reinforcements to modify performance....

  15. Durability of Capped Wood Plastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Mankowski; Mark J. Manning; Damien P. Slowik

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers of wood plastic composites (WPCs) have recently introduced capped decking to their product lines. These new materials have begun to take market share from the previous generation of uncapped products that possessed a homogenous composition throughout the thickness of their cross-section. These capped offerings have been introduced with claims that the...

  16. Wood products research in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore Wegner

    2010-01-01

    Forest biomass conversion to biofuels and other value-added co-products; hyper-performance advanced composites custom tailored to end use requirements; advanced high performance wood-based structures; and nanomaterials and nano-enable high performance products from wood represent important research and development investment areas for the successful transformation of...

  17. Durability of wood-plastic composite lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2010-01-01

    Wood-plastic composite (WPC) lumber has been marketed as a low-maintenance, high-durability product. Retail sales in the United States were slightly less than $1 billion in 2008. Applications include docking, railing, windows, doors, fencing, siding, moldings, landscape timbers, car interior parts, and furniture. The majority of these products are used outdoors and...

  18. Wood and concrete polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, K.

    1974-01-01

    There are several ways to prepare and use wood and concrete polymer composites. The most important improvements in the case of concrete polymer composites are obtained for compressive and tensile strengths. The progress in this field in United States and other countries is discussed in this rview. (M.S.)

  19. Mechanical properties of wood-based composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai; Robert J. Ross

    2010-01-01

    The term composite is used to describe any wood material bonded together with adhesives. The current product mix ranges from fiberboard to laminated beams and components. In this chapter, wood-based composite materials are classified into the following categories: panel products (plywood, oriented strandboard (OSB), particleboard, fiberboard, medium-density fiberboard...

  20. Preparation and applications of wood-polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czvikovszky, T.

    1982-01-01

    Optimum processing parameters were searched for the pilot-scale production of wood-polyester composites by irradiation of resin-impregnated wood material. The radiation initiation of the following systems were examined in wood and without wood matrix: methyl methacrylate, mixture of styrene and acrylonitryle, and their combination with unsaturated polyester. In the most cases the over-all rate of the complete polymerization process in wood matrix is proportional to the square root of the initiation rate. The parameters of the radiation technology of wood-polyester composites have been determined, using 260 TBq (7 kCi) 60 Co radiation source. A pilot plant has been constructed using an underwater irradiation system of 1.85 PBq (50 kCi) 60 Co. The successful production rate of 200 kg wood-polyester composite per day, as well as the application tests have demonstrated the technical feasibility of this new structural material. (author)

  1. Enhancing durability of wood-based composites with nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Clausen

    2012-01-01

    Wood protection systems are needed for engineered composite products that are susceptible to moisture and biodeterioration. Protection systems using nano-materials are being developed to enhance the durability of wood-based composites through improved resistance to biodeterioration, reduced environmental impact from chemical leaching, and improved resistance to...

  2. Prediction of strength of wood composite materials using ultrasonic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.K.; Emam, A.

    2005-01-01

    Wood is a biological material integrating a very large variability of its mechanical properties (tensile and compressive), on the two directional longitudinal and transverse Ultrasonic method has been utilized to measure both wood physical and / or wood mechanical properties. The aim of this article is to show the development of ultrasonic technique for quality evaluation of trees, wood material and wood based composites. For quality assessment of these products we discuss the nondestructive evaluation of different factors such as: moisture content, temperature, biological degradation induced by bacterial attack and fungal attack. These techniques were adapted for trees, timber and wood based composites. The present study discusses the prediction of tensile and compressive strength of wood composite materials using ultrasonic testing. Empirical relationships between the tensile properties, compression strength and ultrasonic were proposed. The experimental results indicate the possibility of establishing a relationship between tensile strength and compression values. Moreover, the fractures in tensile and compressive are discussed by photographic

  3. HYGROSCOPICITY OF WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE WITH PADOU FLOUR AND POLYPROPYLENE PELLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Moise Emmanuel NZUDJOM SOUOP; Joseph Albert MUKAM FOTSING

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of objects in wood-plastic composites which is a material already available in many developed countries seems almost unknown in Cameroon since the production factory of objects in wood-plastic composites does not exist up till here. Interested in the study of properties of wood-plastic composites throughconnection of simple plastic and wood, we have oriented our paper in the elaboration, realization and physical characterization of wood-plastic composites with Padou and polypr...

  4. Wood adhesives : vital for producing most wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    A main route for the efficient utilization of wood resources is to reduce wood to small pieces and then bond them together (Frihart and Hunt 2010). Although humankind has been bonding wood since early Egyptian civilizations, the quality and quantity of bonded wood products has increased dramatically over the past 100 years with the development of new adhesives and...

  5. The sustainable wood production initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert. Deal

    2004-01-01

    To address concerns about sustainable forestry in the region, the Focused Science Delivery Program is sponsoring a three year Sustainable Wood Production Initiative. The Pacific Northwest is one of the world's major timber producing regions, and the ability of this region to produce wood on a sustained yield basis is widely recognized. Concerns relating to the...

  6. Advances and challenges of wood polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2006-01-01

    Wood flour and fiber have been blended with thermoplastic such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polylactic acid and polyvinyl chloride to form wood plastic composites (WPC). WPCs have seen a large growth in the United States in recent years mainly in the residential decking market with the removal of CCA treated wood decking from residential markets. While there are...

  7. Chapter 13:Wood/Nonwood Thermoplastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Roger M. Rowell; David Plackett; B. Kristoffer Segerholm

    2013-01-01

    Composites made from wood, other biomass resources and polymers have existed for a long time but the nature of many of these composites has changed in recent decades. Wood-thermoset composites date to the early 1900s. "Thermosets" or thermosetting polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins such as epoxies...

  8. Women's work... in wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1998-01-01

    Women have opportunities galore in the 1990s in wood products research, education, extension, consulting,manufacturing, marketing, and associations in North America. In the 1980s the same statement could not have been made.

  9. EVOLUTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT WOOD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius C. BARBU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limited by the availability, strength properties, gluability and so on. A second one is the sandwich structure made from hard faces like thick veneer, thin plywood, particleboard or high density thin fiberboard and cores made from honeycomb paper, very light wood species or foams like the polystyrene one. A third way to produce a light structure is to reduce the core drastically, using predesigned skeletons with special shapes and connections to the faces. The engines for these developments are on the one hand the fast growing market of knockdown furniture and on the other hand the increasing costs for energy and raw materials. Additional factors that make weight saving a primary economical objective for most producers are transportation costs, easier handling and higher acceptance among the end users. Moreover, customers demand more for ergonomical solutions regarding packaging. Many patents were generated by researchers and developers for new one-stage production processes for sandwich panels with wood- and impregnated paper-based facings made from veneers, particles or fibres and a core consisting of expandable foams, particles or embedded hard skeletons. These ideas or prototypes could be integrated in existing continuous pressing lines for wood based panels keeping some of the advantages of the continuous production technique in matters of efficiency. Some of the challenges of the light weight wooden structure are the connection in half or final parts, resistance to

  10. Cost function approach for estimating derived demand for composite wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. C. Marcin

    1991-01-01

    A cost function approach was examined for using the concept of duality between production and input factor demands. A translog cost function was used to represent residential construction costs and derived conditional factor demand equations. Alternative models were derived from the translog cost function by imposing parameter restrictions.

  11. The influence of irradiated wood filler on some properties of polypropylene - wood composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Điporović-Momčilović Milanka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of compatibility between the wood filler and thermoplastic matrix is of essential importance in composite production. Numerous methods have been developed for increasing this compatibility, which is still representing a challenging objective of composite research throughout the world. The research into these methods is primarily directed towards their efficiency from the viewpoint of the composite performance and their economical acceptability. The latter is of particular importance for the composite production in the developing countries with respect to the shortage of the corresponding funds. With this respect, the utilization of ionizing radiation might have considerable advantages. In this research, the beech wood flour was irradiated by a dose of 10 kGy of 60Co gamma rays for purpose of provoking the changes by the ionizing effect. The effects of ionizing radiation upon the properties of wood particles have been examined by IR spectroscopy and by determination of contents of hydroxyl groups in wood by acetylating as an indirect method. All these methods have been expected to reveal the chemical effects of the applied radiation treatment. The irradiated and the control wood flour were used in order to produce the samples of composite with polypropylene. The polypropylene-wood flour (PP-WF composites were produced with 40% of wood particles having fraction size 0.3 mm. The melt-blended composites were modified with amido-acrylic acid (AMACA as a new coupling agent synthesized for this propose in amount of 6 wt.% (based on wood filler and successively with 0.05 wt.% (based on PP of organic peroxide during mixing step. The composites containing coupling agents showed superior mechanical properties, compared to the untreated one. The highest extent of improvement of tensile was achieved in PP-WFl composites modified with AMACA coupling agent.

  12. The Carbon Impacts of Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Maureen Puettmann; Adam Taylor; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Wood products have many environmental advantages over nonwood alternatives. Documenting and publicizing these merits helps the future competitiveness of wood when climate change impacts are being considered. The manufacture of wood products requires less fossil fuel than nonwood alternative building materials such as concrete, metals, or plastics. By nature, wood is...

  13. Filling behaviour of wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretek, I.; Lucyshyn, T.; Holzer, C.

    2017-01-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPC) are a young generation of composites with rapidly growing usage within the plastics industry. The advantages are the availability and low price of the wood particles, the possibility of partially substituting the polymer in the mixture and sustainable use of the earth’s resources. The current WPC products on the market are to a large extent limited to extruded products. Nowadays there is a great interest in the market for consumer products in more use of WPC as an alternative to pure thermoplastics in injection moulding processes. This work presents the results of numerical simulation and experimental visualisation of the mould filling process in injection moulding of WPC. The 3D injection moulding simulations were done with the commercial software package Autodesk® Moldflow® Insight 2016 (AMI). The mould filling experiments were conducted with a box-shaped test part. In contrast to unfilled polymers the WPC has reduced melt elasticity so that the fountain flow often does not develop. This results in irregular flow front shapes in the moulded part, especially at high filler content.

  14. Design of an Advanced Wood Composite Rotor and Development of Wood Composite Blade Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Thomas; Dechow, Curtis; Zuteck, Michael

    1984-01-01

    In support of a program to advance wood composite wind turbine blade technology, a design was completed for a prototype, 90-foot diameter, two-bladed, one-piece rotor, with all wood/epoxy composite structure. The rotor was sized for compatibility with a generator having a maximum power rating of 4000 kilowatts. Innovative features of the rotor include: a teetering hub to minimize the effects of gust loads, untwisted blades to promote rotor power control through stall, joining of blades to the hub structure via an adhesive bonded structural joint, and a blade structural design which was simplified relative to earlier efforts. The prototype rotor was designed to allow flexibility for configuring the rotor upwind or downwind of the tower, for evaluating various types of teeter dampers and/or elastomeric stops, and with variable delta-three angle settings of the teeter shaft axis. The prototype rotor was also designed with provisions for installing pressure tap and angle of attack instrumentation in one blade. A production version rotor cost analysis was conducted. Included in the program were efforts directed at developing advanced load take-off stud designs for subsequent evaluation testing by NASA, development of aerodynamic tip brake concepts, exploratory testing of a wood/epoxy/graphite concept, and compression testing of wood/epoxy laminate, with scarf-jointed plies.

  15. A Review of Wood Plastic Composites effect on the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Taifor Azeez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs are environmentally friend materials with a wide range of applications in the field of constructions, comprising high mechanical and physical properties with low cost raw materials as plastic wastes and different carpentry process wood reminder. The effects of wood, plastic waste and additives on various properties of the material such as mechanical (modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture, physical (moisture absorption and fire retardancy have been investigated in order to push the output functions of the products to the limits of work conditions requirements. This study, overviews the importance of Wood Plastic Composites in conserving the environment by depletion post consume plastics from landfills, and the impact of these composites in developing the economic via opening new flourished markets for modern products. Both the ecological and economical requirements oblige the Iraqi government to replace the negatively healthy effects formaldehyde wood composites (medium density fiberboard MDF which are widely consumed in Iraqi markets with Wood Plastic Composites. a long-term strategy plan in which the researchers and the capitals meet under supervision of the government is very necessary and recommended in this paper to establish and develop WPCs industry in Iraq.

  16. Effect of processing method on surface and weathering characteristics of wood-flour/HDPE composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Laurent M. Matuana; Craig M. Clemons

    2004-01-01

    Wood-plastic lumber is promoted as a low maintenance high-durability product. When exposed to accelerated weathering, however, wood-plastic composites may experience a color change and/or loss in mechanical properties. Different methods of manufacturing wood-plastic composites lead to different surface characteristics, which can influence weathering, In this study, 50...

  17. Effect of processing method on accelerated weathering of wood-flour/HDPE composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Laurent M. Matuana; Craig M. Clemons

    2003-01-01

    Wood-plastic lumber is promoted as a low maintenance high-durability product. When exposed to accelerated weathering, however, wood-plastic composites may experience a color change and/or loss in mechanical properties. Different methods of manufacturing wood-plastic composites lead to different surface characteristics, which can influence weathering, In this study, 50...

  18. Changes in wood flour/HDPE composites after accelerated weathering with and without water spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark

    2005-01-01

    Wood-plastic lumber is promoted as a low-maintenance high-durability product. After weathering, however, wood-plasticcomposites (WPCs) often fide and lose mechanical properties. In the first part ofthis study, 50%wood-flour-filled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composite samples were injection molded or extruded. Composites were exposed to two accelerated weathering...

  19. Radiation processing of wood-plastic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czvikovszky, T.

    1992-01-01

    There are three main types of radiation-processed composite material derived from plastics and fibrous natural polymers. The first are the monomer-impregnated, radiation-treated wood-plastic composites (WPC). They became a commercial success in the early 1970s. More recently, work has focused on improving the WPCs by creating in them interpenetrating network (IPN) systems by the use of appropriate multifunctional oligomers and monomers. The main kinetic features of radiation-initiated chain polymerization remain applicable even in impregnated wood. The second type are the plastics filled or reinforced with dispersed wood fiber or other cellulosics (WFRP). In their case, radiation processing offers a new opportunity to apply radiation-reactive adhesion promoters between wood or cellulosic fibers and the thermoplastic matrices. The third type are the laminar composites made by electron beam coating of wood-based agglomerate sheets and boards. This chapter reviews the industrial applications and the radiation processing of the three types of the wood-plastic composites and indicates future trends. (orig.)

  20. Optimization of wood plastic composite decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravivarman, S.; Venkatesh, G. S.; Karmarkar, A.; Shivkumar N., D.; Abhilash R., M.

    2018-04-01

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) is a new class of natural fibre based composite material that contains plastic matrix reinforced with wood fibres or wood flour. In the present work, Wood Plastic Composite was prepared with 70-wt% of wood flour reinforced in polypropylene matrix. Mechanical characterization of the composite was done by carrying out laboratory tests such as tensile test and flexural test as per the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Computer Aided Design (CAD) model of the laboratory test specimen (tensile test) was created and explicit finite element analysis was carried out on the finite element model in non-linear Explicit FE code LS - DYNA. The piecewise linear plasticity (MAT 24) material model was identified as a suitable model in LS-DYNA material library, describing the material behavior of the developed composite. The composite structures for decking application in construction industry were then optimized for cross sectional area and distance between two successive supports (span length) by carrying out various numerical experiments in LS-DYNA. The optimized WPC deck (Elliptical channel-2 E10) has 45% reduced weight than the baseline model (solid cross-section) considered in this study with the load carrying capacity meeting acceptance criterion (allowable deflection & stress) for outdoor decking application.

  1. PROTECTIVE TREATMENT OF WOOD IMPREGNATING COMPOSITION OF PETROCHEMICAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Maslakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental and theoretical studies aimed at expanding the applications of the copolymers on the basis of the waste styrene production. One of the areas is used as impregnating compositions of wood materials, selection of optimal conditions modification on samples of the most widely used in the industry of wood, such as birch, aspen and other. Studies were conducted to obtain and use an impregnating compositions based on copolymers synthesized from waste products of styrene and the cubic remainder rectification of ethylbenzene (CRRE for the protective treatment of birch wood. Identified physic-chemical characteristics of physical mixtures of copolymers «CORS», «STAM», CRRE at different ratios. Studied the process of modification birch using the method of experiment planning greco-latin square of the fourth order, and the influence of such factors as the temperature of the impregnating composition, the duration of the impregnation, the temperature and duration of thermal treatment on the performance moisture resistance of wood. Were established optimal conditions modification birch wood treated impregnating compositions on the basis of physical mixtures of copolymer «CORS» with CRRE and copolymer «STAM» with CRRE is the mixing ratio 2:1, the duration and temperature of the impregnation 7 h and 95 0C, time and temperature of heat treatment 7 h and 170 0C, respectively. A sealing composition containing CRRE with copolymer «STAM» 1:2 is more preferable, as in the structure of the copolymer «STAM» contains carboxyl and anhydrite group. Thus was justified use for the modification of natural wood impregnating compositions on the basis of physical mixtures of CRRE with copolymers «CORS» and «STAM», which improve the properties of wood, increase moisture and weather resistance more than twice.

  2. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Jakub; Florek, Marek; Kwiatek, Wojciech; Lekki, Janusz; Chevallier, Pierre; Zieba, Emil; Mestres, Narcis; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Kuczumow, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, μ-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of μ-Raman and μ-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested

  3. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Jakub [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Florek, Marek [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Kwiatek, Wojciech [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Lekki, Janusz [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Chevallier, Pierre [LPS, CEN Saclay et LURE, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 209D, F-91405 Orsay (France); Zieba, Emil [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Mestres, Narcis [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB), Campus de la UAB, E-08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Dutkiewicz, E.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Kuczumow, Andrzej [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland)

    2005-04-28

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, {mu}-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of {mu}-Raman and {mu}-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested.

  4. Interrelationship between lignin-rich dichloromethane extracts of hot water-treated wood fibers and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in wood plastic composite (WPC) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel R. Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Manuel Garcia-Perez; Eini Lowell; Rui Zhu; Karl Englund

    2016-01-01

    Hot water extraction (HWE) partially removes hemicelluloses from wood while leaving the majority of the lignin and cellulose; however, the lignin partially migrates to the inner surfaces of the cell wall where it can be deposited as a layer that is sometimes visible as droplets. This lignin-rich material was isolated via Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane to...

  5. Fatigue testing of wood-concrete composite beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Currently, wood-concrete composite structural members are usually applied in building structures. There are a relatively small number (in the low 100s) of known bridge applications involving wood-concrete composites. A problem with using these novel ...

  6. Impregnating Systems for Producing Wood-Plastic Composite Materials and Resinified Woods by Radiochemical Means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.; Laroche, R.; Marchand, J.

    1969-01-01

    The effect of the nature of the components in the impregnation mixture on the characteristics of wood-plastic combinations has been studied in the case of beech by applying a wide variety of compositions. In particular, the effect of water (in the impregnator, and in the form of moisture in the wood) on the characteristics of the products obtained has been determined. It has been shown that, in place of the conventional method for preparing resinified woods (using a ternary monomer-solvent-water mixture), it is possible to use a method involving comonomers, which obviate the need to dry the wood after treatment. The evaluation of the results obtained is based on the value of the impregnation rate and on the modifications in microscopic structure; these emphasize the differences between the types of filler and enable comparisons to be drawn with the dimensional stabilities observed. Measurements of variations in dimensions and the recurrence of moisture have made it possible to establish a classification based on the types of monomer used and the operating conditions. It is shown that a whole range of products is obtained, the properties of which differ widely and are comparatively easily adaptable to the purpose specified. These properties illustrate clearly the differences and characteristics of resinified woods as opposed to conventional wood-plastic materials. (author) [fr

  7. Photostabilization of wood flour filled HDPE composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Laurent M. Matuana

    2002-01-01

    Wood/plastic composites are increasingly examined for non-structural building applications. As outdoor applications become more widespread, durability becomes an issue. Ultraviolet exposure can lead to photodegradation, resulting in a change in appearance and/or mechanical properties. Photodegradation can be slowed through the addition of photostabilizers. This study...

  8. Impact of utilization of alternative wood products of less conventional species (cherry and acacia) on the phenolic composition and sensory profile evolution of a red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Mariana Ferreira Filipe

    2015-01-01

    Mestrado em Viticultura e Enologia - Instituto Superior de Agronomia / Faculdade de Ciências. Universidade do Porto The aim of this study was to evaluate the time-dependent changes, in the course of 90 days, in the phenolic and volatile composition and sensory properties in one red wine matured in contact with Portuguese (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) and French (Quercus petraea L.) oak, acacia (Robina pseudoacacia) and cherry (Prunus Avium) wood chips and a cherry (Prunus avium) wood powder. ...

  9. Mechanical properties: wood lumber versus plastic lumber and thermoplastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Zandomenico Dias

    Full Text Available Abstract Plastic lumber and thermoplastic composites are sold as alternatives to wood products. However, many technical standards and scientific studies state that the two materials cannot be considered to have the same structural behaviour and strength. Moreover, there are many compositions of thermoplastic-based products and plenty of wood species. How different are their mechanical properties? This study compares the modulus of elasticity and the flexural, compressive, tensile and shear strengths of such materials, as well as the materials' specific mechanical properties. It analyses the properties of wood from the coniferae and dicotyledon species and those of commercialized and experimental thermoplastic-based product formulations. The data were collected from books, scientific papers and manufacturers' websites and technical data sheets, and subsequently compiled and presented in Ashby plots and bar graphs. The high values of the compressive strength and specific compressive and tensile strengths perpendicular to the grain (width direction shown by the experimental thermoplastic composites compared to wood reveal their great potential for use in compressed elements and in functions where components are compressed or tensioned perpendicularly to the grain. However, the low specific flexural modulus and high density of thermoplastic materials limit their usage in certain civil engineering and building applications.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF WOOD-BASED PRODUCTS WORLDWIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius C. BARBU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The tendency in recent decades for manufacturing plants of semi-finished products such as composite panels, has been to invest in order to achieve high production capacities (>2,000 m³/day for panels and >3,000 t/day for paper with one line. The trend of concentrating the primary processing capacities and manufacturing wood-based panels will continue for the next few years not only in Europe but in North and South America as well. The ten largest panel manufacturers had a combined manufacturing capacity that exceeded a third of the worldwide production capacity. The financial crisis that started in 2008 has caused the closure of a large number of factories especially in North America and Central Europe. Small- and medium-sized producers will only survive if they will continue to specialize in the manufacture of panel types and sizes (niche products that are “unprofitable” for mega-groups. The installed production capacity worldwide of all wood-based composite panels combined (includes PY, PB, MDF, OSB rose by more than 2.5 times between 1980 and 2005 (225 mil.m³, and continues to increase despite the crises reaching approx. 300 mil.m³ in 2013. The forecast for the coming years varies greatly from continent to continent. In North America and Central Europe, both a consolidation of the available production capacities and the closure of less efficient older lines are expected. The lowest point of the effect of the financial crisis on the building industry seems to have been overcome. The furniture production companies will continue to move from one continent and region to another.

  11. Wood-thermoplastic composites manufactured using beetle-killed spruce from Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Yadama; Eini Lowell; N. Petersen; D. Nicholls

    2009-01-01

    The primary objectives of the study were to characterize the critical properties of wood flour produced using highly deteriorated beetle-killed spruce for wood-plastic composite (WPC) production and evaluate important mechanical and physical properties of WPC extruded using an industry standard formulation. Chemical composition analysis indicated no significant...

  12. Advanced wood- and bio-composites : enhanced performance and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy

    2006-01-01

    Use of wood-based-composites technology to create value-added commodities and traditional construction materials is generally accepted worldwide. Engineered wood- and lignocellulosic-composite technologies allow users to add considerable value to a diverse number of wood- and lignocellulosic feedstocks including small-diameter timber, fast plantation-grown timber,...

  13. Manufacture of wood/plastic composites by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Takeo

    1976-01-01

    The manufacture and use of wood/plastic composite (WPC) as an example of wood matrix and wood sawdust/plastic composites (SDP) as an example of plastic matrix are reviewed. The raw material for WPC are mostly vinyl monomers, particularly methyl methacrylate and styrene. The reaction in WPC polymerization is radical polymerization. Researches on the radiation sources mostly resulted in gamma-ray. Electron beam can be applied only to thin products. The future use of WPC may be for furnitures, sporting goods, decorative parts and the like. Vital study on the reduction of manufacturing costs is required, for example, the improvement of reaction and the adoption of continuous process must be considered. The raw materials for SDP are wood sawdust, vinyl monomer (mostly methyl methacrylate) and resins. Electron beam accelerators are the most preferable radiation source because of its high efficiency and safe operation. SDP shows good forming property. The most preferable use of SDP is as interior materials for prefabricated houses, for example, opening frames for bath rooms. Some combination of the technologies of wood engineering, chemical engineering and radiation engineering must be established to develop and maintain the demands. The present radiation sources are forced to grow to large scale industrially, but the establishment of radiation source technology which can be enlarged stepwise is important to keep pace with the development. (Iwakiri, K.)

  14. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C.

    1999-01-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  15. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  16. WOOD STOVE EMISSIONS: PARTICLE SIZE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes wood stove particle size and chemical composition data gathered to date. [NOTE: In 1995, EPA estimated that residential wood combustion (RWC), including fireplaces, accounted for a significant fraction of national particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter...

  17. Moisture Performance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted and delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using extracted and delignified wood flour on water sorption properties of wood–plastic composites. Wood flour (WF) extraction was performed with three solvent systems: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW); delignification was conducted using sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. A 24 full-factorial...

  18. Mathematical Simulation of Temperature Profiles within Microwave Heated Wood Made for Wood-Based Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; He, X.; Lv, J.; Wu, Y.; Luo, Y.; Chen, H.

    2013-01-01

    High intensive microwave pretreatment is a new method to modify wood for the fabrication of wood-based nano composites. Based on the physical law on heat transfer, a mathematical model to describe the temperature profiles within wood heated by high intensive microwave was established and simulated in this research. The results showed that the temperature profiles within wood were related to microwave heating methods; The temperature inside wood firstly increased and then gradually decreased along the direction of microwave transmission when the unilateral microwave heating was applied, and the temperature difference along the thickness direction of wood was very significant; The temperature with wood firstly increased and then gradually decreased from the wood surface to interior when the bilateral microwave heating was applied. Compared with the unilateral microwave heating, bilateral microwave heating is a better microwave heating method for the more uniform wood microwave pretreatment.

  19. Bio-Based Adhesives and Evaluation for Wood Composites Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ferdosian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid growth in research and innovation of bio-based adhesives in the engineered wood product industry. This article reviews the recent research published over the last few decades on the synthesis of bio-adhesives derived from such renewable resources as lignin, starch, and plant proteins. The chemical structure of these biopolymers is described and discussed to highlight the active functional groups that are used in the synthesis of bio-adhesives. The potentials and drawbacks of each biomass are then discussed in detail; some methods have been suggested to modify their chemical structures and to improve their properties including water resistance and bonding strength for their ultimate application as wood adhesives. Moreover, this article includes discussion of techniques commonly used for evaluating the petroleum-based wood adhesives in terms of mechanical properties and penetration behavior, which are expected to be more widely applied to bio-based wood adhesives to better evaluate their prospect for wood composites application.

  20. The potential of wood-based composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd F. Shupe; Cheng Piao; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    Wood-based composite utility poles are receiving increasing attention in the North American pole market. This interest is being driven by many increasing factors such as increasing: (1) disposal costs of solid wood poles, (2) liability and environmental concerns with traditional means of disposal of solid wood poles, (3) cost and concerns of long-term...

  1. Theoretical modeling and experimental analyses of laminated wood composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Vijaya Gopu; Chung Y. Hse

    2005-01-01

    Wood laminated composite poles consist of trapezoid-shaped wood strips bonded with synthetic resin. The thick-walled hollow poles had adequate strength and stiffness properties and were a promising substitute for solid wood poles. It was necessary to develop theoretical models to facilitate the manufacture and future installation and maintenance of this novel...

  2. Wood Ash Induced pH Changes Strongly Affect Soil Bacterial Numbers and Community Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Andreasen, Toke; Nielsen, Jeppe T.; Voriskova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Recirculation of wood ash from energy production to forest soil improves the sustainability of this energy production form as recycled wood ash contains nutrients that otherwise would be lost at harvest. In addition, wood-ash is beneficial to many soils due to its inherent acid......-neutralizing capabilities. However, wood ash has several ecosystem-perturbing effects like increased soil pH and pore water electrical conductivity both known to strongly impact soil bacterial numbers and community composition. Studies investigating soil bacterial community responses to wood ash application remain sparse...... and the available results are ambiguous and remain at a general taxonomic level. Here we investigate the response of bacterial communities in a spruce forest soil to wood ash addition corresponding to 0, 5, 22, and 167 t wood ash ha(-1). We used culture-based enumerations of general bacteria, Pseudomonas...

  3. Radiation processed composite materials of wood and elastic polyester resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapolcai, I.; Czvikovszky, T.

    1983-01-01

    The radiation polymerization of multifunctional unsaturated polyester-monomer mixtures in wood forms interpenetrating network system. The mechanical resistance (compression, abrasion, hardness, etc.) of these composite materials are generally well over the original wood, however the impact strength is almost the same or even reduced, in comparison to the wood itself. An attempt is made using elastic polyester resins to produced wood-polyester composite materials with improved modulus of elasticity and impact properties. For the impregnation of European beech wood two types of elastic unsaturated polyester resins were used. The exothermic effect of radiation copolymerization of these resins in wood has been measured and the dose rate effects as well as hardening dose was determined. Felxural strength and impact properties were examined. Elastic unsaturated polyester resins improved the impact strength of wood composite materials. (author)

  4. Thermal Properties of Wood-Plastic Composites Prepared from Hemicellulose-extracted Wood Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Enayati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemicellulose of Southern Yellow Pine wood spices was extracted by pressurized hot water at three different temperatures: 140°C, 155°C and 170°C. Compounding with PP (polypropylene was performed by extrusion after preparing wood flour and sieving to determine its mesh size. The ratio of wood to polymer was 50:50 based on oven-dry weight of wood flour. All extraction treatments and control samples were compounded under two sets of conditions, without and with 2% MAPP as coupling agent. Injection molding was used to make tensile test samples (dogbone from the pellets made by extrusion. Thermal properties of wood-plastic composites were studied by TGA and DSC while the thermal stability of pretreated wood flours, PP and MAPP were studied by TGA as well. The greater weight loss of wood materials was an indication that higher treatment temperature increases the extractability of hemicellulose. The removal of hemicellulose by extraction improves thermal stability of wood flour, especially for extraction at 170°C. Wood-plastic composites made from extracted fibers at 170°C showed the highest thermal stability. Coupling agent did not have a significant effect on thermal stability but it improved the degree of crystallinity of the composites.Surface roughness of wood fiber increased after treatment. Extraction of hemicellulose increased the degree of crystallinity but it was not significant except for samples from treated wood flour at 170°C and with MAPP.

  5. Long term durability of wood-plastic composites made with chemically modified wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons

    2017-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) have slower moisture sorption than solid wood, but over time moisture can impact the strength, stiffness, and decay of the composite. These changes will become increasingly important if WPCs are used in more challenging environments such as in ground-contact applications. There are several options for mitigating the moisture sorption of...

  6. A new material for chemical industry - wood polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, A.B.; Patil, N.D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper outlines the advantages of the radiation cured wood-polymer composites (WPC) for application in certain critical areas of chemical industry. The wood-polymer composite made filterpress frames and plates were tested in a chemical plant. The entire exercise is elaborated. The radiation cured wood exhibited a considerably extended useful life in alkaline and acidic solutions. Composites based on teak wood showed a remarkable improvement with a nominal polymer loading of 10%. The reports of accelerated aging test of WPC are also presented. (auth.)

  7. The use of new, aqueous chemical wood modifications to improve the durability of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons; George C. Chen

    2017-01-01

    The wood flour used in wood-plastic composites (WPCs) can biologically deteriorate and thus the overall mechanical performance of WPCs decrease when exposed to moisture and fungal decay. Protecting the wood flour by chemical modification can improve the durability of the wood in a nontoxic way so it is not harmful to the environment. WPCs were made with modified wood...

  8. Chapter 6: Wood energy and competing wood product markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert C. Abt; Karen Abt

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effect of expanding wood energy markets is important to all wood-dependent industries and to policymakers debating the implementation of public programs to support the expansion of wood energy generation. A key factor in determining the feasibility of wood energy projects (e.g. wood boiler or pellet plant) is the long-term (i.e. 20-30year) supply...

  9. Heat release rate of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. M. Stark; R. H. White; C. M. Clemons

    1997-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites are becoming more important as a material that fulfills recycling needs. In this study, fire performance tests were conducted on several compositions of wood and plastic materials using the Ohio State University rate of heat release apparatus. Test results included five-minute average heat release rate in kW/m2 (HRR avg) and maximum heat release...

  10. Physical and mechanical properties of bio-composites from wood particles and liquefied wood resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2009-01-01

    Compression molded composites were made from wood particles and a liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde co-condensed resin. Based on our previous research, a phenol to wood (P/W) ratio of 2/1 was chosen for this study. The two experimental variables selected were: 1) liquefaction temperature (150o and 180oC) and 2) cooking method (atmospheric and sealed). Panels were...

  11. Properties of Eucalyptus benthamii wood for energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Agostinho Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the energy potential of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden et Cambage wood. The samples were collected in the municipality of Cerro Negro, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Samples were collected from 5 trees at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of commercial height. It was determined basic density, high calorific value, elemental composition, immediate chemical analysis, lower calorific value, energy density, carbon storage and energy production. The physical and chemical variables studied and energy potential of wood did not present differences along the stem.

  12. Decay resistance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Yongming Fan; Jianmin Gao

    2014-01-01

    The moisture and decay resistance of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF) was investigated. Three different extractions were preformed: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW). Delignification (DL) was performed using a sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. All WPCs specimens were made with 50% by...

  13. Wood-plastic composites utilizing wood flours derived from fast- growing trees common to the midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several non- or under-utilized hardwood trees common to the Midwestern states. Wood flour (WF) derived from fast-growing Midwest trees (Osage orange, Black Locust and Red Mulberry) were evaluated as a source of bio-based fiber reinforcements. Wood plastic composites (WPC) of high density p...

  14. Properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted and delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan

    2014-01-01

    The water sorption and mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) made of extracted and delignified wood flour (WF) has been investigated. WF was prepared by extraction with the solvent systems toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW), and its delignification was conducted by means of sodium chlorite/acetic acid (AA) solution. A 2 4...

  15. Surface characterization of weathered wood-plastic composites produced from modified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Fabiyi; Armando G. McDonald; Nicole M. Stark

    2007-01-01

    The effects of weathering on the surface properties of wood-plastic composites (WPC) were examined. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) based WPCs made from modified wood flour (untreated, extractives free, and holocellulose (delignified) fibers) were subjected to accelerated (xenon-arc) weathering. Colorimetry and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were employed to...

  16. The development and manufacture of wood composite wind turbine rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuteck, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    The physical properties, operational experience, and construction methods of the wood/epoxy composite MOD 0A wind turbine blades are considered. Blades of this type have accumulated over 10,000 hours of successful operation at the Kahuku, Hawaii and Block Island, Rhode Island test sites. That body of experience is summarized and related to the structural concepts and design drivers which motivated the original design and choice of interior layout. Actual manufacturing experience and associated low first unit costs for these blades, as well as projections for high production rates, are presented. Application of these construction techniques to a wide range of other blade sizes is also considered.

  17. Substitution potentials of recycled HDPE and wood particles from post-consumer packaging waste in Wood-Plastic Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerhuber, Philipp F; Welling, Johannes; Krause, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The market share of Wood-Plastic Composites (WPC) is small but expected to grow sharply in Europe. This raises some concerns about suitable wood particles needed in the wood-based panels industry in Europe. Concerns are stimulated by the competition between the promotion of wooden products through the European Bioeconomy Strategy and wood as an energy carrier through the Renewable Energy Directive. Cascade use of resources and valorisation of waste are potential strategies to overcome resource scarcity. Under experimental design conditions, WPC made from post-consumer recycled wood and plastic (HDPE) were compared to WPC made from virgin resources. Wood content in the polymer matrix was raised in two steps from 0% to 30% and 60%. Mechanical and physical properties and colour differences were characterized. The feasibility of using cascaded resources for WPC is discussed. Results indicate the technical and economic feasibility of using recycled HDPE from packaging waste for WPC. Based on technical properties, 30% recycled wood content for WPC is feasible, but economic and political barriers of efficient cascading of biomass need to be overcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sustainable production of wood and non-wood forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen M. Donoghue; Gary L. Benson; James L. Chamberlain

    2003-01-01

    The International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) All Divisions 5 Conference in Rotorua, New Zealand, March 11-15, 2003, focused on issues surrounding sustainable foest management and forest products research. As the conference title "Forest Products Research: Providing for Sustainable Choices" suggests, the purpose of the conference was to...

  19. PRESTO: online calculation of carbon in harvested wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coeli M. Hoover; Sarah J. Beukema; Donald C.E. Robinson; Katherine M. Kellock; Diana A. Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Carbon stored in harvested wood products is recognized under international carbon accounting protocols, and some crediting systems may permit the inclusion of harvested wood products when calculating carbon sequestration. For managers and landowners, however, estimating carbon stored in harvested wood products may be difficult. PRESTO (PRoduct EStimation Tool Online)...

  20. Laboratory tests on fungal resistance of wood filled polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2002-01-01

    A standard method for determining the durability of structural wood was modified for testing the fungal resistance of composites made from high density polyethylene filled with 50% wood flour. Moisture content, mechanical properties, and weight loss were measured over 12 weeks exposure to brown-and white-rot fungi. Mechanical properties were decreased, but irreversible...

  1. Wood-Polymer composites obtained by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago, J.; Lopez, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Santiago, J.; Acevedo, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we impregnate three Peruvian woods (Calycophy spruceanum Be, Aniba amazonica Meiz and Hura crepitans L) with styrene-polyester resin and methyl methacrylate. The polymerization of the system was promoted by gamma radiation and the experimental optimal condition was obtained with styrene-polyester 1:1 and 15 kGy. The obtained composites show reduced water absorption and better mechanical properties compared to the original wood. The structure of the wood-polymer composites was studied by light microscopy. Water absorption and hardness were also obtained

  2. Wood-Polymer composites obtained by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago, J.; López, A.; Santiago, J.; Acevedo, M.; Rodríguez, J.

    2007-10-01

    In this work we impregnate three Peruvian woods (Calycophy spruceanum Be, Aniba amazonica Meiz and Hura crepitans L) with styrene-polyester resin and methyl methacrylate. The polymerization of the system was promoted by gamma radiation and the experimental optimal condition was obtained with styrene-polyester 1:1 and 15 kGy. The obtained composites show reduced water absorption and better mechanical properties compared to the original wood. The structure of the wood-polymer composites was studied by light microscopy. Water absorption and hardness were also obtained.

  3. Wood fuel production technologies in EU countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation reviews the major technologies used for the production of fuel chips for heating plants in Europe. Three primary options are considered: production of whole-tree chips from young trees for fuel; integrated harvesting of fiber and energy from thinning based on tree-section system; and production of fuel chips from logging residue in clear-cut areas after fully mechanized logging. The characteristics of the available biomass reserve and proven technology for its recovery are discussed. The employment effects of fuel chip production and the costs of wood fuels are also briefly discussed. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Wood fuel production technologies in EU countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation reviews the major technologies used for the production of fuel chips for heating plants in Europe. Three primary options are considered: production of whole-tree chips from young trees for fuel; integrated harvesting of fiber and energy from thinning based on tree-section system; and production of fuel chips from logging residue in clear-cut areas after fully mechanized logging. The characteristics of the available biomass reserve and proven technology for its recovery are discussed. The employment effects of fuel chip production and the costs of wood fuels are also briefly discussed. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Physical, mechanical, and biodegradable properties of meranti wood polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enamul Hoque, M.; Aminudin, M.A.M.; Jawaid, M.; Islam, M.S.; Saba, N.; Paridah, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In-situ polymerization and solution casting method used to manufacture WPC. • In-situ WPC exhibited better properties compared to pure wood, 5% WPC and 20% WPC. • Lowest water absorption and least biodegradability shown by In-situ wood. - Abstract: In-situ polymerization and solution casting techniques are two effective methods to manufacture wood polymer composites (WPCs). In this study, wood polymer composites (WPCs) were manufactured from meranti sapwood by solution casting and in-situ polymerization process using methyl methacrylate (MMA) and epoxy matrix respectively. Physical, mechanical, and morphological characterizations of fabricated WPCs were then carried out to analyse their properties. Morphological properties of composites samples were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The result reveals that in-situ wood composite exhibited better properties compared to pure wood, 5% WPC and 20% WPC. Moreover, in-situ WPC had lowest water absorption and least biodegraded. Conversely, pure wood shown moderate mechanical strength, high biodegradation and water absorption rate. In term of biodegradation, earth-medium brought more severe effect than water in deteriorating the properties of the specimens

  6. Transitioning Wood Furniture Products towards Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Lei; Zhang, WeiGuang; Zhang, WeiQing

    2008-01-01

    Wood Furniture Products (WFPs) play a significant role in both the global economy and the transition of society towards sustainability. This paper begins with a brief description of the industry and highlights the current challenges and compelling measures of WFPs from a systems perspective through the lens of the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) and by applying backcasting from sustainability principles (SPs). An examination of the challenges and opportunities of WFPs i...

  7. Harvested wood products : basis for future methodological development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog

    2003-01-01

    The IPCC Guidelines (IPCC 1997) provide an outline of how harvested wood could be treated in national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. This section shows the relation of that outline to the approaches and estimation methods to be presented in this Appendix. Wood and paper products are referred to as harvested wood products (HWP). It does not include carbon in...

  8. Wood versus plant fibers: Similarities and differences in composite applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Gamstedt, E. Kristofer

    2013-01-01

    -negligible porosity content, and finally, the moisture sensitivity of the composites. The performance of wood and plant fiber composites is compared to the synthetic glass and carbon fibers conventionally used for composites, and advantages and disadvantages of the different fibers are discussed. © 2013 Bo Madsen......The work on cellulose fiber composites is typically strictly divided into two separated research fields depending on the fiber origin, that is, from wood and from annual plants, representing the two different industries of forest and agriculture, respectively. The present paper evaluates...... in parallel wood fibers and plant fibers to highlight their similarities and differences regarding their use as reinforcement in composites and to enable mutual transfer of knowledge and technology between the two research fields. The paper gives an introduction to the morphology, chemistry...

  9. Desenvolvimento de PVC reforçado com resíduos de Pinus para substituir madeira convencional em diversas aplicações Development of PVC/wood composites for the replacement of conventional wood products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rodolfo Jr.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia a viabilidade técnica da obtenção de compósitos lignocelulósicos de PVC, utilizando-se resíduo de Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda como carga reforçativa. Foi desenvolvido um processo simples e economicamente viável de tratamento de resíduos industriais desta madeira, processo este baseado na secagem e revestimento das partículas com lubrificantes funcionais e agentes de acoplamento utilizados como aditivos na indústria do PVC, bem como no uso de equipamentos tradicionais da indústria de processamento deste termoplástico. Foram avaliados os efeitos da incorporação da farinha de madeira em concentrações variáveis e do tipo de agente de tratamento superficial utilizado na processabilidade do composto de PVC, bem como em propriedades finais do compósito. Os resultados mostram que o desenvolvimento deste tipo de material compósito é uma alternativa viável para a substituição da madeira convencional em diversas aplicações.This work evaluates the technical viability of lignocellulosic vinyl composites, using residues of Pinus elliottii and Pinus taeda as the reinforcement fiber. A simple and economically viable process for the treatment of these industrial residues was developed. The process includes sieving, drying and treating the wood particles. Treatment is made with functional lubricants and coupling agents used as additives in the PVC industry. Extrusion was performed using traditional equipment available in the Brazilian PVC processing industry. The effect on the processability of the variable concentrations of the residues incorporated and the type of agent used for the treatment had been evaluated, as well as in the final properties of the composite. The results show that the development of this kind of composite material is a viable alternative for the substitution of conventional wood in diverse applications.

  10. Wood-polymer composites from Philippine tree plantation species by radiation polymerization I. Uptake and irradiation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.M.; Castaneda, S.S.; Real, M.P.N.; Sta Ana, L.P.; Mosteiro, A.P.; Bauza, E.; Carandang, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation catalyzed polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in various Philippine tree plantation species were investigated. Wood samples measuring 1x6cm were impregnated with monomer at reduced pressure and gamma irradiated for various doses at a dose rate of 0.53 kGy/h. The parameters used to assess the polymerization reaction were the uptake of monomer by the wood samples, monomer conversion, and polymer loading in the irradiated samples. The uptake and polymerization data indicate that coconut wood, rubber wood, bagras, and Moluccan sau could be potential raw materials for the production of wood-polymer composites (WPC). (author). 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  11. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  12. Variations in the monoterpene composition of ponderosa pine wood oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Smith

    1964-01-01

    A wide range in quantitative composition of the wood oleoresin monoterpenes was found among 64 ponderosa pines in the central Sierra Nevada by gas chromatographic analysis. An inverse relationship was found in the amount of β-pinene and Δ3-carene. Practically no difference in composition could be associated with (a) type of...

  13. Implementation of new technologies in wood industry and their effect in wood products quality

    OpenAIRE

    ELVA ÇAUSHI; PANDELI MARKU

    2014-01-01

    There are about 300 companies producing furniture and about 250 small and medium enterprises (SME) producing sawn timber, which operate in the field of wood industry in Albania. This wood industry production is being challenged by the increasing demand in the domestic market, ranging from kitchen furniture to office and schools furniture, bedroom furniture, doors, windows, and saw timber in different dimensions. The production from the wood industry can fulfill about 80% of the domestic mark...

  14. EU mitigation potential of harvested wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli, Roberto; Fiorese, Giulia; Grassi, Giacomo

    2015-12-01

    The new rules for the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry sector under the Kyoto Protocol recognized the importance of Harvested Wood Products (HWP) in climate change mitigation. We used the Tier 2 method proposed in the 2013 IPCC KP Supplement to estimate emissions and removals from HWP from 1990 to 2030 in EU-28 countries with three future harvest scenarios (constant historical average, and +/-20% in 2030). For the historical period (2000-2012) our results are consistent with other studies, indicating a HWP sink equal on average to -44.0 Mt CO 2 yr -1 (about 10% of the sink by forest pools). Assuming a constant historical harvest scenario and future distribution of the total harvest among each commodity, the HWP sink decreases to -22.9 Mt CO 2 yr -1 in 2030. The increasing and decreasing harvest scenarios produced a HWP sink of -43.2 and -9.0 Mt CO 2 yr -1 in 2030, respectively. Other factors may play an important role on HWP sink, including: (i) the relative share of different wood products, and (ii) the combined effect of production, import and export on the domestic production of each commodity. Maintaining a constant historical harvest, the HWP sink will slowly tend to saturate, i.e. to approach zero in the long term. The current HWP sink will be maintained only by further increasing the current harvest; however, this will tend to reduce the current sink in forest biomass, at least in the short term. Overall, our results suggest that: (i) there is limited potential for additional HWP sink in the EU; (ii) the HWP mitigation potential should be analyzed in conjunction with other mitigation components (e.g. sink in forest biomass, energy and material substitution by wood).

  15. Supporting the development process for building products by the use of research portfolio analysis: A case study for wood plastics composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, Daniel; Luible, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Today’s plastics are increasingly compounded using renewable fibres. Such composites raised the interest of the massively bulk-plastics consuming building industry. However, “green” products are still rare and their development constitutes a challenge particularly for small companies. Our study evaluated European scientific projects in composites from which we derived a Research Portfolio serving as future matrix for ideation. It was found that research databanks can serve as basis for str...

  16. An Analysis of the U.S. Wood Products Import Sector: Prospects for Tropical Wood Products Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A.R.T.W. Bandara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. has dramatically altered its wood product imports and exports during the past few years,and at present, it is the second largest wood product importer in the world. Hence, an understanding ofmarket structures, factors in selecting foreign suppliers, and the emphasis placed on environmentalissues/certification are critical to understand from the perspective of wood products importers in the U.S.This study provides an analysis of the U.S. wood products import sector with special emphasis on currentand future opportunities for tropical wood products exporters to the U.S. market.In this study, 158 wood products importers in the U.S. were surveyed using a mailingquestionnaire. The adjusted response rate was 40.6 percent. Results indicated that most of the respondentswere small to medium scale firms, but major importers of wood products. According to respondents,wood products to the U.S. mainly come from Brazil, Chile, and China. From the importers’ perspective,Brazilian wood products ranked first for its quality followed by wood products from Chile and Finland.Product quality, long term customer relationships, on-time delivery of orders, fair prices, and supplierreputation were the factors deemed important in selecting overseas suppliers. Majority of respondentswere importing certified wood products. FSC, SFI, and ISO 14000 were the mostly accepted certificationprograms. However, certification was not a major factor in foreign supplier selection criteria. Whenconsidered the U.S. wood products importers’ tendency to diversify their products and species imported,attractive opportunities exist for wood products suppliers from tropical countries.

  17. Wettability and Impact Performance of Wood Veneer/Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh Haghdan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites have been of interest since the 1940s due to their ease of use in processing, fast curing times, and high specific stiffness and strength. While the use of plant fibers in a polyester matrix has been thoroughly studied, only limited information is available regarding using wood as reinforcement. In this study, composites of thin wood veneer and a polyester matrix were made and the difficulties in the lamination and curing processes were investigated. Sheets of Douglas fir, maple, and oak veneers using a catalyzed polyester resin were assembled as unidirectional, balanced, and unbalanced cross-ply laminates. These were compared to control specimens using glass fiber as reinforcement. The impact properties of the samples, with respect to the laminate thicknesses, were characterized using a drop-weight impact tester. The wettability and surface roughness of unsanded and sanded wood veneers were also investigated. Results showed that Douglas fir cross-ply laminates had an impact energy equivalent to glass fiber laminates, making them an interesting alternative to synthetic fiber composites. Wood/polyester laminates absorbed a considerable amount of energy through a higher number of fracture modes. The balanced lay-up limited twisting of the wood/polyester composites. The lowest contact angle and highest wettability were observed in unsanded Douglas fir veneers.

  18. FLEXURAL TESTING OF WOOD-CONCRETE COMPOSITE BEAM MADE FROM KAMPER AND BANGKIRAI WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengky Satria Yoresta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Certain wood has a tensile strength that almost equal with steel rebar in reinforced concrete beams. This research aims to understand the capacity and flexural behavior of concrete beams reinforced by wood (wood-concrete composite beam. Two different types of beams based on placement positions of wood layers are proposed in this study. Two kinds of wood used are consisted of Bangkirai (Shorea laevifolia and Kamper (Cinnamomum camphora, meanwhile the concrete mix ratio for all beams is 1 cement : 2 fine aggregates : 3 coarse aggregates. Bending test is conducted by using one-point loading method. The results show that composite beam using Bangkirai wood is stronger than beams using Kamper wood. More thicker wood layer in tensile area will increase the flexural strength of beams. Crack patterns identified could be classified into flexural cracks, shear cracks, and split on wood layer   Beberapa jenis kayu tertentu memiliki kekuatan tarik yang hampir sama dengan tulangan baja pada balok beton bertulang. Penelitian ini bertujuan memahami kapasitas dan perilaku lentur balok beton bertulang yang diperkuat menggunakan kayu (balok komposit beton-kayu. Dua tipe balok yang berbeda berdasarkan posisi penempatan kayu digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Dua jenis kayu yang digunakan adalah kayu Bangkirai (Shorea laevifolia and Kamper (Cinnamomum camphora, sementara itu rasio campuran beton untuk semua balok menggunakan perbandingan 1 semen : 2 agregat halus : 3 agregat kasar. Pengujian lentur dilakukan menggunakan metode one-point loading. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa balok komposit dengan kayu Bangkirai lebih kuat dibandingkan balok dengan kayu Kamper. Semakin tebal lapisan kayu yang berada di daerah tarik akan meningkatkan kekuatan lentur balok. Pola kerusakan yang teridentifikasi dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi retak lentur, retak geser, dan pecah pada kayu REFERENCES Boen T. (2010. Retrofitting Simple Buildings Damaged by Earthquakes. World Seismic

  19. Wood-plastic composites as promising green-composites for automotive industries!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashori, Alireza

    2008-07-01

    Wood-plastic composite (WPC) is a very promising and sustainable green material to achieve durability without using toxic chemicals. The term WPCs refers to any composites that contain plant fiber and thermosets or thermoplastics. In comparison to other fibrous materials, plant fibers are in general suitable to reinforce plastics due to relative high strength and stiffness, low cost, low density, low CO2 emission, biodegradability and annually renewable. Plant fibers as fillers and reinforcements for polymers are currently the fastest-growing type of polymer additives. Since automakers are aiming to make every part either recyclable or biodegradable, there still seems to be some scope for green-composites based on biodegradable polymers and plant fibers. From a technical point of view, these bio-based composites will enhance mechanical strength and acoustic performance, reduce material weight and fuel consumption, lower production cost, improve passenger safety and shatterproof performance under extreme temperature changes, and improve biodegradability for the auto interior parts.

  20. Engineering Biodegradable Flame Retardant Wood-Plastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linxi

    Wood-plastic composites (WPCs), which are produced by blending wood and polymer materials, have attracted increasing attentions in market and industry due to the low cost and excellent performance. In this research, we have successfully engineered WPC by melt blending Polylactic Acid (PLA) and Poly(butylene adipate-co-terphthalate) (PBAT) with recycled wood flour. The thermal property and flammability of the composite are significantly improved by introducing flame retardant agent resorcinol bis(biphenyl phosphate) (RDP). The mechanical and morphological properties are also investigated via multiple techniques. The results show that wood material has increased toughness and impact resistance of the PLA/PBAT polymer matrix. SEM images have confirmed that PLA and PBAT are immiscible, but the incompatibility is reduced by the addition of wood. RDP is initially dispersed in the blends evenly. It migrates to the surface of the sample after flame application, and serves as a barrier between the fire and underlying polymers and wood mixture. It is well proved in the research that RDP is an efficient flame retardant agent in the WPC system.

  1. Wood plastic composites from modified wood. Part 3. Durability of WPCs with bioderived matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westin, M.; Larsson-Brelid, P.; Segerholm, B.K.; Oever, van den M.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The decay resistance of fully bio-derived wood plastic composites, WPCs, was tested in both laboratory and field tests. The laboratory tests were performed according to modified versions of AWPA E10 (soil-block test) and ENV 807 (tests in three un-sterile soils) and the field tests according to EN

  2. Ecotoxicity and fungal deterioration of recycled polypropylene/wood composites: effect of wood content and coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudár, András; López, María J; Keledi, Gergely; Vargas-García, M Carmen; Suárez-Estrella, Francisca; Moreno, Joaquín; Burgstaller, Christoph; Pukánszky, Béla

    2013-09-01

    Recycled polypropylene (rPP) was recovered from an industrial shredder and composites were prepared with a relatively wide range of wood content and with two coupling agents, a maleated PP (MAPP) and a maleated ethylene-propylene-diene elastomer (MAEPDM). The mechanical properties of the composites showed that the coupling agents change structure only slightly, but interfacial adhesion quite drastically. The durability of the materials was determined by exposing them to a range of fungi and, ecotoxicity was studied on the aquatic organism Vibrio fischeri. The composites generally exhibit low acute toxicity, with values below the levels considered to have direct ecotoxic effect on aquatic ecosystems (deterioration proved that wood facilitates fungal colonization. Fungi caused slight mass loss (below 3%) but it was not correlated with substantial deterioration in material properties. MAPP seems to be beneficial in the retention of mechanical properties during fungal attack. rPP/wood composites can be considered non-ecotoxic and quite durable, but the influence of wood content on resistance to fungal attack must be taken into account for materials intended for applications requiring long-term outdoor exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of wood fuels from young forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpilahti, A.

    1998-01-01

    National forest invention data shows that more than 200 000 ha of thinnings should be carried out annually. The stemwood accumulation corresponding to this is about 13 million m 3 . The share of industrial wood is about 5.7 million m 3 , so the energy wood potential is about 7.0 million m 3 . Because the growing stock can use the nutrients liberated from logging residues the topwood mass should not be totally harvested, and at the barren areas it should not be harvested at all. Even the difficult terrain restricts in some extent the harvesting of logging residues. After these reductions the economically harvestible energy wood potential has been estimated to be 5.1 million m 3 corresponding to about 0.9 million toe. The amount of first thinnings has during the last few years been only about one third of the need. The accumulation in the first thinning phase could be about 40-80 m 3 /ha. The annual young stand treatment area has usually been about 200 000 ha, but during the last few years it has remained to a little over 100 000 ha. Harvesting of wood fuels from young stands, based on a lot-chipping method and the traditional production chains, was investigated in the national Bioenergy Research Programme. Equipment of suitable size and price are needed for harvesting of small-diameter trees. The profitability of mechanized harvesting can be improved significantly if the single-tree processing is replaced with multi- tree processing. Multi-tree harvesting can be carried out in all production chains, felling-bunching, in partial and pulpwood harvesting, as well as with bare felling machines and harvesters. About 60 % of the stems were processed with a prototype machine, tested in treatment of young forests. About 70 % of fellings in felling-bunching, already in commercial use, was processed as multi- tree processing, and about 80 % in the partial-tree harvesting. The felling of pulpwood as partial trees was about 25-30 % faster as multi-tree processing than with

  4. Western Canadian wood residue production and consumption trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloy, B.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation considered various trends in western Canadian wood residue production and consumption. Potential markets for wood residue products were also discussed. Trends were reviewed by province for the years 2000-2004. British Columbia (BC) is currently the largest producer of residue in the country, and also retains the largest surpluses of bark, sawdust and shavings. Wood residues in BC are used in pulp and plywood mill production, as well as in the creation of particleboard and MDF. Surplus mill wood residue production in the province has greatly increased due to the Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) infestation, which has in turn spurred expansion of the BC interior sawmill industry. The infestation has also resulted in a glut of pulp chips. Current wood residue products in Alberta are mostly used in pulp mill combined heat and power (CHP) systems, as well as for wood pellet production and the creation of particleboard and MDF. It was noted that surplus residues are rapidly declining in the province. Saskatchewan's wood residue storage piles are estimated to contain 2,900,000 BDt, while Manitoba surpluses are relatively minor. It was suggested that high natural gas prices have increased the payback on wood energy systems to approximately 2 years. The value of wood residue is now greater than $100/BDt as a substitute for natural gas once the wood energy system has been fully depreciated. Sawmills may now wish to consider equipping themselves to sell wood residue products, as most sawmills only require 20 per cent of their residues for heating purposes. It was concluded that markets for hog fuel wood pellets should be developed in Canada and internationally. Future markets may also develop if natural gas currently used in pulp mill power boilers and lime kilns is replaced with wood residue energy systems. refs., tabs., figs

  5. The effects of early diagenesis on the chemical and stable carbon isotopic composition of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiker, E.C.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of modern and ancient buried wood show that there is a linear correlation between carbohydrate content and the stable carbon isotope composition as carbohydrates are preferentially degraded during early diagenesis. As the carbohydrate content decreases, the delta 13 C value of the degraded wood decreases 1 to 2 per mil, approaching the value of the residual lignin. These results indicate that carbohydrate degradation products are lost and not incorporated into the aromatic structure as lignin is selectively preserved during early diagenesis of wood. These results also indicate that attempts to quantify terrestrial inputs to modern sedimentary organic matter based on delta 13 C values should consider the possibility of a 1 to 2 per mil decrease in the delta 13 C value of degraded wood. (author)

  6. In line wood plastic composite pyrolyses and HZSM-5 conversion of the pyrolysis vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Xiaona; Zhang, Zhijun; Tan, Shun; Wang, Fengqiang; Song, Yongming; Wang, Qingwen; Pittman, Charles U.

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: HZSM-5 can be used to catalytic convert Wood Fiber-Polypropylene or Wood Fiber-Polypropylene pyrolysis vapors into aromatic compounds in reasonable selectivities. This provides a recycling utilization WPCs wastes method. - Highlights: • Converting wood/plastic composites (WPC) wastes into aromatics. • Recycling WPC by fast pyrolysis coupled with vapor catalytic cracking. • Selective production of aromatics from WPCs and their components over HZSM-5. • Acid site concentration inside zeolite was critical for maximizing aromatic yield. • Synergistic effects between wood and plastics enhanced aromatics production. - Abstract: Wood powder-high density polyethylene (WPE) and wood powder-polypropylene (WPP) composites were pyrolyzed at 550 °C in the presence of HZSM-5 catalysts using analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Immediately passing the pyrolysis vapors through the HZSM-5 changed the product distribution by producing aromatic hydrocarbons and eliminating tar formation. Zeolite HZSM-5 was employed with three different silica-to-alumina ratios (25, 50, 260). The influence of catalysts on the yields of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, furan derivatives, lignin-derived compounds and acetic acid was studied. High yields of aliphatic hydrocarbons formed in WPE or WPP pyrolysis alone. The highest yields of aromatic hydrocarbons from WPE or WPP pyrolysis vapors over HZSM-5 occurred with a zeolite framework Si/Al ratio of 25 (more acid sites), suggesting that the concentration of acid sites inside the zeolite was critical for maximizing aromatic yield. Exposing vapors to HZSM-5 increased the hydrocarbon yields and reduced the amount of acetic acid produced, resulting in increased calorific value. The yields of typical aromatics from catalytic pyrolysis of WPP mixture and composites were higher than those of the calculated values of poplar wood and PP catalytic pyrolysis individually, indicating that a

  7. Surface properties of thermally treated composite wood panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Catalin; Spirchez, Cosmin; Lunguleasa, Aurel; Cristea, Daniel; Roata, Ionut Claudiu; Pop, Mihai Alin; Bedo, Tibor; Stanciu, Elena Manuela; Pascu, Alexandru

    2018-04-01

    Composite finger-jointed spruce and oak wood panels have been thermally treated under standard pressure and oxygen content conditions at two different temperatures, 180 °C and respectively 200 °C for short time periods (3 and 5 h). Due to the thermally-aided chemical restructuration of the wood components, a decrease in water uptake and volumetric swelling values with up to 45% for spruce and 35% for oak have been registered, comparing to the reference samples. In relation to water resistance, a 15% increase of the dispersive component of the surface energy has been registered for the thermal-treated spruce panels, which impedes water spreading on the surface. The thermal-treated wood presents superior resistance to accelerated UV exposure and subsequently, with up to 10% higher Brinell hardness values than reference wood. The proposed thermal treatment improves the durability of the finger-jointed wood through a more economically and environmental friendly method than traditional impregnation, with minimal degradative impact on the structural components of wood.

  8. Characterizing wood-plastic composites via data-driven methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    John G. Michopoulos; John C. Hermanson; Robert Badaliance

    2007-01-01

    The recent increase of wood-plastic composite materials in various application areas has underlined the need for an efficient and robust methodology to characterize their nonlinear anisotropic constitutive behavior. In addition, the multiplicity of various loading conditions in structures utilizing these materials further increases the need for a characterization...

  9. Tension and Compression Creep Apparatus for wood-Plastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott E. Hamel; John C. Hermanson; Steven M. Cramer

    2011-01-01

    Design of structural members made of wood-plastic composites (WPC) is not possible without accurate test data for tension and compression. The viscoelastic behavior of these materials means that these data are required for both the quasi-static stress-strain response, and the long-term creep response. Their relative incompressibility causes inherent difficulties in...

  10. Colemanite: a fire retardant candidate for wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren Terzi; Saip Nami Kartal; Sabriye Piskin; Nicole Stark; Aysel Kanturk Figen; Robert H. White

    2018-01-01

    The use of raw boron minerals (i.e. tincalconite, colemanite, and ulexite) was evaluated to increase the fire performance of wood plastic composites (WPCs) in comparison with commercially available fire retardants (FRs). Cone calorimetry and limited oxygen index tests were performed to evaluate the fire properties of WPC specimens. Artificial weathering and 3-point...

  11. Field and Laboratory Decay Evaluations of wood-plastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Marek Gnatowski; Grace Sun

    2013-01-01

    Experimental wood–plastic composites (WPCs) were made so that they matched the manufacturing process, dimensions, and water absorption of some commercial decking boards. WPC samples from selected formulations were divided into two identical groups. The first group was exposed in exterior conditions in Vancouver, British Columbia, and Hilo, Hawaii, at sun and shadow...

  12. Considerations in the weathering of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark

    2007-01-01

    During weathering, wood-plastic composites (WPCs) can fade and lose stiffness and strength. Weathering variables that induce these changes include exposure to UV light and water. Each variable degrades WPCs independently, but can also act synergistically. Recent efforts have highlighted the need to understand how WPCs weather, and to develop schemes for protection. The...

  13. Moisture Sorption in Artificially aged wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Kristoffer Segerholm; Rebecca E. Ibach; Magnus E.P. Wålinder

    2012-01-01

    Moisture sorption in wood-plastic composites (WPCs) affects their durability and dimensional stability. In certain outdoor exposures, the moisture properties of WPCs are altered due to e.g. cracks induced by swelling and shrinkage of the components, as well as UV degradation or biological attack. The aim of this work was to study the effect of different artificial...

  14. A Planning Guide for Small and Medium Size Wood Products Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff Howe; Stephen Bratkovich

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, North American wood products companies are facing competitive pressure from numerous sources. Traditional products are being manufactured in new regions (e.g., China and the developing nations), and substitute products are being developed by competing industries (e.g., plastics and composites). The bottom line is strained by...

  15. Statistical reliability analyses of two wood plastic composite extrusion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crookston, Kevin A.; Mark Young, Timothy; Harper, David; Guess, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the reliability of wood plastic composites (WPC) are explored for two industrial extrusion lines. The goal of the paper is to use parametric and non-parametric analyses to examine potential differences in the WPC metrics of reliability for the two extrusion lines that may be helpful for use by the practitioner. A parametric analysis of the extrusion lines reveals some similarities and disparities in the best models; however, a non-parametric analysis reveals unique and insightful differences between Kaplan-Meier survival curves for the modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) of the WPC industrial data. The distinctive non-parametric comparisons indicate the source of the differences in strength between the 10.2% and 48.0% fractiles [3,183-3,517 MPa] for MOE and for MOR between the 2.0% and 95.1% fractiles [18.9-25.7 MPa]. Distribution fitting as related to selection of the proper statistical methods is discussed with relevance to estimating the reliability of WPC. The ability to detect statistical differences in the product reliability of WPC between extrusion processes may benefit WPC producers in improving product reliability and safety of this widely used house-decking product. The approach can be applied to many other safety and complex system lifetime comparisons.

  16. Trends in the highway market for wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Knutson

    1975-01-01

    Forty-eight million cubic feet of wood products, about 50 million dollars worth, were used in the Nation's highway construction program in 1972. Expenditures for highway construction increased 2½ times from 1954 to 1972. The volume of wood products used in highway construction changed little during this period because other materials were substituted for...

  17. Wood-polymer composites obtained by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago, Javier; Lopez, Alcides; Rodriguez, Juan; Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Lima; Acevedo, Moises; Santiago, Julio; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2006-01-01

    It has been prepared composites materials by means of monomer penetration in pores of wood samples and later curing by means of gamma irradiation. The studied species were Hura crepitans L. (catahua), Aniba puchury-minor (C. Martinez) (mohena amarilla), and Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) (capirona). These new materials exhibit smaller water absorption and better mechanical properties in comparison with native wood. The test tubes of catahua treated with the styrene-polyester mixture absorb only up to 10% humidity compared to the native species whereas its hardness is increased in a 100%. (author)

  18. Effective technology of wood and gaseous fuel co-firing for clean energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zake, M.; Barmina, I.; Gedrovics, M.; Desnickis, A.

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to develop and optimise a small-scale experimental co-firing technique for the effective and clean heat energy production by replacing a proportion of fossil fuel (propane) with renewable one (wood biomass). Technical solutions of propane co-fire presenting two different ways of additional heat supply to the wood biomass are proposed and analysed. The experiments have shown that a better result can be obtained for the direct propane co-fire of the wood biomass, when the rate of wood gasification and the ignition of volatiles are controlled by additional heat energy supply to the upper portion of wood biomass. A less effective though cleaner way of heat energy production is the direct propane co-fire of volatiles when low-temperature self-sustaining burnout of the wood biomass controls the rate of the volatile formation, while additional heat energy supply to the flow of volatiles controls their burnout. The effect of propane co-fire on the heat production rate and the composition of polluting emissions is studied and analysed for different rates of the additional heat supply to the wood biomass and of the swirling air supply as well as for different charge of wood biomass above the inlet of the propane flame flow. (Authors)

  19. The economic potential of wood pellet production from alternative, low-value wood sources in the southeast of the US

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, Ric; Junginger, Martin; Faaij, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The global demand for wood pellets used for energy purposes is growing. Therefore, increased amounts of wood pellets are produced from primary forestry products, such as pulp wood. The present analysis demonstrates that substantial amounts of alternative, low-value wood resources are available that

  20. At-line validation of a process analytical technology approach for quality control of melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin in composite wood-panel production using near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meder, Roger; Stahl, Wolfgang; Warburton, Paul; Woolley, Sam; Earnshaw, Scott; Haselhofer, Klaus; van Langenberg, Ken; Ebdon, Nick; Mulder, Roger

    2017-01-01

    The reactivity of melamine-urea-formaldehyde resins is of key importance in the manufacture of engineered wood products such as medium density fibreboard (MDF) and other wood composite products. Often the MDF manufacturing plant has little available information on the resin reactivity other than details of the resin specification at the time of batch manufacture, which often occurs off-site at a third-party resin plant. Often too, fresh resin on delivery at the MDF plant is mixed with variable volume of aged resin in storage tanks, thereby rendering any specification of the fresh resin batch obsolete. It is therefore highly desirable to develop a real-time, at-line or on-line, process analytical technology to monitor the quality of the resin prior to MDF panel manufacture. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been calibrated against standard quality methods and against 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measures of molecular composition in order to provide at-line process analytical technology (PAT), to monitor the resin quality, particularly the formaldehyde content of the resin. At-line determination of formaldehyde content in the resin was made possible using a six-factor calibration with an R 2 (cal) value of 0.973, and R 2 (CV) value of 0.929 and a root-mean-square error of cross-validation of 0.01. This calibration was then used to generate control charts of formaldehyde content at regular four-hourly periods during MDF panel manufacture in a commercial MDF manufacturing plant.

  1. Influence of Water on Tribological Properties of Wood-Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysiukiewicz, Olga; Sterzyński, Tomasz

    2017-08-01

    Utilization of ecological materials for appliances and products is one of the ways to achieve the goal of sustainability.Wood-polymer composites as a cheap, lightweight, durable and esthetic material has gained attention of scientists, engineers and consumers alike. Different kinds of polymeric matrices, plants used as the fillers, chemical of physical modifiers and processing technologies have already been widely studied. Nonetheless, surprisingly few information on Wood-Polymer Composites' tribology can be found. This paper is an attempt to fill this gap. Polypropylene-and poly(lactic acid)-based composites with varying wood flour content have been analyzed. The Brinell's hardness and coefficient of friction of the samples have been determined. In order to evaluate the influence of the moisture content on the tribological and mechanical properties of the composites, the samples have also been aged in water. The investigation revealed that polymeric composites filled with wood flour can present favorable coefficient of friction, compared to the neat resins. The results of our study can establish a good starting point for further investigation.

  2. Design considerations for the commercial production of wood acrylics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, A.E.; Bosco, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    The major application of wood acrylics is for flooring, more specifically in high traffic area. The most important property is its abrasion resistance. As for the decisions in facility design, the following considerations must be made: irradiation or heat-catalyst to polymerize, machine irradiation or isotope irradiation, and wet or dry irradiation. Then, processing considerations are made on wood type, monomer selection, dye selection, fire retardant, dose conditions and crosslinker usage. In ''PermaGrain'' production, for example, the facility has the yearly production capacity of over 4,000,000 kilograms of wood acrylic. The starting wood form is small slats or fingers. After pressure cycle, the impregnant wet wood is lowered into an irradiation pool and the product canister passes around a cobalt 60 source. After irradiation, the product is taken out of the pool and allowed to cool. Then, final sizing and finishing are carried out. (Mori, K.)

  3. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-07-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  4. Prospects for wood products trade under the new partnership for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper evaluates the prospects for the development of inter-and ... the adoption of common policy to secure better deals for the wood products ... of value added products targetted towards foreign exchange conservation and substitution.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of polypropylene/jigsaw wood ash composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudirman; Karo Karo, Aloma; Gunawan, Indra; Handayani, Ari; Hertinvyana, Evi

    2002-01-01

    The composite of polypropylene (PP) polymer with jigsaw wood ash as filler is the alternative composite material. The dispersion of the filler in the composite is random with the jigsaw wood ash composition of 10,30, and 50% by volume. The characterization of composite are done to measure its mechanical properties, physical properties and microstructure by using XRD and SEM. From this research, it is concluded that increasing filler content of the composite will decrease its mechanical and physical properties. The comparation of different composites are found that tensile strength of PP MF 10 is higher 4.24% compared with PP MF 2 as a matrix. It is also found that melting temperature of PP MF 10 is higher 4.09% compared with PP MF 2 as a matrices and the decomposition temperature different is 0.17%. The degree of crystallinity of composite with PP MF 10 as a matrices is 2.55% higher compared with PP MF 2. The higher degree of crystallinity is increasing the tensile strength

  6. BROMINATION OF 4-VINYLCYCLOHEXANE AND APPLYING THE RESULTING PRODUCT TO IMPROVE THE FLAME RETARDANT PROPERTIES OF WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nikulina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the demand for timber is increasing. Wood and products on its basis are considered to be the most popular in the construction industry, furniture industry, as building materials and other However, along with the positive features of this material there are also negative factors, which include low resistance to biological degradation, high temperature, resistance. Wood and materials based on it are the most flammable, and fire safety is characterized by the velocity of propagation of fire on the wooden structure. He is able to destroy it in a matter of minutes. So the wooden house elements must be protected from fire. It was therefore necessary for the fire protection of wood. It is in the handling of wood with flame retardants. Basic fire fighting methods is the impregnation of wood antipyrene composition, painting fire paint and constructive ways - insulation of timber, non-combustible compositions which can resist the fire. In the work of brominated 4-vinylcyclohexane formed as a by-product in the petrochemical industry, in chloroform synthesized compound with bromine 62-64 % and the possibility of using this product to get antiferromag composition. It is established that the application for the protective treatment of wood synthesized flame retardant has shown that this product can be used for the protective treatment of natural wood to make it flame retardant properties. Use as antiperiodic compositions bromodomain based products 4-vinylcyclohexane allows to obtain images of wood first group of flame retardant efficiency.

  7. How to decrease the hydrophilicity of wood flour to process efficient composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouzet, M.; Gautier, D.; Charlet, K. [Institut Pascal, UMR 6602 UBP/CNRS/IFMA, BP 265, Aubière 63175 (France); Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, Clermont-Ferrand 63000 (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, Aubière 63177 (France); Dubois, M., E-mail: Marc.DUBOIS@univ-bpclermont.fr [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, Clermont-Ferrand 63000 (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, Aubière 63177 (France); Béakou, A. [Institut Pascal, UMR 6602 UBP/CNRS/IFMA, BP 265, Aubière 63175 (France)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: Evolution of the contact angle of a water drop on sample (θ{sub c}) according to the fluorinated material. - Highlights: • Fluorination was applied to wood flour. • Covalent attachment of fluorine atoms onto wood surface decreases its hydrophilicity. • Fluorinated wood flour was added into composites with polyester. • Fluorination enhances the interface between wood flour and polymer matrix. - Abstract: Dynamic fluorination and static fluorination were applied to wood flour to decrease its hydrophilic character, aiming at processing wood-polymer composites with good properties. Fourier-Transform infrared spectra and {sup 19}F solid state NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) results proved the successful covalent bonding of fluorine atoms onto the wood's chemical structure. It revealed that static fluorination brings about a less damaged and less hydrophilic fluorinated wood than with dynamic fluorination. Composites manufactured from this fluorinated wood presented a hydrophobic character directly related to the hydrophicity of these wood reinforcements. A composite made with fluorinated wood and polyester exhibited a higher hydrophobicity than the neat polyester and than the composite made with non-treated wood. Moreover, the further fluorination of a composite made of fluorinated wood led to a contact angle comparable to that of some metals (steel, gold) due to the etching of the composite surface during fluorination.

  8. POLYPYRROLE AND POLYPYRROLE/WOOD-DERIVED MATERIALS CONDUCTING COMPOSITES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Beneventi Mail

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Wood and cellulose derivatives, in both fibrous and water-soluble macromolecular form, are emerging as outstanding candidates for organic electronics applications due to their large-scale availability, low cost, and easy processability. Paper and wood fibre-based derivatives are considered to be materials of choice as supports for communication world-wide. The interest in producing inexpensive and universally available conducting polymer/cellulose fibres substrates resides in the possibility of creating new materials that can be used for a broad range of advanced applications. For instance, PPy/cellulose fibres composites can be used for the preparation of energy storage devices thanks to the conjugation of the high specific area of cellulose fibres and the electrochemical properties of PPy. Other possible applications of such composites are in the area of the antistatic materials, sensors, electromagnetic interference shielding materials, smart packaging, and tissues. Concerning the woody polymers, some of them (i.e. cellulose derivatives also exhibit biocompatibility, as well as film-forming properties and transparency. In combination with the electrical properties of PPy, these features make PPy/macromolecular cellulose composites suitable for applications as displays, lighting, and photovoltaics. Due to their chemical structure, macromolecular wood derivatives have been proposed with success as enhancing conductivity additives in Py polymerisation. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of PPy chemistry and of the most relevant advances attained in the production of PPy/wood derived materials conducting composites.

  9. Competitiveness of wood pulp production in different Brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naisy Silva Soares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to analyze the competitiveness of wood pulp production in different Brazilian states, in May, 2008 (Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Bahia, using the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. The results obtained indicated that the private and social profitability of wood pulp production and commercialization was positive and greater in Bahia. The Brazilian companies were penalized by public policies adopted for the sector; the wood pulp production in São Paulo and Bahia were more competitive and less exposed to the negative effects of public policies that reduce the national company profits.

  10. Surface chemistry changes of weathered HDPE/wood-flour composites studied by XPS and FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Laurent M. Matuana

    2004-01-01

    The use of wood-derived fillers by the thermoplastic industry has been growing, fueled in part by the use of wood-fiber–thermoplastic composites by the construction industry. As a result, the durability of wood-fiber– thermoplastic composites after ultraviolet exposure has become a concern. Samples of 100% high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and HDPE filled with 50% wood-...

  11. Characterization of wood polymer composite and design of root trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, K. N.; Abhilash, R. M.; Chauhan, Shakti Singh; Venkatesh, G. S.; Shivkumar, N. D.

    2018-04-01

    Biopolymers have received much attention of researchers due to concerns over disposal of plastics, greenhouse gas emission and environmental problems associated with it. Polylactic Acid (PLA) is one of the thermoplastic biopolymer made from lactic acid by using agricultural resources. PLA has received significant interest due to its competitive properties when compared to commodity plastics such as Polyethylene, Polypropylene and Polystyrene. PLA has interesting properties such as high stiffness, UV stability, clear and glossy finish. However, application of PLA is restricted due to its brittle nature. Engineering and thermal properties of PLA can be improved by reinforcing fibres and fillers. Lignocelluloses or natural fibres such as Jute, Hemp, Bamboo, Sisal and Wood fibres can be used as reinforcement. By using natural fibres, a very bio-compostable composite can be produced. In the present study, short fibres from Melia Dubia wood were extracted and used as reinforcement to PLA Bio-Polymer matrix. Characterization of developed composite was obtained using tensile and flexural tests. Tensile test simulation of composite was performed using Altair Hypermesh, a Finite Element (FE) preprocessor and LS-Dyna an explicit FE solver. MAT_01, an elastic material model in LS-Dyna was used to model the behaviour. Further, the design of Root Trainer using developed composite has been explored. A Root Trainer is an aid to the cultivation of seedlings in nurseries. Root Trainer made by using developed composite has advantage of biodegradability and eco-friendly nature.

  12. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Production of wood fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1995-01-01

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and projects numbered 60. The main goal of the production of wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m 3 ). There were 27 projects in 1994 for research on wood fuel production. This part of the yearbook 1994 presents the main results of these projects. The wood reserves do not limit the obtainability of the target. Research and development work has, however, directed to development of equipment and research on wood fuels production chains. Many devices, designed for both separate and integrated production of wood fuels became ready or were becoming ready for prototyping, to be used for production tests. Results of the biomass harvesting and properties research were obtained for utilization in 1994. According to the results it is possible to obtain the desired targets both in integrated and separated production of wood fuels. (author)

  13. Effect of boron compounds on the thermal and combustion properties of wood-plastic composites

    OpenAIRE

    Altuntaş, Ertuğrul; Karaoğul, Eyyup; Alma, Mehmet Hakkı

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the thermal properties and fire resistancesof the wood plastic composites produced with waste lignocellulosic materialswere investigated. For this purpose, lignocellulosic waste, high densitypolyethylene, (HDPE) sodium borate (borax) and boric acid was used to producethe wood-plastic composites. A twin-screw extruder was used during theproduction of the wood plastic composites. The produced composite granule waspressed at 175 °C hot press. The effects of boric acid and borax ad...

  14. The Effect of Methylation and Anti-Oxidant on Discoloration of Weathered Wood Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peivand Darabi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the outdoor application of Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs become more widespread, the resistance of these products against weathering, particularly ultraviolet (UV light becomes more important. When WPCs are exposed to outdoor ultraviolet light, rain, snow and atmosphere pollution, they will be degraded which can be indicated by color fade. To investigate the effects of methylation and Anti-Oxidant separately and together on discoloration of weathered wood plastic composites, composites of poplar wood flour and high density polyethylene.Were made according to the ASTMD 2565, samples were placed in Atlas Xenon apparatus for 250 and 2000 hours. Discoloration and FT-IR spectra of the samples were measured and compared. The results have shown that methylation in short term and long term can relatively reduce the discoloration of weathered samples and also in short term can hinder the photodegradation. FT-IR spectra showed that, in long term, neither of the treatments could protect lignin from irradiation within wood flour. But methylation limited the depth of penetration of weathering. The Antioxidant did not have an influence on color change in a long period of time, but was able to relatively decrease it in short term.

  15. Criterion 6, indicator 28 : total and per capita consumption of wood and wood products in round wood equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Howard; Rebecca Westby; Kenneth E. Skog

    2010-01-01

    Total consumption of wood and paper products and fuelwood, in roundwood equivalents, increased between 1965 and 1988 from 13.2 to 18.9 billion cubic feet. Since 1988, it has been about 20 billion cubic feet per year. Total per capita consumption increased between 1965 and 1987, from 68 to 83 ft3 per year. Since 1987 through 2006, per capita...

  16. Ethanol from wood. Cellulase enzyme production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szengyel, Zsolt

    2000-03-01

    Conversion of biomass to liquid fuels, such as ethanol, has been investigated during the past decades. First due to the oil crisis of the 1970s and lately because of concerns about greenhouse effect, ethanol has been found to be a suitable substitute for gasoline in transportation. Although ethanol is produced in large quantities from corn starch, the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol is rather problematic. However, cellulosic raw materials are important as they are available in large quantities from agriculture and forestry. One of the most extensively investigated processes is the enzymatic process, in which fungal cellulolytic enzymes are used to convert the cellulose content of the biomass to glucose, which is then fermented to ethanol. In order to make the raw material accessible to biological attack, it has to be pretreated first. The most successful method, which has been evaluated for various lignocellulosic materials, is the steam pretreatment. In this thesis the utilization of steam pretreated willow (hardwood) and spruce (softwood) was examined for enzyme production using a filamentous fungus T. reesei RUT C30. Various carbon sources originating from the steam pretreated materials have been investigated. The replacement of the solid carbon source with a liquid carbon source, as well as the effect of pH, was studied. The effect of toxic compounds generated during pretreatment was also examined. Comparative study of softwood and hardwood showed that steam pretreated hardwood is a better carbon source than softwood. The hydrolytic potential of enzyme solutions produced on wood derived carbon sources was better compared to commercial cellulases. Also enzyme solutions produced on steam pretreated spruce showed less sensitivity towards toxic compounds formed during steam pretreatment.

  17. Understanding key issues of sustainable wood production in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Seth M. White

    2005-01-01

    Researchers involved with the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station Sustainable Wood Production Initiative have outlined some of the barriers and opportunities for sustainable wood production in the region. Sustainable wood production is defined as the capacity of forests to produce wood, products, and services on a long-term basis and in the context of human...

  18. Water for wood products versus nature, food or feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyns, Joep; Booij, Martijn; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2017-04-01

    Forests play a central interlinked role in the 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development. The Agenda aims at an increased share of renewable energy in the global energy mix (target 7.2) and restoration and sustainable management of forests (targets 6.6, 15.1 & 15.2). Forests also play a key role in the hydrological cycle accounting for the largest water flux from land to atmosphere. However, we do not know which part of this is used for the production of wood products such as lumber, pulp and paper, firewood or biofuel. SDG target 6.4 calls for increased water-use efficiency across all sectors and requires understanding the competing demands for water and the potential conflicts between wood production and other purposes like food (SDG 2). To reach the SDGs we need to understand the interlinkages between the SDGs and know how much water is used in the forestry sector. We provide the first estimate of global water use in the forestry sector, using the water footprint (WF) as indicator and distinguishing between consumption of green water (precipitation) and blue water (groundwater through capillary rise). We estimate forest evaporation at a high spatial resolution level and attribute total water consumption to the various forest products, including ecosystem services. Global water consumption for wood production increased by 34% over 50 years to 290x109 m3/y in 2001-2010. Wood has a higher economic water productivity (EWP, US/m3) than common food or feed crops like wheat, maize and sugar beet, and bio-ethanol from wood has a small WF per unit of energy compared to first-generation bio-ethanol from these three crops. Counterintuitively, extensive wood production has a smaller WF and hence a higher EWP than intensive wood production. The reason is that extensively exploited forests host relatively more value next to wood production in the form of other ecosystem services. Recycling of wood products could effectively reduce the WF of the forestry sector, thereby leaving

  19. Science supporting the economic and environmental benefits of using wood and wood products in green building construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Ritter; Kenneth Skog; Richard Bergman

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the scientific findings that support the environmental and economic benefits of using wood and wood products in green building construction. Despite documented advantages in many peer-reviewed scientific articles, most building professionals and members of the public do not recognize wood as a renewable resource or the role...

  20. Users guide for WoodCite, a product cost quotation tool for wood component manufacturers [computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff Palmer; Adrienn Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann

    2014-01-01

    WoodCite is a Microsoft® Access-based application that allows wood component manufacturers to develop product price quotations for their current and potential customers. The application was developed by the U.S. Forest Service and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, in cooperation with the Wood Components Manufacturers Association.

  1. Housing trends & impacts on wood products manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Al Schuler; Karen. Koenig

    2012-01-01

    While there are some signs of improvement in the business conditions and sales volume faced by the secondary wood industry in relation to the housing market, they are slow in coming. This third annual housing market survey looks at the trends in the industry and analyzes what has changed in terms of market conditions, company performance and the actions being taken by...

  2. Justification of the Production Process of Pressed Wood and Study of its Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polilov, A. N.; Dornyak, O. R.; Shamaev, V. A.; Rumachik, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    Results of a numerical analysis of the stress-strain state of wood during its pressing in different symmetry directions of the anisotropic material are presented. It is shown that the anisotropy of mechanical properties of wood is an important factor determining both the structural characteristics of the porous system and its strength. A mathematical modeling of the process of pressing wood as a three-phase anisotropic rheologically complex capillary-porous system allows one to predict parameters of the resulting wood composite. The compressed wood obtained by the production modes developed has a tensile strength eight times greater than that of the natural one, which is comparable to the strength of the St3 steel, but its specific strength is higher than that of the St45 steel. Compression and impregnation of softwood species with an aqueous solution of carbamide allows one to harden them. This kind of treatment endows the wood with enhanced strength characteristics comparable to the characteristics of the St3 steel. The special features of tensile tests used to estimate the elastic modulus and strength characteristics of such materials are considered. Data obtained by different testing methods are correlated, and characteristics of the strengthened wood and some brends of steel are compared.

  3. Supporting the development process for building products by the use of research portfolio analysis: A case study for wood plastics composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Friedrich

    2016-06-01

    Our study evaluated European scientific projects in composites from which we derived a Research Portfolio serving as future matrix for ideation. It was found that research databanks can serve as basis for strategic innovation planning. We were able to identify several appropriate future technologies and material applications in the field of bio-based plastics composites. Our methodology particularly supports manufacturers with less formalized innovation processes.

  4. Wood-plastic composites using thermomechanical pulp made from oxalic acid-pretreated red pine chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Winandy; N.M. Stark; E. Horn

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics and properties of wood fiber is one of many factors of critical importance to the performance of wood-plastic composites. In commercial thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP) of wood chips to produce fibers, high temperatures (>100°C) are used to separate the fibers during TMP refining. These mechanical pressures and temperatures are usually modulated...

  5. Effects of processing method and moisture history on laboratory fungal resistance of wood-HDPE composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of composite processing and moisture sorption on laboratory fungal resistance of wood-plastic composites. A 2-week water soaking or cyclic boiling-drying procedure was used to infuse moisture into composites made from high-density polyethylene filled with 50 percent wood flour and processed by extrusion, compression...

  6. Evaluation of bolted connections in wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnandha, Yudhi; Satyarno, Iman; Awaludin, Ali; Irawati, Inggar Septia; Ihsan, Muhamad; Wijanarko, Felyx Biondy; William, Mahdinur, Fardhani, Arfiati

    2017-03-01

    Wood-plastic composite (WPC) is a relatively new material that consists of sawdust and plastic polymer using the extrusion process. Due to its attributes such as low water content, low maintenance, UV durability and being fungi and termite resistant. Nowadays, WPC has already been produced in Indonesia using sawdust from local wood such as Albizia (Paraserianthes falcataria) and Teak (Tectona grandis). Moreover preliminary studies about the physical and mechanical WPC board from Albizia sawdust and HDPE plastic have been carried out. Based on these studies, WPC has a high shear strength around 25-30 MPa higher than its original wood shear strength. This paper was a part of the research in evaluating WPC as potential sheathing in a shear wall system. Since still little is known about connection behavior in WPC using Indonesian local wood, this study evaluated the connection for both of these two types of wood-plastic composite. WPC board from Albizia sawdust will be projected as shear wall sheathing and WPC stud from Teak sawdust projected to be shear wall frame. For this study, the embedding strength for both WPC was determined according to ASTM D 5764 standard, using two types of bolts (stainless bolt and standard bolt) with several diameters as variation (6 mm, 8 mm, 10 and 12 mm). Hence, dowel-bearing test under fastened condition conducted accordance to ASTM D5652, hereby the yield strength then compared with the prediction yield strength from European Yield Model (EYM). According to both single and double shear connection, it can be concluded that yield strength from the EYM method tended to under-predict the 5% diameter offset yield than the actual yield strength from the test. The yield strength itself increase with the increase of bolt diameter. For single shear connection, the highest yield strength was 12 mm standard bolt around 9732 N, slightly higher than stainless bolt around 9393 N. Whereby for double shear connection, the highest yield strength was

  7. World trade in forest products and wood fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Wood fuel is a strategic resource for future energy supply and is usually utilised locally. Traditional use of wood fuel and other bioenergy has a share of 10-15% energy supply, used mainly for the household sector. The utilisation for industrial purposes is much smaller but is a strategic resource in the effort to fulfil the Kyoto agreement to replace fossil fuels and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Many industrialised countries already use a significant share of biofuels in their energy supply e.g. Nordic countries while others like some other European Union countries are planning to increase their use. Production and use of biofuels need to be carried out sustainable. Official statistics do not report trade in such detail that international trade in different biomass types can be fully identified. However, FAO and European Forestry Institute are important sources. In some countries, there is a growing interest in the international trade, because the trade can provide biofuels at lower prices, larger quantities and better quality than domestic alternatives. The first signs of an international market price for wood fuel are indicated in Europe. For the future both the use and the trade of wood fuel is expected to increase. Analyses for trade in charcoal, wood chips, fuel wood and wood residues made in this report identify 'hot' trade spots in Europe, in south East Asia and in North America

  8. PRODUCTION OF MANGIUM (Acacia mangium WOOD VINEGAR AND ITS UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjutju Nurhayati

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Production  of  wood vinegar from mangium (Acacia  mangium wood bolts/pieces  with their diameter of 3  17 cm, length of 30  67 cm, moisture content of 84.4%, and specific gravity of 0.52 conducted in a dome-shaped kiln with 1.2 m'-capacity afforded a yield of 40.3%.   The mangium wood vinegar was produced  through condensation  (cooling of  smoke/gas fractions released during the charcoaling (carbonization process  of  mangium wood.    The  process  could be regarded  as an integrated production of wood vinegar and charcoal.  The yield of wood vinegar combined with the resulting charcoal was 73.9%  based on  the dry weight of  inputed  mangium wood.    Results of chromatography analysis on mangium wood vinegar as conducted in Japan revealed its organic acid content at 73.9 ppm, phenol content 8.09 ppm, methanol 3.34 ppm, acidity degree 4.91  ppm, and pH 3.89.   Similar analysis on the mangium wood vinegar was conducted in Indonesia's laboratories, and the results were comparable with  those  of  Japan.     Results of  inhibition  testings  on  particular microorganisms   (i.e.  Pseudomonas  aerogjnosa,  Stafi/ococms   attreus,  and  Candidi   albicans  fimgz indicated that the mangium wood vinegar could inflict antirnicrobe action on those microorganism with its effectiveness somewhat below that of  liquid betel soap which could be purchased  from drugstores.  The experimental use of mangium wood vinegar at 3-5% concentration on ginger (Zingiber officinale var. white ginger plants revealed significantly positive growth responses/  characteristics with respect to their height, leaf length, and sprout/ shoot development, in comparison with the untreated ginger plants (control.   Such responses/characteristics were not significantly different from those using atonik's growth hormone.  Likewise, the preliminary use of mangium wood vinegar at 2-percent concentration on teak

  9. Dust Creation in CNC Drilling of Wood Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Rogoziński

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the particle-size distribution of dust created by the drilling of selected wood composites, which was carried out using a CNC machine. The particle-size distribution was studied through two methods. Two analyses were performed: the sieve analysis of samples from the whole mass of collected dust and the laser diffraction analysis of the finest fraction isolated by sieving. The results presented general information about the particle-size distribution of the dust, as well as detailed information on the content of the finest particles. This information revealed that the particles might pose a potential risk to the health of workers employed in the woodworking industry. This potential risk is due to the possibility of their dispersion in the atmosphere surrounding the workplace and their size, which allows them to be respirable. The relationship between the fineness of the dust and the type of wood composite was also tested. Most ultrafine particles are formed during the drilling of fibreboards and are especially produced in traditional wet technology.

  10. POLYMER COMPOSITES MODIFIED BY WASTE MATERIALS CONTAINING WOOD FIBRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardeta Dębska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the idea of sustainable development has become one of the most important require-ments of civilization. Development of sustainable construction involves the need for the introduction of innovative technologies and solutions that will combine beneficial economic effects with taking care of the health and comfort of users, reducing the negative impact of the materials on the environment. Composites obtained from the use of waste materials are part of these assumptions. These include modified epoxy mortar containing waste wood fibres, described in this article. The modification consists in the substitution of sand by crushed waste boards, previously used as underlays for panels, in quantities of 0%, 10%, 20%, 35% and 50% by weight, respectively. Composites containing up to 20% of the modifier which were characterized by low water absorption, and good mechanical properties, also retained them after the process of cyclic freezing and thawing.

  11. Gene expression patterns of wood decay fungi Postia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are influenced by wood substrate composition during degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksandr Skyba; Daniel Cullen; Carl J. Douglas; Shawn D. Mansfield

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the specific genes and enzymes involved in the fungal degradation of lignocellulosic biomass derived from feedstocks with various compositions is essential to the development of improved bioenergy processes. In order to elucidate the effect of substrate composition on gene expression in wood-rotting fungi, we employed microarrays based on the...

  12. Exposure testing of fasteners in preservative treated wood: Gravimetric corrosion rates and corrosion product analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelinka, Samuel L., E-mail: szelinka@fs.fed.u [USDA Forest Products Laboratory, One Gifford Pinchot Drive, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Sichel, Rebecca J. [College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Stone, Donald S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The composition of the corrosion products was similar for the nail head and shank. {yields} Reduced copper was not detected on any of the fasteners. {yields} Measured corrosion rates were between 1 and 35 {mu}m year{sup -1}. - Abstract: Research was conducted to determine the corrosion rates of metals in preservative treated wood and also understand the mechanism of metal corrosion in treated wood. Steel and hot-dip galvanized steel fasteners were embedded in wood treated with one of six preservative treatments and exposed to 27 {sup o}C at 100% relative humidity for 1 year. The corrosion rate was determined gravimetrically and the corrosion products were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Although the accepted mechanism of corrosion in treated wood involves the reduction of cupric ions from the wood preservative, no reduced copper was found on the corrosion surfaces. The galvanized corrosion products contained sulfates, whereas the steel corrosion products consisted of iron oxides and hydroxides. The possible implications and limitations of this research on fasteners used in building applications are discussed.

  13. Emissions from laboratory combustor tests of manufactured wood products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkening, R.; Evans, M.; Ragland, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Baker, A. [USDA Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Manufactured wood products contain wood, wood fiber, and materials added during manufacture of the product. Manufacturing residues and the used products are burned in a furnace or boiler instead of landfilling. Emissions from combustion of these products contain additional compounds from the combustion of non-wood material which have not been adequately characterized to specify the best combustion conditions, emissions control equipment, and disposal procedures. Total hydrocarbons, formaldehyde, higher aldehydes and carbon monoxide emissions from aspen flakeboard and aspen cubes were measured in a 76 mm i.d. by 1.5 m long fixed bed combustor as a function of excess oxygen, and temperature. Emissions of hydrocarbons, aldehydes and CO from flakeboard and from clean aspen were very sensitive to average combustor temperature and excess oxygen. Hydrocarbon and aldehyde emissions below 10 ppM were achieved with 5% excess oxygen and 1,200{degrees}C average temperature for aspen flakeboard and 1,100{degrees}C for clean aspen at a 0.9 s residence time. When the average temperature decreased below these levels, the emissions increased rapidly. For example, at 950{degrees}C and 5% excess oxygen the formaldehyde emissions were over 1,000 ppM. These laboratory tests reinforce the need to carefully control the temperature and excess oxygen in full-scale wood combustors.

  14. Eco-Friendly (Water Melon Peels: Alternatives to Wood-based Particleboard Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. D. Idris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using water melon peels as alternatives to wood-based particleboard composites. The water melon peels composite boards were produced by compressive moulding using recycled low density polyethylene (RLDPE as a binder. The RLDPE was varies from 30 to 70wt% with interval of 10wt%. The microstructure, water absorption(WA, thickness swelling index(TS, modulus of rupture (MOR, modulus of elasticity (MOE, internal bonding strength(IB, impact strength and wear properties of the boards were determined. The results showed that high modulus of rupture of 11.45N/mm2, MOE of 1678N/mm2, IB of 0.58N/mm2, wear rate of 0.31g were obtained from particleboard produced at 60wt%RLDPE. The uniform distribution of the water melon particles and the RLDPE in the microstructure of the composites board is the major factor responsible for the improvement in the mechanical properties. The results showed that the MOE, MOR and IB meet the minimum requirements of the European standards, for general purpose like panelling, ceiling, partitioning. Hence, water melon particles can be used as a substitute to wood-based particleboard for general purpose applications also besides being environmental friendly of using watermelon and RLDPE in production of particleboard, this alternative to wood-based particleboard is very cost-effective.

  15. QUALITY OF REACTION WOOD IN EucalyptusTREES TILTED BY WIND FOR PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Torezani Neto Boschetti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the quality of normal, tension and opposite wood of eucalyptus trees lengthwise, in straight and inclined stems, affected by wind action. It also aims to explain the pulping parameters resultant from the quality of the wood. The trees were grouped into four tilt ranges, ranging from 0 to 50º, and the basic density, chemical composition of the wood, and performance in kraft pulping were assessed. Normal and tension wood had similar basic densities; while for opposite wood, the density was lower, being responsible for a decrease in reaction wood density. The chemical composition of the wood was influenced by the presence of reaction wood in the stem.Tension and opposite wood showed lower levels of extractives and lignin and higher holocellulose content when compared to normal wood, with favorable wood quality for pulping. The increase in holocellulose content and the reduction of lignin and extractives content contributed positively to a more delignified pulp and reduction of the Kappa number. However, after cooking the reaction wood under the same conditions as those of normal wood, reaction wood pulping tends to have a lower screen yields. Due to differences in basic density and chemical constituents between opposite and normal wood, it is recommended not to designate the opposite wood as normal wood.

  16. Integrated production of wood fuel and pulp wood from young stands; Integroitujen tuotantomenetelmien vertailu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the competitiveness of different harvesting chains and processing methods of first thinning wood. Great expectations have been laid on integrated production of wood fuel and pulp wood. Results produced in other bioenergy projects were taken into account, and in this project some field experiments on mechanised felling-bunching and compressing of the load of tree sections during forwarding were carried out. The new processing methods, the MASSAHAKE-method and chain-flail delimbing combined with small-scale drum debarking, still are under development giving a rather unstable data for comparisons. Both in pine and birch dominant stands modern multiple tree logging gave the most favourable results when ranking on the bases of the price of pulp chips. Integrated methods were not very far and they have more potential than methods based on harvesting delimbed short wood. When compared on the bases of the production cost of pulp, integrated methods were in general the most favourable because they give good subsidies on the form of bioenergy. (orig.)

  17. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    come from? How is it harvested? How is it manufactured and treated ? How are the buildings detailed and protected against weather during construction to keep them dry and make them long-life ? In a period of climate change, forests are the last lungs of the planet to sequestrate CO2. Their global size......Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood...

  18. Finite element modeling of small-scale tapered wood-laminated composite poles with biomimicry features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; R.C. Tang; Chung Y. Hse

    2008-01-01

    Tapered composite poles with biomimicry features as in bamboo are a new generation of wood laminated composite poles that may some day be considered as an alternative to solid wood poles that are widely used in the transmission and telecommunication fields. Five finite element models were developed with ANSYS to predict and assess the performance of five types of...

  19. Evaluation of various fire retardants for use in wood flour--polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Robert H. White; Scott A. Mueller; Tim A. Osswald

    2010-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites represent a growing class of materials used by the residential construction industry and the furniture industry. For some applications in these industries, the fire performance of the material must be known, and in some cases improved. However, the fire performance of wood-plastic composites is not well understood, and there is little...

  20. Elastomer modified polypropylene–polyethylene blends as matrices for wood flour–plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2010-01-01

    Blends of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) could potentially be used as matrices for wood–plastic composites (WPCs). The mechanical performance and morphology of both the unfilled blends and wood-filled composites with various elastomers and coupling agents were investigated. Blending of the plastics resulted in either small domains of the minor phase in a...

  1. Wood-based Tri-Axial Sandwich Composite Materials: Design, Fabrication, Testing, Modeling and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Shaoqin Gong; Zhiyong Cai

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for sustainable materials increases, there are unique challenges and opportunities to develop light-weight green composites materials for a wide range of applications. Thus wood-based composite materials from renewable forests may provide options for some niche applications while helping to protect our environment. In this paper, the wood-based tri-axial...

  2. Determining shear modulus of thin wood composite materials using a cantilever beam vibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Guan; Houjiang Zhang; John F. Hunt; Haicheng Yan

    2016-01-01

    Shear modulus (G) of thin wood composite materials is one of several important indicators that characterizes mechanical properties. However, there is not an easy method to obtain this value. This study presents the use of a newly developed cantilever beam free vibration test apparatus to detect in-plane G of thin wood composite...

  3. Durability of wood plastic composites manufactured from recycled plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Turku

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of accelerated weathering, xenon-arc light and freeze-thaw cycling on wood plastic composites extruded from a recycled plastic was studied. The results showed that, in general, weathering had a stronger impact on samples made from plastic waste compared to a sample made from virgin material. After weathering, the mechanical properties, tensile and flexural, were reduced by 2–30%, depending on the plastic source. Wettability of the samples was shown to play a significant role in their stability. Chemical analysis with infrared spectroscopy and surface observation with a scan electron microscope confirmed the mechanical test results. Incorporation of carbon black retained the properties during weathering, reducing the wettability of the sample, diminishing the change of mechanical properties, and improving color stability. Keywords: Environmental science, Mechanical engineering, Materials science

  4. Environment-friendly wood fibre composite with high bonding strength and water resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaodi; Dong, Yue; Nguyen, Tat Thang; Chen, Xueqi; Guo, Minghui

    2018-04-01

    With the growing depletion of wood-based materials and concerns over emissions of formaldehyde from traditional wood fibre composites, there is a desire for environment-friendly binders. Herein, we report a green wood fibre composite with specific bonding strength and water resistance that is superior to a commercial system by using wood fibres and chitosan-based adhesives. When the mass ratio of solid content in the adhesive and absolute dry wood fibres was 3%, the bonding strength and water resistance of the wood fibre composite reached the optimal level, which was significantly improved over that of wood fibre composites without adhesive and completely met the requirements of the Chinese national standard GB/T 11718-2009. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations revealed that the excellent performance of the binder might partly be due to the amide linkages and hydrogen bonding between wood fibres and the chitosan-based adhesive. We believe that this strategy could open new insights into the design of environment-friendly wood fibre composites with high bonding strength and water resistance for multifunctional applications.

  5. Product costing program for wood component manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and timely product costing information is critically important for companies in planning the optimal utilization of company resources. While an overestimation of product costs can lead to loss of potential business and market share, underestimation of product costs can result in financial losses to the company. This article introduces a product costing program...

  6. Current research in Spain on walnut for wood production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neus Alet& #224; Neus NO-VALUE

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Mediterranean Trees at the Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries (IRTA) in Spain initiated a research program in 1993 to examine the variability among walnut species for wood production and to establish orchards with improved selections. The main objective of the programme is to obtain superior Persian walnut (Juglans regia...

  7. Wood products utilization : a call for reflection and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Youngquist; Thomas E. Hamilton

    1999-01-01

    It is hard to imagine a world without forests. Forests provide a wide range of benefits at the local, national, and global levels. Some of these benefits depend on leaving the forest alone or subjecting it to only minimal interference. Other benefits can only be realized by harvesting the forest for wood and other products. The shrinking land base and growing human...

  8. Solid-wood production from temperate eucalypt plantations: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1988, there has been a major focus in Tasmania on research for the management of temperate eucalypt plantations for solid wood. This coincided with the formal transfer of large areas of native forest that had previously been part of the production forest estate into reserves, a decision that triggered the establishment ...

  9. Chemical composition and sensory properties of non-wooded and wooded Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) wine as affected by vineyard row orientation and grape ripeness level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jacobus J; Volschenk, Cornelis G

    2018-05-01

    The study aimed to unravel vineyard row orientation (NS, EW, NE-SW, NW-SE) and grape ripeness level (23, 25, 27 °Balling) implications for grape and wine composition and sensory properties/style (non-wooded/wooded wines) of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz (rootstock 101-14 Mgt). Soluble solid/titratable acidity ratios were lowest for EW, whereas warmer canopy sides (NW, N, NE) advanced grape ripening. Skin anthocyanins and phenolics generally decreased with ripening. NW-SE rows and S, SE, E and NE canopy sides showed highest skin total anthocyanins and phenolics. Wine total anthocyanins and phenolics increased with grape ripening; EW had lower values. Wine phenolic contents differed between canopy sides; N, NE, E and SE tended higher. Wine sensory profiles increased with grape ripening. For non-wooded wines, NW-SE and NE-SW row orientations generally resulted in highest scores, followed by NS. For EW rows, the N side presented better wines. Wood addition enhanced specific sensory descriptor perceptions. A large collection of wine styles surfaced in the same vineyard and terroir, increasing options to contribute positively to sustainable products. The study generated globally applicable, novel information vital for unlocking and valorising terroir/site potential for grape and wine chemical composition and wine sensory/style properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Estimating Preferences for Wood Products with Environmental Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaji Sakagami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation and forest degradation are serious problems for the global environment; as a result, sustainable forest management and forest certification have become important. In this study, using a choice experiment, we investigated, on the demand side, consumers’ preferences and willingness to pay (WTP for certified wood products that attempt to address public concerns regarding deforestation and forest degradation. Specifically, we investigated how estimates of consumers’ preferences and WTP were influenced by product attributes such as quality, certification, and price. To the authors’ knowledge, few studies of this kind have been conducted, particularly in Japan. The study’s main finding was that Japanese consumers were willing to pay a premium for certified wood products with attributes related to sustainable forest management; most preferred were products with attributes related to preserving biodiversity. These findings indicate that consumers are willing to pay a premium for products that contribute to solving the problems of deforestation and forest degradation.

  11. Performance of Schizolobium amazonicum Wood in Bleached Kraft Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Sarto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of Schizolobium amazonicum wood, specifically its performance in bleached kraft pulp production and the characteristics of its pulp. Chips of Schizolobium amazonicum and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla (reference were used. The following parameters were evaluated in the wood: basic density, total extractives, total lignin, holocellulose, and fiber morphology. The pulping simulations were carried out in a laboratory digester, with parameters set to obtain pulp with kappa number 19 ± 0.5. Both pulps were bleached in a PFI mill and submitted to physical-mechanical tests. The results showed that S. amazonicum wood has low basic density and higher content of extractives when compared to E. grandis x E. urophylla wood. For pulping, S. amazonicum required higher alkali charge and H factor to achieve the same delignification level of E. grandis x E. urophylla, resulting in a lower yield, pulp with lower viscosity, and higher wood specific consumption. During bleaching, the brightness gain and final viscosity of S. amazonicum pulp were lower than E. grandis x E. urophylla pulp. Moreover, S. amazonicum pulp had worse physical-mechanical characteristics than E. grandis x E. urophylla.

  12. Utilization of Merbau Wood Extract to Bind Laminated Bamboo Products

    OpenAIRE

    Santoso, Adi; Sulastiningsih, Ignasia Maria; Pari, Gustan; Jasni, Jasni

    2016-01-01

    The report describes the use of adhesive made from merbau wood extract (Intsia Spp.) which is allowed to copolymerize with resorcinol, formaldehyde under alkaline conditions, and tapioca as an extender. The adhesive was used to manufacture three-ply composite board consisting of a back and core layers made from sengon (Falcataria mollucana), and jabon (Anthocephalus chinensis), while the face layer was made either one of three bamboo species, namely, andong (Gigantochloa pseudoarundinacea)...

  13. Wood chip production technology and costs for fuel in Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, A.

    2007-12-15

    This work has been done in the project where the main target is to evaluate the technology and economy to use bush biomass for power production in Namibia. The project has been financed by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland and the Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry of the Republic of Namibia. The target of this study is to calculate the production costs of bush chips at the power plant using the current production technology and to look possibilities to develop production technology in order to mechanize production technology and to decrease the production costs. The wood production costs are used in feasibility studies, in which the technology and economy of utilization of wood chips for power generation in 5, 10 and 20 MW electric power plants and for power generation in Van Eck coal fired power plant in Windhoek are evaluated. Field tests were made at Cheetah Conservation Farm (CCF) in Otjiwarongo region. CCF is producing wood chips for briquette factory in Otjiwarongo. In the field tests it has been gathered information about this CCF semi-mechanized wood chip production technology. Also new machines for bush biomass chip production have been tested. A new mechanized production chain has been designed on the basis of this information. The production costs for the CCF semi-mechanized and the new production chain have been calculated. The target in the moisture content to produce wood chips for energy is 20 w-%. In the semi-mechanized wood chip production chain the work is done partly manually, and the supply chain is organized into crews of 4.8 men. The production chain consists of manual felling and compiling, drying, chipping with mobile chipper and manual feeding and road transport by a tractor with two trailers. The CCF production chain works well. The chipping and road transport productivity in the semimechanized production chain is low. New production machines, such as chainsaw, brush cutter, lawn mover type cutter, rotator saw in skid

  14. Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy- Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David N.; Emerick, Robert W.; England, Alfred B.; Flanders, James P.; Loge, Frank J.; Wiedeman, Katherine A.; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2010-03-31

    In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered Wood Products (EWP). Utilizing bio-based thermoplastics for these materials can reduce our dependence on foreign petroleum. We have demonstrated that biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) can be successfully produced from wood pulping waste streams and that viable wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite products can be produced from these materials. The results show that microbial polyester (PHB in this study) can be extruded together with wastewater-derived cell mass and wood flour into deck products having performance properties comparable to existing commercial HDPE/WF composite products. This study has thus proven the underlying concept that the microbial polyesters produced from waste effluents can be used to make cost-effective and energy-efficient wood-plastic composites. The cost of purified microbial polyesters is about 5-20 times that of HDPE depending on the cost of crude oil, due to high purification (40%), carbon substrate (40%) and sterilized fermentation (20%) costs for the PHB. Hence, the ability to produce competitive and functional composites with unpurified PHA-biomass mixtures from waste carbon sources in unsterile systems—without cell debris removal—is a significant step forward in producing competitive value-added structural composites from forest products residuals using a biorefinery approach. As demonstrated in the energy and waste analysis for the project, significant energy savings and waste reductions can also be realized using this approach. We recommend that the next step for development of

  15. Technological physics and special materials: wood-plastic composites obtained by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peteu, Gh.; Iliescu, V.

    1995-01-01

    General estimates and references are made in connection with the role of technological physics in obtaining materials with specific features. The first part of the paper presents the modification of weak wood essences as well as technological processes at bench-scale and semi industrial scale of wood-plastic composites, under various irradiation conditions. Two technological installations for the fabrication of wood-plastic composites on both scales with technical and practical specifications of their performances are presented. Experimental data for different wood-plastic composite systems using some local wood essences in combination with several polymer and copolymer systems are given. Impregnation and polymerization levels are mentioned for every specific system. The radiation dose rate and integrated dose are given for every experimental polymerization system. The features of the wood-plastic composites are compared with the initial wood essences. Finally, a few technical and economic assessments of wood-plastic composites and their implications in the domestic economy are presented. (author)

  16. The effect of crosslinker on mechanical and morphological properties of tropical wood material composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Md. Saiful; Hamdan, Sinin; Rahman, Md. Rezaur; Jusoh, Ismail; Ahmed, Abu Saleh

    2011-01-01

    In this study, wood polymer composites (WPCs) based on five kinds of selected tropical wood species, namely Jelutong (Dyera costulata), Terbulan (Endospermum diadenum), Batai (Paraserianthes moluccana), Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and Pulai (Alstonia pneumatophora), were impregnated with methyl methacrylate (MMA) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDIC) monomers mixture in the ratio of 1:1 for composite manufacturing. All these tropical wood reacted with hexamethylene diisocyanate and crosslinked with MMA which enhanced the hydrophobic (restrained water) nature of wood. The vacuum-pressure method was used to impregnate the samples with monomer mixture. The monomer mixture loading achievable was found to be dependent on the properties of wood species. Low loading was observed for the high density wood species. Mechanical strength of fabricated wood polymer composites (WPCs) in term of modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) were found to be significantly improved. The wood-polymer interaction was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Morphological properties of raw wood and WPC samples were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and XRD analysis and an improvement in morphological properties was also observed for WPC.

  17. Species selection in secondary wood products: implications for product design and promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew S. Bumgardner; Scott A. Bowe; Scott A. Bowe

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions that people have of several commercially important wood species and determined if word-based and specimen-based evaluations differed. Such knowledge can help secondary wood manufacturers better understand their products and develop more effective design concepts and promotional messages. A sample of more than 250 undergraduate...

  18. High-Temperature Hot Air/Silane Coupling Modification of Wood Fiber and Its Effect on Properties of Wood Fiber/HDPE Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The surfaces of poplar wood fibers were modified using high-temperature hot air (HTHA treatment and silane coupling agent. The single factor test was then used to investigate the performances (e.g., the change of functional groups, polarity, cellulose crystallinity, and thermal stability of modified poplar wood fibers (mPWF through Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and thermo-gravimetric analysis for the subsequent preparation of wood-plastic composites (WPCs. The effect of HTHA treatment conditions—such as temperature, inlet air velocity, and feed rate—on the performances of WPCs was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis. The main findings indicated that HTHA treatment could promote the hydration of mPWF and improve the mechanical properties of WPCs. Treatment temperature strongly affected the mechanical properties and moisture adsorption characteristics of the prepared composites. With the increase of treated temperature and feed rate, the number of hydroxyl groups, holocellulose content, and the pH of mPWF decreased. The degree of crystallinity and thermal stability and the storage modulus of the prepared composites of mPWF increased. However, dimensional stability and water absorption of WPCs significantly reduced. The best mechanical properties enhancement was observed with treatment temperature at 220 °C. This study demonstrated the feasibility for the application of an HTHA treatment in the WPC production industry.

  19. "Greener" hybrid adhesives composed of urea formaldehyde resin and cottonseed meal for wood based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urea formaldehyde (UF) resins are one of the most widely used adhesives in wood based composites. The major concerns of the resin utilization are free formaldehyde release and poor water resistance. As a renewable raw materials, water washed conttonseed meal can be used in wood bonding. To produce “...

  20. Properties of flat-pressed wood plastic composites containing fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Jan. T. Benthien; Heiko Thoemen; Robert H. White

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the flat-pressed wood plastic composites (WPCs) incorporated with various fire retardants (FRs) [5 or 15% by weight (wt)] at 50 wt % of the wood flour (WF). The WPC panels were made from dry-blended WF, polypropylene (PP) with maleic anhydride grafted PP (2 wt %), and FR powder formulations using a...

  1. Simulated long-term effects of varying tree retention on wood production, dead wood and carbon stock changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Francesca; Djupström, Line B; Ranius, Thomas; Weslien, Jan; Rudolphi, Jörgen; Sonesson, Johan

    2017-10-01

    Boreal forests are an important source of timber and pulp wood, but provide also other products and services. Utilizing a simulation program and field data from a tree retention experiment in a Scots pine forest in central Sweden, we simulated the consequences during the following 100 years of various levels of retention on production of merchantable wood, dead wood input (as a proxy for biodiversity), and carbon stock changes. At the stand level, wood production decreased with increased retention levels, while dead wood input and carbon stock increased. We also compared 12 scenarios representing a land sharing/land sparing gradient. In each scenario, a constant volume of wood was harvested with a specific level of retention in a 100-ha landscape. The area not needed to reach the defined volume was set-aside during a 100-year rotation period, leading to decreasing area of set-asides with increasing level of retention across the 12 scenarios. Dead wood input was positively affected by the level of tree retention whereas the average carbon stock decreased slightly with increasing level of tree retention. The scenarios will probably vary in how they favor species preferring different substrates. Therefore, we conclude that a larger variation of landscape-level conservation strategies, also including active creation of dead wood, may be an attractive complement to the existing management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Wood Chemical Composition in Species of Cactaceae: The Relationship between Lignification and Stem Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs) and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content) in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous) with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35%) of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level. PMID:25880223

  3. Wood chemical composition in species of Cactaceae: the relationship between lignification and stem morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Reyes-Rivera

    Full Text Available In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35% of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level.

  4. Wood chemical composition in species of Cactaceae: the relationship between lignification and stem morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rivera, Jorge; Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Terrazas, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs) and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content) in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous) with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35%) of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level.

  5. Wood bioenergy and soil productivity research

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2016-01-01

    Timber harvesting can cause both short- and long-term changes in forest ecosystem functions, and scientists from USDA Forest Service (USDA FS) have been studying these processes for many years. Biomass and bioenergy markets alter the amount, type, and frequency at which material is harvested, which in turn has similar yet specific impacts on sustainable productivity....

  6. Characterization of Cypress Wood for Kraft Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. A. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood samples of Cupressus arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were evaluated for chemical, anatomical, and pulp characteristics as raw material for pulp production. Two 17-year-old trees per species were harvested, and wood samples were taken at a height of 2 m. Wood chips from Pinus pinaster (Portugal and P. sylvestris (Finland were used as references. C. arizonica differed from C. lusitanica and C. sempervirens with significantly lower (p < 0.05 tracheid diameter and wall thickness in the earlywood. The total extractives contents were 3.9%, 3.3%, and 2.5% for C. lusitanica, C. sempervirens, and C. arizonica, respectively, lower than the 5.1% for P. pinaster and 4.5% for P. sylvestris. Klason lignin content ranged from 33.0 to 35.6%, higher than the 28.0 to 28.7% for the pinewoods. The kraft pulp yields for C. arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were 37.7%, 36.7%, and 38.7%, respectively, with kappa numbers of 32.0, 31.6, and 28.7, respectively; the yield values were 40.8% and 42.8%, with kappa numbers of 23.4 and 21.0, for P. pinaster and P. sylvestris, respectively. The cypress species are clearly different from pine in relation to wood pulping behavior. Among the cypress, C. sempervirens provided the best pulping results.

  7. Rice straw-wood particle composite for sound absorbing wooden construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2003-01-01

    In this study, rice straw-wood particle composite boards were manufactured as insulation boards using the method used in the wood-based panel industry. The raw material, rice straw, was chosen because of its availability. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8, and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80, and 30/70 weight of rice straw/wood particle) of 10, 20, and 30 wt.%. A commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive was used as the composite binder, to achieve 140-290 psi of bending modulus of rupture (MOR) with 0.4 specific gravity, 700-900 psi of bending MOR with 0.6 specific gravity, and 1400-2900 psi of bending MOR with a 0.8 specific gravity. All of the composite boards were superior to insulation board in strength. Width and length of the rice straw particle did not affect the bending MOR. The composite boards made from a random cutting of rice straw and wood particles were the best and recommended for manufacturing processes. Sound absorption coefficients of the 0.4 and 0.6 specific gravity boards were higher than the other wood-based materials. The recommended properties of the rice straw-wood particle composite boards are described, to absorb noises, preserve the temperature of indoor living spaces, and to be able to partially or completely substitute for wood particleboard and insulation board in wooden constructions.

  8. Thermal load histories for North American roof assembles using various cladding materials including wood-thermoplastic composite shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Winandy

    2006-01-01

    Since 1991, thermal load histories for various roof cladding types have been monitored in outdoor attic structures that simulate classic North American light-framed construction. In this paper, the 2005 thermal loads for wood-based composite roof sheathing, wood rafters, and attics under wood-plastic composite shingles are compared to common North American roof...

  9. Quality Measurement in the Wood Products Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Omar Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to learn about quality measurement practices in a wood products supply chain. According to the Supply Chain Management paradigm, companies no longer compete as individual entities, but as part of complex networks of suppliers and customers, linked together by flows of materials and information. Evidence suggests that a high degree of integration between supply chain members is essential to achieve superior market and financial performance. This study investigat...

  10. Influence of different degrees of acetylation in the physical and mechanical properties of particleboards and wood-cement composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modified wood particles used to particleboards manufacture may, at the same time, improve the dimensional stability and damage the internal bond. The aim of this research was find the optimal point of acetylation for particleboards. Pinus taeda particles with different degrees of acetylation, 8, 15 and 20% of weight percentage gain (WGP, were used in the production of particleboards with urea-formaldehyde resin and wood-cement composites produced by mechanical and vibratory compaction. It was evaluated the water absorption, thickness swelling and internal bind of the particleboards according to the European standards EN 317 and EN 319. Particleboards produced with 15 WPG showed the lowest water absorption and thickness swelling values. However, the use of chemically modified wood had a negative influence in the internal bind of the boards. This phenomenon can be explain due to the similar behavior between resin and water, that way, the high degree acetylation stops the adhesive and adherent bind. In the case of wood-cement composites, the internal bind improves as the acetylation degrees get higher. Nevertheless the inhibition of acetylated wood particles to the cement hydration got higher when the WPG was higher than 8%.

  11. Effect of stacking sequence on mechanical properties neem wood veneer plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamadhu, M.; Kumar, G. C. Mohan; Jeyaraj, P.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of wood veneer stacking sequence on mechanical properties of neem wood polymer composite (WPC) experimentally. Wood laminated samples were fabricated by conventional hand layup technique in a mold and cured under pressure at room temperature and then post cured at elevated temperature. Initially, the tensile, flexural, and impact test were conducted to understand the effect of weight fraction of fiber on mechanical properties. The mechanical properties have increased with the weight fraction of fiber. Moreover the stacking sequence of neem wood plays an important role. As it has a significant impact on the mechanical properties. The results indicated that 0°/0° WPC shows highest mechanical properties as compared to other sequences (90°/90°, 0°/90°, 45°/90°, 45°/45°). The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) Analysis were carried out to identify chemical compounds both in raw neem wood and neem wood epoxy composite. The microstructure raw/neat neem wood and the interfacial bonding characteristics of neem wood composite investigated using Scanning electron microscopy images.

  12. How craftsmen and home hobbyists can make and use wood-plastic composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard N. Rosen

    1974-01-01

    An inexpensive method that can be used by the home hobbyist, craftsman, or small businessman for making wood-plastic composites is described. Several examples are given to demonstrate the ease and versatility of the method.

  13. Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  14. PCM/wood composite to store thermal energy in passive building envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreneche, C.; Vecstaudza, J.; Bajare, D.; Fernandez, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    The development of new materials to store thermal energy in a passive building system is a must to improve the thermal efficiency by thermal-regulating the indoor temperatures. This fact will deal with the reduction of the gap between energy supply and energy demand to achieve thermal comfort in building indoors. The aim of this work was to test properties of novel PCM/wood composite materials developed at Riga Technical University. Impregnation of PCM (phase change material) in wood increases its thermal mass and regulates temperature fluctuations during day and night. The PCM used are paraffin waxes (RT-21 and RT-27 from Rubitherm) and the wood used was black alder, the most common wood in Latvia. The PCM distribution inside wood sample has been studied as well as its thermophysical, mechanical and fire reaction properties. Developed composite materials are promising in the field of energy saving in buildings.

  15. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOSITES COMPRISING MODIFIED HARDWOOD AND WOOD POLYMERS/POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxanda Bodîrlău

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of hardwood sawdust from ash-tree species was carried out with a solution of maleic anhydride in acetone. Wood polymers, lignin, and cellulose were isolated from the wood sawdust and modified by the same method. Samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, providing evidence that maleic anhydride esterifies the free hydroxyl groups of the wood polymer components. Composites comprising chemically modified wood sawdust and wood polymers (cellulose, lignin-as variable weight percentages-, and poly (vinyl chloride were obtained and further characterized by using FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The thermal behavior of composites was investigated by using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. In all cases, thermal properties were affected by fillers addition.

  16. Life cycle environmental impacts of different construction wood waste and wood packaging waste processing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, Kaisa; Judl, Jáchym; Myllymaa, Tuuli

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the life cycle environmental impacts of different wood waste processing methods in three impact categories: climate impact, acidification impacts and eutrophication impacts. The wood waste recovery methods examined were the use of wood waste in terrace boards made out of wood composite which replace impregnated terrace boards, incineration of wood waste in a multi-fuel boiler instead of peat and the use of wood waste in the production of particleboard in either Finland or ...

  17. Treatments of non-wood plant fibres used as reinforcement in composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ange Arsène

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a summary of the knowledge on fibres and pulps of non wood tropical plants used as reinforcement in cementitious composites accumulated during the recent years by Guadeloupean and Brazilian teams participating in collaborative work. Vegetable fibres represent a good alternative as non-conventional materials for the construction of ecological and sustainable buildings. The use of such renewable resources contributes to the development of sustainable technologies. The main objective of the paper is to emphasize the use of agricultural wastes in the production of cement based composites. The botanical, chemical, physical, morphological and mechanical properties of fibres from various plants are described. The effects of different treatments on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of fibres are presented. The most effective treatments in influencing the mechanical and physical properties are pyrolysis and alkaline ones, according to the type of plant. The final choice will have to consider fibre availability, and treatment costs.

  18. Microbuckling compression failure of a radiation-induced wood/polymer composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boey, F.Y.C.

    1990-01-01

    A wood/polymer composite was produced by impregnating Ramin wood with methyl methacrylate monomer and subsequently polymerizing it by gamma irradiation. To assess the improvement in compression strength of the wood caused by the polymer impregnation, a microbuckling compression failure mechanism was used to model the compression failure of the composite. Such a mechanism was found to predict a linear relationship between the compression strength and the percentage polymer impregnation (by weight). Uniaxial compression test results at 45(±5)% and 90(±5)% relative humidity levels, after being statistically analysed, showed that such a linear relationship was valid for up to 100% polymer impregnation. (author)

  19. Utilization potential of wood clones of Eucalyptus urophylla in the production of wood-cement panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using clones of Eucalyptus urophylla in the production of wood-cement panels. The study used six clones of Eucalyptus urophylla with 8 years of age, from the Companhia Mineira de Metais, located in Paracatu - MG. For the formation of the panels it was used Portland cement CP V - ARI / Plus, possessing high initial resistance to mineral binder and calcium chloride (CaCl2 as accelerator for the cement curing. The panels were produced with the following parameters: dimensions of 49.5 x 49.5 x 1.5 cm, nominal density of 1.2 g/cm ³, relation wood: cement (1:2.5 and relation water: cement (1:1.5. The results can showed that: (1 for thickness swelling in two and twenty-four hours, only clones 19.28 and 58 attended the specifications, (2 for water absorption, clone 62 showed the best results, (3 to internal bond, only clone 58 didn`t attend specifications, (4 for the compression, clones 19.36 and 58 showed the best results, (5 for MOE and MOR, none of the clones presented values compatible to the bison process. It is suggested the continuation of this line of research, including the manipulation of variables of production, so that all properties be compatible to the minimum required standards.

  20. Harvested wood products and REDD+: looking beyond the forest border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunggul Butarbutar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The focus of REDD+ is sensu stricto on maintaining forest carbon stocks. We extend the scope of sustainable management of forest from forests to timber utilization, and study carbon offsets resulting from the utilization of harvested timber for bio energy or harvested wood products (HWPs. The emission budget of harvesting operations depends on the loss of standing biomass by timber extracted from the forest site and logging losses on the one side, and on the other on the wood end use and the utilization of processing residues. We develop two scenarios to quantify the magnitude of CO2 emissions by (1 energetic utilization, and (2 energetic and material utilization of harvested timber and compare the substitution effects for different fossil energy sources. Results The direct energetic use of harvested timber does not compensate for the losses of forest carbon stock. Logging residuals and displacement factors reflecting different wood use constitute by far the most important factor in potential emission reductions. Substitution effects resulting from energetic use of mill residuals and from HWPs have only a subordinated contribution to the total emissions as well as the type of fossil fuel utilized to quantify substitution effects. Material substitution effects associated with harvested wood products show a high potential to increase the climate change benefits. Conclusions The observation and perception of REDD+ should not be restricted to sustainable management and reduced impact logging practices in the forest domain but should be extended to the utilization of extracted timber. Substitution effects from material and energetic utilization of harvested timber result in considerable emission reductions, which can compensate for the loss of forest carbon, and eventually contribute to the overall climate change mitigation benefits from forestry sector.

  1. Conservation value of low-productivity forests measured as the amount and diversity of dead wood and saproxylic beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Aino; Strengbom, Joachim; Ranius, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    In many managed landscapes, low-productivity land comprises most of the remaining relatively untouched areas, and is often over-represented within protected areas. The relationship between the productivity and conservational value of a site is poorly known; however, it has been hypothesized that biodiversity increases with productivity due to higher resource abundance or heterogeneity, and that the species communities of low-productivity land are a nested subset of communities from more productive land. We tested these hypotheses for dead-wood-dependent beetles by comparing their species richness and composition, as well as the amount and diversity of dead wood, between low-productivity (potential forest growth dead wood, but volume appeared to be a better predictor than diversity for the higher species richness in set-asides. Beetle species composition was similar among stand types, and the assemblages in low-productivity stands were largely subsets of those in high-productivity set-asides. However, 11% of all species and 40% of red-listed species only occurred in high-productivity stands, while no species were unique to low-productivity stands. We conclude that low-productivity forests are less valuable for conservation than high-productivity forest land. Given the generally similar species composition among stand types, a comparable conservational effect could be obtained by setting aside a larger area of low-productivity forest in comparison to the high-productivity. In terms of dead wood volumes, 1.8-3.6 ha of low-productivity forest has the same value as 1 ha of unmanaged high-productivity forest. This figure can be used to estimate the conservation value of low-productivity forests; however, as high-productivity forests harbored some unique species, they are not completely exchangeable. © 2018 The Authors. Ecological Applications published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Ecological Society of America.

  2. Potential of Using Recycled Low-Density Polyethylene in Wood Composites Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Igboanugo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using recycled low density polyethylene (RLDPE in wood board manufacturing. The composite board was produced by compressive moulding by increasing the percentage LDPE from 30 to 50wt% with interval of 10wt% at a temperatures of 140 and 180oC, pressure of 30-40 Kg/cm2 and pressing time 7-13minutes. The microstructure and mechanical properties: modulus of rupture (MOR, modulus of elasticity (MOE, Tensile strength, impact strength properties of boards were determined. The results showed that high modulus of rupture of 20.31N/mm2and MOE of 1363N/mm2 were obtained from board produced at 140oC, 60/40wt% wood particles/LDPE content. The uniform distribution of the particles and the recycled LDPE in the microstructure of the composites board is the major factor responsible for the improvement in the mechanical properties. The results showed that the MOE, MOR meets the minimum requirements of the European standards, for general purpose. The boards produced had tensile strength that is within the requirement. Hence this LDPE can be used in board production for general purpose applications.

  3. Properties of concretes and wood composites using a phosphate-based binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Luong Thanh

    Magnesium potassium phosphate ceramics are from the family of phosphate-based cements which can be used as alternatives to Portland cements. In this study, concretes and wood composites were produced using magnesium potassium phosphate ceramic binders and supplementary materials including fly ash, sand, silica fume and sawdust. Bentonite, Delvo Stabilizer and baking soda were used as additives to increase the workability and the setting time of the fresh mixutres and decrease the density of the hardened products. The materials were then reinforced with chopped glass-fibers or textile glass-fabrics to increase their hardened properties. At 50% fly ash by total mass of the binder, the concretes had compressive strength and density of 33 MPa and 2170 kg/m3, respectively, after 90 days of simple curing. At 20% fly ash by total mass of the binder, the wood composites had compressive strength and density of 13 MPa and 1320 kg/m3, respectively, after 90 days. The flexural strengths were about 10% to 47% of the corresponding cylinder compressive strengths for these mixes. Increases in both compressive and flexural strengths for these mixes were observed with the addition of chopped glass-fibers or textile glass-fabrics.

  4. Forests and wood consumption on the carbon balance. Carbon emission reduction by use of wood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikkema, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Until now studies on the greenhouse effect paid much attention to carbon fixation by forests, while the entire CO2 cycle of forests and forest products remained underexposed. Utilization of wood products instead of energy-intensive materials (plastics/steel) and fossil fuels (coal) proves to play an important role as well. The effect of utilization is even greater than that of fixation. In all, additional forests together with the multiple use of trees can contribute substantially to the reduction of CO2 emissions. The contribution can run from 5.3 ton CO2/ha/yr for a mixed forest of oak/beech to 18.9 ton CO2/ha/yr for energy plantations (poplar). 2 figs., 3 tabs

  5. A synthesis of research on wood products and greenhouse gas impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathre, R.; O'Connor, J.

    2008-11-01

    Existing scientific literature on the wood products industry was reviewed in an effort to summarize consensus findings, or range of findings, addressing the net life cycle greenhouse gas footprint of wood construction products. The report sought to clarify whether actively managing forests for wood production was better, worse or neutral for climate change than leaving the forest in its natural state. In addition, it sought to quantify the greenhouse gas emissions avoided per unit of wood substituted for non-wood materials. Forty-eight international studies were examined in terms of fossil energy used in wood manufacturing and compared alternatives, such as the avoidance of industrial process carbon emissions as with cement manufacturing; the storage of carbon in forests and forest products; the use of wood by-products as a biofuel replacement for fossil fuels; and carbon storage and emission due to forest products in landfills. The report presented a list of studies reviewed and individual summaries of study findings. A meta-analysis of displacement factors of wood product use was also presented. It was concluded from all of the studies reviewed, that the production of wood-based materials and products results in less greenhouse gas emission than the production of functionally comparable non-wood materials and products. 48 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Manufacturability of Wood Plastic Composite Sheets on the Basis of the Post-Processing Cooling Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Matthews

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Extruded wood-plastic composites (WPCs are increasingly regarded as promising materials for future manufacturing industries. It is necessary to select and tune the post-processing methods to be able to utilize these materials fully. In this development, temperature-related material properties and the cooling rate are important indicators. This paper presents the results of natural cooling in a factory environment fit into a cooling curve function with temperature zones for forming, cutting, and packaging overlaid using a WPC material. This information is then used in the evaluation of manufacturability and productivity in terms of cost effectiveness and technical quality by comparing the curve to actual production time data derived from a prototype post-process forming line. Based on this information, speed limits for extrusion are presented. This paper also briefly analyzes techniques for controlling material cooling to counter the heat loss before post-processing.

  7. Tensile and impact properties of three-component PP/wood/elastomer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pukanszky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP was reinforced with wood flour and impact modified with elastomers to increase stiffness and impact resistance simultaneously. Elastomer content changed in four (0, 5, 10 and 20 wt%, while that of wood content in seven steps, the latter from 0 to 60 wt% in 10 wt% steps. Structure and adhesion were controlled by the addition of functionalized (maleated polymers. Composites were homogenized in a twin-screw extruder and then injection molded to tensile bars. Fracture resistance was characterized by standard and instrumented impact tests. The results showed that the components are dispersed independently of each other even when a functionalized elastomer is used for impact modification, at least under the conditions of this study. Impact resistance does not change much as a function of wood content in PP/wood composites, but decreases drastically from the very high level of the PP/elastomer blend to almost the same value obtained without impact modifier in the three-component materials. Increasing stiffness and fiber related local deformation processes led to small fracture toughness at large wood content. Micromechanical deformation processes depend mainly on the strength of PP/wood interaction; debonding and pull-out take place at poor adhesion, while fiber fracture dominates when adhesion is strong. Composites with sufficiently large impact resistance cannot be prepared in the usual range of wood contents (50–60 wt%.

  8. Wood product industry - present state and studies of the development alternatives; Puuteollisuuden nykytilan ja haasteiden arviointia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmijoki, O.; Paajanen, T.; Kairi, M.

    2007-07-01

    In this research project the development of the wood products industry and its operating environment in Finland was studied using statistical data mainly from years 1995 - 2003. In this context, the wood products industry includes the sawmilling industry, the plywood and other wood panel industry, prefabricated wooden housing and the building joinery industry, wood packing manufacture and the manufacture of other wooden products. The development of the wood products industry and its operating environment has been estimated by combining statistical data about the business economy, production economy and the national economy from the Central Statistical Office of Finland together with data from the Finnish Forest Research Institute. Based on statistical data, the wood product markets, profitability and cost structure of branches, input market, use of labour force and investments have been studied. The economic importance of the wood products industry has been estimated at a national and a local level. Challenges facing wood products industry branches have been analysed using example calculations based on input-output theory. In the evaluation method, the business environment of the wood products industry branches and related branches, have been described with a use table at basic prices commonly using in the national economy. This method has enabled the direct and indirect effects of simultaneous quantity and price changes occurring in the wood product markets and markets related to the wood product industry, to be analysed. In the example calculations, variation of sawn timber production and log import, as well as the increments of sawn timber upgrading, wood product usage in building, wood panel production and purchase energy price, were reviewed

  9. Application of industrial wood residues for combined heat and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majchrzycka, A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses combined production of heat and power (CHP) from industrial wood residues. The system will be powered by wood residues generated during manufacturing process of wooden floor panels. Based on power and heat demands of the plant and wood residues potential, the CHP system was selected. Preliminary analysis of biomass conversion in CHP system and environmental impact was performed.

  10. Wood Degradation by Thermotolerant and Thermophilic Fungi for Sustainable Heat Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caizan Juanarena, Leire; ter Heijne, Annemiek; Buisman, Cees; Van der Wal, A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of renewable biomass for production of heat and electricity plays an important role in the circular economy. Degradation of wood biomass to produce heat is a clean and novel process proposed as an alternative to wood burning, and could be used for various heating applications. So far, wood

  11. Wood products trade and foreign markets. Annual production, consumption, and trade issue. Principal countries impacting US trade in wood products. Foreign agriculture circular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Forest Products Division has compiled production, consumption, and trade data on selected wood products for twenty eight significant countries. The data, collected from various sources, is not necessarily compatible with US export and import data normally published in this circular, which comes from the US Census Bureau. To supplement this data, the following perspectives offer a comparative snapshot of conditions in these countries, both in the general economy and the wood products sector. Economic information was extracted from the 1992 World Factbook; Central Intelligence Agency

  12. Effect of wood flour content on the optical color, surface chemistry, mechanical and morphological properties of wood flour/recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE) composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Chan Kok; Amin, Khairul Anuar Mat; Kee, Kwa Bee; Hassan, Mohd Faiz; Ali, E. Ghapur E.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, effect of wood flour content on the color, surface chemistry, mechanical properties and surface morphology of wood-plastic composite (WPC) on different mixture ratios of recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE) and wood flour were investigated in detail. The presence of wood flour in the composite indicates a significant total color change and a decrease of lightness. Functional groups of wood flour in WPC can be seen clearer from the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra as the wood flour content increases. The mechanical tensile testing shows that the tensile strength of Young's modulus is improved, whereas the strain and elongation at break were reduced by the addition of wood flour. The gap between the wood flour microvoid fibre and rHDPE matrix becomes closer when the wood flour content is increased as observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) image. This finding implies a significant improvement on the interaction of interfacial adhesion between the rHDPE matrix and wood flour filler in the present WPC.

  13. Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yong; Wu, Qinglin

    2010-05-01

    High-melting-temperature poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was successfully introduced into wood plastic composites through a two-step reactive extrusion technology. Wood flour was added into pre-prepared PET/high density polyethylene (HDPE) microfibrillar blends (MFBs) in the second extrusion at the temperature for processing HDPE. Addition of 25% in situ formed PET microfibers obviously increased the mechanical properties of HDPE, and more significant enhancement by the in situ formed recycled PET microfibers was observed for the recycled HDPE. Adding 2% E-GMA improved the compatibility between matrix and microfibers in MFBs, resulting further enhanced mechanical properties. The subsequent addition of 40% wood flour did not influence the size and morphology of PET microfibers, and improved the comprehensive mechanical properties of MFBs. The wood flour increased the crystallinity level of HDPE in the compatibilized MFB in which PET phase did not crystallize. The storage modulus of MFB was greatly improved by wood flour. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Physical properties of wood-polymer composites prepared by an electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, S.; Handa, T.; Fukuoka, M.; Hashizume, Y.; Nakamura, T.

    1981-01-01

    The dual characteristics in the performance of polymers in wood-polymer composites systems have been pursued with regard to the resolution of mechanical anisotropy of wood and the improvement in dimensional stability. The objective of the present study is to pursue the polymerization mechanism in wood under electron beam irradiation and the temperature dependence of polymer-wood interactions induced at various levels of higher order structure of wood in order to understand the polymer performance. Veneers used in the study were of rotary-cut beech (Fagus crenata Blume) 0.65 mm thick. All samples were oven-dried in vacuo at 80 0 C for 30 hr. The monomers used in the study were methyl methacrylate, styrene, acrylic acid, acrylonitrile, and unsaturated polyester. Experimental details are given. Results are given and discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy-Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David N. Thompson, Robert W. Emerick, Alfred B. England, James P. Flanders, Frank J. Loge, Katherine A. Wiedeman, Michael P. Wolcott

    2010-04-08

    The forestry, wood and paper industries in the United States provide thousands of productive well-paying jobs; however, in the face of the recent economic downturn it faces significant challenges in remaining economically viable and competitive. To compete successfully on a global market that is increasingly driven by the need for sustainable products and practices, the industry must improve margins and diversify product lines while continuing to produce the staple products. One approach that can help to accomplish this goal sustainably is the forest biorefinery. In the forest biorefinery, traditional waste streams are utilized singly or in combination to manufacture additional products in a profitable and environmentally sustainable manner. In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered Wood Products (EWP). Utilizing bio-based thermoplastics for these materials can reduce our dependence on foreign petroleum. Renewable microbial polyesters are not currently used in WFRTCs primarily because their production costs are several times higher than those of conventional petrochemical-derived plastics, limiting their use to small specialty markets. The strategy for this project was to economically produce WFRTCs using microbial polyesters by reducing or eliminating the most costly steps in the bio-plastic production. This would be achieved by producing them in and from waste effluents from the municipal and forest products sectors, and by eliminating the costly purification steps. After production the plasticladen biosolids would be dried and used directly to replace petroleum

  16. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Bhattacharyya, Debes [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Advanced Composite Materials, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Biochar made from waste wood was added with wood polypropylene composites. • 24% biochar gave the best mechanical properties. • 6% biochar had no effect on physico-mechanical properties of composites. • Coupling agent remained unreacted in composites having higher amount of biochar. - Abstract: In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite’s tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications.

  17. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K.; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Biochar made from waste wood was added with wood polypropylene composites. • 24% biochar gave the best mechanical properties. • 6% biochar had no effect on physico-mechanical properties of composites. • Coupling agent remained unreacted in composites having higher amount of biochar. - Abstract: In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite’s tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications

  18. Production of plastified wood with stronger static bending strength means of polymerization induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, Elias

    1999-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation to obtain wood-polymer composites is one of the applications of radiation that presents the most commercial interest. The process, denominated radiopolymerization, comprises the impregnation of monomers into the completely dried wood followed by exposure to gamma radiation to induce polymerization of the impregnated monomers. I this context, the present work aimed the application of this process to seven kinds of wood existing in the brazilian forests. The considered monomer is styrene and the gamma source is Cobalt-60. The obtained wood-polystyrene composites were found to have stronger static bending strength. (author)

  19. Potassium methyl siliconate-treated pulp fibers and their effects on wood plastic composites: Water sorption and dimensional stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Zhiyong Cai; Nicole M. Stark; Charles J. Monlezun

    2013-01-01

    Potassium methyl siliconate (PMS) was investigated as a new nano modifier of wood fiber and wood flour to improve the compatibility between the fiber/flour and the plastic matrix in fiber reinforced plastic composites. Before injection molding, bleached and brown pulp fibers and mixed species wood flour were pretreated in PMS solutions. The morphology of the treated...

  20. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F.W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  1. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  2. Ultraviolet weathering of HDPE/wood-flour composites coextruded with a clear HDPE cap layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent M. Matuana; Shan Jin; Nicole M. Stark

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect coextruding a clear HDPE cap layer onto HDPE/wood-flour composites has on the discoloration of coextruded composites exposed to accelerated UV tests. Chroma meter, FTIRATR, XPS, SEM, and UV vis measurements accounted for the analysis of discoloration, functional groups, and degree of oxidation of both uncapped (control) and coextruded...

  3. WATER VAPOUR PERMEABILITY PROPERTIES OF CELLULAR WOOD MATERIAL AND CONDENSATION RISK OF COMPOSITE PANEL WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis IEJAVS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Invention of light weight cellular wood material (CWM with a trade mark of Dendrolight is one of innovations in wood industry of the last decade. The aim of the research was to define the water vapour permeability properties of CWM and to analyse the condensation risk of various wall envelopes where solid wood cellular material is used. To determine the water vapour permeability of CWM, test samples were produced in the factory using routine production technology and tested according to the standard EN 12086:2014. Water vapour permeability factor (μ and other properties of six different configurations of CWM samples were determined. Using the experimental data the indicative influence of geometrical parameters such as lamella thickness, number of lamellas and material direction were investigated and evaluated. To study the condensation risk within the wall envelope containing CWM calculation method given in LVS EN ISO 13788:2012 was used. To ease the calculation process previously developed JavaScript calculation software that had only capability to calculate thermal transmittance was extended so that condensation risk in multi-layer composite walls can be analysed. Water vapour permeability factor in CWM is highly direction dependant. If parallel and perpendicular direction of CWM is compared the value of water vapour permeability factor can differentiate more than two times. Another significant factor for condensation risk analysis is overall thickness of CWM since it directly influences the equivalent air layer thickness. The influence of other factors such as lamella thickness, or groove depth is minor when water vapour permeability properties are compared. From the analysis of CWM performance in building envelope it can be concluded that uninsulated CWM panels used during winter months will pose the risk of condensation damage to structure, but the risk can be reduced or prevented if insulation layer is applied to the CWM panel wall

  4. Potential Markets for Wood-Plastic Composites in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, T. [Central Research Laboratory, Showa Denko K.K., Ota-Ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    1968-10-15

    The marketing possibilities of natural and treated woods are compared. A description is given of the advantages and disadvantages of these materials, together with the effects that improved quality might have on marketing prospects. Extensive reference tables illustrate the change in supply and demand over a number of years. (author)

  5. EB-curing of coatings on wood composite boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czvikovszky, T.; Czajlic, I.; Takacs, E.; Ille, A.; Salleh, N.G.; Alpar, T.

    1988-01-01

    The industrial radiation processing using low energy electron beam (EB) accelerators lower than 300 keV offers high speed, safe technologies for the chemical conversion of thin layer coatings. Because of the nonselective mode of initiating chain reaction polymerization involving free radicals in synthetic coating layers and suitable substrates, the EB curing of the coatings on woods and papers has particular advantage. Hungary decided to start an up-to-date EB line to process cement-bound (CB) wood chipboards with pigmented acrylic coatings. The CB wood chipboards contain more than 60 % of portland cement and up to 40 % of wood particles. They are produced as large boads of 6 - 16 mm thickness. In their fireproof character and other aspects, they are similar to asbestos-cement boards without containing carcinagenic asbestos, and are stable against moisture and atmospheric influences. EB-cured acrylate coating improved further those properties, and makes them valuable structural material. Oligomers and monomers as the main components of EB curable coatings, the irradiation with a Van de Graaff type electron accelerator of 2 MeV and the results are reported. The oligomers play the most important role in the formation of radiation curable coatings. (K.I.)

  6. Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m 3 or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m 3 or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

  7. Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christersson, Lars [Section of Short Rotation Forestry, VPE, SLU, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m{sup 3} or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m{sup 3} or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

  8. MARKET OF NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS FROM BRAZILIAN SAVANNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Afonso

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the main non-wood forest products from Brazilian savanna. We studied the behavior and the growth rates of production and prices of almond of babaçu, oil of copaiba, fiber of buriti, leaf of jaborandi, bark of barbatimão, bark of angico, fruit of mangaba, almonds of pequi, from 1982 to 2005. All the products exhibited decreasing production, with exception of the oil of copaiba and almonds of pequi, which showed positive growth rates: 12.9% and 8.5%, respectively. The analysis of prices for most products was not significant, except for barks of barbatimão and angico, and almonds of pequi, which showed positive trends: 10.9%, 6.7%, and 4.6%, respectively. We believe that results were not significant due to the severe variations of the Brazilian currency in the period. We conclude that pequi is the main product from savanna and that oil of copaiba has the biggest increase in the production because most of the production comes from the whole Brazilian Amazon region.

  9. Meta-analysis of greenhouse gas displacement factors of wood product substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathre, Roger; O'Connor, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    A displacement factor can express the efficiency of using biomass to reduce net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, by quantifying the amount of emission reduction achieved per unit of wood use. Here we integrate data from 21 different international studies in a meta-analysis of the displacement factors of wood products substituted in place of non-wood materials. We calculate the displacement factors in consistent units of tons of carbon (tC) of emission reduction per tC in wood product. The displacement factors range from a low of -2.3 to a high of 15, with most lying in the range of 1.0 to 3.0. The average displacement factor value is 2.1, meaning that for each tC in wood products substituted in place of non-wood products, there occurs an average GHG emission reduction of approximately 2.1 tC. Expressed in other units, this value corresponds to roughly 3.9 t CO 2 eq emission reduction per ton of dry wood used. The few cases of negative displacement factors are the result of worst-case scenarios that are unrealistic in current practice. This meta-analysis quantifies the range of GHG benefits of wood substitution, and provides a clear climate rationale for increasing wood substitution in place of other products, provided that forests are sustainably managed and that wood residues are used responsibly.

  10. Meta-analysis of greenhouse gas displacement factors of wood product substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, 83125 Ostersund (Sweden); O' Connor, Jennifer [FPInnovations-Forintek, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1W5 (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    A displacement factor can express the efficiency of using biomass to reduce net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, by quantifying the amount of emission reduction achieved per unit of wood use. Here we integrate data from 21 different international studies in a meta-analysis of the displacement factors of wood products substituted in place of non-wood materials. We calculate the displacement factors in consistent units of tons of carbon (tC) of emission reduction per tC in wood product. The displacement factors range from a low of -2.3 to a high of 15, with most lying in the range of 1.0 to 3.0. The average displacement factor value is 2.1, meaning that for each tC in wood products substituted in place of non-wood products, there occurs an average GHG emission reduction of approximately 2.1 tC. Expressed in other units, this value corresponds to roughly 3.9 t CO{sub 2} eq emission reduction per ton of dry wood used. The few cases of negative displacement factors are the result of worst-case scenarios that are unrealistic in current practice. This meta-analysis quantifies the range of GHG benefits of wood substitution, and provides a clear climate rationale for increasing wood substitution in place of other products, provided that forests are sustainably managed and that wood residues are used responsibly.

  11. Chapter 23: Corrosion of Metals in Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2014-01-01

    The corrosion of metals in contact with wood has been studied for over 80 years, and in most situations wood is not corrosive [1]. Recently, however, the durability of fasteners in preservative--treated wood has become a concern. Changes in legislation and certification in the United States, the European Union, and Australasia have restricted the use of chromated...

  12. Construction of low-cost, Mod-OA wood composite wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Two sixty-foot, low-cost, wood composite blades for service on 200 kW Mod-OA wind turbines were constructed. The blades were constructed of epoxy resin-bonded Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge sections, and paper honeycombcored, birch plywood faced panels for the afterbody sections. The blades were joined to the wind turbine hub by epoxy resin-bonded steel load take-off studs embedded into the root end of the blades. The blades were installed on the 200 kW Mod-OA wind turbine facility at Kahuku, Hawaii, The blades completed nearly 8,000 hours of operation over an 18 month period at an average power of 150 kW prior to replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The blades were replaced because of a corrosion failure of the steel shank on one stud. Inspections showed that the wood composite structure remained in excellent condition.

  13. Forest and wood products role in carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of the use of U.S. forests and forest products for carbon emission mitigation is presented. The current role of forests in carbon sequestration is described in terms of regional differences and forest management techniques. The potential for increasing carbon storage by converting marginal crop and pasture land, increasing timberland growth, reducing wildfire losses, and changing timber harvest methods is examined. Post-harvest carbon flows, environmental impacts of wood products, biomass energy crops, and increased use of energy-conserving trees are reviewed for their potential in reducing or offsetting carbon emissions. It is estimated that these techniques could offset 20 to 40 percent of the carbon emitted annually in the U.S. 39 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. In situ polymerized wood polymer composite: effect of additives and nanoclay on the thermal, mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, Rashmi R; Maji, Tarun K., E-mail: tkm@tezu.ernet.in [Department of Chemical Sciences, Tezpur University, Assam, (India)

    2013-11-01

    This study concerns the preparation and characterization of wood polymer nanocomposites based on impregnation of styrene acrylonitrile co-polymer-nanoclay intercalating system in presence of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), a cross linking agent, and vinyl trichloro silane (VTCS) as additives into Simul (Bombex ceiba, L.), a soft wood. The effect of nanoclay and VTCS on the properties of the resultant wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNC) has been evaluated. FTIR spectroscopy shows the interaction among wood, polymers, GMA, nanoclay and VTCS. The penetration of polymer and nanoclay into the wood cell wall is supported by SEM study. The distribution of nanoclay in the SAN polymer matrix present within the wood cell wall has been evidenced by TEM study. TGA results show an improvement in the thermostability of the resultant composites. The inclusion of VTCS enhances the self extinguishing behaviour of the WPNC as revealed by limiting oxygen index (LOI) test. Due to treatment, the resultant WPNC exhibits an improvement in all the properties like water repellency, dimensional stability, hardness, flexural, tensile and thermal stability compared to untreated wood. (author)

  15. Technological and Thermal Properties of Thermoplastic Composites Filled with Heat-treated Alder Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mürşit Tufan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of heat-treated wood content on the water absorption, mechanical, and thermal properties of wood plastic composites (WPCs. The WPCs were produced from various loadings (30, 40, and 50 wt% of heat-treated and untreated alder wood flours (Alnus glutinosa L. using high-density polyethylene (HDPE with 3 wt% maleated polyethylene (MAPE coupling agent. All WPC formulations were compression molded into a hot press for 3 min at 170 ºC. The WPCs were evaluated using mechanical testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The mechanical property values of the WPC specimens decreased with increasing amounts of the heat-treated wood flour, except for the tensile modulus values. The heat treatment of alder wood slightly increased the thermal stability of the WPCs compared with the reference WPCs. The crystallization degree (Xc and the enthalpy of crystallization of the WPCs slightly decreased with increasing content of the heat-treated wood flour. However, all WPCs containing the heat-treated alder wood flour showed a higher crystallinity degree than that of the virgin HDPE.

  16. In situ polymerized wood polymer composite: effect of additives and nanoclay on the thermal, mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Rashmi R; Maji, Tarun K.

    2013-01-01

    This study concerns the preparation and characterization of wood polymer nanocomposites based on impregnation of styrene acrylonitrile co-polymer–nanoclay intercalating system in presence of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), a cross linking agent, and vinyl trichloro silane (VTCS) as additives into Simul (Bombex ceiba, L.), a soft wood. The effect of nanoclay and VTCS on the properties of the resultant wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNC) has been evaluated. FTIR spectroscopy shows the interaction among wood, polymers, GMA, nanoclay and VTCS. The penetration of polymer and nanoclay into the wood cell wall is supported by SEM study. The distribution of nanoclay in the SAN polymer matrix present within the wood cell wall has been evidenced by TEM study. TGA results show an improvement in the thermostability of the resultant composites. The inclusion of VTCS enhances the self extinguishing behaviour of the WPNC as revealed by limiting oxygen index (LOI) test. Due to treatment, the resultant WPNC exhibits an improvement in all the properties like water repellency, dimensional stability, hardness, flexural, tensile and thermal stability compared to untreated wood. (author)

  17. Gasification of Wood and Non-wood Waste of Timber Production as Perspectives for Development of Bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislukhina, Irina A.; Rybakova, Olga G.

    2018-03-01

    The article deals with biomass gasification technology using the gasification plant running on wood chips and pellets, produced from essential oils waste (waste of coniferous boughs). During the study, the authors solved the process task of improving the quality of the product gas derived from non-wood waste of timber production (coniferous boughs) due to the extraction of essential oils and the subsequent thermal processing of spent coniferous boughs at a temperature of 250-300°C degrees without oxygen immediately before pelleting. The paper provides the improved biomass gasification process scheme including the grinding of coniferous boughs, essential oil distillation and thermal treatment of coniferous boughs waste and pelletizing.

  18. [Quantification of Wood Flour and Polypropylene in Chinese Fir/Polypropylene Composites by FTIR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Wan-li; Li, Gai-yun; Zhou, Qun; Qin, Te-fu

    2015-06-01

    The ratio of wood and plastic in Wood Plastic Composites (WPCss) influences quality and price, but traditional thermochemical methods cannot rapidly and accurately quantify the ratio of wood/PP in WPCss. This paper was addressed to investigate the feasibility of quantifying the wood flour content and plastic content in WPCss by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. With Chinese fir, polypropylene (PP) and other additives as raw materials, 13 WPCs samples with different wood flour contents, ranging from 9.8% to 61.5%, were prepared by modifying wood flour, mixing materials and extrusion pelletizing. The samples were analyzed by FTIR with the KBr pellets technique. The absorption peaks of WPCss at 1059, 1 033 and 1 740 cm(-1) are considered as characteristic of Chinese fir, and the absorption peaks at 1 377, 2 839 and 841 cm(-1) are typical of PP by comparing the spectra of WPCss with that of Chinese fir, PP and other additives. The relationship between the wood flour content, PP content in WPCss and their characteristic IR peaks height ratio was established. The results show that there is a strong linear correlation between the wood flour content in WPCss and I1 059/l 1 377/I1 033, /I1377, R2 are 0.992 and 0.993 respectively; there is a high linear correlation between the PP content in WPCss and I1 377/I1 740, I2 839 /I1 740 R2 are 0.985 and 0.981, respectively. Quantitative methods of the wood flour content and PP content in WPCss by FTIR were developed, the predictive equations of the wood flour content in WPCss are y = 53.297x-9. 107 and y = 55.922x-10.238, the predictive equations of the PP content in WPCss are y = 6.828 5x+5.403 6 and y = 8.719 7x+3.295 8. The results of the accuracy test and precision test show that the method has strong repeatability and high accuracy. The average prediction relative deviations of the wood flour content and PP content in WPCss are about 5%. The prediction accuracy has been improved remarkably, compared to

  19. Effects of copper amine treatments on mechanical, biological and surface/interphase properties of poly (vinyl chloride)/wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haihong

    2005-11-01

    The copper ethanolamine (CuEA) complex was used as a wood surface modifier and a coupling agent for wood-PVC composites. Mechanical properties of composites, such as unnotched impact strength, flexural strength and flexural toughness, were significantly increased, and fungal decay weight loss was dramatically decreased by wood surface copper amine treatments. It is evident that copper amine was a very effective coupling agent and decay inhibitor for PVC/wood flour composites, especially in high wood flour loading level. A DSC study showed that the heat capacity differences (DeltaCp) of composites before and after PVC glass transition were reduced by adding wood particles. A DMA study revealed that the movements of PVC chain segments during glass transition were limited and obstructed by the presence of wood molecule chains. This restriction effect became stronger by increasing wood flour content and by using Cu-treated wood flour. Wood flour particles acted as "physical cross-linking points" inside the PVC matrix, resulting in the absence of the rubbery plateau of PVC and higher E', E'' above Tg, and smaller tan delta peaks. Enhanced mechanical performances were attributed to the improved wetting condition between PVC melts and wood surfaces, and the formation of a stronger interphase strengthened by chemical interactions between Cu-treated wood flour and the PVC matrix. Contact angles of PVC solution drops on Cu-treated wood surfaces were decreased dramatically compared to those on the untreated surfaces. Acid-base (polar), gammaAB, electron-acceptor (acid) (gamma +), electron-donor (base) (gamma-) surface energy components and the total surface energies increased after wood surface Cu-treatments, indicating a strong tendency toward acid-base or polar interactions. Improved interphase and interfacial adhesion were further confirmed by measuring interfacial shear strength between wood and the PVC matrix.

  20. In-Situ Preparation and Magnetic Properties of Fe3O4/WOOD Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Honglin; Zhang, Genlin; Wu, Guoyuan; Guan, Hongtao

    2011-06-01

    Fe3O4/wood composite, a magnetic material, was prepared by In-situ chemosynthesis method at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the average partical size of Fe3O4 was about 14 nm. The magnetic properties of the resulting composites were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The composites have saturation magnetization (Ms) values from 4.7 to 25.3 emu/g with the increase of weight percent gains (WPG) of the wood for the composites, but coercive forces (Hc) are invariable, which is different from the magnetic materials reported before. It may be due to the fact that the interaction between wood and Fe3O4 becomes stronger when less of Fe3O4 particles are introduced in the composition, and this also changes the surface anisotropy (Ks) of the magnetism. A structural characterization by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) proved the interaction between Fe3O4 particles and wood matrix, and it also illustrates that this interaction influences the coercive force of the composite.

  1. The use of wood waste for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlopoulos, E.; Pavloudakis, F.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents some technical aspects and management issues of wood waste reuse end disposal. It refers to the Greek and European legislation which determines the framework for rational and environmental friendly practices for woos waste management. It refers also to the wood waste classification systems and the currently applied methods of wood waste disposal and reuse. Emphasis is given to the wood waste-to-energy conversion system, particularly to the pretreatment requirements, the combustion techniques, and the environmental constrains. Finally, the decision making process for the investments in the wood waste firing thermal units is discussed

  2. Influences of Thermo-Vacuum Treatment on Colors and Chemical Compositions of Alder Birch Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With high temperature-heat treatment, the dimensional stability and durability of wood is improved and wood color is darkened as well. In this paper, alder birch wood (Betula alnoides was treated by the Thermo-Vacuum Treatment (TVT. The changes of wood color parameters and the chemical composition were determined by the CIE1976 L*a*b* method and the chemical analysis method, respectively. The results were revealed as follows: (1 A lower value of lightness, L*, and a higher value of total color difference, △E*, were obtained at the higher heat-treatment temperatures and longer treatment time. (2 The higher the heat-treatment temperatures and the longer the heat-treatment times were, the lower the contents of hemicellulose and cellulose were and the higher the content of lignin was. Moreover, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis demonstrated that the characteristic absorption peaks of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin diminished. The acetylation reaction of hemicellulose and the degradation reaction of groups of lignin side chain occurred during TVT. (3 TVT degraded the chemical composition of cell walls, which resulted in further changes of the wood color. A significant correlation existed between the differences of color indices and the differences of the chemical composition after TVT.

  3. Furfural production from Eucalyptus wood using an Acidic Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleteiro, Susana; Santos, Valentín; Garrote, Gil; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were treated with hot, compressed water to separate hemicelluloses (as soluble saccharides) from a solid phase mainly made up of cellulose and lignin. The liquid phase was dehydrated, and the resulting solids (containing pentoses as well as poly- and oligo- saccharides made up of pentoses) were dissolved and reacted in media containing an Acidic Ionic Liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate) and a co-solvent (dioxane). The effects of the reaction time on the product distribution were studied at temperatures in the range 120-170°C for reaction times up to 8h, and operational conditions leading to 59.1% conversion of the potential substrates (including pentoses and pentose structural units in oligo- and poly- saccharides) into furfural were identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Testing painted wood : past practices at the Forest Products Laboratory and recommendations for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    2009-01-01

    A brief history of paint research at the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) in Madison, Wisconsin, sets the stage for a discussion of testing paint on wood and wood products. Tests include laboratory and outdoor tests, and I discuss them in terms of several degradation mechanisms (loss of gloss and fading, mildew growth, extractives bleed, and cracking, flaking, and...

  5. Geographical analyses of wood chips potentials, cost and supply for sustainable energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  6. Wood Products Other Building Materials Used in New Residential Construction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; Joe Elling

    2015-01-01

    On average, new residential construction accounts for about one-third of all wood products consumed in the United States annually. During periods of robust housing activity, 45% or more of all wood products consumed are for new single-family and multifamily housing. This can fall to as low as 20% or less during times of economic recession. Unfortunately, 2012 was not...

  7. Future carbon storage in harvested wood products from Ontario's Crown forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaxin Chen; Stephen J. Colombo; Michael T. Ter-Mikaelian; Linda S. Heath

    2008-01-01

    This analysis quantifies projected carbon (C) storage in harvested wood products (HWP) from Ontario's Crown forests. The large-scale forest C budget model, FORCARB-ON, was applied to estimate HWP C stock changes using the production approach defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Harvested wood volume was converted to C mass and allocated to...

  8. The suitability of selected wood species in the production of turned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the suitability of selected wood species in the production of turned glue-laminated products. Five different wood species of high quality grades which were sourced from Bodija market Ibadan, south western Nigeria were thoroughly examined where the moisture content, density and shrinkage ...

  9. Study of Wood Plastic Composites elastic behaviour using full field measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciaa A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the mechanical properties and microstructure of HDPE/wood fibre composites are investigated. The four-point bending and tensile behaviour of Wood Plastic Composite (WPC with or without additive are studied by using full-field strain measurements by 3-D Digital Image Correlation (3-D DIC. A non-linear behaviour is shown. The modulus of elasticity (MOE is calculated as the tangent at zero strain of a Maxwell-Bingham model fitted onto experimental data. Four-point bending tests are analyzed thanks to the spatial standard deviation of the longitudinal strain field to determine the degree of heterogeneity. Cyclic tensile tests have been performed in order to analyze the damage of the material. Moreover, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM is used to characterize the morphology of the wood fibre/HDPE matrix interface for specimens with maleic anhydride modified polyethylene additive (MAPE.

  10. Study of Wood Plastic Composites elastic behaviour using full field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mbarek, T.; Robert, L.; Hugot, F.; Orteu, J. J.; Sammouda, H.; Graciaa, A.; Charrier, B.

    2010-06-01

    In this study, the mechanical properties and microstructure of HDPE/wood fibre composites are investigated. The four-point bending and tensile behaviour of Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) with or without additive are studied by using full-field strain measurements by 3-D Digital Image Correlation (3-D DIC). A non-linear behaviour is shown. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) is calculated as the tangent at zero strain of a Maxwell-Bingham model fitted onto experimental data. Four-point bending tests are analyzed thanks to the spatial standard deviation of the longitudinal strain field to determine the degree of heterogeneity. Cyclic tensile tests have been performed in order to analyze the damage of the material. Moreover, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is used to characterize the morphology of the wood fibre/HDPE matrix interface for specimens with maleic anhydride modified polyethylene additive (MAPE).

  11. Influence of nanoclay on properties of HDPE/wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong Lei; Qinglin Wu; Craig M. Clemons; Fei Yao; Yanjun Xu

    2007-01-01

    Composites based on high density polyethylene (HDPE), pine flour, and organic clay were made by melt compounding and then injection molding. The influence of clay on crystallization behavior, mechanical properties, water absorption, and thermal stability of HDPE/pine composites was investigated. The HDPE/pine composites containing exfoliated clay were made by a two-...

  12. Updating of U.S. Wood Product Life-Cycle Assessment Data for Environmental Product Declarations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Elaine Oneil; Maureen Puettmann; Ivan Eastin; Indroneil Ganguly

    2014-01-01

    The marketplace has an increasing desire for credible and transparent product eco-labels based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) data, especially involving international trade. Over the past several years, stakeholders in the U.S. wood products industry have developed many such “eco-labels” under the ISO standard of LCA-based environmental product declarations (EPDs). The...

  13. Investigation of bio-composites using Novolac type liquefied wood resin: effects of liquefaction and fabrication conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Wood liquefaction using an organic solvent and an acid catalyst has long been studied as a novel technique to utilize biomass as an alternative to petroleum-based products. Oxalic acid is a weaker organic acid than a mineral acid and wood liquefaction with oxalic acid as a catalyst will result in a higher amount of wood residue than that with a mineral acid....

  14. Developing and commercializing sustainable new wood products : a process for identifying viable products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon A. Enk; Stuart L. Hart

    2003-01-01

    A process was designed to evaluate the sustainability and potential marketability of USDA Forest Service patented technologies. The process was designed and tested jointly by the University of North Carolina, the University of Michigan, Partners for Strategic Change, and the USDA Forest Service. Two technologies were evaluated: a fiber-based product and a wood fiber/...

  15. Synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence microscopy confirms copper in the corrosion products of metals in contact with treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Joseph E. Jakes; Grant T. Kirker; David Vine; Stefan Vogt

    2017-01-01

    Copper based waterborne wood preservatives are frequently used to extend the service life of wood products when subjected to frequent moisture exposure. While these copper based treatments protect the wood from fungal decay and insect attack, they increase the corrosion of metals embedded or in contact with the treated wood. Previous research has shown the most...

  16. Factors driving and restraining adoption of Automation technologies in Swedish wood product industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Mapulanga, Mwanza; Saladi, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Swedish wood product industry contributes significantly to the economy of the country. This industry adds more value to the sawn timber produced in order to manufacture different wooden products. Companies in Swedish wood product industry are presently seen as underdeveloped in terms of investments and developments in automation technologies. Automation technologies are seen by companies as a solution for improving productivity, product quality, manufacturing cost reduction and ultimately imp...

  17. Stone-ground wood pulp-reinforced polypropylene composites: Water uptake and thermal properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Pere López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two of the drawbacks of using natural-based composites in industrial applications are thermal instability and water uptake capacity. In this work, mechanical wood pulp was used to reinforce polypropylene at a level of 20 to 50 wt. %. Composites were mixed by means of a Brabender internal mixer for both non-coupled and coupled formulations. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA were used to determine the thermal properties of the composites. The water uptake behavior was evaluated by immersion of the composites in water until an equilibrium state was reached. Results of water absorption tests revealed that the amount of water absorption was clearly dependent upon the fiber content. The coupled composites showed lower water absorption compared to the uncoupled composites. The incorporation of mechanical wood pulp into the polypropylene matrix produced a clear nucleating effect by increasing the crystallinity degree of the polymer and also increasing the temperature of polymer degradation. The maximum degradation temperature for stone ground wood pulp–reinforced composites was in the range of 330 to 345 ºC.

  18. Mechanical and physical properties of wood fiber-reinforced, sulfur-based wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse; Ben S. Bryant

    1993-01-01

    Sulfur-based composite was made from sulfur impregnated, oven dried, wet-formed fiber mats. The fiber mats consisted of a 50/50 mixture of recycled newsprint pulp and mechanical hardwood pulp from several species made from chips in a laboratory refiner. The thickness of the composites was 0.125 inch and the specific gravity of the unimpregnated fiber mat was 0.2. The...

  19. Laboratory and exterior decay of wood plastic composite boards: voids analysis and computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Sun; Rebecca E. Ibach; Meghan Faillace; Marek Gnatowski; Jessie A. Glaeser; John Haight

    2016-01-01

    After exposure in the field and laboratory soil block culture testing, the void content of wood–plastic composite (WPC) decking boards was compared to unexposed samples. A void volume analysis was conducted based on calculations of sample density and from micro-computed tomography (microCT) data. It was found that reference WPC contains voids of different sizes from...

  20. Effect of Boron and Phosphate compounds on Thermal and Fire Properties of wood/HDPE composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgay Akbulut; Nadir Ayrilmis; Turker Dundar; Ali Durmus; Robert H. White; Murat Teker

    2011-01-01

    Melting and non-isothermal crystallization behaviors, oxidative induction time, and fire performance of the injection-molded wood flour-high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites (WPCs) incorporated with different levels (4, 8, or 12 wt %) of boron compounds [borax/boric acid (BX/BA) (0.5:0.5 wt %), zinc borate (ZB)] and phosphorus compounds [mono- and di-ammonium...

  1. Effect of Wood Aging on Wine Mineral Composition and 87Sr/86Sr Isotopic Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ayse D; Bruno de Sousa, Raúl; Curvelo-Garcia, António S; Ricardo-da-Silva, Jorge M; Catarino, Sofia

    2017-06-14

    The evolution of mineral composition and wine strontium isotopic ratio 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (Sr IR) during wood aging were investigated. A red wine was aged in stainless steel tanks with French oak staves (Quercus sessiliflora Salisb.), with three industrial scale replicates. Sampling was carried out after 30, 60, and 90 days of aging, and the wines were evaluated in terms of general analysis, phenolic composition, total polysaccharides, multielement composition, and Sr IR. Li, Be, Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu, Tl, and Pb elements and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr were determined by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and Na, K, Ca, and Fe by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Two-way ANOVA was applied to assess wood aging and time effect on Sr IR and mineral composition. Wood aging resulted in significantly higher concentrations of Mg, V, Co, Ni, and Sr. At the end of the aging period, wine exhibited statistically identical Sr IR compared to control. Study suggests that wood aging does not affect 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, not precluding the use of this parameter for wine traceability purposes.

  2. Exterior Decay of Wood-Plastic Composite Boards: Characterization and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Grace Sun; Marek Gnatowski; Jessie Glaeser; Mathew Leung; John Haight

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate free water content and distribution in wood-plastic composite (WPC) materials decayed during exterior exposure near Hilo, Hawaii. Two segments of the same board blend were selected from 6 commercial decking boards that had fungal fruiting bodies. One of the two board segments was exposed in sun, the other in shadow...

  3. Lateral-Torsional Buckling Instability Caused by Individuals Walking on Wood Composite I-Joists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasenor Aguilar, Jose Maria

    Recent research has shown that a significant number of the falls from elevation occur when laborers are working on unfinished structures. Workers walking on wood I-joists on roofs and floors are prone to fall hazards. Wood I-joists have been replacing dimension lumber for many floor systems and a substantial number of roof systems in light-frame construction. Wood I-joists are designed to resist axial stresses on the flanges and shear stresses on the web while minimizing material used. However, wood I-joists have poor resistance to applied lateral and torsional loads and are susceptible to lateral-torsional buckling instability. Workers walking on unbraced or partially braced wood I-joists can induce axial and lateral forces as well as twist. Experimental testing demonstrated that workers cause lateral-torsional buckling instability in wood I-joists. However, no research was found related to the lateral-torsional buckling instability induced by individuals walking on the wood I-joists. Furthermore, no research was found considering the effects of the supported end conditions and partial bracing in the lateral-torsional buckling instability of wood I-joists. The goal of this research was to derive mathematical models to predict the dynamic lateral-torsional buckling instability of wood composite I-joists loaded by individuals walking considering different supported end conditions and bracing system configurations. The dynamic lateral-torsional buckling instability was analyzed by linearly combining the static lateral-torsional buckling instability with the lateral bending motion of the wood Ijoists. Mathematical models were derived to calculate the static critical loads for the simply supported end condition and four wood I-joist hanger supported end conditions. Additionally, mathematical models were derived to calculate the dynamic maximum lateral displacements and positions of the individual walking on the wood Ijoists for the same five different supported end

  4. The Swedish market for wood briquettes - Production and market development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlhager, Johan

    2008-02-15

    Wood briquettes have constituted an important input to the Swedish energy system during the last two decades. However, the development of the production and markets for briquettes during the years 2000-2007 has not been studied in detail. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the state of the briquette industry. More specifically, the aims were to map the production of briquettes, describe the development of its markets, describe the production process, describe the producers and to examine the competitive situation for the producers. To collect data regarding the production and the producers, the markets, raw materials and company structures, a questionnaire was sent out to the producers during the fall in the year 2007. The results were then compiled and compared to previous studies. The description of the production process was mainly based on literature studies. The results were analyzed and related to M.E. Porter's Five force model to be able to describe the competitive environment for the briquette producers. The study was limited to production in Sweden and did not intend to cover a possible import of briquettes. Regarding the production process, the most common types of briquetting equipment were described. The results showed that the trend in the briquette industry was neutral, possibly negative. The turnover derived from briquette sales during the year 2006 was roughly a quarter of a billion SEK. The industry was very concentrated, with one producer accounting for 43 % of the aggregate production in the year 2006. Since the year 2000, the production of briquettes among the participating producers increased from some 210 000 tons (980 GWh) (2002) to some 280 000 tons (1 300 GWh) in the year 2006. The planned expansion of the production capacity was 3,8 % within the two years to come. A typical small scale briquette producer was a small saw mill, planing mill or a joinery using their by-products as raw material. 78 % of the briquettes are produced

  5. Using wood products to mitigate climate change: External costs and structural change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, 831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    In this study we examine the use of wood products as a means to mitigate climate change. We describe the life cycle of wood products including forest growth, wood harvest and processing, and product use and disposal, focusing on the multiple roles of wood as both material and fuel. We present a comparative case study of a building constructed with either a wood or a reinforced concrete frame. We find that the production of wood building material uses less energy and emits less carbon than the production of reinforced concrete material. We compare the relative cost of the two building methods without environmental taxation, under the current Swedish industrial energy taxation regime, and in scenarios that incorporate estimates of the full social cost of carbon emission. We find that the inclusion of climate-related external costs improves the economic standing of wood construction vis-a-vis concrete construction. We conclude that policy instruments that internalise the external costs of carbon emission should encourage a structural change toward the increased use of sustainably produced wood products. (author)

  6. Effects of Boron Compounds on the Mechanical and Fire Properties of Wood-chitosan and High-density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Fu Wu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wood-plastic composites (WPCs represent a growing class of durable, low-maintenance construction materials whose use can decrease dependence on petroleum. High-density polyethylene (HDPE, chitosan (CS, wood flour (WF, boric acid (BA, and borax (BX, as well as maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MAPE and polyethylene wax (PE wax, were used to develop a durable wood-plastic composite (WPC using the extrusion method. The effects of boron compounds (3%, 6%, 9%, or 12% by weight BA/BX on the mechanical and fire properties of the WPCs were investigated. Mechanical testing indicated that as the percentage weight of boron compounds increased, the flexural modulus, flexural strength, and tensile strength significantly decreased. Cone calorimeter tests were used to characterize the fire performance of the WPCs, and these results suggested that adding BA/BX compounds to WPCs modestly improved the fire performance. As the percentage weight of BA/BX increased from 3% to 9%, the time to ignition (TTI, heat release rate (HRR, total heat release rate (HRR-Total, smoke production rate (SPR, and specific extinction area (SEA of the WPCs were all reduced.

  7. Development of radiation processes wood-polymer composites based on tropical hardwoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iya, V.K.; Majali, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    The wood-polymer composites based on tropical hardwoods were prepared with three monomer systems. Use of chlorinated paraffin oil as an additive imparted fire resistance to the composites and also brought down the gamma dose requirement for total polymerisation. A number of tropical hardwoods can be upgraded by radiation curing, but for cost optimisation, hardwoods with high improvement per unit polymer should be selected. (author)

  8. Heat resistant soy adhesives for structural wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher G. Hunt; Charles Frihart; Jane O' Dell

    2009-01-01

    Because load-bearing bonded wood assemblies must support the structure during a fire, the limited softening and depolymerization of biobased polymers at elevated temperatures should be an advantage of biobased adhesives compared to fossil fuel-based adhesives. Because load-bearing bonded wood assemblies must support the structure during a fire, the limited softening...

  9. Fire extinguishing strength of the combustion product of wood saw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty saw dust samples from four mature hard wood plants grown in southwestern part of Nigeria were analyzed for their ash contents, moisture contents, metallic contents and hence the fire extinguishing strength of the saw dust ash by classical and instrumental methods of analyses. Mahogany (Khaya ivorensis) wood saw ...

  10. Comparison of methods for estimating carbon in harvested wood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudia Dias, Ana; Louro, Margarida; Arroja, Luis; Capela, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    There is a great diversity of methods for estimating carbon storage in harvested wood products (HWP) and, therefore, it is extremely important to agree internationally on the methods to be used in national greenhouse gas inventories. This study compares three methods for estimating carbon accumulation in HWP: the method suggested by Winjum et al. (Winjum method), the tier 2 method proposed by the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (GPG LULUCF) (GPG tier 2 method) and a method consistent with GPG LULUCF tier 3 methods (GPG tier 3 method). Carbon accumulation in HWP was estimated for Portugal under three accounting approaches: stock-change, production and atmospheric-flow. The uncertainty in the estimates was also evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation. The estimates of carbon accumulation in HWP obtained with the Winjum method differed substantially from the estimates obtained with the other methods, because this method tends to overestimate carbon accumulation with the stock-change and the production approaches and tends to underestimate carbon accumulation with the atmospheric-flow approach. The estimates of carbon accumulation provided by the GPG methods were similar, but the GPG tier 3 method reported the lowest uncertainties. For the GPG methods, the atmospheric-flow approach produced the largest estimates of carbon accumulation, followed by the production approach and the stock-change approach, by this order. A sensitivity analysis showed that using the ''best'' available data on production and trade of HWP produces larger estimates of carbon accumulation than using data from the Food and Agriculture Organization. (author)

  11. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Puupolttoaineen tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Center TEKES. The aim of the Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The main goal of the wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m{sup 3}). During the year 1995 There were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About ten projects was carried out to promote the wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were firewood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. The new machine gives a new logistic solution resulting in high productivity and reasonable operating costs. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 m{sup 3} of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved

  12. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Puupolttoaineen tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E [ed.

    1997-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Center TEKES. The aim of the Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The main goal of the wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m{sup 3}). During the year 1995 There were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About ten projects was carried out to promote the wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were firewood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. The new machine gives a new logistic solution resulting in high productivity and reasonable operating costs. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 m{sup 3} of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved

  13. How to reconcile wood production and biodiversity conservation? The Pan-European boreal forest history gradient as an "experiment".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Vladimir; Manton, Michael; Elbakidze, Marine; Rendenieks, Zigmars; Priednieks, Janis; Uhlianets, Siarhei; Yamelynets, Taras; Zhivotov, Anton; Angelstam, Per

    2018-07-15

    There are currently competing demands on Europe's forests and the finite resources and services that they can offer. Forestry intensification that aims at mitigating climate change and biodiversity conservation is one example. Whether or not these two objectives compete can be evaluated by comparative studies of forest landscapes with different histories. We test the hypothesis that indicators of wood production and biodiversity conservation are inversely related in a gradient of long to short forestry intensification histories. Forest management data containing stand age, volume and tree species were used to model the opportunity for wood production and biodiversity conservation in five north European forest regions representing a gradient in landscape history from very long in the West and short in the East. Wood production indicators captured the supply of coniferous wood and total biomass, as well as current accessibility by transport infrastructure. Biodiversity conservation indicators were based on modelling habitat network functionality for focal bird species dependent on different combinations of stand age and tree species composition representing naturally dynamic forests. In each region we randomly sampled 25 individual 100-km 2 areas with contiguous forest cover. Regarding wood production, Sweden's Bergslagen region had the largest areas of coniferous wood, followed by Vitebsk in Belarus and Zemgale in Latvia. NW Russia's case study regions in Pskov and Komi had the lowest values, except for the biomass indicator. The addition of forest accessibility for transportation made the Belarusian and Swedish study region most suitable for wood and biomass production, followed by Latvia and two study regions in NW Russian. Regarding biodiversity conservation, the overall rank among regions was opposite. Mixed and deciduous habitats were functional in Russia, Belarus and Latvia. Old Scots pine and Norway spruce habitats were only functional in Komi. Thus

  14. Fabrication of Wood-Rubber Composites Using Rubber Compound as a Bonding Agent Instead of Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwei Shao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Differing from the hot-pressing method in the manufacturing of traditional wood-rubber composites (WRCs, this study was aimed at fabricating WRCs using rubber processing to improve water resistance and mechanical properties. Three steps were used to make WRCs, namely, fiber-rubber mixing, tabletting, and the vulcanization molding process. Ninety-six WRC panels were made with wood fiber contents of 0%–50% at rotor rotational speeds of 15–45 rpm and filled coefficients of 0.55–0.75. Four regression equations, i.e., the tensile strength (Ts, elongation at break (Eb, hardness (Ha and rebound resilience (Rr as functions of fiber contents, rotational speed and filled coefficient, were derived and a nonlinear programming model were developed to obtain the optimum composite properties. Although the Ts, Eb and Rr of the panels were reduced, Ha was considerably increased by 17%–58% because of the wood fiber addition. Scanning electron microscope images indicated that fibers were well embedded in rubber matrix. The 24 h water absorption was only 1%–3%, which was much lower than commercial wood-based composites.

  15. Fabrication of Wood-Rubber Composites Using Rubber Compound as a Bonding Agent Instead of Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dongwei; Xu, Min; Cai, Liping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2016-06-14

    Differing from the hot-pressing method in the manufacturing of traditional wood-rubber composites (WRCs), this study was aimed at fabricating WRCs using rubber processing to improve water resistance and mechanical properties. Three steps were used to make WRCs, namely, fiber-rubber mixing, tabletting, and the vulcanization molding process. Ninety-six WRC panels were made with wood fiber contents of 0%-50% at rotor rotational speeds of 15-45 rpm and filled coefficients of 0.55-0.75. Four regression equations, i.e. , the tensile strength ( T s), elongation at break ( E b), hardness ( H a) and rebound resilience ( R r) as functions of fiber contents, rotational speed and filled coefficient, were derived and a nonlinear programming model were developed to obtain the optimum composite properties. Although the T s, E b and R r of the panels were reduced, H a was considerably increased by 17%-58% because of the wood fiber addition. Scanning electron microscope images indicated that fibers were well embedded in rubber matrix. The 24 h water absorption was only 1%-3%, which was much lower than commercial wood-based composites.

  16. NATURAL PRODUCTS AS PRESERVATIVES FOR FAST GROWTH WOODS - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marques Barreiros

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Wood is a universal material, economic, historic and sustainable. The paucity of species resistant to biological degradation forced man to use other less durable, especially fast growing, from reforestation, as some species of Eucalyptus and Pinus. These species have moderate or no resistance to wood decay organisms need special treatment and preservatives. The products currently used preservatives are highly toxic and are potential environmental hazards and human health. Thus, there is a growing need to develop effective chemicals, non-toxic to humans and the environment. The direction of research has aimed to develop environmentally friendly products and economic viability, and an alternative is the use of Crude Tall Oil (CTO, which is a waste processing coniferous softwood pulp for the production of kraft paper. The tall oil as a protective agent, has been considered a promising method for significantly reducing the capillary water absorption of sapwood, thereby removing one of the factors that favor the wood being attacked by fungi and insects: water, oxygen and nutrients. Research shows that the tall oil can be used neat, either fresh or distilled, or in combination with biocides.A madeira é um material universal, econ

  17. Production facility site selection factors for Texas value-added wood producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd H. Michael; Joanna Teitel; James E. Granskog

    1998-01-01

    Value-added wood products manufacturers serve an important role in the economies of many U.S. regions and are therefore sought after by entities such as economic development agencies. The reasons why certain locations for a prospective prodution facility would be more attractive to secondary wood industry producers are not clearly understood. Therefore, this research...

  18. Chapter 14: Evaluating the Leaching of Biocides from Preservative-Treated Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    Leaching of biocides is an important consideration in the long term durability and any potential for environmental impact of treated wood products. This chapter discusses factors affecting biocide leaching, as well as methods of evaluating rate and quantity of biocide released. The extent of leaching is a function of preservative formulation, treatment methods, wood...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. 3280.308 Section 3280.308 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Body and Frame Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of poly aniline/wood and poly aniline/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanwal, F.; Siddiqi, S.A.; Tasleem, S.

    2009-01-01

    Conducting polymers have shown many applications in the field of nano science, nano technology and nuclear science. Poly aniline (PAN I) is the most studied conducting polymer due to its environmental stability, easy availability of its raw materials, and simple synthesis. We have synthesized poly aniline and two of its conducting composites i.e., poly aniline-carbon and poly aniline-wood in acidic medium (HCI) using K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ as oxidizing agent. All samples were characterized by FTIR and four-probe d.c. conductivity methods The synthesis was carried out at two different temperatures (0 degree C and -5 degree C) and it was found that the yield and conductivity were maximum at lower temperature (-5 degree C). The poly aniline-carbon composites showed enhanced conductivity whereas poly aniline-wood composites showed reduced conductivity when compared with the conductivity of pure poly aniline. (author)

  1. Corn gluten meal as a biodegradable matrix material in wood fibre reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beg, M.D.H.; Pickering, K.L.; Weal, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate corn gluten meal (CGM) as a biodegradable matrix material for wood fibre reinforced composites. CGM was used alone, as well as hybridized with polypropylene, and reinforced with radiata pine (Pinus Radiata) fibre using a twin-screw extruder followed by injection moulding. Tensile testing, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were carried out to assess the composites. For composites from CGM and wood fibres, extrusion was carried out with the aid of the following plasticizers: octanoic acid, glycerol, polyethylene glycol and water. Windows of processability for the different plasticizers were obtained for all plasticizers. These were found to lie between 20 and 50 wt.% of plasticizer with a maximum of approximately 20% wood fibre reinforcement. The best mechanical properties were obtained with a matrix containing 10 wt.% octanoic acid and 30 wt.% water, which gave a tensile strength and Young's modulus of 18.7 MPa and 4 GPa, respectively. Hybrid matrix composites were compounded with a maleated polypropylene coupling agent and benzoyl peroxide as a cross-linking agent. The highest tensile strength and Young's modulus obtained from hybrid matrix composites were 36.9 MPa and 5.8 GPa with 50 wt.% fibre

  2. Corn gluten meal as a biodegradable matrix material in wood fibre reinforced composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, M.D.H. [Department of Materials and Process Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand); Pickering, K.L. [Department of Materials and Process Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)]. E-mail: klp@waikato.ac.nz; Weal, S.J. [Department of Materials and Process Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2005-12-05

    This study was undertaken to investigate corn gluten meal (CGM) as a biodegradable matrix material for wood fibre reinforced composites. CGM was used alone, as well as hybridized with polypropylene, and reinforced with radiata pine (Pinus Radiata) fibre using a twin-screw extruder followed by injection moulding. Tensile testing, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were carried out to assess the composites. For composites from CGM and wood fibres, extrusion was carried out with the aid of the following plasticizers: octanoic acid, glycerol, polyethylene glycol and water. Windows of processability for the different plasticizers were obtained for all plasticizers. These were found to lie between 20 and 50 wt.% of plasticizer with a maximum of approximately 20% wood fibre reinforcement. The best mechanical properties were obtained with a matrix containing 10 wt.% octanoic acid and 30 wt.% water, which gave a tensile strength and Young's modulus of 18.7 MPa and 4 GPa, respectively. Hybrid matrix composites were compounded with a maleated polypropylene coupling agent and benzoyl peroxide as a cross-linking agent. The highest tensile strength and Young's modulus obtained from hybrid matrix composites were 36.9 MPa and 5.8 GPa with 50 wt.% fibre.

  3. INFLUENCE OF COCONUT SHELL ADDITION ON PHYSICO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITES1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éverton Hillig

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, composites with three types of thermoplastic matrix and cellulosic material in a proportion of 40% were produced. The three thermoplastic matrices were high density polyethylene (HDPE, polypropylene (PP and low density polyethylene (LDPE, and the cellulosic materials were pure wood flour (Pinus taeda L or a mixture of wood flour and coconut shell flour (Cocus nucifera L in equal ratios. The objective was to evaluate the influence of addition of coconut shell on the physico-mechanical properties (density, strength and rigidity and the distribution of the cellulosic material in the thermoplastic matrix of the manufactured composites. It was found that the composites had a satisfactory distribution of wood flour in thermoplastic matrices, but the addition of coconut shell promoted bubble formation in the resulting pieces and, thus, interfered with the material properties. The use of a coupling agent promoted interfacial adhesion (cellulose - thermoplastic matrix, which was better in high density polyethylene composites, followed by polypropylene and low density polyethylene. In general, the coconut shell addition caused a decrease of all properties compared to composites made with Loblolly Pine. In addition, the interactions between thermoplastic type and cellulosic matrix type have been statistically confirmed, which caused variations in the studied properties

  4. A Study on Creep Behavior of Wood Flour- Recycled Polypropylene Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Ghahri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The creep behavior of wood flour- recycled polypropylene composites (with and without compatibilizer has been evaluated in this study. For this purpose, virgin polypropylene (PP was thermo-mechanically degraded by five times of extrusion under controlled conditions in a twin-screw extruder at a rotor speed of 100 rpm and at temperature of 1900C. The virgin and recycled polypropylene were mixed with the wood flour (50/50% W/W as well as the compatibilizer (0, 2% W/W by a counter-rotating twin-screw extruder to manufacture the wood flour-PP composites (WPCs samples. The nominal cross section of the manufactured composites was 70×10 mm2. Short term flexural creep test at 30% of ultimate bending load was performed by using flexural creep equipment. The total time to complete every test was 120 min (60 min creep and 60 min recovery. Results revealed that recycling of the PP reduced the creep resistance in composites containing recycled polypropylene. Also results have shown that with the presence of compatibilizer (MAPP creep deflection, creep factor and relative creep decrease and creep modulus increase. The composites containing virgin PP and MAPP exhibited higher creep resistance than those containing recycled PP.

  5. Assessing wood use efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of wood product cascading in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bais-Moleman, A.L.; Sikkema, Richard; Vis, Martijn; Reumerman, Patrick; Theurl, Michaela; Erb, Karl Heinz

    2017-01-01

    Cascading use of biomass is a recognized strategy contributing to an efficient development of the bioeconomy and for mitigating climate change. This study aims at assessing the potential of cascading use of woody biomass for reducing GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and increasing the overall wood

  6. Integrated production of merchantable wood and wood fuels in industry; Teollisuuden ainespuun ja puupolttoaineen integroitu tuotanto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvaja, K [Enso Oy, Imatra (Finland). Forest Dept.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this project is the economically profitable integrated harvesting of industrial wood and firewood especially in harvesting of small-diameter first thinning wood. The research in 1994 was concentrated on improvement of the quality of the chipping methods based on chain-flail debarking chipping method, and on determination of the possible utilisation targets for the fuel fraction. A reasonably large drum debarking test was also carried out at the industrial scale debarking station of the Enocell Oy. More than 80 000 m{sup 3} of first thinning wood was delivered by Enocell during this project. The quality of wood chips, produced using the chain-flail delimbing method, could be improved in the case of pine nearly to the required quality level, but additional measures are still needed in the case of birch. The fuel fraction deliveries to different points of utilisation was started. The particle size of the fuel fraction appeared to be good after crushing. In 1995 a chain-flail-drum debarking chipping unit was developed to improve and homogenise the quality of chips. (orig.)

  7. Knock on wood: Is wood production sustainable in the Pacific Northwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Thompson

    2006-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest is one of the world’s major timber-producing regions, and its capacity to produce wood on a sustained-yield basis is widely recognized. Nonetheless, there has been increasing public interest in assuring that forests are being sustainably managed, as well as a desire by landowners to demonstrate their commitment to responsible stewardship.

  8. Influence of photostabilizers on wood flour-HDPE composites exposed to xenon-arc radiation with and without water spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Laurent M. Matuana

    2006-01-01

    The weathering of wood-plastic composites changes their appearance and/or mechanical properties. These changes can be slowed through the addition of ultraviolet absorbers and pigments. The first phase of this study examined the effect of incorporating different concentrations of an ultraviolet absorber and/or pigment into wood-flour-filled high-density polyethylene (WF...

  9. Integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood in Northern Finland; Integroitu energiapuun tuotanto-menetelmae Pohjois-Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooli, A [Hooli Oy, Kemi (Finland); Ranta, T [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Hooli Oy, operating mainly in the Northern Finland has developed the production method suitable for bunch-processing of small wood. The mobile machine, consisting of delimber-debarker, and fuel fraction crusher units, produces debarked stemwood for pulping industry and branchwood-bark chips for thermal power stations. The basic method has been ready for demonstration and practical applications since in the beginning of year 1996. The objective of the project is to develop a method suitable for bundle processing of small wood, in which the trees are delimbed and debarked, and the formed waste wood is crushed using a machine unit, developed especially for this purpose. The method is based on utilisation of a separate delimbing-debarking unit, which operates separately from the pulpwood transportation chain, so the pulpwood transportations can be done at the proper time either as debarked roundwood or chips. Based on field experiments in 1995 - 1996, to attain the targets of the project looks promising. In 1997 there will happen technical modifications to the machine to improve the debarking results (target < 1 % bark content) of the bolts and to improve the logistic productivity of the whole production chain

  10. Material use and production changes in the U.S. wood pallet and container industry: 1992 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Bush; P. A. Araman

    2009-01-01

    A series of five studies conducted by the Virginia Tech Department of Wood Science and Forest Products, in collaboration with the USDA - Forest Service (Blacksburg, Virginia), have tracked activity in the U.S. wood pallet and container industry between 1992 and 2006. The studies documented trends in wood use and pallet production with in the industry, both new...

  11. Wood Polymer Composites Technology Supporting the Recovery and Protection of Tropical Forests: The Amazonian Phoenix Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio D. Nobre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Rain Forest has attracted worldwide attention due its large scale services to climate and also due to the green house gas emissions arising from deforestation. Contributing to the later and detrimental to the former, timber logging in the region has very low efficiency (only 16% in the production chain. Such timber extraction, often referred to as selective logging, has been claimed as a sustainable extractive industry, because the forest is said to restore itself through regenerative growth. But forest regeneration in the Amazon occurs naturally only in a very limited scale, resulting that large scale, low efficiency logging poses a big treat to the functional integrity of the biome, supplying to the market only a fraction of what it could if done differently. So, instead of extracting big centennial logs from the forests, the Amazonian Phoenix project proposes that large expanses of degraded lands be reforested using pioneer plants species from the forest itself. These plants have the capacity to heal gaps in the canopy, being able to grow and produce woody biomass in very extreme conditions. The idea is to mimic the regenerative dynamics of the natural ecosystem in short cycle agrosilvicultural production areas, utilizing a variety of technologies to transform raw fibers from these fast growth native plants into a variety of materials with high aggregated value. This communication presents the research on natural fibers by the Polymeric Composites Group within the Amazonian Phoenix Project. Sustainable technologies employing materials with good and responsible ecological footprints are important and necessary stimulus for a change in the destructive economical activities present in the Amazon frontiers. The relatively well established wood polymer composites technology, for example, is a good candidate solution. Two research and development fields are proposed: the first one considers production systems with simple and cheap

  12. Evaluation of mechanical properties and durability performance of HDPE-wood composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazi, M.; Erchiqui, F.; Kaddami, H.; Bouazara, M.; Poaty, B.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the mechanical properties and durability performance of bio-composite materials made from sawdust and thermoplastic polymer (HDPE). For the preparation of the composites, sawdust in different proportions with Maleic Anhydride grafted Polyethylene (MAPE) as the coupling agent was used. The thermal and mechanical properties were successively characterized. The results indicate that adding wood fillers to a polymer matrix increases the degree of crystallinity and improves the tensile strength and ductility of composites. On the contrary, resistance to water absorption decreases as a function of the wood fillers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze morphological structure alteration when exposed to intense weathering. The biodegradability of bio-composites up to 97 days was also investigated; the results indicate that, by increasing the filler content, the amount of weight loss increased as well. In other words, even though the addition of sawdust to thermoplastic polymer improves the mechanical performance of a composite material, it also accelerates the biodegradation rate of the composite. An optimum amount of filler content might compromise the effect of biodegradation and mechanical properties of composite materials

  13. Evaluation of mechanical properties and durability performance of HDPE-wood composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazi, M.; Erchiqui, F. [Engineering department, Université de Quebec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue (Canada); Kaddami, H. [Université Caddi Ayad Marrakech, Laboratoire ’LCO2MC’, B.P. 549, Marrakech 40000, Maroc (Morocco); Bouazara, M. [Mechanical department, Université de Québec à Chicoutimi Canada (Canada); Poaty, B. [Technology Center of industrial residuals, QC Canada (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the mechanical properties and durability performance of bio-composite materials made from sawdust and thermoplastic polymer (HDPE). For the preparation of the composites, sawdust in different proportions with Maleic Anhydride grafted Polyethylene (MAPE) as the coupling agent was used. The thermal and mechanical properties were successively characterized. The results indicate that adding wood fillers to a polymer matrix increases the degree of crystallinity and improves the tensile strength and ductility of composites. On the contrary, resistance to water absorption decreases as a function of the wood fillers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze morphological structure alteration when exposed to intense weathering. The biodegradability of bio-composites up to 97 days was also investigated; the results indicate that, by increasing the filler content, the amount of weight loss increased as well. In other words, even though the addition of sawdust to thermoplastic polymer improves the mechanical performance of a composite material, it also accelerates the biodegradation rate of the composite. An optimum amount of filler content might compromise the effect of biodegradation and mechanical properties of composite materials.

  14. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  15. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  16. Recycling of wood products. Final report of the preliminary study project partly financed by the Finnish Wood Research Oy; Puutuotteiden kierraetys. Finnish Wood Research Oy:n osarahoittaman esiselvityshankkeen loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirhonen, I.; Heraejaervi, H.; Saukkola, P.; Raety, T.; Verkasalo, E., Email: henrik.herajarvi@metla.fi

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to clarify the present state of recycling of wood in Finland and Europe. In the work the control measures of recycling were examined. In Finland there will be a total amount of 850 000 tons of waste wood per year. Of this amount 670 000 tons is from construction and demolishing of buildings. Burning the wood to energy is technically and economically the most reasonable use of waste wood in Finland and in several other European countries where there is a long heating season. A lot of work has been done to find new ways of utilization. The objective of the European Union to increase the use of renewable natural resources in the energy production creates an additional demand to all kinds of wood, including waste wood. The waste legislation of Finland and EU is directing to recycling, not restricting it. Furthermore, the systems to try to create markets for products containing recycled materials are under development. In the future it is expected that the legislation is tightening and the burning of waste wood is no longer calculated as acceptable recycling. Other ways to utilize wood waste should then already be developed. Furthermore, the development and introduction of new recycling methods are of important significance also when marketing wood and wood products. The recycling should be taken into consideration already at the planning stage of the building

  17. Laminated composite based on polyester geotextile fibers and polyurethane resin for coating wood structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Andrey Olivato Assagra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New environmental laws have restricted the use of hardwood trees in overhead power lines structures, such as, poles and cross-arms, leading companies to seek alternative materials. Reforested wood coated with polymeric resin has been proposed as an environmental friendly solution, with improved electrical properties and protection against external agents, e.g. moisture, ultraviolet radiation and fungi. However, the single thin layer of resin, normally applied on such structures reveal to be inefficient, due to be easily damage during handling. In this paper, we present a composite coating, based on geotextile fibers and polyurethane resin that is suitable for wooden structures. Results obtained from two different tree species (from managed and reforested areas coated with the composite reveal that the additional layer not only provided a stronger adhesion between wood and ccoating layer but also a further improvement in the electrical properties and better protection against abrasion and moisture.

  18. Thermopower coefficient of pine-wood biocarbon preforms and the biocarbon-preform/copper composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, A. T.; Novikov, S. V.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Sulkovski, Cz.; Jezowski, A.

    2010-11-01

    The thermopower S( T) of the composites prepared by filling empty sap channels in high-porosity biocarbon preforms of white pine wood by melted copper in vacuum and the thermopower S( T) of these preforms have been measured in the temperature range 5-300 K. The biocarbon preforms have been obtained by pyrolysis of pine wood in an argon flow at two carbonization temperatures, 1000 and 2400°C. An analysis of the experimental data has demonstrated that the thermopower of the composites is determined by the contribution related to the copper filling the channels of the biocarbon preform and exhibits a characteristic temperature dependence with a deep minimum close to 20 K. This suggests that copper in the preform channels is essentially a Kondo alloy with the iron and manganese impurities entering into it from the carbon preform in the course of infiltration of melted copper.

  19. Health evaluation of volatile organic compound (VOC) emission from exotic wood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeskov, L; Witterseh, T; Funch, L W

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure and evaluate the impact of the emissions of selected products of exotic wood on health. Ten products were screened for chemical compounds, and five of the most used products which emitted more than 800 microg/kg were selected for further quantitative...... analyses by climate chamber measurement (iroko, ramin, sheesham, merbau, and rubber tree). Samples of exotic wood (rubber tree and belalu) were further analyzed for emission of chemical compounds by migration into artificial saliva and for content of pesticides and allergenic natural rubber latex (NR latex......) (rubber tree). The toxicological effects of all substances identified were evaluated and the lowest concentrations of interest (LCI) assessed. An R-value was calculated for each wood product (R-value below 1 is considered to be unproblematic as regards health). Emission from the evaluated exotic wood only...

  20. Surface Coating of Wood Building Products: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NESHAP for surface coating of wood building products by reading the rule summary and history, with links to the federal register notices, additional documents, related rules and compliance information

  1. Important Non-Wood Forest Products in Turkey: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kurt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood resources obtained from forest and non-wood forest products (NWFP have gained great importance recently as their economic values keeps increasing by the day. In this study, forecasting of Turkish Non-Wood Forest Products such as thyme, bay leaves, salvia and pine nut export amounts was carried out using a linear regression analysis method for the next fifteen years based on the data for the years between 1990 and 2009. Moreover, estimated import values and actual import values from the last years were compered and analyzed. Finally, predictions on future trends were made.

  2. Commercialization of Navy Advanced Wood Composites (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... This work also demonstrated their useful application in marine structures. These research products solve many problems that the US Navy currently face with repairing and building timber structures on their waterfront...

  3. Turning of wood plastic composites by water jet and abrasive water jet

    OpenAIRE

    Hutyrová, Z.; Ščučka, J. (Jiří); Hloch, S. (Sergej); Hlaváček, P. (Petr); Zeleňák, M. (Michal)

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the verification of suitability of water jet and abrasive water jet application for the disintegration of rotating samples of wood plastic composites (WPCs) with diameter d=36 mm. The influence of selected technological factors (traverse speed of cutting head v [mm/ min] and size of abrasive particles [MESH]) on the topography of resulting surfaces has in particular been studied. Surface topography and quality have been assessed using the methods of optical and co...

  4. Turning of wood plastic composites by water jet and abrasive water jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutyrová, Z.; Ščučka, Jiří; Hloch, Sergej; Hlaváček, Petr; Zeleňák, Michal

    -, September 2015 (2015), s. 1-9 ISSN 0268-3768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : wood plastic composite * water jet * size of abrasive particles * surface quality * traverse speed Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00170-015-7831-6

  5. Development of a wood-polymer composite by electron beam hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoda, Masao

    1974-01-01

    An incombustible wood-polymer composite (WPC) was studied. The dimensional stability was also tested. The comparison of conversion ratio was made between gamma-ray and electron beam and between a vinylidene chloride 100% impregnated beech composite and bulk. In the case of gamma-ray of low dose rate, the conversion ratio in the vinylidene chloride beech composite was lower than the bulk. In the case of electron beam, though dose rate was higher than that of gamma-ray, the conversion ratio was low, and was influenced by the moisture content of wood. The conversion ratio markedly decreased with the increase of the dose rate of electron beam. Roughly 50% polymer loading can be obtained when the dose rate of electron beam is low. In the case of gamma-ray, the effect of dimensional stability was approximately none with small polymer loading, whereas in the case of electron beam irradiation of moist wood, marked effect of dimensional stability was shown. Incombustibility effect was tested by burning a 150 mm long piece, in which three small pieces of 5 x 10 x 50 mm were connected with epoxy resin adhesive, with a Bunsen burner for 30 seconds. After the completion of burning, the long piece was separated back into three small pieces, and the char length, weight loss and after glow time were tested. The beech composite was expected to become incombustible at 40% polymer loading. The vinyl monomer solution of chlorinated aryl chloride oligomer can be easily hardened by electron beam irradiation. Addition of crosslinking agent such as trimethylol propane trimethracrylate prevents the dissolution of hardened methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate by acetone. The electron beam hardening of aryl resin compound is possible, using benzen peroxide as a catalyst. Floor material can be produced by this process from low density, low price wood. (Iwakiri, K.)

  6. Effect of boron compounds on physical, mechanical, and fire properties of injection molded wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Turgay Akbulut; Turker Dundar; Robert H. White; Fatih Mengeloglu; Zeki Candan; Umit Buyuksari; Erkan Avci

    2011-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the injection-molded wood flour/polypropylene composites (WPCs) incorporated with different levels of boron compounds, borax/boric acid (BX/BA) (0.5:0.5 wt %) and zinc borate (ZB) (4, 8, or 12 wt %) were investigated. The effect of the coupling agent loading (2, 4, or 6 wt %), maleic anhydride-grafted PP (MAPP), on the...

  7. Turning of wood plastic composites by water jet and abrasive water jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutyrová, Z.; Ščučka, Jiří; Hloch, Sergej; Hlaváček, Petr; Zeleňák, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 84, 5-8 (2016), s. 1615-1623 ISSN 0268-3768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : wood plastic composite * water jet * turning * traverse speed * size of abrasive particles Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 2.209, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00170-015-7831-6

  8. Fatigue behavior of wood-fiber-based tri-axial engineered sandwich composite panels (ESCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Shaoqin Gong; Zhiyong Cai

    2015-01-01

    The static and fatigue bending behavior of wood-fiber-based tri-axial engineered sandwich composite panels (ESCP) has been investigated by four-point bending tests. Fatigue panels and weakened panels (wESCP) with an initial interface defect were manufactured for the fatigue tests. Stress σ vs. number of cycles curves (S-N) were recorded under the different stress...

  9. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Forest Products Laboratory. USDA Forest Service.

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  10. EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL WEATHERING ON WOOD LAMINATES COLOR TREATED WITH TWO FINISHING PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Jacob Mendes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Weathering is one of the main reasons for the degradation of wood, especially its color. The application of finishes minimizes these effects. This study aimed to monitor the effect of artificial weathering on wood veneer of the species cumaru (Dipteryx odorata and pau marfim (Balfourodendron riedelianum with two finishes, the marine varnish and Cetol, with monitoring using a spectrophotometer. The samples were subjected to cycles of exposure to weathering for 20, 40, 52, 76, 124, 226, 430, 838 and 960 hours. The colorimetric parameters (L*, a*, b*, C and h* were measured before treatment, after application of the products and during the weathering time intervals. The application of finishes darkened veneer of cumaru wood and pau marfim in nature. However, in higher weathering times, both species returned to a lighter color, and even became lighter than the natural wood. The use of Cetol was more efficient, giving greater stability in the conservation of wood color of the species studied.

  11. Effect of compatibilization and reprocessing on the isothermal crystallization kinetics of polypropylene/wood flour composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arieny Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have focused on polymer mixtures aimed at the potential applications of these materials. This work analyzed the effect of polymer reprocessing and the type and concentration of compatibilizer on the isothermal crystallization kinetics of polypropylene/wood flour composites. The composites, which were polypropylene grafted with acrylic acid (PP-g-AA and maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA, were processed in a twin screw extruder with and without compatibilizer. Reprocessed polypropylene reached complete crystallization in less time than the composites with virgin polypropylene. The addition of wood flour to the composites did not change the kinetics significantly compared to that of the pure polymers, but the compatibilizers did, particularly PP-g-AA. The nucleation exponent (n and crystallization rate (K were calculated from Avrami plots. The values of n ranged from 2 to 3, indicating instantaneous to sporadic nucleation. The crystallization half-time of reprocessed polypropylene was shorter than that of virgin polypropylene and of the compositions containing PP-g-AA compatibilizer. The activation energy of crystallization and the equilibrium melting temperature were calculated, respectively, from Arrhenius and Hoffman-Weeks plots. Both of these parameters showed lower values in the composites, particularly in the ones containing compatibilizers.

  12. Composite Preparation of Wood Dust-Polyester-Coconut Choir Fiber Mixture for Particle Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danu, Sugiarto; Darsono; Padmono; Betty, Angesti

    2002-01-01

    Experiment on the use of γ-ray of Co 60 radiation has been used for curing of composite which made of wood dust, unsaturated polyester resin and coconut coir mixture. Composite was prepared by mixing of wood dust, polyester and coconut coir at a various mixture composition. Concentration of polyesters were 50, 55 and 60 % by weight based on saw dust and polyester mixture. Irradiation was conducted using 27,6 kCi acti vity Co 60 at a dose rate of 5 kGy/hrs and dose of 8, 10 and 12 kGy. Composite was also prepared conventionally by using peroxide catalyst. Parameters observed were density, pencil hardness and compression strength Experimental results showed that optimum condition wus achieved at irradiation dose of 12 kGy, polyester concentration of 60 % and coconut coir fiber of 4 %. In this condition, the density, hardness and compression strength were 1,115 g/cm 3, 5 Hand 6,815 kN/cm2 respectively. Density, hardness of composite prepared by radiation were almost the same whereas the compression strength was higher than that of composite prepared by conventional method

  13. Marketing of non-wood forest products: Case study of the enterprise for forest mushroom processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the impact of climate changes it is increasingly obvious that forestry should rely more strongly on the multi­functional character of the managed resources. In addition to wood, there is a series of non­wood products and services offered by forests. Non­wood forest products and services consist of various fruits of forest trees and shrubs, mushrooms, various objects made of non­wood material, and especially forest social services, such as recreation, tourism, hunting, photo­safari, etc. This paper presents a marketing analysis on the example of the enterprise dealing with the purchase, processing and sale of wild mushrooms and products made of mushrooms. The study applies a modern methodological approach implemented in similar researches.

  14. Bioenergy research programme. Yearbook 1996. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma. Vuosikirja 1996. Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikku, P [ed.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and utilisation of biofuels. The total funding for 1996 was 27.3 million FIM and the number of projects 63. The number of projects concerning wood fuels production was 36. The main goals of the research are to develop new production methods for wood fuels in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels (100 km distance). The second goal is to decrease the small scale production costs by 20 % as compared with the 1992 technology level. Also, new harvesting technology and new work methods will be developed for forest owners and small-entrepreneurs in the course of the programme. Results of the projects carried out in 1996 in this programme are presented in this publication. The integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to wood products industry and wood fuel for energy production, have been chosen the main research areas because they seem to be most promising. Most of the projects are focused in the wood fuel production from first thinnings and from final fellings. The projects broadly covered the research area focusing from material flows, productivity studies, basic wood properties to several case studies. The follow up project of Evaluation-drum chipper was completed with good fuel quality and productivity results. Also the large Forest Energy Project of Central Finland was completed. The project was a significant technology transfer and information dissemination project. (orig.)

  15. Species selection in secondary wood products: perspectives from different consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Bowe; Matthew S. Bumgardner; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated adult consumer perceptions of several wood species to determine if word-based and appearance-based evaluations differed. The research replicated a 2001 study by the authors, which used undergraduate college students as a proxy for older and more experienced adult furniture consumers. The literature is somewhat inconclusive concerning the extent...

  16. Production of Solid Fuel Briquettes from Agricultural and Wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fibrous agricultural and wood waste materials have been compressed with suitable adhesive into solid fuel briquettes in a compressing machine, which was designed and constructed for this purpose. Nine samples of fibrous waste materials were prepared into different categories:- Category A (100% saw-dust, 100% ...

  17. Interest in energy wood and energy crop production among Finnish non-industrial private forest owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raemoe, A.-K.; Jaervinen, E.; Latvala, T.; Toivonen, R.; Silvennoinen, H.

    2009-01-01

    EU targets and regulations regarding energy production and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been tightening in the 2000s. In Finland the targets are planned to be achieved mainly by increasing the use of biomass. Wood already accounts for a marked proportion of Finnish energy production, but additional reserves are still available. Energy crop production also has considerable potential. Practically all Finnish farmers are also forest owners. Therefore, private forest owners are in a decisive position regarding the supply of energy wood and crops in Finland. In this paper the future supply of biomass is examined according to their past behaviour, intentions and attitudes. Finnish forest owners have a positive attitude towards the use of wood and crops in energy production. Price is becoming more critical as a motive for the supply of energy wood. Recreation and nature conservation play a smaller role than factors related to wood production and forest management as for motives for harvesting energy wood. However, almost a half of forest owners in this study were uncertain of their willingness to supply biomass. This is partly due to limited knowledge of the issues involved in energy wood and agricultural energy crop production and the underdeveloped markets for energy biomass. In order to achieve the targets, supply should be activated by further developing market practices, information, guidance and possibly other incentives for landowners. In general, there is interest among landowners in increasing the supply of energy biomass. However, the growth of supply presumes that production is an economically attractive and competitive alternative, that the markets are better organized than at present, and that more comprehensive information is available about bioenergy and biomass markets and production techniques.

  18. Impregnation and Polymerization Methods and Systems Used in the Production of Wood-Polymer Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, W. E.; Rotariu, G. J. [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC 20545 (United States)

    1968-10-15

    Studies on the radiation production of wood-polymer materials began in the United States in 1961 at West Virginia University and have continued until today. In this paper the impregnation and polymerization methods and systems that have evolved from these studies are reviewed. Included is a description of the procedures developed at the College of Forestry, Syracuse University, for producing wood-polymers via a thermal-catalytic process. (author)

  19. DNA Damage among Wood Workers Assessed with the Comet Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschweiler, Evin Danisman; Wild, Pascal; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Danuser, Brigitta; Hopf, Nancy B.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to wood dust, a human carcinogen, is common in wood-related industries, and millions of workers are occupationally exposed to wood dust worldwide. The comet assay is a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for determining DNA damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the DNA damage associated with occupational exposure to wood dust using the comet assay (peripheral blood samples) among nonsmoking wood workers (n = 31, furniture and construction workers) and controls (n = 19). DNA damage was greater in the group exposed to composite wood products compared to the group exposed to natural woods and controls (P < 0.001). No difference in DNA damage was observed between workers exposed to natural woods and controls (P = 0.13). Duration of exposure and current dust concentrations had no effect on DNA damage. In future studies, workers’ exposures should include cumulative dust concentrations and exposures originating from the binders used in composite wood products. PMID:27398027

  20. A NOVEL FIRE RETARDANT AFFECTS FIRE PERFORMANCE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD FLOUR-HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Pan,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Wood flour-high density polyethylene (HDPE composites were prepared to investigate the effects of ammonium polyphosphate based fire retardant content (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10-wt%, on the flammability, mechanical, and morphological properties of the wood flour-HDPE composites in this study. Cone calorimetry analysis showed that the addition of fire retardant could decrease the heat release rate (HRR and total smoke release of wood flour-HDPE composites, while it had no obviously effects on effective heat of combustion. Most of the decrease of the HRR occurred with the concentration of the fire retardant up to 4-wt%. With addition of fire retardant, the composites showed a decrease in tensile elongation at break and impact strength, and had no obvious effect on tensile and flexural strength. The scanning electron microscopy observation on the fracture surface of the composites indicated that fire retardant had a uniform dispersion in the wood flour-HDPE composites. However, interfacial bonding would be suggested to improve in wood flour-HDPE composites with ammonium polyphosphate based fire retardant.

  1. Thermal conductivity of wood ash diatomite composites using the transient hot strip method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muia, L.M.; Gaitho, F.

    2003-08-01

    The transient Hot Strip method (THS) was used to determine the thermal conductivities of pure Wood Ash (WA), two kinds of diatomite i.e., DB and DF, and their composites. The effects of grain size and temperature on the thermal conductivities of the three systems and their composites were also determined. The lowest thermal conductivities of 0.02x10 -2 Wm -1 K -1 for wood ash and ∼ 3x10 -2 Wm -1 K -1 for the diatomites are found in the particle size range 60 -80μm. The thermal conductivities of the various composites range between 1.3x10 -3 and 6.8x10 -2 Wm -1 K -1 . These values are a factor of 10 lower than those of the pure materials. The thermal conductivity of the three composites is independent of temperature in the range 26-350 deg. C, in contrast to those pure materials which increase with temperature. Generally, the thermal conductivites of the pure materials which increase as their porosity or moisture contents are increased. (author)

  2. Linear equations on thermal degradation products of wood chips in alkaline glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2004-01-01

    Wood chips of 0.3 and 2 mm depth from poplar and spruce wood samples, respectively, were degraded by using glycerol as a solvent and alkaline glycerol with and without Na 2 CO 3 and NaOH catalysts at different degradation temperatures: 440, 450, 460, 470, 480, 490 and 500 K. By products from the degradation processes of the ligno celluloses include lignin degradation products. Lignin and its degradation products have fuel values. The total degradation degree and cellulose degradation of the wood chips were determined to find the relationship, if any, between the yields of total degradation degree (YTD) and degradation temperature (T). There is a good linear relationship between YTD or the yields of cellulose degradation (YCD) and T (K). For the wood samples, the regression equations from NaOH (10%) catalytic runs for 0.3 mm x 15 mm x 15 mm chip size are: For poplar wood: (YTD=0.7250T-267.507) (YCD=0.1736T-71.707) For spruce wood: (YTD=0.2650T-105.979) (YCD=0.0707T-27.507) For Eqs., the square of the correlation coefficient (r 2 ) were 0.9841, 0.9496, 0.9839 and 0.9447, respectively

  3. Wood products in the waste stream: Characterization and combustion emissions. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    Waste wood is wood separated from the solid-waste stream and processed into a uniform-sized product that is reused for other purposes such as fuel. As an alternative to the combustion of fossil fuels, it has raised concerns that if it is 'contaminated' with paints, resins, preservatives, etc., unacceptable environmental impacts may be generated during combustion. Given the difficulty of separating contaminated materials from waste wood and the large energy potential existing in the resource, it is important to identify possible problems associated with contaminated waste wood combustion. The study describes research about technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. The project's purpose was to provide environmental regulators, project developers, and others with data to make informed decisions on the use of waste wood materials as a combustion resource. Potential environmental problems and solutions were identified. A specific project result was the identification of combustion system operation parameters and air pollution control technologies that can minimize emissions of identified air and solid waste contaminants from combustion of wood waste

  4. Source emission and model evaluation of formaldehyde from composite and solid wood furniture in a full-scale chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Mason, Mark A.; Guo, Zhishi; Krebs, Kenneth A.; Roache, Nancy F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the measurement and model evaluation of formaldehyde source emissions from composite and solid wood furniture in a full-scale chamber at different ventilation rates for up to 4000 h using ASTM D 6670-01 (2007). Tests were performed on four types of furniture constructed of different materials and from different manufacturers. The data were used to evaluate two empirical emission models, i.e., a first-order and power-law decay model. The experimental results showed that some furniture tested in this study, made only of solid wood and with less surface area, had low formaldehyde source emissions. The effect of ventilation rate on formaldehyde emissions was also examined. Model simulation results indicated that the power-law decay model showed better agreement than the first-order decay model for the data collected from the tests, especially for long-term emissions. This research was limited to a laboratory study with only four types of furniture products tested. It was not intended to comprehensively test or compare the large number of furniture products available in the market place. Therefore, care should be taken when applying the test results to real-world scenarios. Also, it was beyond the scope of this study to link the emissions to human exposure and potential health risks.

  5. Fire performance, mechanical strength and dimensional stability of wood flour–polyethylene composites under the influence of different fire retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Roohani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Flammability is one of the most important parameters that often limit the application range of wood plastic composites. Therefore, the improvements of retardancy performance of these products have a considerable impact. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of expandable graphite (EG and its combination with aluminum tirhydroxide (ATH, inorganic phosphate (IP and melamine borate (MB on the flammability of wood flour–polyethylene composites. Composites were prepared by the melt compounding method and cone calorimetry as well as limited oxygen index (LOI tests was employed to study their flammability properties. Also, the effect of different fire retardants on the mechanical strength and water uptake of samples were investigated. Cone calorimetry characterization indicated that with incorporation of fire retardans heat release rate and burning rate decrease and char residual as well as the time to ignition increase. These findings ascribed to formation of char layer by fire retardants. The combination of EG and other fire retardants yielded better improvements in flame retardancy in comparison to the sample that has just EG as flame retardant. The LOI test was used to determine the lowest concentration of oxygen at which a material will maintain combustion in a flowing mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. The results showed that inclusion of fire retardants improve the LOI of sample. Furthermore, the presence of fire retardants decreased the tensile and flexural resistance (strength and modules and impact strength of samples, and increased the water absorption as well as thickness swelling. Generally, among the different treatments examined, the EG–ATH retardancy system showed highest potential in flame retardancy of composites.

  6. Fracture mechanics and statistical modeling of ternary blends of polylactide/ethylene-acrylate copolymer /wood-flour composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrifah, Kojo Agyapong

    This study examined the mechanisms of toughening the brittle bio-based poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with a biodegradable rubbery impact modifier to develop biodegradable and cost effective PLA/wood-flour composites with improved impact strength, toughness, high ductility, and flexibility. Semicrystalline and amorphous PLA grades were impact modified by melt blending with an ethylene-acrylate copolymer (EAC) impact modifier. EAC content was varied to study the effectiveness and efficiency of the impact modifier in toughening the semicrystalline and amorphous grades of the PLA. Impact strength was used to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of the EAC in toughening the blends, whereas the toughening mechanisms were determined with the phase morphologies and the miscibilities of the blends. Subsequent tensile property analyses were performed on the most efficiently toughened PLA grade. Composites were made from PLA, wood flour of various particle sizes, and EAC. Using two-level factorial design the interaction between wood flour content, wood flour particle size, and EAC content and its effect on the mechanical properties of the PLA/wood-flour composites was statistically studied. Numerical optimization was also performed to statistically model and optimize material compositions to attain mechanical properties for the PLA/wood-flour composites equivalent to at least those of unfilled PLA. The J-integral method of fracture mechanics was applied to assess the crack initiation (Jin) and complete fracture (J f) energies of the composites to account for imperfections in the composites and generate data useful for engineering designs. Morphologies of the fractured surfaces of the composites were analyzed to elucidate the failure and toughening mechanisms of the composites. The EAC impact modifier effectively improved the impact strength of the PLA/EAC blends, regardless of the PLA type. However, the EAC was more efficient in the semicrystalline grades of PLA compared to the

  7. IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON WOOD MARKETS (CONSUMPTION, PRODUCTION AND TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria‐Loredana POPESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global economic crisis represents one of the causes why wood consumption is increasing especially in countries less developed. In countries where governments couldn’t improve the quality of life and unemployment rate is higher, local communities devastate a lot of forestry. In last thirty years we saw a deforestation process at the global level related to land being converted to other uses: agriculture and urbanization, which represent a positive trend of a negative use. The statistics reveal, on one hand, an increasing demand for paper, paper products, wood products and wood energy. So this point is important to analyze: where wood came from and where it is going as either raw material or processed goods? For undeveloped countries, like Romania, it is easy to export primary wood product without evaluating the consequences. On the other hand, developed countries like Sweden export value added products which brig them higher value and profits and require greater manufacturing and marketing skills (case IKEA. For this, government policy could introduce trade barriers to decrease log consumption (like export taxes and simultaneously support furniture production and trade (e.g. export.

  8. Effect of the Addition of Carbon Nanomaterials on Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Wood Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingli Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs are a new generation of green composites that could optimize the use of harvested trees and increase the entire value chain. In this study, the electrical and mechanical properties of WPCs containing carbon blacks (CB, flake graphite (FG and carbon nanotubes (CNTs have been investigated. The electrical property of WPCs is improved significantly owing to the introduction of these carbon nanomaterial fillers. The volume and surface resistivity values of the investigated composites all obviously decreased with the increase in filler content, especially CNTs, which displayed the most satisfactory results. Based on a series of laboratory experiments carried out to investigate the mechanical performance, it can be concluded that the addition of the carbon nanomaterial fillers decreases the mechanical properties of WPCs slightly with the increase in filler content because of the weak interfacial interactions between the fillers and polymer matrix.

  9. Production of wood derived fuels. Review of research projects; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka. Tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The research and development work was very active on the area of wood derived fuels during the past year 1996. Totally some 40 projects were going on, and till the end of the year about 15 projects were completed. The projects broadly covered the research area focusing from material flows, productivity studies, basic wood properties to several case studies. When new production methods and machinery was introduced earlier by demonstration projects, now they were investigated by follow up projects. The economical and quality results of logging residue harvesting and comminution seem quite satisfactory, but integrated methods and production chains still need research and development. (orig.)

  10. 78 FR 34795 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products... Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products AGENCY: Environmental... certification, auditing and reporting of third-party certifiers, recordkeeping, enforcement, laminated products...

  11. Morphology, composition, and mixing state of primary particles from combustion sources ? crop residue, wood, and solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lei; Kong, Shaofei; Zhang, Yinxiao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Liang; Yan, Qin; Lingaswamy, A. P.; Shi, Zongbo; Lv, Senlin; Niu, Hongya; Shao, Longyi; Hu, Min; Zhang, Daizhou; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2017-01-01

    Morphology, composition, and mixing state of individual particles emitted from crop residue, wood, and solid waste combustion in a residential stove were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our study showed that particles from crop residue and apple wood combustion were mainly organic matter (OM) in smoldering phase, whereas soot-OM internally mixed with K in flaming phase. Wild grass combustion in flaming phase released some Cl-rich-OM/soot particles and cardboard combusti...

  12. Short-Term Creep Behavior of CFRP-Reinforced Wood Composites Subjected to Cyclic Loading at Different Climate Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojun Yang; Meng Gong; Ying Hei Chui

    2014-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) was used to adhesively reinforce Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood specimens. This study examined the flexural static and creep performances of CFPR-reinforced wood composites that had been subjected to changes in moisture and stress levels. The major findings were as follows: 1) the cyclic creep was slightly lower for those specimens subjected to the cyclic stress condition than for those subjected to a constant stress level due to the deflecti...

  13. Turning Wood Autohydrolysate Directly into Food Packing Composite Films with Good Toughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YaJie Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based composite films were produced by incorporating wood autohydrolysate (WH, chitosan (CS, and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC. In this work, WH was directly utilized without further purification, and CNC was introduced as the reinforced material to prepare WH-CS-CNC composite films with excellent properties. The effects of CNC on the properties of WH-CS-CNC composite films were investigated by characterizing their structures, mechanical properties, oxygen barrier, and thermal stability properties. The results suggested that CNC could improve tensile strength of the composite films, and the tensile strain at break could be up to 4.7%. Besides, the oxygen permeability of the prepared composite films could be as low as 3.57 cm3/day·m2·kPa, making them suitable for the food packaging materials. These above results showed that the addition of CNC is an effective method to enhance the toughness of composite films. In addition, WH-CS-CNC composite films have great potential in the field of sustainable food packing materials.

  14. Analysis of Competitiveness and Support Instruments for Heat and Electricity Production from Wood Biomass in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, G.; Kudrenickis, I.; Kundzina, A.

    2012-01-01

    Utilisation of renewable energy sources is one of the key factors in a search for efficient ways of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving the energy supply security. So far, the district heating supply in Latvia has been based on natural gas, with the wood fuel playing a minor role; the same is true for decentralised combined heat-power (CHP) production. The paper describes a method for evaluation of the economic feasibility of heat and electricity production from wood biomass under the competition between different fuel types and taking into account the electricity market. For the simulation, a cost estimation model is applied. The results demonstrate that wood biomass can successfully be utilised for competitive heat production by boiler houses, while for electricity production by CHP utilities it cannot compete on the market (even despite the low prices on wood biomass fuel) unless particular financial support instruments are applied. The authors evaluate the necessary support level and the impact of two main support instruments - the investment subsidies and the feed-in tariff - on the economic viability of wood-fuelled CHP plants, and show that the feed-in tariff could be considered as an instrument strongly affecting the competitiveness of such type CHP. Regarding the feed-in tariff determination, a compromise should be found between the economy-dictated requirement to develop CHP projects concerning capacities above 5 MWel - on the one hand, and the relatively small heat loads in many Latvian towns - on the other.

  15. Effect of environmental conditions on the mechanical properties and fungal degradation of polycaprolactone/microcrystalline cellulose/wood flour composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald Sabo; Liwei Jin; Nicole Stark; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2013-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) filled with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), wood flour (WF), or both were characterized before and after exposure to various environmental conditions for 60 days. PCL/WF composites had the greatest tensile strength and modulus compared to neat PCL or PCL composites containing MCC. Electron microscopy indicated better adhesion between WF...

  16. Dynamic mechanical analysis of compatibilizer effect on the mechanical properties of wood flour/high-density polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi Behzad; Medhi Tajvidi; Ghanbar Ehrahimi; Robert H. Falk

    2004-01-01

    In this study, effect of MAPE (maleic anhydride polyethylene) as the compatibilizer on the mechanical properties of wood-flour polyethylene composites has been investigated by using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). Composites were made at 25% and 50% by weight fiber contents and 1% and 2% compatibilizer respectively. Controls were also made at the same fiber contents...

  17. Wood residue production and utilization research at Virgina Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, L.A.; Stuart, W.B.; Sharp, J.C. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (US)); Yu Jian-guo (Northeastern Forestry Univ., Harbin (CN))

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the activities in crushing, drying and segregating wood residues currently underway at Virginia Tech. Experiments with high speed roll crushing as a means of reducing logging residues and small diameter stems to a form suitable for transportation and further processing appear promising. Deflecting whole tree chip streams across a double set of screens coupled with stripping transport air has been shown to reduce bark content and remove fines, bark and grit. Testing and refinement of two prototype sawdust driers is currently under way. Both driers offer increased opportunity for suspension burning and transport. (4 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.) (au).

  18. Developing estimates of potential demand for renewable wood energy products in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen M. Brackley; Valerie A. Barber; Cassie Pinkel

    2010-01-01

    Goal three of the current U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service strategy for improving the use of woody biomass is to help develop and expand markets for woody biomass products. This report is concerned with the existing volumes of renewable wood energy products (RWEP) that are currently used in Alaska and the potential demand for RWEP for residential and...

  19. Factors influencing the role of Non-Wood Forest Products and Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, G.; Ottitsch, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the light of social and economic developments, forest functions other than timber production have gained international importance and recognition. Resulting from this development, Non-Wood Forest Products and Services (NWFPS) are becoming more important, both for the general public as for forest

  20. Wood products used for residential repair and remodeling in the United States, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. B. McKeever; R. G. Anderson

    Large amounts of lumber and wood panel products are used annually for the repair and remodeling of residential structures and properties in the United States. In response to the need by government and industry for detailed information on this important market for timber products, a study was conducted by the Timber Demand and Technology...

  1. 2009 Wood and Fiber Product Seminar : VTT and USDA joint activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Harlin; Minna Vikman

    2010-01-01

    Foward -- The development of high-value wood and fiber products is one of the most important challenges currently facing the forest industry. Traditional pulp and paper products are on a critical path in developed countries with prices and markets decreasing. Finland and the USA have faced the same problem, which is a fundamental reason for Industrial Biomaterials...

  2. Feasibility study of wood-fired cogeneration at a Wood Products Industrial Park, Belington, WV. Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasenda, S.K.; Hassler, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Customarily, electricity is generated in a utility power plant while thermal energy is generated in a heating/cooling plant; the electricity produced at the power plant is transmitted to the heating/cooling plant to power equipments. These two separate systems waste vast amounts of heat and result in individual efficiencies of about 35%. Cogeneration is the sequential production of power (electrical or mechanical) and thermal energy (process steam, hot/chilled water) from a single power source; the reject heat of one process issued as input into the subsequent process. Cogeneration increases the efficiency of these stand-alone systems by producing these two products sequentially at one location using a small additional amount of fuel, rendering the system efficiency greater than 70%. This report discusses cogeneration technologies as applied to wood fuel fired system.

  3. Determination of the elemental composition of some lesser-used Ghanaian wood species by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarko, B.J.B.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Adomako, D.; Andam, A.A.B.; Addison, E.C.K.; Ofori, J.; Cobbinah, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Wood plays an undisputed socio-economic role in human endeavour. The elemental composition of wood can give an indication of the environmental pollution of the locality from which the wood sample was extracted as timber, and can influence the machining characteristics of timber. Additionally, the elemental composition can be used as an index of the nutrient uptake of plants from the soil. With the over-exploitation of timber species in Ghana, it is now imperative that lesser-used species are studied to know their characteristics for utilization. We report preliminary results of a study on the elemental composition of some lesser-used Ghanaian wood species. Ten Ghana wood species had been studied, namely: Strombosia glauscens, Lophira alata, Cynometra anata, Combretodendron macrocarpum, Sterculia rhinopetala, Celtis milbraedii, Celtis zenteri, Nesogoadonia papaverifa, Nauclea diderrichii, and Piptadeniastrum afrieana. Neutron activation analysis was carried out for this work, using the Ghana Research Reactor, (GHARRI) facility, operating between 3-15kw and at a thermal neutron flux of 1-5 x 10 15 ns -1 cm 2 . A total of twenty-five elements were identified, some at high level, others at trace levels. We discuss the implications of these results for the efficient utilization of lesser-used Ghana wood species (author)

  4. UTILIZATION OF CANDEIA (Eremanthus erythropappus WOOD RESIDUES IN THE PRODUCTION OF PARTICLEBOAD WITH ADDITION OF PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate, through the physical and mechanical properties, the panels production viability with inclusion of candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus wood residues and the influence of different percentages of PET (polyethylene terephthalate, as well as the presence and absence of paraffin on the properties of particleboard. There were used candeia wood residues, after oil extraction, in association with eucalypt wood in the proportion of 25:75 and urea-formaldehyde adhesive (12% for panels production; besides the PET incorporation in particle form, which were originated from soft drink bottles and included in three percentages (0%, 25% e 50% in treatments in the presence (1% and absence of paraffin emulsion. The panels pressing cycle occurred under electric heating at 160°C, 0.4 MPa of pressure, during 8 minutes. The experimental design was entirely randomized with three repetitions. The properties evaluated, according to DIN (1971, ASTM D 1037-93 (1995 and CS 236-66 (1968 standards, were: internal bonding; static bending (modulus of elasticity – MOE and rupture – MOR; compression parallel to the panel surface; water absorption and thickness swelling, after 2 and 24 hours water immersion. The panel mechanical properties decreased with increasing in PET level; in general, paraffin addition did not improve the wood/plastic panels resistance and higroscopicity; the utilization of candeia wood residues is viable, in association with eucalypt wood, for the wood/plastic panel production, since the properties attended the minimum demands of the standards, except static bending.

  5. Production of dry wood chips in connection with a district heating plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrjölä Jukka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Moisture and its variation in wood chips make the control of burning in small scale heating appliances difficult resulting in emissions and loss of efficiency. If the quality of wood chips would be better, i. e. dried and sieved fuel with more uniform size distribution would be avail able, the burning could be much cleaner and efficiency higher. In addition higher power out put could be obtained and the investment costs of the burning appliances would be lower. The production of sieved and dried wood chip with good quality could be accomplished in connection with a district heating plant. Then the plant would make profit, in addition to the district heat, from the dried wood chips sold to the neighboring buildings and enterprises sep a rated from the district heating net using wood chips in energy production. The peak power of a district heating plant is required only a short time during the coldest days of the winter. Then the excess capacity during the milder days can be used as heat source for drying of wood chips to be marketed. Then wood chips are sieved and the fuel with best quality is sold and the reject is used as fuel in the plant it self. In a larger district heating plant, quality of the fuel does not need to be so high In this paper the effect of moisture on the fuel chain and on the boiler is discussed. Energy and mass balance calculations as a tool of system design is described and the characteristics of proposed dry chips production method is discussed.

  6. Mixture toxicity of wood preservative products in the fish embryo toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Anja; Dobrick, Jan; Möder, Monika; Kehrer, Anja

    2012-06-01

    Wood preservative products are used globally to protect wood from fungal decay and insects. We investigated the aquatic toxicity of five commercial wood preservative products, the biocidal active substances and some formulation additives contained therein, as well as six generic binary mixtures of the active substances in the fish embryo toxicity test (FET). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the single substances, the mixtures, and the products were estimated from concentration-response curves and corrected for concentrations measured in the test medium. The comparison of the experimentally observed mixture toxicity with the toxicity predicted by the concept of concentration addition (CA) showed less than twofold deviation for all binary mixtures of the active substances and for three of the biocidal products. A more than 60-fold underestimation of the toxicity of the fourth product by the CA prediction was detected and could be explained fully by the toxicity of one formulation additive, which had been labeled as a hazardous substance. The reason for the 4.6-fold underestimation of toxicity of the fifth product could not be explained unambiguously. Overall, the FET was found to be a suitable screening tool to verify whether the toxicity of formulated wood preservatives can reliably be predicted by CA. Applied as a quick and simple nonanimal screening test, the FET may support approaches of applying component-based mixture toxicity predictions within the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products, which is required according to European regulations. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  7. Isolation and characterization of lignin from the oak wood bioethanol production residue for adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Cho, Eun Jin; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Lignin was isolated from the residue of bioethanol production with oak wood via alkaline and catalyzed organosolv treatments at ambient temperature to improve the purity of lignin for the materials application. The isolated lignins were analyzed for their chemical composition by nitrobenzene oxidation method and their functionality was characterized via wet chemistry method, element analysis, (1)H NMR, GPC and FTIR-ATR. The isolated lignin by acid catalyzed organosolv treatment (Acid-OSL) contained a higher lignin content, aromatic proton, phenolic hydroxyl group and a lower nitrogen content that is more reactive towards chemical modification. The lignin-based adhesives were prepared and the bond strength was measured to evaluate the enhanced reactivity of lignin by the isolation. Two steps of phenolation and methylolation were applied for the modification of the isolated lignins and their tensile strengths were evaluated for the use as an adhesive. The acid catalyzed organosolv lignin-based adhesives had comparable bond strength to phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. The analysis of lignin-based adhesives by FTIR-ATR and TGA showed structural similarity to phenol adhesive. The results demonstrate that the reactivity of lignin was enhanced by isolation from hardwood bioethanol production residues at ambient temperature and it could be used in a value-added application to produce lignin-based adhesives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...... for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition...

  9. Effect of wood type and thickness on acetification kinetics in traditional vinegar production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Jesús Torija

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Maria-Jesús Torija1, Estibaliz Mateo1, Carlos-Alfredo Vegas1, Carla Jara1, Angel González1, Montse Poblet1, Cristina Reguant1, Jóse-Manuel Guillamon2, Albert Mas11Biotecnología enológica. Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Facultat d’enologia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain; 2Departamento de Biotecnología de los Alimentos, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (CSIC, Burjassot, València, SpainAbstract: Traditional vinegar production is a lengthy process which implies high operational risks and jeopardizes the organoleptic characteristics of the final product. In an effort to solve these problems without changing the traditional model, we modified the wood type and thickness of vinegar barrels. We acetified in triplicate in barrels made of acacia, cherry, chestnut, and oak and in three wood thicknesses (15, 20, and 25 mm in two different vinegar plants. The operating volume was set at 60 L. Reducing wood thickness improved neither maximum acetification velocity or the total length of the process, and in some cases even worsened them. The process took longer in oak barrels than in other types of wood barrel in one of the vinegar plants. Therefore, the choice of wood is a parameter to be considered in the wine vinegar production. Keywords: acacia, cherry, chestnut, oak, acetic acid bacteria

  10. Influence of humic substances and wood decay products on the valency state of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of dissolved natural substances on the oxidation state of iron and uranium. The ongoing remediation of uranium mining areas in Saxony and Thuringia involves flooding of extended pits, submerging and subjecting to microbial decay considerable amounts of pit timber in the process. This gives rise to the problem whether the reductive environment which develops as a result of wood decay in the pit water is capable of reducing the uranium (VI) and iron (III) contained in the flood water. Measurements of the valency state of uranium and iron following their interaction with natural decay products were performed by means of electrochemical, photometric and laser spectroscopic methods. This was followed by sorption experiments with a view to collecting phenomenological data on the binding behaviour of uranium species with respect to the rock bed of the Western Erz Hills and the sediments of the Elbe valley under different redox potential conditions. The study was concluded with redox potential calculations aimed at describing the state of pit waters as well as characterising analogous natural waters. The study was performed using humic acids for alkaline brown coal extract, high moor humic substances originating from natural microbial wood decay for wood decay products, and products from hydrothermal wood decomposition as well as lignin for a methanolic wood extract [de

  11. Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Model for the Material Flow of Resonant Wood Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Aláč

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a multi-criteria decision-making model, for the selection and evaluation of the most valuable wooden input—resonant wood. Application of a given model can improve the process of input valuation as well as impact and improve particular economic indicators for the resonant wood manufacturer. We have tried to describe and evaluate the supply chain of resonant wood manufacturing and production of musical instruments. Particular value-added and non-value-added activities have been chosen according to the logical sequence of technology. Then, concrete criteria were specified and their significance weightings. Another important part of our paper is the description of resonant wood, specifications, and demands on log and wood species. There are some important physical and mechanical properties which should be taken into account and evaluated during the production of musical instruments. By the application of this model, a particular enterprise can reach an enhanced tool for the continuous evaluation of the product flowing through the supply chain. Visibility of particular operations and their logical sequence, presented by Petri nets, can lead to easier detection of possible defects in these operations and their origin. So, the main purpose of the paper lies in the suggestion of an objective and quantified managerial tool for the decision making.

  12. Effects of Heat-Treated Wood Particles on the Physico-Mechanical Properties and Extended Creep Behavior of Wood/Recycled-HDPE Composites Using the Time–Temperature Superposition Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Chun Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effectiveness of heat-treated wood particles for improving the physico-mechanical properties and creep performance of wood/recycled-HDPE composites. The results reveal that the composites with heat-treated wood particles had significantly decreased moisture content, water absorption, and thickness swelling, while no improvements of the flexural properties or the wood screw holding strength were observed, except for the internal bond strength. Additionally, creep tests were conducted at a series of elevated temperatures using the time–temperature superposition principle (TTSP, and the TTSP-predicted creep compliance curves fit well with the experimental data. The creep resistance values of composites with heat-treated wood particles were greater than those having untreated wood particles due to the hydrophobic character of the treated wood particles and improved interfacial compatibility between the wood particles and polymer matrix. At a reference temperature of 20 °C, the improvement of creep resistance (ICR of composites with heat-treated wood particles reached approximately 30% over a 30-year period, and it increased significantly with increasing reference temperature.

  13. Effects of Heat-Treated Wood Particles on the Physico-Mechanical Properties and Extended Creep Behavior of Wood/Recycled-HDPE Composites Using the Time–Temperature Superposition Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teng-Chun; Chien, Yi-Chi; Wu, Tung-Lin; Hung, Ke-Chang; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of heat-treated wood particles for improving the physico-mechanical properties and creep performance of wood/recycled-HDPE composites. The results reveal that the composites with heat-treated wood particles had significantly decreased moisture content, water absorption, and thickness swelling, while no improvements of the flexural properties or the wood screw holding strength were observed, except for the internal bond strength. Additionally, creep tests were conducted at a series of elevated temperatures using the time–temperature superposition principle (TTSP), and the TTSP-predicted creep compliance curves fit well with the experimental data. The creep resistance values of composites with heat-treated wood particles were greater than those having untreated wood particles due to the hydrophobic character of the treated wood particles and improved interfacial compatibility between the wood particles and polymer matrix. At a reference temperature of 20 °C, the improvement of creep resistance (ICR) of composites with heat-treated wood particles reached approximately 30% over a 30-year period, and it increased significantly with increasing reference temperature. PMID:28772726

  14. Chemical composition and fuel wood characteristics of fast growing tree species in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.

    2012-04-01

    India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing tree species for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the species is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation tree species. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing tree species for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation tree species like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata

  15. Health Effects of Operators in the Production of Wood Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstroem, K.; Arvidsson, H.; Bryngelsson, I.L.; Fedeli, C. [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Eriksson, K. [Univ. Hospital of Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Andersson, E. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

    2006-07-15

    The environmental and energy policy in Sweden is aiming to replace fossil energy with renewable sources such as biofuels, e.g., wood Pellets produced from shavings and sawdust of pine and spruce. Reported health effects in the wood processing industries are airway, eye and skin irritation, reduced lung function as well as eczema. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of airway and skin symptoms and measure lung function in a population of pellet operators in the Swedish wood industry. Additional reported acute effects from the airways, eyes, nose and skin were recorded. From May 2004 until April 2005 50 blue-collar workers from four Swedish pellet-producing industries were investigated. The study included a questionnaire about skin and airway symptoms (n=50), acute effect questionnaire (n=67; 44 individuals) as well as a test of the lung function (spirometry) before and after work shift (n=118; 39 individuals). Acute effects questionnaire and spirometry were done one to three times per participants and for the acute effects the worker had to assess their symptoms in the airways, eyes, nose and skin between 6 and 8 times during a day. The results from the symptom questionnaires were compared with reference data from other Swedish studies and the lung function data with a European reference material. Statistical tests used were chi-2-test for the questionnaire, t-test for lung function before shift compared expected values, and for difference in lung function between before and after work shift mixed models with subjects as a random factor. No statistical significant difference was seen for the skin and airway symptoms in the questionnaire. Reported acute effects were seen especially for eye and nose symptoms (table 1). Spirometry showed significantly higher forced vital capacity (FVC; p=0.0003) and no difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; p=0.08) before work shift compared to expected values. FVC was 108,1 % and FEV1 was 104

  16. Mechanical Properties of Wood Flour Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composites with Basalt Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun LU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Basalt fibers (BFs were surface-treated with a vinyl triethoxy silane coupling agent to improve the mechanical properties of wood fiber-reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE composites. Basalt fibers were characterized with SEM and FT-IR. The effects of the basalt fiber content and apparent morphology on the mechanical properties of the hybrid composites were investigated in this paper. The results show that the BF coated with the vinyl triethoxy silane coupling agent resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties due to the increased interfacial compatibility between the BF and HDPE. The flexural strength and impact properties significantly increased with 4 wt.% modified basalt fibers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6441

  17. Specific Modulus and Density Profile as Characterization Criteria of Prefabricated Wood Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Král

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood based product industry has developed and modified a wide range of products to cater changing demands of construction industry. Development of a product necessitates characterization to ensure compliance to established standards. Traditionally a product was characterized by properties like bending properties, density and swelling factor etc. Whereas, advances in technology has introduced more sophisticated parameters which represent a combination of various classical factors and provide more practical and detailed information. In this study, we procured four different types of commercial products, viz. Gypsum board, cement board, oriented strand board and gypsum fiber board and tried to characterized them using density profile ratio and stiffness ratio. We observed some interesting empirical relations between various parameters as represented in various plots.

  18. The fungal composition of natural biofinishes on oil-treated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Elke J.; Houbraken, Jos A. M. P.; Punt, Peter J; Roeselers, Guus; Adan, Olaf C G; Samson, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Biofinished wood is considered to be a decorative and protective material for outdoor constructions, showing advantages compared to traditional treated wood in terms of sustainability and self-repair. Natural dark wood staining fungi are essential to biofinish formation on wood. Although all sorts

  19. The fungal composition of natural biofinishes on oil-treated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, E.J.; Houbraken, J.A.M.P.; Punt, P.J.; Roeselers, G.; Adan, O.C.G.; Samson, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Biofinished wood is considered to be a decorative and protective material for outdoor constructions, showing advantages compared to traditional treated wood in terms of sustainability and self-repair. Natural dark wood staining fungi are essential to biofinish formation on wood. Although

  20. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-15

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Influence of Maleic Anhydride/Glycidyl Methacrylate Cografted Polylactic Acid on Properties of Wood Flour/PLA Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DU Jun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Graft copolymers of PLA-g-MAH, PLA-g-GMA and PLA-co-MAH/GMA were prepared by means of melt grafting. The structure of the graft copolymers were characterized by FTIR.Wood flour/PLA composites were prepared by injection molding with three kinds of graft copolymers as compatibilizers, and the fractured morphology of composites was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results show that there is no obvious phase interface between wood flour and PLA,which indicating the interfacial compatibility of wood flour/PLA composites is improved after adding different graft copolymers. The determination results of mechanical properties, processing flowability and dynamic rheological property of composites prepared with different graft copolymers reveal that, compared to the composite without compatibilizer, the tensile strength and impact strength of wood flour/PLA composites are increased by 9.54% and 7.23% respectively, and the equilibrium torque, shear heat, storage modulus and complex viscosity are all increased after adding maleic anhydride/glycidyl methacrylate cografted polylactic acid.

  2. Release to the Gas Phase of Inorganic Elements during Wood Combustion. Part 2: Influence of Fuel Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lith, Simone Cornelia; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    temperatures in the range of 500–1150 °C in a laboratory-scale tube reactor and by performing mass balance calculations based on the weight measurements and chemical analyses of the wood fuels and the residual ash samples. Four wood fuels with different ash contents and inorganic compositions were investigated...... of the alkali metals K and Na was, however, strongly dependent on both the temperature and the fuel composition under the investigated conditions. The release of the heavy metals Zn and Pb started around 500 °C and increased sharply to more than 85% at 850 °C in the case of spruce, beech, and bark...

  3. Estimating consumer willingness to pay a price premium for Alaska secondary wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; David L. Nicholls

    2003-01-01

    Dichotomous choice contingent valuation survey techniques were used to estimate mean willingness to pay (WTP) a price premium for made-in-Alaska secondary wood products. Respondents were asked to compare two superficially identical end tables, one made in China and one made in Alaska. The surveys were administered at home shows in Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Sitka in...

  4. Climate seasonality limits leaf carbon assimilation and wood productivity in tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabien H. Wagner; Bruno Herault; Damien Bonal; Clement Stahl; Liana O. Anderson; Timothy R. Baker; Gabriel Sebastian Becker; Hans Beeckman; Danilo Boanerges Souza; Paulo Cesar Botosso; David M. J. S. Bowman; Achim Brauning; Benjamin Brede; Foster Irving Brown; Jesus Julio Camarero; Plinio Barbosa Camargo; Fernanda C. G. Cardoso; Fabricio Alvim Carvalho; Wendeson Castro; Rubens Koloski Chagas; Jerome Chave; Emmanuel N. Chidumayo; Deborah A. Clark; Flavia Regina Capellotto Costa; Camille Couralet; Paulo Henrique da Silva Mauricio; Helmut Dalitz; Vinicius Resende de Castro; Jacanan Eloisa de Freitas Milani; Edilson Consuelo de Oliveira; Luciano de Souza Arruda; Jean-Louis Devineau; David M. Drew; Oliver Dunisch; Giselda Durigan; Elisha Elifuraha; Marcio Fedele; Ligia Ferreira Fedele; Afonso Figueiredo Filho; Cesar Augusto Guimaraes Finger; Augusto Cesar Franco; Joao Lima Freitas Junior; Franklin Galvao; Aster Gebrekirstos; Robert Gliniars; Paulo Mauricio Lima de Alencastro Graca; Anthony D. Griffiths; James Grogan; Kaiyu Guan; Jurgen Homeier; Maria Raquel Kanieski; Lip Khoon Kho; Jennifer Koenig; Sintia Valerio Kohler; Julia Krepkowski; Jose Pires Lemos-Filho; Diana Lieberman; Milton Eugene Lieberman; Claudio Sergio Lisi; Tomaz Longhi Santos; Jose Luis Lopez Ayala; Eduardo Eijji Maeda; Yadvinder Malhi; Vivian R. B. Maria; Marcia C. M. Marques; Renato Marques; Hector Maza Chamba; Lawrence Mbwambo; Karina Liana Lisboa Melgaco; Hooz Angela Mendivelso; Brett P. Murphy; Joseph O' Brien; Steven F. Oberbauer; Naoki Okada; Raphael Pelissier; Lynda D. Prior; Fidel Alejandro Roig; Michael Ross; Davi Rodrigo Rossatto; Vivien Rossi; Lucy Rowland; Ervan Rutishauser; Hellen Santana; Mark Schulze; Diogo Selhorst; Williamar Rodrigues Silva; Marcos Silveira; Susanne Spannl; Michael D. Swaine; Jose Julio Toledo; Marcos Miranda Toledo; Marisol Toledo; Takeshi Toma; Mario Tomazello Filho; Juan Ignacio Valdez Hernandez; Jan Verbesselt; Simone Aparecida Vieira; Gregoire Vincent; Carolina Volkmer de Castilho; Franziska Volland; Martin Worbes; Magda Lea Bolzan Zanon; Luiz E. O. C. Aragao

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal climate drivers of the carbon cycle in tropical forests remain poorly known, although these forests account for more carbon assimilation and storage than any other terrestrial ecosystem. Based on a unique combination of seasonal pan-tropical data sets from 89 experimental sites (68 include aboveground wood productivity measurements and 35 litter...

  5. Forest production dynamics along a wood density spectrum in eastern US forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; M.B. Russell; B.F. Walters; A.W. D' Amato; K. Zhu; S.S. Saatchi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging plant economics spectrum theories were confirmed across temperate forest systems of the eastern US where the use of a forest stand's mean wood density elucidated forest volume and biomass production dynamics integrating aspects of climate, tree mortality/growth, and rates of site occupancy.

  6. Wood as Energy--Production and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Iowa Teachers of Vocational Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Instructional materials are provided for a unit dealing with production and marketing of wood as an energy source. Unit objectives and a list of visual masters appear first. Content is arranged by six topics: introduction, pre-cutting activities (planning a fuelwood cutting, marketing, chain saw safety), cutting activities, post-cutting…

  7. Production rates and costs of cable yarding wood residue from clearcut units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1984-01-01

    Wood residue is a little used source of fiber, chips, and fuel because harvest costs are largely unknown. This study calculates incremental production rates and costs for yarding and loading logging residue in clearcut old-growth Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests. Harvest operations were observed for two timber sales in western Oregon. Three different cable yarding...

  8. Managing for water-use efficient wood production in Eucalyptus globulus plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. White; John F. McGrath; Michael G. Ryan; Michael Battaglia; Daniel S. Mendham; Joe Kinal; Geoffrey M. Downes; D. Stuart Crombie; Mark E. Hunt

    2014-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that thinning and nitrogen fertiliser can increase the mass of wood produced per volume of water used (evapotranspiration) by plantations of Eucalyptus globulus. We have called this plantation water productivity (PWPWOOD) and argue that, for a given genotype, this term integrates the effects of management, site and climate on both...

  9. Wood pellet production costs under Austrian and in comparison to Swedish framework conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obernberger, I.; Thek, G.

    2004-01-01

    Owing to the rapidly increasing importance of pellets as high-quality biomass fuel in Austria and Europe within the last years, many companies, mainly from the wood industry, are thinking of entering this market. The calculation of the production costs before starting a pellet plant is essential for

  10. Forest Products Laboratory : supporting the nation's armed forces with valuable wood research for 90 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. Risbrudt; Robert J. Ross; Julie J. Blankenburg; Charles A. Nelson

    2007-01-01

    Founded in 1910 by the U.S. Forest Service to serve as a centralized, national wood research laboratory, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) has a long history of providing technical services to other government agencies, including those within the Defense (DoD). A recent search of FPL’s library and correspondence files revealed that approximately 10,000...

  11. Forest Management for Non-Wood Forest Products and Services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of Non-Wood Forest Products (NWFPs) and services in livelihood support has been reviewed. Quite a number of NWFPs are also important articles of commerce and contribute significantly to the economies various African countries. The non-consumptive role of forests has been examined in terms of ...

  12. Faecal-wood biomass co-combustion and ash composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somorin, Tosin Onabanjo; Kolios, Athanasios J; Parker, Alison; McAdam, Ewan; Williams, Leon; Tyrrel, Sean

    2017-09-01

    Fuel blending is a widely used approach in biomass combustion, particularly for feedstocks with low calorific value and high moisture content. In on-site sanitation technologies, fuel blending is proposed as a pre-treatment requirement to reduce moisture levels and improve the physiochemical properties of raw faeces prior to drying. This study investigates the co-combustion performance of wood dust: raw human faeces blends at varying air-to-fuel ratios in a bench-scale combustor test rig. It concludes with ash composition analyses and discusses their potential application and related problems. The study shows that a 50:50 wood dust (WD): raw human faeces (FC) can reduce moisture levels in raw human faeces by ∼40% prior to drying. The minimum acceptable blend for treating moist faeces without prior drying at a combustion air flow rate of 14-18 L/min is 30:70 WD: FC. For self-sustained ignition and flame propagation, the minimum combustion temperature required for conversion of the fuel to ash is ∼400 °C. The most abundant elements in faecal ash are potassium and calcium, while elements such as nickel, aluminium and iron are in trace quantities. This suggests the potential use of faecal ash as a soil conditioner, but increases the tendency for fly ash formation and sintering problems.

  13. EFFECTS OF ETHYLENE VINYL ACETATE CONTENT ON PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfang Li,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA contents on the performance of wood plastic composites (WPCs made from poplar wood flour (PWF and high density polyethylene (HDPE, physical properties tests, mechanical properties tests, and scanning electron microscope (SEM tests were employed. The thermal stability and functional groups of PWF treated by EVA were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential thermal analysis (DTA, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, respectively. The results showed that the hardness, water uptake, and thickness swelling of the WPCs was reduced with increasing content of EVA. The MOR and tensile strength of the WPC treated by 15% EVA content were enhanced by 17.48% and 9.97%, respectively, compared with those of the WPC without EVA. TGA results showed that the thermal stability of PWF treated by EVA was improved. FTIR analysis indicated that PWF was reacted and coated with EVA. SEM results showed that gaps and voids hardly existed in the sections of the WPCs treated by EVA. This research suggests that the flexibility and mechanical properties of WPCs could be improved by adding EVA. The best condition of EVA content could be 15%.

  14. The wood-electricity: development perspectives for the wood-based production of energy in France by 2015. Soil pollution. Soil contamination by hydrocarbon effluents: rehabilitation market analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, C.

    1996-09-01

    A report proposes an economical analysis of the wood-based production of electricity in France, describes the different stages of this process, from supply (crop, tearing, transport, storage) through conversion (technologies, combustion or gasification) and to the output kWh (cost sensitivity analysis with respect to the evolution of other parameters). It describes the environmental impacts of wood-based electricity production and compares the quantities of pollutants emitted by this process with those emitted by other processes based on fossil energies. It identifies the main obstacles to the development of wood-based electricity production and proposes political and institutional measures inspired by the Danish experience. A second article is aimed at presenting an economic analysis of the cost of decontamination of hydrocarbon polluted sites in France (a majority of which are gas stations and storage sites)

  15. Wood Volume Production and Use of 10 Woody Species in Semiarid Zones of Northeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Foroughbakhch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A research strategy was established to analyze the structure of timber trees in terms of forest productivity (volume and wood density of 10 species. The native species Acacia farnesiana, Acacia schaffneri, Bumelia celastrina, Cercidium macrun, Condalia hookeri, Ebenopsis ebano, Helietta parvifolia, and Prosopis laevigata and the exotic species Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Leucaena leucocephala were chosen due to their ecological and economic importance to the rural villages of northeastern Mexico. Measurements of different growth parameters and volume of trees were evaluated. The introduced species E. camaldulensis and L. leucocephala showed the best performance in wood volume production per tree and per hectare when compared to the native species. Likewise, among the native species, E. ebano, P. laevigata, C. hookeri, and A. farnesiana tended to show better characteristics in terms of wood volume production in comparison to H. parvifolia, A. schaffneri, C. macrum, and B. celastrina. Results showed a high diversity on the properties studied. The high biomass produced by most of the species considered in this study revealed their great energetic potential when used as wood and firewood or vegetal charcoal.

  16. Effects of acidity on primary productivity in lakes: phytoplankton. [Lakes Panther, Sagamore, and Woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrey, G R

    1979-01-01

    Relationships between phytoplankton communities and lake acidity are being studied at Woods Lake (pH ca. 4.9), Sagamore Lake (pH ca. 5.5), and Panther Lake (pH ca. 7.0). Numbers of phytoplankton species observed as of July 31, 1979 are Woods 27, Sagamore 38, and Panther 64, conforming to other observations that species numbers decrease with increasing acidity. Patterns of increasing biomass and productivity found in Woods Lake may be atypical of similar oligotrophic lakes in that they develop rather slowly instead of occuring very close to ice-out. Contributions of netplankton (net > 48 ..mu..m), nannoplankton (48 > nanno > 20 ..mu..m) and ultraplankton (20 > ultra >0.45 ..mu..m) to productivity per m/sup -2/ show that the smaller plankton are relatively more important in the more acid lakes. This pattern could be determined by nutrient availability (lake acidification leading to decreased availability of phosphorus). The amount of /sup 14/C-labelled dissolved photosynthate (/sup 14/C-DOM), as a percent of total productivity, is ordered Woods > Sagamore > Panther. This is consistent with a hypothesis that microbial heterotrophic activity is reduced with increasing acidity, but the smaller phytoplankton may be more leaky at low pH. (ERB)

  17. Fatty Acid Composition of Fourteen Wood-decaying Basidiomycete Species Growing in Permafrost Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil N. Olennikov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid (FA compositions of 14 wild wood-decaying basidiomycete species (Bjerkandera adusta, Daedaleopsis septentrionalis, Dichomitus squalens, Inonotus hispidus, I.radiatus, Irpex lacteus, Fomitopsis cajanderi, F.pinicola, F. rosea, Gloeophyllum protractum, Lenzites betulina, Phellinus pini, Trametes gibbosa, T. ochracea growing in permafrost conditions in Katanga region (Russian Federation were investigated using GC-MS. Generally, C18:2 ω 6 (linoleic acid, C18:1 ω 9 (oleic acid, C16:0 (palmitic acid and C20:0 (arachinic acid were found to be the major FA in fungal species. Data about chemical components of Daedaleopsis septentrionalis , Fomitopsis cajanderi and Gloeophyllum protractum were obtained at the first time. Increased level of degree of FA unsaturation was probably a result of extreme environmental conditions.

  18. Black carbon surface oxidation and organic composition of beech-wood soot aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Corbin

    2015-10-01

    oxygenated carbonaceous ions (CO1-2+, potassium (K+, and water (H2O+ and related fragments. The C4+ : C3+ ratio, but not the C1+ : C3+ ratio, was consistent with the BC-structure trends of Corbin et al. (2015c. The CO1-2+ signals likely originated from BC surface groups: upon aging, both CO+ and CO2+ increased relative to C1-3+ while CO2+ simultaneously increased relative to CO+. Factor analysis (positive matrix factorization of SP-AMS and AMS data, using a modified error model to address peak-integration uncertainties, indicated that the surface composition of the BC was approximately constant across all stages of combustion for both fresh and aged samples. These results represent the first time-resolved measurements of in situ BC surface aging and suggest that the surface of beech-wood BC may be modelled as a single chemical species.

  19. Bio-energy in the wood processing industry. Manual for energy production from residual matter for the wood processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Halen, C.J.G.; Arninkhof, M.J.C.; Rommens, P.J.M.; Karsch, P.

    2000-04-01

    This manual is published within the framework of a project, financed by Novem (EWAB programme) and the European Commission (Altener programme). Similar manuals were drafted in Germany, England and Sweden. The basis of the project was the manual 'Quality manual for small-scale wood incineration and wood gasification', published by Novem in 1998. That quality manual was drafted on the basis of an evaluation of a number of wood combustion and wood gasification projects. The original manual has been improved as a result of comments made by experts in the field of bio-energy. Updated information was added with respect to legislation, financing options and new technology. Also the manual is focused more on the wood processing industry

  20. A comparative study on the properties of graphene oxide and activated carbon based sustainable wood starch composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baishya, Prasanta; Maji, Tarun Kumar

    2018-08-01

    Activated carbon (AC) prepared from Jatropha curcas and graphene oxide (GO) were employed in the preparation of natural polymer based wood starch composites (WSC) through the solution blending technique using water as a solvent. In this study, methyl methacrylate (MMA) was grafted onto the starch polymer and this MMA grafted starch (MMA-g-starch) was cross-linked with the cheap soft wood flour using the citric acid as cross-linker and water as a solvent in the whole process. The prepared GO and AC were characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Raman study. The interaction of GO and AC, with MMA-g-starch, citric acid and wood were studied by FTIR, XRD and SEM analysis. The GO and AC treated composites exhibited outstanding mechanical properties, thermal stability and fire resistance properties. The tensile strength of the composites increased by 178% and 200% with addition of 2 phr AC and GO respectively compared to untreated composites. A significant enhancement in water resistance properties of GO and AC treated composites was also attained. The study showed that the properties of the composites containing AC prepared from the seeds of Jatropha curcas was quite comparable with the composites reinforced with GO. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  2. PRODUCTION OF ANTIBACTERIAL FILTER PAPER FROM WOOD CELLULOSE

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Imani; Mohammad Talaiepour; Joydeep Dutta; Mohammad R. Ghobadinezhad; Amir H. Hemmasi; Mousa M. Nazhad

    2011-01-01

    Paper has a visible market-share in hygiene products either in the form of personal hygiene or as food packaging. The designation “hygiene”, though it suggests cleanliness, does not imply antibacterial properties; rather it can be stated that hygiene products do not initiate microorganism growth. Antibacterial products could restrict propagation of pathogenic bacteria either by holding bacteria or by trapping and neutralizing them. Most research in this field has been conducted using textile ...

  3. Effect of boron and phosphate compounds on physical, mechanical, and fire properties of wood-polypropylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Turgay Akbulut; Turker Dundar; Robert H. White; Fatih Mengeloglu; Umit Buyuksari; Zeki Candan; Erkan Avci

    2012-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the injection-molded wood flour/polypropylene composites incorporated with different contents of boron compounds; borax/boric acid and zinc borate, and phosphate compounds; mono and diammonium phosphates were investigated. The effect of the coupling agent content, maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene, on the properties of...

  4. The Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on the Mechanical Properties of Wood Plastic Composites by Selective Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhe Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood-plastic composites (WPCs made by selective laser sintering (SLS approach of 3D printing offer many advantages over single polymer materials, such as low cost, sustainability, and better sintering accuracy. However, WPCs made via SLS are too weak to have widespread applications. In order to increase the mechanical properties of WPCs, a novel type of WPCs containing 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 wt % carbon nanotubes (CNT, 14 wt % wood fibers, 86 wt % polyether sulfone (PES was manufactured via SLS. The experimental results showed that the addition of small amount of CNTs can significantly increase the mechanical properties of the wood/PES composite material. The tensile strength, bending strength, and elasticity modulus were 76.3%, 227.9%, and 128.7% higher with 0.1 wt % CNTs than those without CNTs. The mechanical properties of specimens first increased and then decreased with the addition of CNTs. The SEM results of the specimens’ fracture morphology indicate that the preferable bonding interfaces between wood flour grains and PES grains were achieved by adding CNTs to the composites. There are two reasons why the composites possessed superior mechanical properties: CNTs facilitate the laser sintering process of WPCs due to their thermal conductivities, and CNTs directly reinforce WPCs.

  5. Biological degradation of wood-plastic composites (WPC) and strategies for improving the resistance of WPC against biological decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anke Schirp; Rebecca E. Ibach; David E. Pendleton; Michael P. Wolcott

    2008-01-01

    Much of the research on wood-plastic composites (WPC) has focused on formulation development and processing while high biological durability of the material was assumed. The gap between assumption and knowledge in biodeterioration of WPC needs to be reduced. Although some information on the short-term resistance of WPC against biological degradation is available, long-...

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging used for the evaluation of water presence in wood plastic composite boards exposed to exterior conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek Gnatowski; Rebecca Ibach; Mathew Leung; Grace Sun

    2014-01-01

    Two wood plastic composite (WPC) boards, one experimental and one commercial, were exposed to exterior conditions and evaluated non-destructively using a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unit for moisture content (MC) and distribution. The experimental board was exposed in Vancouver, British Columbia, for more than 8 years, and the commercial board was exposed...

  7. Development of a Tool to Measure the Effectiveness of Kaizen Events within the Wood Products Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogan, Sevtap

    2015-01-01

    Kaizen implementation and other continuous improvement practices can be used by companies to lower manufacturing costs and increase product value. Kaizen activities are one way that wood products companies can increase their competitiveness. Being able to measure the effectiveness of Kaizen events is important to factors that contribute to Kaizen effectiveness as well as identifying the success of Kaizen implementation. However, little research has focused on the implementation of Kaizen and ...

  8. Preparation of polyurethane foams using fractionated products in liquefied wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junming Xu; Jianchun Jiang; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2014-01-01

    Liquefaction of sawdust was studied using glycerol and methanol as mix solvents. A new bio-polyol product consisting of high purity multi-hydroxy compounds was obtained by precipitation of the hydrophobic organics from the liquefied product in an aqueous solution. As identified by GC-MS, the dominate components in bio-polyol were glycerol, glycerol derivatives, and...

  9. Biological Utilization of Wood for Production of Chemicals and Foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    manufac- various species. In this group are 137). The carbohydrate composition turing costs to be low. Such is not found tannins , coloring matter, resins...formed. Nickerson (99) omitted. The fermentations in were streaked on 20 percent glucose, isolated a yeast from sour wine that 500-milliliter... Tannin Nat tested .0250 Terpineol .037 Not tested Van illin .063 Not tested Eucalyptol .065 Not tested Table 8.-Effect of Inoculum size on fermentation

  10. Cone calorimeter tests of wood-based decking materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger; Nicole M. Stark

    2007-01-01

    New technologies in building materials have resulted in the use of a wide variety of materials in decks. As part of our effort to address fire concerns in the wildland-urban interface, the Forest Products Laboratory has been examining the fire performance of decking products. In addition to preservative-treated wood, decking products include wood-plastic composites and...

  11. 78 FR 34820 - Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    .... Examples of sources of formaldehyde gas inside homes include cigarette smoke, unvented, fuel- burning... derived an inhalation unit risk factor for assessing formaldehyde cancer risk. The risk factor and... formaldehyde by inhalation (Ref. 8). This draft IRIS assessment was peer-reviewed by the National Research...

  12. Successional changes in live and dead wood carbon stores: implications for net ecosystem productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisch, J E; Harmon, M E

    2002-02-01

    If forests are to be used in CO2 mitigation projects, it is essential to understand and quantify the impacts of disturbance on net ecosystem productivity (NEP; i.e., the change in ecosystem carbon (C) storage with time). We examined the influence of live tree and coarse woody debris (CWD) on NEP during secondary succession based on data collected along a 500-year chronosequence on the Wind River Ranger District, Washington. We developed a simple statistical model of live and dead wood accumulation and decomposition to predict changes in the woody component of NEP, which we call NEP(w). The transition from negative to positive NEP(w), for a series of scenarios in which none to all wood was left after disturbance, occurred between 0 and 57 years after disturbance. The timing of this transition decreased as live-tree growth rates increased, and increased as CWD left after disturbance increased. Maximum and minimum NEP(w) for all scenarios were 3.9 and -14.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, respectively. Maximum live and total wood C stores of 319 and 393 Mg C ha(-1), respectively, were reached approximately 200 years after disturbance. Decomposition rates (k) of CWD ranged between 0.013 and 0.043 year-1 for individual stands. Regenerating stands took 41 years to attain a mean live wood mass equivalent to the mean mass of CWD left behind after logging, 40 years to equal the mean CWD mass in 500-year-old forest, and more than 150 years to equal the mean total live and dead wood in an old-growth stand. At a rotation age of 80 years, regenerating stands stored approximately half the wood C of the remaining nearby old-growth forests (predominant age 500 years), indicating that conversion of old-growth forests to younger managed forests results in a significant net release of C to the atmosphere.

  13. Under What Circumstances Do Wood Products from Native Forests Benefit Climate Change Mitigation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Keith

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation benefits from the land sector are not being fully realised because of uncertainty and controversy about the role of native forest management. The dominant policy view, as stated in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report, is that sustainable forest harvesting yielding wood products, generates the largest mitigation benefit. We demonstrate that changing native forest management from commercial harvesting to conservation can make an important contribution to mitigation. Conservation of native forests results in an immediate and substantial reduction in net emissions relative to a reference case of commercial harvesting. We calibrated models to simulate scenarios of native forest management for two Australian case studies: mixed-eucalypt in New South Wales and Mountain Ash in Victoria. Carbon stocks in the harvested forest included forest biomass, wood and paper products, waste in landfill, and bioenergy that substituted for fossil fuel energy. The conservation forest included forest biomass, and subtracted stocks for the foregone products that were substituted by non-wood products or plantation products. Total carbon stocks were lower in harvested forest than in conservation forest in both case studies over the 100-year simulation period. We tested a range of potential parameter values reported in the literature: none could increase the combined carbon stock in products, slash, landfill and substitution sufficiently to exceed the increase in carbon stock due to changing management of native forest to conservation. The key parameters determining carbon stock change under different forest management scenarios are those affecting accumulation of carbon in forest biomass, rather than parameters affecting transfers among wood products. This analysis helps prioritise mitigation activities to focus on maximising forest biomass. International forest-related policies, including negotiations under the UNFCCC, have failed to recognize

  14. Lumber attributes, characteristics, and species preferences as indicated by secondary wood products firms in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate selected lumber attributes, species preferences, and lumber use properties among secondary wood manufacturers in the United States. Our sample included producers of kitchen cabinets, furniture, doors, windows, and molded products who attended regional and national wood manufacturing events. More than 51% of respondents had...

  15. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Northern Region, 1906-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  16. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region, 1906-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  17. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Southern Region, 1911-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Keith Stockmann; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison; Jesse Young

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  18. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Intermountain Region, 1911-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  19. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Pacific Northwest Region, 1909-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Butler; Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison; Jesse Young

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  20. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Pacific Southwest Region, 1909-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  1. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Eastern Region, 1911-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Keith Stockmann; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison; Jesse Young

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  2. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Alaska Region, 1910-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Keith Stockmann; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison; Jesse Young

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  3. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Southwestern Region, 1909-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Butler; Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  4. Integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood in Northern Finland; Polttojakeen hankinta puun yhdistelmaekorjuussa ja integroitu energiapuun tuotantomenetelmae Pohjois-Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooli, A. [Hooli Oy, Kemi (Finland); Kuitto, P.J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Ranta, T. [Finntech Ltd. Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Chip production company Hooli Ltd. has built an innovative mobile chain-flail delimbing-debarking-unit which includes also a hammer crusher for wood fuel. This integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood based on that unit has been planned especially for the circumstances where the power or heating plants are near and the pulp mills more remote from the wood processing sites. The trees are felt into bunches and transported as whole trees or tree-sections to the roadside. The Hooli-unit delimbs and debarks the trees using multi-tree processing. The optimal bark content of Scot pine bolts after processing is under 1 %. All green branches, stops and bark are directly crushed into wood fuel in the same unit. Fuel chips are carried to the nearest power plant. The debarked bolts are transported to the pulpmills in the form of roundwood or pulpchips, thus giving better economy for the whole method. Based on first field experiments in 1995 this method has operated well. However, there are still development work ahead: e.g. good debarking quality of birch and spruce in the winter conditions. To attain the targets of the project looks promising. The project is carried out as joint project between Hooli Ltd, Finntech Ltd. Oy, the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Veitsiluoto Ltd and VTT Energy. The chain-flail delimbing-debarking-crushing unit was built at Tervolan Konepaja Ky

  5. Integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood in Northern Finland; Polttojakeen hankinta puun yhdistelmaekorjuussa ja integroitu energiapuun tuotantomenetelmae Pohjois-Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooli, A [Hooli Oy, Kemi (Finland); Kuitto, P J [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Ranta, T [Finntech Ltd. Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Chip production company Hooli Ltd. has built an innovative mobile chain-flail delimbing-debarking-unit which includes also a hammer crusher for wood fuel. This integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood based on that unit has been planned especially for the circumstances where the power or heating plants are near and the pulp mills more remote from the wood processing sites. The trees are felt into bunches and transported as whole trees or tree-sections to the roadside. The Hooli-unit delimbs and debarks the trees using multi-tree processing. The optimal bark content of Scot pine bolts after processing is under 1 %. All green branches, stops and bark are directly crushed into wood fuel in the same unit. Fuel chips are carried to the nearest power plant. The debarked bolts are transported to the pulpmills in the form of roundwood or pulpchips, thus giving better economy for the whole method. Based on first field experiments in 1995 this method has operated well. However, there are still development work ahead: e.g. good debarking quality of birch and spruce in the winter conditions. To attain the targets of the project looks promising. The project is carried out as joint project between Hooli Ltd, Finntech Ltd. Oy, the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Veitsiluoto Ltd and VTT Energy. The chain-flail delimbing-debarking-crushing unit was built at Tervolan Konepaja Ky

  6. Mechanical and natural durability properties of wood treated with a novel organic preservative/consolidant product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lionetto, Francesca; Frigione, Mariaenrica

    2009-01-01

    An organic preservative/consolidant of new formulation was selected in order to evaluate its effect on the mechanical properties of worm-eaten walnut wood. Walnut wood is widely used for the realization of artistic handworks (e.g. statues, altars, etc.) furniture and flooring. The flexural strength and modulus of elasticity, the toughness and the hardness were determined on both treated and untreated samples. The experimental results showed that the product increased significantly the flexural strength while the other mechanical properties were not appreciably affected by the chemical treatment. The microstructure of the samples tested was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The preserving character against insects of the investigated product was assessed by both visual inspection and measurements of weight loss on the treated specimens after their exposure to living insects. The samples on which the product was applied, exposed to Oligomerus ptilinoides for one year, were more resistant to decay than the corresponding untreated samples.

  7. Characterization of wood plastic composites made from landfill-derived plastic and sawdust: Volatile compounds and olfactometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Félix, Juliana S.; Domeño, Celia; Nerín, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This work details the characterization of VOCs of WPC, produced from residual materials which would have landfills as current destination, and evaluates their odor profile. Highlights: ► More than 140 volatile compounds were identified in raw materials and WPC products. ► Markers were related to the thermal degradation, sawdust or coupling agents. ► WPC prototype showed a characteristic odor profile of burnt, sweet and wax-like. ► Aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones and phenols were odor descriptors of WPC. - Abstract: Application of wood plastic composites (WPCs) obtained from recycled materials initially intended for landfill is usually limited by their composition, mainly focused on release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which could affect quality or human safety. The study of the VOCs released by a material is a requirement for new composite materials. Characterization and quantification of VOCs of several WPC produced with low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate (PE/EVA) films and sawdust were carried out, in each stage of production, by solid phase microextraction in headspace mode (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). An odor profile was also obtained by HS-SPME and GC–MS coupled with olfactometry analysis. More than 140 compounds were observed in the raw materials and WPC samples. Some quantified compounds were considered WPC markers such as furfural, 2-methoxyphenol, N-methylphthalimide and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Hexanoic acid, acetic acid, 2-methoxyphenol, acetylfuran, diacetyl, and aldehydes were the most important odorants. None of the VOCs were found to affect human safety for use of the WPC

  8. Characterization of wood plastic composites made from landfill-derived plastic and sawdust: Volatile compounds and olfactometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Félix, Juliana S., E-mail: jfelix@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, I3A, EINA, University of Zaragoza (UNIZAR), Zaragoza 50018 (Spain); Domeño, Celia, E-mail: cdomeno@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, I3A, EINA, University of Zaragoza (UNIZAR), Zaragoza 50018 (Spain); Nerín, Cristina, E-mail: cnerin@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, I3A, EINA, University of Zaragoza (UNIZAR), Zaragoza 50018 (Spain)

    2013-03-15

    Graphical abstract: This work details the characterization of VOCs of WPC, produced from residual materials which would have landfills as current destination, and evaluates their odor profile. Highlights: ► More than 140 volatile compounds were identified in raw materials and WPC products. ► Markers were related to the thermal degradation, sawdust or coupling agents. ► WPC prototype showed a characteristic odor profile of burnt, sweet and wax-like. ► Aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones and phenols were odor descriptors of WPC. - Abstract: Application of wood plastic composites (WPCs) obtained from recycled materials initially intended for landfill is usually limited by their composition, mainly focused on release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which could affect quality or human safety. The study of the VOCs released by a material is a requirement for new composite materials. Characterization and quantification of VOCs of several WPC produced with low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate (PE/EVA) films and sawdust were carried out, in each stage of production, by solid phase microextraction in headspace mode (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). An odor profile was also obtained by HS-SPME and GC–MS coupled with olfactometry analysis. More than 140 compounds were observed in the raw materials and WPC samples. Some quantified compounds were considered WPC markers such as furfural, 2-methoxyphenol, N-methylphthalimide and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Hexanoic acid, acetic acid, 2-methoxyphenol, acetylfuran, diacetyl, and aldehydes were the most important odorants. None of the VOCs were found to affect human safety for use of the WPC.

  9. An exploratory assessment of the attitudes of Chinese wood products manufacturers towards forest certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Innes, John L; Kozak, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Interviews with Chinese forest products manufacturers were conducted to explore their attitudes towards forest certification and related issues. Participants comprised owners, CEOs, and managers in 20 Chinese wood products companies, including producers of furniture, doors, flooring, and various engineered wood products. The interviews were used to analyze the extent to which participants were considering adopting forest certification and what might motivate such a decision. This was done by assessing their awareness and knowledge of certification. The results indicated that participants' understanding of forest certification was extremely low, despite major efforts in China to raise awareness of the issue. Potential economic benefits were the most frequently cited reason to adopt certification, including gaining or maintaining competitive advantage over their industry counterparts, improved access to both domestic and export markets, better customer recognition, and enhanced corporate responsibility practices. Some interviewees (3 out of 20) considered that certification would become a mandatory requirement or industry standard, and that this would be the only viable motivation for certification given that the financial benefits were potentially limited. According to the participants, the main differences between certified and uncertified wood products operations related to improved market access and public image. Interviewees felt that cooperation between and support from governments and the forest industry would enable the enhanced awareness of certification amongst manufacturers and the general public. This, in turn, could serve to stimulate demand for certified products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon sequestration in wood products: a method for attribution to multiple parties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, Bruce; Marland, Gregg

    2007-01-01

    When forest is harvested some of the forest carbon ends up in wood products. If the forest is managed so that the standing stock of the forest remains constant over time, and the stock of wood products is increasing, then carbon dioxide is being removed from the atmosphere in net and this should be reflected in accounting for greenhouse gas emissions. We suggest that carbon sequestration in wood products requires cooperation of multiple parties; from the forest owner to the product manufacturer to the product user, and perhaps others. Credit for sequestering carbon away from the atmosphere could acknowledge the contributions of these multiple parties. Accounting under a cap-and-trade or tax system is not necessarily an inventory system, it is a system designed to motivate and/or reward an environmental objective. We describe a system of attribution whereby credits for carbon sequestration would be shared among multiple, contributing parties. It is hoped that the methodology outlined herein proves attractive enough to parties concerned to spur them to address the details of such a system. The system of incentives one would choose for limiting or controlling greenhouse gas emissions could be quite different, depending on how the attribution for emissions and sequestration is chosen

  11. Beech wood Fagus sylvatica dilute-acid hydrolysate as a feedstock to support Chlorella sorokiniana biomass, fatty acid and pigment production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miazek, Krystian; Remacle, Claire; Richel, Aurore; Goffin, Dorothee

    2017-04-01

    This work evaluates the possibility of using beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) dilute-acid (H 2 SO 4 ) hydrolysate as a feedstock for Chlorella sorokiniana growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Neutralized wood acid hydrolysate, containing organic and mineral compounds, was tested on Chlorella growth at different concentrations and compared to growth under phototrophic conditions. Chlorella growth was improved at lower loadings and inhibited at higher loadings. Based on these results, a 12% neutralized wood acid hydrolysate (Hyd12%) loading was selected to investigate its impact on Chlorella growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Hyd12% improved microalgal biomass, fatty acid and pigment productivities both in light and in dark, when compared to photoautotrophic control. Light intensity had substantial influence on fatty acid and pigment composition in Chlorella culture during Hyd12%-based growth. Moreover, heterotrophic Chlorella cultivation with Hyd12% also showed that wood hydrolysate can constitute an attractive feedstock for microalgae cultivation in case of lack of light. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 78 FR 44090 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products..., concerning a third-party certification framework for the formaldehyde standards for composite wood products... Environmental protection, Composite wood products, Formaldehyde, Reporting and recordkeeping, Third-party...

  13. 78 FR 51696 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products..., concerning a third-party certification framework for the formaldehyde standards for composite wood products... INFORMATION CONTACT. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 770 Environmental protection, Composite wood products...

  14. A simple technique to increase profits in wood products marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Harpole

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical models can be used to solve quickly some simple day-to-day marketing problems. This note explains how a sawmill production manager, who has an essentially fixed-capacity mill, can solve several optimization problems by using pencil and paper, a forecast of market prices, and a simple algorithm. One such problem is to maximize profits in an operating period...

  15. Wood Energy Production, Sustainable Farming Livelihood and Multifunctionality in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Suvi

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and the projected depletion of fossil energy resources pose multiple global challenges. Innovative technologies offer interesting possibilities to achieve more sustainable outcomes in the energy production sector. Local, decentralized alternatives have the potential to sustain livelihoods in rural areas. One example of such a…

  16. Increased wood-fiber production: technology, economics, and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Bentley

    1973-01-01

    Forest tree improvement is a form of technological change, and it should be viewed as such. The economic objective of technological change is to increase productivity per dollar invested. This is accomplished through selection and breeding for increased growth rates or reduced losses to insects and disease. Programs which yield improved planting stock make forest...

  17. Production, Cost and Chip Characteristics of In-Woods Microchipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Thompson; W. Sprinkle

    2013-01-01

    Emerging markets for biomass have increased the interest in producing microchips in the field. As a component of a large United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded project, microchipping has been trialed on a limited scale. The goal of the research was to evaluate the production, cost and chip characteristics of a mobile disc chipper configured to produce...

  18. Product costing guide for wood dimension and component manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2014-01-01

    The North American hardwood dimension and components industry plays a critical role in the hardwood forest products industry as the industry is a user of high-value hardwood lumber. Customer expectations, global markets, and international competition, however, require hardwood dimension and components manufacturers to continuously improve their ability to manage their...

  19. Chemical composition and speciation of particulate organic matter from modern residential small-scale wood combustion appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Hendryk; Miersch, Toni; Orasche, Jürgen; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Sippula, Olli; Tissari, Jarkko; Michalke, Bernhard; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Streibel, Thorsten; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2018-01-15

    Combustion technologies of small-scale wood combustion appliances are continuously developed decrease emissions of various pollutants and increase energy conversion. One strategy to reduce emissions is the implementation of air staging technology in secondary air supply, which became an established technique for modern wood combustion appliances. On that account, emissions from a modern masonry heater fuelled with three types of common logwood (beech, birch and spruce) and a modern pellet boiler fuelled with commercial softwood pellets were investigated, which refer to representative combustion appliances in northern Europe In particular, emphasis was put on the organic constituents of PM2.5, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and phenolic species, by targeted and non-targeted mass spectrometric analysis techniques. Compared to conventional wood stoves and pellet boilers, organic emissions from the modern appliances were reduced by at least one order of magnitude, but to a different extent for single species. Hence, characteristic ratios of emission constituents and emission profiles for wood combustion identification and speciation do not hold for this type of advanced combustion technology. Additionally, an overall substantial reduction of typical wood combustion markers, such as phenolic species and anhydrous sugars, were observed. Finally, it was found that slow ignition of log woods changes the distribution of characteristic resin acids and phytosterols as well as their thermal alteration products, which are used as markers for specific wood types. Our results should be considered for wood combustion identification in positive matrix factorisation or chemical mass balance in northern Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Small-scale production and utilization of wood fuels; Puupolttoaineen pientuotanto ja -kaeyttoe - katsaus tutkimus- projekteihin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, S. [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the research on small-scale production of wood fuels was to promote the forest owners` own utilization and procurement of firewood. The profitability of firewood was improved by developing new farm-tractor mountable equipment and methods for forest owners and small-entrepreneurs for harvesting of first-thinning wood and other small-dimeter wood. Totally new solution for machine felling of small trees and chopwood production were developed to serial production level. Recyclable processing and delivery units were developed for delivery of chopwood. A calculation model for analysing the costs of small-scale production of firewood became ready. A guide on the development of heating-entrepreneur activities, serving the entrepreneurs, was published. The objective of the firewood utilization research was to reduce the technical barriers of the utilization of firewood in small-house and real-estate scales. The main aim was to reduce the flue-gas emissions. The emissions of the fireplaces were reduced by developing the construction of fireplaces, catalytic combustion and heating methods. An automatic stoker-burner was developed for real-estate scale and a boiler series was designed for biofuels

  1. Small-scale production and utilization of wood fuels; Puupolttoaineen pientuotanto ja -kaeyttoe - katsaus tutkimus- projekteihin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, S [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The objective of the research on small-scale production of wood fuels was to promote the forest owners` own utilization and procurement of firewood. The profitability of firewood was improved by developing new farm-tractor mountable equipment and methods for forest owners and small-entrepreneurs for harvesting of first-thinning wood and other small-dimeter wood. Totally new solution for machine felling of small trees and chopwood production were developed to serial production level. Recyclable processing and delivery units were developed for delivery of chopwood. A calculation model for analysing the costs of small-scale production of firewood became ready. A guide on the development of heating-entrepreneur activities, serving the entrepreneurs, was published. The objective of the firewood utilization research was to reduce the technical barriers of the utilization of firewood in small-house and real-estate scales. The main aim was to reduce the flue-gas emissions. The emissions of the fireplaces were reduced by developing the construction of fireplaces, catalytic combustion and heating methods. An automatic stoker-burner was developed for real-estate scale and a boiler series was designed for biofuels

  2. Evaluation of leachate quality from pentachlorophenol, creosote and ACA [ammoniacal chromium arsenate] preserved wood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiticar, D.M.; Letourneau, L.; Konasewich, D.

    1994-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the leachability characteristics of pentachlorophenol (PCP), creosote, and ammoniacal chromium arsenate (ACA) wood preservatives from freshly treated wood products. Test products included PCP-treated utility poles, creosote-treated timbers and marine pilings, and ACA-treated utility poles. Bundles of test products were placed over collection trays to collect the leachate generated by natural rainfall and by sprinkling with tap water. The sampling schedule was based on accumulated rainfall with samples taken at about every 15 mm from 15 mm to 150 mm. Analyses included pH, oil and grease, total organic carbon, ammonia, metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated and nonchlorinated phenols, resin acids, and fish toxicity. The study indicated that leachates from wood products freshly treated with ACA, creosote, and PCP have potential for aquatic toxicity if released to the environment. A decreasing trend was noted in both the arsenic and copper releases as cumulative precipitation increased. PCP releases remained constant over the course of the study while PAH releases showed no significant trend. Phenanthrene was found to be the main component in the releases. 28 refs., 18 figs., 7 tabs

  3. A wooded riparian strip set up for nitrogen removal can affect the water flux microbial composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizanur Md. Rahman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is part of a project aimed at verifying the potential of a specifically assessed wooded riparian zone in removing excess of combined nitrogen from the Zero river flow for the reduction of nutrient input into Venice Lagoon. Specific objectives were pursued to determine seasonal fluctuations of the microbial populations from the input water to a drainage ditch, conveying back the flux into the river after passing through the soil of the wooded riparian strip. The bacterial communities were determined by combined approaches involving cultivation, microscopic methods and DNA based techniques to determine both culturable and total microbial community in water. The results indicate that the size of the bacterial population, including the culturable fraction, increases from the river to the drainage ditch especially on the warm season. The multiple approach here adopted enabled also to demonstrate that the special condition created in the buffer strip supports the development and the metabolism of the microbial community. The nature of the bacterial population, in terms of phylotypes distribution, was investigated by 16S rDNA analysis indicating that the most represented genera belong to Gamma-proteobacteria, which is known to include an exceeding number of important pathogens. In spring, the effect of the buffer strip seems to significantly reduce such a sub-population. The changes observed for the total bacterial community composition become much evident in summer, as revealed by both denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis cluster analysis and by the diversity index calculation. The hydraulic management coupled to the suspension of farming practices and the development of the woody and herbaceous vegetation resulted in a condition suitable for the containment of undesired microbiota (mainly during the spring season while continuing to support denitrification activity (especially throughout the summer as verified by the total nitrogen

  4. Effect of Weathering Time on the Physical - Mechanical Properties and Color Change in Wood Flour/HDPE Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Kord

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of weathering time on the physical and mechanical properties and color change in composite made of wood flour and high density polyethylene (HDPE. For this purpose, wood flour and polyethylene at a weight ratio of 60:40 with coupling agent were compounded in an internal mixer, and the samples were made in injection molding. Then, the weathering process by ultraviolet irradiation and water spray was done on the samples at different times of 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 hours in accelerated weathering apparatus. Finally, the physical and mechanical properties and color measurement of samples were tested, and compared with control samples. Results indicated that the flexural strength, flexural modulus, tensile strength and tensile modulus decreased with an increase in weathering time; however, the water absorption increased. Also, the yellowness of wood plastic samples decreased with an increase in weathering time and due to the lightness and color change increased.

  5. Production of cattle feed by the growth of bacteria on mesquite wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, D W

    1975-01-01

    The potential for the conversion of mesquite into either a complete animal feed or a protein supplement was evaluated. Species of bacteria which can use the extremely hard mesquite wood as their sole C source were isolated by enrichment culture techniques. Each species was evaluated for its rate of growth, protein production, cellulase activity, amino acid profile of the single-cell protein, and acute toxicity or pathogenicity for weanling mice. The growth products were analyzed for protein, lignin, ash, carbohydrates, and caloric value. The single-cell protein produced from mesquite exceeded or equaled the FAO reference protein in 8 essential amino acids including methionine. No pathogenicity or acute toxicity of the bacteria for weanling mice was found. The results indicate that a high-energy, high-protein, complete cattle feed or an excellent protein supplement can be produced from mesquite wood.

  6. Chemical characterization and stable carbon isotopic composition of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons issued from combustion of 10 Mediterranean woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guillon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from particulate matter emitted during wood combustion and to determine, for the first time, the isotopic signature of PAHs from nine wood species and Moroccan coal from the Mediterranean Basin. In order to differentiate sources of particulate-PAHs, molecular and isotopic measurements of PAHs were performed on the set of wood samples for a large panel of compounds. Molecular profiles and diagnostic ratios were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS and molecular isotopic compositions (δ13C of particulate-PAHs were determined by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS. Wood species present similar molecular profiles with benz(aanthracene and chrysene as dominant PAHs, whereas levels of concentrations range from 1.8 to 11.4 mg g−1 OC (sum of PAHs. Diagnostic ratios are consistent with reference ratios from literature but are not sufficient to differentiate the species of woods. Concerning isotopic methodology, PAH molecular isotopic compositions are specific for each species and contrary to molecular fingerprints, significant variations of δ13C are observed for the panel of PAHs. This work allows differentiating wood combustion (with δ13CPAH = −28.7 to −26.6‰ from others origins of particulate matter (like vehicular exhaust using isotopic measurements but also confirms the necessity to investigate source characterisation at the emission in order to help and complete source assessment models. These first results on woodburnings will be useful for the isotopic approach to source tracking.

  7. Structural wood products in onshore buildings at Naval Station Norfolk, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever

    2003-01-01

    As of December 31, 2000, there were 603 buildings at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Norfolk with a combined floor area of nearly 17.3 million ft2. In one-third of these buildings, structural wood products were used in one or more major structural building applications, utilizing an estimated 11.6 million board feet of lumber, 0.4 million ft2 (3/8-in. basis) of structural...

  8. Development of a tornado safe room door from wood Products: door design and impact testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk; James J. Bridwell

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a tornado safe room door built from wood products and steel sheeting was developed and impact-tested according to tornado safe room standards. Results indicate that an door constructed from as few as two sheets of 23/32-in. (18.26-mm) construction-grade plywood and overlaid with 18-gauge (0.05-in.- (1.27- mm-) thick) steel can pass the required impact...

  9. Carbon budget of Ontario's managed forests and harvested wood products, 2001–2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaxin Chen; Stephen J. Colombo; Michael T. Ter-Mikaelian; Linda S. Heath

    2010-01-01

    Forest and harvested wood products (HWP) carbon (C) stocks between 2001 and 2100 for Ontario's managed forests were projected using FORCARB-ON, an adaptation of the U.S. national forest C budget model known as FORCARB2. A fire disturbance module was introduced to FORCARB-ON to simulate the effects of wildfire on C, and some of the model's C pools were re-...

  10. California's hardwood resource: managing for wildlife, water, pleasing scenery, and wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Dean W. Huber

    1995-01-01

    A new management perspective that emphasizes a variety of amenities and commodities is needed for California’s forest-zone hardwoods. For the near future and perhaps more on public than on private land, these "yields" are wildlife, water, esthetics, and wood products. Each is presented first as an individual yield and then as part of a combined yield. As an...

  11. Eucalyptus wood and coffee parchment for particleboard production: Physical and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Vanoli Scatolino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The wood panel industry is constantly growing, being necessary the innovation in technologies and raw materials to improve the quality of the final product. Considering the shortage and pressure to decrease the dependence of wood, there is an interest in other renewable materials such as agricultural wastes. Among these wastes, coffee parchment is one which deserves notoriety. An alternative use for coffee parchment could be for production of particleboard in association with wood particles. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using coffee parchment for production of particleboard. The following percentages of wastes were used: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% in association to eucalyptus wood. The panels were produced with 8% of urea formaldehyde (based on dry weight of particles. The pressing cycle consisted by: pre-pressing of 0.5 MPa for 10 minutes followed by pressing of 4.0 MPa, and temperature of 160° C for 15 minutes. The compaction ratio of particleboards produced using higher quantities of parchment improved the physical properties. The properties of Water Absorption (2 and 24 h and Thickness Swelling (2 h decreased with increasing percentage of coffee parchment. The Thickness Swelling (24 h showed not significant effect with an increase of coffee waste. The Modulus of Elasticity for coffee parchment particleboards was in the range 646.49 ± 112.65 to 402.03 ± 66.24 MPa, while the Modulus of Rupture ranged from 8.18 ± 1.39 to 4.45 ± 0.75 MPa. The results showed that 10% of coffee parchment could be added for production of particleboards.

  12. Solid wood timber products consumption in major end uses in the United States, 1950-2009 : a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; James L. Howard

    2011-01-01

    Solid wood timber products provide important raw materials to the construction, manufacturing, and shipping sectors of the U.S. economy. Nearly all new single-family houses and low-rise multifamily residential structures are wood framed and sheathed. Large amounts of solid wood timber products are also used in the construction of new nonresidential buildings, and in...

  13. Decadal Variations in Eastern Canada's Taiga Wood Biomass Production Forced by Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Etienne; Nicault, Antoine; Arseneault, Dominique; Bégin, Yves; Karami, Mehdi Pasha

    2017-05-26

    Across Eastern Canada (EC), taiga forests represent an important carbon reservoir, but the extent to which climate variability affects this ecosystem over decades remains uncertain. Here, we analyze an extensive network of black spruce (Picea mariana Mill.) ring width and wood density measurements and provide new evidence that wood biomass production is influenced by large-scale, internal ocean-atmosphere processes. We show that while black spruce wood biomass production is primarily governed by growing season temperatures, the Atlantic ocean conveys heat from the subtropics and influences the decadal persistence in taiga forests productivity. Indeed, we argue that 20-30 years periodicities in Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) as part of the the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) directly influence heat transfers to adjacent lands. Winter atmospheric conditions associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) might also impact EC's taiga forests, albeit indirectly, through its effect on SSTs and sea ice conditions in surrounding seas. Our work emphasizes that taiga forests would benefit from the combined effects of a warmer atmosphere and stronger ocean-to-land heat transfers, whereas a weakening of these transfers could cancel out, for decades or longer, the positive effects of climate change on Eastern Canada's largest ecosystem.

  14. A novel wood flour-filled composite based on microfibrillar high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/Nylon-6 blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongzhi; Yao, Fei; Xu, Yanjun; Wu, Qinglin

    2010-05-01

    A novel wood flour (WF)-filled composite based on the microfibrillar high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and Nylon-6 co-blend, in which both in situ formed Nylon-6 microfibrils and WF acted as reinforcing elements, was successfully developed using a two-step extrusion method. At the 30wt.% WF loading level, WF-filled composite based on the microfibrillized HDPE/Nylon-6 blend exhibited higher strengths and moduli than the corresponding HDPE-based composite. The incorporation of WF reduced short-term creep response of HDPE matrix and the presence of Nylon-6 microfibrils further contributed to the creep reduction. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Coupling effect of waste automotive engine oil in the preparation of wood reinforced LDPE plastic composites for panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maame Adwoa Bentumah Animpong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated the formulation of wood plastic composite (WPC materials with flexural strength of 13.69 ± 0.09 MPa for applications in outdoor fencing using municipal waste precursors like low density polyethylene (LDPE plastics (54.0 wt. %, sawn wood dust with particle size between 64 and 500 μm derived from variable hardwood species (36.0 wt. % and used automotive engine oil (10 wt. %. The WPC panels were prepared by pre-compounding, extruding at a screw auger torque of 79.8 Nm and pressing through a rectangular mould of dimension 132 mm × 37 mm × 5 mm at temperature 150 °C. The efficacy of black waste oil, as a coupling agent, was demonstrated by the absence of voids and pull-outs on microscopic examination using scanning electron microscopy. No hazardous substances were exhaled during thermo-gravimetric mass spectrometry analysis. The percentage crystallinity of the LDPE in the as-prepared material determined by differential scanning calorimetry was 11.3%. Keywords: Wood plastic composites, Low density polyethylene, Wood dust, Physical, Thermal and mechanical properties

  16. Catalase-Aminotriazole Assay, an Invalid Method for Measurement of Hydrogen Peroxide Production by Wood Decay Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Highley, Terry L.

    1981-01-01

    The catalase-aminotriazole assay for determination of hydrogen peroxide apparently cannot be used for measuring hydrogen peroxide production in crude preparations from wood decay fungi because of materials in the crude preparations that interfere with the test.

  17. Dimensional stability of wood-plastic composites reinforced with potassium methyl siliconate modified fiber and sawdust made from beetle-killed trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Zhiyong Cai; Nicole M. Stark; Charles J. Montezun

    2014-01-01

    Wood fromtwovarieties of beetle-killed trees was used to fabricate wood–plastic composites. Loblolly pine and lodgepole pine beetle-killed trees were defibrated mechanically and thermomechanically, respectively, into fiber. Fiber and sawdust produced from the trees were modified with potassium methyl siliconate (PMS) and injection-molded into fiber/sawdust reinforced...

  18. Electron beam processing of rubber wood fibers - polypropylene composites. Effects of reactive additives on the physical and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Yuziah Mohd Yunus; Jalaluddin Harun; Khairul Zaman

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the suitability of producing agro-fiber reinforced plastic composite (agro-FRPC) from rubber wood fiber blended in polypropylene matrix. The effects of varying fiber dimension and fiber content on the physical and mechanical properties of the composite were evaluated to provide an insight into the fiber matrix adhesion. The effects of reactive additives on the physical and mechanical properties of the composite were evaluated which provides the insight on the reinforcement of the composite. Rubber wood fiber used in this study is currently being used in the manufacturing of medium density fiber (MDF) board. Two sizes of rubber wood fiber were used i.e. 0.5-1.0 mm and 1.0-2.0 mm. Homopolymer polypropylene of MFI 14.0 was used as a matrix. The irradiation work was carried out using electron beam accelerator, 3.0 MeV, 3.0 mA. Various types of reactive additives (RA) with mono-functional, di-functional, tri-functional and oligomer were applied in the blend. For comparison, a conventional chemical cross-linking using two types of maleated polypropylene, MPA (Mw=9,000) and PMAP (Mw=220,000) were also performed. (author)

  19. Electron beam processing of rubber wood fibers - polypropylene composites. Effects of reactive additives on the physical and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nor Yuziah Mohd Yunus; Jalaluddin Harun [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Khairul Zaman [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the suitability of producing agro-fiber reinforced plastic composite (agro-FRPC) from rubber wood fiber blended in polypropylene matrix. The effects of varying fiber dimension and fiber content on the physical and mechanical properties of the composite were evaluated to provide an insight into the fiber matrix adhesion. The effects of reactive additives on the physical and mechanical properties of the composite were evaluated which provides the insight on the reinforcement of the composite. Rubber wood fiber used in this study is currently being used in the manufacturing of medium density fiber (MDF) board. Two sizes of rubber wood fiber were used i.e. 0.5-1.0 mm and 1.0-2.0 mm. Homopolymer polypropylene of MFI 14.0 was used as a matrix. The irradiation work was carried out using electron beam accelerator, 3.0 MeV, 3.0 mA. Various types of reactive additives (RA) with mono-functional, di-functional, tri-functional and oligomer were applied in the blend. For comparison, a conventional chemical cross-linking using two types of maleated polypropylene, MPA (Mw=9,000) and PMAP (Mw=220,000) were also performed. (author)

  20. Composite of wood-plastic and micro-encapsulated phase change material (MEPCM) used for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamekhorshid, A.; Sadrameli, S.M.; Barzin, R.; Farid, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A composite of wood–plastic-MEPCM has been produced. • Compression molding has been used for the composite preparation. • Thermal and properties were investigated using DSC analysis and cycling test. • Leakage test has been performed for the encapsulated PCM. • The composites can be used as a building material for thermal energy management. - Abstract: Application of phase change materials (PCMs) in lightweight building is growing due to the high latent heat of fusion of PCMs and their ability to control temperature by absorbing and releasing heat efficiently. Wood-plastic composites (WPC) are materials used in the interior parts of buildings that have improved properties compared to conventional materials. However, these materials have low energy storage capacity, which can be improved by incorporating PCM in them. Leakage of PCM is a major obstacle to the industrial applications, which can be solved through the use of microencapsulated PCM (MEPCM). This paper presents the performance tests conducted for a composite of wood-plastic-MEPCM for using in buildings for thermal storage. The wood-plastic-MEPCM composites were produced in this project using compression molding and their thermal and mechanical properties were investigated using DSC analysis, cycling test, leakage test, and three point bending analysis. The results showed that there is no leakage of PCM during phase change. The results also indicated that the composite has reasonable thermal properties, but its mechanical properties need to be improved by increasing the pressure during the molding process or by using extrusion method. The produced composites can be used as a building material for thermal energy management of building.

  1. Pretreatments for converting wood into paper and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Kenealy; Carl J. Houtman; Jose Laplaza; Thomas W. Jeffries; Eric G. Horn

    2007-01-01

    Biorefining wood into paper and chemicals is not as easy as making a single traditional paper product. Paper is made from the cellulose- containing fractions of wood and processing may remove lignin and hemicellulose components. The yield and composition of the product depend upon the type of paper being produced. The paper process often alters the noncellulose...

  2. Small-scale production and use of wood fuels. Report of the year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    2005-01-01

    The target areas of the research programme are: Small-scale production and handling of wood fuels, Pellet production, distribution and use, Heating technology and Business and service concepts. Production and processing technology focuses on cost-effectiveness, fuel quality, logistics of production chains and storage, transport and feeding solutions. The quality of pellets in the view of the whole chain: production, storage, distribution and feeding, is under scrutiny. In addition, storage and distribution systems are being developed. The aim is to create functional and comprehensive heat production systems based on the use of wood pellets. Emissions from small-scale use are reduced and efficiency of combustion improved to meet the Central European standard. Modern control, automation and data management systems are applied cost-effectively. The aim is to create comprehensive systems and modular solutions. Business and service concepts relate to all target areas such as heat entrepreneurship and energy service companies (ESCO). The aim is to promote the networking of companies and develop new solutions for fuel and heat production services

  3. Greek timber industries and wood product markets over the last century: development constraints and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis P. Koulelis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Greek forestry sector after 1930. According to the past literature, the sector was entirely degraded and reliable data are not available. The study analyses critical historical data about timber sector and timber companies; the main objective is the specification of the factors that kept the Greek forest sector underdevelopment. The factors and the development constraints, including the indigenous characteristics of the Greek forests, the inhibitory policy for timber production investments, especially in the state industries, lack of market research, unorthodox procedures for sale of the wood, bad quality and high cost of production and periods of general economic recession are analyzed farther. Conclusively, the need for producing official forest maps, forest data recording, rapid adaptation to EU specifications, investments, deep changes in to the managership of the state industries, permanent and specialized personnel and promotion of national programs for the development of the small-scale wood elaboration and wood selling industrial units are some of the solutions for the above problems that could be suggested.

  4. Greek timber industries and wood product markets over the last century: development constraints and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis P. Koulelis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Greek forestry sector after 1930. According to the past literature, the sector was entirely degraded and reliable data are not available. The study analyses critical historical data about timber sector and timber companies; the main objective is the specification of the factors that kept the Greek forest sector underdevelopment. The factors and the development constraints, including the indigenous characteristics of the Greek forests, the inhibitory policy for timber production investments, especially in the state industries, lack of market research, unorthodox procedures for sale of the wood, bad quality and high cost of production and periods of general economic recession are analyzed farther. Conclusively, the need for producing official forest maps, forest data recording, rapid adaptation to EU specifications, investments, deep changes in to the managership of the state industries, permanent and specialized personnel and promotion of national programs for the development of the small-scale wood elaboration and wood selling industrial units are some of the solutions for the above problems that could be suggested.

  5. Photostability Characterization of Wood Polymer Composites of Polyvinyl Chloride and Rice Husk to Ultra-Violet Irradiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jais Farhana Hazwanee M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the photostability of wood polymer composites (WPC was assessed by using ultra-violet accelerated weathering test. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of WPC show strength improvement at prolonged UV irradiation exposure with 43.21 MPa and maximum strain of 4.08 % at 5000 hours and 1000 hours UV irradiation exposure respectively. The colour stability of WPC was improved by addition of Ultraviolet (UV stabilizer during pre-mixing process which shows positive effect on the colour stability and prevented chalking of the composites for external use. Generally, discolourations of WPC during test exposure were caused by degradation of both wood and plastic. Therefore, incorporation with pigments and other additives gives improvement to the photostability of WPC. This is based on the increment of WPCs mechanical property while the morphological fracture surface of dumbbell test specimens revealed the pull out rice husk fiber which contributed to the distribution of load in the WPC samples.

  6. Fatigue testing of wood composites for aerogenerator blades. Pt. 11: Assessment of fatigue damage accumulation using a fatigue modulus approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, C L; Ansell, M P [Bath Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Stress-strain hysteresis loops have been captured during fatigue tests performed at R=10 (compression-compression) and R=0.1 (tension-tension) on Khaya epoxy wood composites. A fatigue modulus approach, proposed by Hwang and Han in 1989, has been applied to the data and a relationship established between the initial change in fatigue modulus and fatigue life. By following changes in fatigue modulus during the first 100 test cycles it is possible to predict the life of the sample allowing rapid evaluation of the fatigue performance of wood composites. Fatigue modulus values have also been calculated for hysteresis loops captured during complex load - time history tests. Similar trends in change in fatigue modulus suggest that this approach could be used in complex loading conditions to evaluate fatigue damage accumulation and predict fatigue life. (Author)

  7. Antioxidant activity and chemical composition of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos wood extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinihashemi, S K; Dadpour, A; Lashgari, A

    2017-03-01

    Extracts from the wood of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos were analysed for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH method and compared with ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. The most active extracts were analysed for their chemical composition using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acetone extract was found to be moderately active as an antioxidant agent at 58.38%, which was lower than the value of vitamin C (98.56%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major components identified in the acetone extract as trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives were pimaric acid TMS (24.56%), followed by α-d-glucopyranoside,1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS)-β-d-fructofuranosyl 2,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (21.39%), triflouromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (9.32%), and cedrol (0.72%). The dissolved water:methanol (1:1 v/v) partitioned from acetone extract afforded 12 fractions; among them, the F9 fraction was found to have good antioxidant activity (88.49%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major compounds identified in F9 fraction were α-d-glucopyranoside, 1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (20.22%) and trifluoromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (5.10%).

  8. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment of cellulose based fillers for wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekobou, William; Englund, Karl; Pedrow, Patrick; Scudiero, Louis

    2011-10-01

    The main challenge of wood plastic composites (WPC) resides in the low interfacial adhesion due to incompatibility between the cellulose based filler that has a polar surface and most common matrixes, polyolefins which are non-polar. Plasma treatment is a promising technique for surface modification and its implementation into the processing of WPC would provide this industry with a versatile and nearly environmentally benign manufacturing tool. Our investigation aims at designing a cold atmospheric pressure plasma reactor for coating fillers with a hydrophobic material prior to compounding with the matrix. Deposition was achieved with our reactor that includes an array of high voltage needles, a grounded metal mesh, Ar as carrier gas and C2H2 as the precursor molecule. Parameters studied have included gas feed rates and applied voltage; FTIR, ESCA, AFM and SEM imaging were used for film diagnostics. We will also report on deposition rate and its dependence on radial and axial position as well as the effects of plasma-polymerized acetylene on the surface free energy of cellulose based substrates.

  9. Life?cycle impacts of ethanol production from spruce wood chips under high-gravity conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Matty; Xiros, Charilaos; Tillman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Development of more sustainable biofuel production processes is ongoing, and technology to run these processes at a high dry matter content, also called high-gravity conditions, is one option. This paper presents the results of a life?cycle assessment (LCA) of such a technology currently in development for the production of bio-ethanol from spruce wood chips. Results The cradle-to-gate LCA used lab results from a set of 30 experiments (or process configurations) in which the main p...

  10. Gadolinium chloride as a contrast agent for imaging wood composite components by magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chi-Leung So; Andrea Protti; Po-Wah So

    2009-01-01

    Although paramagnetic contrast agents have an established track record in medical uses of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), only recently has a contrast agent been used for enhancing MRI images of solid wood specimens. Expanding on this concept, wood veneers were treated with a gadolinium-based contrast agent and used in a model system comprising three-ply plywood...

  11. Dynamic determination of modulus of elasticity of full-size wood composite panels using a vibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Guan; Houjiang Zhang; Lujing Zhou; Xiping Wang

    2015-01-01

    A vibration testing method based on free vibration theory in a ‘‘free–free” support condition was investigated for evaluating the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of full-size wood composite panels (WCPs). Vibration experiments were conducted on three types of WCPs (medium density fibreboard, particleboard, and plywood) to determine the dynamic MOE of the panels. Static...

  12. Assessing radiation doses to the public from radionuclides in timber and wood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident involving the release of radionuclides to the biosphere the radioactive contamination of forests can become a significant potential source of public radiation exposure. Two of these accidents - the Kyshtim accident, Urals, USSR (now Russian Federation) in 1957 and the Chernobyl accident, USSR (now Ukraine), in 1986 - resulted in significant contamination of thousands of square kilometres of forested areas with mixtures of radionuclides including long lived fission products such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Measurements and modelling of forest ecosystems after both accidents have shown that, following initial contamination, the activity concentration of long lived radionuclides in wood gradually increases over one to two decades and then slowly decreases in the subsequent period. The longevity of the contamination is due to the slow migration and persistent bioavailability of radionuclides in the forest soil profile, which results in long term transfer into wood through the root system of the trees. Another source of contamination is from global radioactive fallout after nuclear weapons tests, but the level of contamination is much lower than that from, for example, the Chernobyl accident. For instance, the level of 137 Cs in wood in Sweden is about 2-5 Bq kg -1 from global fallout. Global values are very similar to the Swedish levels. In contrast, the level of 137 Cs in Swedish wood due to Chernobyl is around 50 Bq kg -1 . Levels in wood from some contaminated areas located in countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) are about one to two orders of magnitude higher than this. The data on 137 Cs soil contamination within European territories, originating mainly from the Chernobyl accident, illustrate the scale of the problem. For comparison, residual 137 Cs soil deposition in Europe from global radioactive fallout was in the range 1-4 kBq m -2 . There is concern in several countries about the potential radiation exposure of people from

  13. Wood : adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.H. Conner

    2001-01-01

    This chapter on wood adhesives includes: 1) Classification of wood adhesives 2) Thermosetting wood adhesives 3) Thermoplastic adhesives, 4) Wood adhesives based on natural sources 5) Nonconventional bonding of wood 6) Wood bonding.

  14. Improvement of mechanical robustness of the superhydrophobic wood surface by coating PVA/SiO2 composite polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Shuliang; Zhang, Ming; Ma, Miaolian; Wang, Chengyu; Li, Jian

    2013-09-01

    Improvement of the robustness of superhydrophobic surfaces is crucial for the purpose of achieving commercial applications of these surfaces in such various areas as self-cleaning, water repellency and corrosion resistance. We have investigated a fabrication of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/silica (SiO2) composite polymer coating on wooden substrates with super repellency toward water, low sliding angles, low contact angle hysteresis, and relatively better mechanical robustness. The composite polymer slurry, consisting of well-mixing SiO2 particles and PVA, is prepared simply and subsequently coated over wooden substrates with good adhesion. In this study, the mechanical robustness of superhydrophobic wood surfaces was evaluated. The effect of petaloid structures of the composite polymer on robustness was investigated using an abrasion test and the results were compared with those of superhydrophobic wood surfaces fabricated by other processes. The produced wood surfaces exhibited promising superhydrophobic properties with a contact angle of 159̊ and a sliding angle of 4̊, and the relatively better mechanical robustness.

  15. Integrated production of merchantable wood and wood fuels in industry; Teollisuuden ainespuun ja puupoltto-aineen integroitu tuotanto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvaja, K. [Enso-Gutzeit Oy, Imatra (Finland). Forest Dept.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this project is the economically profitable integrated harvesting of industrial wood and firewood especially in harvesting of small-diameter first thinning wood. The research in 1994 was concentrated on improvement of the quality of the chipping methods based on chain-flail debarking chipping method, and on determination of the possible utilization targets for the fuel fraction. A reasonably large drum debarking test was also carried out at the industrial scale debarking station of the Enocell Oy. More than 80 000 m{sup 3} of first thinning wood was delivered by Enocell during this project. The quality of wood chips, produced using the chain-flail delimbing method, could be improved in the case of pine nearly to the required quality level, but additional measures are still needed in the case of birch. The fuel fraction deliveries to different points of utilization was started. The particle size of the fuel fraction appeared to be good after crushing. In 1995 a chain-flail-dry drum debarking chipping unit was developed to improve and homogenize the quality of chips

  16. Integrated production of merchantable wood and wood fuels in industry; Teollisuuden ainespuun ja puupoltto-aineen integroitu tuotanto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvaja, K [Enso-Gutzeit Oy, Imatra (Finland). Forest Dept.

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this project is the economically profitable integrated harvesting of industrial wood and firewood especially in harvesting of small-diameter first thinning wood. The research in 1994 was concentrated on improvement of the quality of the chipping methods based on chain-flail debarking chipping method, and on determination of the possible utilization targets for the fuel fraction. A reasonably large drum debarking test was also carried out at the industrial scale debarking station of the Enocell Oy. More than 80 000 m{sup 3} of first thinning wood was delivered by Enocell during this project. The quality of wood chips, produced using the chain-flail delimbing method, could be improved in the case of pine nearly to the required quality level, but additional measures are still needed in the case of birch. The fuel fraction deliveries to different points of utilization was started. The particle size of the fuel fraction appeared to be good after crushing. In 1995 a chain-flail-dry drum debarking chipping unit was developed to improve and homogenize the quality of chips

  17. Possible preparation of wood-plastic composites based on unsaturated polyester resins and styrene by radiation and chemical methods in combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, M.; Pultar, F.; Jarkovsky, J.; Andr, J.

    1983-01-01

    Using the radiation chemical method it is possible to prepare wood-plastic composites using doses of 1 to 2.5 kGy. The impregnation mixture in the wood gelatinates and subsequent curing using chemical initiators takes place without outflow of the mixture from the wood and without formation of incrustations. The basic components of the impregnation mixtures used were unsaturated polyester resins; styrene or methyl methacrylate was used as the thinner. The proven initiator of polymerization was 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile. The technology is described of wood impregnation and radiation or chemical curing. The effects were monitored of viscosity, temperature, radiation dose and the concentrations of the individual components of the impregnation mixtures and initiators of polymerization on the process of the preparation of wood-plastic composites. (M.D.)

  18. Influence of fiber type, fiber mat orientation, and process time on the properties of a wood fiber/polymer composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plackett, David; Torgilsson, R.; Løgstrup Andersen, T.

    2002-01-01

    involved pre-compression, contact heating to the process temperature under vacuum and then rapid transfer to the press for consolidation and cooling. Composites were tested to determine response to water or water vapor, porosity, fiber volume fraction and tensile properties. The composites absorbed water......A rapid press consolidation technique was used to produce composites from two types of air-laid wood fiber mat, incorporating either mechanically refined or bleached chemi-thermomechanically refined Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] and a bicomponent polymer fiber. The manufacturing technique...... rapidly and showed changes in thickness with fluctuations in relative humidity. Porosity was higher in composites containing mechanically refined (MDF) fibers than in composites containing bleached chemi-thermomechanically refined (CTMP) fibers. Tensile test results suggessted that fiber wetting...

  19. The Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project: Influence of water, nutrients and stand uniformity on wood production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Luiz Stape; Dan Binkley; Michael G. Ryan; Sebastiao Fonseca; Rodolfo A. Loos; Ernesto N. Takahashi; Claudio R. Silva; Sergio R. Silva; Rodrigo E. Hakamada; Jose Mario de A. Ferreira; Augusto M. N. Lima; Jose Luiz Gava; Fernado P. Leite; Helder B. Andrade; Jacyr M. Alves; Gualter G. C. Silva; Moises R. Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    We examined the potential growth of clonal Eucalyptus plantations at eight locations across a 1000+ km gradient in Brazil by manipulating the supplies of nutrients and water, and altering the uniformity of tree sizes within plots. With no fertilization or irrigation, mean annual increments of stem wood were about 28% lower (16.2 Mg...

  20. Material and energy balances in the production of ethanol from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayman, M; Lora, J H; Gulbinas, E

    1978-01-01

    Experimental production of ethanol from aspen wood gave yeilds of 70.7% or 83.4% or theory when acid hydrolysis or enzymatic hydrolysis weere used after autohydrolysis and extraction of lignin. These were, respectively, 58.4 and 68.9 gallons of 95% ethanol per ton of aspen wood (dry basis). In addition 426 lb of lignin with heat of combustion 11,100 Btu/lb were obtained per ton of wood. Gross energy recovery (ethanol + lignin) was 52.4 and 58.0% by thee two processes, or allowing for processing energy, net energy recovery was 36.1 and 42.3% respectively. Multi stage hydrolysis was beneficial for both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis, 80% and over 99% of theoretical yeilds of sugar being obtained by the two processes. Economic estimates show a significant advantage in investment and operating costs for the enzymatic process. Thee price of 95% ethanol, including a reasonable return on investment by this process is estimated at $1.34/gallon. This would be a good price for industrial ethanol, but would be quite high for gasoline use under prevailing circumstance.

  1. Recycling of wood for particle board production: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    of virgin wood does not change the results radically (—665 to —125 kg CO2-equivalents tonne— 1 wood waste). However, if in addition it is assumed that the GHG emissions from combustion of wood has no global warming potential (GWP) and that the energy produced from excess wood due to recycling substitutes...

  2. Evaluation of the environmental impacts of wood products for bio-energy through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

    OpenAIRE

    Pierobon, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The use of wood for energy has grown in the last years as an alternative to fossil fuels. National and international laws promote the use of wood in the policies for the mitigation of climate change, based on the assumption that wood has a neutral carbon balance because the combustion emissions are offset by the absorption in forest (assumption of carbon neutrality). However, this assumption does not take into account the emissions associated with the life cycle of the product, e.g. related t...

  3. Morphology, composition, and mixing state of primary particles from combustion sources - crop residue, wood, and solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Kong, Shaofei; Zhang, Yinxiao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Liang; Yan, Qin; Lingaswamy, A P; Shi, Zongbo; Lv, Senlin; Niu, Hongya; Shao, Longyi; Hu, Min; Zhang, Daizhou; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaoye; Li, Weijun

    2017-07-11

    Morphology, composition, and mixing state of individual particles emitted from crop residue, wood, and solid waste combustion in a residential stove were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our study showed that particles from crop residue and apple wood combustion were mainly organic matter (OM) in smoldering phase, whereas soot-OM internally mixed with K in flaming phase. Wild grass combustion in flaming phase released some Cl-rich-OM/soot particles and cardboard combustion released OM and S-rich particles. Interestingly, particles from hardwood (pear wood and bamboo) and softwood (cypress and pine wood) combustion were mainly soot and OM in the flaming phase, respectively. The combustion of foam boxes, rubber tires, and plastic bottles/bags in the flaming phase released large amounts of soot internally mixed with a small amount of OM, whereas the combustion of printed circuit boards and copper-core cables emitted large amounts of OM with Br-rich inclusions. In addition, the printed circuit board combustion released toxic metals containing Pb, Zn, Sn, and Sb. The results are important to document properties of primary particles from combustion sources, which can be used to trace the sources of ambient particles and to know their potential impacts in human health and radiative forcing in the air.

  4. Species composition and forest structure explain the temperature sensitivity patterns of productivity in temperate forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Bohn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rising temperatures due to climate change influence the wood production of forests. Observations show that some temperate forests increase their productivity, whereas others reduce their productivity. This study focuses on how species composition and forest structure properties influence the temperature sensitivity of aboveground wood production (AWP. It further investigates which forests will increase their productivity the most with rising temperatures. We described forest structure by leaf area index, forest height and tree height heterogeneity. Species composition was described by a functional diversity index (Rao's Q and a species distribution index (ΩAWP. ΩAWP quantified how well species are distributed over the different forest layers with regard to AWP. We analysed 370 170 forest stands generated with a forest gap model. These forest stands covered a wide range of possible forest types. For each stand, we estimated annual aboveground wood production and performed a climate sensitivity analysis based on 320 different climate time series (of 1-year length. The scenarios differed in mean annual temperature and annual temperature amplitude. Temperature sensitivity of wood production was quantified as the relative change in productivity resulting from a 1 °C rise in mean annual temperature or annual temperature amplitude. Increasing ΩAWP positively influenced both temperature sensitivity indices of forest, whereas forest height showed a bell-shaped relationship with both indices. Further, we found forests in each successional stage that are positively affected by temperature rise. For such forests, large ΩAWP values were important. In the case of young forests, low functional diversity and small tree height heterogeneity were associated with a positive effect of temperature on wood production. During later successional stages, higher species diversity and larger tree height heterogeneity were an advantage. To achieve such a

  5. Species composition and forest structure explain the temperature sensitivity patterns of productivity in temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Friedrich J.; May, Felix; Huth, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Rising temperatures due to climate change influence the wood production of forests. Observations show that some temperate forests increase their productivity, whereas others reduce their productivity. This study focuses on how species composition and forest structure properties influence the temperature sensitivity of aboveground wood production (AWP). It further investigates which forests will increase their productivity the most with rising temperatures. We described forest structure by leaf area index, forest height and tree height heterogeneity. Species composition was described by a functional diversity index (Rao's Q) and a species distribution index (ΩAWP). ΩAWP quantified how well species are distributed over the different forest layers with regard to AWP. We analysed 370 170 forest stands generated with a forest gap model. These forest stands covered a wide range of possible forest types. For each stand, we estimated annual aboveground wood production and performed a climate sensitivity analysis based on 320 different climate time series (of 1-year length). The scenarios differed in mean annual temperature and annual temperature amplitude. Temperature sensitivity of wood production was quantified as the relative change in productivity resulting from a 1 °C rise in mean annual temperature or annual temperature amplitude. Increasing ΩAWP positively influenced both temperature sensitivity indices of forest, whereas forest height showed a bell-shaped relationship with both indices. Further, we found forests in each successional stage that are positively affected by temperature rise. For such forests, large ΩAWP values were important. In the case of young forests, low functional diversity and small tree height heterogeneity were associated with a positive effect of temperature on wood production. During later successional stages, higher species diversity and larger tree height heterogeneity were an advantage. To achieve such a development, one could plant

  6. Carbon composite manufacturing in automotive volume production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, Raphael; Pahl, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Lightweight constructions are a continuously increasing trend in the automotive industry. Main drivers for that trend are the challenging emission reduction targets regarding combustion engines and increasing ranges in electric mobility. This article presents different composite production methods...... and discusses their ability within mass production giving also an example within the automotive production....

  7. Improvements in processing characteristics and engineering properties of wood flour-filled high density polyethylene composite sheeting in the presence of hollow glass microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris Yalcin; Steve E Amos; Andrew S D Souza; Craig M Clemons; I Sedat Gunes; Troy K Ista

    2012-01-01

    Hollow glass microspheres were introduced into wood flour/high density polyethylene composites by melt compounding in a twin-screw extruder. The prepared composites were subsequently converted to extruded profiles in order to obtain composite sheeting. The presence of hollow glass microspheres highly reduced the density of the extruded sheets down to 0.9 g/cc, while...

  8. The economic efficiency of forest energy wood chip production in regional use – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Šafařík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This regional project case study deals with the limiting factors of economic efficiency in the production of forest energy wood chips. The evaluation of production efficiency made use of data obtained from the Lesy města Brna, a.s. (Forest of the City of Brno, Corp., which were subjected to two static methods of investment evaluation: an analysis of the tipping point and determination of the limit of variable costs and a dynamic modified tipping point analysis using cash flow (i.e. cash break even analysis. The results have confirmed an established hypothesis, namely that the decisive factor in the profitability of the production of forest energy wood chips hinges on the costs incurred in the gathering of raw material and the distribution of the produced chips. The results include a further limiting factor: transportation costs to the final consumption location. The output of the study is a recommendation that the concentration of residual forest materials not exceed a distance of 250 m from the place of production to the point of disintegration and that the transport distance of energy chips not exceed 50 km from the place of disintegration to the final consumption point. These limiting values help quantify the full internal costs per cost unit, full internal cost profitability, total revenue profitability and annual profitability expressed in terms of fixed assets depreciation without factoring in financial aid.

  9. Regular Recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production (RecAsh). Technical Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars E-mail: lars.t.andersson@skogsstyreslen.se

    2007-03-15

    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvesting, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today often deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. The project has developed, analysed and demonstrated two regular ash-recycling systems. It has also distributed knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large. The project has been organised as a separate structure at the beneficiary and divided in four geographically defined subprojects, one in Finland and three in Sweden (Central Sweden, Northern Sweden, and South-western Sweden). The work in each subproject has been lead by a subproject leader. Each subproject has organised a regional reference group. A project steering committee has been established consisting of senior officials from all concerned partners. The project had nine main tasks with the following main expected deliverables and output: 1. Development of two complete full-scale ash-recycling systems; 2. Production of handbooks of the ash recycling system; 3. Ash classification study to support national actions for recommendations; 4. Organise regional demonstrations of various technical options for ash treatment and spreading; 5. Organise national seminars and demonstrations of

  10. Carbon storage in harvested wood products for Ireland 1961–2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donlan, Jennifer; Skog, Kenneth; Byrne, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Forests are significant stores of carbon (C). This has been recognised by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and forests are one of the sectors which are included in national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. Some of this C pool remains in wood after harvest and can remain in use for long periods of time. Accounting for the C stored in harvested wood products (HWP) can potentially contribute to GHG mitigation. A model was developed for this research to estimate C stocks and flows in HWP in Ireland for the years 1961–2009. The change in carbon stocks in HWP were estimated on an annual basis and shown to increase between 1961 and 2009. This increase in annual net additions to C stocks is the result of an increase in domestic harvest (and the resulting inflow into HWP pool) and an increase in HWP going to end uses with longer half-lives. This model (using a Tier II method) is an improvement to previous national estimates (using the Tier I method). Uncertainty was reduced by utilizing national data. This work shows that HWP has considerable potential to support GHG mitigation in Ireland. Inclusion of HWP in Ireland's National Inventory Report (NIR) would give a more comprehensive picture of how the Irish forest sector is mitigating GHG emissions. This model will be incorporated into CARBWARE (Black 2008), the model used to estimate C stored in each of the 5 forest pools, of current and future Irish forests. -- Highlights: ► A model was developed for C stocks in Harvested Wood Products (HWP) in Ireland. ► Uncertainty was reduced from previous estimates by using national and end use data. ► HWP C stocks estimated on an annual basis increased in years 1961–2009. ► This was caused by increased in harvest and products with longer half-lives. ► HWP has considerable potential to support GHG mitigation in Ireland.

  11. Fifteen years of international trade in wood and forest-related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desclos, Pierre-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Little is generally known about international trade in forest-related products in spite of the fact that a significant portion of world production is exported. Two irreversible trends underlie international trade in forest-related products. One is globalization while the other is adding as much value as possible locally by processing the materials to the greatest extent possible in the country of origin. Some of the more surprising recent developments are the growth in trade in wood as a source of energy and the dependency of Europe on its massive imports in this area. International trade in forest-related products is a continually changing sector that follows developments in the technical, economic, social and political spheres. Its growth has been spectacular and will remain strong in coming years. The greatest potential for development will come from environmental management, improved logistics and innovation. (authors)

  12. Assessing radiation doses to the public from radionuclides in timber and wood products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident involving the release of radionuclides to the biosphere the radioactive contamination of forests can become a significant potential source of public radiation exposure. Two of these accidents - the Kyshtim accident, Urals, USSR (now Russian Federation) in 1957 and the Chernobyl accident, USSR (now Ukraine), in 1986 - resulted in significant contamination of thousands of square kilometres of forested areas with mixtures of radionuclides including long lived fission products such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. Measurements and modelling of forest ecosystems after both accidents have shown that, following initial contamination, the activity concentration of long lived radionuclides in wood gradually increases over one to two decades and then slowly decreases in the subsequent period. The longevity of the contamination is due to the slow migration and persistent bioavailability of radionuclides in the forest soil profile, which results in long term transfer into wood through the root system of the trees. Another source of contamination is from global radioactive fallout after nuclear weapons tests, but the level of contamination is much lower than that from, for example, the Chernobyl accident. For instance, the level of {sup 137}Cs in wood in Sweden is about 2-5 Bq kg{sup -1} from global fallout. Global values are very similar to the Swedish levels. In contrast, the level of {sup 137}Cs in Swedish wood due to Chernobyl is around 50 Bq kg{sup -1}. Levels in wood from some contaminated areas located in countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) are about one to two orders of magnitude higher than this. The data on {sup 137}Cs soil contamination within European territories, originating mainly from the Chernobyl accident, illustrate the scale of the problem. For comparison, residual {sup 137}Cs soil deposition in Europe from global radioactive fallout was in the range 1-4 kBq m{sup -2}. There is concern in several countries about the

  13. Wood waste: A disposal problem or an opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, P.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of wood wastes in North America is reviewed, with a focus on the wood products industry and markets. On the whole, wood mill residues in North America have always been utilized except for a period from the 1940s to the 1970s oil crisis. In the latter period, low cost electric power and hydrocarbon fuels rendered uneconomical the use of wood wastes as fuel. As a response to the problem of disposing these wastes, a number of innovations occurred in that period, including the use of wood chips for manufacturing pulp and particleboard, and the use of sawdust and shavings for manufacturing hardboard and medium density fiberboard. Uses for bark, except as fuel, have not been successfully developed. Since the 1970s, wood waste in the USA is essentially all used for composite board products and fuel. This is also true in eastern Canada, which is close to the wood products markets and which has fairly high oil and gas costs. However, in western Canada, low energy costs and small internal markets have led to a serious wood waste disposal problem. A survey of wood waste supply and demand shows large surpluses in mill residues in western Canada and some remote locations in northern Ontario and Quebec. The Pacific Rim countries are identified as a potential market for western Canadian composite board production. The use of other sources of wood waste (forestry or logging residues, which are costly to collect, and municipal construction waste) is briefly discussed

  14. Visible-light activate Ag/WO3 films based on wood with enhanced negative oxygen ions production properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Likun; Gan, Wentao; Cao, Guoliang; Zhan, Xianxu; Qiang, Tiangang; Li, Jian

    2017-12-01

    The Ag/WO3-wood was fabricated through a hydrothermal method and a silver mirror reaction. The system of visible-light activate Ag/WO3-wood was used to produce negative oxygen ions, and the effect of Ag nanoparticles on negative oxygen ions production was investigated. From the results of negative oxygen ions production tests, it can be observed that the sample doped with Ag nanoparticles, the concentration of negative oxygen ions is up to 1660 ions/cm3 after 60 min visible light irradiation. Moreover, for the Ag/WO3-wood, even after 60 min without irradiation, the concentration of negative oxygen ions could keep more than 1000 ions/cm3, which is up to the standard of the fresh air. Moreover, due to the porous structure of wood, the wood acted as substrate could promote the nucleation of nanoparticles, prevent the agglomeration of the particles, and thus lead the improvement of photocatalytic properties. And such wood-based functional materials with the property of negative oxygen ions production could be one of the most promising materials in the application of indoor decoration materials, which would meet people's pursuit of healthy, environment-friendly life.

  15. Waste from glued wood - A base for new products and/or bio-fuel?

    OpenAIRE

    Bjurman, Therese

    2009-01-01

      The Swedwood Company is a supplier to IKEA of wood furniture. They have grown larger concurrently with IKEA and at present they have 47 production units spread over twelve countries of which most are located in Eastern Europe. One of the factories is Zbaszynek which is located in Poland. They manufacture so called board-on-frame furniture. A board-on-frame is basically made out of particle board frames which are filled with special design paper that enfolds air. The frames are then covered ...

  16. Production of charcoal from woods and bamboo in a small natural draft carbonizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tippayawong, Nakorn; Saengow, Nakarin; Chaiya, Ekarin

    2010-07-01

    There is a strong domestic market for charcoal in Thailand and many developing countries. Charcoal is usually made from biomass materials in small scale, simple kilns. Traditional charcoal making kilns adopts a process that is very inefficient, and damaging to the environment. In this work, an alternative charcoal reactor based on natural draft, pyrolysis gas burning concept was proposed and demonstrated. Tests with longan woods and bamboo showed that good quality charcoal can be produced in shorter time with lower pollution emissions, compared with traditional kilns. The proposed carbonizer proved to be suitable for small scale, charcoal production in rural area.

  17. Production of wood pellets. Influence of additives on production, quality, storage, combustion and life cycle analysis of wood pellets; Herstellung von Holzpellets. Einfluss von Presshilfsmitteln auf Produktion, Qualitaet, Lagerung, Verbrennung sowie Energie- und Oekobilanz von Holzpellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasler, P.; Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Buerli, J. [Buerli Pellets, Willisau (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study concerning the influence of additives on the various factors related to the manufacture of wood pellets and their use. Results of tests concerning the production, storage and combustion of wood pellets with and without additives are presented. Process modifications are discussed. The report shows that for all investigated additives neither energy consumption nor pellet throughput was improved. The influence of additives on the mechanical strength of the pellets is discussed, as are the combustion characteristics of the pellets, which emit significantly lower levels of NO{sub x} and particulate matter than typical wood chips. The authors recommend the application of advanced control technology to ensure optimum combustion conditions. A life-cycle analysis is presented which shows that pellets are ecologically more favourable than wood chips. The ecological potential for improvement in the manufacturing process is discussed, including emission reductions and heat recovery.

  18. Soil-wood interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der Annemieke; klein Gunnewiek, Paulien; Boer, de Wietse

    2017-01-01

    Wood-inhabiting fungi may affect soil fungal communities directly underneath decaying wood via their exploratory hyphae. In addition, differences in wood leachates between decaying tree species may influence soil fungal communities. We determined the composition of fungi in 4-yr old decaying logs

  19. Sound Transmission Properties of Mineral-filled High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE and Wood-HDPE Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birm-June Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Wood plastic composites (WPCs offer various advantages and potential as a competitive alternative to conventional noise barriers. For this purpose, the influence of composite formulation on the sound transmission loss (TL of WPCs needs to be fully understood. In TL testing, stiffness and surface density are major factors influencing the sound insulation property of filled plastics and WPCs. Experimental TL values decreased as sound frequency increased; and the TL values increased after passing a certain frequency level. The comparison of experimental TL curves among filled composites showed that the addition of fillers led to an increase in resonance frequency and TL values. However, at high filling levels, the stiffness decrease led to TL reductions. The experimental TL curves of filled composites, composed of mass law and stiffness law predictions, were well approximated with their combined TL predictions.

  20. Many Roles of Wood Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2014-01-01

    Although wood bonding is one of the oldest applications of adhesives, going back to early recorded history (1), some aspects of wood bonds are still not fully understood. Most books in the general area of adhesives and adhesion do not cover wood bonding. However, a clearer understanding of wood bonding and wood adhesives can lead to improved products. This is important...

  1. Productivity of whole-tree bundler in energy wood and pulpwood harvesting from early thinnings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuutinen, Yrjoe; Laitila, Juha (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)), e-mail: Yrjo.Nuutinen@metla.fi; Kaerhae, Kalle; Keskinen, Sirkka (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)); Jylhae, Paula (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland))

    2011-06-15

    First thinnings have been neglected to great extent in Finland because of high harvesting costs. The whole-tree bundler (Fixteri) was developed in order to rationalize the integrated harvesting of small-diameter energy wood and pulpwood and to reduce transportation costs through load compaction. The operation of the whole-tree bundler is composed of cutting and compaction processes. In the present study, the productivity level and the performance characteristics of the second version of the whole-tree bundler (Fixteri II) in integrated energy wood and pulpwood harvesting from first thinnings were defined on the basis of a time study. When the mean volume of removed whole trees averaged 20 dm3 at the stand, the productivity of Fixteri II per effective working (E{sub 0} excluding delays) hour was 3.4 m3/(E{sub 0}) and with an average removal of 75 dm3, it was 6.1 m3/(E{sub 0}). When compared with the first prototype of the whole-tree bundler (Fixteri I), the productivity of Fixteri II was 38-77% higher, depending on the stand density and mean tree volume of the removal. The higher performance level of Fixteri II stemmed mainly from the increase in multi-tree cutting and from the introduction of grapple feeding of the bunches. Furthermore, the better hydraulic capacity of the base machine enabled a higher level of simultaneous working processes

  2. Chemical composition of particles from traditional burning of Pakistani wood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Imran; Kistler, Magdalena; Mukhtar, Azam; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Total particulate matter (TPM) emitted during burning of three types of Pakistani wood (eucalyptus camaldulensis, local name Safeeda; acacia nilotica, local name Kikar, Babul; dalbergia sissoo, Shisham, Tali) in a traditional brick stove were collected and analyzed for anhydrosugars, sugar alcohols, trace metals, soluble ions and carbonaceous species. This is a first study reporting anhydrosugars in wood smoke particles emitted during traditional burning of common wood types in Pakistan. Carbonaceous species showed the highest contribution to the particulate matter. Although the total carbon (TC) contribution was similar for all burnings (64.8-70.2%), the EC/OC ratio varied significantly, from 0.2 to 0.3 for Accacia and Dalbergia to 0.7-0.8 for Eucalyptus and Wood-mix. Among inorganic constituents potassium chloride and silicon were found at levels higher than 1%. The levoglucosan concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 6.6% (average 5.6%) with the highest value for Accacia and lowest value for the wood-mix. The high levoglucosan/mannosan ratios of 20-28 were typical for hardwood. The ratio between levoglucosan and galactosan varied stronger and was found to be around 13-20 for Accacia, Eucalyptus and Wood mix, and 43 for Dalbergia. The determined levoglucosan concentrations allowed assessing the conversion factor for calculation of biomass smoke contribution to ambient particulate matter levels in Pakistan.

  3. Fruit production and branching density affect shoot and whole-tree wood to leaf biomass ratio in olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Paoletti, Andrea; Al Hariri, Raeed; Famiani, Franco

    2018-02-14

    The amount of shoot stem (i.e., woody part of the shoot) dry matter per unit shoot leaf dry matter (i.e., the shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio) has been reported to be lower in short shoots than in long ones, and this is related to the greater and earlier ability of short shoots to export carbon. This is important in fruit trees, since the greater and earlier carbon export ability of shoots with a lower wood to leaf biomass ratio improves fruit production. This ratio may vary with cultivars, training systems or plant age, but no study has previously investigated the possible effect of fruit production. In this study on two olive cultivars (i.e., Arbequina, with low growth rate, and Frantoio, with high growth rate) subject to different fruit production treatments, we found that at increasing fruit production, shoot length and shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio were proportionally reduced in the new shoots growing at the same time as the fruit. Specifically, fruit production proportionally reduced total new-shoot biomass, length, leaf area and average shoot length. With decreasing shoot length, shoot diameter, stem mass, internode length, individual leaf area and shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio also decreased. This may be viewed as a plant strategy to better support fruit growth in the current year, given the greater and earlier ability of short shoots to export carbon. Moreover, at the whole-tree level, the percentage of total tree biomass production invested in leaves was closely correlated with branching density, which differed significantly across cultivars. By branching more, Arbequina concentrates more shoots (thus leaves) per unit of wood (trunk, branches and root) mass, decreasing wood to leaf biomass ratio at the whole-tree level. Therefore, while, at the shoot level, shoot length determines shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio, at the canopy level branching density is also an important determinant of whole-tree wood to leaf biomass ratio. Whole-tree wood to leaf

  4. Potential of synthesis gas production from rubber wood chip gasification in a bubbling fluidised bed gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewluan, Sommas; Pipatmanomai, Suneerat

    2011-01-01

    Experiments of rubber wood chip gasification were carried out in a 100-kW th bubbling fluidised bed gasifier to investigate the effect of air to fuel ratio (represented as equivalence ratio - ER) on the yield and properties of synthesis gas. For all experiments, the flow rate of ambient air was fixed, while the feed rate of rubber wood chip was adjusted to vary ER in the range of 0.32-0.43. Increasing ER continuously raised the bed temperature, which resulted in higher synthesis gas yield and lower yield of ash and tar. However, higher ER generally gave synthesis gas of lower heating value, partly due to the dilution of N 2 . Considering the energy efficiency of the process, the optimum operation was achieved at ER = 0.38, which yielded 2.33 Nm 3 of synthesis gas per kg of dry biomass at the heating value of 4.94 MJ/Nm 3 . The calculated carbon conversion efficiency and gasification efficiency were 97.3% and 80.2%, respectively. The mass and energy balance of the gasification process showed that the mass and energy distribution was significantly affected by ER and that the energy losses accounted for ∼25% of the total output energy. The economical assessment of synthesis gas utilisation for heat and electricity production based on a 1-MW th bubbling fluidised bed gasifier and the operational data resulting from the rubber wood chip gasification experiments in this study clearly demonstrated the attractiveness of replacing heavy fuel oil and natural gas by the synthesis gas for heat applications in terms of 70% and 50% annual saving of fuel cost, respectively. However, the case of electricity production does not seem a preferable option due to its current technical and non-technical barriers.

  5. FY 1999 report on the results by the district consortium research and development business venture supporting type district consortium (central industry creation type). Development of technologies for producing secondary products from unutilized wood resources for zero emissions; 1999 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Zero emission wo mezashita miriyo mokushitsu shigen no niji seihinka gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project is aimed at development of secondary products from unutilized wood resources, to establish zero waste emissions at wood-related plants. Described herein are the FY 1999 results. The program for manufacturing and development of VOC-free interior products has successfully developed the wood boards using only inorganic adhesives, and the techniques for production of doors of unique, monolithic structure. The program for manufacturing and development of artificial wood with high performances has developed the techniques for forming composites of waste wood and thermoplastic materials, to produce the shapes of artificial wood containing 85% of wood and having touch close to that of wood. The program for production of agricultural and construction materials by the barks has developed the techniques for producing pavement and mulching materials as civil engineering and landscaping materials, and pot type culture grounds for high-class flowering plants as the agricultural materials from cypress and cedar barks. Information regarding performance levels, and discrimination and superiority over the products by competitors has been collected from various sources, e.g., internets, and academic meetings and literature, for the monolithically formed doors, extruded products, mulching materials and pot-type culture grounds. (NEDO)

  6. Transcriptional profiles of hybrid Eucalyptus genotypes with contrasting lignin content reveal that monolignol biosynthesis-related genes regulate wood composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomotaka eShinya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus species constitutes the most widely planted hardwood trees in temperate and subtropical regions. In this study, we compared the transcript levels of genes involved in lignocellulose formation such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin biosynthesis in two selected three-year old hybrid Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis genotypes (AM063 and AM380 that have different lignin content. AM063 and AM380 had 20.2 and 35.5% of Klason lignin content and 59.0% and 48.2%, -cellulose contents, respectively. We investigated the correlation between wood properties and transcript levels of wood formation-related genes using RNA-seq with total RNAs extracted from developing xylem tissues at a breast height. Transcript levels of cell wall construction genes such as cellulose synthase (CesA and sucrose synthase (SUSY were almost the same in both genotypes. However, AM063 exhibited higher transcript levels of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP and xyloglucan endotransglucoxylase (XTH than those in AM380. Most monolignol biosynthesis- related isozyme genes showed higher transcript levels in AM380. These results indicate monolignol biosynthesis-related genes may regulate wood composition in Eucalyptus. Flavonoids contents were also observed at much higher levels in AM380 as a result of the elevated transcript levels of common phenylpropanoid pathway genes, phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL. Secondary plant cell wall formation is regulated by many transcription factors. We analyzed genes encoding NAC, WRKY, AP2/ERF and KNOX transcription factors and found higher transcript levels of these genes in AM380. We also observed increased transcription of some MYB and LIM domain transcription factors in AM380 compared to AM063. All these results show that genes related to monolignol biosynthesis may regulate the wood composition and help maintain the ratio of cellulose and lignin contents

  7. RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS based metabolic profiling of the potential Olea europaea by-product "wood" and its comparison with leaf counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Sonda; Contreras, Maria Del Mar; Gargouri, Boutheina; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Olea europaea L. organs such as leaves, stems and roots have been associated with numerous in vivo and in vitro biological activities and used for traditional medicinal purposes. However, tree wood is an untapped resource with little information about their chemical composition. That is why, the objective of this study is to increase the knowledge about phytochemicals from 'Chemlali' olive wood by means of mass spectrometry-based analyses. Its comparison with by-products derived from leaves was also studied. Hydromethanol extracts from wood and leaves with stems of 'Chemlali' olive cultivar were analysed using reversed-phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to two detection systems: diode-array detection (DAD) and quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) in negative ion mode. Tandem MS experiments were performed to establish the chemical structure of olive phytochemicals. A total of 85 compounds were characterised in the studied olive parts and classified as: sugars (3), organic acids (5), one phenolic aldehyde, simple phenolic acids (6), simple phenylethanoids (5), flavonoids (14), coumarins (3), caffeoyl phenylethanoid derivatives (6), iridoids (5), secoiridoids (32), and lignans (5). To our knowledge, the major part of these metabolites was not previously reported in olive tree wood, and 10 olive chemical constituents were identified for the first time in the Oleaceae family. The results presented here demonstrated the usefulness of the methodology proposed, based on RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS and MS/MS, to develop an exhaustive metabolic profiling and to recover new biologically active compounds in olive wood with pharmacologic and cosmetic potential. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Romanian legal management rules limit wood production in Norway spruce and beech forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bouriaud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The quantitative impact of forest management on forests’ wood resource was evaluated for Picea and Fagus mixed forests. The effects on the productivity of tendering operations, thinnings and rotation length have seldom been directly quantified on landscape scale. Methods Two sites of similar fertility but subject to contrasted forest management were studied with detailed inventories: one in Germany, the other in Romania, and compared with the respective national forest inventories. In Romania, regulations impose very long rotations, low thinnings and a period of no-cut before harvest. In contrast, tending and thinnings are frequent and intense in Germany. Harvests start much earlier and must avoid clear cutting but maintain a permanent forest cover with natural regeneration. While Germany has an average annual wood increment representative for Central Europe, Romania represents the average for Eastern Europe. Results The lack of tending and thinning in the Romanian site resulted in twice as many trees per hectare as in the German site for the same age. The productivity in Romanian production forests was 20 % lower than in Germany despite a similar fertility. The results were supported by the data from the national forest inventory of each country, which confirmed that the same differential exists at country scale. Furthermore, provided the difference in rotation length, two crops are harvested in Germany when only one is harvested in Romania. The losses of production due to a lower level of management in Romania where estimated to reach 12.8 million m3.y-1 in regular mountain production forests, and to 15 million m3.y-1 if managed protection forest is included. Conclusions The productivity of Picea and Fagus mountain forests in Romania is severely depressed by the lack of tending and thinning, by overly long rotations and the existence of a 25-years no-cut period prior to harvest. The average standing volume in Germany was 50

  9. Energy consumption in the manufacture of sawn goods and wood-based panel products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usenius, A.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of energy consumption in 1979 and the possibilities of saving energy in the sawmill, plywood, particle board, fibreboard, joinery, wooden houses, glulam, and wood preservation industries. The energy consumption per product unit is minimum in sawmilling, 1.38 GJ/cubic meters and maximum in fibreboard manufacturing, 9.98 GJ/t. In plywood production, the energy consumption (6.95 GJ/cubic meters) is about double that in particleboard production (3.40 GJ/cubic meters). The main part of the energy (70-85%) is heat. In the drying process about 70-85% of total energy is used in individual processes. Over half (53.9%) of the total energy consumption is in the sawmill industry, 19.2% in the plywood industry, 12.2% in the particleboard industry, and 7.2% in the fibreboard industry.

  10. Analysis of marketing mix elements of non-wood forest products in central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand for high-quality products of biological origin has been increasing, in accordance with changes in objectives of forest management, which are caused by socio-economic development. Although non-wood forest products (NW­FPs have been collected and used for generations, only in recent decades their importance has been recognized. The aim of this paper is to analyze marketing strategies of companies involved in processing and distribution of NWFPs. Due to the specificity and comprehensiveness of the problem, the various general and specific methods and techniques, which are used in the study of marketing elements, have been applied. A’WOT analysis was applied in order to better interpret results of SWOT analysis. The survey was conducted among small and medium enterprises dealing with NWFPs in central Serbia. Conducted research determined the most important final products, prices, types of promotion and structure of distribution channel.

  11. Composition and methods for improved fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Philip H.; Tanneru, Sathishkumar; Gajjela, Sanjeev K.

    2015-12-29

    Certain embodiments of the present invention are configured to produce boiler and transportation fuels. A first phase of the method may include oxidation and/or hyper-acidification of bio-oil to produce an intermediate product. A second phase of the method may include catalytic deoxygenation, esterification, or olefination/esterification of the intermediate product under pressurized syngas. The composition of the resulting product--e.g., a boiler fuel--produced by these methods may be used directly or further upgraded to a transportation fuel. Certain embodiments of the present invention also include catalytic compositions configured for use in the method embodiments.

  12. Adhesives with wood materials : bond formation and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Christopher G. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of wood plays an increasing role in the forest products industry and is a key factor for efficiently utilizing our timber resource. The main use of adhesives is in the manufacture of building materials, including plywood, oriented strandboard, particleboard, fiberboard, structural composite lumber, doors, windows and frames, and factory-laminated wood...

  13. Projecting biodiversity and wood production in future forest landscapes: 15 key modeling considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Adam; Ranius, Thomas; Roberge, Jean-Michel; Öhman, Karin; Lämås, Tomas; Hynynen, Jari; Juutinen, Artti; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Nilsson, Urban; Lundmark, Tomas; Nordin, Annika

    2017-07-15

    A variety of modeling approaches can be used to project the future development of forest systems, and help to assess the implications of different management alternatives for biodiversity and ecosystem services. This diversity of approaches does however present both an opportunity and an obstacle for those trying to decide which modeling technique to apply, and interpreting the management implications of model output. Furthermore, the breadth of issues relevant to addressing key questions related to forest ecology, conservation biology, silviculture, economics, requires insights stemming from a number of distinct scientific disciplines. As forest planners, conservation ecologists, ecological economists and silviculturalists, experienced with modeling trade-offs and synergies between biodiversity and wood biomass production, we identified fifteen key considerations relevant to assessing the pros and cons of alternative modeling approaches. Specifically we identified key considerations linked to study question formulation, modeling forest dynamics, forest processes, study landscapes, spatial and temporal aspects, and the key response metrics - biodiversity and wood biomass production, as well as dealing with trade-offs and uncertainties. We also provide illustrative examples from the modeling literature stemming from the key considerations assessed. We use our findings to reiterate the need for explicitly addressing and conveying the limitations and uncertainties of any modeling approach taken, and the need for interdisciplinary research efforts when addressing the conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of environmental resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Typology of the supply chains of non-wood forest products in central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonić Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern economies are characterized by a growing importance of cooperation and the creation of networks of enterprises, organizations and institutions, which are all part of a supply chain, in order to achieve competitive advantage in a market. The aim of this study was to determine the structure of the supply chains of non-wood forest products in selected forest areas of Central Serbia (Golijsko, Podrinjsko-kolubarsko, Posavsko-podunavsko, Rasinsko and Tarsko-zlatiborsko FAs. The comparative method was applied in this paper, along with the method of specialization (classification, the method of structural partial analysis (supply chain analysis and the statistical method (analysis of frequencies and two-step cluster. The data collection was conducted in 2011, by using the technique of door-to-door survey. The analysis of the basic types of the supply chains of non-wood forest products and their main stages (purchasing, processing and placement was conducted in the selected areas. A cluster analysis showed that there were six basic types of supply chains in the selected forest areas and one dominant type. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 443007/16 –III: Istraživanja klimatskih promena i njihovog uticaja na životnu sredinu -praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje, podprojekat: Socio-ekonomski razvoj, ublažavanje i adaptacija na klimatske promene

  15. Future carbon storage in harvested wood products from Ontario's Crown forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Colombo, S.J.; Ter-Mikaelian, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon (C) storage in harvested wood products (HWP) from Ontario's Crown forests were analyzed using a large-scale forest C budget model. The model was used to estimate HWP C stock changes as defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The harvested C mass was then allocated to 4 HWP end-use categories, notably (1) in use; (2) landfill; (3) energy; and (4) emissions. C mass redistribution among HWP end-use categories was calculated using an age-based C distribution matrix. Emissions for harvest, transport, and manufacturing were accounted for as well as emission reductions gained by using the HWP in place of other construction materials and fossil fuels. Results of the study showed that C storage in HWP is projected to increase by 3.6 Mt per year. The projections indicated that the harvest of wood products in Ontario will result in a steadily increasing C sink in HWP and forests. 51 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalysts including wood ash and the importance of enhancing byproduct glycerol purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uprety, Bijaya K.; Chaiwong, Wittavat; Ewelike, Chinomnso; Rakshit, Sudip K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of biodiesel production using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. • Comparative study of CaO and CaO supported on alumina for biodiesel production. • Tradeoff between biodiesel conversion rate and purity. • Ash from birch bark and wood pellet industry explored as a potential catalyst. - Abstract: Transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with methanol in the presence of catalysts produces fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and glycerol as a co-product. This study was focused on a comparative study of the transesterification of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBD palm oil) using a heterogeneous catalysts CaO with and without γ-alumina (γ-Al_2O_3) as a support. The results were also compared to that using sodium hydroxide (NaOH), which is a homogenous catalyst. Parameters like the amount of catalyst, the molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction time and reaction temperature that affect methyl ester and glycerol formation were analyzed and the optimum conditions were determined. The FAME and glycerol content (96.75% and 92.73% respectively) obtained using CaO were lower in purity compared to that using CaO/Al_2O_3 (97.66% and 96.36% respectively). In the second phase of our work, wood ash from two different sources (birch bark & flyash from a biomass based power plant), which were calcined at 800 °C were studied for their potential use as a cheap renewable alternative heterogeneous catalyst. Both the wood ash samples were found to have good potential for use in such production process, but needs to be optimized further to obtain biodiesel which meets fuel biodiesel specifications. Both CaO and CaO supported on alumina produces FAME to levels that meet the fuel specifications required for blending with diesel. However, the latter produces a purer form of byproduct glycerol that can be easily converted to value added products, without the need for purification. On this basis the supported catalyst is

  17. Wood-plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.

    1978-02-01

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  18. Production of wood plastic properties using gamma radiation as a polymerization agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, C; Rosende, R [Chile Univ., Santiago. Dept. de Tecnologia de la Madera; Espinoza B, J; Figueroa C, C [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago. Dept. de Aplicaciones de los Isotopos y Radiaciones

    1984-04-01

    The properties of wood plastic composites (WPC) based on Pinus Radiata D. Don impregnated with methylmethacrylate and subsequently polymerized with gamma radiation were studied. Different systems of impregnation were utilized, in order to obtain partial and shell loads. The minimum irradiation dose uses was 16 kGy. The following tests were made to the material: static bending, compression strenght parallel to grain, hardness, sheer strength, toughness, water absorption, dimensional stability and flame propagation index. To evaluate the testing, the results of the samples were separated according final density in the ranges: R/sub 1/ = 429-483 kg/m3 (without treatment); R/sub 2/ = 500-650 kg/m3 and R3 = 651-850 kg/m3. In general, the best results were obtained for samples of high density. The most important results were achieved for dimensional stability, water absorption and hardness.

  19. Production of wood plastic properties using gamma radiation as a polimerization agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, C.; Rosende, R.; Espinoza B, J.; Figueroa C, C.

    1984-01-01

    The properties of wood plastic composites (WPC) based on Pinus Radiata D. Don impregnated with methylmethacrylate and subsequently polymerized with gamma radiation were studied. Different systems of impregnation were utilized, in order to obtain partial and shell loads. The minimum irradiation dose uses was 16 kGy. The following tests were made to the material: static bending, compression strenght parallel to grain, hardness, sheer strength, toughness, water absorption, dimensional stability and flame propagation index. To evaluate the testing, the results of the samples were separated according final density in the ranges: R 1 = 429-483 kg/m3 (without treatment); R 2 = 500-650 kg/m3 and R3 = 651-850 kg/m3. In general, the best results were obtained for samples of high density. The most important results were achieved for dimensional stability, water absorption and hardness. (Author)

  20. A multi-tiered approach for assessing the forestry and wood products industries' impact on the carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    The forestry and wood products industries play a significant role in CO 2 emissions reduction by increasing carbon stocks in living forest biomass and wood products. Moreover, wood can substitute for fossil fuels. Different methods can be used to assess the impact of regional forestry and wood products industries on regional CO 2 emissions. This article considers three of those methods and combines them into a multi-tiered approach. The multi-tiered approach proposed in this article combines: 1) a Kyoto-Protocol-oriented method focused on changes in CO 2 emissions resulting from regional industrial production, 2) a consumer-oriented method focused on changes in CO 2 emissions resulting from regional consumption, and 3) a value-creation-oriented method focused on changes in CO 2 emissions resulting from forest management and wood usage strategies. North Rhine-Westphalia is both a typical German state and an example of a region where each of these three methods yields different results. It serves as a test case with which to illustrate the advantages of the proposed approach. This case study argues that the choice of assessment methods is essential when developing and evaluating a strategy for reducing CO 2 emissions. Emissions can be reduced through various social and economic processes. Since none of the assessment methods considered above is suitable for all of these processes, only a multi-tiered approach may ensure that strategy development results in an optimal emissions reduction strategy.