WorldWideScience

Sample records for composite tissue transplantation

  1. Microsurgical Composite Tissue Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Donald; Georgiade, Nicholas G.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1974, 69 patients with extensive defects have undergone reconstruction by microsurgical composite tissue transplantation. Using this method, donor composite tissue is isolated on its blood supply, removed to a distant recipient site, and the continuity of blood flow re-established by microvascular anastomoses. In this series, 56 patients (81%) were completely successful. There have been eight (12%) failures, primarily in the extremities. There have been five (7%) partial successes, (i.e., a microvascular flap in which a portion was lost requiring a secondary procedure such as a split thickness graft). In those patients with a severely injured lower extremity, the failure rate was the greatest. Most of these were arterial (six of seven). These failures occurred early in the series and were thought to be related to a severely damaged recipient vasculature. This problem has been circumvented by an autogenous interpositional vein graft, permitting more mobility of flap placement. In the upper extremity, all but one case were successful. Early motion was permitted, preventing joint capsular contractures and loss of function. Twenty-three cases in the head and neck region were successful (one partial success). This included two composite rib grafts to the mandible. Prolonged delays in reconstruction following extirpation of a malignancy were avoided. A rapid return to society following complete reconstruction was ensured. Nine patients presented for reconstruction of the breast and thorax following radical mastectomy. All were successfully reconstructed with this new technique except one patient. Its many advantages include immediate reconstruction without delayed procedures and no secondary deformity of the donor site. Healthy, well vascularized tissue can now be transferred to a previously irradiated area with no tissue loss. This new method offers many advantages to older methods of reconstruction. Length of hospital stay and immobilization are reduced. The

  2. The International Registry on Hand and Composite Tissue Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzo, Palmina; Lanzetta, Marco; Dubernard, Jean-Michel; Landin, Luis; Cavadas, Pedro; Margreiter, Raimund; Schneeberger, Stephan; Breidenbach, Warren; Kaufman, Christina; Jablecki, Jerzy; Schuind, Frédéric; Dumontier, Christian

    2010-12-27

    The International Registry on Hand and Composite Tissue Transplantation was founded in May 2002, and the analysis of all cases with follow-up information up to July 2010 is presented here. From September 1998 to July 2010, 49 hands (17 unilateral and 16 bilateral hand transplantations, including 1 case of bilateral arm transplantation) have been reported, for a total of 33 patients. They were 31 men and 2 women (median age 32 years). Time since hand loss ranged from 2 months to 34 years, and in 46% of cases, the level of amputation was at wrist. Immunosuppressive therapy included tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, sirolimus, and steroids; polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies were used for induction. Topical immunosuppression was also used in several cases. Follow-up ranges from 1 month to 11 years. One patient died on day 65. Three patients transplanted in the Western countries have lost their graft, whereas until September 2009, seven hand grafts were removed for noncompliance to the immunosuppressive therapy in China. Eighty-five percent of recipients experienced at least one episode of acute rejection within the first year, and they were reversible when promptly treated. Side effects included opportunistic infections, metabolic complications, and malignancies. All patients developed protective sensibility, 90% of them developed tactile sensibility, and 82.3% also developed a discriminative sensibility. Motor recovery enabled patients to perform most daily activities. Hand transplantation is a complex procedure, and its success is based on patient's compliance and his or her careful evaluation before and after transplantation.

  3. Composite Tissue Transplant of Hand or Arm: A Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to arms and legs following severe trauma can result in the loss of large regions of tissue, disrupting healing and function and sometimes leading to amputation of the damaged limb. People experiencing amputations of the hand or arm could potentially benefit from composite tissue transplant, which is being performed in some countries. Currently, there are no composite tissue transplant programs in Canada. We conducted a systematic review of the literature, with no restriction on study design, examining the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of hand and arm transplant. We assessed the overall quality of the clinical evidence with GRADE. We developed a Markov decision analytic model to determine the cost-effectiveness of transplant versus standard care for a healthy adult with a hand amputation. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated using a 30-year time horizon. We also estimated the impact on provincial health care costs if these transplants were publicly funded in Ontario. Compared to pre-transplant function, patients' post-transplant function was significantly better. For various reasons, 17% of transplanted limbs were amputated, 6.4% of patients died within the first year after the transplant, and 10.6% of patients experienced chronic rejections. GRADE quality of evidence for all outcomes was very low. In the cost-effectiveness analysis, single-hand transplant was dominated by standard care, with increased costs ($735,647 CAD vs. $61,429) and reduced quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (10.96 vs. 11.82). Double-hand transplant also had higher costs compared with standard care ($633,780), but it had an increased effectiveness of 0.17 QALYs, translating to an ICER of $3.8 million per QALY gained. In most sensitivity analyses, ICERs for bilateral hand transplant were greater than $1 million per QALY gained. A hand transplant program would lead to an estimated annual budget impact of $0.9 million to $1.2 million in the next 3 years

  4. The donor management algorithm in transplantation of a composite facial tissue allograft.. First experience in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Uyba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period from 2005 to December 2015, 37 transplantations of vascularized composite facial tissue allografts (VCAs were performed in the world. A vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation has been recognized as a solid organ transplantation rather than a special kind of tissue transplantation. The recent classification of composite tissue allografts into the category of donor organs gave rise to a number of organizational, ethical, legal, technical, and economic problems. In May 2015, the first successful transplantation of a composite facial tissue allograft was performed in Russia. The article describes our experience of multiple team interactions at donor management stage when involved in the identification, conditioning, harvesting, and delivering donor organs to various hospitals. A man, aged 51 years old, diagnosed with traumatic brain injury became a donor after the diagnosis of brain deathhad been made, his death had been ascertained, and the requested consent for organ donation had been obtained from relatives. At donor management stage, a tracheostomy was performed and a posthumous facial mask was molded. The "face first, concurrent completion" algorithm was chosen for organ harvesting and facial VCA procurement; meanwhile, the facial allograft was procured as the "full face" category. The total surgery duration from the incision to completing the procurement (including that of solid organs made 8 hours 20 minutes. Immediately after the procurement, the facial VCA complex was sent to the St. Petersburg clinic by medical aircraft transportation, and was there transplanted 9 hours later. Donor kidneys were transported to Moscow bycivil aviation and transplanted 17 and 20 hours later. The authors believe that this clinical case report demonstrates the feasibility and safety of multiple harvesting of solid organs and a vascularized composite facial tissue allograft. However, this kind of surgery requires an essential

  5. Hand transplantation and vascularized composite tissue allografts in orthopaedics and traumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuind, F

    2010-05-01

    Composite tissue allograft (CTA) is defined as heterologous transplantation of a complex comprising skin and subcutaneous, neurovascular and mesenchymal tissue. Such techniques allow complex reconstruction using matched tissue, without donor site morbidity. The potential indications in orthopaedics-traumatology could in the future be more frequent than the present indications of heart, lung, liver, kidney and pancreas transplantation. International clinical experience clearly demonstrates the feasibility of CTA, both surgically and immunologically. However, immunosuppression remains indispensable, exposing the patient to risks that are not acceptable for purely functional surgery, except in very particular indications. The main hope for the future lies in induction of graft-specific tolerance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Adult Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Tolerance Induction in Nonhuman Primates for Vascularized Composite Allograft Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-2-0042 TITLE: Adult Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Tolerance Induction in Nonhuman Primates for Vascularized Composite...2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2016 - 29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Adult Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Tolerance Induction...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The utilization of adult derived adipose stem cells administration in composite tissue transplantation

  7. Donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen matching practices in vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation: a survey of major transplantation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashvetiya, Tamara; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Kukuruga, Debra; Bojovic, Branko; Christy, Michael R; Dorafshar, Amir H; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2014-07-01

    Vascularized composite tissue allotransplant recipients are often highly sensitized to human leukocyte antigens because of multiple prior blood transfusions and other reconstructive operations. The use of peripheral blood obtained from dead donors for crossmatching may be insufficient because of life support measures taken for the donor before donation. No study has been published investigating human leukocyte antigen matching practices in this field. A survey addressing human leukocyte antigen crossmatching methods was generated and sent to 22 vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation centers with active protocols worldwide. Results were compiled by center and compared using two-tailed t tests. Twenty of 22 centers (91 percent) responded to the survey. Peripheral blood was the most commonly reported donor sample for vascularized composite tissue allotransplant crossmatching [78 percent of centers (n=14)], with only 22 percent (n=4) using lymph nodes. However, 56 percent of the 18 centers (n=10) that had performed vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation reported that they harvested lymph nodes for crossmatching. Of responding individuals, 62.5 percent (10 of 16 individuals) felt that lymph nodes were the best donor sample for crossmatching. A slight majority of vascularized composite tissue allotransplant centers that have performed clinical transplants have used lymph nodes for human leukocyte antigen matching, and centers appear to be divided on the utility of lymph node harvest. The use of lymph nodes may offer a number of potential benefits. This study highlights the need for institutional review board-approved crossmatching protocols specific to vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation, and the need for global databases for sharing of vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation experiences.

  8. Simultaneous bone marrow and composite tissue transplantation in rats treated with nonmyeloablative conditioning promotes tolerance1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong; Ramsey, Deborah M.; Wu, Shengli; Bozulic, Larry D.; Ildstad, Suzanne T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Approaches to safely induce tolerance in vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) with chimerism through bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are currently being pursued. However, the VCA were historically performed sequentially after donor chimerism was established. Delayed VCA is not clinically applicable due to the time constraints associated with procurement from deceased donors. A more clinically relevant approach to perform both the BMT and VCA simultaneously was evaluated. Methods WF (RT1Au) rats were treated with a short course of immunosuppressive therapy (anti-αβ-TCR mAb, FK-506, and anti-lymphocyte serum). One day prior to BMT, rats were treated with varying doses of total body irradiation (TBI) followed by transplantation of heterotopic osteomyocutaneous flaps from hind limbs of ACI (RT1Aabl) rats. Results 80% of rats conditioned with 300 cGy TBI and 40% of rats receiving 400 cGy TBI accepted the VCA. Mixed chimerism was detected in peripheral blood at one month post-VCA, but chimerism was lost in all transplant recipients by 4 months. The majority of peripheral donor cells originated from the BMT and not the VCA. Acceptors of VCA were tolerant of a donor skin graft challenge and no anti-donor antibodies were detectable, suggesting a central deletional mechanism for tolerance. Regulatory T cells (Treg) from spleens of acceptors more potently suppressed lymphocyte proliferation than Treg from rejectors in the presence of donor stimulator cells. Conclusions These studies suggest that simultaneous BMT and VCA may establish indefinite allograft survival in rats through Treg-mediated suppression and thymic deletion of alloreactive T cells. PMID:23250336

  9. Dissociation between peripheral blood chimerism and tolerance to hindlimb composite tissue transplants: preferential localization of chimerism in donor bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahhal, Dina N; Xu, Hong; Huang, Wei-Chao; Wu, Shengli; Wen, Yujie; Huang, Yiming; Ildstad, Suzanne T

    2009-09-27

    Mixed chimerism induces donor-specific tolerance to composite tissue allotransplants (CTAs). In the present studies, we used a nonmyeloablative conditioning approach to establish chimerism and promote CTA acceptance. Wistar Furth (RT1A(u)) rats were conditioned with 600 to 300 cGy total body irradiation (TBI, day-1), and 100 x 10(6) T-cell-depleted ACI (RT1A(abl)) bone marrow cells were transplanted on day 0, followed by a 11-day course of tacrolimus and one dose of antilymphocyte serum (day 10). Heterotopic osteomyocutaneous flap transplantation was performed 4 to 6 weeks after bone marrow transplantation. Mixed chimerism was initially achieved in almost all recipients, but long-term acceptance of CTA was only achieved in rats treated with 600 cGy TBI. When anti-alphabeta-T-cell receptor (TCR) monoclonal antibody (mAb) (day-3) was added into the regimens, donor chimerism was similar to recipients preconditioned without anti-alphabeta-TCR mAb. However, the long-term CTA survival was significantly improved in chimeras receiving more than or equal to 300 cGy TBI plus anti-alphabeta-TCR mAb. Higher levels of donor chimerism were associated with CTA acceptance. The majority of flap acceptors lost peripheral blood chimerism within 6 months. However, donor chimerism persisted in the transplanted bone at significantly higher levels compared with other hematopoietic compartments. The compartment donor chimerism may be responsible for the maintenance of tolerance to CTA. Long-term acceptors were tolerant to a donor skin graft challenge even in the absence of peripheral blood chimerism. Mixed chimerism established by nonmyeloablative conditioning induces long-term acceptance of CTA, which is associated with persistent chimerism preferentially in the transplanted donor bone.

  10. Autologous Cartilage Chip Transplantation Improves Repair Tissue Composition Compared With Marrow Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bjørn Borsøe; Olesen, Morten Lykke; Lind, Martin; Foldager, Casper Bindzus

    2017-06-01

    Repair of chondral injuries by use of cartilage chips has recently demonstrated clinical feasibility. To investigate in vivo cartilage repair outcome of autologous cartilage chips compared with marrow stimulation in full-thickness cartilage defects in a minipig model. Controlled laboratory study. Six Göttingen minipigs received two 6-mm chondral defects in the medial and lateral trochlea of each knee. The two treatment groups were (1) autologous cartilage chips embedded in fibrin glue (ACC) (n = 12) and (2) marrow stimulation (MST) (n = 12). The animals were euthanized after 6 months, and the composition of repair tissue was quantitatively determined using histomorphometry. Semiquantitative evaluation was performed by means of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) II score. Collagen type II staining was used to further evaluate the repair tissue composition. Significantly more hyaline cartilage was found in the ACC (17.1%) compared with MST (2.9%) group ( P cartilage repair tissue compared with MST at 6 months postoperatively. Further studies are needed to investigate ACC as a possible alternative first-line treatment for focal cartilage injuries in the knee.

  11. TRANSPLANTATION AND POTENTIAL IMMORTALITY OF MAMMALIAN TISSUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, L

    1926-06-20

    1. Serial transplantation of tumors made it possible in 1901 and following years to draw the conclusion that various mammalian tissues have potential immortality. Serial transplantations of normal tissues did not succeed at first, because the homoioreaction on the part of the lymphocytes and connective tissue of the host injures the transplant. 2. In continuation of these experiments we found that cartilage of the rat can be transplanted serially to other rats at least for a period of 3 years. At the end of that time great parts of the transplanted cartilage and perichondrium are alive. 3. Not only the cartilage of young rats can be homoiotransplanted, but also the cartilage of very old rats which are nearing the end of life. By using such animals we have been able to obtain cartilage and perichondrium approaching an age of 6 years which is almost double the average age of a rat. 4. We found that cartilage can be homoiotransplanted more readily than other tissues for the following reasons: (a) While in principle the homoioreaction towards cartilage is the same as against other tissues, cartilage elicits this reaction with less intensity; (b) cartilage is better able to resist the invasion of lymphocytes and connective tissue than the majority of other tissues; (c) a gradual adaptation between transplant and host seems to take place in the case of cartilage transplantation, as a result of which the lymphocytic reaction on the part of the host tissue decreases progressively the longer the cartilage is kept in the strange host. 5. At time of examination we not only found living transplanted cartilage tissue, but also perichondrial tissue, which in response to a stimulus apparently originating in the necrotic central cartilage, had been proliferating and replacing it. These results suggest that it may perhaps be possible under favorable conditions to keep cartilage alive indefinitely through serial transplantations. 6. At the same time these experiments permit the

  12. Transplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gellert, S E; Pors, S E; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2018-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: This study found no indications of sufficient numbers of malignant cells present in the ovarian tissue to cause recurrence of cancer after OTT. Further, it is unlikely that OTC affects the well-being of children born. OTC is now an established method of fertility preservation in Denmark......PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to review all peer-reviewed published reports of women receiving ovarian tissue transplantation (OTT) with frozen/thawed tissue (OTC) with respect to age, diagnosis, transplantation site, fertility outcome, and potential side effects, including data from all...... women in the Danish program. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed in PubMed combined with results from all patients who had received OTT in Denmark up to December 2017. RESULTS: OTT has been reported from 21 different countries comprising a total of 360 OTT procedures in 318...

  13. Ethical issues in organ and tissue transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouna, George M

    2003-12-01

    Clinical organ transplantation provides a way of giving the gift of life to patients with terminal failure of vital organs, which requires the participation of other fellow human beings and of society by donating organs from deceased or living individuals. The increasing incidence of vital organ failure and the inadequate supply of organs, especially from cadavers, has created a wide gap between organ supply and organ demand, which has resulted in very long waiting times to receive an organ as well as an increasing number of deaths while waiting. These events have raised many ethical, moral and societal issues regarding supply, the methods of organ allocation the use of living donors as volunteers including minors. It has also led to the practice of organ sale by entrepreneurs for financial gains in some parts the world through exploitation of the poor, for the benefit of the wealthy. The current advances in immunology and tissue engineering and the use of animal organs, xenotransplantation, while offering very promising solutions to many of these problems, also raise additional ethical and medical issues, which must be considered by the medical profession as well as society. This review deals with the ethical and moral issues generated by the current advances in organ transplantation, the problem of organ supply versus organ demand and the appropriate allocation of available organs. It deals with the risks and benefits of organ donation from living donors, the appropriate and acceptable methods to increase organ donation from the deceased through the adoption of the principle of 'presumed consent', the right methods of providing acceptable appreciation and compensation for the family of the deceased as well as volunteer and altruistic donors, and the duties and responsibilities of the medical profession and society to help fellow humans. The review also deals with the appropriate and ethically acceptable ways of utilizing the recent advances of stem cell

  14. Repair of radiation injury by transplantation of hemopoietic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: endogenous repair of tissue by surviving cells; exogenous repair by transplantation of tissue from unirradiated donor; repair of hematopoietic tissue following sublethal exposure or exposure in the LD 1 to LD 100 range; early studies on regeneration of hematopoietic tissue in x-irradiated dogs by giving bone marrow; hypotheses as to how bone marrow injections result in regeneration of blood-forming tissue; effects of rat bone marrow transplants on survival of lethally irradiated mice; and effect of tissue transplants on dose-response curve

  15. Regulatory aspects of tissue donation, banking and transplantation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo Gajiwala, Astrid

    2018-05-04

    Amendments to India's Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994, have established the legality of tissue donation and transplantation from deceased donors and the conditions under which they are permitted. The amended Act, now known as The Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues Act, 1994, seeks to prevent the commercialization of tissue donation and to guarantee the safety of indigenous allografts. Registration of tissue banks, compliance with national standards and the appointment of transplant co-ordinators in hospitals registered under the Act are now mandatory. A national registry and Regional and State networks for donation and transplantation of tissues have been introduced. Despite the amendments a few anomalies of the principal Act persist as some of the differences between tissue and organ donation and transplantation have been overlooked. These include the possibility of skin donation in locations other than hospitals; the donation of medical and surgical tissue residues which does not pose any risk to the living donor; the non-requirement for compatibility between donor and recipient; the delayed time factor between tissue donation and transplantation which makes identification of a recipient at the time of donation impossible; and the easy availability of alternatives to tissues which make waiting lists redundant for many tissues. Rules for the implementation of the amended Act were framed in 2014 but like the Act must be adopted by the State health assemblies to become universally applicable in the country.

  16. Long-term function of ovarian tissue transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman J. Silber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The long term duration of function of ovarian cortical tissue grafts is reviewed in this paper by describing cases of restoration of fertility by transplant of ovarian cortical tissue from matching donors where the recipient was in need of the transplant due to sterilizing effects of leukemia, premature ovarian failure (POF, and to reflect that it may be possible to postpone the normal time of menopause or to alleviate its symptoms.

  17. Public awareness in promotion of tissue transplantation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Rani Samsudin; Hasim Mohammad

    1999-01-01

    Malaysia is a developing country in South East Asia with a population of 21 million. The population is multiracial, multicultural and multireligion and it is one of the few countries in the world which possess a multicomplexity way of life among its ethnic groups. The health care system in Malaysia is divided into two main system, i.e. government based or public service and private based health care practice. The idea about organ donation and transplant science has a rise in Malaysia some 30 years ago, and the first historical event of a kidney transplant from a cadaveric donor took place in 1976. 22 years down the line, the first heart transplant was performed in Malaysia. Over the last 22 years between 1976 and 1998 many programmes promoting the idea of organ and tissue transplantation has been came out throughout the country led by government based bodies and non governmental Organisation. In terms of government funding, supporting a transplant programme is not a cheap exercise and this aspect of health care financial burden must be given due consideration by government and non governmental bodies for success of the programme. Besides financial burden, there are the common dilemma of culture and religious barrier for the success of the programme, but this problem has been tackled extremely well by the government. The setting up of two tissue banks in Malaysia in 1991 has further enhanced the idea of organ and tissue transplantation in this country, and the establishment of the national transplant resource centre based at Hospital Kuala Lumpur provides a national coordination service system for both organ and tissue procurement services for the whole country. Organ and tissue donation programme-ne and finally the success of a national transplant programme will certainly depend on the health status and health priorities of the country, the standard of general education, the quality of life style while cultural and religious factors in Malaysia will play a minor

  18. The safety of transplanting cryopreserved ovarian tissue in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mikkel; Greve, Tine; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2013-01-01

    Transplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue from patients with a malignant condition is associated with a risk of re-introduction of the disease as the tissue usually is removed before anti-cancer therapy and may thus contain malignant cells. We review studies investigating the presence...

  19. Positioning Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation in the Spectrum of Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    COB) involving use of CTLA4Ig (“Belatacept”) to block CD28/B7 interactions is approved for use in human renal transplant recipients (4). With regard to...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0058 TITLE: Positioning Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation in the Spectrum of Transplantation PRINCIPAL...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Positioning Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation in the Spectrum of Transplantation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  20. A New Composite Eyeball-Periorbital Transplantation Model in Humans: An Anatomical Study in Preparation for Eyeball Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemionow, Maria; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Zor, Fatih; Kulahci, Yalcin; Uygur, Safak; Ozturk, Can; Djohan, Risal; Papay, Frank

    2018-04-01

    Vascularized composite allotransplantation offers a new hope for restoration of orbital content and perhaps vision. The aim of this study was to introduce a new composite eyeball-periorbital transplantation model in fresh cadavers in preparation for composite eyeball allotransplantation in humans. The composite eyeball-periorbital transplantation flap borders included the inferior border, outlined by the infraorbital rim; the medial border, created by the nasal dorsum; the lateral border, created by the lateral orbital rim; and the superior border, created by the superior part of the eyebrow. The pedicle of the flap included the facial artery, superficial temporal artery, and external jugular vein. The skin and subcutaneous tissues of the periorbital region were dissected and the bony tissue was reached. A coronal incision was performed and the frontal lobe of the brain was reached by means of frontal osteotomy. Ophthalmic and oculomotor nerves were also included in the flap. After a "box osteotomy" around the orbit, the dissection was completed. Methylene blue and indocyanine green injection (SPY Elite System) was performed to show the integrity of the vascular territories after facial flap harvest. Adequate venous return was observed within the flap after methylene blue dye injection. Laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography identified a well-defined vascular network within the entire composite eyeball-periorbital transplantation flap. For the first time, a novel composite eyeball-periorbital transplantation model in human cadavers was introduced. Good perfusion of the flap confirmed the feasibility of composite eyeball-periorbital transplantation in the clinical setting. Although harvesting of the flap is challenging, it introduces a new option for reconstruction of the periorbital region including the eyeball.

  1. Bioprinting scale-up tissue and organ constructs for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2015-07-01

    Bioprinting is an emerging field that is having a revolutionary impact on the medical sciences. It offers great precision for the spatial placement of cells, proteins, genes, drugs, and biologically active particles to better guide tissue generation and formation. This emerging biotechnology appears to be promising for advancing tissue engineering toward functional tissue and organ fabrication for transplantation, drug testing, research investigations, and cancer or disease modeling, and has recently attracted growing interest worldwide among researchers and the general public. In this Opinion, I highlight possibilities for the bioprinting scale-up of functional tissue and organ constructs for transplantation and provide the reader with alternative approaches, their limitations, and promising directions for new research prospects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the ovarian reserve in women transplanted with frozen and thawed ovarian cortical tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Tine; Schmidt, Kirsten Tryde; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2012-01-01

    To investigate ovarian reserve and ovarian function in women transplanted with frozen/thawed ovarian tissue.......To investigate ovarian reserve and ovarian function in women transplanted with frozen/thawed ovarian tissue....

  3. Uterine Tissue Engineering and the Future of Uterus Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Mats; Bandstein, Sara; Brännström, Mats

    2017-07-01

    The recent successful births following live donor uterus transplantation are proof-of-concept that absolute uterine factor infertility is a treatable condition which affects several hundred thousand infertile women world-wide due to a dysfunctional uterus. This strategy also provides an alternative to gestational surrogate motherhood which is not practiced in most countries due to ethical, religious or legal reasons. The live donor surgery involved in uterus transplantation takes more than 10 h and is then followed by years of immunosuppressive medication to prevent uterine rejection. Immunosuppression is associated with significant adverse side effects, including nephrotoxicity, increased risk of serious infections, and diabetes. Thus, the development of alternative approaches to treat absolute uterine factor infertility would be desirable. This review discusses tissue engineering principles in general, but also details strategies on how to create a bioengineered uterus that could be used for transplantation, without risky donor surgery and any need for immunosuppression. We discuss scaffolds derived from decellularized organs/tissues which may be recellularized using various types of autologous somatic/stem cells, in particular for uterine tissue engineering. It further highlights the hurdles that lay ahead in developing an alternative to an allogeneic source for uterus transplantation.

  4. [Trachea repair and reconstruction with new composite artificial trachea transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenliang; Xiao, Peng; Liang, Hengxing; An, Ran; Cheng, Gang; Yu, Fenglei

    2013-03-01

    To construct a new composite artificial trachea and to investigate the feasibility of trachea repair and reconstruction with the new composite artificial trachea transplantation in dogs. The basic skeleton of the new composite artificial trachea was polytetrafluoroethylene vascular prosthesis linked with titanium rings at both ends. Dualmesh was sutured on titanium rings. Sixteen dogs, weighing (14.9 +/- 2.0) kg, female or male, were selected. The 5 cm cervical trachea was resected to prepare the cervical trachea defect model. The trachea repair and reconstruction was performed with the new composite artificial trachea. Then fiberoptic bronchoscope examination, CT scan and three-dimensinal reconstruction were conducted at immediate, 1 month, and 6 months after operation. Gross observation and histological examination were conducted at 14 months to evaluate the repair and reconstruction efficacy. No dog died during operation of trachea reconstruction. One dog died of dyspnea at 37, 41, 55, 66, 140, and 274 days respectively because of anastomotic dehiscence and artificial trachea displacement; the other 10 dogs survived until 14 months. The fiberoptic bronchoscope examination, CT scan and three-dimensinal reconstruction showed that artificial tracheas were all in good location without twisting at immediate after operation; mild stenosis occurred and anastomoses had slight granulation in 6 dogs at 1 month; severe stenosis developed and anastomosis had more granulation in 1 dog and the other dogs were well alive without anastomotic stenosis at 6 months. At 14 months, gross observation revealed that outer surface of the artificial trachea were encapsulated by fibrous connective tissue in all of 10 dogs. Histological examination showed inflammatory infiltration and hyperplasia of fibrous tissue and no epithelium growth on the inner wall of the artificial trachea. The new composite artificial trachea can be used to repair and reconstruct defect of the trachea for a short

  5. US of tissue banking and transplantation in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, M.; Moogk, M.

    1999-01-01

    Tissue banking in North America began as surgical bone banking in individual hospitals and progressed to recovery of cadaveric tissues, initially by the United States Navy Tissue Bank and more recently to regional tissue banks throughout North America. The American Association of Tissue Banks was established in 1976 to develop standards for tissue banking and the eventual inspection and accreditation of tissue banks. The gathering of statistics of tissue banking practices was first undertaken in 1992, from accredited tissue banks. The most recent statistics were compiled in 1997 and will be reported at this conference.There are currently 63 accredited tissue banks in North America, 60 in the United States and three in Canada. Overall, tissue donation has increased by 48% during this 5 year reporting time. During the same period, the number of living surgical bone donors has decreased from nearly 3,000 to less than 500. This impact is largely due to the new regulations that have been implemented by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). There were over 340,000 bone grafts distributed in 1996, an increase of 20% over 1992, 33% were not sterilized, 21% were sterilized using irradiation, and 45% were demineralized. Only 1% were processed using ethylene oxide as a sterilant, a decrease from 15% in 1992. The primary mode of preservation and storage is freeze-drying with 90% of the tissues falling into this category and the rest being frozen. The second largest number of grafts distributed were skin grafts. Total tissue grafts distributed including cornea was 445,417. In January 1998, the FDA Final Rule regarding regulation of tissue banking became effective. The elements of that Final Rule and new tissue banking rules the FDA has proposed will be discussed along with regulations recently published by the Health and Human Services Department relative to organ and tissue donor referrals. Tissue Banking in North America continues to evolve and has become more and more

  6. Some quantitative studies on the transplantation of human tissues into nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietman, A.; Suit, H.D.; Sedlacek, R.

    1987-01-01

    Quantitative cell transplantation assays (TD/sub 50/) were performed for human tumors xenografted into athymic NCr(nμ/nμ) nude mice. Transplantation assays for FaDu when transplanted into brain and when transplanted into subcutaneous tissues are compared. Effects of immunization are discussed and results are given

  7. [The legal and ethical aspects of nerve tissue transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sramka, M; Rattaj, M

    1992-01-01

    The authors have specified the following criteria for the withdrawal of embryonal tissue at their department: 1) only tissue from dead fetus is allowed to be used in neurotransplantation; 2) embryonal tissue is to be obtained after spontaneous abortions from volunteers or from women asking for artificial abortion; 3) the women should be informed about the curative purposes of embryonal tissue voluntary donorship and they must give a written consent; 4) decision on abortion should be separated from the use of embryonal tissue; 5) women should not know recipients; no payments should be made for tissue; 6) the donor is not permitted to impregnate in order to use embryos for research or clinical purposes; 7) sampling of BWR, HBsAG, anti-HIV, cytomegalovirus, herpes I and II is to be made for serologic examinations and that from the cervix for cultivation and sensitivity, as well as ultrasound verification of a germinal age is done in potential donors; 8) consent should be signed to embryonal brain transplantation by recipient or his legitimate deputy if the recipient is certifiable. The above criteria should protect both the donor and the recipient. The use of embryonal tissue cultures seems to be promising. In addition to legal and ethic problems, immunological problems and problems concerning the aseptic withdrawal of embryonal tissue are falling off.

  8. Histomorphological Evaluation of Fresh Ovarian Tissue Transplanted Into Back Muscles of Balb/C Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Amiri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available & objectives: Today, different methods for maintaining reproductive capability in young women with cancer are being considered. One of the most prominent of these methods is ovarian tissue transplant. Despite the relative success of this method, the appropriate location and methods of transplantation is still a matter of discussion. The present study evaluated the histomorphology of fresh ovarian tissue transplantation by two methods, inter muscular and intra muscular, in Balb/C mice. Methods & Materials: The study was conducted at Hamedan University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Fresh ovarian tissues from 12-14 day old Balb/C mice were transplanted into back muscles of ovarectomized 6 week old Balb/C mice both intermuscularly and intramuscularly. All transplanted mice received intra-peritoneal injections of a unit of rFSH for 4 weeks, every other day. At the end of the tenth week, all transplant recipient mice were killed and the transplanted ovarian tissues were removed. All samples were assessed for the angiogenesis and viability of follicles. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, using independent t- test. Results: In intermuscular transplanted group, the transplanted tissues were rejected in two cases. In the sections prepared from the other cases, in spite of the presence of some small necrotic areas, the majority of ovarian tissues had a healthy appearance within the primordial, primary, secondary and antral follicles. Apart from a significant reduction in the number of follicles and smaller size of follicles in the transplanted tissue in comparison with control group, no other major differences in morphology, histology, and the process of maturation of ovarian follicles were observed between the transplanted and control groups. Conclusion: Fresh ovarian tissue transplantation into muscles of the back area without basic vascular pedicle has new angiogenesis capabilities, appropriate survival and development of primordial follicles and

  9. Reversal of Type 1 Diabetes in Mice by Brown Adipose Tissue Transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawardana, Subhadra C.; Piston, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Current therapies for type 1 diabetes (T1D) involve insulin replacement or transplantation of insulin-secreting tissue, both of which suffer from numerous limitations and complications. Here, we show that subcutaneous transplants of embryonic brown adipose tissue (BAT) can correct T1D in streptozotocin-treated mice (both immune competent and immune deficient) with severely impaired glucose tolerance and significant loss of adipose tissue. BAT transplants result in euglycemia, normalized gluco...

  10. Radiation sterilisation of tissue allografts for transplant surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.O.

    1994-01-01

    The application of ionising radiation to sterilise biological tissues is an extension of their use for the sterilisation of other medical products and pharmaceuticals. This paper describes the effects of radiation on biological tissues, both at the macro- and molecular level. Changes in mechanical and other physical properties can accompany irradiation. These are shown to be due to the glycosamino-glycan component (hyaluronic acid), rather than to the collagen fibrils. Fast reaction methods are used to identify the mechanism of the radiation degradation processes. Methods by which tissues can be protected from these undesirable effects are discussed. The application of radiation sterilisation to human tissues used in transplant surgery is described, and the practical methods of processing given. Such radiation sterilised allografts now have wide application, with more than 500,000 used each year. The IAEA programme in this field has extended the application to 13 countries of the Asia and Pacific Region. Such Tissue Banks are also established with the support of IAEA in Africa and South America. The allografts can now be produced in developing countries in a readily available form, at low cost, and reduce the need for costly imported alternatives. (author). 45 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Trend Analysis of Organ and Tissue Donation for Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, M J; Leal de Moraes, E; Santini Martins, M; Carlos de Almeida, E; Borges de Barros E Silva, L; Urias, V; Silvano Corrêa Pacheco Furtado, M C; Brito Nunes, Á; El Hage, S

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the tendency toward donations of tissue and organs from donors with brain death between 2001 and 2016 as registered by an organ procurement organization in São Paulo City. This quantitative, retrospective, exploratory study encompassed all Tissue and Organ Donation Terms signed between 2001 and 2016. A logistic regression model was applied to verify whether there was an upward or downward trend in donation. After statistical analysis, a significant change trend was identified in skin, bones, valve, vessel, heart, lung, and pancreas donations, indicating an increase in the donation rate through the years. The donation rate did not show changes over the years for donations of liver, kidneys, and corneas. The decision-making process regarding organ and tissue donation is restricted not only to the dilemma of whether to donate but another question then arises as well: which organs and tissues are to be donated? The discrepancy between the authorization for organ donation and the authorization for tissue donation, as well as the option for one or another organ and/or tissue, must be thoroughly examined because these factors directly affect the number of transplants and acquirements effectively accomplished. These factors may be related to explaining to one's relatives aspects of the surgery, body reassembling, and usage of such organs and/or tissues. They may also be related to the lack of knowledge concerning organ donation and the symbolism represented by the organ and/or tissue, among other factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-Condensation Culture Enables Vascularization of Tissue Fragments for Efficient Therapeutic Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Takahashi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Clinical transplantation of tissue fragments, including islets, faces a critical challenge because of a lack of effective strategies that ensure efficient engraftment through the timely integration of vascular networks. We recently developed a complex organoid engineering method by “self-condensation” culture based on mesenchymal cell-dependent contraction, thereby enabling dissociated heterotypic lineages including endothelial cells to self-organize in a spatiotemporal manner. Here, we report the successful adaptation of this method for generating complex tissues from diverse tissue fragments derived from various organs, including pancreatic islets. The self-condensation of human and mouse islets with endothelial cells not only promoted functionalization in culture but also massively improved post-transplant engraftment. Therapeutically, fulminant diabetic mice were more efficiently treated by a vascularized islet transplant compared with the conventional approach. Given the general limitations of post-transplant vascularization associated with 3D tissue-based therapy, our approach offers a promising means of enhancing efficacy in the context of therapeutic tissue transplantation. : Takahashi et al. report on generating vascularized islet tissue from humans and mice. After transplantation, vascularized islets significantly improve survival of diabetic mice, demonstrating the quick normalization of blood glucose compared with conventional islet transplantation. Keywords: tissue engineering, tissue-based therapy, vascularization, islet transplantation, organoid

  13. A rapid radioimmunoassay for insulin suitable for testing pancreatic tissue prior to transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besch, W.; Kohnert, K.-D.; Hahn, H.-J.; Ziegler, M.; Lorenz, D.

    1984-01-01

    One way of diabetes mellitus treatment is the transplantation of insulin-producing tissue. As islet or pancreas transplantation has made progress, testing of the tissue for its vitality, insulin content and insulin secretory response prior to transplantation became necessary. Apart from problems of rejection of allografted tissue, improvement of the patients metabolic control partly depends on the insulin content of the tissue transplanted. It was the aim of the present work to establish a radioimmunoassay which ensures rapid determination of immunoreactive insulin concentrations (IRI) either intracellularly-stored or released upon stimulation of human pancreas or islet with glucose, and to demonstrate the useful application of this assay for the assessment of transplantable tissue. (Auth.)

  14. Current Status and Future Development of Cell Transplantation Therapy for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Toshiyuki; Washio, Kaoru; Iwata, Takanori; Okano, Teruo; Ishikawa, Isao

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that stem cell transplantation can regenerate periodontal tissue, and several clinical trials involving transplantation of stem cells into human patients have already begun or are in preparation. However, stem cell transplantation therapy is a new technology, and the events following transplantation are poorly understood. Several studies have reported side effects and potential risks associated with stem cell transplantation therapy. To protect patients from such risks, governments have placed regulations on stem cell transplantation therapies. It is important for the clinicians to understand the relevant risks and governmental regulations. This paper describes the ongoing clinical studies, basic research, risks, and governmental controls related to stem cell transplantation therapy. Then, one clinical study is introduced as an example of a government-approved periodontal cell transplantation therapy. PMID:22315604

  15. Current Status and Future Development of Cell Transplantation Therapy for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Yoshida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that stem cell transplantation can regenerate periodontal tissue, and several clinical trials involving transplantation of stem cells into human patients have already begun or are in preparation. However, stem cell transplantation therapy is a new technology, and the events following transplantation are poorly understood. Several studies have reported side effects and potential risks associated with stem cell transplantation therapy. To protect patients from such risks, governments have placed regulations on stem cell transplantation therapies. It is important for the clinicians to understand the relevant risks and governmental regulations. This paper describes the ongoing clinical studies, basic research, risks, and governmental controls related to stem cell transplantation therapy. Then, one clinical study is introduced as an example of a government-approved periodontal cell transplantation therapy.

  16. Results from the organ and tissue transplant program in Nuevo Leon, Mexico, 1996 to 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal, H; Cabriales, H

    2003-12-01

    Before 1996, solid organs from cadaveric donors (CD) did not account for more than 2% of all transplants. The need for more transplants led the state to undergo several legislative, societal, organizational, and infrastructure changes. A descriptive analysis of the evolution of the transplant program in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico, from 1996 to 2001. Trimester reports have been routinely performed since 1996 from the 14 institutions that are licensed to perform organ and tissue transplants in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. All reports were concentrated and a descriptive analysis is presented herein. From 1996 until 2001, a total of 1457 organ and tissue (OT) transplants have been performed. At the end of this period, there was a 214% increase in the total number of transplants. By 2001, 73% of the program's total of 1457 OT transplants came from cadaveric donors. The state transplant program of Nuevo León has experienced a dramatic growth since 1996. The percent of organs transplanted from cadaveric donors is one of the highest in Mexico. There is still much work to be done at the state and national levels; better epidemiological studies and dialysis registries are needed as well as investment in transplant research.

  17. Differential expression of proteoglycans in tissue remodeling and lymphangiogenesis after experimental renal transplantation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Rienstra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic transplant dysfunction explains the majority of late renal allograft loss and is accompanied by extensive tissue remodeling leading to transplant vasculopathy, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Matrix proteoglycans mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and play key roles in tissue remodeling. The aim of this study was to characterize differential heparan sulfate proteoglycan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expression in transplant vasculopathy, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis in renal allografts with chronic transplant dysfunction. METHODS: Renal allografts were transplanted in the Dark Agouti-to-Wistar Furth rat strain combination. Dark Agouti-to-Dark Agouti isografts and non-transplanted Dark Agouti kidneys served as controls. Allograft and isograft recipients were sacrificed 66 and 81 days (mean after transplantation, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan (collXVIII, perlecan and agrin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (versican expression, as well as CD31 and LYVE-1 (vascular and lymphatic endothelium, respectively expression were (semi- quantitatively analyzed using immunofluorescence. FINDINGS: Arteries with transplant vasculopathy and sclerotic glomeruli in allografts displayed pronounced neo-expression of collXVIII and perlecan. In contrast, in interstitial fibrosis expression of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan versican dominated. In the cortical tubular basement membranes in both iso- and allografts, induction of collXVIII was detected. Allografts presented extensive lymphangiogenesis (p<0.01 compared to isografts and non-transplanted controls, which was associated with induced perlecan expression underneath the lymphatic endothelium (p<0.05 and p<0.01 compared to isografts and non-transplanted controls, respectively. Both the magnitude of lymphangiogenesis and perlecan expression correlated with severity of interstitial fibrosis and impaired graft function

  18. Discarded human fetal tissue and cell cultures for transplantation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, R.J.; Phillips, T.; Thompson, A.; Vilner, L.; Cleland, M.; Tchaw-ren Chen; Zabrenetzky, V.

    1999-01-01

    A feasibility study has been performed to explore the utility of various tissues from discarded human abortuses for transplantation and related research. Specifically, aborted fetuses plus parental blood samples and all relevant clinical data were obtained through a local hospital complex. Whenever possible, pancreas, skin and skeletal muscle, heart, liver, kidney, cartilage and lung tissues were removed, dissociated and subfractionated for cryopreservation, characterization and cultivation trials in vitro. Existing protocols for these manipulations were compared and improved upon as required. Clonal culture, cell aggregate maintenance techniques and use of feeder cell populations have been utilized where appropriate to develop quantitative comparative data. Histological and biochemical assays were applied both to evaluate separation/cultivation methods and to identify optimal culture conditions for maintaining functional cells. Immunochemical and molecular biological procedures were applied to study expression of Major Histocompatibility Vomplex (MHC) class 1 and 11 molecules on cell lines derived. Tissue and cell culture populations were examined for infections with bacteria, ftingi, mycoplasma, HIV, CMV, hepatitis B and other viruses. Only 1% of the abortuses tested were virally infected. Cytogenetic analyses confin-ned the normal diploid status in the vast majority (>98%) of lines tested. A total of over 250 abortuses have been obtained and processed. Only 25 were found to be contaminated with bacteria or fungi and unsuitable for further cultivation trials. A total of over 200 cell populations were isolated, characterized and cryopreserved for further study. Included were kidney, lung, liver and epidermal epithelia: cartilage-derived cells from the spine and epiphyses plus myogenic myoblasts. Selected lines have been immortalized using HPV I 6E6/E7 sequences. Epithelia from the liver and pancreas and cardiac myocytes were the most problematic in that initial

  19. Legal termination of a pregnancy resulting from transplanted cryopreserved ovarian tissue due to cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Emil Hagen; Offersen, Birgitte Vrou; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2013-01-01

    To report on a woman who conceived naturally and had a normal intrauterine pregnancy following transplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue but decided to have an early abortion due to recurrence of breast cancer.......To report on a woman who conceived naturally and had a normal intrauterine pregnancy following transplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue but decided to have an early abortion due to recurrence of breast cancer....

  20. Vascularized Composite Allograft Donation and Transplantation: A Survey of Public Attitudes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, J R; Tomich, D; Fleishman, A; Glazier, A K

    2017-10-01

    Vascularized composite allograft (VCA) transplantation has emerged as a groundbreaking surgical intervention to return identity and function following traumatic injury, congenital deformity, or disfigurement. While public attitudes toward traditional organ/tissue donation are favorable, little is known about attitudes toward VCA donation and transplantation. A survey was conducted of 1485 U.S. residents in August 2016 to assess VCA donation attitudes. Participants also completed the Revised Health Care System Distrust Scale. Most respondents were willing to donate hands/forearms (67.4%) and legs (66.8%), and almost half (48.0%) were willing to donate the face. Three-quarters (74.4%) of women were willing to donate the uterus; 54.4% of men were willing to donate the penis. VCA donation willingness was more likely among whites and Hispanics (p donation expressed concerns about psychological discomfort, mutilation, identity loss, and the reaction of others to seeing familiar body parts on a stranger. Attitudes toward VCA donation are favorable overall, despite limited exposure to VCA messaging and confusion about how VCA donation occurs. These findings may help guide the development and implementation of VCA public education campaigns. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  1. Reversal of Type 1 Diabetes in Mice by Brown Adipose Tissue Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Subhadra C.; Piston, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Current therapies for type 1 diabetes (T1D) involve insulin replacement or transplantation of insulin-secreting tissue, both of which suffer from numerous limitations and complications. Here, we show that subcutaneous transplants of embryonic brown adipose tissue (BAT) can correct T1D in streptozotocin-treated mice (both immune competent and immune deficient) with severely impaired glucose tolerance and significant loss of adipose tissue. BAT transplants result in euglycemia, normalized glucose tolerance, reduced tissue inflammation, and reversal of clinical diabetes markers such as polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia. These effects are independent of insulin but correlate with recovery of the animals’ white adipose tissue. BAT transplants lead to significant increases in adiponectin and leptin, but with levels that are static and not responsive to glucose. Pharmacological blockade of the insulin receptor in BAT transplant mice leads to impaired glucose tolerance, similar to what is seen in nondiabetic animals, indicating that insulin receptor activity plays a role in the reversal of diabetes. One possible candidate for activating the insulin receptor is IGF-1, whose levels are also significantly elevated in BAT transplant mice. Thus, we propose that the combined action of multiple adipokines establishes a new equilibrium in the animal that allows for chronic glycemic control without insulin. PMID:22315305

  2. Ex Vivo Model of Human Penile Transplantation and Rejection: Implications for Erectile Tissue Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopko, Nikolai A; Matsui, Hotaka; Lough, Denver M; Miller, Devin; Harris, Kelly; Kates, Max; Liu, Xiaopu; Billups, Kevin; Redett, Richard; Burnett, Arthur L; Brandacher, Gerald; Bivalacqua, Trinity J

    2017-04-01

    Penile transplantation is a potential treatment option for severe penile tissue loss. Models of human penile rejection are lacking. Evaluate effects of rejection and immunosuppression on cavernous tissue using a novel ex vivo mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) model. Cavernous tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 10 patients undergoing penile prosthesis operations and PBMCs from a healthy volunteer were obtained. Ex vivo MLRs were prepared by culturing cavernous tissue for 48h in media alone, in media with autologous PBMCs, or in media with allogenic PBMCs to simulate control, autotransplant, and allogenic transplant conditions with or without 1μM cyclosporine A (CsA) or 20nM tacrolimus (FK506) treatment. Rejection was characterized by PBMC flow cytometry and gene expression transplant array. Cavernous tissues were evaluated by histomorphology and myography to assess contraction and relaxation. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and unpaired Student t test. Flow cytometry and tissue array demonstrated allogenic PBMC activation consistent with rejection. Rejection impaired cavernous tissue physiology and was associated with cellular infiltration and apoptosis. CsA prevented rejection but did not improve tissue relaxation. CsA treatment impaired relaxation in tissues cultured without PBMCs compared with media and FK506. Study limitations included the use of penile tissue with erectile dysfunction and lack of cross-matching data. This model could be used to investigate the effects of penile rejection and immunosuppression. Additional studies are needed to optimize immunosuppression to prevent rejection and maximize corporal tissue physiology. This report describes a novel ex vivo model of human penile transplantation rejection. Tissue rejection impaired erectile tissue physiology. This report suggests that cyclosporin A might hinder corporal physiology and that other immunosuppressant agents, such as FK506, might be better suited

  3. Risk of transferring malignant cells with transplanted frozen-thawed ovarian tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Luyckx, Valérie; Donnez, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation is a real option to preserve and restore fertility in young cancer patients. However, there is a concern regarding the possible presence of malignant cells in the ovarian tissue, which could lead to recurrence of the primary disease after reimpl...

  4. Experience of nurses in the process of donation of organs and tissues for transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Edvaldo Leal; dos Santos, Marcelo José; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Massarollo, Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

    2014-01-01

    to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation. this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo. the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation process, and interventions performed. The meaning of the action to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation was described by the categories: to change paradigms, to humanize the donation process, to expand the donation, and to save lives. knowledge of the experience of the nurses in this process is important for healthcare professionals who work in different realities, indicating strategies to optimize the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation.

  5. Experience of nurses in the process of donation of organs and tissues for transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Leal de Moraes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation.METHOD: this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo.RESULTS: the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation process, and interventions performed. The meaning of the action to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation was described by the categories: to change paradigms, to humanize the donation process, to expand the donation, and to save lives.FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: knowledge of the experience of the nurses in this process is important for healthcare professionals who work in different realities, indicating strategies to optimize the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation.

  6. Transplantation of embryonic porcine neocortical tissue into newborn rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Anthony J; Meyer, Morten; Møller Dall, Annette

    2003-01-01

    cavities made in newborn rats. Sacrifice at 3-12.5 weeks posttransplantation revealed healthy looking grafts in several animals. Apparent graft rejection evidenced by areas of necrosis and OX1 reactivity was observed in some of the older transplants. Treatment of nursing mothers or of postweaning newborns...... with cyclosporin A did not appear to promote graft survival. Some transplants grew to extremely large proportions and were characterized by bands of cells and bundles of axons as observed using immunohistochemical staining for pig neurofilament. Neurofilament-positive axons projected from several of the grafts...

  7. Current status and future prospects for cultured limbal tissue transplants in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Damien G; Apel, Andrew J; Di Girolamo, Nick; Watson, Stephanie; Brown, Karl; Daniell, Mark D; McGhee, J Jane; McGhee, Charles N J

    2013-04-01

    Cultured limbal tissue transplants have become widely used over the last decade as a treatment for limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). While the number of patients afflicted with LSCD in Australia and New Zealand is considered to be relatively low, the impact of this disease on quality of life is so severe that the potential efficacy of cultured transplants has necessitated investigation. We presently review the basic biology and experimental strategies associated with the use of cultured limbal tissue transplants in Australia and New Zealand. In doing so, we aim to encourage informed discussion on the issues required to advance the use of cultured limbal transplants in Australia and New Zealand. Moreover, we propose that a collaborative network could be established to maintain access to the technology in conjunction with a number of other existing and emerging treatments for eye diseases. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  8. The significance of monitoring sex hormones levels after ovarian tissue auto-transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiuwei; Xu Peizhen; Yu Bin; Zhou Hong

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the significance of monitoring serum sex hormones levels after ovarian tissue auto-transplantation. Methods: Twenty-five patients with stage IV recurrent endometriosis after one or two times of conservative surgeries underwent radical surgery. Their ovarian tissue fragments were transplanted to greater omentum. Serum follicle-stimulation hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E 2 ) levels were measured monthly since fourth month post-operatively. After E 2 was increased, based body temperature was measured and vaginal hormone cytology was examined weekly for maturation index (MI) to assess the ovulatory phase and luteal phase in those with viable ovarian tissues. Serum levels of FSH, LH and E 2 in ovulatory phase and luteal phase were determined 20 women with viable ovarian tissues for three cycles as well as in 20 normal sexually mature women and 20 operative menopausal women. Results: There were 12 cases who had increasing of E 2 at four months post operatively and 8 cases more at six months. The other 5 cases with low serum E 2 levels and high FSH and LH levels at 12 months were designated as failures. The survival rate of transplanted ovarian tissue was 80.0%. There were no significant differences of the serum FSH, LH and E 2 levels in ovulatory phase and luteal phase between women with viable grafted ovarian tissues and normal sexually mature women. Conclusion: Monitoring of sex hormones is a good means to assess the viability of the transplanted ovarian tissue fragments

  9. SUITABILITY OF CORNEAL TISSUE FOR TRANSPLANTATION PROCURED FROM HANGING CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Gyanchand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Requirement of donor cornea is essential to target the corneal blind. The best method to procure such corneas is from any major hospitals, which has a mortuary facility. The eye donation with hanging as the cause of death is very common in a mortuary setup. Some factors that are concerning regarding corneas procured from death due to hanging is the prolonged exposure of the cornea at the time of death, the exact time of death is not known, most of the cadavers are refrigerated for investigations as these arrive at the mortuary usually at night. Due to these reasons, the corneal surgeons are hesitant to use corneas procured from death due to hanging for corneal transplantation. Analysing these corneas would contribute to a great extent to the donor cornea pool in providing sight to the corneal blind, especially as majority are young individuals who commit suicide by hanging. In this study, the donor corneas were analysed with regards to corneal epithelial defect, endothelial cell morphology and utilisation of these corneas for transplantation. The aim of the HCRP study is to analyse the effect of death due to hanging on donor cornea. 1. Corneal epithelial status. 2. Corneal endothelial cell morphology. 3. Utilisation of corneas for transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Donor corneas from 22 donors who died due to hanging were procured from hospital mortuary. All the 44 corneas were transplanted. Various parameters like demography, death to enucleation time, cadaver preservation in cold storage, endothelial cell density and utilisation of cornea for transplantation were noted. Design- Retrospective study. Statistical Analysis- Descriptive statistics, Pearson and Spearman correlation and Chi-square test were used to test the hypotheses. RESULTS Out of the 44 corneas analysed, 75% of the donors were refrigerated as a part of medicolegal investigations protocol. The average DTP time was 12 hours in refrigerated group and 5 hours in non

  10. Nanotechnology as an adjunct tool for transplanting engineered cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlongan, Cesar V; Masuda, Tadashi; Walker, Tiffany A; Maki, Mina; Hara, Koichi; Yasuhara, Takao; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Emerich, Dwaine F

    2007-11-01

    Laboratory and clinical studies have provided evidence of feasibility, safety and efficacy of cell transplantation to treat a wide variety of diseases characterized by tissue and cell dysfunction ranging from diabetes to spinal cord injury. However, major hurdles remain and limit pursuing large clinical trials, including the availability of a universal cell source that can be differentiated into specific cellular phenotypes, methods to protect the transplanted allogeneic or xenogeneic cells from rejection by the host immune system, techniques to enhance cellular integration of the transplant within the host tissue, strategies for in vivo detection and monitoring of the cellular implants, and new techniques to deliver genes to cells without eliciting a host immune response. Finding ways to circumvent these obstacles will benefit considerably from being able to understand, visualize, and control cellular interactions at a sub-micron level. Cutting-edge discoveries in the multidisciplinary field of nanotechnology have provided us a platform to manipulate materials, tissues, cells, and DNA at the level of and within the individual cell. Clearly, the scientific innovations achieved with nanotechnology are a welcome strategy for enhancing the generally encouraging results already achieved in cell transplantation. This review article discusses recent progress in the field of nanotechnology as a tool for tissue engineering, gene therapy, cell immunoisolation, and cell imaging, highlighting its direct applications in cell transplantation therapy.

  11. The Role of Tissue-Resident Donor T Cells in Rejection of Clinical Face Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    cells contribute to VCA rejection, and that pathogenic T cells (both donor and recipient-derived) are detectable in blood during rejection to serve as...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0760 TITLE: The role of tissue-resident donor T cells in rejection of clinical face transplants PRINCIPAL...AND SUBTITLE The role of tissue-resident donor T cells in rejection of clinical face transplants 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1

  12. Evidence of the Association Between Psychology and Tissue and Organ Transplantation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J D A; Ariente, L C; Roza, B A; Mucci, S

    2016-09-01

    The addition of psychologists to organ transplant teams is still new in Brazil. In seeking the efficient performance of this professional, the knowledge of the scientific production and the development of research in the area is fundamental. In this sense, this study aims to survey the Brazilian scientific research that has investigated the psychologic aspects involved in tissue and organ transplantation. A literature narrative review was performed with the use of the "Transplante AND Psicologia" descriptors in the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde and the CAPES Journal Portal. Fifty-three articles were found, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria: publications dating from 2000 to 2014 and the main topic of interest of the studies being quality of life, followed by organ donation. The instruments used most frequently were interviews developed by the researchers and the SF-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire. Recent Brazilian studies on the association between psychology and transplantation are still scarce, possibly because of the recent addition of psychologists to transplantation teams. Therefore, it is suggested that more scientific research is made in the area and that the objects of study are more varied, to ensure adequacy of the psychologist to meet the specific demands of organ and tissue transplantation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Liver Transplantation in the Mouse: Insights Into Liver Immunobiology, Tissue Injury and Allograft Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Shinichiro; Yoshida, Osamu; Ono, Yoshihiro; Geller, David A.; Thomson, Angus W.

    2016-01-01

    The surgically-demanding mouse orthotopic liver transplant model was first described in 1991. It has proved a powerful research tool for investigation of liver biology, tissue injury, the regulation of alloimmunity and tolerance induction and the pathogenesis of specific liver diseases. Liver transplantation in mice has unique advantages over transplantation of the liver in larger species, such as the rat or pig, since the mouse genome is well-characterized and there is much greater availability of both genetically-modified animals and research reagents. Liver transplant experiments using various transgenic or gene knockout mice has provided valuable mechanistic insights into the immuno- and pathobiology of the liver and the regulation of graft rejection and tolerance over the past 25 years. The molecular pathways identified in regulation of tissue injury and promotion of liver transplant tolerance provide new potential targets for therapeutic intervention to control adverse inflammatory responses/ immune-mediated events in the hepatic environment and systemically. Conclusion: Orthotopic liver transplantation in the mouse is a valuable model for gaining improved insights into liver biology, immunopathology and allograft tolerance that may result in therapeutic innovation in liver and other diseases. PMID:26709949

  14. Mandibular reconstruction with composite microvascular tissue transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.J. III; Wooden, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Microvascular free tissue transfer has provided a variety of methods of restoring vascularized bone and soft tissue to difficult defects created by tumor resection and trauma. Over 7 years, 26 patients have undergone 28 free flaps for mandibular reconstruction, 15 for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth or tongue, 7 for recurrent tumor, and 6 for other reasons [lymphangioma (1), infection (1), gunshot wound (1), and osteoradionecrosis (3)]. Primary reconstruction was performed in 19 cases and secondary in 9. All repairs were composite flaps including 12 scapula, 5 radial forearm, 3 fibula, 2 serratus, and 6 deep circumflex iliac artery. Mandibular defects included the symphysis alone (7), symphysis and body (5), symphysis-body-ramus condyle (2), body or ramus (13), and bilateral body (1). Fourteen patients had received prior radiotherapy to adjuvant or curative doses. Eight received postoperative radiotherapy. All patients had initially successful vascularized reconstruction by clinical examination (28) and positive radionuclide scan (22 of 22). Bony stability was achieved in 25 of 26 patients and oral continence in 24 of 26. One complete flap loss occurred at 14 days. Complications of some degree developed in 22 patients including partial skin necrosis (3), orocutaneous fistula (3), plate exposure (1), donor site infection (3), fracture of reconstruction (1), and fracture of the radius (1). Microvascular transfer of bone and soft tissue allows a reliable reconstruction--despite previous radiotherapy, infection, foreign body, or surgery--in almost every situation in which mandible and soft tissue are absent. Bony union, a healed wound, and reasonable function and appearance are likely despite early fistula, skin loss, or metal plate or bone exposure

  15. Mandibular reconstruction with composite microvascular tissue transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, J.J. III; Wooden, W.A. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Microvascular free tissue transfer has provided a variety of methods of restoring vascularized bone and soft tissue to difficult defects created by tumor resection and trauma. Over 7 years, 26 patients have undergone 28 free flaps for mandibular reconstruction, 15 for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth or tongue, 7 for recurrent tumor, and 6 for other reasons (lymphangioma (1), infection (1), gunshot wound (1), and osteoradionecrosis (3)). Primary reconstruction was performed in 19 cases and secondary in 9. All repairs were composite flaps including 12 scapula, 5 radial forearm, 3 fibula, 2 serratus, and 6 deep circumflex iliac artery. Mandibular defects included the symphysis alone (7), symphysis and body (5), symphysis-body-ramus condyle (2), body or ramus (13), and bilateral body (1). Fourteen patients had received prior radiotherapy to adjuvant or curative doses. Eight received postoperative radiotherapy. All patients had initially successful vascularized reconstruction by clinical examination (28) and positive radionuclide scan (22 of 22). Bony stability was achieved in 25 of 26 patients and oral continence in 24 of 26. One complete flap loss occurred at 14 days. Complications of some degree developed in 22 patients including partial skin necrosis (3), orocutaneous fistula (3), plate exposure (1), donor site infection (3), fracture of reconstruction (1), and fracture of the radius (1). Microvascular transfer of bone and soft tissue allows a reliable reconstruction--despite previous radiotherapy, infection, foreign body, or surgery--in almost every situation in which mandible and soft tissue are absent. Bony union, a healed wound, and reasonable function and appearance are likely despite early fistula, skin loss, or metal plate or bone exposure.

  16. The role of allofibroblasts transplantation in cartilaginous tissue regeneration process

    OpenAIRE

    Khadjibaev Аbdukhakim Muminovich; Tilyakov Akbar Buriyevich; Magrupov Bokhodir Asadullaevich; Urazmetova Maisa Dmitriyevna; Ubaydullaev Bobur Sabirovich

    2017-01-01

    Aim of investigation. Ground of embryonal allofibroblasts in the process of cartilaginous tissue regeneration. Material and methods. Investigation is based on the study the results of stimulation cartilaginous tissue regeneration process in the conditions of embryonal allofibroblasts application in 24 experimental sexually mature rabbits in which the model of symphysis pubis rupture with its following recovery have been used. Pieces of cartilaginous tissue have been fixed in 10% neutral forma...

  17. Quality of Newly Formed Cartilaginous Tissue in Defects of Articular Surface after Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Composite Scaffold Based on Collagen I with Chitosan Micro- and Nanofibres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečas, A.; Plánka, L.; Srnec, R.; Crha, M.; Hlučilová, Jana; Klíma, Jiří; Starý, L.; Křen, L.; Amler, Evžen; Vojtová, L.; Jančář, J.; Gál, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2010), s. 605-614 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06130 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Cartilaginous Tissue * Defects of Articular Surface * Mesenchymal Stem Cells Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  18. The first woman to give birth to two children following transplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Bergholdt, Stinne; Jørgensen, Jan Stener

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide eight children have been born as a result of transplanting frozen/thawed ovarian tissue. Two of these children were born in Denmark following transport of the ovarian tissue for a period of 5 h prior to cryopreservation. One of these women, who was originally transplanted with six pieces...

  19. Pre-transplantation specification of stem cells to cardiac lineage for regeneration of cardiac tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Maritza; Finan, Amanda; Penn, Marc

    2009-03-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a lead cause of mortality in the Western world. Treatment of acute MI is focused on restoration of antegrade flow which inhibits further tissue loss, but does not restore function to damaged tissue. Chronic therapy for injured myocardial tissue involves medical therapy that attempts to minimize pathologic remodeling of the heart. End stage therapy for chronic heart failure (CHF) involves inotropic therapy to increase surviving cardiac myocyte function or mechanical augmentation of cardiac performance. Not until the point of heart transplantation, a limited resource at best, does therapy focus on the fundamental problem of needing to replace injured tissue with new contractile tissue. In this setting, the potential for stem cell therapy has garnered significant interest for its potential to regenerate or create new contractile cardiac tissue. While to date adult stem cell therapy in clinical trials has suggested potential benefit, there is waning belief that the approaches used to date lead to regeneration of cardiac tissue. As the literature has better defined the pathways involved in cardiac differentiation, preclinical studies have suggested that stem cell pretreatment to direct stem cell differentiation prior to stem cell transplantation may be a more efficacious strategy for inducing cardiac regeneration. Here we review the available literature on pre-transplantation conditioning of stem cells in an attempt to better understand stem cell behavior and their readiness in cell-based therapy for myocardial regeneration.

  20. Experimental model for composite tissue allotransplantations Modelo experimental para alotransplantes de tecido composto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Masako Ferreira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In homologous transplantation or allotranplantation of limbs, the great tissue diversity causes variability in the rejection process and, consequently, its immunology is very complex. Thus, limb transplantation is the most used prototype of compound tissue transplantation among the protocols of experimental studies. Composite tissue allotransplantation represents the experimental model to study the homologous transplantation (from an individual to another of vascularized, innervated musclecutaneous units, joints, bone or even the whole member. Groups of rats were undergone allogeneic hindlimb transplantation. The receptors were randomized and control groups were established as: Control Group A: Autograft controls (F344 rats had its limbs reimplanted and no immunosuppressive therapy. Control Group B: Allograft controls (BN rats limbs were transplanted to F344. Composite tissue homotransplantation allows the inclusion of innervated muscle-cutaneous units, joint and bone or even the hole limb, is considerably applicable in cases of congenital absence or deformity, trauma or greater resection due to malignant tumor. For many complex deformities, these transplantations would allow a more precise reconstruction than the current reconstruction techniques.Nos transplantes alógenos de membro a grande variabilidade de tecidos (pele, subcutâneo, músculo, osso, medula óssea, gânglios linfáticos, cartilagem, nervo, vasos, tendão, articulação leva a grande variação dentro do processo de rejeição e consequentemente a sua imunologia é bastante complexa. Os transplantes alógenos de tecido composto representam o modelo experimental para se estudar o transplante homólogo (de um indivíduo para outro de unidades músculo cutâneas inervadas, vascularizadas, articulações, osso ou mesmo de todo o membro. Os receptores foram randomizados e os grupos controle foram estabelecidos como: grupo controle A: transplante autógeno de membro em que ratos F344

  1. West Nile Virus RNA in Tissues from Donor Associated with Transmission to Organ Transplant Recipients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-11-19

    William Hale reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ dispatch, West Nile Virus RNA in Tissues from Donor Associated with Transmission to Organ Transplant Recipients.  Created: 11/19/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2013.

  2. Experience of nurses in the process of donation of organs and tissues for transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes,Edvaldo Leal de; Santos,Marcelo José dos; Merighi,Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Massarollo,Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation.METHOD: this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo.RESULTS: the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation proce...

  3. Ionization radiation in sterilization of the tissue transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz, I.; Kaminski, A.

    2007-01-01

    Established in 1963, the Central Tissue Bank in Warsaw is a multi-tissue bank located in the Department of Transplantology of the Medical University in Warsaw. Allografts such as bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, sclera, skin and amnion are preserved mainly by deep-freezing and/or lyophilization and subsequently radiation-sterilized with a dose of 35 kGy with gamma rays in a 60 Co source (at the Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry in Lodz) or with electron beam 10 MeV accelerator (at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw). This is the oldest working tissue bank in the world, which for almost 40 years now has routinely used ionizing radiation for sterilization of tissue allografts

  4. Tissue-specific composite cell aggregates drive periodontium tissue regeneration by reconstructing a regenerative microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Wenjia; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Xicong; Duan, Yan; Li, Dehua; Jin, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Periodontitis is the most common cause of periodontium destruction. Regeneration of damaged tissue is the expected treatment goal. However, the regeneration of a functional periodontal ligament (PDL) insertion remains a difficulty, due to complicated factors. Recently, periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) have been shown to participate in PDL regeneration, both pathologically and physiologically. Besides, interactions affect the biofunctions of different derived cells during the regenerative process. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to discuss the different derived composite cell aggregate (CA) systems of PDLSCs and BMMSCs (iliac-derived or jaw-derived) for periodontium regeneration under regenerative microenvironment reconstruction. Our results showed although all three mono-MSC CAs were compacted and the cells arranged regularly in them, jaw-derived BMMSC (JBMMSC) CAs secreted more extracellular matrix than the others. Furthermore, PDLSC/JBMMSC compound CAs highly expressed ALP, Col-I, fibronectin, integrin-β1 and periostin, suggesting that their biofunction is more appropriate for periodontal structure regeneration. Inspiringly, PDLSC/JBMMSC compound CAs regenerated more functional PDL-like tissue insertions in both nude mice ectopic and minipig orthotopic transplantation. The results indicated that the different derived CAs of PDLSCs/JBMMSCs provided an appropriate regenerative microenvironment facilitating a more stable and regular regeneration of functional periodontium tissue. This method may provide a possible strategy to solve periodontium defects in periodontitis and powerful experimental evidence for clinical applications in the future. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effect of transplantation of muscle tissue in rats from the same litter on total number of flavins and FAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kobylnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Riboflavin is a member of redox enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation and energy generation. Important role of this vitamin is in reproductive function. Exchange of transformation of riboflavin in animal tissues and cells of microorganisms include reactions that lead to synthesis and subsequent collapse of FMN and FAD. It is involved in enhancing antitumor activity of many anticancer drugs, as well as activation of the immune system to kill tumor cells. Issues of transport of riboflavin and its derivatives in animals have been studied enough. Investigations of changes of the balance of riboflavin and its metabolites in muscular tissues before transplantation in rats from one litter and at operation without replanting were conducted, based on the Udenfriend method of flavin determination. Transplantation in the experiment was carried out on white non-linear male rats weighing 180–300 g. Animals were taken out of the experiment by passing electric current through the medulla. Belly muscular tissue was taken from donor rats of the same litter, and that tissue was sewn to homological muscular tissue of the recipient. The same procedure was carried out with femoral muscular tissue. In the course of operation without replanting the same manipulations have been made except for transplantation stage (for determination of the effect of surgical intervention. Tissue not subject to any surgical intervention served as a control. Parameters of the study were measured on the first, third and seventh days after transplantation. Transplantation of muscular tissue caused no changes in total flavin amount. Content of RF + FMN after transplantation of muscular tissue in rats of the same litter decreased in femoral muscular tissue of the recipient. Transplantation of muscular tissues in rats from the same litter lead to increase in FAD amount in femoral muscular tissue of the donor and recipient on the third day of the experiment. Transplantation of femoral

  6. Long-term duration of function of ovarian tissue transplants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus; Silber, Sherman J; Berghold, Stinne Holm

    2012-01-01

    These three case reports describe the long-term duration of function of ovarian cortical tissue grafts among patients in a university fertility preservation programme in Europe and in a private practice programme in the USA. One woman underwent sterilizing cancer treatment and had frozen ovarian...... or to alleviate its symptoms. These three case reports describe the long-term duration of function of ovarian cortical tissue grafts among patients in a university fertility preservation programme in Europe and in a private practice programme in the USA. One woman underwent sterilizing cancer treatment and had...

  7. Reconstruction with vascularized composite tissue in patients with excessive injury following surgery and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafin, D.; DeLand, M.; Lesesne, C.B.; Smith, P.J.; Noell, K.T.; Georgiade, N.

    1982-01-01

    The biological effects of a single high dose of radiation are examined. Both cellular injury and repair are reviewed during early, intermediate, and late phases. Anticipated composite tissue morbidity is detailed for therapeutic radiation doses administered to the head and neck, breast and thorax, and perineum. Patients who demonstrated excessive time-dose fractionation values were irradiated with lower x-ray energies. Those in whom there was an overlap of treatment fields presented a serious challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Judicious selection of well-vascularized composite tissue outside the portals of irradiation, preferably with a long vascular pedicle, facilitated reconstruction. When possible, both donor and recipient vasculature should be outside the irradiated area to ensure uninterrupted blood flow to the transferred or transplanted tissue

  8. The necessity of strengthening the cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations at national, regional, and international levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    The donation of tissues and organs increases significantly when tissue banks and organ transplant organizations work together in the procurement of organs and tissues at donor sources (hospitals, coroners system, organ procurement agencies, and funeral homes, among others). To achieve this important goal, national competent health authorities should considered the establishment of a mechanism that promote the widest possible cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations with hospitals, research medical institutions, universities, and other medical institutions and facilities. One of the issues that can facilitate this cooperation is the establishment of a coding and traceability system that could identify all tissues and organs used in transplant activities carried out in any country. The promotion of national, regional, and international cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations would enable the sharing of relevant information that could be important for medical practice and scientific studies carried out by many countries, particularly for those countries with a weak health care system.

  9. Concise Review: Bioprinting of Stem Cells for Transplantable Tissue Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leberfinger, Ashley N; Ravnic, Dino J; Dhawan, Aman; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2017-10-01

    Bioprinting is a quickly progressing technology, which holds the potential to generate replacement tissues and organs. Stem cells offer several advantages over differentiated cells for use as starting materials, including the potential for autologous tissue and differentiation into multiple cell lines. The three most commonly used stem cells are embryonic, induced pluripotent, and adult stem cells. Cells are combined with various natural and synthetic materials to form bioinks, which are used to fabricate scaffold-based or scaffold-free constructs. Computer aided design technology is combined with various bioprinting modalities including droplet-, extrusion-, or laser-based bioprinting to create tissue constructs. Each bioink and modality has its own advantages and disadvantages. Various materials and techniques are combined to maximize the benefits. Researchers have been successful in bioprinting cartilage, bone, cardiac, nervous, liver, and vascular tissues. However, a major limitation to clinical translation is building large-scale vascularized constructs. Many challenges must be overcome before this technology is used routinely in a clinical setting. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1940-1948. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  10. Salisphere derived c-Kit+ cell transplantation restores tissue homeostasis in irradiated salivary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanduri, Lalitha S.Y.; Lombaert, Isabelle M.A.; Zwaag, Marianne van der; Faber, Hette; Brunsting, Jeanette F.; Os, Ronald P. van; Coppes, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: During radiotherapy salivary glands of head and neck cancer patients are unavoidably co-irradiated, potentially resulting in life-long impairment. Recently we showed that transplantation of salisphere-derived c-Kit expressing cells can functionally regenerate irradiated salivary glands. This study aims to select a more potent subpopulation of c-Kit + cells, co-expressing stem cell markers and to investigate whether long-term tissue homeostasis is restored after stem cell transplantation. Methods and results: Salisphere derived c-Kit + cells that co-expressed CD24 and/or CD49f markers, were intra-glandularly injected into 15 Gy irradiated submandibular glands of mice. Particularly, c-Kit + /CD24 + /CD49f + cell transplanted mice improved saliva production (54.59 ± 11.1%) versus the irradiated control group (21.5 ± 8.7%). Increase in expression of cells with differentiated duct cell markers like, cytokeratins (CK8, 18, 7 and 14) indicated functional recovery of this compartment. Moreover, ductal stem cell marker expression like c-Kit, CD133, CD24 and CD49f reappeared after transplantation indicating long-term functional maintenance potential of the gland. Furthermore, a normalization of vascularization as indicated by CD31 expression and reduction of fibrosis was observed, indicative of normalization of the microenvironment. Conclusions: Our results show that stem cell transplantation not only rescues hypo-salivation, but also restores tissue homeostasis of the irradiated gland, necessary for long-term maintenance of adult tissue

  11. Family perspectives on organ and tissue donation for transplantation: a principlist analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Marcelo José; Feito, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    The family interview context is permeated by numerous ethical issues which may generate conflicts and impact on organ donation process. This study aims to analyze the family interview process with a focus on principlist bioethics. This exploratory, descriptive study uses a qualitative approach. The speeches were collected using the following prompt: "Talk about the family interview for the donation of organs and tissues for transplantation, from the preparation for the interview to the decision of the family to donate or not." For the treatment of qualitative data, we chose the method of content analysis and categorical thematic analysis. The study involved 18 nurses who worked in three municipal organ procurement organizations in São Paulo, Brazil, and who conducted family interviews for organ donation. Ethical considerations: The data were collected after approval of the study by the Research Ethics Committee of the School of Nursing of the University of São Paulo. The results were classified into four categories and three subcategories. The categories are the principles adopted by principlist bioethics. The principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice permeate the family interview and reveal their importance in the organs and tissues donation process for transplantation. The analysis of family interviews for the donation of organs and tissues for transplantation with a focus on principlist bioethics indicates that the process involves many ethical considerations. The elucidation of these aspects contributes to the discussion, training, and improvement of professionals, whether nurses or not, who work in organ procurement organizations and can improve the curriculum of existing training programs for transplant coordinators who pursue ethics in donation and transplantation as their foundation.

  12. Integrity of the oral tissues in patients with solid-organ transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Gonzalo; Bravo, Loreto; Cordero, Karina; Sepúlveda, Luis; Elgueta, Leticia; Díaz, Juan Carlos; Urzúa, Blanca; Morales, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the use of immunosuppressants in solid-organ transplant patients and oral tissue abnormalities has been recognized. The objective of this study was to determine the state of oral tissue integrity in renal, heart, and liver transplant patients who are on continuous medical and dental control. Forty patients of both sexes were clinically evaluated at the Clinical Hospital of the University of Chile to identify pathologies of oral mucosa, gingival enlargement (GE), decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index, and salivary flow. The average age of the transplant subjects was 49.4 years, and the age range was 19 to 69 years. Most subjects maintained a good level of oral hygiene, and the rate mean of DMFT was 14.7. The degree of involvement of the oral mucosa and GE was low (10%). Unlike other studies, the frequency of oral mucosal diseases and GE was low despite the fact that these patients were immunosuppressed. Care and continuous monitoring seem to be of vital importance in maintaining the oral health of transplant patients.

  13. Integrity of the Oral Tissues in Patients with Solid-Organ Transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Rojas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the use of immunosuppressants in solid-organ transplant patients and oral tissue abnormalities has been recognized. The objective of this study was to determine the state of oral tissue integrity in renal, heart, and liver transplant patients who are on continuous medical and dental control. Forty patients of both sexes were clinically evaluated at the Clinical Hospital of the University of Chile to identify pathologies of oral mucosa, gingival enlargement (GE, decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT index, and salivary flow. The average age of the transplant subjects was 49.4 years, and the age range was 19 to 69 years. Most subjects maintained a good level of oral hygiene, and the rate mean of DMFT was 14.7. The degree of involvement of the oral mucosa and GE was low (10%. Unlike other studies, the frequency of oral mucosal diseases and GE was low despite the fact that these patients were immunosuppressed. Care and continuous monitoring seem to be of vital importance in maintaining the oral health of transplant patients.

  14. Pattern of leukemia induction in BC3F1 mice transplanted with irradiated lymphohemopoietic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covelli, V.; Di Majo, V.; Bassani, B.; Metalli, P.; Silini, G.

    1982-01-01

    (C57BL/Cne X C3H/Cne)F 1 male mice spontaneously develop reticulum cell sarcoma (RCS) with an average final incidence of 56%; neither myeloid leukemia (ML) nor thymic lymphoma (TL) has been observed in intact animals. X rays (4Gy, 250 kV) induce a few cases of ML but no TL. In increasing the dose to 6 Gy, we observed a few cases of TL, no ML, and a drastic reduction (8%) of RCS. The same dose of 6 Gy fractionated into four weekly doses of 1.5 Gy induced 24% of TL. By transplanting cells into appropriately preirradiated (4 Gy) syngeneic recipients we found evidence that four weekly doses of 1.5 Gy to donor animals caused an excess of ML and drastic changes of both TL and RCS incidences and rates in recipients as a function of time postirradiation at which the lymphohemopoietic tissues are transplanted. Furthermore, the same transplanted animals showed an evident acceleration of time of appearance of RCS and an enhanced incidence of NL; the latter effect is significant 10 days after the last X-ray fraction, but not thereafter. These data are in line with the hypothesis that committed cells for these two types of systemic tumors may be present among the irradiated transplanted tissues

  15. Positioning Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation within the Spectrum of Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    infrared imaging of ICG dye to study blood perfusion and lymphatic drainage in our hand transplant patients. We are extending our studies of vessel...IRB as well as HRPO to perform intradermal injections of indocyanine green (ICG) and infrared camera imaging using the LUNA fluorescence angiography...animals prior to transplantation. As shown in figure 13, the bedding was removed from the cages and replaced with a soft rubber mat that the animals

  16. Should we clone human beings? Cloning as a source of tissue for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, J

    1999-01-01

    The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is less morally problematic than other embryo research. Indeed, it is not merely morally permissible but morally required that we employ cloning to produce embryos or fetuses for the sake of providing cells, tissues or even organs for therapy, followed by abortion of the embryo or fetus. PMID:10226910

  17. Composites structures for bone tissue reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, W.; Santos, João; Avérous, L.; Schlatter, G.; Bretas, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    The search for new biomaterials in the bone reconstitution field is growing continuously as humane life expectation and bone fractures increase. For this purpose, composite materials with biodegradable polymers and hydroxyapatite (HA) have been used. A composite material formed by a film, nanofibers and HA has been made. Both, the films and the non-woven mats of nanofibers were formed by nanocomposites made of butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and HA. The techniques used to produce the films and nanofibers were spin coating and electrospinning, respectively. The composite production and morphology were evaluated. The composite showed an adequate morphology and fibers size to be used as scaffold for cell growth

  18. Composites structures for bone tissue reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, W.; Santos, João.; Avérous, L.; Schlatter, G.; Bretas, Rosario.

    2015-05-01

    The search for new biomaterials in the bone reconstitution field is growing continuously as humane life expectation and bone fractures increase. For this purpose, composite materials with biodegradable polymers and hydroxyapatite (HA) have been used. A composite material formed by a film, nanofibers and HA has been made. Both, the films and the non-woven mats of nanofibers were formed by nanocomposites made of butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and HA. The techniques used to produce the films and nanofibers were spin coating and electrospinning, respectively. The composite production and morphology were evaluated. The composite showed an adequate morphology and fibers size to be used as scaffold for cell growth.

  19. Difference in volatile composition between the pericarp tissue and inner tissue of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous studies have reported the volatile profiles in the whole fruit or pericarp tissue of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit; however, information is limited on the volatile composition in the inner tissue and its contribution to tomato aroma. For this, the pericarps and inner tissues of “Money...

  20. Modular tissue engineering for the vascularization of subcutaneously transplanted pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Alexander E; Cober, Nicholas; Sefton, Michael V

    2017-08-29

    The transplantation of pancreatic islets, following the Edmonton Protocol, is a promising treatment for type I diabetics. However, the need for multiple donors to achieve insulin independence reflects the large loss of islets that occurs when islets are infused into the portal vein. Finding a less hostile transplantation site that is both minimally invasive and able to support a large transplant volume is necessary to advance this approach. Although the s.c. site satisfies both these criteria, the site is poorly vascularized, precluding its utility. To address this problem, we demonstrate that modular tissue engineering results in an s.c. vascularized bed that enables the transplantation of pancreatic islets. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic SCID/beige mice, the injection of 750 rat islet equivalents embedded in endothelialized collagen modules was sufficient to restore and maintain normoglycemia for 21 days; the same number of free islets was unable to affect glucose levels. Furthermore, using CLARITY, we showed that embedded islets became revascularized and integrated with the host's vasculature, a feature not seen in other s.c. Collagen-embedded islets drove a small (albeit not significant) shift toward a proangiogenic CD206 + MHCII - (M2-like) macrophage response, which was a feature of module-associated vascularization. While these results open the potential for using s.c. islet delivery as a treatment option for type I diabetes, the more immediate benefit may be for the exploration of revascularized islet biology.

  1. Erythropoietin improves the survival of fat tissue after its transplantation in nude mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher Hamed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autologous transplanted fat has a high resorption rate, providing a clinical challenge for the means to reduce it. Erythropoietin (EPO has non-hematopoietic targets, and we hypothesized that EPO may improve long-term fat graft survival because it has both pro-angiogenic and anti-apoptotic properties. We aimed to determine the effect of EPO on the survival of human fat tissue after its transplantation in nude mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human fat tissue was injected subcutaneously into immunologically-compromised nude mice, and the grafts were then treated with either 20 IU or 100 IU EPO. At the end of the 15-week study period, the extent of angiogenesis, apoptosis, and histology were assessed in the fat grafts. The results were compared to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-treated and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS-treated fat grafts. The weight and volume of the EPO-treated grafts were higher than those of the PBS-treated grafts, whose weights and volumes were not different from those of the VEGF-treated grafts. EPO treatment also increased the expression of angiogenic factors and microvascular density, and reduced inflammation and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in the fat grafts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that stimulation of angiogenesis by a cluster of angiogenic factors and decreased fat cell apoptosis account for potential mechanisms that underlie the improved long-term survival of fat transplants following EPO treatment.

  2. Erythropoietin improves the survival of fat tissue after its transplantation in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Saher; Egozi, Dana; Kruchevsky, Danny; Teot, Luc; Gilhar, Amos; Ullmann, Yehuda

    2010-11-15

    Autologous transplanted fat has a high resorption rate, providing a clinical challenge for the means to reduce it. Erythropoietin (EPO) has non-hematopoietic targets, and we hypothesized that EPO may improve long-term fat graft survival because it has both pro-angiogenic and anti-apoptotic properties. We aimed to determine the effect of EPO on the survival of human fat tissue after its transplantation in nude mice. Human fat tissue was injected subcutaneously into immunologically-compromised nude mice, and the grafts were then treated with either 20 IU or 100 IU EPO. At the end of the 15-week study period, the extent of angiogenesis, apoptosis, and histology were assessed in the fat grafts. The results were compared to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-treated and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated fat grafts. The weight and volume of the EPO-treated grafts were higher than those of the PBS-treated grafts, whose weights and volumes were not different from those of the VEGF-treated grafts. EPO treatment also increased the expression of angiogenic factors and microvascular density, and reduced inflammation and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in the fat grafts. Our data suggest that stimulation of angiogenesis by a cluster of angiogenic factors and decreased fat cell apoptosis account for potential mechanisms that underlie the improved long-term survival of fat transplants following EPO treatment.

  3. Mucosal pH, dental findings, and salivary composition in pediatric liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich, Esti; Asher, Ran; Shapira, Joseph; Brand, Henk S; Veerman, Enno C I; Shapiro, Rivka

    2013-07-15

    Oral health and dental maintenance have become part of the standard of care for pediatric liver transplant recipients. These individuals tend to suffer particularly from dental problems, such as gingival enlargement, gingivitis, poor oral hygiene, dental hypoplasia, and caries. Saliva composition influences oral hygiene and disease states. We investigated saliva composition and its association with the oral health of young recipients of liver transplants. In 70 patients, 36 liver transplant recipients (ages 2-23 years) and 34 healthy controls (ages 4-21 years), we measured the following variables: (a) oral hygiene, (b) gingival inflammation, (c) caries status, (d) dental calculus formation, (e) oral mucosal pH, and (f) salivary protein composition. Lower mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (P=0.0038), higher mean gingival index (P=0.0001), and higher mean calculus score (P=0.003) were found in the transplanted study group compared with the control. The mean mucosal pH for seven intraoral sites was higher in the transplant group (P=0.0006). The median salivary albumin concentration was significantly lower in the transplant group (P=0.01), as was the median salivary albumin/total protein ratio (P=0.0002). In post-liver transplant pediatric recipients, low incidence of caries, together with high incidence of dental calculus, could be attributed to elevated oral mucosal pH. Salivary albumin and immunoglobulin A levels were relatively low in these patients. Clinicians should pay particular attention to the oral health and dental care of liver transplanted children.

  4. The concept of a composite perioperative quality index in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, David J; McGillicuddy, John W; Bratton, Charles F; Lin, Angello; Chavin, Kenneth D; Baliga, Prabhakar K

    2014-04-01

    Public reporting of patient and graft outcomes in a national registry and close Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services oversight has resulted in transplantation being a highly regulated surgical discipline. Despite this, transplantation surgery lacks comprehensive tracking and reporting of perioperative quality measures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the association between a kidney transplantation centers' perioperative quality benchmarking and graft and patient outcomes. This was an analysis of 2011 aggregate data compiled from 2 national datasets that track outcomes from member hospitals and transplantation centers. The transplantation centers included in this study were composed of accredited US kidney transplantation centers that report data through the national registry and are associate members of the University HealthSystem Consortium. A total of 16,811 kidney transplantations were performed at 236 centers in the United States in 2011, of which 10,241 (61%) from 93 centers were included in the analysis. Of the 6 perioperative quality indicators, 3 benchmarked metrics were significantly associated with a kidney transplantation center's underperformance: mean ICU length of stay (C-statistic 0.731; p = 0.002), 30-day readmissions (C-statistic 0.697; p = 0.012) and in-hospital complications (C-statistic 0.785; p = 0.001). The composite quality index strongly correlated with inadequate center performance (C-statistic 0.854; p < 0.001, R(2) = 0.349). The centers in the lowest quartile of the quality index performed 2,400 kidney transplantations in 2011, which led to 2,640 more hospital days, 4,560 more ICU days, 120 more postoperative complications, and 144 more patients with 30-day readmissions, when compared with centers in the 3 higher-quality quartiles. An objective index of a transplantation center's quality of perioperative care is significantly associated with patient and graft survival. Copyright © 2014 American College of

  5. Ninety-five orthotopic transplantations in 74 women of ovarian tissue after cytotoxic treatment in a fertility preservation network: tissue activity, pregnancy and delivery rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Ven, H; Liebenthron, J; Beckmann, M; Toth, B; Korell, M; Krüssel, J; Frambach, T; Kupka, M; Hohl, M K; Winkler-Crepaz, K; Seitz, S; Dogan, A; Griesinger, G; Häberlin, F; Henes, M; Schwab, R; Sütterlin, M; von Wolff, M; Dittrich, R

    2016-09-01

    What is the success rate in terms of ovarian activity (menstrual cycles) as well as pregnancy and delivery rates 1 year after orthotopic ovarian transplantations conducted in a three-country network? In 49 women with a follow-up >1 year after transplantation, the ovaries were active in 67% of cases and the pregnancy and delivery rates were 33 and 25%, respectively. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue in advance of cytotoxic therapies and later transplantation of the tissue is being performed increasingly often, and the total success rates in terms of pregnancy and delivery have been described in case series. However, published case series have not allowed either a more detailed analysis of patients with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) or calculation of success rates based on the parameter 'tissue activity'. Retrospective analysis of 95 orthotopic transplantations in 74 patients who had been treated for cancer, performed in the FertiPROTEKT network from 2008 to June 2015. Of those 95 transplantations, a first subgroup (Subgroup 1) was defined for further analysis, including 49 women with a follow-up period >1 year after transplantation. Of those 49 women, a second subgroup (Subgroup 5) was further analysed, including 40 women who were transplanted for the first time and who were diagnosed with POI before transplantation. Transplantation was performed in 16 centres and data were transferred to the FertiPROTEKT registry. The transplantations were carried out after oncological treatment had been completed and after a remission period of at least 2 years. Tissue was transplanted orthotopically, either into or onto the residual ovaries or into a pelvic peritoneal pocket. The success rates were defined as tissue activity (menstrual cycles) after 1 year (primary outcome) and as pregnancies and deliveries achieved. The average age of all transplanted 74 women was 31 ± 5.9 years at the time of cryopreservation and 35 ± 5.2 at the time of transplantation. Twenty

  6. Biochemical composition of muscle tissue of penaeid prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Biochemical composition of muscle tissue of females belonging to four species of penaeid prawns, viz. Metapenaeus affinis, M. dobsoni, Penaeus merguiensis and Parapenaeopsis stylifera, inhabiting the coastal waters of Goa, India, was estimated...

  7. Alfalfa stem tissues: Cell wall deposition, composition, and degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, H.G.; Engels, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Declining cell wall degradability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems with maturation limits the nutritional value of alfalfa for ruminants. This study characterized changes in cell wall concentration, composition, and degradability by rumen microbes resulting from alfalfa stem tissue

  8. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation in girls undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplant: experience of a single centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasin, E; Salvagno, F; Berger, M; Nesi, F; Quarello, P; Vassallo, E; Evangelista, F; Marchino, G L; Revelli, A; Benedetto, C; Fagioli, F

    2015-09-01

    Fertility after childhood haemopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is a major concern. Conditioning regimens before HSCT present a high risk (>80%) of ovarian failure. Since 2000, we have proposed cryopreservation of ovarian tissue to female patients undergoing HSCT at our centre, to preserve future fertility. After clinical and haematological evaluation, the patients underwent ovarian tissue collection by laparoscopy. The tissue was analysed by histologic examination to detect any tumour contamination and then frozen following the slow freezing procedure and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. From August 2000 to September 2013, 47 patients planned to receive HSCT, underwent ovarian tissue cryopreservation. The median age at diagnosis was 11.1 years and at the time of procedure it was 13 years, respectively. Twenty-four patients were not pubertal at the time of storage, whereas 23 patients had already experienced menarche. The median time between laparoscopy and HSCT was 25 days. Twenty-six out of 28 evaluable patients (93%) developed hypergonadotropic hypogonadism at a median time of 23.3 months after HSCT. One patient required autologous orthotopic transplantation that resulted in one live birth. Results show a very high rate of iatrogenic hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, highlighting the need for fertility preservation in these patients.

  9. [Subcutaneous transplants of juvenile rat testicular tissues continue to develop and secret androgen in adult rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhou; Wang, Tong; Cui, Jiangbo; Song, Yajuan; Ma, Xianjie; Su, Yingjun; Peng, Pai

    2017-12-01

    Objective To explore the effects of subcutaneous microenvironment of adult rats on survival, development and androgen secretion of Leydig cells of transplanted juvenile rat testis. Methods Healthy adult SD rats were randomly divided into control group, sham group, castrated group and non-castrated group. Rats in the control group were kept intact, no testis was transplanted subcutaneously after adult recipients were castrated in the sham group; 5-7-day juvenile rat testes were transplanted subcutaneously in the castrated group, with one testis per side; Testes resected from juvenile rats were directly transplanted subcutaneously on both sides of the recipients in the non-castrated group. The grafts were obtained and weighed 4 weeks later. Then the histological features of the grafts were examined by HE staining; the expression and distribution of hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 1 (HSD-17β1) were investigated by immunohistochemistry; and the serum androgen level was determined by ELISA. Results The average mass of grafts obtained from the castrated group was significantly higher than that of the non-castrated group. Immunohistochemistry indicated that Leydig cells were visible in the tissues from both the castrated and non-castrated groups, but the number of HSD-17β1-posotive cells in the castrated group was larger than that in the non-castrated group. ELISA results showed that the serum androgen level was higher in the control group and non-castrated group than in the sham group and castrated group, and compared with the sham group, the serum androgen level in the castrated group was significantly higher. Conclusion The juvenile rat testis subcutaneously transplanted could further develop under the adult recipient rat skin, and the Leydig cells of grafts harbored the ability to produce and secret androgen.

  10. Composite tissue allotransplantation : functional, immunological and ethical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, M.; Brouha, P.C.R.

    2007-01-01

    Composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA) is a new therapeutic modality to reconstruct large tissue defects of the face, larynx, and extremities. The research in this thesis focuses on various aspects of CTA, i.e. 1) immunosuppression regimens and their influence on bone quality, 2) induction of

  11. Transplantation of Normal Adipose Tissue Improves Blood Flow and Reduces Inflammation in High Fat Fed Mice With Hindlimb Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fat deposition is associated with peripheral arterial disease. Adipose tissue has recently been implicated in vascular remodeling and angiogenic activity. We hypothesized that the transplantation of adipose tissues from normal mice improves blood flow perfusion and neovascularization in high-fat diet fed mice.Methods: After 14 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice, unilateral hind limb ischemia was performed. Subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT fat pads were harvested from normal EGFP mice, and subcutaneously transplanted over the region of the adductor muscles of HFD mice. Blood flow was measured using Laser Doppler Scanner. Vascular density, macrophages infiltration, and macrophage polarization were examined by RT-qPCR, and immunohistochemistry.Results: We found that the transplantation of WAT derived from normal mice improved functional blood flow in HFD-fed mice compared to mice transplanted with BAT and sham-treated mice. WAT transplantation increased the recruitment of pericytes associated with nascent blood vessels, but did not affect capillary formation. Furthermore, transplantation of WAT ameliorated HFD-induced insulin resistance, M2 macrophage predominance and the release of arteriogenic factors in ischemic muscles. Mice receiving WAT also displayed a marked reduction in several proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, mice transplanted with BAT were glucose intolerant and demonstrated increased IL-6 levels in ischemic muscles.Conclusion: These results indicate that transplantation of adipose tissue elicits improvements in blood perfusion and beneficial effects on systemic glucose homeostasis and could be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of diabetic peripheral arterial disease.

  12. Successful pregnancy in a woman previously suffering from β-thalassaemia following transplantation of ovarian tissue cryopreserved before puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Sara J; Picton, Helen M; Ernst, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Ovarian tissue removed from a nine year old girl suffering from thalassemia was kept deep- frozen for 14 years before being transplanted back to the now adult woman. Subsequently, she conceived following IVF treatment and delivered a healthy baby where the oocyte derived from the transplanted...... tissue. This is the first woman worldwide to have a baby where the ovarian tissue was frozen pre-pubertally and expand the therapeutic options for rare genetic diseases like thalassemia and girls who suffer from childhood cancer....

  13. Interpretive conundrum on the exclusion criterion of "transplantation with xenografts" for tissue and cell donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Michael A; Brubaker, Scott A

    2012-06-01

    In the context of the EU Directives for human tissues and cells (2004/23/EC, 2006/17/EC and 2006/86/EC) further interest has arisen on the practical application of a few clauses. One such aspect, for the evaluation phase of a potential donor, is the interpretation of the exclusion criterion "transplantation with xenografts." This article outlines the consensus viewpoints regarding the earlier evaluation of the risks related to xenotransplantation and describes the current status of the terminology and recommendations/laws in several healthcare sectors. The application of uniform terminology is encouraged within the healthcare sectors at the international level.

  14. Hard tissue compatibility of natural hydroxyapatite/chitosan composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaojun; Gui Lai; Lue Xiaoying

    2008-01-01

    The natural hydroxyapatite/chitosan (NHC) composite is a new synthesized material. The aim of this experiment was to assess the bone tissue compatibility of this NHC composite in vivo. Twenty-four healthy New Zealand rabbits were included in this study. Of those, 20 were used as the experimental group and four as the control group. In the experimental group, animals receive a cranium defect procedure and NHC composite repair. In the control group, animals underwent the cranium defect procedure without NHC composite repair. At 1, 4, 12, 24, and 40 weeks after surgery, the animals were sacrificed and samples were taken and assessed by gross observation, three-dimensional (3D) computerized tomographic (CT) reconstruction, histology and scanning electron microscope. Our results showed that at 1 week after repairing the bone defect with the NHC composite in the experimental group, new bone appeared around the composite and matured gradually. At 24 weeks after surgery, there were little collagenous tissues present between the material and surrounding bones. At 40 weeks after surgery, new bone had grown into the mature bone and total osseointegration had occurred. In the control group, however, no bone defect healing was observed at 40 weeks after surgery. All these results of the present in vivo work suggest that the NHC composite has a good hard tissue biocompatibility and an excellent osteoconductivity. It is suitable for artificial bone implants and frame materials of tissue engineering.

  15. Hard tissue compatibility of natural hydroxyapatite/chitosan composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Xiaojun; Gui Lai [Department of Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 33 Ba-Da-Chu Road, Beijing, 100144 (China); Lue Xiaoying [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096 (China)], E-mail: laiguiplastic@tom.com, E-mail: luxy@seu.edu.cn

    2008-12-15

    The natural hydroxyapatite/chitosan (NHC) composite is a new synthesized material. The aim of this experiment was to assess the bone tissue compatibility of this NHC composite in vivo. Twenty-four healthy New Zealand rabbits were included in this study. Of those, 20 were used as the experimental group and four as the control group. In the experimental group, animals receive a cranium defect procedure and NHC composite repair. In the control group, animals underwent the cranium defect procedure without NHC composite repair. At 1, 4, 12, 24, and 40 weeks after surgery, the animals were sacrificed and samples were taken and assessed by gross observation, three-dimensional (3D) computerized tomographic (CT) reconstruction, histology and scanning electron microscope. Our results showed that at 1 week after repairing the bone defect with the NHC composite in the experimental group, new bone appeared around the composite and matured gradually. At 24 weeks after surgery, there were little collagenous tissues present between the material and surrounding bones. At 40 weeks after surgery, new bone had grown into the mature bone and total osseointegration had occurred. In the control group, however, no bone defect healing was observed at 40 weeks after surgery. All these results of the present in vivo work suggest that the NHC composite has a good hard tissue biocompatibility and an excellent osteoconductivity. It is suitable for artificial bone implants and frame materials of tissue engineering.

  16. Preliminary study of coconut water for graft tissues preservation in transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Miguel Schettino César

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to verify the effectiveness of coconut water in preserving tissues for transplant. METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in five groups, according to the following preservation solutions for tissue grafts: Group 1: Lactated Ringer; Group 2: Belzer solution; Group 3: mature coconut water; Group 4: green coconut water; Group 5: modified coconut water. In Group 5, the green coconut water has been modified like the Belzer solution. From each animal we harvasted the spleen, ovaries and skin of the back segment. These tissues were preserved for six hours in one of the solutions. Then, the grafts were reimplanted. The recovery of the function of the implanted tissues was assessed 90 days after surgery, by splenic scintigraphy and blood exame. The implanted tissues were collected for histopathological examination. RESULTS: The serum levels did not differ among groups, except for the animals in Group 5, which showed higher levels of IgG than Group 1, and differences in relation to FSH between groups 1 and 2 (p <0.001, 4 and 2 (p = 0.03 and 5 and 2 (p = 0.01. The splenic scintigraphy was not different between groups. The ovarian tissue was better preserved in mature coconut water (p <0.007. CONCLUSION: the coconut water-based solutions preserves spleen, ovary, and rat skin for six hours, maintaining their normal function.

  17. Alveolar bone tissue engineering using composite scaffolds for drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Matsuno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For many years, bone graft substitutes have been used to reconstruct bone defects in orthopedic and dental fields. However, synthetic bone substitutes such as hydroxyapatite or β-tricalcium phosphate have no osteoinductive or osteogenic abilities. Bone tissue engineering has also been promoted as an alternative approach to regenerating bone tissue. To succeed in bone tissue engineering, osteoconductive scaffolding biomaterials should provide a suitable environment for osteogenic cells and provide local controlled release of osteogenic growth factors. In addition, the scaffold for the bone graft substitute should biodegrade to replace the newly formed bone. Recent advances in bone tissue engineering have allowed the creation of composite scaffolds with tailored functional properties. This review focuses on composite scaffolds that consist of synthetic ceramics and natural polymers as drug delivery carriers for alveolar bone tissue engineering.

  18. Survival of human mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow and adipose tissue after xenogenic transplantation in immunocompetent mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemeyer, P; Vohrer, J; Schmal, H

    2008-01-01

    of the current paper was to evaluate the survival of undifferentiated and osteogenically induced human MSC from different origins after transplantation in immunocompetent mice. METHODS: Human MSC were isolated from bone marrow (BMSC) and adipose tissue (ASC). After cultivation on mineralized collagen, MSC were......INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) represent an attractive cell population for tissue engineering purposes. As MSC are described as immunoprivileged, non-autologous applications seem possible. A basic requirement is the survival of MSC after transplantation in the host. The purpose...... transplanted subcutaneously into immunocompetent mice (n=12). Undifferentiated MSC (group A) were compared with osteogenic-induced MSC (group B). Human-specific in situ hybridization and anti-vimentin staining was used to follow MSC after transplantation. Quantitative evaluation of lymphocytes and macrophages...

  19. Histomorphology of the Olfactory Mucosa and Spinal Tissue Sparing Following Transplantation in the Partial Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Delaviz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays, cellular and tissues transplant has become the focus of attention for spinal cord injury. It has been shown olfactory nerve cells or olfactory mucosa whi have more efficient on nervous tissue repair and they have been more studied in experimental study. Furthermore, they were used in a few clinical centers for spinal defect. But mucosa tissue and spinal tissue have different structure and there is doubt about the integration of mucosa tissue in nervous tissue. Thus, in this research the morphology and the effect of the fetal olfactory mucosa (FOM on spinal tissue sparing were studied after transplanted into the spinal cord hemisection in rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted at Iran University of Medical Sciences in 2008. Of thirty eight female Sprague-Dawley (200-250g rats twenty- eight were spinally hemisected at the L1 spinal level and were randomized into two groups of 14 animals. Treatment group received FOM graft and the control group received fetal respiratory mucosa graft (FRM. The other animals received surgical procedure without spinal cord injury as a sham group. The morphology of the transplant region and spinal tissue sparing was examined histological eight weeks after transplantation. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using ANOVA and the morphology of the transplant region were studied by light microscope. Results: Histological study showed that the both mucosa tissues could not integrate with the parenchyma of the spinal tissue. Although the FOM were fused more than the FRM with the host tissue but clear boundary was seen at the graft–host interface. The mean spinal tissue sparing of the treatment group increased a little compare to the control but a significant difference was not apparent whereas, the spinal tissue sparing in treatment and control groups compare to the sham group decreased significantly (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Transplantation of

  20. TRANSPLANTATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stage ... renal artery thrombosis, renal vein thrombosis, ureteric leak or stenosis ... alternative organ source for patients with end-stage renal disease. Kidney ... status.27,28 Post-transplant acute tubular necrosis is caused by ischaemic injury to the ...

  1. Preliminary study of coconut water for graft tissues preservation in transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    César, Jorge Miguel Schettino; Petroianu, Andy; Vasconcelos, Leonardo de Souza; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Mota, Luciene das Graças; Barbosa, Alfredo José Afonso; Soares, Cristina Duarte Vianna; de Oliveira, Amanda Lima

    2015-01-01

    to verify the effectiveness of coconut water in preserving tissues for transplant. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in five groups, according to the following preservation solutions for tissue grafts: Group 1: Lactated Ringer; Group 2: Belzer solution; Group 3: mature coconut water; Group 4: green coconut water; Group 5: modified coconut water. In Group 5, the green coconut water has been modified like the Belzer solution. From each animal we harvested the spleen, ovaries and skin of the back segment. These tissues were preserved for six hours in one of the solutions. Then, the grafts were reimplanted. The recovery of the function of the implanted tissues was assessed 90 days after surgery, by splenic scintigraphy and blood exam. The implanted tissues were collected for histopathological examination. The serum levels did not differ among groups, except for the animals in Group 5, which showed higher levels of IgG than Group 1, and differences in relation to FSH between groups 1 and 2 (p coconut water (p coconut water-based solutions preserves spleen, ovary, and rat skin for six hours, maintaining their normal function.

  2. Demineralized dentin matrix composite collagen material for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianan; Yang, Juan; Zhong, Xiaozhong; He, Fengrong; Wu, Xiongwen; Shen, Guanxin

    2013-01-01

    Demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) had been successfully used in clinics as bone repair biomaterial for many years. However, particle morphology of DDM limited it further applications. In this study, DDM and collagen were prepared to DDM composite collagen material. The surface morphology of the material was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). MC3T3-E1 cells responses in vitro and tissue responses in vivo by implantation of DDM composite collagen material in bone defect of rabbits were also investigated. SEM analysis showed that DDM composite collagen material evenly distributed and formed a porous scaffold. Cell culture and animal models results indicated that DDM composite collagen material was biocompatible and could support cell proliferation and differentiation. Histological evaluation showed that DDM composite collagen material exhibited good biocompatibility, biodegradability and osteoconductivity with host bone in vivo. The results suggested that DDM composite collagen material might have a significant clinical advantage and potential to be applied in bone and orthopedic surgery.

  3. Transplantation of Bioprinted Tissues and Organs: Technical and Clinical Challenges and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnic, Dino J; Leberfinger, Ashley N; Koduru, Srinivas V; Hospodiuk, Monika; Moncal, Kazim K; Datta, Pallab; Dey, Madhuri; Rizk, Elias; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2017-07-01

    : Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a revolutionary technology in building living tissues and organs with precise anatomic control and cellular composition. Despite the great progress in bioprinting research, there has yet to be any clinical translation due to current limitations in building human-scale constructs, which are vascularized and readily implantable. In this article, we review the current limitations and challenges in 3D bioprinting, including in situ techniques, which are one of several clinical translational models to facilitate the application of this technology from bench to bedside. A detailed discussion is made on the technical barriers in the fabrication of scalable constructs that are vascularized, autologous, functional, implantable, cost-effective, and ethically feasible. Clinical considerations for implantable bioprinted tissues are further expounded toward the correction of end-stage organ dysfunction and composite tissue deficits.

  4. Method of tissue repair using a composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchens, Stacy A.; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R.; O' Neill, Hugh M.

    2016-03-01

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  5. Method of tissue repair using a composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Stacy A; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R; O'Neill, Hugh M

    2014-03-18

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  6. Function of skeletal muscle tissue formed after myoblast transplantation into irradiated mouse muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernig, A; Zweyer, M; Irintchev, A

    2000-01-15

    1. Pretreatment of muscles with ionising radiation enhances tissue formation by transplanted myoblasts but little is known about the effects on muscle function. We implanted myoblasts from an expanded, male-donor-derived, culture (i28) into X-ray irradiated (16 Gy) or irradiated and damaged soleus muscles of female syngeneic mice (Balb/c). Three to 6 months later the isometric contractile properties of the muscles were studied in vitro, and donor nuclei were visualised in muscle sections with a Y chromosome-specific DNA probe. 2. Irradiated sham-injected muscles had smaller masses than untreated solei and produced less twitch and tetanic force (all by about 18 %). Injection of 106 myoblasts abolished these deficiencies and innervation appeared normal. 3. Cryodamage of irradiated solei produced muscle remnants with few (1-50) or no fibres. Additional myoblast implantation led to formation of large muscles (25 % above normal) containing numerous small-diameter fibres. Upon direct electrical stimulation, these muscles produced considerable twitch (53 % of normal) and tetanic forces (35 % of normal) but innervation was insufficient as indicated by weak nerve-evoked contractions and elevated ACh sensitivity. 4. In control experiments on irradiated muscles, reinnervation was found to be less complete after botulinum toxin paralysis than after nerve crush indicating that proliferative arrest of irradiated Schwann cells may account for the observed innervation deficits. 5. Irradiation appears to be an effective pretreatment for improving myoblast transplantation. The injected cells can even produce organised contractile tissue replacing whole muscle. However, impaired nerve regeneration limits the functional performance of the new muscle.

  7. 86 successful births and 9 ongoing pregnancies worldwide in women transplanted with frozen-thawed ovarian tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Klüver; Macklon, Kirsten Tryde; Fedder, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to make an account of the children born following transplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue worldwide with specific focus on the perinatal outcome of the children. Furthermore, perinatal outcome of seven deliveries (nine children) from Denmark is reported. Methods...

  8. Safety considerations for transplanting cryopreserved ovarian tissue to restore fertility in female patients who have recovered from Ewing's sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Stine D; Greve, Tine; Wielenga, Vera Timmermans

    2014-01-01

    ovarian tissue, potentially causing recrudescence of the original cancer after transplantation. The risk of EWS metastasizing to the ovary is probably low but has not been studied in great detail. This review describes the available evidence on the risk of malignant cell contamination in the ovaries...

  9. Registry of Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School: first official solid organ and tissue transplantation report - 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Azeka

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report a single center experience of organ and tissue transplantation INTRODUCTION: This is the first report of organ and tissue transplantation at the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of Sao Paulo Medical School. METHODS: We collected data from each type of organ transplantation from 2002 to 2007. The data collected were patient characteristics and actuarial survival Kaplan-Meier curves at 30 days, one year, and five years RESULTS: There were a total of 3,321 transplants at our institution and the 5-year survival curve ranged from 53% to 88%. CONCLUSION: This report shows that solid organ and tissue transplants are feasible within the institution and allow us to expect that the quality of transplantation will improve in the future.

  10. Body composition following stem cell transplant: comparison of bioimpedance and air-displacement plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yun-Chi; Bauer, Judith D; Horsely, Pamela; Ward, Leigh C; Bashford, John; Isenring, Elisabeth A

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between detected changes in body composition determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) and air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) among patients with cancer undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT); and to assess the agreement of absolute values of BIS with ADP and dual energy x-ray (DXA). Forty-four adult hematologic cancer patients undergoing PBSCT completed both BIS and ADP assessment at preadmission and at 3 mo after transplantation. A subsample (n = 11) was assessed by DXA at 3 mo after transplantation. Results were examined for the BIS instrument's default setting and three alternative predictive equations from the literature. Agreement was assessed by the Bland-Altman limits of agreement analysis while correlation was examined using the Lin's concordance correlation. Changes in body composition parameters assessed by BIS were comparable with those determined by ADP regardless of the predictive equations used. Bias of change in fat-free mass was clinically acceptable (all body mass index performed the best. Absolute body composition parameters predicted by the alternative predictive equations agreed with DXA and ADP better than the BIS instrument's default setting. Changes predicted by BIS were similar to those determined by ADP on a group level; however, agreement of predicted changes at an individual level should be interpreted with caution due to wide limits of agreement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Body composition of Fanconi anemia patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

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    Priscilla Peixoto Policarpo da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Fanconi anemia is a rare genetic disease linked to bone marrow failure; a possible treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Changes in the nutritional status of Fanconi anemia patients are not very well known. This study aimed to characterize body composition of adult, children and adolescent patients with Fanconi anemia who were submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or not. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 63 patients (29 adults and 34 children and adolescents. Body composition was assessed based on diverse methods, including triceps skin fold, arm circumference, arm muscle area and bioelectrical impedance analysis, as there is no established consensus for this population. Body mass index was also considered as reference according to age. Results: Almost half (48.3% of the transplanted adult patients were underweight considering body mass index whereas eutrophic status was observed in 66.7% of the children and adolescents submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and in 80% of those who were not. At least 50% of all groups displayed muscle mass depletion. Half of the transplanted children and adolescents presented short/very short stature for age. Conclusion: All patients presented low muscle stores, underweight was common in adults, and short stature was common in children and adolescents. More studies are needed to detect whether muscle mass loss measured at the early stages of treatment results in higher risk of mortality, considering the importance of muscle mass as an essential body component to prevent mortality related to infectious and non-infectious diseases and the malnutrition inherent to Fanconi anemia.

  12. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Markus V; Figueroa, Daniela; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Agneta; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, increasing loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2) and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6) water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundances than Bothnian Sea bacteria in both Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea water, indicating higher adaptability. Moreover, Baltic Proper bacteria growing in Bothnian Sea water consistently showed highest bacterial production and beta-glucosidase activity. These metabolic responses were accompanied by basin-specific changes in bacterial community structure. For example, Baltic Proper Pseudomonas and Limnobacter populations increased markedly in relative abundance in Bothnian Sea water, indicating a replacement effect. In contrast, Roseobacter and Rheinheimera populations were stable or increased in abundance when challenged by either of the waters, indicating an adjustment effect. Transplants to Bothnian Sea water triggered the initial emergence of particular Burkholderiaceae populations, and transplants to Baltic Proper water triggered Alteromonadaceae populations. Notably, in the subsequent re-transplant experiment, a priming effect resulted in further increases to dominance of these populations. Correlated changes in community composition and metabolic activity were observed only in the transplant experiment and only at relatively high phylogenetic resolution. This suggested an importance of successional progression for interpreting relationships between bacterial community composition and functioning. We infer that priming effects on bacterial community structure by natural episodic events or climate change induced forcing could translate into long-term changes in bacterial ecosystem process rates.

  13. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus V Lindh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, intensifying loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2 and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6 water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundance than Bothnian Sea bacteria in both Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea water, indicating a higher adaptability. Moreover, Baltic Proper bacteria growing in Bothnian Sea water consistently showed highest bacterial production and beta-glucosidase activity. These metabolic responses were accompanied by basin-specific changes in bacterial community structure. For example, Baltic Proper Pseudomonas and Limnobacter populations increased markedly in relative abundance in Bothnian Sea water, indicating replacement. In contrast, Roseobacter and Rheinheimera populations were stable or increased in abundance when challenged by either of the waters, indicating adjustment. Transplants to Bothnian Sea water triggered the initial emergence of particular Burkholderiaceae populations, and transplants to Baltic Proper water triggered Alteromonadaceae populations. Notably, in the subsequent re-transplant experiment, the original triggering, or priming effect, resulted in further increases to dominance of these populations. Correlated changes in community composition and metabolic activity were observed only in the transplant experiment, and only at relatively high phylogenetic resolution. This suggested an importance of successional progression for interpreting relationships between bacterial community composition and functioning. We infer that priming effects on bacterial community structure by natural episodic events or climate change induced forcing could translate into long-term changes in bacterial

  14. Transplantation of Xenopus laevis tissues to determine the ability of motor neurons to acquire a novel target.

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    Karen L Elliott

    Full Text Available The evolutionary origin of novelties is a central problem in biology. At a cellular level this requires, for example, molecularly resolving how brainstem motor neurons change their innervation target from muscle fibers (branchial motor neurons to neural crest-derived ganglia (visceral motor neurons or ear-derived hair cells (inner ear and lateral line efferent neurons. Transplantation of various tissues into the path of motor neuron axons could determine the ability of any motor neuron to innervate a novel target. Several tissues that receive direct, indirect, or no motor innervation were transplanted into the path of different motor neuron populations in Xenopus laevis embryos. Ears, somites, hearts, and lungs were transplanted to the orbit, replacing the eye. Jaw and eye muscle were transplanted to the trunk, replacing a somite. Applications of lipophilic dyes and immunohistochemistry to reveal motor neuron axon terminals were used. The ear, but not somite-derived muscle, heart, or liver, received motor neuron axons via the oculomotor or trochlear nerves. Somite-derived muscle tissue was innervated, likely by the hypoglossal nerve, when replacing the ear. In contrast to our previous report on ear innervation by spinal motor neurons, none of the tissues (eye or jaw muscle was innervated when transplanted to the trunk. Taken together, these results suggest that there is some plasticity inherent to motor innervation, but not every motor neuron can become an efferent to any target that normally receives motor input. The only tissue among our samples that can be innervated by all motor neurons tested is the ear. We suggest some possible, testable molecular suggestions for this apparent uniqueness.

  15. Simultaneous Transplantation of Fetal Ventral Mesencephalic Tissue and Encapsulated Genetically Modified Cells Releasing GDNF in a Hemi-Parkinsonian Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Bouza, Alberto; Di Santo, Stefano; Seiler, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic (VM) neurons for Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited by poor survival and suboptimal integration of grafted tissue into the host brain. In a 6-OHDA rat model of PD we investigated the feasibility of simultaneous transplantation of rat fetal VM tissue...... between groups were observed for the number of surviving TH-ir neurons or graft volume. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that simultaneous transplantation of fetal VM tissue and encapsulated GDNF-releasing cells is feasible and support the graft survival and function. Pre-treatment of donor tissue...

  16. Chitosan composite three dimensional macrospheric scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Veena; Kaur, Tejinder; Thirugnanam, Arunachalam

    2017-11-01

    The present work deals with the fabrication of chitosan composite scaffolds with controllable and predictable internal architecture for bone tissue engineering. Chitosan (CS) based composites were developed by varying montmorillonite (MMT) and hydroxyapatite (HA) combinations to fabricate macrospheric three dimensional (3D) scaffolds by direct agglomeration of the sintered macrospheres. The fabricated CS, CS/MMT, CS/HA and CS/MMT/HA 3D scaffolds were characterized for their physicochemical, biological and mechanical properties. The XRD and ATR-FTIR studies confirmed the presence of the individual constituents and the molecular interaction between them, respectively. The reinforcement with HA and MMT showed reduced swelling and degradation rate. It was found that in comparison to pure CS, the CS/HA/MMT composites exhibited improved hemocompatibility and protein adsorption. The sintering of the macrospheres controlled the swelling ability of the scaffolds which played an important role in maintaining the mechanical strength of the 3D scaffolds. The CS/HA/MMT composite scaffold showed 14 folds increase in the compressive strength when compared to pure CS scaffolds. The fabricated scaffolds were also found to encourage the MG 63 cell proliferation. Hence, from the above studies it can be concluded that the CS/HA/MMT composite 3D macrospheric scaffolds have wider and more practical application in bone tissue regeneration applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustainability of Routine Notification and Request legislation on eye bank tissue supply and corneal transplantation wait times in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth; Boimer, Corey; Hershenfeld, Samantha; Sharpen, Linda; Slomovic, Allan R

    2011-10-01

    To assess whether provinces with Routine Notification and Request (RNR) legislation have sustained increases in corneal tissue supply and decreases in wait times for corneal transplantation surgery. Cross-sectional survey of Canadian corneal transplant (CT) surgeons and eye banks. Canadian CT surgeons and representatives from the 10 Canadian eye banks. Voluntary and anonymous surveys were distributed between July and October 2009. Eligible CT surgeons were defined as ophthalmologists who practice in Canada; currently perform Penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK), Deep lamellar endothelial keratoplasty (DLEK), Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK), or Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK); and have obtained tissues from a Canadian eye bank. From 2006 to 2009, for provinces with RNR legislation and where data are available, mean wait times from date of diagnosis to date of CT surgery have increased: in Ontario, from 31 ± 34 weeks to 36 ± 27 weeks; in British Columbia, from 39 ± 20 weeks to 42 ± 35 weeks; in Manitoba, from 32 ± 23 weeks to 49 ± 36 weeks. In addition, the amount of corneal tissue in RNR provinces suitable for transplant, with the exception of British Columbia, has declined between 2006 and 2008: in Ontario, 1186 tissues to 999 tissues (16% decline); in Manitoba, 92 tissues to 83 tissues (10% decline); in New Brunswick, 129 tissues to 98 tissues (24% decline). Although initially effective, RNR legislation has not sustained an increase in corneal tissue availability nor has it shortened wait times in most provinces. Incorporation of community hospitals into the RNR catchment, improved enforcement, and continued education of hospital staff regarding the RNR process may be effective in making this legislation more sustainable in the long term. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors affecting the tissues composition of pork belly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duziński, K; Knecht, D; Lisiak, D; Janiszewski, P

    2015-11-01

    Bellies derived from the commercial population of pig carcasses are diverse in terms of tissue composition. Knowledge of the factors influencing it and the expected results, permits quick and easy evaluation of raw material. The study was designed to determine the factors affecting the tissues composition of pork bellies and to estimate their lean meat content. The research population (n=140 pig carcasses) was divided into groups according to sex (gilts, barrows), half-carcass mass (meat content class: S (⩾60%), E (55% to 60%), U (50% to 55%), R (meat content affected the growth of the fat and skin mass in a linear way. No differences were observed between class S and E in terms of belly muscle mass. A 0.37% higher share of belly in the half-carcass was found for barrows (Pmeat content in bellies, suggesting they may be used directly in the production line.

  19. Detection of acute renal allograft rejection by analysis of renal tissue proteomics in rat models of renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Yong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the diagnosis of renal allograft rejection requires a renal biopsy. Clinical management of renal transplant patients would be improved if rapid, noninvasive and reliable biomarkers of rejection were available. This study is designed to determine whether such protein biomarkers can be found in renal-graft tissue proteomic approach. Orthotopic kidney transplantations were performed using Fisher (F344 or Lewis rats as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Hence, there were two groups of renal transplant models: one is allograft (from F344 to Lewis rats; another is syngrafts (from Lewis to Lewis rats serving as control. Renal tissues were collected 3, 7 and 14 days after transplantation. As many as 18 samples were analyzed by 2-D Electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. Eleven differentially expressed proteins were identified between groups. In conclusion, proteomic technology can detect renal tissue proteins associated with acute renal allograft rejection. Identification of these proteins as diagnostic markers for rejection in patients′ urine or sera may be useful and non-invasive, and these proteins might serve as novel therapeutic targets that also help to improve the understanding of mechanism of renal rejection.

  20. Single walled carbon nanotube composites for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashim; Woods, Mia D; Illingworth, Kenneth David; Niemeier, Ryan; Schafer, Isaac; Cady, Craig; Filip, Peter; El-Amin, Saadiq F

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLAGA) composites for orthopedic applications and to evaluate the interaction of human stem cells (hBMSCs) and osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 cells) via cell growth, proliferation, gene expression, extracellular matrix production and mineralization. PLAGA and SWCNT/PLAGA composites were fabricated with various amounts of SWCNT (5, 10, 20, 40, and 100 mg), characterized and degradation studies were performed. Cells were seeded and cell adhesion/morphology, growth/survival, proliferation and gene expression analysis were performed to evaluate biocompatibility. Imaging studies demonstrated uniform incorporation of SWCNT into the PLAGA matrix and addition of SWCNT did not affect the degradation rate. Imaging studies revealed that MC3T3-E1 and hBMSCs cells exhibited normal, non-stressed morphology on the composites and all were biocompatible. Composites with 10 mg SWCNT resulted in highest rate of cell proliferation (p PLAGA composites imparted beneficial cellular growth capabilities and gene expression, and mineralization abilities were well established. These results demonstrate the potential of SWCNT/PLAGA composites for musculoskeletal regeneration and bone tissue engineering (BTE) and are promising for orthopedic applications. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  1. Cellularized cylindrical fiber/hydrogel composites for ligament tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Patrick S; Dimling, Anna F; Plessl, Daniel S; Hahn, Mariah R; Guelcher, Scott A; Dahlgren, Linda A; Goldstein, Aaron S

    2014-01-13

    Electrospun meshes suffer from poor cell infiltration and limited thickness, which restrict their use to thin tissue applications. Herein, we demonstrate two complementary processes to overcome these limitations and achieve elastomeric composites that may be suitable for ligament repair. First, C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells were incorporated into electrospun meshes using a hybrid electrospinning/electrospraying process. Second, electrospun meshes were rolled and formed into composites with an interpenetrating polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel network. Stiffer composites were formed from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) meshes, while softer and more elastic composites were formed from poly(ester-urethane urea) (PEUUR) meshes. As-spun PLGA and PEUUR rolled meshes had tensile moduli of 19.2 ± 1.9 and 0.86 ± 0.34 MPa, respectively, which changed to 11.6 ± 4.8 and 1.05 ± 0.39 MPa with the incorporation of a PEG hydrogel phase. In addition, cyclic tensile testing indicated that PEUUR-based composites deformed elastically to at least 10%. Finally, C3H10T1/2 cells incorporated into electrospun meshes survived the addition of the PEG phase and remained viable for up to 5 days. These results indicate that the fabricated cellularized composites are support cyclic mechanical conditioning, and have potential application in ligament repair.

  2. Construction of EMSC-islet co-localizing composites for xenogeneic porcine islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Sik; Chung, Hyunwoo; Byun, Nari; Kang, Seong-Jun; Lee, Sunho; Shin, Jun-Seop; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2018-03-04

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is an ultimate solution for treating patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The pig is an ideal donor of islets for replacing scarce human islets. Besides immunological hurdles, non-immunological hurdles including fragmentation and delayed engraftment of porcine islets need solutions to succeed in porcine islet xenotransplantation. In this study, we suggest a simple but effective modality, a cell/islet co-localizing composite, to overcome these challenges. Endothelial-like mesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), differentiated from bone-marrow derived mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and MSCs evenly coated the surface of porcine islets (>85%) through optimized culture conditions. Both MSCs and EMSCs significantly reduced the fragmentation of porcine islets and increased the islet masses, designated as islet equivalents (IEQs). In fibrin in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis analysis, constructed EMSC-islet composites showed higher angiogenic potentials than naked islets, MSC-islet composites, or human endothelial cell-islet composites. This novel delivery method of porcine islets may have beneficial effects on the engraftment of transplanted islets by prevention of fragmentation and enhancement of revascularization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of two endometriosis models by transplantation of human endometrial tissue fragments and human endometrial mesenchymal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Jafarabadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The animal models of endometriosis could be a valuable alternative tool for clarifying the etiology of endometriosis. Objective: In this study two endometriosis models at the morphological and molecular levels was evaluated and compared. Materials and Methods: The human endometrial tissues were cut into small fragments then they were randomly considered for transplantation into γ irradiated mice as model A; or they were isolated and cultured up to fourth passages. 2×106 cultured stromal cells were transplanted into γ irradiated mice subcutaneously as model B. twenty days later the ectopic tissues in both models were studied morphologically by Periodic acid-Schiff and hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expression of osteopontin (OPN and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2 genes were also assessed using real time RT-PCR. 17-β estradiol levels of mice sera were compared before and after transplantation. Results: The endometrial like glands and stromal cells were formed in the implanted subcutaneous tissue of both endometriosis models. The gland sections per cubic millimeter, the expression of OPN and MMP2 genes and the level of 17-β estradiol were higher in model B than model A (p=0.03. Conclusion: Our observation demonstrated that endometrial mesenchymal stromal cells showed more efficiency to establish endometriosis model than human endometrial tissue fragments.

  4. Effects of three different types of antifreeze proteins on mouse ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewang Lee

    Full Text Available Ovarian tissue (OT cryopreservation is effective in preserving fertility in cancer patients who have concerns about fertility loss due to cancer treatment. However, the damage incurred at different steps during the cryopreservation procedure may cause follicular depletion; hence, preventing chilling injury would help maintain ovarian function.This study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of different antifreeze proteins (AFPs on mouse ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation.Ovaries were obtained from 5-week-old B6D2F1 mice, and each ovary was cryopreserved using two-step vitrification and four-step warming procedures. In Experiment I, ovaries were randomly allocated into fresh, vitrification control, and nine experimental groups according to the AFP type (FfIBP, LeIBP, type III and concentration (0.1, 1, 10 mg/mL used. After vitrification and warming, 5,790 ovarian follicles were evaluated using histology and TUNEL assays, and immunofluorescence for τH2AX and Rad51 was used to detect DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs and repair (DDR, respectively. In Experiment II, 20 mice were randomly divided into two groups: one where the vitrification and warming media were supplemented with 10 mg/mL LeIBP, and the other where media alone were used (control. Ovaries were then autotransplanted under both kidney capsules 7 days after vitrification together with the addition of 10 mg/mL LeIBP in the vitrification-warming media. After transplantation, the ovarian follicles, the percentage of apoptotic follicles, the extent of the CD31-positive area, and the serum FSH levels of the transplanted groups were compared.In Experiment I, the percentage of total grade 1 follicles was significantly higher in the 10 mg/mL LeIBP group than in the vitrification control, while all AFP-treated groups had significantly improved grade 1 primordial follicle numbers compared with those of the vitrification control. The number of apoptotic (TUNEL

  5. Bone Density, Microarchitecture, and Tissue Quality Long-term After Kidney Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sáez, María José; Herrera, Sabina; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Nogués, Xavier; Vera, María; Redondo-Pachón, Dolores; Mir, Marisa; Güerri, Roberto; Crespo, Marta; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Pascual, Julio

    2017-06-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is used to assess bone health in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Trabecular bone score and in vivo microindentation are novel techniques that directly measure trabecular microarchitecture and mechanical properties of bone at a tissue level and independently predict fracture risk. We tested the bone status of long-term KTR using all 3 techniques. Cross-sectional study including 40 KTR with more than 10 years of follow-up and 94 healthy nontransplanted subjects as controls. Bone mineral density was measured at lumbar spine and the hip. Trabecular bone score was measured by specific software on the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of lumbar spine in 39 KTR and 77 controls. Microindentation was performed at the anterior tibial face with a reference-point indenter device. Bone measurements were standardized as percentage of a reference value, expressed as bone material strength index (BMSi) units. Multivariable (age, sex, and body mass index-adjusted) linear regression models were fitted to study the association between KTR and BMD/BMSi/trabecular bone score. Bone mineral density was lower at lumbar spine (0.925 ± 0.15 vs 0.982 ± 0.14; P = 0.025), total hip (0.792 ± 0.14 vs 0.902 ± 0.13; P bone score was borderline lower (1.21 ± 0.14 vs 1.3 ± 0.15; adjusted P = 0.072) in KTR. Despite persistent decrease in BMD, trabecular microarchitecture and tissue quality remain normal in long-term KTR, suggesting important recovery of bone health.

  6. Differential impact of transplantation on peripheral and tissue-associated viral reservoirs: Implications for HIV gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher W; Wang, Jianbin; Deleage, Claire; Reddy, Sowmya; Kaur, Jasbir; Polacino, Patricia; Reik, Andreas; Huang, Meei-Li; Jerome, Keith R; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Holmes, Michael C; Estes, Jacob D; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2018-04-01

    Autologous transplantation and engraftment of HIV-resistant cells in sufficient numbers should recapitulate the functional cure of the Berlin Patient, with applicability to a greater number of infected individuals and with a superior safety profile. A robust preclinical model of suppressed HIV infection is critical in order to test such gene therapy-based cure strategies, both alone and in combination with other cure strategies. Here, we present a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of latent infection using simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in pigtail macaques. We demonstrate that transplantation of CCR5 gene-edited hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) persist in infected and suppressed animals, and that protected cells expand through virus-dependent positive selection. CCR5 gene-edited cells are readily detectable in tissues, namely those closely associated with viral reservoirs such as lymph nodes and gastrointestinal tract. Following autologous transplantation, tissue-associated SHIV DNA and RNA levels in suppressed animals are significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05), relative to suppressed, untransplanted control animals. In contrast, the size of the peripheral reservoir, measured by QVOA, is variably impacted by transplantation. Our studies demonstrate that CCR5 gene editing is equally feasible in infected and uninfected animals, that edited cells persist, traffic to, and engraft in tissue reservoirs, and that this approach significantly reduces secondary lymphoid tissue viral reservoir size. Our robust NHP model of HIV gene therapy and viral persistence can be immediately applied to the investigation of combinatorial approaches that incorporate anti-HIV gene therapy, immune modulators, therapeutic vaccination, and latency reversing agents.

  7. Differential impact of transplantation on peripheral and tissue-associated viral reservoirs: Implications for HIV gene therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Peterson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Autologous transplantation and engraftment of HIV-resistant cells in sufficient numbers should recapitulate the functional cure of the Berlin Patient, with applicability to a greater number of infected individuals and with a superior safety profile. A robust preclinical model of suppressed HIV infection is critical in order to test such gene therapy-based cure strategies, both alone and in combination with other cure strategies. Here, we present a nonhuman primate (NHP model of latent infection using simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART in pigtail macaques. We demonstrate that transplantation of CCR5 gene-edited hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs persist in infected and suppressed animals, and that protected cells expand through virus-dependent positive selection. CCR5 gene-edited cells are readily detectable in tissues, namely those closely associated with viral reservoirs such as lymph nodes and gastrointestinal tract. Following autologous transplantation, tissue-associated SHIV DNA and RNA levels in suppressed animals are significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05, relative to suppressed, untransplanted control animals. In contrast, the size of the peripheral reservoir, measured by QVOA, is variably impacted by transplantation. Our studies demonstrate that CCR5 gene editing is equally feasible in infected and uninfected animals, that edited cells persist, traffic to, and engraft in tissue reservoirs, and that this approach significantly reduces secondary lymphoid tissue viral reservoir size. Our robust NHP model of HIV gene therapy and viral persistence can be immediately applied to the investigation of combinatorial approaches that incorporate anti-HIV gene therapy, immune modulators, therapeutic vaccination, and latency reversing agents.

  8. Results from a horizon scan on risks associated with transplantation of human organs, tissues and cells: from donor to patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberts, C A; Park, M V D Z; Pot, J W G A; de Vries, C G J C A

    2015-03-01

    The successful transplantation of human materials such as organs, tissues and cells into patients does not only depend on the benefits, but also on the mitigation of risks. To gain insight into recent publications on risks associated with the process of transferring human materials from donor to recipient we performed a horizon scan by reviewing scientific literature and news websites of 2011 on this subject. We found there is ample information on how extended donor criteria, such as donor age, affect the survival rates of organs or patients. Interestingly, gender mismatch does not appear to be a major risk factor in organ rejection. Data on risks of donor tumor transmission was very scarce; however, risk categories for various tumor types have been suggested. In order to avoid rejection, a lot of research is directed towards engineering tissues from a patient's own tissues and cells. Some but not all of these developments have reached the clinic. Developments in the field of stem cell therapy are rapid. However, many hurdles are yet to be overcome before these cells can be applied on a large scale in the clinic. The processes leading to genetic abnormalities in cells differentiated from stem cells need to be identified in order to avoid transplantation of aberrant cells. New insights have been obtained on storage and preservation of human materials, a critical step for success of their clinical use. Likewise, quality management systems have been shown to improve the quality and safety of human materials used for transplantation.

  9. Detection of acute renal allograft rejection by analysis of Renal TissueProteomics in rat models of renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Y.; Lv, T.; Wang, K.; Li, D.; Huang, Y.; Liu, J.

    2008-01-01

    At present, the diagnosis of renal allograft rejection requires a renalbiopsy. Clinical management of renal transplant patients would be improved ifrapid, noninvasive and reliable biomarkers of rejection were available. Thisstudy is designed to determine whether such protein biomarkers can be foundin renal graft tissue proteomic approach. Orthotopic kidney transplantationswere performed using Fisher (F344) or Lewis rats as donors and Lewis rats asrecipients. Hence, there were two groups of renal transplant models: one isallograft (from F344 to Lewis rats); another is syngrafts (from Lewis toLewis rats) serving as control. Renal tissues were collected 3, 7 and 14 daysafter transplantation. As many 18 samples were analyzed by 2-DElectrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS). Elevendifferentially expressed proteins were identified between groups. Inconclusion, proteomic technology can detect renal tissue proteins associatedwith acute renal allograft rejection. Identification of these proteins asdiagnostic markers for rejection in patient's urine or sera may be useful andnon-invasive, and these proteins might serve as novel therapeutic targetsthat also help to improve the understanding of mechanisms of renal rejection.(author)

  10. Advanced biomaterial strategies to transplant preformed micro-tissue engineered neural networks into the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. P.; Struzyna, L. A.; Murphy, P. L.; Adewole, D. O.; Kuo, E.; Cullen, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Connectome disruption is a hallmark of many neurological diseases and trauma with no current strategies to restore lost long-distance axonal pathways in the brain. We are creating transplantable micro-tissue engineered neural networks (micro-TENNs), which are preformed constructs consisting of embedded neurons and long axonal tracts to integrate with the nervous system to physically reconstitute lost axonal pathways. Approach. We advanced micro-tissue engineering techniques to generate micro-TENNs consisting of discrete populations of mature primary cerebral cortical neurons spanned by long axonal fascicles encased in miniature hydrogel micro-columns. Further, we improved the biomaterial encasement scheme by adding a thin layer of low viscosity carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to enable needle-less insertion and rapid softening for mechanical similarity with brain tissue. Main results. The engineered architecture of cortical micro-TENNs facilitated robust neuronal viability and axonal cytoarchitecture to at least 22 days in vitro. Micro-TENNs displayed discrete neuronal populations spanned by long axonal fasciculation throughout the core, thus mimicking the general systems-level anatomy of gray matter—white matter in the brain. Additionally, micro-columns with thin CMC-coating upon mild dehydration were able to withstand a force of 893 ± 457 mN before buckling, whereas a solid agarose cylinder of similar dimensions was predicted to withstand less than 150 μN of force. This thin CMC coating increased the stiffness by three orders of magnitude, enabling needle-less insertion into brain while significantly reducing the footprint of previous needle-based delivery methods to minimize insertion trauma. Significance. Our novel micro-TENNs are the first strategy designed for minimally invasive implantation to facilitate nervous system repair by simultaneously providing neuronal replacement and physical reconstruction of long-distance axon pathways in the brain

  11. Porcine endogenous retroviral nucleic acid in peripheral tissues is associated with migration of porcine cells post islet transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binette, Tanya M; Seeberger, Karen L; Lyon, James G; Rajotte, Ray V; Korbutt, Gregory S

    2004-07-01

    Porcine islets represent an alternative source of insulin-producing tissue, however, porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) remains a concern. In this study, SCID mice were transplanted with nonencapsulated (non-EC), microencapsulated (EC) or macroencapsulated (in a TheraCyte trade mark device) neonatal porcine islets (NPIs), and peripheral tissues were screened for presence of viral DNA and mRNA. To understand the role of an intact immune system in PERV incidence, mice with established NPI grafts were reconstituted with splenocytes. Peripheral tissues were screened for PERV and porcine DNA using PCR. Tissues with positive DNA were analyzed for PERV mRNA using RT-PCR. No significant difference was observed between non-EC and EC transplants regarding presence of PERV or porcine-specific DNA or mRNA. In reconstituted animals, little PERV or porcine DNA, and no PERV mRNA was detected. No PERV or porcine-specific DNA was observed in animals implanted with a TheraCyte trade mark device. In conclusion, an intact immune system significantly lowered the presence of PERV. Microencapsulation of islets did not alter PERV presence, however, macroencapsulation in the TheraCyte device did. Lower PERV incidence coincided with lower porcine DNA in peripheral tissues, linking the presence of PERV to migration of porcine cells.

  12. Composition of MRI phantom equivalent to human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Kuroda, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Koichi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Kawasaki, Shoji; Shibuya, Koichi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2005-01-01

    We previously developed two new MRI phantoms (called the CAG phantom and the CAGN phantom), with T1 and T2 relaxation times equivalent to those of any human tissue at 1.5 T. The conductivity of the CAGN phantom is equivalent to that of most types of human tissue in the frequency range of 1 to 130 MHz. In this paper, the relaxation times of human tissues are summarized, and the composition of the corresponding phantoms are provided in table form. The ingredients of these phantoms are carrageenan as the gelling agent, GdCl 3 as a T1 modifier, agarose as a T2 modifier, NaCl (CAGN phantom only) as a conductivity modifier, NaN 3 as an antiseptic, and distilled water. The phantoms have T1 values of 202-1904 ms and T2 values of 38-423 ms when the concentrations of GdCl 3 and agarose are varied from 0-140 μmol/kg, and 0%-1.6%, respectively, and the CAGN phantom has a conductivity of 0.27-1.26 S/m when the NaCl concentration is varied from 0%-0.7%. These phantoms have sufficient strength to replicate a torso without the use of reinforcing agents, and can be cut by a knife into any shape. We anticipate the CAGN phantom to be highly useful and practical for MRI and hyperthermia-related research

  13. Restoration of ovarian activity and pregnancy after transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donnez, Jacques; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Pellicer, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive chemotherapy/radiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation can cure >90% of girls and young women affected by disorders requiring such treatment. However, the ovaries are very sensitive to cytotoxic drugs, especially to alkylating agents. Several options are currently available...

  14. GLOBAL CONSULTATION ON ESTABLISHMENT A UNIFIED SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM FOR DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION OF ORGANS, TISSUES AND CELLS OF HUMAN ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Orlova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From from February 7th to 9th 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO, the Italian National Transplant Cen- tre and the EU-funded Project «Vigilance and Surveillance of Substances of Human Origin» joined forces to organise a major global consultation that took place in Bologna, Italy. The scope of the project included organs, tissues and cells for transplantation and for assisted reproduction. The participants represented regulatory and non-regulatory government agencies, professional societies and scientific and clinical specialities from all WHO regions. The meeting explored the work already carried out on-line and agreed on priorities for the future deve- lopment of the Project «Vigilance and Surveillance of Substances of Human Origin». 

  15. FAMILY CONSENT FOR ORGAN OR TISSUE REMOVAL FROM A DECEASED PERSON FOR TRANSPLANTATION PURPOSES IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Nedić

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Croatia is a country with the system of presumed consent donation of organs and tissues after death, where the consent of the family, according to law, is not one of the conditions for organ or tissue removal for transplantation purposes. However, the consent is a condition required by the Codex of Medical Ethics and Deontology. The author primary proposes harmonization of the Codex with current legislation. Accordingly, this paper primarily analyses the typology of the Codex, ethical issues and ethical and positivist reasons to harmonize the Codex with current legislation. Furthermore, although the author in the first place considers that the Codex should be in line with legislation, he also considers the provision of family consent for organ and tissue removal itself flawed and poorly developed. In this regard, the author considers the comparative legislation and judgments of the European Court of Human Rights, analyses current provisions of the Codex in the part of the removal and transplantation of organs and tissues from deceased persons, states the facts that the Codex should contain so as to make the mechanism of family consent for organ and tissue removal and donation after death more effective. In fact, if the author’s original proposal for harmonization of the Codex with the current legislation is not accepted, a more detailed and precise elaboration of the mentioned current provisions of the Codex will be suggested. This will include exact definition of the family and relatives, exact deadlines and ways of informing the family, but also refining the concept of “ethical“ according to the Codex in part of the organ and tissue donation and removal from the deceased person.

  16. Fatty acid composition of ostrich (Struthio camelus abdominal adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Belichovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of foods has a great impact on nutrition and health. Therefore, thе determination and knowledge of the fatty acid composition of food is very important for nutrition. Due to the high nutritional characteristics of ostrich meat and its products, the research determining their quality is of topical interest. The aim of the present investigation was the determination of fatty acid composition of ostrich adipose tissue. The content of fatty acids was determined according to AOAC Official Methods of Analysis and determination was performed using a gas chromatograph with a flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The results are expressed as a percentage of the total content of fatty acids. The method was validated and whereupon the following parameters were determined: linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The repeatability was within of 0.99 to 2.15%, reproducibility from 2.01 to 4.57%, while recovery ranged from 94.89 to 101.03%. According to these results, this method is accurate and precise and can be used for analysis of fatty acids in foods. It was concluded that the content of saturated fatty acids (SFA accounted 34.75%, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA 38.37%, of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 26.88%, of total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA 65.25% and of desirable fatty acids (DFA (total unsaturated + stearic acid 70.37% of the analysed samples. The ratio polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids accounted 0.77. The most present fatty acid is the oleic (C18:1n9c with 28.31%, followed by palmitic (C16:0 with 27.12% and linoleic (C18:2n6c acid with 25.08%. Other fatty acids are contained in significantly lower quantities.

  17. Changes in Composition of the Gut Bacterial Microbiome after Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in a Pediatric Heart Transplant Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannigan, Kyle L; Rajbar, Taylor; Moffat, Andrew; McKenzie, Leanna S; Dicke, Frank; Rioux, Kevin; Workentine, Matthew L; Louie, Thomas J; Hirota, Simon A; Greenway, Steven C

    2017-01-01

    The microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important influence on human health and many of the comorbidities that affect patients after solid organ transplantation (SOT) have been shown to involve changes in gut bacterial populations. Thus, microbiome changes in an individual patient may have important health implications after SOT but this area remains understudied. We describe changes in the composition of the fecal microbiome from a pediatric heart transplant recipient before and >2.5 years after he underwent repeated fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). With both documented episodes of CDI, there was marked loss of bacterial diversity with overgrowth of Proteobacteria (>98.9% of phyla identified) associated with symptomatic colitis that was corrected after FMT. We hypothesize that a second CDI occurring after FMT was related to incomplete restoration of normal bowel flora post-FMT with relative deficiencies of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and the families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae . Following the second FMT, there was a gradual shift in gut bacterial composition coincident with the recipient developing lymphonodular hyperplasia of the colon and painless hematochezia that resolved with discontinuation of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). This case documents dynamic changes in the bacterial microbiome after FMT and suggests that MMF may influence the gut microbiome with consequences for the patient.

  18. The immune cell composition in Barrett's metaplastic tissue resembles that in normal duodenal tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Lind

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Barrett's esophagus (BE is characterized by the transition of squamous epithelium into columnar epithelium with intestinal metaplasia. The increased number and types of immune cells in BE have been indicated to be due to a Th2-type inflammatory process. We tested the alternative hypothesis that the abundance of T-cells in BE is caused by a homing mechanism that is found in the duodenum. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Biopsies from BE and duodenal tissue from 30 BE patients and duodenal tissue from 18 controls were characterized by immmunohistochemistry for the presence of T-cells and eosinophils(eos. Ex vivo expanded T-cells were further phenotyped by multicolor analysis using flowcytometry. RESULTS: The high percentage of CD4(+-T cells (69±3% (mean±SEM/n = 17, by flowcytometry, measured by flowcytometry and immunohistochemistry, and the presence of non-activated eosinophils found in BE by immunohistochemical staining, were not different from that found in duodenal tissue. Expanded lymphocytes from these tissues had a similar phenotype, characterized by a comparable but low percentage of αE(CD103 positive CD4(+cells (44±5% in BE, 43±4% in duodenum of BE and 34±7% in duodenum of controls and a similar percentage of granzyme-B(+CD8(+ cells(44±5% in BE, 33±6% in duodenum of BE and 36±7% in duodenum of controls. In addition, a similar percentage of α4β7(+ T-lymphocytes (63±5% in BE, 58±5% in duodenum of BE and 62±8% in duodenum of controls was found. Finally, mRNA expression of the ligand for α4β7, MAdCAM-1, was also similar in BE and duodenal tissue. No evidence for a Th2-response was found as almost no IL-4(+-T-cells were seen. CONCLUSION: The immune cell composition (lymphocytes and eosinophils and expression of intestinal adhesion molecule MAdCAM-1 is similar in BE and duodenum. This supports the hypothesis that homing of lymphocytes to BE tissue is mainly caused by intestinal homing signals rather than to an

  19. Developing bioactive composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun

    bone-like apatite/collagen composite coating. Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells were used to evaluate the cellular behaviors on these biomimetic coatings. Cell morphologies on the surfaces of PLLA films and scaffolds, PLLA films and scaffolds with apatite coating, and PLLA films and scaffolds with apatite/collagen composite coating were studied by SEM. Cell viability was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrasodium bromide (MTT) assay. In addition, differentiated cell function was assessed by measuring alkaline phosphatase activity. These results suggested that the apatite coating and apatite/collagen composite coating fabricated through the accelerated biomimetic processes could improve the interactions between osteoblasts and PLLA. The composite coating was more effective than apatite coating in improving such interactions. PLLA scaffolds coated with submicron collagen fibrils and submicron apatite paticulates are expected to be one of the promising 3D substrates for bone tissue engineering. To facilitate coating into scaffolds, the flowing condition was introduced into the accelerated biomimetic process. The apatite formed in the different sites in the scaffold was characterized using SEM. It was found that the accelerated biomimetic process performed in the flowing condition yielded more uniform spatial distribution of apatite particles than that in the regular shaking condition. This work provides a novel condition for obtaining uniform spatial distribution of bone-like apatite within the scaffolds in a timely manner, which is expected to facilitate uniform distribution of attached cells within the scaffoldsin vitro and in vivo.

  20. Bone marrow stromal cells elicit tissue sparing after acute but not delayed transplantation into the contused adult rat thoracic spinal cord.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tewarie, R.D.; Hurtado, A.; Ritfeld, G.J.; Rahiem, S.T.; Wendell, D.F.; Barroso, M.M.; Grotenhuis, J.A.; Oudega, M.

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) transplanted into the contused spinal cord may support repair by improving tissue sparing. We injected allogeneic BMSC into the moderately contused adult rat thoracic spinal cord at 15 min (acute) and at 3, 7, and 21 days (delayed) post-injury and quantified tissue

  1. Fertility preservation and refreezing of transplanted ovarian tissue-a potential new way of managing patients with low risk of malignant cell recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine Gry; Giorgione, Veronica; Humaidan, Peter

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the first successful refreezing of ovarian tissue recovered more than 3 years after transplantation in a woman previously treated for early-stage ovarian cancer. DESIGN: Evaluation of cryopreserved and grafted ovarian tissue. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): A 23-yea...

  2. Regeneration of skull bones in adult rabbits after implantation of commercial osteoinductive materials and transplantation of a tissue-engineering construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, A V; Alekseeva, I S; Kulakov, A A; Gol'dshtein, D V; Shustrov, S A; Shuraev, A I; Arutyunyan, I V; Bukharova, T B; Rzhaninova, A A; Bol'shakova, G B; Grigor'yan, A S

    2010-10-01

    We performed a comparative study of reparative osteogenesis in rabbits with experimental critical defects of the parietal bones after implantation of commercial osteoinductive materials "Biomatrix", "Osteomatrix", "BioOss" in combination with platelet-rich plasma and transplantation of a tissue-engineering construct on the basis of autogenic multipotent stromal cells from the adipose tissue predifferentiated in osteogenic direction. It was found that experimental reparative osteogenesis is insufficiently stimulated by implantation materials and full-thickness trepanation holes were not completely closed. After transplantation of the studied tissue-engineering construct, the defect was filled with full-length bone regenerate (in the center of the regenerate and from the maternal bone) in contrast to control and reference groups, where the bone tissue was formed only on the side of the maternal bone. On day 120 after transplantation of the tissue-engineering construct, the percent of newly-formed bone tissue in the regenerate was 24% (the total percent of bone tissue in the regenerate was 39%), which attested to active incomplete regenerative process in contrast to control and reference groups. Thus, the study demonstrated effective regeneration of the critical defects of the parietal bones in rabbits 120 days after transplantation of the tissue-engineering construct in contrast to commercial osteoplastic materials for directed bone regeneration.

  3. Arthroscopic Meniscal Allograft Transplantation With Soft-Tissue Fixation Through Bone Tunnels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Tim; Parkinson, Ben; Smith, Nick A; Verdonk, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Meniscal allograft transplantation improves clinical outcomes for patients with symptomatic meniscus-deficient knees. We describe an established arthroscopic technique for meniscal allograft transplantation without the need for bone fixation of the meniscal horns. After preparation of the meniscal bed, the meniscus is parachuted into the knee through a silicone cannula and the meniscal horns are fixed with sutures through bone tunnels. The body of the meniscus is then fixed with a combination of all-inside and inside-out sutures. This technique is reliable and reproducible and has clinical outcomes comparable with those of bone plug fixation techniques.

  4. Disseminated Soft Tissue Infection and Sepsis with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in a Bone Marrow Transplant Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H Lipton

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old female presented with aplastic anemia and subsequently underwent a one-antigen mismatched bone marrow transplant from her brother. She failed to engraft and a second graft was attempted. Protracted neutropenia of three months’ duration despite the use of broad spectrum antibiotics occurred. Stenotrophomonas (Xanthomonas maltophilia metastatic cellulitis developed that did not respond to appropriate antibiotics.

  5. Effects of fluid dynamic stress on fracturing of cell-aggregated tissue during purification for islets of Langerhans transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shintaku, H; Kawano, S [Department of Mechanical Science and Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Okitsu, T [Transplantation Unit, Kyoto University Hospital, Kawara-cho Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Matsumoto, S [Baylor Research Institute Islet Cell Laboratory, 1400 Eight Avenue, Fort Worth, TX 76104 (United States); Suzuki, T; Kanno, I; Kotera, H [Department of Microengineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: shintaku@me.es.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2008-06-07

    Among clinical treatments for type 1 diabetes mellitus, the transplantation of islets of Langerhans to the portal vein of the hepar is a commonly used treatment for glucose homeostasis. Islet purification using the density gradient of a solution in a centrifuge separator is required for safety and efficiency. In the purification, the number of tissues to be transplanted is reduced by removing the acinar tissue and gathering the islet from the digest of pancreas. However, the mechanical effects on the fracture of islets in the centrifuge due to fluid dynamic stress are a serious problem in the purification process. In this study, a preliminary experiment using a cylindrical rotating viscometer with a simple geometry is conducted in order to systematically clarify the effect of fluid dynamic stress on the fracture of islets. The effects of fluid dynamic stress on the islet configuration is quantitatively measured for various flow conditions, and a predictive fracture model is developed based on the experimental results. Furthermore, in the practical purification process in the COBE (Gambro BCT), which is widely used in clinical applications, we perform a numerical analysis of the fluid dynamic stress based on Navier-Stokes equations to estimate the stress conditions for islets. Using the fracture model and numerical analysis, the islet fracture characteristics using the COBE are successfully investigated. The results obtained in this study provide crucial information for the purification of islets by centrifuge in practical and clinical applications.

  6. Effects of fluid dynamic stress on fracturing of cell-aggregated tissue during purification for islets of Langerhans transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintaku, H; Kawano, S; Okitsu, T; Matsumoto, S; Suzuki, T; Kanno, I; Kotera, H

    2008-01-01

    Among clinical treatments for type 1 diabetes mellitus, the transplantation of islets of Langerhans to the portal vein of the hepar is a commonly used treatment for glucose homeostasis. Islet purification using the density gradient of a solution in a centrifuge separator is required for safety and efficiency. In the purification, the number of tissues to be transplanted is reduced by removing the acinar tissue and gathering the islet from the digest of pancreas. However, the mechanical effects on the fracture of islets in the centrifuge due to fluid dynamic stress are a serious problem in the purification process. In this study, a preliminary experiment using a cylindrical rotating viscometer with a simple geometry is conducted in order to systematically clarify the effect of fluid dynamic stress on the fracture of islets. The effects of fluid dynamic stress on the islet configuration is quantitatively measured for various flow conditions, and a predictive fracture model is developed based on the experimental results. Furthermore, in the practical purification process in the COBE (Gambro BCT), which is widely used in clinical applications, we perform a numerical analysis of the fluid dynamic stress based on Navier-Stokes equations to estimate the stress conditions for islets. Using the fracture model and numerical analysis, the islet fracture characteristics using the COBE are successfully investigated. The results obtained in this study provide crucial information for the purification of islets by centrifuge in practical and clinical applications

  7. Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Garth L.; Rajotte, Ray V.

    1992-01-01

    Transplantation of insulin-producing tissue offers a physiologic approach to restoration of glycemic control. Whereas transplantation of vascularized pancreatic grafts has recently achieved encouraging results, pancreatic islet cell transplantation holds the promise of low morbidity and reduced requirements for agressive immunosuppression for recipients. Islet cell transplantation was recently demonstrated to induce euglycemia with insulin independence. Imagesp1656-a PMID:21221366

  8. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation among alternatives for fertility preservation in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Tanbo, Tom; Tinkanen, Helena

    2016-01-01

    cryopreservation to be experimental. In Iceland, embryo cryopreservation is the only option for fertility preservation. Most centers use slow-freezing methods for ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Most patients selected for ovarian tissue cryopreservation were newly diagnosed with cancer and the tissue...

  9. Stem and stromal cell reconstitution of lethally irradiated mice following transplantation of hematopoietic tissue from donors of various ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, C.M.; Doran, G.A.; Crouse, D.A.; Sharp, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    If the limited life span of hematopoietic tissues in vitro is due to a finite proliferative capacity of individual stem cells, one might expect tissues of young donors to possess a greater proliferative capacity and to contain a larger population of primitive stem cells than those of older donors. To test this hypothesis, we used 12- and 8-day spleen colony formation (CFU-s) to assay more and less primitive stem cell subpopulations of three murine hematopoietic tissues: fetal liver (FL) and weanling (WBM) and adult (ABM) bone marrow. Subsequently, the same assays and a stromal cell assay were performed on the bone marrow from groups of lethally irradiated mice reconstituted with these tissues. Comparison of the CFU-s content of the donor tissues revealed that FL contained a significantly greater proportion of primitive stem cells as evidenced by a (Day 12):(Day 8) CFU-s ratio of 3.0 +/- 1.0 as compared to 0.9 +/- 0.1 for WBM and ABM. In addition, at 21 weeks post-transplantation the CFU-s/femur values of the FL reconstituted group were significantly greater than those of the ABM and WBM reconstituted groups. These results suggest that fetal hematopoietic tissue contains a greater proportion of primitive stem cells and has a greater proliferative potential than hematopoietic tissue from older donors. No differences were seen in stromal cell reconstitution of the three experimental groups. In all cases, assayable fibroblast colony forming cells (CFU-f) remained at 20-40% of control values, even at 21 weeks postreconstitution

  10. Induction of angiogenesis in tissue-engineered scaffolds designed for bone repair: a combined gene therapy-cell transplantation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbarzadeh, Ehsan; Starnes, Trevor; Khan, Yusuf M; Jiang, Tao; Wirtel, Anthony J; Deng, Meng; Lv, Qing; Nair, Lakshmi S; Doty, Steven B; Laurencin, Cato T

    2008-08-12

    One of the fundamental principles underlying tissue engineering approaches is that newly formed tissue must maintain sufficient vascularization to support its growth. Efforts to induce vascular growth into tissue-engineered scaffolds have recently been dedicated to developing novel strategies to deliver specific biological factors that direct the recruitment of endothelial cell (EC) progenitors and their differentiation. The challenge, however, lies in orchestration of the cells, appropriate biological factors, and optimal factor doses. This study reports an approach as a step forward to resolving this dilemma by combining an ex vivo gene transfer strategy and EC transplantation. The utility of this approach was evaluated by using 3D poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) sintered microsphere scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. Our goal was achieved by isolation and transfection of adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) with adenovirus encoding the cDNA of VEGF. We demonstrated that the combination of VEGF releasing ADSCs and ECs results in marked vascular growth within PLAGA scaffolds. We thereby delineate the potential of ADSCs to promote vascular growth into biomaterials.

  11. Induction of angiogenesis in tissue-engineered scaffolds designed for bone repair: A combined gene therapy–cell transplantation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbarzadeh, Ehsan; Starnes, Trevor; Khan, Yusuf M.; Jiang, Tao; Wirtel, Anthony J.; Deng, Meng; Lv, Qing; Nair, Lakshmi S.; Doty, Steven B.; Laurencin, Cato T.

    2008-01-01

    One of the fundamental principles underlying tissue engineering approaches is that newly formed tissue must maintain sufficient vascularization to support its growth. Efforts to induce vascular growth into tissue-engineered scaffolds have recently been dedicated to developing novel strategies to deliver specific biological factors that direct the recruitment of endothelial cell (EC) progenitors and their differentiation. The challenge, however, lies in orchestration of the cells, appropriate biological factors, and optimal factor doses. This study reports an approach as a step forward to resolving this dilemma by combining an ex vivo gene transfer strategy and EC transplantation. The utility of this approach was evaluated by using 3D poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) sintered microsphere scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. Our goal was achieved by isolation and transfection of adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) with adenovirus encoding the cDNA of VEGF. We demonstrated that the combination of VEGF releasing ADSCs and ECs results in marked vascular growth within PLAGA scaffolds. We thereby delineate the potential of ADSCs to promote vascular growth into biomaterials. PMID:18678895

  12. A calibration approach to glandular tissue composition estimation in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufhold, J.; Thomas, J.A.; Eberhard, J.W.; Galbo, C.E.; Trotter, D.E. Gonzalez

    2002-01-01

    The healthy breast is almost entirely composed of a mixture of fatty, epithelial, and stromal tissues which can be grouped into two distinctly attenuating tissue types: fatty and glandular. Further, the amount of glandular tissue is linked to breast cancer risk, so an objective quantitative analysis of glandular tissue can aid in risk estimation. Highnam and Brady have measured glandular tissue composition objectively. However, they argue that their work should only be used for 'relative' tissue measurements unless a careful calibration has been performed. In this work, we perform such a 'careful calibration' on a digital mammography system and use it to estimate breast tissue composition of patient breasts. We imaged 0%, 50%, and 100% glandular-equivalent phantoms of varying thicknesses for a number of clinically relevant x-ray techniques on a digital mammography system. From these images, we extracted mean signal and noise levels and computed calibration curves that can be used for quantitative tissue composition estimation. In this way, we calculate the percent glandular composition of a patient breast on a pixelwise basis. This tissue composition estimation method was applied to 23 digital mammograms. We estimated the quantitative impact of different error sources on the estimates of tissue composition. These error sources include compressed breast height estimation error, residual scattered radiation, quantum noise, and beam hardening. Errors in the compressed breast height estimate contribute the most error in tissue composition--on the order of ±7% for a 4 cm compressed breast height. The spatially varying scattered radiation will contribute quantitatively less error overall, but may be significant in regions near the skinline. It is calculated that for a 4 cm compressed breast height, a residual scatter signal error is mitigated by approximately sixfold in the composition estimate. The error in composition due to the quantum noise, which is the limiting

  13. Impact of Skeletal Muscle Mass Index, Intramuscular Adipose Tissue Content, and Visceral to Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Area Ratio on Early Mortality of Living Donor Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Yuhei; Kaido, Toshimi; Okumura, Shinya; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Shirai, Hisaya; Yagi, Shintaro; Kamo, Naoko; Okajima, Hideaki; Uemoto, Shinji

    2017-03-01

    Skeletal muscle depletion has been shown to be an independent risk factor for poor survival in various diseases. However, in surgery, the significance of other body components including visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue remains unclear. This retrospective study included 250 adult patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) between January 2008 and April 2015. Using preoperative plain computed tomography imaging at the third lumbar vertebra level, skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality, and visceral adiposity were evaluated by the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC), and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio (VSR), respectively. The cutoff values of these parameters were determined for men and women separately using the data of 657 healthy donors for LDLT between 2005 and 2016. Impact of these parameters on outcomes after LDLT was analyzed. VSR was significantly correlated with patient age (P = 0.041), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (P mass index (P normal group. On multivariate analysis, low SMI (hazard ratio [HR], 2.367, P = 0.002), high IMAC (HR, 2.096, P = 0.004), and high VSR (HR, 2.213, P = 0.003) were identified as independent risk factors for death after LDLT. Preoperative visceral adiposity, as well as low muscularity, was closely involved with posttransplant mortality.

  14. Tissue sparing, behavioral recovery, supraspinal axonal sparing/regeneration following sub-acute glial transplantation in a model of spinal cord contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Helen R; Plant, Christine D; Harvey, Alan R; Plant, Giles W

    2013-09-27

    It has been shown that olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) and Schwann cell (SCs) transplantation are beneficial as cellular treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI), especially acute and sub-acute time points. In this study, we transplanted DsRED transduced adult OEG and SCs sub-acutely (14 days) following a T10 moderate spinal cord contusion injury in the rat. Behaviour was measured by open field (BBB) and horizontal ladder walking tests to ascertain improvements in locomotor function. Fluorogold staining was injected into the distal spinal cord to determine the extent of supraspinal and propriospinal axonal sparing/regeneration at 4 months post injection time point. The purpose of this study was to investigate if OEG and SCs cells injected sub acutely (14 days after injury) could: (i) improve behavioral outcomes, (ii) induce sparing/regeneration of propriospinal and supraspinal projections, and (iii) reduce tissue loss. OEG and SCs transplanted rats showed significant increased locomotion when compared to control injury only in the open field tests (BBB). However, the ladder walk test did not show statistically significant differences between treatment and control groups. Fluorogold retrograde tracing showed a statistically significant increase in the number of supraspinal nuclei projecting into the distal spinal cord in both OEG and SCs transplanted rats. These included the raphe, reticular and vestibular systems. Further pairwise multiple comparison tests also showed a statistically significant increase in raphe projecting neurons in OEG transplanted rats when compared to SCs transplanted animals. Immunohistochemistry of spinal cord sections short term (2 weeks) and long term (4 months) showed differences in host glial activity, migration and proteoglycan deposits between the two cell types. Histochemical staining revealed that the volume of tissue remaining at the lesion site had increased in all OEG and SCs treated groups. Significant tissue sparing was

  15. Size and spatial orientation of uterine tissue transplants on the peritoneum crucially determine the growth and cyst formation of endometriosis-like lesions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körbel, Christina; Menger, Michael D; Laschke, Matthias W

    2010-10-01

    In many studies in rodents, intraperitoneal endometriosis-like lesions are surgically induced by syngeneic or autologous transplantation of uterine tissue samples, which are sutured to the abdominal wall. However, until now the surgical techniques have not been standardized, and we address this issue here. Uterine tissue samples were transplanted to the peritoneum of C57BL/6 mice (four study groups, n = 7 each). Using non-invasive high-resolution ultrasound imaging over a period of 4 weeks, we analyzed growth characteristics and cyst formation of the endometriosis-like lesions which developed, in relation to mode of transplantation (syngeneic versus autologous), type of tissue fixed adjacent to the peritoneum (endometrium versus perimetrium), and size of tissue transplanted (2 versus 3 mm). Immunohistochemical analysis was also performed. When the perimetrium, with underlying myometrium, was sutured next to the host peritoneum the endometriosis-like lesions which developed exhibited a higher growth rate (Pendometriosis-like lesions. Our study demonstrates that size and spatial orientation of peritoneally fixed uterine tissue samples crucially determine growth and cyst formation of endometriotic lesions in mice. These findings should improve the standardization and reliability of future studies, performed in the frequently used mouse model of surgically induced endometriosis.

  16. Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation to Prevent Antibody Mediated Rejection After Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0664 TITLE: Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation to Prevent Antibody-Mediated Rejection after...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2016 – 14 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation to...sensitization, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, antibody mediated rejection, donor specific antibodies 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  17. Non-invasive in-vivo imaging of stem cells after transplantation in cardiovascular tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Kastrup, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy for degenerative diseases, including ischemic heart disease is now a clinical reality. In the search for the optimal cell type for each patient category, many different stem cell subpopulations have been used. In addition, different cell processing procedures and delivery methods......, migration and efficacy of the transplanted cells. Great effort is being made in finding new and better imaging techniques for different imaging modalities, and much have already been learned. But there are still many unanswered questions. In this review, we give an overview of the imaging modalities used...

  18. The family interview in the process of donating organs and tissues for transplantation: perceptions of potential donors' relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, M J; Massarollo, M C K B; de Moraes, E L

    2014-01-01

    The family interview is a complex phase of the organ donation process because it involves aspects of the interviewer, the interviewee, the interview location, and ethical and legal issues. However, there are few publications on this phase of the donation process. This study aimed to reveal the meaning assigned to the interview phase, in the process of donating organs and tissues for transplantation, by the families of potential donors. We performed a qualitative study of the phenomenologic aspect, within the modality "structure situated phenomena." The study included the participation of 10 families. After analyzing the interviews, the meaning of the interview was unveiled by the family members. The statements revealed that the family interview is considered to be an important step for warnings, clarifications, and encouraging families to think about the possibility of donating to save and/or improve the quality of life of people in need for a transplant, and that studies contribute to the technical and scientific qualification of the interviewer as well as stimulate discussion among health professionals to improve the interviewing process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The importance of the biomimetic composites components for recreating the optical properties and molecular composition of intact dental tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredin, P. V.; Goloshchapov, D. L.; Gushchin, M. S.; Ippolitov, Y. A.; Prutskij, T.

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate whether it is possible to obtain biomimetic materials recreating the luminescent properties and molecular composition of intact dental tissues. Biomimetic materials were produced and their properties compared with native dental tissues. In addition, the overall contribution of the organic and non-organic components in the photoluminescence band was investigated. The results showed that it is possible to develop biomimetic materials with similar molecular composition and optical properties to native dental tissues for the early identification of dental caries.

  20. Hepatic tissue environment in NEMO-deficient mice critically regulates positive selection of donor cells after hepatocyte transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Kaldenbach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte transplantation (HT is a promising alternative treatment strategy for end-stage liver diseases compared with orthotopic liver transplantation. A limitation for this approach is the low engraftment of donor cells. The deletion of the I-kappa B kinase-regulatory subunit IKKγ/NEMO in hepatocytes prevents nuclear factor (NF-kB activation and triggers spontaneous liver apoptosis, chronic hepatitis and the development of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We hypothesized that NEMOΔhepa mice may therefore serve as an experimental model to study HT. METHODS: Pre-conditioned NEMOΔhepa mice were transplanted with donor-hepatocytes from wildtype (WT and mice deficient for the pro-apoptotic mediator Caspase-8 (Casp8Δhepa. RESULTS: Transplantation of isolated WT-hepatocytes into pre-conditioned NEMOΔhepa mice resulted in a 6-7 fold increase of donor cells 12 weeks after HT, while WT-recipients showed no liver repopulation. The use of apoptosis-resistant Casp8Δhepa-derived donor cells further enhanced the selection 3-fold after 12-weeks and up to 10-fold increase after 52 weeks compared with WT donors. While analysis of NEMOΔhepa mice revealed strong liver injury, HT-recipient NEMOΔhepa mice showed improved liver morphology and decrease in serum transaminases. Concomitant with these findings, the histological examination elicited an improved liver tissue architecture associated with significantly lower levels of apoptosis, decreased proliferation and a lesser amount of liver fibrogenesis. Altogether, our data clearly support the therapeutic benefit of the HT procedure into NEMOΔhepa mice. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the feasibility of the NEMOΔhepa mouse as an in vivo tool to study liver repopulation after HT. The improvement of the characteristic phenotype of chronic liver injury in NEMOΔhepa mice after HT suggests the therapeutic potential of HT in liver diseases with a chronic inflammatory phenotype and

  1. Repopulation dynamics of single haematopoietic stem cells in mouse transplantation experiments: Importance of stem cell composition in competitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Hideo; Uchinomiya, Kouki; Morita, Yohei; Suda, Toshio; Iwasa, Yoh

    2016-04-07

    The transplantation of blood tissues from bone marrow into a lethally irradiated animal is an experimental procedure that is used to study how the blood system is reconstituted by haematopoietic stem cells (HSC). In a competitive repopulation experiment, a lethally irradiated mouse was transplanted with a single HSC as a test cell together with a number of bone marrow cells as competitor cells, and the fraction of the test cell progeny (percentage of chimerism) was traced over time. In this paper, we studied the stem cell kinetics in this experimental procedure. The balance between symmetric self-renewal and differentiation divisions in HSC determined the number of cells which HSC produce and the length of time for which HSC live after transplantation. The percentage of chimerism depended on the type of test cell (long-, intermediate-, or short-term HSC), as well as the type and number of HSC included in competitor cells. We next examined two alternative HSC differentiation models, one-step and multi-step differentiation models. Although these models differed in blood cell production, the percentage of chimerism appeared very similar. We also estimated the numbers of different types of HSC in competitor cells. Based on these results, we concluded that the experimental results inevitably include stochasticity with regard to the number and the type of HSC in competitor cells, and that, in order to detect different types of HSC, an appropriate number of competitor cells needs to be used in transplantation experiments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Transplantation of colon carcinoma into granulation tissue induces an invasive morphotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, K. P.; Zeeman-Boeschoten, I. M.; Keep, R. F.; Das, P. K.

    1993-01-01

    The stroma surrounding many malignant tumors resembles granulation tissue. To test the hypothesis that such stroma stimulates tumor invasiveness, we compared, by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, the growth patterns of CC531 rat colon adenocarcinoma in 2 experimental situations: (i)

  3. Efficiency of calcium phosphate composite nanoparticles in targeting Ehrlich carcinoma cells transplanted in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman I. Abdel-Gawad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the mode of action of nano-CaPs in vivo as a therapy for solid tumor in mice. To achieve this goal, Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC was transplanted into 85 Swiss male albino mice. After nine days, the mice were divided into 9 groups. Groups 1 and 2 were allocated as the EAC control. Groups 3 and 4 were injected once intratumorally (IT by nano-calcium phosphate (nano-CaP. Groups 5 and 6 received once intraperitoneal injection (IP of nano-CaP. Groups 7, 8, and 9 received nano-CaP (IP weekly. Blood samples and thigh skeletal muscle were collected after three weeks from groups 1, 3, 5, and 7 and after four weeks from groups 2, 4, 6, and 8. On the other hand, group 9 received nano-CaP (IP for four weeks and lasted for three months to follow up the recurrence of tumor and to ensure the safety of muscle by histopathological analysis. Tumor growth was monitored twice a week throughout the experiment. DNA fragmentation of tumor cells was evaluated. In thigh tissue, noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin (5HT, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA were measured. In serum, 8-Hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHDG, adenosine triphosphate (ATP, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were analyzed. Histopathological and biochemical results showed a significant therapeutic effect of nano-CaP on implanted solid tumor and this effect was more pronounced in the animals treated IP for four weeks. This improvement was evident from the repair of fragmented DNA, the significant decrease of caspase-3, 8-OHDG, myosin, and VEGF, and the significant increase of neurotransmitters (NA, DA, 5HT, and GABA. Additionally, histopathological examination showed complete recovery of cancer cells in the thigh muscle after three months.

  4. Importance of good manufacturing practices in microbiological monitoring in processing human tissues for transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianigiani, Elisa; Ierardi, Francesca; Fimiani, Michele

    2013-12-01

    Skin allografts represent an important therapeutic resource in the treatment of severe skin loss. The risk associated with application of processed tissues in humans is very low, however, human material always carries the risk of disease transmission. To minimise the risk of contamination of grafts, processing is carried out in clean rooms where air quality is monitored. Procedures and quality control tests are performed to standardise the production process and to guarantee the final product for human use. Since we only validate and distribute aseptic tissues, we conducted a study to determine what type of quality controls for skin processing are the most suitable for detecting processing errors and intercurrent contamination, and for faithfully mapping the process without unduly increasing production costs. Two different methods for quality control were statistically compared using the Fisher exact test. On the basis of the current study we selected our quality control procedure based on pre- and post-processing tissue controls, operator and environmental controls. Evaluation of the predictability of our control methods showed that tissue control was the most reliable method of revealing microbial contamination of grafts. We obtained 100 % sensitivity by doubling tissue controls, while maintaining high specificity (77 %).

  5. Phyllosphere Microbiota Composition and Microbial Community Transplantation on Lettuce Plants Grown Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aerial surfaces of plants, or phyllosphere, are microbial habitats important to plant and human health. In order to accurately investigate microbial interactions in the phyllosphere under laboratory conditions, the composition of the phyllosphere microbiota should be representative of the diversity of microorganisms residing on plants in nature. We found that Romaine lettuce grown in the laboratory contained 10- to 100-fold lower numbers of bacteria than age-matched, field-grown lettuce. The bacterial diversity on laboratory-grown plants was also significantly lower and contained relatively higher proportions of Betaproteobacteria as opposed to the Gammaproteobacteria-enriched communities on field lettuce. Incubation of field-grown Romaine lettuce plants in environmental growth chambers for 2 weeks resulted in bacterial cell densities and taxa similar to those on plants in the field but with less diverse bacterial populations overall. In comparison, the inoculation of laboratory-grown Romaine lettuce plants with either freshly collected or cryopreserved microorganisms recovered from field lettuce resulted in the development of a field-like microbiota on the lettuce within 2 days of application. The survival of an inoculated strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was unchanged by microbial community transfer; however, the inoculation of E. coli O157:H7 onto those plants resulted in significant shifts in the abundance of certain taxa. This finding was strictly dependent on the presence of a field-associated as opposed to a laboratory-associated microbiota on the plants. Phyllosphere microbiota transplantation in the laboratory will be useful for elucidating microbial interactions on plants that are important to agriculture and microbial food safety. PMID:25118240

  6. Detection of hepatitis C virus sequences in brain tissue obtained in recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Hugo E; Laskus, Tomasz; Radkowski, Marek; Wilkinson, Jeff; Balan, Vijay; Douglas, David D; Harrison, M Edwyn; Mulligan, David C; Olden, Kevin; Adair, Debra; Rakela, Jorge

    2002-11-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis C frequently report tiredness, easy fatigability, and depression. The aim of this study is to determine whether hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication could be found in brain tissue in patients with hepatitis C and depression. We report two patients with recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation who also developed severe depression. One patient died of multiorgan failure and the other, septicemia caused by Staphylococcus aureussis. Both patients had evidence of severe hepatitis C recurrence with features of cholestatic fibrosing hepatitis. We were able to study samples of their central nervous system obtained at autopsy for evidence of HCV replication. The presence of HCV RNA-negative strand, which is the viral replicative form, was determined by strand-specific Tth-based reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Viral sequences were compared by means of single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing. HCV RNA-negative strands were found in subcortical white matter from one patient and cerebral cortex from the other patient. HCV RNA-negative strands amplified from brain tissue differed by several nucleotide substitutions from serum consensus sequences in the 5' untranslated region. These findings support the concept of HCV neuroinvasion, and we speculate that it may provide a biological substrate to neuropsychiatric disorders observed in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The exact lineage of cells permissive for HCV replication and the possible interaction between viral replication and cerebral function that may lead to depression remain to be elucidated.

  7. Optical study on the dependence of breast tissue composition and structure on subject anamnesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Paola; Quarto, Giovanna; Pifferi, Antonio; Abbate, Francesca; Balestreri, Nicola; Menna, Simona; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2015-07-01

    Time domain multi-wavelength (635 to 1060 nm) optical mammography was performed on 200 subjects to estimate their average breast tissue composition in terms of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipid and collagen, and structural information, as provided by scattering parameters (amplitude and power). Significant (and often marked) dependence of tissue composition and structure on age, menopausal status, body mass index, and use of oral contraceptives was demonstrated.

  8. Fabrication of chitin-chitosan/nano TiO2-composite scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, R; Ramachandran, Roshni; Divyarani, V V; Chennazhi, K P; Tamura, H; Nair, S V

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we prepared chitin-chitosan/nano TiO(2) composite scaffolds using lyophilization technique for bone tissue engineering. The prepared composite scaffold was characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR and TGA. In addition, swelling, degradation and biomineralization capability of the composite scaffolds were evaluated. The developed composite scaffold showed controlled swelling and degradation when compared to the control scaffold. Cytocompatibility of the scaffold was assessed by MTT assay and cell attachment studies using osteoblast-like cells (MG-63), fibroblast cells (L929) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Results indicated no sign of toxicity and cells were found attached to the pore walls within the scaffolds. These results suggested that the developed composite scaffold possess the prerequisites for tissue engineering scaffolds and it can be used for tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cryopreservation of porcine fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue for intrastriatal transplantation in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, J.; Hogenesch, I.; Copray, S.; Middel, B.; van Dijk, H.; Go, K-G.; Staal, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we examined the efficacy of cryopreserving porcine fetal mesencephalic tissue. After microscopical dissection of the ventral mesencephalon (VM) from E28 pig fetuses, the collection of explants was randomly divided into two equal parts. One part was directly prepared as cell suspension.

  10. Elemental composition of skin tissue by PIXE and INAA analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollands, R.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars are a particular type of scar that can form after any type of dermal injury. They are unsightly, red, elevated above normal skin level, itchy and painful. At present no-one knows why these scars form. Due to the differences between scar tissue and normal skin it was decided to analyse skin tissue which at a later date would be compared to scar tissue. Spit skin graft (epidermis) samples as well as full thickness skin (epidermis to dermis) tissue were analysed using PIXE and RBS with a 2 MeV proton beam. The epidermis was compared to the dermis to see if there were any variations between the two. In all the samples P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, and Cd were detected and in a majority of the samples Zn and Ba were found, using PIXE. It was found that, between the epidermis and dermis, there was an significant increase in P in the epidermis in both full thickness and split skin graft samples. Complementary elemental analysis was also performed using neutron activation, and Br, Na and Zn were detected. (author)

  11. Infections in the tissue material and their impact on the loss of transplants in the Laboratory of in vitro Cell and Tissue Culture with Tissue Bank in the years 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitala, D; Klama-Baryła, A; Kawecki, M; Kraut, M; Łabuś, W; Glik, J; Ples, M; Tomanek, E; Nowak, M

    2017-03-01

    Radiation sterilization eliminates microbiological infections but causes the degradation of the cell factor. The negative result of microbiological examination for tissue transplants is one of the conditions for approval for distribution in patients. The study attempts to verify impact of the presence of microbes onto material for transplant loss. In the 2011-2015 period, we analyzed 293 donors of skin and amnion. Microbiological sampling was performed. The total of 21 strains of bacteria, molds and fungi was identified in collected tissue. The widest spectrum of strains was found in skin (17), followed by amnia (8). The total number of positive findings was 147 and was again highest in skin (129), while the number of positive findings in amnia was 18 only. The general percentage of fungal infections was very low. The presence of fungal strains was only observed in allogeneic skin (2%). Large number of microorganisms isolated from the skin before sterilization was observed, so it seems impossible to use allogeneic intravital skin. However, the intravital application of allogeneic amnion obtained from cesarean section remains to be considered.

  12. Fatty acid composition of muscle and heart tissue of Nile perch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid composition in the heart tissue and muscle tissue of the Nile perch, Lates niloticus, and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus populations from Lakes Kioga and Victoria was determined by methanolysis and gas chromatography of the resulting fatty acid methyl esters. The analytical data were treated by ...

  13. Dual growth factor delivery from bilayered, biodegradable hydrogel composites for spatially-guided osteochondral tissue repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, S.; Lam, J.; Trachtenberg, J.E.; Lee, E.J.; Seyednejad, H.; van den Beucken, J.J.; Tabata, Y.; Wong, M.E.; Jansen, J.A.; Mikos, A.G.; Kasper, F.K.

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigated the use of biodegradable hydrogel composite scaffolds, based on the macromer oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF), to deliver growth factors for the repair of osteochondral tissue in a rabbit model. In particular, bilayered OPF composites were used to mimic the

  14. Erythropoietin promotes network formation of transplanted adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Karschnia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The seeding of tissue constructs with adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments (ad-MVF is an emerging pre-vascularisation strategy. Ad-MVF rapidly reassemble into new microvascular networks after in vivo implantation. Herein it was analysed whether this process was improved by erythropoietin (EPO. Ad-MVF were isolated from green fluorescent protein (GFP+ as well as wild-type C57BL/6 mice and cultivated for 24 h in medium supplemented with EPO (20 IU/mL or vehicle. Freshly isolated, non-cultivated ad-MVF served as controls. Protein expression, cell viability and proliferation of ad-MVF were assessed by proteome profiler array and fluorescence microscopy. GFP+ ad-MVF were seeded on collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrices, which were implanted into dorsal skinfold chambers of C57BL/6 mice, to analyse their vascularisation over 14 d by intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry. Cultivation up-regulated the expression of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors within both vehicle- and EPO-treated ad-MVF when compared with non-cultivated controls. Moreover, EPO treatment suppressed cultivation-associated apoptosis and significantly increased the number of proliferating endothelial cells in ad-MVF when compared with vehicle-treated and non-cultivated ad-MVF. Accordingly, implanted matrices seeded with EPO-treated ad-MVF exhibited an improved vascularisation, as indicated by a significantly higher functional microvessel density. The matrices of the three groups contained a comparably large fraction of GFP+ microvessels originating from the ad-MVF, whereas the tissue surrounding the matrices seeded with EPO-treated ad-MVF exhibited a significantly increased microvessel density when compared with the other two groups. These findings indicated that EPO represents a promising cytokine to further boost the excellent vascularisation properties of ad-MVF in tissue-engineering applications.

  15. Incorporating placental tissue in cord blood banking for stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teofili, Luciana; Silini, Antonietta R; Bianchi, Maria; Valentini, Caterina Giovanna; Parolini, Ornella

    2018-06-01

    Human term placenta is comprised of various tissues from which different cell populations can be obtained, including hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Areas covered: This review will discuss the possibility to incorporate placental tissue cells in cord blood banking. It will discuss general features of human placenta, with a brief review of the immune cells at the fetal-maternal interface and the different cell populations isolated from placenta, with a particular focus on MSCs. It will address the question as to why placenta-derived MSCs should be banked with their hematopoietic counterparts. It will discuss clinical trials which are studying safety and efficacy of placenta tissue-derived MSCs in selected diseases, and preclinical studies which have proven their therapeutic properties in other diseases. It will discuss banking of umbilical cord blood and raise several issues for improvement, and the applications of cord blood cells in non-malignant disorders. Expert Commentary: Umbilical cord blood banking saves lives worldwide. The concomitant banking of non-hematopoietic cells from placenta, which could be applied therapeutically in the future, alone or in combination to their hematopoietic counterparts, could exploit current banking processes while laying the foundation for clinical trials exploring placenta-derived cell therapies in regenerative medicine.

  16. REE compositions in fossil vertebrate dental tissues indicate biomineral preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žigaite, Ž.; Kear, B.; Pérez-Huerta, A.; Jeffries, T.; Blom, H.

    2012-04-01

    Rare earth element (REE) abundances have been measured in a number of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic dental tissues using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Fossil vertebrates analysed comprise scales and tesserae of Silurian and Devonian acanthodians, chondrichthyans, galeaspids, mongolepids, thelodonts, as well as teeth of Cretaceous lungfish and marine reptiles. The evaluation of fossil preservation level has been made by semi-quantitative spot geochemistry analyses on fine polished teeth and scale thin sections, using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Fossil teeth and scales with significant structure and colour alteration have shown elevated heavy element concentrations, and the silicification of bioapatite has been common in their tissues. Stable oxygen isotope measurements (δ18O) of bulk biomineral have been conducted in parallel, and showed comparatively lower heavy oxygen values in the same fossil tissues with stronger visible alteration. Significant difference in REE concentrations has been observed between the dentine and enamel of Cretaceous plesiosaurs, suggesting the enamel to be more geochemically resistant to diagenetic overprint.

  17. Study on the transplant impact on the elementary composition of Protousnea magellanica thallus by using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubach, Debora; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro; Arribere, Maria A.; Wiesztort, Andres; Calvelo, Susana

    1999-01-01

    As part of a study on the use of the furticose lichen Protousnea magellanica as a bio indicator of atmospheric pollution, it was studied the impact on the elemental composition of the thallus when this lichen is transplanted in the same area under similar environmental conditions. The lichens were collected and replanted in a pristine area in Puerto Blest, Nahuel Huapi National Park, Bariloche, Argentina. After one year, the transplanted thalli were collected and analyzed by using Instrumental Activation Analysis, complemented with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry for the Pb content determination. Crustal inputs were identified by computing enrichment factors. The transplanted thalli concentrations of most of the elements under study, Al, As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Dy, Eu, Hg, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Pb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Tb, Ti, Th, V, Yb and Zn, showed no significant differences with respect to the control thalli. However, some biological elements, Ca, Cl, Br, K and Rb, showed significant variations with respect to the controls, more noticeable in the first two elements. (author)

  18. Promotion of Survival and Engraftment of Transplanted Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal and Vascular Cells by Overexpression of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Baldari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Short-term persistence of transplanted cells during early post-implant period limits clinical efficacy of cell therapy. Poor cell survival is mainly due to the harsh hypoxic microenvironment transplanted cells face at the site of implantation and to anoikis, driven by cell adhesion loss. We evaluated the hypothesis that viral-mediated expression of a gene conferring hypoxia resistance to cells before transplant could enhance survival of grafted cells in early stages after implant. We used adipose tissue as cell source because it consistently provides high yields of adipose-tissue-derived stromal and vascular cells (ASCs, suitable for regenerative purposes. Luciferase positive cells were transduced with lentiviral vectors expressing either green fluorescent protein as control or human manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2. Cells were then exposed in vitro to hypoxic conditions, mimicking cell transplantation into an ischemic site. Cells overexpressing SOD2 displayed survival rates significantly greater compared to mock transduced cells. Similar results were also obtained in vivo after implantation into syngeneic mice and assessment of cell engraftment by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. Taken together, these findings suggest that ex vivo gene transfer of SOD2 into ASCs before implantation confers a cytoprotective effect leading to improved survival and engraftment rates, therefore enhancing cell therapy regenerative potential.

  19. Effects of thiosulfonates on the lipid composition of rat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Pylypets

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thiosulfonates are synthetic analogs of organic sulfur-containing compounds isolated from plants. Recent studies have shown that these substances lowering cholesterol content in the body, are effective against hyperlipidemia. Therefore, the aim of our investigation was to study the effect of synthesized thiosulfonates on the content of lipids and their spectrum in rats blood, liver and kidney. The amount of total lipids and their fractional profile were determined by thin-layer chromatography. The administration of methyl-, ethyl-, and allylthiosulfonates at a dose of 300 mg/kg of body weight did not cause significant changes in the content of total lipids and phospholipids, but led to the redistribution of their classes in the examined tissues. The content of triacylglycerols in the blood plasma under the action of ethyl- and allylthiosulfonates was decreased by 29.14 and 23.19% (P < 0.05-0.01, respectively, whereas the injection with methyl- and ethylthiosulfonates was accompanied by a significant decrease in mono-, di-, triglycerides and free fatty acids in the liver compared to control. The most significant changes in the lipid profile of kidney tissue were detected under the action of methylthiosulfonate.

  20. Arthroscopic treatment of chondral defects in the hip: AMIC, MACI, microfragmented adipose tissue transplantation (MATT and other options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannelli Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondral lesions are currently considered in the hip as a consequence of trauma, osteonecrosis, dysplasia, labral tears, loose bodies, dislocation, previous slipped capital femoral epiphysis and Femoro-Acetabular-Impingement (FAI. The management of chondral lesions is debated and several techniques are described. The physical examination must be carefully performed, followed by radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Differential diagnosis with other pathologies must be considered. Debridement is indicated in patients younger than 50 years with a chondropathy of 1st or 2nd degree. Microfractures are indicated in patients younger than 50 years with a chondropathy of 3rd or 4th degree less than 2 cm2. Matrix-Induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (MACI and Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis (AMIC procedures are indicated in patients with full-thickness symptomatic 3rd–4th degree chondral defects, extended 2 cm2 or more. The AMIC procedure has the advantage of a one-step procedure and much less expense. Microfragmented adipose tissue transplantation (MATT is indicated for the treatment of delamination and 1st and 2nd degree chondral lesions, regardless of the age of the patient. Chondral defects are effective when the joint space is not compromised. When the Tonnis classification is two or greater, treatment of chondral lesions should be considered ineffective.

  1. Graft Product for Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation Enhances Thrombin Generation and Expresses Procoagulant Microparticles and Tissue Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidibe, Fatoumata; Spanoudaki, Anastasia; Vanneaux, Valerie; Mbemba, Elisabeth; Larghero, Jerome; Van Dreden, Patrick; Lotz, Jean-Pierre; Elalamy, Ismail; Larsen, Annette K; Gerotziafas, Grigoris T

    2018-05-01

    The beneficial effect of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT) may be compromised by acute vascular complications related to hypercoagulability. We studied the impact of graft product on thrombin generation of normal plasma and the expression of tissue factor (TF) and procoagulant platelet-derived procoagulant microparticles (Pd-MPs) in samples of graft products. Graft products from 10 patients eligible for APBSCT were mixed with platelet-poor plasma (PPP) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) from healthy volunteers and assessed for in vitro thrombin generation. In control experiments, thrombin generation was assessed in (1) PPP and PRP without any exogenous TF and/or procoagulant phospholipids, (2) PPP with the addition of TF (5 pM) and procoagulant phospholipids (4 μM), (3) in PRP with the addition of TF (5 pM). Graft products were assessed with Western blot assay for TF expression, with a specific clotting assay for TF activity and with flow cytometry assay for Pd-MPs. The graft product enhanced thrombin generation and its procoagulant activity was related to the presence of Pd-MPs and TF. The concentration of Pd-MPs in the graft product was characterized by a significant interindividual variability. The present study reveals the need for a thorough quality control of the graft products regarding their procoagulant potential.

  2. Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplantation: A new era in transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock, Garth L.; Rajotte, Ray V.

    1992-01-01

    Transplantation of insulin-producing tissue offers a physiologic approach to restoration of glycemic control. Whereas transplantation of vascularized pancreatic grafts has recently achieved encouraging results, pancreatic islet cell transplantation holds the promise of low morbidity and reduced requirements for agressive immunosuppression for recipients. Islet cell transplantation was recently demonstrated to induce euglycemia with insulin independence.

  3. Mucosal pH, dental findings, and salivary composition in pediatric liver transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovich, E.; Asher, R.; Shapira, J.; Brand, H.S.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Shapiro, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Oral health and dental maintenance have become part of the standard of care for pediatric liver transplant recipients. These individuals tend to suffer particularly from dental problems, such as gingival enlargement, gingivitis, poor oral hygiene, dental hypoplasia, and caries. Saliva

  4. Leg tissue composition and physico-chemical parameters of sheep meat fed annatto coproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate leg tissue composition and physico-chemical quality parameters of sheep meat fed with increasing levels of annatto coproduct. 32 male uncastrated animals without a defined breed were randomized in four treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg-1 of annatto coproduct in the DM diet. After 78 days of confinement, the animals were slaughtered and body components were recorded. Reconstituted leg weight, total muscle weight, biceps weight and semitendinosus weight showed a negative linear behavior (P 0.05 were found for leg tissue composition (%, muscle:bone ratio, relative fat or leg muscle. Meat physico-chemical parameters (color, shear force, water retention capacity and cooking losses were not affected by the inclusion of the annatto coproduct in the diet. The annatto coproduct can be included in up to 300 g kg-1 of dietary dry matter without negative effects to the leg tissue composition (% and physical parameters of confined sheep meat.

  5. Tissue biocompatibility of kevlar aramid fibers and polymethylmethacrylate, composites in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J D; Mullarky, R H; Ryan, D E

    1987-01-01

    Two groups of female NZW rabbits were implanted in the paravertebral muscles with aramid (du Pont Kevlar aramid 49) fibers and aramid-polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) composites for 14 and 28 days. Rabbits were killed at these times periods, necropsies performed, sites scored for gross tissue response, and tissue specimens containing the implants removed for histopathological evaluation. A mild fibrous tissue reaction was observed around all implants containing aramid fiber similar to that observed around the silicone control implant. Some foreign body giant cells were also present adjacent to the fibers. An intense necrotic inflammatory reaction was present around the positive control material (PVC Y-78). The tissue response to implantation of aramid fiber and fiber-PMMA composites indicates that aramid is a biocompatible material.

  6. Recusa de doação de órgãos e tecidos para transplante relatados por familiares de potenciais doadores Negación de donación de órganos y tejidos para transplante relatados por familiares de potenciales donadores Reasons for the family members' refusal to donate organ and tissue for transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Leal de Moraes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer a percepção de familiares de potenciais doadores sobre os motivos de recusa para doação de órgãos e tecidos para transplante. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, na vertente fenomenológica, modalidade "estrutura do fenômeno situado". Participaram do estudo oito familiares que recusaram a doação dos órgãos e tecidos. RESULTADOS: Após análise das entrevistas, foram revelados dez motivos de recusa, considerados pelos familiares. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: As proposições que emergiram revelaram que os motivos de recusa familiar para doação de órgãos e tecidos estão relacionados à crença, valores e inadequações no processo de doação e transplante.OBJETIVO: Conocer la percepción de familiares de potenciales donadores sobre los motivos de su negación para la donación de órganos y tejidos para transplante. MÉTODOS: Se trata de una investigación cualitativa, en la vertiente fenomenológica, modalidad "estructura del fenómeno situado". Participaron del estudio ocho familiares que se negaron a la donación de órganos y tejidos. RESULTADOS: Después del análisis de las entrevistas se revelaron diez motivos de negación expuestos por los familiares. CONSIDERACIONES FINALES: Las proposiciones que emergieron revelaron que los motivos de la negativa familiar para la donación de órganos y tejidos están relacionados a la creencia, valores e inadecuaciones en el proceso de donación y transplante.OBJECTIVE: To understand the perception of family members of potential donors in regard to their reasons for refusal to donate organ and tissue for transplant. METHODS: A qualitative phenomenological approach was used to conduct this study. A sample of eight family members who refused to donate organ and tissue for transplant participated in the study. RESULTS: Participants reported ten reasons for refusal to donate organ and tissue for transplant. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: Reasons for the family members

  7. Branched Nerve Allografts to Improve Outcomes in Facial Composite Tissue Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    and formally switched to the direct intra-operative nerve stimulation for our electrophysiologic assessment at the time of nerve explantation (24...0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing... times and avoidance of donor site morbidity. This study aims to evaluate the functional and histologic recovery of a novel branched acellular nerve

  8. Analysing breast tissue composition with MRI using currently available short, simple sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, A.C.M.; Hua, J.; Taylor, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the most robust commonly available magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence to quantify breast tissue composition at 1.5 T. Materials and methods: Two-dimensional (2D) T1-weighted, Dixon fat, Dixon water and SPAIR images were obtained from five participants and a breast phantom using a 1.5 T Siemens Aera MRI system. Manual segmentation of the breasts was performed, and an in-house computer program was used to generate signal intensity histograms. Relative trough depth and relative peak separation were used to determine the robustness of the images for quantifying the two breast tissues. Total breast volumes and percentage breast densities calculated using the four sequences were compared. Results: Dixon fat histograms had consistently low relative trough depth and relative peak separation compared to those obtained using other sequences. There was no significant difference in total breast volumes and percentage breast densities of the participants or breast phantom using Dixon fat and 2D T1-weighted histograms. Dixon water and SPAIR histograms were not suitable for quantifying breast tissue composition. Conclusion: Dixon fat images are the most robust for the quantification of breast tissue composition using a signal intensity histogram. - Highlights: • Signal intensity histogram analysis can determine robustness of images for quantification of breast tissue composition. • Dixon fat images are the most robust. • The characteristics of the signal intensity histograms from Dixon water and SPAIR images make quantification unsuitable.

  9. Sensitivity of low energy brachytherapy Monte Carlo dose calculations to uncertainties in human tissue composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Murrer, Lars; Lutgens, Ludy; Bloemen-Van Gurp, Esther; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Keller, Brian; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Departement de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie, de l' Universite Laval, CHUQ, Pavillon L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada) and Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d' Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands) and Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to assess the sensitivity of Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations to uncertainties in human tissue composition for a range of low photon energy brachytherapy sources: {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, {sup 131}Cs, and an electronic brachytherapy source (EBS). The low energy photons emitted by these sources make the dosimetry sensitive to variations in tissue atomic number due to the dominance of the photoelectric effect. This work reports dose to a small mass of water in medium D{sub w,m} as opposed to dose to a small mass of medium in medium D{sub m,m}. Methods: Mean adipose, mammary gland, and breast tissues (as uniform mixture of the aforementioned tissues) are investigated as well as compositions corresponding to one standard deviation from the mean. Prostate mean compositions from three different literature sources are also investigated. Three sets of MC simulations are performed with the GEANT4 code: (1) Dose calculations for idealized TG-43-like spherical geometries using point sources. Radial dose profiles obtained in different media are compared to assess the influence of compositional uncertainties. (2) Dose calculations for four clinical prostate LDR brachytherapy permanent seed implants using {sup 125}I seeds (Model 2301, Best Medical, Springfield, VA). The effect of varying the prostate composition in the planning target volume (PTV) is investigated by comparing PTV D{sub 90} values. (3) Dose calculations for four clinical breast LDR brachytherapy permanent seed implants using {sup 103}Pd seeds (Model 2335, Best Medical). The effects of varying the adipose/gland ratio in the PTV and of varying the elemental composition of adipose and gland within one standard deviation of the assumed mean composition are investigated by comparing PTV D{sub 90} values. For (2) and (3), the influence of using the mass density from CT scans instead of unit mass density is also assessed. Results: Results from simulation (1) show that variations

  10. Effect of Strain, Region, and Tissue Composition on Glucose Partitioning in Meniscus Fibrocartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Kelsey L; Jackson, Alicia R

    2017-03-01

    A nearly avascular tissue, the knee meniscus relies on diffusive transport for nutritional supply to cells. Nutrient transport depends on solute partitioning in the tissue, which governs the amount of nutrients that can enter a tissue. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of mechanical strain, tissue region, and tissue composition on the partition coefficient of glucose in meniscus fibrocartilage. A simple partitioning experiment was employed to measure glucose partitioning in porcine meniscus tissues from two regions (horn and central), from both meniscal components (medial and lateral), and at three levels of compression (0%, 10%, and 20%). Partition coefficient values were correlated to strain level, water volume fraction, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of tissue specimens. Partition coefficient values ranged from 0.47 to 0.91 (n = 48). Results show that glucose partition coefficient is significantly (p < 0.001) affected by compression, decreasing with increasing strain. Furthermore, we did not find a statistically significant effect of tissue when comparing medial versus lateral (p = 0.181) or when comparing central and horn regions (p = 0.837). There were significant positive correlations between tissue water volume fraction and glucose partitioning for all groups. However, the correlation between GAG content and partitioning was only significant in the lateral horn group. Determining how glucose partitioning is affected by tissue composition and loading is necessary for understanding nutrient availability and related tissue health and/or degeneration. Therefore, this study is important for better understanding the transport and nutrition-related mechanisms of meniscal degeneration.

  11. Macronutrient composition determines accumulation of persistent organic pollutants from dietary exposure in adipose tissue of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Midtbø, Lisa Kolden

    2016-01-01

    in metabolism and elimination of xenobiotics. Exposure to POPs, either as single compounds or mixtures, had no effect on obesity development, glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the dietary composition of macronutrients profoundly modulates POP accumulation...... in adipose tissues adding an additional parameter to be included in future studies. Our results indicate that alterations in macronutrient composition might be an additional route for reducing total body burden of POPs....

  12. Development of keratin–chitosan–gelatin composite scaffold for soft tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakkar, Prachi [Central Leather Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India); Verma, Sudhanshu; Manjubala, I. [Biomedical Engineering Division, School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Madhan, B., E-mail: bmadhan76@yahoo.co.in [Central Leather Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India)

    2014-12-01

    Keratin has gained much attention in the recent past as a biomaterial for wound healing owing to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, intrinsic biological activity and presence of cellular binding motifs. In this paper, a novel biomimetic scaffold containing keratin, chitosan and gelatin was prepared by freeze drying method. The prepared keratin composite scaffold had good structural integrity. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed the retention of the native structure of individual biopolymers (keratin, chitosan, and gelatin) used in the scaffold. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results revealed a high thermal denaturation temperature of the scaffold (200–250 °C). The keratin composite scaffold exhibited tensile strength (96 kPa), compression strength (8.5 kPa) and water uptake capacity (> 1700%) comparable to that of a collagen scaffold, which was used as control. The morphology of the keratin composite scaffold observed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) exhibited good porosity and interconnectivity of pores. MTT assay using NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells demonstrated that the cell viability of the keratin composite scaffold was good. These observations suggest that the keratin–chitosan–gelatin composite scaffold is a promising alternative biomaterial for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Fabrication of novel Keratin-Chitosan-Gelatin composite scaffold • Keratin composite scaffold shows excellent water uptake capacity and porosity • Keratin composite scaffold shows good thermal and physical stability • Biocompatibility of the developed scaffold is comparable to collagen scaffolds • Developed scaffold is a promising material for soft tissue engineering applications.

  13. Transplant experiments uncover Baltic Sea basin-specific responses in bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic activities

    OpenAIRE

    Lindh, Markus V.; Figueroa, Daniela; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Baltar, Federico; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Agneta; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenically induced changes in precipitation are projected to generate increased river runoff to semi-enclosed seas, intensifying loads of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and decreasing salinity. To determine how bacterial community structure and functioning adjust to such changes, we designed microcosm transplant experiments with Baltic Proper (salinity 7.2) and Bothnian Sea (salinity 3.6) water. Baltic Proper bacteria generally reached higher abundance than Bothnian Sea bacteria ...

  14. Effect of Transplanting Various Concentrations of a Composite of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel on Articular Cartilage Repair in a Rabbit Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Beom Park

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are known to have therapeutic potential for cartilage repair. However, the optimal concentration of MSCs for cartilage repair remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to explore the feasibility of cartilage repair by human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs and to determine the optimal concentrations of the MSCs in a rabbit model.Osteochondral defects were created in the trochlear groove of femur in 55 rabbits. Four experimental groups (11 rabbits/group were treated by transplanting the composite of hUCB-MSCs and HA with various MSCs concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 x 107 cells/ml. One control group was left untreated. At 4, 8, and 16 weeks post-transplantation, the degree of cartilage repair was evaluated grossly and histologically.Overall, transplanting hUCB-MSCs and HA hydrogel resulted in cartilage repair tissue with better quality than the control without transplantation (P = 0.015 in 0.1, P = 0.004 in 0.5, P = 0.004 in 1.0, P = 0.132 in 1.5 x 107 cells/ml. Interestingly, high cell concentration of hUCB-MSCs (1.5×107 cells/ml was inferior to low cell concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 x 107 cells/ml in cartilage repair (P = 0.394,P = 0.041, P = 0.699, respectively. The 0.5 x 107 cells/ml group showed the highest cartilage repair score at 4, 8 and 16 weeks post transplantation, and followed by 0.1x107 cells/ml group or 1.0 x 107 cell/ml group.The results of this study suggest that transplantation of the composite of hUCB-MSCs and HA is beneficial for cartilage repair. In addition, this study shows that optimal MSC concentration needs to be determined for better cartilage repair.

  15. Determination of elemental tissue composition following proton treatment using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jongmin; Ibbott, Geoffrey; Gillin, Michael; Gonzalez-Lepera, Carlos; Min, Chul Hee; Zhu, Xuping; El Fakhri, Georges; Paganetti, Harald; Mawlawi, Osama

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been suggested as an imaging technique for in vivo proton dose and range verification after proton induced-tissue activation. During proton treatment, irradiated tissue is activated and decays while emitting positrons. In this paper, we assessed the feasibility of using PET imaging after proton treatment to determine tissue elemental composition by evaluating the resultant composite decay curve of activated tissue. A phantom consisting of sections composed of different combinations of 1 H, 12 C, 14 N, and 16 O was irradiated using a pristine Bragg peak and a 6 cm spread-out Bragg-peak (SOBP) proton beam. The beam ranges defined at 90% distal dose were 10 cm; the delivered dose was 1.6 Gy for the near monoenergetic beam and 2 Gy for the SOBP beam. After irradiation, activated phantom decay was measured using an in-room PET scanner for 30 min in list mode. Decay curves from the activated 12 C and 16 O sections were first decomposed into multiple simple exponential decay curves, each curve corresponding to a constituent radioisotope, using a least-squares method. The relative radioisotope fractions from each section were determined. These fractions were used to guide the decay curve decomposition from the section consisting mainly of 12 C + 16 O and calculate the relative elemental composition of 12 C and 16 O. A Monte Carlo simulation was also used to determine the elemental composition of the 12 C + 16 O section. The calculated compositions of the 12 C + 16 O section using both approaches (PET and Monte Carlo) were compared with the true known phantom composition. Finally, two patients were imaged using an in-room PET scanner after proton therapy of the head. Their PET data and the technique described above were used to construct elemental composition ( 12 C and 16 O) maps that corresponded to the proton-activated regions. We compared the 12 C and 16 O compositions of seven ROIs that corresponded to the vitreous humor, adipose

  16. Effect of physical exercise on blood lipids and adipose tissue composition in young healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danner, S. A.; Wieling, W.; Havekes, L.; Leuven, J. G.; Smit, E. M.; Dunning, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    In a prospective, controlled study, the influence of strenuous physical exercise on plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, total triglycerides and fatty acid composition of adipose tissue was studied during 7 months of training in 15 senior oarsmen and 21 controls matched for

  17. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Nerve Regeneration and Immunomodulation after Composite Tissue Allotransplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    10-1-0927 TITLE: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Nerve Regeneration and Immunomodulation after Composite Tissue Allotransplantation...immunosuppression. Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are pluripotent cells, capable of differentiation along multiple mesenchymal lineages into...As part of implemented transition from University of Pittsburgh to Johns Hopkins University, we optimized our mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) isolation

  18. 3D printing of composite tissue with complex shape applied to ear regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Seob; Hong, Jung Min; Jung, Jin Woo; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Dong-Woo; Oh, Jeong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    In the ear reconstruction field, tissue engineering enabling the regeneration of the ear's own tissue has been considered to be a promising technology. However, the ear is known to be difficult to regenerate using traditional methods due to its complex shape and composition. In this study, we used three-dimensional (3D) printing technology including a sacrificial layer process to regenerate both the auricular cartilage and fat tissue. The main part was printed with poly-caprolactone (PCL) and cell-laden hydrogel. At the same time, poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG) was also deposited as a sacrificial layer to support the main structure. After complete fabrication, PEG can be easily removed in aqueous solutions, and the procedure for removing PEG has no effect on the cell viability. For fabricating composite tissue, chondrocytes and adipocytes differentiated from adipose-derived stromal cells were encapsulated in hydrogel to dispense into the cartilage and fat regions, respectively, of ear-shaped structures. Finally, we fabricated the composite structure for feasibility testing, satisfying expectations for both the geometry and anatomy of the native ear. We also carried out in vitro assays for evaluating the chondrogenesis and adipogenesis of the cell-printed structure. As a result, the possibility of ear regeneration using 3D printing technology which allowed tissue formation from the separately printed chondrocytes and adipocytes was demonstrated. (paper)

  19. Allogeneic transplantation of programmable cells of monocytic origin (PCMO) improves angiogenesis and tissue recovery in critical limb ischemia (CLI): a translational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Rouven; Hummitzsch, Lars; Heß, Katharina; Albrecht, Martin; Zitta, Karina; Rusch, Rene; Sarras, Beke; Bayer, Andreas; Cremer, Jochen; Faendrich, Fred; Groß, Justus

    2018-04-27

    Employing growth factor-induced partial reprogramming in vitro, peripheral human blood monocytes can acquire a state of plasticity along with expression of various markers of pluripotency. These so-called programmable cells of monocytic origin (PCMO) hold great promise in regenerative therapies. The aim of this translational study was to explore and exploit the functional properties of PCMO for allogeneic cell transplantation therapy in critical limb ischemia (CLI). Using our previously described differentiation protocol, murine and human monocytes were differentiated into PCMO. We examined paracrine secretion of pro-angiogenic and tissue recovery-associated proteins under hypoxia and induction of angiogenesis by PCMO in vitro. Allogeneic cell transplantation of PCMO was performed in a hind limb ischemia mouse model in comparison to cell transplantation of native monocytes and a placebo group. Moreover, we analyzed retrospectively four healing attempts with PCMO in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD; Rutherford classification, stage 5 and 6). Statistical analysis was performed by using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test or the Student's t test, p < 0.05. Cell culture experiments revealed good resilience of PCMO under hypoxia, enhanced paracrine release of pro-angiogenic and tissue recovery-associated proteins and induction of angiogenesis in vitro by PCMO. Animal experiments demonstrated significantly enhanced SO 2 saturation, blood flow, neoangiogenesis and tissue recovery after treatment with PCMO compared to treatment with native monocytes and placebo. Finally, first therapeutic application of PCMO in humans demonstrated increased vascular collaterals and improved wound healing in patients with chronic CLI without exaggerated immune response, malignant processes or extended infection after 12 months. In all patients minor and/or major amputations of the lower extremity could be avoided. In summary, PCMO improve angiogenesis and tissue recovery in chronic

  20. Fabrication of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite doped degradable composite hollow fiber for guided and biomimetic bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ning [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634 (United States); Nichols, Heather L. [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634 (United States); Tylor, Shila [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634 (United States); Wen Xuejun [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634 (United States)]. E-mail: xjwen@clemson.edu

    2007-04-15

    Natural bone tissue possesses a nanocomposite structure interwoven in a three-dimensional (3-D) matrix, which plays critical roles in conferring appropriate physical and biological properties to the bone tissue. Single type of material may not be sufficient to mimic the composition, structure and properties of native bone, therefore, composite materials consisting of both polymers, bioceramics, and other inorganic materials have to be designed. Among a variety of candidate materials, polymer-nanoparticle composites appear most promising for bone tissue engineering applications because of superior mechanical properties, improved durability, and surface bioactivity when compared with conventional polymers or composites. The long term objective of this project is to use highly aligned, bioactive, biodegradable scaffold mimicking natural histological structure of human long bone, and to engineer and regenerate human long bone both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, bioactive, degradable, and highly permeable composite hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) were fabricated using a wet phase phase-inversion approach. The structure of the hollow fiber membranes was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); degradation behavior was examined using weigh loss assay, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC); and bioactivity was evaluated with the amount of calcium deposition from the culture media onto HFM surface. Doping PLGA HFMs with nanoHA results in a more bioactive and slower degrading HFM than pure PLGA HFMs.

  1. Preparation and characterization of chitosan-heparin composite matrices for blood contacting tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qing; Gong Kai; Gong Yandao; Zhang Xiufang; Ao Qiang; Zhang Lihai; Hu Min

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan has been widely used for biomaterial scaffolds in tissue engineering because of its good mechanical properties and cytocompatibility. However, the poor blood compatibility of chitosan has greatly limited its biomedical utilization, especially for blood contacting tissue engineering. In this study, we exploited a polymer blending procedure to heparinize the chitosan material under simple and mild conditions to improve its antithrombogenic property. By an optimized procedure, a macroscopically homogeneous chitosan-heparin (Chi-Hep) blended suspension was obtained, with which Chi-Hep composite films and porous scaffolds were fabricated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and sulfur elemental analysis confirmed the successful immobilization of heparin in the composite matrices (i.e. films and porous scaffolds). Toluidine blue staining indicated that heparin was distributed homogeneously in the composite matrices. Only a small amount of heparin was released from the matrices during incubation in normal saline for 10 days. The composite matrices showed improved blood compatibility, as well as good mechanical properties and endothelial cell compatibility. These results suggest that the Chi-Hep composite matrices are promising candidates for blood contacting tissue engineering.

  2. The ethics of uterus transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catsanos, Ruby; Rogers, Wendy; Lotz, Mianna

    2013-02-01

    Human uterus transplantation (UTx) is currently under investigation as a treatment for uterine infertility. Without a uterus transplant, the options available to women with uterine infertility are adoption or surrogacy; only the latter has the potential for a genetically related child. UTx will offer recipients the chance of having their own pregnancy. This procedure occurs at the intersection of two ethically contentious areas: assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and organ transplantation. In relation to organ transplantation, UTx lies with composite tissue transplants such as face and limb grafts, and shares some of the ethical concerns raised by these non-life saving procedures. In relation to ART, UTx represents one more avenue by which a woman may seek to meet her reproductive goals, and as with other ART procedures, raises questions about the limits of reproductive autonomy. This paper explores the ethical issues raised by UTx with a focus on the potential gap between women's desires and aspirations about pregnancy and the likely functional outcomes of successful UTx. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Stem Cell Transplants (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Transplants Transplantation Recovery Coping Print en español Trasplantes de células madre Stem cells are cells in ... finding a match is called tissue typing (or HLA [human leukocyte antigen] typing). HLA is a protein ...

  4. Perfusion decellularization of a human limb: A novel platform for composite tissue engineering and reconstructive surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Francesco Maria Gerli

    Full Text Available Muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps taken from autologous donor sites are currently the most utilized approach for trauma repair, accounting annually for 4.5 million procedures in the US alone. However, the donor tissue size is limited and the complications related to these surgical techniques lead to morbidities, often involving the donor sites. Alternatively, recent reports indicated that extracellular matrix (ECM scaffolds boost the regenerative potential of the injured site, as shown in a small cohort of volumetric muscle loss patients. Perfusion decellularization is a bioengineering technology that allows the generation of clinical-scale ECM scaffolds with preserved complex architecture and with an intact vascular template, from a variety of donor organs and tissues. We recently reported that this technology is amenable to generate full composite tissue scaffolds from rat and non-human primate limbs. Translating this platform to human extremities could substantially benefit soft tissue and volumetric muscle loss patients providing tissue- and species-specific grafts. In this proof-of-concept study, we show the successful generation a large-scale, acellular composite tissue scaffold from a full cadaveric human upper extremity. This construct retained its morphological architecture and perfusable vascular conduits. Histological and biochemical validation confirmed the successful removal of nuclear and cellular components, and highlighted the preservation of the native extracellular matrix components. Our results indicate that perfusion decellularization can be applied to produce human composite tissue acellular scaffolds. With its preserved structure and vascular template, these biocompatible constructs, could have significant advantages over the currently implanted matrices by means of nutrient distribution, size-scalability and immunological response.

  5. Liver transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic transplant; Transplant - liver; Orthotopic liver transplant; Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant ... The donated liver may be from: A donor who has recently died and has not had liver injury. This type of ...

  6. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Skin Experts Skin Treatments Hair Transplants Share » HAIR TRANSPLANTS Before (left) and after (right) - front of ... transplant. Photo courtesy of N. Sadick What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ...

  7. Evaluation of nutritional indicators and body composition in patients with advanced liver disease enrolled for liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcano, Daniela Salate Biagioni; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite; Bakonyi Neto, Alexandre

    2013-10-01

    Malnutrition is prevalent in patients with advanced liver disease (LD) related to multifactorial causes. Fluid retention can underestimate the nutritional status based on anthropometric measures. We evaluated nutritional indicators and body composition (BC) in patients with liver cirrhosis and correlated them with LD severity. Forty three patients with LD enrolled for liver transplantation were evaluated by Anthropometric measures, subjective evaluation (Global Assessment of Nutritional Status - SGA) and biochemical indicators. Single-frequency electrical bioimpedance (SFE-BIA) was used to evaluate body composition (BC). It measured resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and the phase angle (PA). LD severity was estimated by Child-Pugh and Meld criteria (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease). Child-Pugh index between patients was 7.11 ± 1.70 and Meld was 12.23 ± 4.22. Arm Circumference, Arm Muscle Circumference and Arm Muscle Area, SGA, hemoglobin, hematocrit and albumin showed better correlation with disease severity. Xc and PA showed correlation both with Meld and Child-Pugh score when BC were evaluated. PA was depleted in 55.8% of the patients. Diagnosis of malnutrition varied according to the method. Global assessment of nutritional status showed better correlation with disease severity than with objective methods. Single-frequency electrical bioimpedance for body composition analysis in cirrhotic patients must be cautiously used; however, primary vectors seems to be valid and promising in clinical practice.

  8. Thermogel-Coated Poly(ε-Caprolactone Composite Scaffold for Enhanced Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Jie Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3D composite scaffold was prepared for enhanced cartilage tissue engineering, which was composed of a poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL backbone network and a poly(lactide-co-glycolide-block-poly(ethylene glycol-block-poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA–PEG–PLGA thermogel surface. The composite scaffold not only possessed adequate mechanical strength similar to native osteochondral tissue as a benefit of the PCL backbone, but also maintained cell-friendly microenvironment of the hydrogel. The PCL network with homogeneously-controlled pore size and total pore interconnectivity was fabricated by fused deposition modeling (FDM, and was impregnated into the PLGA–PEG–PLGA solution at low temperature (e.g., 4 °C. The PCL/Gel composite scaffold was obtained after gelation induced by incubation at body temperature (i.e., 37 °C. The composite scaffold showed a greater number of cell retention and proliferation in comparison to the PCL platform. In addition, the composite scaffold promoted the encapsulated mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs to differentiate chondrogenically with a greater amount of cartilage-specific matrix production compared to the PCL scaffold or thermogel. Therefore, the 3D PCL/Gel composite scaffold may exhibit great potential for in vivo cartilage regeneration.

  9. Direct spectrometry: a new alternative for measuring the fluorescence of composite resins and dental tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Tm; de Oliveira, Hpm; Severino, D; Balducci, I; Huhtala, Mfrl; Gonçalves, Sep

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluorescence intensity of different composite resins and compare those values with the fluorescence intensity of dental tissues. Different composite resins were used to make 10 discs (2 mm in depth and 4 mm in diameter) of each brand, divided into groups: 1) Z (Filtek Z350, 3M ESPE), 2) ES (Esthet-X, Dentsply), 3) A (Amelogen Plus, Ultradent), 4) DVS (Durafill-VS, Heraeus Kulzer) with 2 mm composite resin for enamel (A2), 5) OES ([Esthet-X] opaque-OA [1 mm] + enamel-A2 [1 mm]); 6) ODVSI ([Charisma-Opal/Durafill-VSI], opaque-OM (1 mm) + translucent [1mm]), and 7) DVSI ([Durafill- VSI] translucent [2 mm]). Dental tissue specimens were obtained from human anterior teeth cut in a mesiodistal direction to obtain enamel, dentin, and enamel/dentin samples (2 mm). The fluorescence intensity of specimens was directly measured using an optic fiber associated with a spectrometer (Ocean Optics USB 4000) and recorded in graphic form (Origin 8.0 program). Data were submitted to statistical analysis using Dunnet, Tukey, and Kruskall-Wallis tests. Light absorption of the composite resins was obtained in a spectral range from 250 to 450 nm, and that of dental tissues was between 250 and 300 nm. All composite resins were excited at 398 nm and exhibited maximum emissions of around 485 nm. Fluorescence intensity values for all of the resins showed statistically significant differences (measured in arbitrary units [AUs]), with the exception of groups Z and DVS. Group DVSI had the highest fluorescence intensity values (13539 AU), followed by ODVS (10440 AU), DVS (10146 AU), ES (3946 AU), OES (3841 AU), A (3540 AU), and Z (1146 AU). The fluorescence intensity values for the composite resins differed statistically from those of dental tissues (E=1380 AU; D=6262 AU; E/D=3251 AU). The opacity interfered with fluorescence intensity, and group Z demonstrated fluorescence intensity values closest to that of tooth enamel. It is concluded that the

  10. Photoperiod affects daily torpor and tissue fatty acid composition in deer mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Fritz; McAllan, B. M.; Kenagy, G. J.; Hiebert, Sara M.

    2007-04-01

    Photoperiod and dietary lipids both influence thermal physiology and the pattern of torpor of heterothermic mammals. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that photoperiod-induced physiological changes are linked to differences in tissue fatty acid composition of deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus (˜18-g body mass). Deer mice were acclimated for >8 weeks to one of three photoperiods (LD, light/dark): LD 8:16 (short photoperiod), LD 12:12 (equinox photoperiod), and LD 16:8 (long photoperiod). Deer mice under short and equinox photoperiods showed a greater occurrence of torpor than those under long photoperiods (71, 70, and 14%, respectively). The duration of torpor bouts was longest in deer mice under short photoperiod (9.3 ± 2.6 h), intermediate under equinox photoperiod (5.1 ± 0.3 h), and shortest under long photoperiod (3.7 ± 0.6 h). Physiological differences in torpor use were associated with significant alterations of fatty acid composition in ˜50% of the major fatty acids from leg muscle total lipids, whereas white adipose tissue fatty acid composition showed fewer changes. Our results provide the first evidence that physiological changes due to photoperiod exposure do result in changes in lipid composition in the muscle tissue of deer mice and suggest that these may play a role in survival of low body temperature and metabolic rate during torpor, thus, enhancing favourable energy balance over the course of the winter.

  11. Treated of type 1 diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic mice by transplantation of allogeneic bone marrow and pancreatic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumizu, R.; Sugiura, K.; Iwai, H.

    1987-01-01

    Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice provide a model for type 1 diabetes mellitus. We previously showed that allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) can prevent and treat insulitis and overt diabetes in NOD mice. However, ABMT alone could not be used to treat overt diabetes in NOD mice whose islets had been completely destroyed. To provide insulin-producing cells, pancreatic tissue from newborn mice was grafted under the renal capsules in combination with ABMT. The aims of concomitant ABMT are as follows. (i) It induces immunological tolerance to the donor-type major histocompatibility complex determinants and permits the host to accept subsequent pancreatic allografts from the bone marrow donor. (ii) ABMT replaces abnormal stem cells with normal stem cells. After transplantation of bone marrow plus newborn pancreas, NOD mice showed reduction of the glycosuria and a normal response in the glucose-tolerance test. Immunohistological study revealed the presence of clustered insulin-containing beta cells in the grafted pancreatic transplants. ABMT may become a viable treatment of established type 1 diabetes mellitus in humans

  12. Biomineralization of Engineered Spider Silk Protein-Based Composite Materials for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Hardy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Materials based on biodegradable polyesters, such as poly(butylene terephthalate (PBT or poly(butylene terephthalate-co-poly(alkylene glycol terephthalate (PBTAT, have potential application as pro-regenerative scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Herein, the preparation of films composed of PBT or PBTAT and an engineered spider silk protein, (eADF4(C16, that displays multiple carboxylic acid moieties capable of binding calcium ions and facilitating their biomineralization with calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate is reported. Human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on films mineralized with calcium phosphate show enhanced levels of alkaline phosphatase activity suggesting that such composites have potential use for bone tissue engineering.

  13. Development of high strength hydroxyapatite for bone tissue regeneration using nanobioactive glass composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Pragya; Dalai, Sridhar; Sudera, Prerna; Sivam, Santosh Param; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Sharma, Pratibha

    2013-02-01

    With an increasing demand of biocompatible bone substitutes for the treatment of bone diseases and bone tissue regeneration, bioactive glass composites are being tested to improvise the osteoconductive as well as osteoinductive properties. Nanobioactive glass (nBG) composites, having composition of SiO2 70 mol%, CaO 26 mol % and P2O5 4 mol% were prepared by Freeze drying method using PEG-PPG-PEG co-polymer. Polymer addition improves the mechanical strength and porosity of the scaffold of nBG. Nano Bioactive glass composites upon implantation undergo specific reactions leading to the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). This is tested in vitro using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). This high strength hydroxyapatite (HA) layer acts as osteoconductive in cellular environment, by acting as mineral base of bones, onto which new bone cells proliferate leading to new bone formation. Strength of the nBG composites as well as HA is in the range of cortical and cancellous bone, thus proving significant for bone tissue regeneration substitutes.

  14. Development of high strength hydroxyapatite for bone tissue regeneration using nanobioactive glass composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, Pragya; Dalai, Sridhar; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Sudera, Prerna; Sivam, Santosh Param; Sharma, Pratibha

    2013-01-01

    With an increasing demand of biocompatible bone substitutes for the treatment of bone diseases and bone tissue regeneration, bioactive glass composites are being tested to improvise the osteoconductive as well as osteoinductive properties. Nanobioactive glass (nBG) composites, having composition of SiO 2 70 mol%, CaO 26 mol % and P 2 O 5 4 mol% were prepared by Freeze drying method using PEG-PPG-PEG co-polymer. Polymer addition improves the mechanical strength and porosity of the scaffold of nBG. Nano Bioactive glass composites upon implantation undergo specific reactions leading to the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). This is tested in vitro using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). This high strength hydroxyapatite (HA) layer acts as osteoconductive in cellular environment, by acting as mineral base of bones, onto which new bone cells proliferate leading to new bone formation. Strength of the nBG composites as well as HA is in the range of cortical and cancellous bone, thus proving significant for bone tissue regeneration substitutes.

  15. Highly Concentrated Alginate-Gellan Gum Composites for 3D Plotting of Complex Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Rahul Akkineni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In tissue engineering, additive manufacturing (AM technologies have brought considerable progress as they allow the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D structures with defined architecture. 3D plotting is a versatile, extrusion-based AM technology suitable for processing a wide range of biomaterials including hydrogels. In this study, composites of highly concentrated alginate and gellan gum were prepared in order to combine the excellent printing properties of alginate with the favorable gelling characteristics of gellan gum. Mixtures of 16.7 wt % alginate and 2 or 3 wt % gellan gum were found applicable for 3D plotting. Characterization of the resulting composite scaffolds revealed an increased stiffness in the wet state (15%–20% higher Young’s modulus and significantly lower volume swelling in cell culture medium compared to pure alginate scaffolds (~10% vs. ~23%. Cytocompatibility experiments with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC revealed that cell attachment was improved—the seeding efficiency was ~2.5–3.5 times higher on the composites than on pure alginate. Additionally, the composites were shown to support hMSC proliferation and early osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, print fidelity of highly concentrated alginate-gellan gum composites was comparable to those of pure alginate; after plotting and crosslinking, the scaffolds possessed improved qualities regarding shape fidelity, mechanical strength, and initial cell attachment making them attractive for tissue engineering applications.

  16. A novel basalt fiber-reinforced polylactic acid composite for hard tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Li, Yan; Gu, Ning

    2010-08-01

    A basalt fiber (BF) was, for the first time, introduced into a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix as innovative reinforcement to fabricate composite materials for hard tissue repair. Firstly, BF/PLLA composites and pure PLLA were produced by the methods of solution blending and freeze drying. The results showed that basalt fibers can be uniformly dispersed in the PLLA matrix and significantly improve the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the PLLA matrix. The presence of basalt fibers may retard the polymer degradation rate and neutralize the acid degradation from PLLA. Osteoblasts were cultured in vitro to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composite. An MTT assay revealed that osteoblasts proliferated well for 7 days and there was little difference found in their viability on both PLLA and BF/PLLA films, which was consistent with the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity results. A fluorescent staining observation showed that osteoblasts grew well on the composites. SEM images displayed that osteoblasts tended to grow along the fiber axis. The formation of mineralized nodules was observed on the films by Alizarin red S staining. These results suggest that the presence of basalt fibers does not noticeably affect osteoblastic behavior and the designed composites are osteoblast compatible. It is concluded that basalt fibers, as reinforcing fibers, may have promising applications in hard tissue repair.

  17. A novel basalt fiber-reinforced polylactic acid composite for hard tissue repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xi; Li Yan; Gu Ning

    2010-01-01

    A basalt fiber (BF) was, for the first time, introduced into a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix as innovative reinforcement to fabricate composite materials for hard tissue repair. Firstly, BF/PLLA composites and pure PLLA were produced by the methods of solution blending and freeze drying. The results showed that basalt fibers can be uniformly dispersed in the PLLA matrix and significantly improve the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the PLLA matrix. The presence of basalt fibers may retard the polymer degradation rate and neutralize the acid degradation from PLLA. Osteoblasts were cultured in vitro to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composite. An MTT assay revealed that osteoblasts proliferated well for 7 days and there was little difference found in their viability on both PLLA and BF/PLLA films, which was consistent with the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity results. A fluorescent staining observation showed that osteoblasts grew well on the composites. SEM images displayed that osteoblasts tended to grow along the fiber axis. The formation of mineralized nodules was observed on the films by Alizarin red S staining. These results suggest that the presence of basalt fibers does not noticeably affect osteoblastic behavior and the designed composites are osteoblast compatible. It is concluded that basalt fibers, as reinforcing fibers, may have promising applications in hard tissue repair.

  18. Tissue viscoelasticity is related to tissue composition but may not fully predict the apparent-level viscoelasticity in human trabecular bone – An experimental and finite element study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojanen, X.; Tanska, P.; Malo, M. K.H.

    2017-01-01

    Trabecular bone is viscoelastic under dynamic loading. However, it is unclear how tissue viscoelasticity controls viscoelasticity at the apparent-level. In this study, viscoelasticity of cylindrical human trabecular bone samples (n = 11, male, age 18–78 years) from 11 proximal femurs were charact......). These findings indicate that bone tissue viscoelasticity is affected by tissue composition but may not fully predict the macroscale viscoelasticity in human trabecular bone....

  19. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunešová, M; Hlavatý, P; Tvrzická, E

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants...... of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI (HP....../HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic (16:1n-7...

  20. Porous starch/cellulose nanofibers composite prepared by salt leaching technique for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri-Nasrabadi, Bijan; Mehrasa, Mohammad; Rafienia, Mohammad; Bonakdar, Shahin; Behzad, Tayebeh; Gavanji, Shahin

    2014-08-08

    Starch/cellulose nanofibers composites with proper porosity pore size, mechanical strength, and biodegradability for cartilage tissue engineering have been reported in this study. The porous thermoplastic starch-based composites were prepared by combining film casting, salt leaching, and freeze drying methods. The diameter of 70% nanofibers was in the range of 40-90 nm. All samples had interconnected porous morphology; however an increase in pore interconnectivity was observed when the sodium chloride ratio was increased in the salt leaching. Scaffolds with the total porogen content of 70 wt% exhibited adequate mechanical properties for cartilage tissue engineering applications. The water uptake ratio of nanocomposites was remarkably enhanced by adding 10% cellulose nanofibers. The scaffolds were partially destroyed due to low in vitro degradation rate after more than 20 weeks. Cultivation of isolated rabbit chondrocytes on the fabricated scaffold proved that the incorporation of nanofibers in starch structure improves cell attachment and proliferation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomimetic composite coating on rapid prototyped scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, M Tarik; Lam, Christopher X F; Ekaputra, Andrew K; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu; Gibson, Ian

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this present study was to improve the functional performance of rapid prototyped scaffolds for bone tissue engineering through biomimetic composite coating. Rapid prototyped poly(ε-caprolactone)/tri-calcium phosphate (PCL/TCP) scaffolds were fabricated using the screw extrusion system (SES). The fabricated PCL/TCP scaffolds were coated with a carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA)-gelatin composite via biomimetic co-precipitation. The structure of the prepared CHA-gelatin composite coating was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Compressive mechanical testing revealed that the coating process did not have any detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. The cell-scaffold interaction was studied by culturing porcine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on the scaffolds and assessing the proliferation and bone-related gene and protein expression capabilities of the cells. Confocal laser microscopy and SEM images of the cell-scaffold constructs showed a uniformly distributed cell sheet and accumulation of extracellular matrix in the interior of CHA-gelatin composite-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds. The proliferation rate of BMSCs on CHA-gelatin composite-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds was about 2.3 and 1.7 times higher than that on PCL/TCP scaffolds and CHA-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds, respectively, by day 10. Furthermore, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis revealed that CHA-gelatin composite-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds stimulate osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs the most, compared with PCL/TCP scaffolds and CHA-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds. These results demonstrate that CHA-gelatin composite-coated rapid prototyped PCL/TCP scaffolds are promising for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Laminated electrospun nHA/PHB-composite scaffolds mimicking bone extracellular matrix for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhuoyue [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Shaanxi, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Song, Yue [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Zhang, Jing [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Shaanxi, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Modern Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province, 710069 (China); Liu, Wei [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Cui, Jihong, E-mail: cjh@nwu.edu.cn [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Shaanxi, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Modern Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province, 710069 (China); and others

    2017-03-01

    Electrospinning is an effective means to generate nano- to micro-scale polymer fibers resembling native extracellular matrix for tissue engineering. However, a major problem of electrospun materials is that limited pore size and porosity may prevent adequate cellular infiltration and tissue ingrowth. In this study, we first prepared thin layers of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA)/poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) via electrospinning. We then laminated the nHA/PHB thin layers to obtain a scaffold for cell seeding and bone tissue engineering. The results demonstrated that the laminated scaffold possessed optimized cell-loading capacity. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibited better adherence, proliferation and osteogenic phenotypes on nHA/PHB scaffolds than on PHB scaffolds. Thereafter, we seeded MSCs onto nHA/PHB scaffolds to fabricate bone grafts. Histological observation showed osteoid tissue formation throughout the scaffold, with most of the scaffold absorbed in the specimens 2 months after implantation, and blood vessels ingrowth into the graft could be observed in the graft. We concluded that electrospun and laminated nanoscaled biocomposite scaffolds hold great therapeutic potential for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • We laminated the nHA/PHB layers to obtain a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. • The laminated scaffold performed optimized cell-loading capacity. • MSCs exhibited osteogenic phenotypes on the laminated scaffold. • Osteoid tissue formed throughout the laminated scaffold after 2 months in vivo. The laminated bio-composite scaffolds can be applied to bone regeneration.

  3. 3D Printing and Electrospinning of Composite Hydrogels for Cartilage and Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna De Mori

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Injuries of bone and cartilage constitute important health issues costing the National Health Service billions of pounds annually, in the UK only. Moreover, these damages can become cause of disability and loss of function for the patients with associated social costs and diminished quality of life. The biomechanical properties of these two tissues are massively different from each other and they are not uniform within the same tissue due to the specific anatomic location and function. In this perspective, tissue engineering (TE has emerged as a promising approach to address the complexities associated with bone and cartilage regeneration. Tissue engineering aims at developing temporary three-dimensional multicomponent constructs to promote the natural healing process. Biomaterials, such as hydrogels, are currently extensively studied for their ability to reproduce both the ideal 3D extracellular environment for tissue growth and to have adequate mechanical properties for load bearing. This review will focus on the use of two manufacturing techniques, namely electrospinning and 3D printing, that present promise in the fabrication of complex composite gels for cartilage and bone tissue engineering applications.

  4. Laminated electrospun nHA/PHB-composite scaffolds mimicking bone extracellular matrix for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhuoyue; Song, Yue; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Wei; Cui, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Electrospinning is an effective means to generate nano- to micro-scale polymer fibers resembling native extracellular matrix for tissue engineering. However, a major problem of electrospun materials is that limited pore size and porosity may prevent adequate cellular infiltration and tissue ingrowth. In this study, we first prepared thin layers of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA)/poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) via electrospinning. We then laminated the nHA/PHB thin layers to obtain a scaffold for cell seeding and bone tissue engineering. The results demonstrated that the laminated scaffold possessed optimized cell-loading capacity. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibited better adherence, proliferation and osteogenic phenotypes on nHA/PHB scaffolds than on PHB scaffolds. Thereafter, we seeded MSCs onto nHA/PHB scaffolds to fabricate bone grafts. Histological observation showed osteoid tissue formation throughout the scaffold, with most of the scaffold absorbed in the specimens 2 months after implantation, and blood vessels ingrowth into the graft could be observed in the graft. We concluded that electrospun and laminated nanoscaled biocomposite scaffolds hold great therapeutic potential for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • We laminated the nHA/PHB layers to obtain a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. • The laminated scaffold performed optimized cell-loading capacity. • MSCs exhibited osteogenic phenotypes on the laminated scaffold. • Osteoid tissue formed throughout the laminated scaffold after 2 months in vivo. The laminated bio-composite scaffolds can be applied to bone regeneration.

  5. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids affect tissue lipid composition but not de novo lipogenesis in finishing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Bee , Giuseppe

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to profoundly affect lipid metabolism and to act as repartitioning agents. Currently, little is known about their effect on the fatty acid profile of tissue lipids in pigs. In the present study we determined the lipid composition of the backfat inner (BFI) and outer layer (BFO), omental fat (OF) and intramuscular fat (IMF) of the longissimus dorsi muscle in 24 Swiss Large White pigs fed diets supplemented eithe...

  6. Kidney transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... always take your medicine as directed. Alternative Names Renal transplant; Transplant - kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - discharge Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Kidneys Kidney transplant - ...

  7. In vitro evaluation of alginate/halloysite nanotube composite scaffolds for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Mingxian; Dai, Libing; Shi, Huizhe; Xiong, Sheng; Zhou, Changren

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a series of alginate/halloysite nanotube (HNTs) composite scaffolds were prepared by solution-mixing and freeze-drying method. HNTs are incorporated into alginate to improve both the mechanical and cell-attachment properties of the scaffolds. The interfacial interactions between alginate and HNTs were confirmed by the atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and FTIR spectroscopy. The mechanical, morphological, and physico-chemical properties of the composite scaffolds were investigated. The composite scaffolds exhibit significant enhancement in compressive strength and compressive modulus compared with pure alginate scaffold both in dry and wet states. A well-interconnected porous structure with size in the range of 100–200 μm and over 96% porosity is found in the composite scaffolds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) result shows that HNTs are uniformly dispersed and partly oriented in the composite scaffolds. The incorporation of HNTs leads to increase in the scaffold density and decrease in the water swelling ratio of alginate. HNTs improve the stability of alginate scaffolds against enzymatic degradation in PBS solution. Thermogravimetrica analysis (TGA) shows that HNTs can improve the thermal stability of the alginate. The mouse fibroblast cells display better attachment to the alginate/HNT composite than those to the pure alginate, suggesting the good cytocompatibility of the composite scaffolds. Alginate/HNT composite scaffolds exhibit great potential for applications in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We fabricated HNTs reinforced alginate composite scaffolds for biomedical applications. • The hydrogen bond interactions between HNTs and alginate are confirmed. • HNTs can significantly enhance the mechanical properties of alginate scaffold. • The scaffolds exhibit a highly porous structure with interconnected pores. • HNTs can improve the cell attachment and proliferation on alginate

  8. In vitro evaluation of alginate/halloysite nanotube composite scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Mingxian [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Dai, Libing [Guangzhou Institute of Traumatic Surgery, Guangzhou Red Cross Hospital Medical College, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510220 (China); Shi, Huizhe; Xiong, Sheng [Institute of Biomedicine, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhou, Changren, E-mail: tcrz9@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a series of alginate/halloysite nanotube (HNTs) composite scaffolds were prepared by solution-mixing and freeze-drying method. HNTs are incorporated into alginate to improve both the mechanical and cell-attachment properties of the scaffolds. The interfacial interactions between alginate and HNTs were confirmed by the atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and FTIR spectroscopy. The mechanical, morphological, and physico-chemical properties of the composite scaffolds were investigated. The composite scaffolds exhibit significant enhancement in compressive strength and compressive modulus compared with pure alginate scaffold both in dry and wet states. A well-interconnected porous structure with size in the range of 100–200 μm and over 96% porosity is found in the composite scaffolds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) result shows that HNTs are uniformly dispersed and partly oriented in the composite scaffolds. The incorporation of HNTs leads to increase in the scaffold density and decrease in the water swelling ratio of alginate. HNTs improve the stability of alginate scaffolds against enzymatic degradation in PBS solution. Thermogravimetrica analysis (TGA) shows that HNTs can improve the thermal stability of the alginate. The mouse fibroblast cells display better attachment to the alginate/HNT composite than those to the pure alginate, suggesting the good cytocompatibility of the composite scaffolds. Alginate/HNT composite scaffolds exhibit great potential for applications in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We fabricated HNTs reinforced alginate composite scaffolds for biomedical applications. • The hydrogen bond interactions between HNTs and alginate are confirmed. • HNTs can significantly enhance the mechanical properties of alginate scaffold. • The scaffolds exhibit a highly porous structure with interconnected pores. • HNTs can improve the cell attachment and proliferation on alginate.

  9. A novel squid pen chitosan/hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate composite for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavandi, Amin, E-mail: amin.shavandi@postgrad.otago.ac.nz [Department of Food Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Department of Applied Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A. [Department of Food Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Sun, Zhifa; Ali, Azam [Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Gould, Maree [Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2015-10-01

    Squid pen chitosan was used in the fabrication of biocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) obtained from waste mussel shells were used as the calcium phosphate source. The composite was prepared using 2.5% tripolyphosphate (TPP) and 1% glycerol as a cross-linker and plasticizer, respectively. The weight percent (wt.%) ratios of the ceramic components in the composite were 20/10/70, 30/20/50 and 40/30/30 (HA/β-TCP/Chi). The biodegradation rate and structural properties of the scaffolds were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microCT(μCT) results indicated that the composites have a well defined lamellar structure with an average pore size of 200 μm. The porosity of the composites decreased from 88 to 56% by increasing the ratio of HA/β-TCP from 30 to 70%. After 28 days of incubation in a physiological solution, the scaffolds were degraded by approximately 30%. In vitro investigations showed that the composites were cytocompatible and supported the growth of L929 and Saos-2 cells. The obtained data suggests that the squid pen chitosan composites are potential candidates for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • Biocomposite scaffolds were made from mussel shells HA and β-TCP, and squid pin chitosan. • The porosity of the composites decreased with an increase in HA/β-TCP ratio. • Composites were cytocompatible and supported the growth of L929 and Saos-2 cells. • Composite containing 50% HA and β-TCP had the best mechanical properties.

  10. Stable hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur isotopes composition in different tissues of cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fengmei; Shi Guangyu; Wang Huiwen; Yang Shuming

    2012-01-01

    In order to research on stable hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur isotopes composition in different tissues of cattle, as well as the breed, δ 2 H and δ 34 S values of different defatted muscle, cattle tail hair, blood, liver, also δ 2h and δ 18 O values of water from muscle were determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The stable sulfur isotope composition was not affected by cattle variety, meanwhile the hydrogen was uncertain; the δ 2 H and δ 34 S values between different defatted muscle, blood, liver, cattle hair were significantly different, at the same time the δ 34 S and δ 2 H values between each tissue were not significantly correlated; the δ 2 H values were strongly correlated with the δ 18 O values of muscle water. The above results indicated that stable sulfur and hydrogen isotopes fractionation in the various tissues were discrepant, thus the proper tissue should be selected according to the purpose and object in the beef traceability. (authors)

  11. Determination of quantitative tissue composition by iterative reconstruction on 3D DECT volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Maria [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics; Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV); Malusek, Alexandr [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics; Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV); Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Radiation Dosimetry; Muhammad, Arif [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics; Carlsson, Gudrun Alm [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics; Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV)

    2011-07-01

    Quantitative tissue classification using dual-energy CT has the potential to improve accuracy in radiation therapy dose planning as it provides more information about material composition of scanned objects than the currently used methods based on single-energy CT. One problem that hinders successful application of both single- and dual-energy CT is the presence of beam hardening and scatter artifacts in reconstructed data. Current pre- and post-correction methods used for image reconstruction often bias CT attenuation values and thus limit their applicability for quantitative tissue classification. Here we demonstrate simulation studies with a novel iterative algorithm that decomposes every soft tissue voxel into three base materials: water, protein, and adipose. The results demonstrate that beam hardening artifacts can effectively be removed and accurate estimation of mass fractions of each base material can be achieved. Our iterative algorithm starts with calculating parallel projections on two previously reconstructed DECT volumes reconstructed from fan-beam or helical projections with small conebeam angle. The parallel projections are then used in an iterative loop. Future developments include segmentation of soft and bone tissue and subsequent determination of bone composition. (orig.)

  12. LeFort I osteotomy and secondary procedures in full-face transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Juan P; Serracanta, Jordi

    2013-05-01

    Composite tissue allotransplantion has been the latest addition to reconstructive plastic surgery of limbs and faces. These techniques have opened up a new paradigm in reconstruction. However, plastic surgeons will have to face a new patient population that receives the application of vascularised tissue allografts and immunosuppression. Secondary surgery may be necessary in this population, especially in the transplanted tissues, to improve aesthetics and function following the transplant, although little is known regarding the exact clinical protocol to be followed and the feasibility of standard plastic surgery techniques on transplanted tissues. We present our experience of a LeFort I osteotomy, limited ritidectomy and blepharoplasty in a full-face transplant recipient. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Design and characterization of a biodegradable composite scaffold for ligament tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, James W S; Surrao, Denver C; Waldman, Stephen D; Amsden, Brian G

    2010-03-15

    Herein we report on the development and characterization of a biodegradable composite scaffold for ligament tissue engineering based on the fundamental morphological features of the native ligament. An aligned fibrous component was used to mimic the fibrous collagen network and a hydrogel component to mimic the proteoglycan-water matrix of the ligament. The composite scaffold was constructed from cell-adherent, base-etched, electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-D,L-lactide) (PCLDLLA) fibers embedded in a noncell-adherent photocrosslinked N-methacrylated glycol chitosan (MGC) hydrogel seeded with primary ligament fibroblasts. Base etching improved cellular adhesion to the PCLDLLA material. Cells within the MGC hydrogel remained viable (72 +/- 4%) during the 4-week culture period. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed ligament ECM markers collagen type I, collagen type III, and decorin organizing and accumulating along the PCLDLLA fibers within the composite scaffolds. On the basis of these results, it was determined that the composite scaffold design was a viable alternative to the current approaches used for ligament tissue engineering and merits further study. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Intracoronary artery transplantation of cardiomyoblast-like cells from human adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells improve left ventricular dysfunction and survival in a swine model of chronic myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okura, Hanayuki [The Center for Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0879 (Japan); Department of Somatic Stem Cell Therapy and Health Policy, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Foundation for Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Saga, Ayami; Soeda, Mayumi [Department of Somatic Stem Cell Therapy and Health Policy, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Foundation for Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Miyagawa, Shigeru; Sawa, Yoshiki [Department of Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0879 (Japan); Daimon, Takashi [Division of Biostatistics, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Ichinose, Akihiro [Department of Plastic Surgery, Kobe University Hospital, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Matsuyama, Akifumi, E-mail: akifumi-matsuyama@umin.ac.jp [The Center for Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0879 (Japan); Department of Plastic Surgery, Kobe University Hospital, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); RIKEN Program for Drug Discovery and Medical Technology Platforms, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We administered human CLCs in a swine model of MI via intracoronary artery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Histological studies demonstrated engraftment of hCLCs into the scarred myocardium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Echocardiography showed rescue of cardiac function in the hCLCs transplanted swine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transplantation of hCLCs is an effective therapeutics for cardiac regeneration. -- Abstract: Transplantation of human cardiomyoblast-like cells (hCLCs) from human adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells improved left ventricular function and survival of rats with myocardial infarction. Here we examined the effect of intracoronary artery transplantation of human CLCs in a swine model of chronic heart failure. Twenty-four pigs underwent balloon-occlusion of the first diagonal branch followed by reperfusion, with a second balloon-occlusion of the left ascending coronary artery 1 week later followed by reperfusion. Four weeks after the second occlusion/reperfusion, 17 of the 18 surviving animals with severe chronic MI (ejection fraction <35% by echocardiography) were immunosuppressed then randomly assigned to receive either intracoronary artery transplantation of hCLCs hADMPCs or placebo lactic Ringer's solution with heparin. Intracoronary artery transplantation was followed by the distribution of DiI-stained hCLCs into the scarred myocardial milieu. Echocardiography at post-transplant days 4 and 8 weeks showed rescue and maintenance of cardiac function in the hCLCs transplanted group, but not in the control animals, indicating myocardial functional recovery by hCLCs intracoronary transplantation. At 8 week post-transplantation, 7 of 8 hCLCs transplanted animals were still alive compared with only 1 of the 5 control (p = 0.0147). Histological studies at week 12 post-transplantation demonstrated engraftment of the pre DiI-stained hCLCs into the scarred myocardium and their expression of

  15. Monte Carlo study of voxel S factor dependence on tissue density and atomic composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, Ernesto, E-mail: eamato@unime.it [University of Messina, Department of Biomedical Sciences and of Morphologic and Functional Imaging, Section of Radiological Sciences, via Consolare Valeria, 1, I-98125 Messina (Italy); Italiano, Antonio [INFN – Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Messina (Italy); Baldari, Sergio [University of Messina, Department of Biomedical Sciences and of Morphologic and Functional Imaging, Section of Radiological Sciences, via Consolare Valeria, 1, I-98125 Messina (Italy)

    2013-11-21

    Voxel dosimetry is a common approach to the internal dosimetry of non-uniform activity distributions in nuclear medicine therapies with radiopharmaceuticals and in the estimation of the radiation hazard due to internal contamination of radionuclides. Aim of the present work is to extend our analytical approach for the calculation of voxel S factors to materials different from the soft tissue. We used a Monte Carlo simulation in GEANT4 of a voxelized region of each material in which the source of monoenergetic electrons or photons was uniformly distributed within the central voxel, and the energy deposition was scored over the surrounding 11×11×11 voxels. Voxel S factors were obtained for the following standard ICRP materials: Adipose tissue, Bone cortical, Brain, Lung, Muscle skeletal and Tissue soft with 1 g cm{sup −3} density. Moreover, we considered the standard ICRU materials: Bone compact and Muscle striated. Voxel S factors were represented as a function of the “normalized radius”, defined as the ratio between the source–target voxel distance and the voxel side. We found that voxel S factors and related analytical fit functions are mainly affected by the tissue density, while the material composition gives only a slight contribution to the difference between data series, which is negligible for practical purposes. Our results can help in broadening the dosimetric three-dimensional approach based on voxel S factors to other tissues where diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides can be taken up and radiation can propagate.

  16. Monte Carlo study of voxel S factor dependence on tissue density and atomic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, Ernesto; Italiano, Antonio; Baldari, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Voxel dosimetry is a common approach to the internal dosimetry of non-uniform activity distributions in nuclear medicine therapies with radiopharmaceuticals and in the estimation of the radiation hazard due to internal contamination of radionuclides. Aim of the present work is to extend our analytical approach for the calculation of voxel S factors to materials different from the soft tissue. We used a Monte Carlo simulation in GEANT4 of a voxelized region of each material in which the source of monoenergetic electrons or photons was uniformly distributed within the central voxel, and the energy deposition was scored over the surrounding 11×11×11 voxels. Voxel S factors were obtained for the following standard ICRP materials: Adipose tissue, Bone cortical, Brain, Lung, Muscle skeletal and Tissue soft with 1 g cm −3 density. Moreover, we considered the standard ICRU materials: Bone compact and Muscle striated. Voxel S factors were represented as a function of the “normalized radius”, defined as the ratio between the source–target voxel distance and the voxel side. We found that voxel S factors and related analytical fit functions are mainly affected by the tissue density, while the material composition gives only a slight contribution to the difference between data series, which is negligible for practical purposes. Our results can help in broadening the dosimetric three-dimensional approach based on voxel S factors to other tissues where diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides can be taken up and radiation can propagate

  17. Automated segmentation of muscle and adipose tissue on CT images for human body composition analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Howard; Cobzas, Dana; Birdsell, Laura; Lieffers, Jessica; Baracos, Vickie

    2009-02-01

    The ability to compute body composition in cancer patients lends itself to determining the specific clinical outcomes associated with fat and lean tissue stores. For example, a wasting syndrome of advanced disease associates with shortened survival. Moreover, certain tissue compartments represent sites for drug distribution and are likely determinants of chemotherapy efficacy and toxicity. CT images are abundant, but these cannot be fully exploited unless there exist practical and fast approaches for tissue quantification. Here we propose a fully automated method for segmenting muscle, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, taking the approach of shape modeling for the analysis of skeletal muscle. Muscle shape is represented using PCA encoded Free Form Deformations with respect to a mean shape. The shape model is learned from manually segmented images and used in conjunction with a tissue appearance prior. VAT and SAT are segmented based on the final deformed muscle shape. In comparing the automatic and manual methods, coefficients of variation (COV) (1 - 2%), were similar to or smaller than inter- and intra-observer COVs reported for manual segmentation.

  18. Composite microsphere-functionalized scaffold for the controlled release of small molecules in tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current tissue engineering strategies focus on restoring damaged tissue architectures using biologically active scaffolds. The ideal scaffold would mimic the extracellular matrix of any tissue of interest, promoting cell proliferation and de novo extracellular matrix deposition. A plethora of techniques have been evaluated to engineer scaffolds for the controlled and targeted release of bioactive molecules to provide a functional structure for tissue growth and remodeling, as well as enhance recruitment and proliferation of autologous cells within the implant. Recently, novel approaches using small molecules, instead of growth factors, have been exploited to regulate tissue regeneration. The use of small synthetic molecules could be very advantageous because of their stability, tunability, and low cost. Herein, we propose a chitosan–gelatin scaffold functionalized with composite microspheres consisting of mesoporous silicon microparticles and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid for the controlled release of sphingosine-1-phospate, a small molecule of interest. We characterized the platform with scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and confocal microscopy. Finally, the biocompatibility of this multiscale system was analyzed by culturing human mesenchymal stem cells onto the scaffold. The presented strategy establishes the basis of a versatile scaffold for the controlled release of small molecules and for culturing mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine applications.

  19. Fetal subcutaneous tissue measurements in pregnancy as a predictor of neonatal total body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Clare; Doolan, Anne; O'Higgins, Amy; Segurado, Ricardo; Sheridan-Pereiraet, Margaret; Turner, Michael J; Stuart, Bernard; Kennelly, Máireád M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between prenatal measures of subcutaneous tissue as surrogate markers of fetal nutritional status and correlate them with neonatal total body composition. This prospective longitudinal study of 62 singleton pregnancies obtained serial biometry and subcutaneous tissue measurements at 28, 33 and 38 weeks gestation. These measurements were then correlated with neonatal body composition, which was analysed using the PEAPOD™ Infant Body Composition System (Cosmed USA, Concord, CA, USA). At 38 weeks gestation, fetal abdominal subcutaneous tissue (FAST) in millimetres was significantly associated with infant fat mass at delivery (+64 g per mm of FAST, p < 0.001). Thigh fat (TF) at 28 weeks gestation was associated with infant fat mass at delivery (+79 g/mm TF, p = 0.023). TF at 38 weeks gestation was associated with infant fat mass (+63/mm TF, p = 0.004). TF and FAST at 38 weeks were also predictive of both birth weight and increased abdominal circumference (AC) (p = 0.001) with FAST measurement predicting an additional 5.7 mm in AC per millimetre of FAST (p = 0.002) and TF predicting an additional 6.9 mm per mm of TF (p = 0.002). We believe that this study further validates the use of prenatal measures of subcutaneous tissue and may help to highlight fetuses at risk of newborn adiposity and metabolic syndrome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. [The composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, D; Lin, Y; Jiang, X; Lan, L; Zhang, W; Wang, B X

    2017-03-02

    Objective: To explore the composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora. Method: Twenty-four specimens were collected from pregnant Kunming mouse including 8 mice of early embryonic (12-13 days) gastrointestinal tissues, 8 cases of late embryonic (19-20 days)gastrointestinal tissues, 8 of late pregnancy placental tissues.The 24 samples were extracted by DNeasy Blood & Tissue kit for high-throughput DNA sequencing. Result: The level of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actino-bacteria and Firmicutes were predominantin all specimens.The relative content of predominant bacterial phyla in each group: Proteobacteria (95.00%, 88.14%, 87.26%), Bacteroidetes(1.71%, 2.15%, 2.63%), Actino-Bacteria(1.16%, 4.10%, 3.38%), Firmicutes(0.75%, 2.62%, 2.01%). At the level of family, there were nine predominant bacterial families in which Enterobacteriaeae , Shewanel laceae and Moraxellaceae were dominant.The relative content of dominant bacterial family in eachgroup: Enterobacteriaeae (46.99%, 44.34%, 41.08%), Shewanellaceae (21.99%, 21.10%, 19.05%), Moraxellaceae (9.18%, 7.09%, 5.64%). From the species of flora, the flora from fetal gastrointestinal in early pregnancy and late pregnancy (65.44% and 62.73%) were the same as that from placenta tissue in the late pregnancy.From the abundance of bacteria, at the level of family, the same content of bacteria in three groups accounted for 78.16%, 72.53% and 65.78% respectively. Conclusion: It was proved that the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora were colonized. At the same time the bacteria are classified.

  1. Unified Protocol for psychiatric and psychological assessment of candidates for transplantation of organs and tissues, PSI-CAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidel Kinori, Sara Guila; Alcántara Tadeo, Antonio; Castan Campanera, Esther; Costa Requena, Gemma; Diez Quevedo, Crisanto; Lligoña Garreta, Anna; Lopez Lazcano, Ana; Martínez del Pozo, Montserrat; Rangil Muñoz, Teresa; Peri Nogués, Josep María

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation is the treatment option that offers improved survival and quality of life as compared to organ failure. Psychiatric and psychological aspects of transplant candidates are important, especially in the pre-assessment stage, as the influence of these factors can hinder post-surgical outcome in both the implanted organ survival and the quality of life of the transplanted person. Of particular importance, are the factors related to pathology due to substance use, psychopathology, and psychosocial support. There are currently few guidelines on the correct evaluation of patients eligible for these complex procedures. Nineteen psychiatrists and clinical psychologists from six public hospitals in Catalonia conducted a systematic consensus to determine the design of a Unified Protocol psychological and psychiatric evaluation. An annual work plan was implemented, during which; the objectives were defined, a literature review was conducted, the inclusion and exclusion criteria were discussed, questionnaires were selected, and a structured interview was developed. With the implementation of the work plan, the Assessment Protocol presented in this article was designed. systematic work and improving cooperation between psychiatrists and clinical psychologists, has led to homogeneity and consensus on a unified evaluation protocol. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Silk-fibrin/hyaluronic acid composite gels for nucleus pulposus tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hyug; Cho, Hongsik; Gil, Eun Seok; Mandal, Biman B; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Kaplan, David L

    2011-12-01

    Scaffold designs are critical for in vitro culture of tissue-engineered cartilage in three-dimensional environments to enhance cellular differentiation for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In the present study we demonstrated silk and fibrin/hyaluronic acid (HA) composite gels as scaffolds for nucleus pulposus (NP) cartilage formation, providing both biochemical support for NP outcomes as well as fostering the retention of size of the scaffold during culture due to the combined features of the two proteins. Passage two (P2) human chondrocytes cultured in 10% serum were encapsulated within silk-fibrin/HA gels. Five study groups with fibrin/HA gel culture (F/H) along with varying silk concentrations (2% silk gel only, fibrin/HA gel culture with 1% silk [F/H+1S], 1.5% silk [F/H+1.5S], and 2% silk [F/H+2S]) were cultured in serum-free chondrogenic defined media (CDM) for 4 weeks. Histological examination with alcian blue showed a defined chondrogenic area at 1 week in all groups that widened homogenously until 4 weeks. In particular, chondrogenic differentiation observed in the F/H+1.5S had no reduction in size throughout the culture period. The results of biochemical and molecular biological evaluations supported observations made during histological examination. Mechanical strength measurements showed that the silk mixed gels provided stronger mechanical properties for NP tissue than fibrin/HA composite gels in CDM. This effect could potentially be useful in the study of in vitro NP tissue engineering as well as for clinical implications for NP tissue regeneration.

  3. The rapid manufacture of uniform composite multicellular-biomaterial micropellets, their assembly into macroscopic organized tissues, and potential applications in cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babur, Betul Kul; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Klein, Travis Jacob; Lott, William B; Doran, Michael Robert

    2015-01-01

    We and others have published on the rapid manufacture of micropellet tissues, typically formed from 100-500 cells each. The micropellet geometry enhances cellular biological properties, and in many cases the micropellets can subsequently be utilized as building blocks to assemble complex macrotissues. Generally, micropellets are formed from cells alone, however when replicating matrix-rich tissues such as cartilage it would be ideal if matrix or biomaterials supplements could be incorporated directly into the micropellet during the manufacturing process. Herein we describe a method to efficiently incorporate donor cartilage matrix into tissue engineered cartilage micropellets. We lyophilized bovine cartilage matrix, and then shattered it into microscopic pieces having average dimensions manufacture of thousands of replica composite micropellets, with each micropellet having a material/CD core and a cellular surface. This micropellet organization enabled the rapid bulking up of the micropellet core matrix content, and left an adhesive cellular outer surface. This morphological organization enabled the ready assembly of the composite micropellets into macroscopic tissues. Generically, this is a versatile method that enables the rapid and uniform integration of biomaterials into multicellular micropellets that can then be used as tissue building blocks. In this study, the addition of CD resulted in an approximate 8-fold volume increase in the micropellets, with the donor matrix functioning to contribute to an increase in total cartilage matrix content. Composite micropellets were readily assembled into macroscopic cartilage tissues; the incorporation of CD enhanced tissue size and matrix content, but did not enhance chondrogenic gene expression.

  4. Effect of oral oleoyl-estrone on adipose tissue composition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remesar, X; Fernández-López, J A; Blay, M T; Savall, P; Salas, A; Díaz-Silva, M; Esteve, M; Grasa, M M; Alemany, M

    2002-08-01

    To determine whether the oral administration of oleoyl-estrone has similar mass-decreasing effects on the main different sites of white adipose tissue (WAT). Adult male Zucker lean rats were given a daily oral gavage of oleoyl-estrone (OE, 10 micromol/kg) in 0.2 ml of sunflower oil for 10 days, and were compared with controls receiving only the oil. The mass of the main WAT sites: subcutaneous, epididymal, mesenteric, retroperitoneal, gluteal, perirenal and interscapular, as well as perirenal and interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT), were dissected and studied. The tissue weight, DNA, protein, lipid and total cholesterol content, together with the levels of leptin and acyl-estrone in the larger WAT and BAT masses, were measured. The weights of WAT depots were correlated with body weight but those of BAT were not. Cell size was maximal for epididymal and mesenteric and minimal for subcutaneous and retroperitoneal WAT and BAT. Differences were detected in DNA, and in protein and lipid content between distinct WAT sites. OE treatment tended to decrease cell number and cell size in WAT; only small differences in composition were found between WAT locations inside the visceral cavity and those outside. Decreases in lipid content were maximal in mesenteric fat. Leptin and acyl-estrone content were fairly uniform at the different WAT sites, except for high concentrations in gluteal WAT. OE induced a greater decrease in leptin and acyl-estrone than in DNA and lipids; changes in these hormones were fairly parallel in all sites. In general, the differences in composition between visceral and peripheral subcutaneous WAT and their responses to OE were less marked than the individual differences observed between specific sites, regardless of location. WAT sites are fairly diverse in composition, but their response to OE treatment was uniform. OE decreased the weight of WAT through reduction of both cell numbers and size; but did not change the mass or composition of BAT

  5. Prediction of Local Ultimate Strain and Toughness of Trabecular Bone Tissue by Raman Material Composition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carretta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical studies indicate that bone mineral density correlates with fracture risk at the population level but does not correlate with individual fracture risk well. Current research aims to better understand the failure mechanism of bone and to identify key determinants of bone quality, thus improving fracture risk prediction. To get a better understanding of bone strength, it is important to analyze tissue-level properties not influenced by macro- or microarchitectural factors. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether and to what extent material properties are correlated with mechanical properties at the tissue level. The influence of macro- or microarchitectural factors was excluded by testing individual trabeculae. Previously reported data of mechanical parameters measured in single trabeculae under tension and bending and its compositional properties measured by Raman spectroscopy was evaluated. Linear and multivariate regressions show that bone matrix quality but not quantity was significantly and independently correlated with the tissue-level ultimate strain and postyield work (r=0.65–0.94. Principal component analysis extracted three independent components explaining 86% of the total variance, representing elastic, yield, and ultimate components according to the included mechanical parameters. Some matrix parameters were both included in the ultimate component, indicating that the variation in ultimate strain and postyield work could be largely explained by Raman-derived compositional parameters.

  6. Lipoproteins in Drosophila melanogaster—Assembly, Function, and Influence on Tissue Lipid Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Wilhelm; Sampaio, Julio L.; Brankatschk, Marko; Carvalho, Maria; Mahmoud, Ali; Shevchenko, Andrej; Eaton, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Interorgan lipid transport occurs via lipoproteins, and altered lipoprotein levels correlate with metabolic disease. However, precisely how lipoproteins affect tissue lipid composition has not been comprehensively analyzed. Here, we identify the major lipoproteins of Drosophila melanogaster and use genetics and mass spectrometry to study their assembly, interorgan trafficking, and influence on tissue lipids. The apoB-family lipoprotein Lipophorin (Lpp) is the major hemolymph lipid carrier. It is produced as a phospholipid-rich particle by the fat body, and its secretion requires Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein (MTP). Lpp acquires sterols and most diacylglycerol (DAG) at the gut via Lipid Transfer Particle (LTP), another fat body-derived apoB-family lipoprotein. The gut, like the fat body, is a lipogenic organ, incorporating both de novo–synthesized and dietary fatty acids into DAG for export. We identify distinct requirements for LTP and Lpp-dependent lipid mobilization in contributing to the neutral and polar lipid composition of the brain and wing imaginal disc. These studies define major routes of interorgan lipid transport in Drosophila and uncover surprising tissue-specific differences in lipoprotein lipid utilization. PMID:22844248

  7. Compton scattering spectrum as a source of information of normal and neoplastic breast tissues' composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, 14040-901 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, 14040-901 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    In this work we measured X-ray scatter spectra from normal and neoplastic breast tissues using photon energy of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90 Degree-Sign , in order to study the shape (FWHM) of the Compton peaks. The obtained results for FWHM were discussed in terms of composition and histological characteristics of each tissue type. The statistical analysis shows that the distribution of FWHM of normal adipose breast tissue clearly differs from all other investigated tissues. Comparison between experimental values of FWHM and effective atomic number revealed a strong correlation between them, showing that the FWHM values can be used to provide information about elemental composition of the tissues. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray scatter spectra from normal and neoplastic breast tissues were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shape (FWHM) of Compton peak was related with elemental composition and characteristics of each tissue type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A statistical hypothesis test showed clear differences between normal and neoplastic breast tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a strong correlation between experimental values of FWHM and effective atomic number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shape (FWHM) of Compton peak can be used to provide information about elemental composition of the tissues.

  8. Engineering of Corneal Tissue through an Aligned PVA/Collagen Composite Nanofibrous Electrospun Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengjie; Kong, Bin; Liu, Rui; Sun, Wei; Mi, Shengli

    2018-02-24

    Corneal diseases are the main reason of vision loss globally. Constructing a corneal equivalent which has a similar strength and transparency with the native cornea, seems to be a feasible way to solve the shortage of donated cornea. Electrospun collagen scaffolds are often fabricated and used as a tissue-engineered cornea, but the main drawback of poor mechanical properties make it unable to meet the requirement for surgery suture, which limits its clinical applications to a large extent. Aligned polyvinyl acetate (PVA)/collagen (PVA-COL) scaffolds were electrospun by mixing collagen and PVA to reinforce the mechanical strength of the collagen electrospun scaffold. Human keratocytes (HKs) and human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) inoculated on aligned and random PVA-COL electrospun scaffolds adhered and proliferated well, and the aligned nanofibers induced orderly HK growth, indicating that the designed PVA-COL composite nanofibrous electrospun scaffold is suitable for application in tissue-engineered cornea.

  9. Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissues of indigenous Caribbean goats under varying nutritional densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liméa, L; Alexandre, G; Berthelot, V

    2012-02-01

    The effects of a concentrate diet on growth, carcass fat, and fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle (supraspinatus), perirenal, and intermuscular adipose tissues of Creole goats (n = 32) were evaluated. Goats were fed a tropical green forage Digitaria decumbens ad libitum with no concentrate (G0) or 1 of 3 levels of concentrate: 140 (G100), 240 (G200), and 340 g•d(-1) (G300), respectively. Goats were slaughtered according to the standard procedure at the commercial BW (22 to 24 kg of BW). Goats fed the concentrate diets (G100, G200, and G300) had greater ADG (P 0.05). Increased concentrate supplementation did not affect (P > 0.05) the proportion of MUFA in all tissues and had very little effect on SFA in perirenal tissue, but increased the PUFA proportion in muscle (P < 0.05). The major effect of feeding increased concentrate was an increase in n-6 PUFA proportions in all tissues (P < 0.001) and, surprisingly, a decrease in n-3 PUFA (P < 0.001). Focusing on FA, which are supposed to have a beneficial or an adverse effect on human health, feeding increased concentrate did not increase the content of any cholesterol-increasing SFA in meat, but increased the n-6/n-3 ratio above 4 when more than 240 g of concentrate was fed per day.

  10. Dietary fat composition influences tissue lipid profile and gene expression in Fischer-344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Albert L; Hintze, Korry J; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Ward, Robert E

    2012-12-01

    The AIN-76A diet causes fatty liver in rodents when fed for long periods of time. The aim of this study was to utilize fatty acid analysis and transcriptomics to investigate the effects of different fat sources in the AIN-76A diet on tissue lipid profiles and gene expression in male, weanling Fischer-344 rats. Animals were fed isocaloric diets that differed only in the fat source: (1) corn oil (CO) (2) anhydrous milk fat (AMF), and (3) AMF supplemented with 10% phospholipids from the milk fat globule membrane (AMF-MFGM). There were no differences in food intake, body weight, growth rate, or body fat composition among the groups, and the fatty acid compositions of red blood cells (RBC), plasma, muscle, and visceral adipose tissues reflected the dietary fat sources. Modifying the fat source resulted in 293 genes differentially regulated in skeletal muscle, 1,124 in adipose, and 831 in liver as determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Although tissue fatty acid profiles mostly reflected the diet, there were several quantitative differences in lipid classes in the liver and plasma. The AMF diet resulted in the highest level of hepatic triacylglycerols, but the lowest level in plasma. The CO diet resulted in significant accumulation of hepatic unesterified fatty acids and decreased DGAT expression and activity, a potential trigger for steatohepatitis. These results indicate that the fatty acid composition and presence of polar lipids in the AIN-76A diets have significant effects on lipid partitioning, gene expression, and potentially the development of liver pathology.

  11. Study on the transplant impact on the elementary composition of Protousnea magellanica thallus by using instrumental neutron activation analysis; Estudio del impacto del transplante en la composicion elemental de Protousnea magellanica utilizando analisis por activacion neutronica instrumental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubach, Debora; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro; Arribere, Maria A.; Wiesztort, Andres [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche. Lab. de Analisis por Activacion Nautronica; Calvelo, Susana [Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Regional Universitario Bariloche

    1999-11-01

    As part of a study on the use of the furticose lichen Protousnea magellanica as a bio indicator of atmospheric pollution, it was studied the impact on the elemental composition of the thallus when this lichen is transplanted in the same area under similar environmental conditions. The lichens were collected and replanted in a pristine area in Puerto Blest, Nahuel Huapi National Park, Bariloche, Argentina. After one year, the transplanted thalli were collected and analyzed by using Instrumental Activation Analysis, complemented with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry for the Pb content determination. Crustal inputs were identified by computing enrichment factors. The transplanted thalli concentrations of most of the elements under study, Al, As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Dy, Eu, Hg, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Pb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Tb, Ti, Th, V, Yb and Zn, showed no significant differences with respect to the control thalli. However, some biological elements, Ca, Cl, Br, K and Rb, showed significant variations with respect to the controls, more noticeable in the first two elements. (author) 18 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Measurement of breast tissue composition with dual energy cone-beam computed tomography: A postmortem study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Huanjun; Ducote, Justin L.; Molloi, Sabee [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of a three-material compositional measurement of water, lipid, and protein content of breast tissue with dual kVp cone-beam computed tomography (CT) for diagnostic purposes. Methods: Simulations were performed on a flat panel-based computed tomography system with a dual kVp technique in order to guide the selection of experimental acquisition parameters. The expected errors induced by using the proposed calibration materials were also estimated by simulation. Twenty pairs of postmortem breast samples were imaged with a flat-panel based dual kVp cone-beam CT system, followed by image-based material decomposition using calibration data obtained from a three-material phantom consisting of water, vegetable oil, and polyoxymethylene plastic. The tissue samples were then chemically decomposed into their respective water, lipid, and protein contents after imaging to allow direct comparison with data from dual energy decomposition. Results: Guided by results from simulation, the beam energies for the dual kVp cone-beam CT system were selected to be 50 and 120 kVp with the mean glandular dose divided equally between each exposure. The simulation also suggested that the use of polyoxymethylene as the calibration material for the measurement of pure protein may introduce an error of -11.0%. However, the tissue decomposition experiments, which employed a calibration phantom made out of water, oil, and polyoxymethylene, exhibited strong correlation with data from the chemical analysis. The average root-mean-square percentage error for water, lipid, and protein contents was 3.58% as compared with chemical analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the water, lipid, and protein contents can be accurately measured using dual kVp cone-beam CT. The tissue compositional information may improve the sensitivity and specificity for breast cancer diagnosis.

  13. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER YIELD AND CARCASS TISSUE COMPOSITION IN BROILER CHICKENS OF VARIOUS ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIUSZ KOKOSZYŃSKI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Slaughter yield and carcass tissue composition were compared in three different broiler chicken production sets. The highest body weight (1892.5 g, eviscerated carcass weight with neck (1406.9 g and slaughter yield (74.5% were found in Ross 308 chickens, whilst the lowest values of these traits occurred in JV chickens (respectively: 1753.3; 1288.2 g; 73.3%. The highest muscle contents (45.4% breast muscles and leg muscles in carcass and the lowest fattiness (7.9% skin with subcutaneous fat and 1.5% abdominal fat were found in Hubbard Evolution chickens.

  14. Pakistan's kidney trade: an overview of the 2007 'Transplantation of Human Organs and Human Tissue Ordinance.' To what extent will it curb the trade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Mohsen; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan has the unenviable reputation for being one of the world's leading 'transplant tourism' destinations, largely the buying and selling of kidneys from its impoverished population to rich international patients. After nearly two decades of pressure to formally prohibit the trade, the Government of Pakistan promulgated the 'Transplantation of Human Organs and Human Tissue Ordinance' (THOTO) in 2007. This was then passed by Senate and enshrined in law in March 2010. This paper gives a brief overview of the organ trade within Pakistan and analyses the criteria of THOTO in banning the widespread practise. It then goes on to answer: 'To what extent will THOTO succeed in curbing Pakistan's kidney trade?' This is aided by the use of a comparative case study looking at India's failed organ trade legislation. This paper concludes THOTO has set a strong basis for curbing Pakistan's kidney trade. However, for this to be successfully achieved, it needs to be implemented with strong and sustained political will, strict and efficient enforcement as well as effective monitoring and evaluation. Efforts are needed to tackle both 'supply' and 'demand' factors of Pakistan's kidney trade, with developed countries also having a responsibility to reduce the flow of citizens travelling to Pakistan to purchase a kidney.

  15. Pancreatic Tissue Transplanted in TheraCyte Encapsulation Devices Is Protected and Prevents Hyperglycemia in a Mouse Model of Immune-Mediated Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettler, Tobias; Schneider, Darius; Cheng, Yang; Kadoya, Kuniko; Brandon, Eugene P; Martinson, Laura; von Herrath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by destruction of glucose-responsive insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells and exhibits immune infiltration of pancreatic islets, where CD8 lymphocytes are most prominent. Curative transplantation of pancreatic islets is seriously hampered by the persistence of autoreactive immune cells that require high doses of immunosuppressive drugs. An elegant approach to confer graft protection while obviating the need for immunosuppression is the use of encapsulation devices that allow for the transfer of oxygen and nutrients, yet prevent immune cells from making direct contact with the islet grafts. Here we demonstrate that macroencapsulation devices (TheraCyte) loaded with neonatal pancreatic tissue and transplanted into RIP-LCMV.GP mice prevented disease onset in a model of virus-induced diabetes mellitus. Histological analyses revealed that insulin-producing cells survived within the device in animal models of diabetes. Our results demonstrate that these encapsulation devices can protect from an immune-mediated attack and can contain a sufficient amount of insulin-producing cells to prevent overt hyperglycemia.

  16. Relative Composition of Fibrous Connective and Fatty/Glandular Tissue in Connective Tissue Grafts Depends on the Harvesting Technique but not the Donor Site of the Hard Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertl, Kristina; Pifl, Markus; Hirtler, Lena; Rendl, Barbara; Nürnberger, Sylvia; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Ulm, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Whether the composition of palatal connective tissue grafts (CTGs) varies depending on donor site or harvesting technique in terms of relative amounts of fibrous connective tissue (CT) and fatty/glandular tissue (FGT) is currently unknown and is histologically assessed in the present study. In 10 fresh human cadavers, tissue samples were harvested in the anterior and posterior palate and in areas close to (marginal) and distant from (apical) the mucosal margin. Mucosal thickness, lamina propria thickness (defined as the extent of subepithelial portion of the biopsy containing ≤25% or ≤50% FGT), and proportions of CT and FGT were semi-automatically estimated for the entire mucosa and for CTGs virtually harvested by split-flap (SF) preparation minimum 1 mm deep or after deepithelialization (DE). Palatal mucosal thickness, ranging from 2.35 to 6.89 mm, and histologic composition showed high interindividual variability. Lamina propria thickness (P >0.21) and proportions of CT (P = 0.48) and FGT (P = 0.15) did not differ significantly among the donor sites (anterior, posterior, marginal, apical). However, thicker palatal tissue was associated with higher FGT content (P tissue composition in the hard palate, DE-harvested CTG contains much larger amounts of CT and much lower amounts of FGT than SF-harvested CTG, irrespective of the harvesting site.

  17. Differential effects of diet composition and timing of feeding behavior on rat brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle peripheral clocks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Goede, P.; Sen, Satish; Oosterman, Johanneke E; Kalsbeek, A.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of feeding behavior and diet composition,as well as their possible interactions,on daily (clock) gene expression rhythms have mainly been studied in the liver, and to a lesser degree in white adipose tissue(WAT), but hardly in other metabolic tissues such as skeletal muscle (SM) and

  18. Bone transplantation and tissue engineering, part I. Mythology, miracles and fantasy: from Chimera to the Miracle of the Black Leg of Saints Cosmas and Damian and the cock of John Hunter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    The replacement of diseased organs and tissues by the healthy ones of others has been a unique milestone in modern medicine. However, even though cloning, member transplantation and regenerative therapies with stem cells are available in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, one should remember that all these techniques were in the imagination more than 2,000 years ago. For centuries, transplantation remained a theme of mythology, miracle or fantasy and was found only in literature and arts. This first paper explains the concept of tissue transplantation from the period when it was relegated to the imagination to the work of the Scottish surgeon and anatomist, John Hunter, who demonstrated the viability of bone allograft.

  19. The Relationship of a Combination of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Frozen Fat with the Survival Rate of Transplanted Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Young Ha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe survival rate of grafted fat is difficult to predict, and repeated procedures are frequently required. In this study, the effects of the freezing period of harvested adipose tissue and the addition of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs on the process of fat absorption were studied.MethodsAdipose tissue was obtained from patients who underwent a lipoaspirated fat graft. The fat tissue was cryopreserved at -20℃ in a domestic refrigerator. A total of 40 nude mice were used. The mice in the experimental group received three different subcutaneous injections in the back: an injection of fresh fat and ASCs, an injection of fat that had been frozen for one month and ASCs, and an injection of fat that had been frozen for two months and ASCs. The control mice received fat grafts without ASCs. The mice were sacrificed at four or eight weeks after the procedure, and the grafted fat tissues were harvested. The extracted fat was evaluated using photographic analysis, volume measurements, and histological examination.ResultsIn the control group, the fat resorption rates four weeks after transplantation in the grafts of fresh fat, fat that had been frozen for one month, and fat that had been frozen for two months were 21.14%, 22.46%, and 42.56%, respectively. In the experimental group, the corresponding resorption rates were 6.68%, 13.0%, and 33.9%, respectively.ConclusionsASCs can increase the fat graft survival rate. The use of ASCs in fat grafting can reduce the need for repeated fat grafts and provide good long term results.

  20. Common factors method to predict the carcass composition tissue in kid goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fernanda Barros Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the interrelations among weights and carcass measures of the longissimus lumborum muscle thickness and area, and of sternum tissue thickness, measured directly on carcass and by ultrasound scan. Measures were taken on live animals and after slaughter to develop models of multiple linear regression, to estimate the composition of shoulder blade, from selected variables in 89 kids of both genders and five breed groups, raised in feedlot system. The variables considered relevant and not redundant on the information they carry, for the common factor analysis, were used in the carcass composition estimate development models. The presuppositions of linear regression models relative to residues were evaluated, the estimated residues were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by the Student t test. Based in these results, the group of 32 initial variables could be reduced to four variables: hot carcass weight, rump perimeter, leg length and tissue height at the fourth sternum bone. The analysis of common factors was shown as an effective technique to study the interrelations among the independent variables. The measures of carcass dimension, alone, did not add any information to hot carcass weight. The carcass muscle weight can be estimated with high precision from simple models, without the need for information related to gender and breed, and they could be built based on carcass weight, which makes it easy to be applied. The fat and bones estimate models were not as accurate.

  1. In vitro aging of mineralized collagen-based composite as guided tissue regeneration membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, S.X. [Department of Prothodontics, School of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100875 (China)]. E-mail: sx_pan@sina.com; Li, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, H.L. [Department of Prothodontics, School of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100875 (China); Bai, W. [Department of Prothodontics, School of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100875 (China); Gu, Y.Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2006-05-15

    The technique of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has been developed for the regeneration of periodontal tissues, bone around natural teeth and dental implants. The aim of this study is to investigate the biodegradability and mechanic behavior of a novel mineralized nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly (lactic acid) (nHAC/PLA) composite as GTR membrane in vitro. The elastic modulus and maximum tensile strength of GTR film samples with different nHAC/PLA ratio were measured to get an optimal nHAC/PLA ratio. Thermogravimetric analysis was conducted to evaluate the change of the inorganic component in the samples during the process of in vitro aging. Morphology of samples was checked by using scanning electron microscopy. On the basis of the above results, it can be concluded that the GTR membranes maintained integrity and the original appearance throughout the 1-month in vitro aging. There is an active dissolution and deposition process of crystals which is propitious to the bone formation on the surface of the composite membrane. The optimal nHAC/PLA ratio of the novel membrane is 0.4:1. For a longer period of bone repair, PLA with higher molecular weight should be chosen as the scaffold for the GTR membrane.

  2. Elemental composition of 'normal' and Alzheimer brain tissue by INA and PIXE analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, J.D.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    Instrumental methods based on the nuclear and atomic properties of the elements have been used for many years to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials for biomedical, industrial and environmental applications. These methods offer high sensitivity for accurate trace element measurements, suffer few interfering or competing effects. Present no blank problems and are convenient for both research and routine analyses. The present article describes the use of two trace element techniques. Firstly the use of activation of stable nuclei irradiated by neutrons in the core of a low power research reactor as a means of detection of elements through the resulting gamma-rays emitted. Secondly, the observations of the interactions of energetic ion beams with the material in order to identify elemental species. Over recent years there has been some interest in determining the elemental composition of 'normal' and Alzheimer affected brain tissue, however literature findings are inconsistent. Possible reasons for discrepancies need to be identified for further progress to be made. Here, post-mortem tissue samples, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, London, were taken from the frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal lobes of both hemispheres of brains from 13 'normal' and 19 Alzheimer subjects. The elemental composition of the samples was determined using the analytical techniques of INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis), RBS (Rutherford back-scattering) and PIXE (particle induced x-ray emission). The principal findings are summarised here. (author)

  3. Pullulan-based composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: Improved osteoconductivity by pore wall mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrita; Arora, Aditya; Sharma, Poonam; Katti, Dhirendra S

    2015-06-05

    Porous hydrogels have been explored for bone tissue engineering; however their poor mechanical properties make them less suitable as bone graft substitutes. Since incorporation of fillers is a well-accepted method for improving mechanical properties of hydrogels, in this work pullulan hydrogels were reinforced with nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite (nHAp) (5 wt% nHAp in hydrogel) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) fibers (3 wt% fibers in hydrogel) containing nHAp (3 wt% nHAp in fibers). Addition of these fillers to pullulan hydrogel improved compressive modulus of the scaffold by 10 fold. However, the hydrophilicity of pullulan did not support adhesion and spreading of cells. To overcome this limitation, porous composite scaffolds were modified using a double diffusion method that enabled deposition of hydroxyapatite on pore walls. This method resulted in rapid and uniform coating of HAp throughout the three-dimensional scaffolds which not only rendered them osteoconductive in vitro but also led to an improvement in their compressive modulus. These results demonstrate the potential of mineralized pullulan-based composite scaffolds in non-load bearing bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Donor transplant programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Bakar Sulaiman

    1999-01-01

    The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts

  5. Correlation of serum and urinary matrix metalloproteases/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases with subclinical allograft fibrosis in renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt-Minkowski, Patricia; Marti, Hans-Peter; Hönger, Gideon; Grandgirard, Denis; Leib, Stephen L; Amico, Patrizia; Schaub, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Progressive interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) is a leading cause of chronic allograft dysfunction. Increased extracellular matrix remodeling regulated by matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) has been implicated in the development of IF/TA. The aim of this study was to investigate whether urinary/serum MMPs/TIMPs correlate with subclinical IF/TA detected in surveillance biopsies within the first 6months post-transplant. We measured eight different MMPs/TIMPs simultaneously in urine and serum samples from patients classified as normal histology (n=15), IF/TA 1 (n=15) and IF/TA 2-3 (n=10). There was no difference in urinary MMPs/TIMPs among the three groups, and only 1/8 serum MMPs/TIMPs (i.e. MMP-1) was significantly elevated in biopsies with IF/TA 2-3 (p=0.01). In addition, urinary/serum MMPs/TIMPs were not different between surveillance biopsies demonstrating an early development of IF/TA (i.e. delta IF/TA≥1 compared to a previous biopsy obtained three months before; n=11) and stable grade of IF/TA (i.e. delta IF/TA=0; n=20). Next, we investigated whether urinary/serum MMP/TIMP levels are elevated during acute subclinical tubulitis in surveillance biopsies obtained within the first 6months post-transplant (n=25). Compared to biopsies with normal histology, serum MMPs/TIMPs were not different; however, all urinary MMP/TIMP levels were numerically higher during subclinical tubulitis (MMP-1, MMP-7, TIMP-1 with p≤0.04). We conclude that urinary/serum MMPs/TIMPs do hardly correlate with existing or early developing IF/TA in surveillance biopsies obtained within the first 6months post-transplant. This could be explained by the dynamic process of extracellular matrix remodeling, which seems to be active during acute tubulo-interstitial injury/inflammation, but not in quiescent IF/TA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Aspectos ético-legais da retirada e transplante de tecidos, órgãos e partes do corpo humano Aspectos ético-legales de la retirada y transplante de tejidos, organos y partes del cuerpo humano Legal-ethical aspects of the removal and transplantation of tissues, organs and parts of the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Dias Ribeiro de Paula Lima

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available As autoras fazem uma análise crítica da legislação em vigor relativa aos transplantes de órgãos, tecidos e partes do corpo humano, e tecem comentários sobre os artigos pertinentes a eles nos respectivos códigos de ética médica e da enfermagem, alertando os profissionais de enfermagem para a necessidade de registrarem as infrações cometidas contra o cliente, à luz desses códigos.Las autoras hacen un analisis crítico de la legislación en vigor referente a los transplantes de órganos, tejidos y partes del cuerpo humano y hacen comentarios sobre los artículos pertinentes a ellos en los respectivos códigos de ética médica y de enfermería, alertando a los profesionales de enfermería sobre la necesidad de registrar las transgresiones hechas contra el cliente, a la luz de esos códigos.The authors analise critically the current legislation related to the transplantation of organs, tissues and parts of the human body, as well as they comment the articles which refer to this topic and which are found in medical and nursing ethical codes, advising nursing professionals to the need of registration of legal infractions attempted against the clients.

  7. Silicone-based composite materials simulate breast tissue to be used as ultrasonography training phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustbas, Burcin; Kilic, Deniz; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Aribal, Mustafa Erkin; Akbulut, Ozge

    2018-03-02

    A silicone-based composite breast phantom is fabricated to be used as an education model in ultrasonography training. A matrix of silicone formulations is tracked to mimic the ultrasonography and tactile response of human breast tissue. The performance of two different additives: (i) silicone oil and (ii) vinyl-terminated poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) are monitored by a home-made acoustic setup. Through the use of 75 wt% vinyl-terminated PDMS in two-component silicone elastomer mixture, a sound velocity of 1.29 ± 0.09 × 10 3  m/s and an attenuation coefficient of 12.99 ± 0.08 dB/cm-values those match closely to the human breast tissue-are measured with 5 MHz probe. This model can also be used for needle biopsy as well as for self-exam trainings. Herein, we highlight the fabrication of a realistic, durable, accessible, and cost-effective training platform that contains skin layer, inner breast tissue, and tumor masses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping of Human Brain Reflects Spatial Variation in Tissue Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wu, Bing; Liu, Chunlei

    2011-01-01

    Image phase from gradient echo MRI provides a unique contrast that reflects brain tissue composition variations, such as iron and myelin distribution. Phase imaging is emerging as a powerful tool for the investigation of functional brain anatomy and disease diagnosis. However, the quantitative value of phase is compromised by its nonlocal and orientation dependent properties. There is an increasing need for reliable quantification of magnetic susceptibility, the intrinsic property of tissue. In this study, we developed a novel and accurate susceptibility mapping method that is also phase-wrap insensitive. The proposed susceptibility mapping method utilized two complementary equations: (1) the Fourier relationship of phase and magnetic susceptibility; and (2) the first-order partial derivative of the first equation in the spatial frequency domain. In numerical simulation, this method reconstructed the susceptibility map almost free of streaking artifact. Further, the iterative implementation of this method allowed for high quality reconstruction of susceptibility maps of human brain in vivo. The reconstructed susceptibility map provided excellent contrast of iron-rich deep nuclei and white matter bundles from surrounding tissues. Further, it also revealed anisotropic magnetic susceptibility in brain white matter. Hence, the proposed susceptibility mapping method may provide a powerful tool for the study of brain physiology and pathophysiology. Further elucidation of anisotropic magnetic susceptibility in vivo may allow us to gain more insight into the white matter microarchitectures. PMID:21224002

  9. Tissue-engineered collateral ligament composite allografts for scapholunate ligament reconstruction: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ryan; Woon, Colin Y L; Farnebo, Simon J; Behn, Anthony; Bronstein, Joel; Pham, Hung; Yan, Xinrui; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Chang, James

    2012-08-01

    In patients with chronic scapholunate (SL) dissociation or dynamic instability, ligament repair is often not possible, and surgical reconstruction is indicated. The ideal graft ligament would recreate both anatomical and biomechanical properties of the dorsal scapholunate ligament (dorsal SLIL). The finger proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP joint) collateral ligament could possibly be a substitute ligament. We harvested human PIP joint collateral ligaments and SL ligaments from 15 cadaveric limbs. We recorded ligament length, width, and thickness, and measured the biomechanical properties (ultimate load, stiffness, and displacement to failure) of native dorsal SLIL, untreated collateral ligaments, decellularized collateral ligaments, and SL repairs with bone-collateral ligament-bone composite collateral ligament grafts. As proof of concept, we then reseeded decellularized bone-collateral ligament-bone composite grafts with green fluorescent protein-labeled adipo-derived mesenchymal stem cells and evaluated them histologically. There was no difference in ultimate load, stiffness, and displacement to failure among native dorsal SLIL, untreated and decellularized collateral ligaments, and SL repairs with tissue-engineered collateral ligament grafts. With pair-matched untreated and decellularized scaffolds, there was no difference in ultimate load or stiffness. However, decellularized ligaments revealed lower displacement to failure compared with untreated ligaments. There was no difference in displacement between decellularized ligaments and native dorsal SLIL. We successfully decellularized grafts with recently described techniques, and they could be similarly reseeded. Proximal interphalangeal joint collateral ligament-based bone-collateral ligament-bone composite allografts had biomechanical properties similar to those of native dorsal SLIL. Decellularization did not adversely affect material properties. These tissue-engineered grafts may offer surgeons another

  10. Monitoring in microvascular tissue transfer by measurement of oxygen partial pressure: four years experience with 125 microsurgical transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, René; Schaal, Thomas; Krimmel, Michael; Gülicher, Dirk; Reinert, Siegmar; Hoffmann, Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    In a prospective study, the characteristics and benefit of an invasive measurement of oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)) with the aid of a polarographic sensor were investigated in 125 microsurgical reconstructions of the head and neck area over a period of 45 months. Measurements were performed over 96 h in eight different types of microsurgically revascularized flaps for extra- and intraoral reconstructions and were evaluated separately for each flap type. Of 125 reconstructions the system indicated malperfusion in 18 cases. Salvage surgery was performed in 17 cases due to venous thrombosis (6 cases), arterial thrombosis (3 cases), a combination of arterial and venous thrombosis (2 cases), rheological problems (3 cases), venous insufficiency by hematoma (2 cases) and kinking of vessels (1 case). In 10 cases salvage surgery was successful, 7 flaps were lost despite salvage surgery. In all these cases, the polarographic probe indicated the necessity of salvage surgery correctly. After 96 h no malperfusion was seen. Postoperatively, a common and characteristic development of the oxygen partial pressure in different types of flaps was seen. Initially, a clear increase of pO(2) could be measured. During 96 h, a slow decrease of pO(2) was observed. In conclusion polarographic measurement of pO(2) can be an excellent apparative supplement for the postoperative clinical control of microsurgically revascularized transplants. In buried flaps, this technique represents the only reliable method for transplant monitoring. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Viscoelastic behaviour of hydrogel-based composites for tissue engineering under mechanical load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocen, Rok; Gasik, Michael; Gantar, Ana; Novak, Saša

    2017-03-06

    Along with biocompatibility, bioinductivity and appropriate biodegradation, mechanical properties are also of crucial importance for tissue engineering scaffolds. Hydrogels, such as gellan gum (GG), are usually soft materials, which may benefit from the incorporation of inorganic particles, e.g. bioactive glass, not only due to the acquired bioactivity, but also due to improved mechanical properties. They exhibit complex viscoelastic properties, which can be evaluated in various ways. In this work, to reliably evaluate the effect of the bioactive glass (BAG) addition on viscoelastic properties of the composite hydrogel, we employed and compared the three most commonly used techniques, analyzing their advantages and limitations: monotonic uniaxial unconfined compression, small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) rheology and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Creep and small amplitude dynamic strain-controlled tests in DMA are suggested as the best ways for the characterization of mechanical properties of hydrogel composites, whereas the SAOS rheology is more useful for studying the hydrogel's processing kinetics, as it does not induce volumetric changes even at very high strains. Overall, the results confirmed a beneficial effect of BAG (nano)particles on the elastic modulus of the GG-BAG composite hydrogel. The Young's modulus of 6.6 ± 0.8 kPa for the GG hydrogel increased by two orders of magnitude after the addition of 2 wt.% BAG particles (500-800 kPa).

  12. Seasonal biochemical changes in composition of body wall tissues of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2011-03-01

    Seasonal Variation in proximate, amino acid and fatty acid composition of the body wall of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was evaluated. The proximate composition, except for ash content, changed significantly among seasons ( P<0.05). Alanine, glycine, glutamic acid and asparagic acid were the most abundant amino acids. Total amino acid and essential amino acid Contents both varied clearly with seasons ( P<0.05). 16:0 and 16:ln7 were the primary saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) respectively for all months. EPA (20:5n-3), AA (20:4n-6) and DHA (22:6n-3) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The proportions of SFA and PUFA yielded significant seasonal variations ( P<0.001), but MUFA did not changed significantly. The results indicated that the biochemical compositions of the body wall in A. japonicus were significantly influenced by seasons and that the body wall tissue is an excellent source of protein, MUFA and n-3 PUFA for humans.

  13. Influence of plant root morphology and tissue composition on phenanthrene uptake: Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Xinhua; Liang, Xiao; Xu, Guohua; Zhou, Lixiang

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are contaminants that reside mainly in surface soils. Dietary intake of plant-based foods can make a major contribution to total PAH exposure. Little information is available on the relationship between root morphology and plant uptake of PAHs. An understanding of plant root morphologic and compositional factors that affect root uptake of contaminants is important and can inform both agricultural (chemical contamination of crops) and engineering (phytoremediation) applications. Five crop plant species are grown hydroponically in solutions containing the PAH phenanthrene. Measurements are taken for 1) phenanthrene uptake, 2) root morphology – specific surface area, volume, surface area, tip number and total root length and 3) root tissue composition – water, lipid, protein and carbohydrate content. These factors are compared through Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. The major factors which promote phenanthrene uptake are specific surface area and lipid content. -- Highlights: •There is no correlation between phenanthrene uptake and total root length, and water. •Specific surface area and lipid are the most crucial factors for phenanthrene uptake. •The contribution of specific surface area is greater than that of lipid. -- The contribution of specific surface area is greater than that of lipid in the two most important root morphological and compositional factors affecting phenanthrene uptake

  14. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  15. Uniformly-dispersed nanohydroxapatite-reinforced poly(ε-caprolactone) composite films for tendon tissue engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Shi Yun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117 576 (Singapore); Wang, Zuyong, E-mail: zuyong.nus@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117 576 (Singapore); Lim, Poon Nian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117 576 (Singapore); Wang, Wilson [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National University of Singapore, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119 074 (Singapore); Thian, Eng San, E-mail: mpetes@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117 576 (Singapore)

    2017-01-01

    Regeneration of injuries at tendon-to-bone interface (TBI) remains a challenging issue due to the complex tissue composition involving both soft tendon tissues and relatively hard bone tissues. Tissue engineering using polymeric/ceramic composites has been of great interest to generate scaffolds for tissue's healing at TBI. Herein, we presented a novel method to blend polymers and bioceramics for tendon tissue engineering application. A homogeneous composite comprising of nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) particles in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix was obtained using a combination of solvent and mechanical blending process. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the as-fabricated PCL/nHA composite film retained phase-pure apatite and semi-crystalline properties of PCL. Infrared spectroscopy spectra confirmed that the PCL/nHA composite film exhibited the characteristics functional groups of PCL and nHA, without alteration to the chemical properties of the composite. The incorporation of nHA resulted in PCL/nHA composite film with improved mechanical properties such as Young's Modulus and ultimate tensile stress, which were comparable to that of the native human rotator tendon. Seeding with human tenocytes, cells attached on the PCL/nHA composite film, and after 14 days of culturing, these cells could acquire elongated morphology without induced cytotoxicity. PCL/nHA composite film could also result in increased cell metabolism with prolonged culturing, which was comparable to that of the PCL group and higher than that of the nHA group. All these results demonstrated that the developed technique of combining solvent and mechanical blending could be applied to fabricate composite films with potential for tendon tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • A novel method fabricating polymeric/nanoceramic composite film was proposed. • The method involved solvent and mechanical blending to form a homogeneous film. • The film retained physicochemical

  16. Magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) for the evaluation of autologous chondrocyte transplantation: Determination of interobserver variability and correlation to clinical outcome after 2 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlovits, Stefan; Singer, Philipp; Zeller, Philip; Mandl, Irena; Haller, Joerg; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2006-01-01

    In an observational study, the validity and reliability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) in the knee joint was determined. Two years after implantation, high-resolution MRI was used to analyze the repair tissue with nine pertinent variables. A complete filling of the defect was found in 61.5%, and a complete integration of the border zone to the adjacent cartilage in 76.9%. An intact subchondral lamina was present in 84.6% and an intact subchondral bone was present in 61.5%. Isointense signal intensities of the repair tissue compared to the adjacent native cartilage were seen in 92.3%. To evaluate interobserver variability, a reliability analysis with the determination of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. An 'almost perfect' agreement, with an ICC value >0.81, was calculated in 8 of 9 variables. The clinical outcome after 2 years showed the visual analog score (VAS) at 2.62 (S.D. ±0.65). The values for the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) subgroups were 68.29 (±23.90) for pain, 62.09 (±14.62) for symptoms, 75.45 (±21.91) for ADL function, 52.69 (±28.77) for sport and 70.19 (±22.41) for knee-related quality of life. The clinical scores were correlated with the MRI variables. A statistically significant correlation was found for the variables 'filling of the defect,' 'structure of the repair tissue,' 'changes in the subchondral bone,' and 'signal intensities of the repair issue'. High resolution MRI and well-defined MRI variables are a reliable, reproducible and accurate tool for assessing cartilage repair tissue

  17. Magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) for the evaluation of autologous chondrocyte transplantation: Determination of interobserver variability and correlation to clinical outcome after 2 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlovits, Stefan [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: stefan.marlovits@meduniwien.ac.at; Singer, Philipp [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Zeller, Philip [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mandl, Irena [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Haller, Joerg [Department of Radiology, Hanusch Hospital, Heinrich-Collin-Strasse, A-1140 Vienna (Austria); Trattnig, Siegfried [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-01-15

    In an observational study, the validity and reliability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) in the knee joint was determined. Two years after implantation, high-resolution MRI was used to analyze the repair tissue with nine pertinent variables. A complete filling of the defect was found in 61.5%, and a complete integration of the border zone to the adjacent cartilage in 76.9%. An intact subchondral lamina was present in 84.6% and an intact subchondral bone was present in 61.5%. Isointense signal intensities of the repair tissue compared to the adjacent native cartilage were seen in 92.3%. To evaluate interobserver variability, a reliability analysis with the determination of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. An 'almost perfect' agreement, with an ICC value >0.81, was calculated in 8 of 9 variables. The clinical outcome after 2 years showed the visual analog score (VAS) at 2.62 (S.D. {+-}0.65). The values for the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) subgroups were 68.29 ({+-}23.90) for pain, 62.09 ({+-}14.62) for symptoms, 75.45 ({+-}21.91) for ADL function, 52.69 ({+-}28.77) for sport and 70.19 ({+-}22.41) for knee-related quality of life. The clinical scores were correlated with the MRI variables. A statistically significant correlation was found for the variables 'filling of the defect,' 'structure of the repair tissue,' 'changes in the subchondral bone,' and 'signal intensities of the repair issue'. High resolution MRI and well-defined MRI variables are a reliable, reproducible and accurate tool for assessing cartilage repair tissue.

  18. FREE AMINO ACID COMPOSITION IN SCOTS PINE TISSUES UNDER STRESS IMPACT IN RHIZOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudachkova N.E.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The free amino acid content in the needles and the inner bark of stems and roots of 8-13-ages self-sawn trees of Pinus sylvestris L. in Central Siberia in experimental and natural conditions was compared. The experiments imitated an influence of long-seasonal or permafrost, soil drought and root hypoxia, concomitant flooding. The aim of the investigation was to expose the adaptive changes of these metabolites composition under stress impact. All of types of stress influences changed the total free amino acid content in the tissues of different morphological tree parts: the cooling of root system caused a deposit of free amino acids in overground tree part, the water deficit stimulated an accumulation of free amino acids in root inner bark, the flooding decreased the amino acid content in all tissues. The ratio in a group of amino acids with glutamic acid as metabolic precursor (-aminobutyric (GABA, proline, arginine, citrulline and ornithine changed under different stress impact. The cold stress in rhizosphere caused GABA accumulation in the needles and stem but not in the roots in the period of soil thawing. The moderate moisture deficit had not an influence on GABA content, the flooding caused GABA accumulation only in new needles. The maximal exceeding above control were marked for the sum of arginine and its metabolic precursors citrulline and ornithine. The group of these compounds may be considered as stress metabolites for scots pine, but specificity of depositing of these amino acids at water stress requires additional proofs. Since the proline accumulation was showed in separate times in the different tissues under all of investigated stressors impact, the specificity of proline as indicator of water stress in scots pine tissues is debatable. The disturbance of donor-acceptor connections in experiment with cooling resulted to the amino acid accumulation in stem inner bark, in experiment with drought – in root inner bark.

  19. [The elemental composition of teeth hard tissues depending on the state of the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suladze, N; Shishniashvili, T; Margvelashvili, V; Kobakhidze, K

    2014-01-01

    At present, great attention is paid to the origin of man-made micro elemental anomalies. To monitor the state of the environment and its effects on the human body, of great importance is the determination of the amount and distribution of various chemical elements in the dentin and enamel of the teeth. To determine the essential (Ca, Zn, Mn, Ni), conditionally essential (Rb, Ni, Sr) and toxic (Pb, Hg) trace elements in the mineralized tissues of the teeth and to identify the relationship between the elemental composition of the tooth structure and the state of the general and dental health depending on the state of the environment, we have examined 29 children aged 3-4 years who have carried out analysis of hard tissue of teeth (teeth used for remote medical reasons) for the maintenance of nine chemical elements. Children living in a relatively environmentally favorable conditions essential value and conditionally essential elements in the mineralized tissues of the teeth were within normal limits, and toxic elements slightly increased limits that differ from those of children living in environmentally disadvantaged areas. In particular, these essential elements were significantly reduced (except for zinc), as indicators of toxic elements - mercury and lead, increased by 12.5% and 44.5%, respectively, which is clearly reflected on the state of dental health because noted decompensated form of tooth decay. Thus, deviations in a state of general and dental health of children associated with an imbalance of macro-and microelements in the mineralized tissues of the teeth.

  20. Composition and structure of porcine digital flexor tendon-bone insertion tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Sandhya; Pankow, Mark; Peters, Kara; Huang, Hsiao-Ying Shadow

    2017-11-01

    Tendon-bone insertion is a functionally graded tissue, transitioning from 200 MPa tensile modulus at the tendon end to 20 GPa tensile modulus at the bone, across just a few hundred micrometers. In this study, we examine the porcine digital flexor tendon insertion tissue to provide a quantitative description of its collagen orientation and mineral concentration by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based image analysis and mass spectrometry, respectively. Histological results revealed uniformity in global collagen orientation at all depths, indicative of mechanical anisotropy, although at mid-depth, the highest fiber density, least amount of dispersion, and least cellular circularity were evident. Collagen orientation distribution obtained through 2D FFT of histological imaging data from fluorescent microscopy agreed with past measurements based on polarized light microscopy. Results revealed global fiber orientation across the tendon-bone insertion to be preserved along direction of physiologic tension. Gradation in the fiber distribution orientation index across the insertion was reflective of a decrease in anisotropy from the tendon to the bone. We provided elemental maps across the fibrocartilage for its organic and inorganic constituents through time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The apatite intensity distribution from the tendon to bone was shown to follow a linear trend, supporting past results based on Raman microprobe analysis. The merit of this study lies in the image-based simplified approach to fiber distribution quantification and in the high spatial resolution of the compositional analysis. In conjunction with the mechanical properties of the insertion tissue, fiber, and mineral distribution results for the insertion from this may potentially be incorporated into the development of a structural constitutive approach toward computational modeling. Characterizing the properties of the native insertion tissue would provide the

  1. Tissue Damage Caused by Myeloablative, but Not Non-Myeloablative, Conditioning before Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Results in Dermal Macrophage Recruitment without Active T-Cell Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter van Balen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionConditioning regimens preceding allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT can cause tissue damage and acceleration of the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. T-cell-depleted alloSCT with postponed donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI may reduce GVHD, because tissue injury can be restored at the time of DLI. In this study, we investigated the presence of tissue injury and inflammation in skin during the period of hematologic recovery and immune reconstitution after alloSCT.MethodsSkin biopsies were immunohistochemically stained for HLA class II, CD1a, CD11c, CD40, CD54, CD68, CD86, CD206, CD3, and CD8. HLA class II-expressing cells were characterized as activated T-cells, antigen-presenting cells (APCs, or tissue repairing macrophages. In sex-mismatched patient and donor couples, origin of cells was determined by multiplex analysis combining XY-FISH and fluorescent immunohistochemistry.ResultsNo inflammatory environment due to pretransplant conditioning was detected at the time of alloSCT, irrespective of the conditioning regimen. An increase in HLA class II-positive macrophages and CD3 T-cells was observed 12–24 weeks after myeloablative alloSCT, but these macrophages did not show signs of interaction with the co-localized T-cells. In contrast, during GVHD, an increase in HLA class II-expressing cells coinciding with T-cell interaction was observed, resulting in an overt inflammatory reaction with the presence of activated APC, activated donor T-cells, and localized upregulation of HLA class II expression on epidermal cells. In the absence of GVHD, patient derived macrophages were gradually replaced by donor-derived macrophages although patient-derived macrophages were detectable even 24 weeks after alloSCT.ConclusionConditioning regimens cause tissue damage in the skin, but this does not result in a local increase of activated APC. In contrast to the inflamed situation in GVHD, when interaction takes place between

  2. The rapid manufacture of uniform composite multicellular-biomaterial micropellets, their assembly into macroscopic organized tissues, and potential applications in cartilage tissue engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betul Kul Babur

    Full Text Available We and others have published on the rapid manufacture of micropellet tissues, typically formed from 100-500 cells each. The micropellet geometry enhances cellular biological properties, and in many cases the micropellets can subsequently be utilized as building blocks to assemble complex macrotissues. Generally, micropellets are formed from cells alone, however when replicating matrix-rich tissues such as cartilage it would be ideal if matrix or biomaterials supplements could be incorporated directly into the micropellet during the manufacturing process. Herein we describe a method to efficiently incorporate donor cartilage matrix into tissue engineered cartilage micropellets. We lyophilized bovine cartilage matrix, and then shattered it into microscopic pieces having average dimensions < 10 μm diameter; we termed this microscopic donor matrix "cartilage dust (CD". Using a microwell platform, we show that ~0.83 μg CD can be rapidly and efficiently incorporated into single multicellular aggregates formed from 180 bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC each. The microwell platform enabled the rapid manufacture of thousands of replica composite micropellets, with each micropellet having a material/CD core and a cellular surface. This micropellet organization enabled the rapid bulking up of the micropellet core matrix content, and left an adhesive cellular outer surface. This morphological organization enabled the ready assembly of the composite micropellets into macroscopic tissues. Generically, this is a versatile method that enables the rapid and uniform integration of biomaterials into multicellular micropellets that can then be used as tissue building blocks. In this study, the addition of CD resulted in an approximate 8-fold volume increase in the micropellets, with the donor matrix functioning to contribute to an increase in total cartilage matrix content. Composite micropellets were readily assembled into macroscopic cartilage

  3. Clinical outcomes of facial transplantation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugarajah, Kumaran; Hettiaratchy, Shehan; Clarke, Alex; Butler, Peter E M

    2011-01-01

    A total of 18 composite tissue allotransplants of the face have currently been reported. Prior to the start of the face transplant programme, there had been intense debate over the risks and benefits of performing this experimental surgery. This review examines the surgical, functional and aesthetic, immunological and psychological outcomes of facial transplantation thus far, based on the predicted risks outlined in early publications from teams around the world. The initial experience has demonstrated that facial transplantation is surgically feasible. Functional and aesthetic outcomes have been very encouraging with good motor and sensory recovery and improvements to important facial functions observed. Episodes of acute rejection have been common, as predicted, but easily controlled with increases in systemic immunosuppression. Psychological improvements have been remarkable and have resulted in the reintegration of patients into the outside world, social networks and even the workplace. Complications of immunosuppression and patient mortality have been observed in the initial series. These have highlighted rigorous patient selection as the key predictor of success. The overall early outcomes of the face transplant programme have been generally more positive than many predicted. This initial success is testament to the robust approach of teams. Dissemination of outcomes and ongoing refinement of the process may allow facial transplantation to eventually become a first-line reconstructive option for those with extensive facial disfigurements. Copyright © 2011 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation and characterization of gelatin–hydroxyapatite composite microspheres for hard tissue repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Shao Ching; Wang, Ming-Jia; Pai, Nai-Su; Yen, Shiow-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Gelatin–hydroxyapatite composite microspheres composed of 21% gelatin (G) and 79% hydroxyapatite (HA) with uniform morphology and controllable size were synthesized from a mixed solution of Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , NH 4 H 2 PO 4 and gelatin by a wet-chemical method. Material analyses such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning/transmission electron microscopy examination (SEM/TEM) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) were used to characterize G–HA microspheres by analyzing their crystalline phase, microstructure, morphology and composition. HA crystals precipitate along G fibers to form nano-rods with diameters of 6–10 nm and tangle into porous microspheres after blending. The cell culture indicates that G–HA composite microspheres without any toxicity could enhance the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells. In a rat calvarial defect model, G–HA bioactive scaffolds were compared with fibrin glue (F) and Osteoset® Bone Graft Substitute (OS) for their capacity of regenerating bone. Four weeks post-implantation, new bone, mineralization, and expanded blood vessel area were found in G–HA scaffolds, indicating greater osteoconductivity and bioactivity than F and OS. - Highlights: • G–HA composite microspheres were prepared by hydroxyapatite and gelatin. • In vitro tests indicated that the G–HA microspheres were biocompatible and bioactive. • In in vitro tests, G–HA microspheres could be applied in hard tissue engineering. • G–HA had healed the bone defect and provides a high proportion of surface area to open space

  5. Preparation and characterization of gelatin–hydroxyapatite composite microspheres for hard tissue repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Shao Ching [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Department of Minimally Invasive Skull Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 1650 Taiwan Boulevard, Sect. 4, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurosurgery, ChangHua Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 80 Chung Cheng Road, Sect. 2 Chiu Kuan Village, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ming-Jia; Pai, Nai-Su [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Yen, Shiow-Kang, E-mail: skyen@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Gelatin–hydroxyapatite composite microspheres composed of 21% gelatin (G) and 79% hydroxyapatite (HA) with uniform morphology and controllable size were synthesized from a mixed solution of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and gelatin by a wet-chemical method. Material analyses such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning/transmission electron microscopy examination (SEM/TEM) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) were used to characterize G–HA microspheres by analyzing their crystalline phase, microstructure, morphology and composition. HA crystals precipitate along G fibers to form nano-rods with diameters of 6–10 nm and tangle into porous microspheres after blending. The cell culture indicates that G–HA composite microspheres without any toxicity could enhance the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells. In a rat calvarial defect model, G–HA bioactive scaffolds were compared with fibrin glue (F) and Osteoset® Bone Graft Substitute (OS) for their capacity of regenerating bone. Four weeks post-implantation, new bone, mineralization, and expanded blood vessel area were found in G–HA scaffolds, indicating greater osteoconductivity and bioactivity than F and OS. - Highlights: • G–HA composite microspheres were prepared by hydroxyapatite and gelatin. • In vitro tests indicated that the G–HA microspheres were biocompatible and bioactive. • In in vitro tests, G–HA microspheres could be applied in hard tissue engineering. • G–HA had healed the bone defect and provides a high proportion of surface area to open space.

  6. Enhanced trace element concentrations in tissues of the clam Ruditapes decussatus transplanted to areas influenced by human activities (Ria Formosa, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Botelho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine the extent to which human activities near the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon influence the accumulation of trace elements (TE in Ruditapes decussatus, individuals were transplanted from a natural bank located in the lower lagoon to three sites located in clam growth grounds under the influence of a small city (Faro, a fish farming centre (Olhão and a site near the lagoon inlet (Lavajo. Concentrations were determined in substrate of the clam grounds and in the digestive gland, gills, mantle plus siphons, and remaining tissues of clams in four periods of the year. These measurements were accomplished with the monthly survey of the gametogenic stages, condition index, proteins, glycogen, total lipids, pH and osmolarity of hemolymph. Arsenic, Cu, Mn, V, Cr and Pb were preferentially linked to the digestive gland, while Cd was linked to the gills. TE concentrations in the digestive gland and remaining tissues were higher in winter, most likely reflecting additional inputs associated with rain. The lack of disruptions in biological parameters and the prolonged period of spawning and gonad recovery in clams suggest that the current TE availability in the lagoon has a minor influence on the reproductive cycle and hence on clam production.

  7. Primary mesenchymal stem cells in human transplanted lungs are CD90/CD105 perivascularly located tissue-resident cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolandsson, Sara; Andersson Sjöland, Annika; Brune, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have not only been implicated in the development of lung diseases, but they have also been proposed as a future cell-based therapy for lung diseases. However, the cellular identity of the primary MSC in human lung tissues has not yet been reported. This st......BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have not only been implicated in the development of lung diseases, but they have also been proposed as a future cell-based therapy for lung diseases. However, the cellular identity of the primary MSC in human lung tissues has not yet been reported...

  8. Intestine Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  9. Regeneration of rat corpora cavernosa tissue by transplantation of CD133+ cells derived from human bone marrow and placement of biodegradable gel sponge sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Inoue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to develop an easier technique for regenerating corpora cavernosa tissue through transplantation of human bone marrow-derived CD133 + cells into a rat corpora cavernosa defect model. We excised 2 mm × 2 mm squares of the right corpora cavernosa of twenty-three 8-week-old male nude rats. Alginate gel sponge sheets supplemented with 1 × 10 4 CD133 + cells were then placed over the excised area of nine rats. Functional and histological evaluations were carried out 8 weeks later. The mean intracavernous pressure/mean arterial pressure ratio for the nine rats (0.34258 ± 0.0831 was significantly higher than that for eight rats with only the excision (0.0580 ± 0.0831, P = 0.0238 and similar to that for five rats for which the penis was exposed, and there was no excision (0.37228 ± 0.1051, P = 0.8266. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the nine fully treated rats had venous sinus-like structures and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of extracts from their alginate gel sponge sheets revealed that the amounts of mRNA encoding the nerve growth factor (NGF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were significantly higher than those for rats treated with alginate gel sheets without cell supplementation (NGF: P = 0.0309; VEGF: P < 0.0001. These findings show that transplantation of CD133 + cells accelerates functional and histological recovery in the corpora cavernosa defect model.

  10. Systemic transplantation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for the regeneration of irradiation-induced salivary gland damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yol Lim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Cell-based therapy has been reported to repair or restore damaged salivary gland (SG tissue after irradiation. This study was aimed at determining whether systemic administration of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs can ameliorate radiation-induced SG damage. METHODS: hAdMSCs (1 × 10(6 were administered through a tail vein of C3H mice immediately after local irradiation, and then this infusion was repeated once a week for 3 consecutive weeks. At 12 weeks after irradiation, functional evaluations were conducted by measuring salivary flow rates (SFRs and salivation lag times, and histopathologic and immunofluorescence histochemistry studies were performed to assay microstructural changes, apoptosis, and proliferation indices. The engraftment and in vivo differentiation of infused hAdMSCs were also investigated, and the transdifferentiation of hAdMSCs into amylase-producing SG epithelial cells (SGCs was observed in vitro using a co-culture system. RESULTS: The systemic administration of hAdMSCs exhibited improved SFRs at 12 weeks after irradiation. hAdMSC-transplanted SGs showed fewer damaged and atrophied acinar cells and higher mucin and amylase production levels than untreated irradiated SGs. Immunofluorescence TUNEL assays revealed fewer apoptotic cells in the hAdMSC group than in the untreated group. Infused hAdMSCs were detected in transplanted SGs at 4 weeks after irradiation and some cells were found to have differentiated into SGCs. In vitro, a low number of co-cultured hAdMSCs (13%-18% were observed to transdifferentiate into SGCs. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicate that hAdMSCs have the potential to protect against irradiation-induced cell loss and to transdifferentiate into SGCs, and suggest that hAdMSC administration should be viewed as a candidate therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced SG damage.

  11. Proteomic analysis reveals the mechanisms of Mycena dendrobii promoting transplantation survival and growth of tissue culture seedlings of Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X B; Ma, X Y; Lei, H H; Song, H M; Ying, Q C; Xu, M J; Liu, S B; Wang, H Z

    2015-06-01

    Dendrobium officinale is an important traditional Chinese medicinal herb. Its seedlings generally show low survival and growth when transferred from in vitro tissue culture to a greenhouse or field environment. In this study, the effect of Mycena dendrobii on the survival and growth of D. officinale tissue culture seedlings and the mechanisms involved was explored. Mycena dendrobii were applied underneath the roots of D. officinale tissue culture seedlings. The seedling survival and growth were analysed. The root proteins induced by M. dendrobii were identified using two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS (MALDI-TOF-MS). Mycena dendrobii treatment significantly enhanced survival and growth of D. officinale seedlings. Forty-one proteins induced by M. dendrobii were identified. Among them, 10 were involved in defence and stress response, two were involved in the formation of root or mycorrhizae, and three were related to the biosynthesis of bioactive constituents. These results suggest that enhancing stress tolerance and promoting new root formation induced by M. dendrobii may improve the survival and growth of D. officinale tissue culture seedlings. This study provides a foundation for future use of M. dendrobii in the large-scale cultivation of Dendrobiums. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. A new test phantom with different breast tissue compositions for image quality assessment in conventional and digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachoud, Marc; Lepori, D; Valley, Jean-Francois; Verdun, Francis R

    2004-01-01

    Our objective is to describe a new test phantom that permits the objective assessment of image quality in conventional and digital mammography for different types of breast tissue. A test phantom, designed to represent a compressed breast, was made from tissue equivalent materials. Three separate regions, with different breast tissue compositions, are used to evaluate low and high contrast resolution, spatial resolution and image noise. The phantom was imaged over a range of kV using a Contour 2000 (Bennett) mammography unit with a Kodak MinR 2190-MinR L screen-film combination and a Senograph 2000D (General Electric) digital mammography unit. Objective image quality assessments for different breast tissue compositions were performed using the phantom for conventional and digital mammography. For a similar mean glandular dose (MGD), the digital system gives a significantly higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) than the screen-film system for 100% glandular tissue. In conclusion, in mammography, a range of exposure conditions is used for imaging because of the different breast tissue compositions encountered clinically. Ideally, the patient dose-image quality relationship should be optimized over the range of exposure conditions. The test phantom presented in this work permits image quality parameters to be evaluated objectively for three different types of breast tissue. Thus, it is a useful tool for optimizing the patient dose-image quality relationship

  13. Entrevista familiar no processo de doação de órgãos e tecidos para transplante Entrevista familiar en el proceso de donación de órganos y tejidos para transplante Family interview in the process of donating organs and tissues for transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    entrevistado y al local de la entrevista, además de preguntas éticas y legales. También evidencian la necesidad de capacitación profesional para conocer, identificar y lidiar con factores que facilitan o dificultan el diálogo con los familiares.OBJECTIVE: To understand the meaning attributed to the family interview by professionals working in Services Procurement of Organs and Tissues, to the process of donating organs and tissues for transplantation. METHODS: Qualitative research from the phenomenological angle, according to the modality "structure of the situated phenomenon." Study participants were 12 professionals. RESULTS: After analysis of the interviews, the meaning attributed by the professionals was unveiled at a meeting. CONCLUSIONS: The statements that emerged revealed that the family interview is an important step, because it addresses the possibility of donating organs and tissues to save and / or improve the quality of life of people needing a transplant. This procedure is complex, since it involves aspects related to interviewer, the interviewee and the interview location, as well as ethical and legal questions. It also highlights the need for professional training to know, identify and cope with factors that facilitate or hinder the dialogue with the family members.

  14. Comparison of fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, pericardial and epicardial adipose tissue and atrial tissue in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschen, Rikke Bülow; Gu, Jiwei; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    2016-01-01

    (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from three different adipose tissue compartments [epicardial (EAT), pericardial (PAT) and subcutaneous (SAT)]. Furthermore, we studied the correlation between the content of EPA and DHA in these compartments and in atrial tissue (AT). METHODS We obtained AT from......OBJECTIVES The content in adipose tissue of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a marker of long-term fish consumption and data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFAs. We investigated the correlation between adipose tissue content of the major n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid...... auricles, EAT above the right ventricle, PAT, and SAT below the sternum from 50 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Samples were frozen at -80°C and the content of n-3 PUFAs determined by gas chromatography with results given in relative weight%. RESULTS EPA and DHA were significantly correlated in EAT...

  15. Microautoradiographic studies on distribution of 5α-dihydrotestosterone, cyproterone acetate and oestradiol-17β in human prostatic hyperplasia tissue transplanted to juvenile rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruberg, I.; Neumann, F.; Senge, Th.

    1982-01-01

    While maintaining the actual conditions prevailing in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BHP) in man, transplantation of BPH tissue to newborn rats proved a suitable model for examining the distribution of sexual hormones in different tissue compartments of BPH. In combination with the microautoradiographic method, it was possible to demonstrate the residence of the radioactive androgen 5α-=dihydrotestosterone (5α- DHT), the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate (CA) and the oestrogen oestradiol-17β(E 2 ) in the epithelium and/or stroma of human BPH tissue. Quantitative evaluation in the form of a point per area count on photographic pictures yielded a silver grain distribution ratio in epithelium and stroma of 1.3:1 and 1.5:1 for epithelium to stroma after administration of [ 3 H]5α-DHT and [ 3 H]CA administration respectively and 0.5:1 after [ 3 H]E 2 . The high tracer recovery rate throughout the stroma following E 2 administration supports the current view that the stromal proliferation is attributable mainly to oestrogen influences. The relatively high silver particle proportion throughout the stroma following 5α-DHT administration corroborates recent findings which suggest that the exclusive androgen dependency of the glandular epithelium can only be considered in conjunction with an active metabolization of androgens in the stroma. The correspondence in the distribution of the radioactive tracer after [ 3 H]5α-DHT and [ 3 H]CA administration both in the epithelium and stroma suggests that an antagonism may also exist in the stroma. (author)

  16. Validity of T2 mapping in characterization of the regeneration tissue by bone marrow derived cell transplantation in osteochondral lesions of the ankle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, M., E-mail: milva.battaglia@ior.it [Service of Ecography and Radiology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, via Pupilli n. 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, E. [Service of Ecography and Radiology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, via Pupilli n. 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Monti, C. [Service of CT and MRI, Casa di Cura Madre Fortunata Toniolo, Bologna (Italy); Guaraldi, F. [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Sant' Andrea, A. [Service of CT and MRI, Casa di Cura Madre Fortunata Toniolo, Bologna (Italy); Buda, R.; Cavallo, M.; Giannini, S.; Vannini, F. [Clinical Orthopaedic and Traumatology Unit II, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: Bone marrow derived cell transplantation (BMDCT) has been recently suggested as a possible surgical technique to repair osteochondral lesions. To date, no qualitative MRI studies have evaluated its efficacy. The aim of our study is to investigate the validity of MRI T2-mapping sequence in characterizing the reparative tissue obtained and its ability to correlate with clinical results. Methods and materials: 20 patients with an osteochondral lesion of the talus underwent BMDCT and were evaluated at 2 years follow up using MRI T2-mapping sequence. 20 healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. MRI images were acquired using a protocol suggested by the International Cartilage Repair Society, MOCART scoring system and T2 mapping. Results were then correlated with AOFAS clinical score. Results: AOFAS score increased from 66.8 {+-} 14.5 pre-operatively to 91.2 {+-} 8.3 (p < 0.0005) at 2 years follow-up. T2-relaxation time value of 35-45 ms was derived from healthy ankles evaluation and assumed as normal hyaline cartilage value and used as a control. Regenerated tissue with a T2-relaxation time value comparable to hyaline cartilage was found in all the cases treated, covering a mean of 78% of the repaired lesion area. A high clinical score was related directly to isointense signal in DPFSE fat sat (p = 0.05), and percentage of regenerated hyaline cartilage (p = 0.05), inversely to the percentage of regenerated fibrocartilage. Lesion's depth negatively related to the integrity of the repaired tissue's surface (tau = -0.523, p = 0.007), and to the percentage of regenerated hyaline cartilage (rho = -0.546, p = 0.013). Conclusions: Because of its ability to detect cartilage's quality and to correlate to the clinical score, MRI T2-mapping sequence integrated with Mocart score represent a valid, non-invasive technique for qualitative cartilage assessment after regenerative surgical procedures.

  17. Biofunctional Ionic-Doped Calcium Phosphates: Silk Fibroin Composites for Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, S; Canadas, R F; Jiménez, G; Perán, M; Marchal, J A; Reis, R L; Oliveira, J M

    2017-01-01

    The treatment and regeneration of bone defects caused by traumatism or diseases have not been completely addressed by current therapies. Lately, advanced tools and technologies have been successfully developed for bone tissue regeneration. Functional scaffolding materials such as biopolymers and bioresorbable fillers have gained particular attention, owing to their ability to promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and extracellular matrix production, which promote new bone growth. Here, we present novel biofunctional scaffolds for bone regeneration composed of silk fibroin (SF) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and incorporating Sr, Zn, and Mn, which were successfully developed using salt-leaching followed by a freeze-drying technique. The scaffolds presented a suitable pore size, porosity, and high interconnectivity, adequate for promoting cell attachment and proliferation. The degradation behavior and compressive mechanical strengths showed that SF/ionic-doped TCP scaffolds exhibit improved characteristics for bone tissue engineering when compared with SF scaffolds alone. The in vitro bioactivity assays using a simulated body fluid showed the growth of an apatite layer. Furthermore, in vitro assays using human adipose-derived stem cells presented different effects on cell proliferation/differentiation when varying the doping agents in the biofunctional scaffolds. The incorporation of Zn into the scaffolds led to improved proliferation, while the Sr- and Mn-doped scaffolds presented higher osteogenic potential as demonstrated by DNA quantification and alkaline phosphatase activity. The combination of Sr with Zn led to an influence on cell proliferation and osteogenesis when compared with single ions. Our results indicate that biofunctional ionic-doped composite scaffolds are good candidates for further in vivo studies on bone tissue regeneration. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Changes in nutritional status, body composition, quality of life, and physical activity levels of cancer patients undergoing autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yun-Chi; Bauer, Judith; Horsley, Pamela; Waterhouse, Mary; Bashford, John; Isenring, Elisabeth

    2013-06-01

    This pilot exploratory study aimed to describe the changes in nutritional status, body composition, quality of life (QoL), and physical activity levels (PAL) of cancer patients undergoing high-dose conditioning and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) at pre-admission, hospital discharge, and at 100 days post-transplantation, and to examine if changes in these parameters are interrelated. Twenty-four patients (56.2 ± 12.9 years; 7 females, 17 males) were recruited from an Australian transplant center. Assessment was prospectively conducted at pre-admission, hospital discharge, and 100 days post-transplantation using the scored patient-generated subjective global assessment, air displacement plethysmography, EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3), and the international physical activity questionnaire. At discharge, nutritional status deteriorated (patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) median, +8.0; interquartile range, 6.0-13.0; p body mass (LBM; -2.2 kg, CI 95% -3.0, -1.4; p < 0.001), and decrease in QoL (-10.6, CI 95% -24.1, 2.9; p = 0.117); the proportion of patients with high PAL decreased (p = 0.012). By 100 days post-transplantation, all patients were well-nourished; however, LBM remained lower -1.0 kg (CI 95% -1.9, -0.1; p = 0.028). Change in nutritional status (PG-SGA score) was associated with weight (r = -0.46; p = 0.039) and fat mass (r = -0.57; p = 0.013). Change in QoL was associated with nutritional reservoir (i.e., fat; r = 0.54; p = 0.024); QoL was consistently higher for patients with high PAL. High-dose conditioning and autologous PBSCT is associated with deterioration in nutritional status, QoL and PAL, with LBM remaining below baseline levels at 100 days post-transplantation. A nutrition and exercise intervention program post-hospital discharge may be beneficial for these patients.

  19. Evaluating protein incorporation and release in electrospun composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Tonye; Matos, Jeffrey; Collins, George; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston

    2015-10-01

    Electrospun polymer/ceramic composites have gained interest for use as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. In this study, we investigated methods to incorporate Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB (PDGF-BB) in electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) or PCL prepared with polyethylene oxide (PEO), where both contained varying levels (up to 30 wt %) of ceramic composed of biphasic calcium phosphates, hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Using a model protein, lysozyme, we compared two methods of protein incorporation, adsorption and emulsion electrospinning. Adsorption of lysozyme on scaffolds with ceramic resulted in minimal release of lysozyme over time. Using emulsion electrospinning, lysozyme released from scaffolds containing a high concentration of ceramic where the majority of the release occurred at later time points. We investigated the effect of reducing the electrostatic interaction between the protein and the ceramic on protein release with the addition of the cationic surfactant, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). In vitro release studies demonstrated that electrospun scaffolds prepared with CTAB released more lysozyme or PDGF-BB compared with scaffolds without the cationic surfactant. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on composite scaffolds containing PDGF-BB incorporated through emulsion electrospinning expressed higher levels of osteogenic markers compared to scaffolds without PDGF-BB, indicating that the bioactivity of the growth factor was maintained. This study revealed methods for incorporating growth factors in polymer/ceramic scaffolds to promote osteoinduction and thereby facilitate bone regeneration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Radiation synthesis of gelatin/CM-chitosan/{beta}-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Ying [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu Ling, E-mail: lingxu@pku.edu.cn [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang Xiangmei; Zhao Yinghui [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wei Shicheng, E-mail: sc-wei@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhai Maolin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-05-01

    A series of biodegradable composite scaffolds was fabricated from an aqueous solution of gelatin, carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) by radiation-induced crosslinking at ambient temperature. Ultrasonic treatment on the polymer solutions significantly influenced the distribution of {beta}-TCP particles. An ultrasonic time of 20 min, followed by 30 kGy irradiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with homogeneous distribution of {beta}-TCP particles, interconnected porous structure, sound swelling capacity and mechanical strength. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis indicated that {beta}-TCP successfully incorporated with the network of gelatin and CM-chitosan. In vivo implantation of the scaffold into the mandible of beagle dog revealed that the scaffolds had excellent biocompatibility and the presence of {beta}-TCP can accelerate bone regeneration. The comprehensive results of this study paved way for the application of gelatin/CM-chitosan/{beta}-TCP composite scaffolds as candidate of bone tissue engineering material. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with interconnected porous structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonic time of 20 min led to homogenerously distribution of {beta}-TCP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing amount of {beta}-TCP would restrict the swelling properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proper fraction of {beta}-TCP will promote the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid of {beta}-TCP promoted the bone regeneration of the mandibles of beagle dogs.

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of OX40Ig gene-modified adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells on rat kidney transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Yue; Shen, Zhongyang; Zou, Xunfeng; Chen, Xiaobo; Chen, Li; Wang, Yuliang

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) therapy and OX40 costimulation blockade are two immunomodulatory strategies used to suppress the immune response to alloantigens. However, relatively little has been reported regarding the immunomodulatory potential of the abilityof these two strategies to synergize. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to investigate OX40-Ig fusion protein (OX40Ig) expression in ADSCs and to validate their more potent immu...

  2. A critical evaluation of body composition modalities used to assess adipose and skeletal muscle tissue in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sebastiano, Katie M; Mourtzakis, Marina

    2012-10-01

    The majority of cancer patients experience some form of body composition change during the disease trajectory. For example, breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and prostate cancer patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy gain fat and lose skeletal muscle, which are associated with increased risk of cancer recurrence and clinical comorbidities. In contrast, advanced cancer patients, such as lung and colorectal cancer patients, experience symptoms of cancer cachexia (accelerated loss of skeletal muscle with or without adipose tissue loss), which are associated with decreased treatment response and poorer survival rates in advanced cancers. The heterogeneity of body composition features and their diverse implications across different cancer populations supports the need for accurate quantification of muscle and adipose tissue. Use of appropriate body composition modalities will facilitate an understanding of the complex relationship between body composition characteristics and clinical outcomes. This will ultimately support the development and evaluation of future therapeutic interventions that aim to counter muscle loss and fat gain in cancer populations. Despite the various metabolic complications that may confound the accurate body composition measurement in cancer patients (i.e., dehydration may confound lean tissue measurement), there are no guidelines for selecting the most appropriate modalities to make these measurements. In this review we outline specific considerations for choosing the most optimal approaches of lean and adipose tissue measurements among different cancer populations. Anthropometric measures, bioelectrical impedance analysis, air displacement plethysmography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging will be discussed.

  3. Bioethics of organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    As the ability to transplant organs and tissues has grown, the demand for these procedures has increased as well--to the point at which it far exceeds the available supply creating the core ethical challenge for transplantation--rationing. The gap between supply and demand, although large, is worse than it appears to be. There are two key steps to gaining access to a transplant. First, one must gain access to a transplant center. Then, those waiting need to be selected for a transplant. Many potential recipients do not get admitted to a program. They are deemed too old, not of the right nationality, not appropriate for transplant as a result of severe mental impairment, criminal history, drug abuse, or simply because they do not have access to a competent primary care physician who can refer them to a transplant program. There are also financial obstacles to access to transplant waiting lists in the United States and other nations. In many poor nations, those needing transplants simply die because there is no capacity or a very limited capacity to perform transplants. Although the demand for organs now exceeds the supply, resulting in rationing, the size of waiting lists would quickly expand were there to suddenly be an equally large expansion in the number of organs available for transplantation. Still, even with the reality of unavoidable rationing, saving more lives by increasing organ supply is a moral good. Current public policies for obtaining organs from cadavers are not adequate in that they do not produce the number of organs that public polls of persons in the United States indicate people are willing to donate.

  4. The biocompatibility of carbon hydroxyapatite/β-glucan composite for bone tissue engineering studied with Raman and FTIR spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka-Bartnicka, Anna; Kimber, James A; Borkowski, Leszek; Pawlowska, Marta; Polkowska, Izabela; Kalisz, Grzegorz; Belcarz, Anna; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Ginalska, Grazyna; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2015-10-01

    The spectroscopic approaches of FTIR imaging and Raman mapping were applied to the characterisation of a new carbon hydroxyapatite/β-glucan composite developed for bone tissue engineering. The composite is an artificial bone material with an apatite-forming ability for the bone repair process. Rabbit bone samples were tested with an implanted bioactive material for a period of several months. Using spectroscopic and chemometric methods, we were able to determine the presence of amides and phosphates and the distribution of lipid-rich domains in the bone tissue, providing an assessment of the composite's bioactivity. Samples were also imaged in transmission using an infrared microscope combined with a focal plane array detector. CaF2 lenses were also used on the infrared microscope to improve spectral quality by reducing scattering artefacts, improving chemometric analysis. The presence of collagen and lipids at the bone/composite interface confirmed biocompatibility and demonstrate the suitability of FTIR microscopic imaging with lenses in studying these samples. It confirmed that the composite is a very good background for collagen growth and increases collagen maturity with the time of the bone growth process. The results indicate the bioactive and biocompatible properties of this composite and demonstrate how Raman and FTIR spectroscopic imaging have been used as an effective tool for tissue characterisation.

  5. Novel scalable silicone elastomer and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) composite materials for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Hemmingsen, Mette; Wojcik, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    material with increased hydrophilicity in regard to virgin silicone elastomer, making it suitable as a scaffold for tissue engineering and with the concomitant possibility for delivering drug from the scaffold to the tissue. Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of silicone elastomer and PHEMA......In recent years hydrogels have received increasing attention as potential materials for applications in regenerative medicine. They can be used for scaffold materials providing structural integrity to tissue constructs, for controlled delivery of drugs and proteins to cell and tissues......, and for support materials in tissue growth. However, the real challenge is to obtain sufficiently good mechanical properties of the hydrogel. The present study shows the combination of two normally non-compatible materials, silicone elastomer and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), into a novel composite...

  6. Preparation of dexamethasone-loaded biphasic calcium phosphate nanoparticles/collagen porous composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2018-02-01

    Although bone is regenerative, its regeneration capacity is limited. For bone defects beyond a critical size, further intervention is required. As an attractive strategy, bone tissue engineering (bone TE) has been widely investigated to repair bone defects. However, the rapid and effective bone regeneration of large non-healing defects is still a great challenge. Multifunctional scaffolds having osteoinductivity and osteoconductivity are desirable to fasten functional bone tissue regeneration. In the present study, biomimetic composite scaffolds of collagen and biphasic calcium phosphate nanoparticles (BCP NPs) with a controlled release of dexamethasone (DEX) and the controlled pore structures were prepared for bone TE. DEX was introduced in the BCP NPs during preparation of the BCP NPs and hybridized with collagen scaffolds, which pore structures were controlled by using pre-prepared ice particulates as a porogen material. The composite scaffolds had well controlled and interconnected pore structures, high mechanical strength and a sustained release of DEX. The composite scaffolds showed good biocompatibility and promoted osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs when used for three-dimensional culture of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Subcutaneous implantation of the composite scaffolds at the dorsa of athymic nude mice demonstrated that they facilitated the ectopic bone tissue regeneration. The results indicated the DEX-loaded BCP NPs/collagen composite scaffolds had high potential for bone TE. Scaffolds play a crucial role for regeneration of large bone defects. Biomimetic scaffolds having the same composition of natural bone and a controlled release of osteoinductive factors are desirable for promotion of bone regeneration. In this study, composite scaffolds of collagen and biphasic CaP nanoparticles (BCP NPs) with a controlled release nature of dexamethasone (DEX) were prepared and their porous structures were controlled by using ice particulates

  7. Preparation of collagen/polyurethane/knitted silk as a composite scaffold for tendon tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Aghdam, Maryam; Faridi-Majidi, Reza; Derakhshan, Mohammad Ali; Chegeni, Arash; Azami, Mahmoud

    2017-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to prepare a hybrid three-dimensional scaffold that mimics natural tendon tissues. It has been found that a knitted silk shows good mechanical strength; however, cell growth on the bare silk is not desirable. Hence, electrospun collagen/polyurethane combination was used to cover knitted silk. A series of collagen and polyurethane solutions (4%-7% w/v) in aqueous acetic acid were prepared and electrospun. According to obtained scanning electron microscopy images from pure collagen and polyurethane nanofibers, concentration was set constant at 5% (w/v) for blend solutions of collagen/polyurethane. Afterward, blend solutions with the weight ratios of 75/25, 50/50 and 25/75 were electrospun. Scanning electron microscopy images demonstrated the smooth and uniform morphology for the optimized nanofibers. The least fibers diameter among three weight ratios was found for collagen/polyurethane (25/75) which was 100.86 ± 40 nm and therefore was selected to be electrospun on the knitted silk. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed the chemical composition of obtained electrospun nanofibers on the knitted silk. Tensile test of the specimens including blend nanofiber, knitted silk and commercial tendon substitute examined and indicated that collagen/polyurethane-coated knitted silk has appropriate mechanical properties as a scaffold for tendon tissue engineering. Then, Alamar Blue assay of the L929 fibroblast cell line seeded on the prepared scaffolds demonstrated appropriate viability of the cells with a significant proliferation on the scaffold containing more collagen content. The results illustrate that the designed structure would be promising for being used as a temporary substitute for tendon repair.

  8. Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissues of organic and conventional Blanca Andaluza suckling kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De la Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the preservation of autochthonous breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat (meat breed, raised under grazing-based management, has recently increased among Spanish farmers. A study of the possibilities of transformation to organic production needs to analyze the quality of their products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid (FA composition of muscle and adipose tissues of Blanca Andaluza goat kids under organic and conventional grazing–based management system. Twenty-four twin kids (12 males, 12 females were selected from each system. The FA profile was determined in the longissimus thoracis muscle, kidney and pelvic fat. The percentages of C17:0, C17:1, C20:1, C20:4 n-6, C22:2 and several n-3 FAs were higher in organic meat; C12:0, C18:1 trans-11, CLA and C20:5 n-3 were lower in organic meat. The fat depots from the conventional kids showed lower percentages of C12:0, C14:0, C15:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:3 n-3 and atherogenicity index, and higher percentage of C18:0. In the pelvic fat, the conventional kids displayed lower percentages of C16:0, C18:2 n-6 cis, PUFA, n-3 and n-6 FAs, and greater percentages of C18:1 n-9 cis and MUFA. The conventional kids displayed a major n6:n3 ratio in the kidney fat. No gender differences were observed. Significant differences were found only in some FA percentages of muscle and adipose tissues of suckling kids raised in organic and conventional livestock production systems, and due to this reason conventional grazing–based management farms could easily be transformed into organic production.

  9. Direct transplantation of native pericytes from adipose tissue: A new perspective to stimulate healing in critical size bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Matthias A; Canepa, Daisy D; Cadosch, Dieter; Casanova, Elisa; Heinzelmann, Michael; Rittirsch, Daniel; Plecko, Michael; Hemmi, Sonja; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Cinelli, Paolo; Wanner, Guido A

    2016-01-01

    Fractures with a critical size bone defect (e.g., open fracture with segmental bone loss) are associated with high rates of delayed union and non-union. The prevention and treatment of these complications remain a serious issue in trauma and orthopaedic surgery. Autologous cancellous bone grafting is a well-established and widely used technique. However, it has drawbacks related to availability, increased morbidity and insufficient efficacy. Mesenchymal stromal cells can potentially be used to improve fracture healing. In particular, human fat tissue has been identified as a good source of multilineage adipose-derived stem cells, which can be differentiated into osteoblasts. The main issue is that mesenchymal stromal cells are a heterogeneous population of progenitors and lineage-committed cells harboring a broad range of regenerative properties. This heterogeneity is also mirrored in the differentiation potential of these cells. In the present study, we sought to test the possibility to enrich defined subpopulations of stem/progenitor cells for direct therapeutic application without requiring an in vitro expansion. We enriched a CD146+NG2+CD45- population of pericytes from freshly isolated stromal vascular fraction from mouse fat tissue and tested their osteogenic differentiation capacity in vitro and in vivo in a mouse model for critical size bone injury. Our results confirm the ability of enriched CD146+NG2+CD45- cells to efficiently generate osteoblasts in vitro, to colonize cancellous bone scaffolds and to successfully contribute to regeneration of large bone defects in vivo. This study represents proof of principle for the direct use of enriched populations of cells with stem/progenitor identity for therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of Collagen-Immobilized Porous PHBV/HA Nano composite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin-Young, B.; Zhi-Cai, X.; Giseop, K.; Keun-Byoung, Y.; Soo-Young, P.; Lee, S.P.; Inn-Kyu, K.

    2012-01-01

    The porous composite scaffolds (PHBV/HA) consisting of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were fabricated using a hot-press machine and salt-leaching. Collagen (type I) was then immobilized on the surface of the porous PHBV/HA composite scaffolds to improve tissue compatibility. The structure and morphology of the collagen-immobilized composite scaffolds (PHBV/HA/Col) were investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). The potential of the porous PHBV/HA/Col composite scaffolds for use as a bone scaffold was assessed by an experiment with osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) in terms of cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The results showed that the PHBV/HA/Col composite scaffolds possess better cell adhesion and significantly higher proliferation and differentiation than the PHBV/HA composite scaffolds and the PHBV scaffolds. These results suggest that the PHBV/HA/Col composite scaffolds have a high potential for use in the field of bone regeneration and tissue engineering.

  11. Gestational age dependent content, composition and intrauterine accretion rates of fatty acids in fetal white adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Offringa, Pieter J.; Martini, Ingrid A.; Boersma, E. Rudy; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the gestational age (GA) dependent content, composition and intrauterine accretion rates of fatty acids (FA) in fetal white adipose tissue (WAT). Objective & design: To acquire this information, we collected abdominal subcutaneous WAT samples from 40 preterm and

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite-Resorbable Polymer Composites for Hard Tissue Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebner, Kristopher Robert

    Autografts are the orthopedic "gold standard" for repairing bone voids. Autografts are osteoconductive and do not elicit an immune response, but they are in short supply and require a second surgery to harvest the bone graft. Allografts are currently the most common materials used for the repair of segmental defects in hard tissue. Unlike autografts, allografts can cause an undesirable immune response and the possibility of disease transmission is a major concern. As an alternative to the above approaches, recent research efforts have focused on the use of composite materials made from hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioresorbable polymers, such as poly-L-lactide (PLLA). Recent results have shown that the surface hydroxides on HA can initiate the ring opening polymerization (ROP) of L-lactide and other lactones creating a composite with superior interfacial strength. This thesis demonstrates that the surface of porous biologically derived HA substrates, such as coralline HA and trabecular bone, can be used to initiate the ROP of L-lactide and other lactones from the vapor phase. This process increases the strength of the porous scaffold through the deposition of a thin, uniform polymer coating, while maintaining the porous structure. The kinetics of the chemical vapor deposition polymerization (CVDP) are described using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The reaction temperature and monomer vapor pressure are found to affect the rate of the polymerization. Also described in this thesis is the preparation of a porous polymer scaffold that mimics the structure of demineralized bone matrix (DBM). This demineralized bone matrix simulant (DBMS) is created using anorganic bovine bone as a template to initiate the polymerization of various lactones, followed by the removal of the HA scaffold. This material retained its shape and exhibits mechanical properties superior to DBM. Finally it is shown that HA can be used to initiate the ROP of a-caprolactam and the biocompatibility

  13. Fiber/collagen composites for ligament tissue engineering: influence of elastic moduli of sparse aligned fibers on mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Patrick S; Verbridge, Scott S; Dahlgren, Linda A; Kakar, Sanjeev; Guelcher, Scott A; Goldstein, Aaron S

    2016-08-01

    Electrospun microfibers are attractive for the engineering of oriented tissues because they present instructive topographic and mechanical cues to cells. However, high-density microfiber networks are too cell-impermeable for most tissue applications. Alternatively, the distribution of sparse microfibers within a three-dimensional hydrogel could present instructive cues to guide cell organization while not inhibiting cell behavior. In this study, thin (∼5 fibers thick) layers of aligned microfibers (0.7 μm) were embedded within collagen hydrogels containing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), cultured for up to 14 days, and assayed for expression of ligament markers and imaged for cell organization. These microfibers were generated through the electrospinning of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(ester-urethane) (PEUR), or a 75/25 PEUR/PCL blend to produce microfiber networks with elastic moduli of 31, 15, and 5.6 MPa, respectively. MSCs in composites containing 5.6 MPa fibers exhibited increased expression of the ligament marker scleraxis and the contractile phenotype marker α-smooth muscle actin versus the stiffer fiber composites. Additionally, cells within the 5.6 MPa microfiber composites were more oriented compared to cells within the 15 and 31 MPa microfiber composites. Together, these data indicate that the mechanical properties of microfiber/collagen composites can be tuned for the engineering of ligament and other target tissues. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1894-1901, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Degradation and biocompatibility of porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyurethane composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Zhihong [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Li Yubao, E-mail: nic7504@scu.edu.cn [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zou Qin [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2009-04-01

    Porous scaffold containing 30 wt% nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and 70 wt% polyurethane (PU) from castor oil was prepared by a foaming method and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results show that n-HA particles disperse homogeneously in the PU matrix. The porous scaffold has not only macropores of 100-800 {mu}m in size but also a lot of micropores on the walls of macropores. The porosity and compressive strength of scaffold are 80% and 271 kPa, respectively. After soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF), hydrolysis and deposition partly occur on the scaffold. The biological evaluation in vitro and in vivo shows that the n-HA/PU scaffold is non-cytotoxic and degradable. The porous structure provides a good microenvironment for cell adherence, growth and proliferation. The n-HA/PU composite scaffold can be satisfied with the basic requirement for tissue engineering, and has the potential to be applied in repair and substitute of human menisci of the knee-joint and articular cartilage.

  15. A composite chitosan-gelatin bi-layered, biomimetic macroporous scaffold for blood vessel tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhe, Ravindra V; Bijukumar, Divya; Chejara, Dharmesh R; Mabrouk, Mostafa; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Kondiah, Pierre P D; Pillay, Viness

    2017-02-10

    A composite chitosan-gelatin macroporous hydrogel-based scaffold with bi-layered tubular architecture was engineered by solvent casting-co-particulate leaching. The scaffold constituted an inner macroporous layer concealed by a non-porous outer layer mimicking the 3D matrix of blood vessels with cellular adhesion and proliferation. The scaffold was evaluated for its morphological, physicochemical, physicomechanical and biodurability properties employing SEM, FTIR, DSC, XRD, porositometry, rheology and texture analysis. The fluid uptake and biodegradation in the presence of lysozymes was also investigated. Cellular attachment and proliferation was analysed using human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-a) seeded onto the scaffold and evaluated by MTT assay, SEM, and confocal microscopy. Results demonstrated that the scaffold had a desirable tensile strength=95.81±11kPa, elongation at break 112.5±13%, porosity 82% and pores between 100 and 230μm, 50% in vitro biodegradation at day 16 and proliferated fibroblasts over 20 days. These results demonstrate that scaffold may be an excellent tubular archetype for blood vessel tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-assembled high-strength hydroxyapatite/graphene oxide/chitosan composite hydrogel for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; Bao, Rui-Ying; Shi, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Wei; Yang, Ming-Bo

    2017-01-02

    Graphene hydrogel has shown greatly potentials in bone tissue engineering recently, but it is relatively weak in the practical use. Here we report a facile method to synthesize high strength composite graphene hydrogel. Graphene oxide (GO), hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles (NPs) and chitosan (CS) self-assemble into a 3-dimensional hydrogel with the assistance of crosslinking agent genipin (GNP) for CS and reducing agent sodium ascorbate (NaVC) for GO simultaneously. The dense and oriented microstructure of the resulted composite gel endows it with high mechanical strength, high fixing capacity of HA and high porosity. These properties together with the good biocompatibility make the ternary composite gel a promising material for bone tissue engineering. Such a simultaneous crosslinking and reduction strategy can also be applied to produce a variety of 3D graphene-polymer based nanocomposites for biomaterials, energy storage materials and adsorbent materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transplant Biology at a Crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Sedwick, Caitlin

    2008-01-01

    Despite major advances in transplantation biology, allowing transplants not just of critical organs like heart and kidney but also of limbs and faces, researchers are still struggling to minimize the risks from achieving the level of immunosuppression needed to make the body accept foreign tissues.

  18. Fabrication and in vitro biocompatibility of biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Junmin, E-mail: jmqian@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Xu, Weijun; Yong, Xueqing; Jin, Xinxia; Zhang, Wei

    2014-03-01

    In this study, biomorphic poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite (PLGA/nHA) composite scaffolds were successfully prepared using cane as a template. The porous morphology, phase, compression characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of the PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds and biomorphic PLGA scaffolds as control were investigated. The results showed that the biomorphic scaffolds preserved the original honeycomb-like architecture of cane and exhibited a bimodal porous structure. The average channel diameter and micropore size of the PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were 164 ± 52 μm and 13 ± 8 μm, respectively, with a porosity of 89.3 ± 1.4%. The incorporation of nHA into PLGA decreased the degree of crystallinity of PLGA, and significantly improved the compressive modulus of biomorphic scaffolds. The in vitro biocompatibility evaluation with MC3T3-E1 cells demonstrated that the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds could better support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation than the biomorphic PLGA scaffolds. The localization depth of MC3T3-E1 cells within the channels of the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds could reach approximately 400 μm. The results suggested that the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were promising candidates for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Novel biomimetic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were successfully prepared. • nHA addition improved elastic modulus of PLGA scaffold and decreased its crystallinity. • PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds had better biocompatibility than PLGA scaffolds. • Biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffold had great potential in bone tissue engineering.

  19. Fabrication and in vitro biocompatibility of biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Junmin; Xu, Weijun; Yong, Xueqing; Jin, Xinxia; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, biomorphic poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite (PLGA/nHA) composite scaffolds were successfully prepared using cane as a template. The porous morphology, phase, compression characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of the PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds and biomorphic PLGA scaffolds as control were investigated. The results showed that the biomorphic scaffolds preserved the original honeycomb-like architecture of cane and exhibited a bimodal porous structure. The average channel diameter and micropore size of the PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were 164 ± 52 μm and 13 ± 8 μm, respectively, with a porosity of 89.3 ± 1.4%. The incorporation of nHA into PLGA decreased the degree of crystallinity of PLGA, and significantly improved the compressive modulus of biomorphic scaffolds. The in vitro biocompatibility evaluation with MC3T3-E1 cells demonstrated that the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds could better support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation than the biomorphic PLGA scaffolds. The localization depth of MC3T3-E1 cells within the channels of the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds could reach approximately 400 μm. The results suggested that the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were promising candidates for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Novel biomimetic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were successfully prepared. • nHA addition improved elastic modulus of PLGA scaffold and decreased its crystallinity. • PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds had better biocompatibility than PLGA scaffolds. • Biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffold had great potential in bone tissue engineering

  20. Fabrication and in vitro evaluation of a sponge-like bioactive-glass/gelatin composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeem, Danish [Biomaterials Engineering Group, School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, BS1 2LY (United Kingdom); Kiamehr, Mostafa [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS2 9LU (United Kingdom); Yang, Xuebin [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS2 9LU (United Kingdom); NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds LS7 4SA (United Kingdom); Su, Bo, E-mail: b.su@bristol.ac.uk [Biomaterials Engineering Group, School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, BS1 2LY (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    In this work a bioactive composite scaffold, comprised of bioactive-glass and gelatin, is introduced. Through direct foaming a sponge-like composite of a sol–gel derived bioactive-glass (70S30C; 70% SiO{sub 2}, 30% CaO) and porcine gelatin was developed for use as a biodegradable scaffold for bone tissue engineering. The composite was developed to provide a suitable alternative to synthetic polymer based scaffolds, allowing directed regeneration of bone tissue. The fabricated scaffold was characterised through X-ray microtomography, scanning electron and light microscopy demonstrating a three dimensionally porous and interconnected structure, with an average pore size (170 μm) suitable for successful cell proliferation and tissue ingrowth. Acellular bioactivity was assessed through apatite formation during submersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) whereby the rate and onset of apatite nucleation was found to be comparable to that of bioactive-glass. Modification of dehydrothermal treatment parameters induced varying degrees of crosslinking, allowing the degradation of the composite to be tailored to suit specific applications and establishing its potential for a wide range of applications. Use of genipin to supplement crosslinking by dehydrothermal treatment provided further means of modifying degradability. Biocompatibility of the composite was qualified through successful cultures of human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs) on samples of the composite scaffold. Osteogenic differentiation of HDPSCs and extracellular matrix deposition were confirmed through positive alkaline phosphatase staining and immunohistochemistry. - Highlights: ► Optimised composition and fabrication produced sponge-like porosity (pore size ∼ 170 μm). ► Maximum aqueous stability via dehydrothermal treatment at 145 °C, for 48 h ► Biocompatibility and osteogenic potential confirmed via successful HDPSC cultures. ► Minimal toxicity exhibited in optimally crosslinked samples (10 m

  1. Fabrication and in vitro evaluation of a sponge-like bioactive-glass/gelatin composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, Danish; Kiamehr, Mostafa; Yang, Xuebin; Su, Bo

    2013-01-01

    In this work a bioactive composite scaffold, comprised of bioactive-glass and gelatin, is introduced. Through direct foaming a sponge-like composite of a sol–gel derived bioactive-glass (70S30C; 70% SiO 2 , 30% CaO) and porcine gelatin was developed for use as a biodegradable scaffold for bone tissue engineering. The composite was developed to provide a suitable alternative to synthetic polymer based scaffolds, allowing directed regeneration of bone tissue. The fabricated scaffold was characterised through X-ray microtomography, scanning electron and light microscopy demonstrating a three dimensionally porous and interconnected structure, with an average pore size (170 μm) suitable for successful cell proliferation and tissue ingrowth. Acellular bioactivity was assessed through apatite formation during submersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) whereby the rate and onset of apatite nucleation was found to be comparable to that of bioactive-glass. Modification of dehydrothermal treatment parameters induced varying degrees of crosslinking, allowing the degradation of the composite to be tailored to suit specific applications and establishing its potential for a wide range of applications. Use of genipin to supplement crosslinking by dehydrothermal treatment provided further means of modifying degradability. Biocompatibility of the composite was qualified through successful cultures of human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs) on samples of the composite scaffold. Osteogenic differentiation of HDPSCs and extracellular matrix deposition were confirmed through positive alkaline phosphatase staining and immunohistochemistry. - Highlights: ► Optimised composition and fabrication produced sponge-like porosity (pore size ∼ 170 μm). ► Maximum aqueous stability via dehydrothermal treatment at 145 °C, for 48 h ► Biocompatibility and osteogenic potential confirmed via successful HDPSC cultures. ► Minimal toxicity exhibited in optimally crosslinked samples (10 m

  2. Lipid composition of hepatic and adipose tissues from normal cats and from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J A; Barstad, L A; Connor, W E

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the lipid classes in hepatic and adipose tissues from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis (IHL). Concentrations of triglyceride, phospholipid phosphorus, and free and total cholesterol were determined in lipid extracts of liver homogenates from 5 cats with IHL and 5 healthy control cats. Total fatty acid composition of liver and adipose tissue was also compared. Triglyceride accounted for 34% of liver by weight in cats with IHL (338 +/- 38 mg/g wet liver) versus 1% in control cats (9.9 +/- 1.0 mg/g wet liver, P hepatic tissue in the 2 groups differed; palmitate was higher (19.5 +/- 1.1% of total fatty acids in cats with IHL versus 9.2 +/- 2.7% in controls, P hepatic triglyceride in cats with IHL is the mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue.

  3. Risk factors for chronic transplant dysfunction and cardiovascular disease are related to accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Jasper W. L.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Graaff, Reindert; van Son, Willem J.; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; de Jong, Paul E.; Smit, Andries J.

    2006-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic transplant dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in renal transplant recipients. We aimed to investigate which factors are associated with tissue AGE accumulation in renal transplant

  4. Gestational age dependent changes of the fetal brain, liver and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions in a population with high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Offringa, Pieter J.; Boersma, E. Rudy; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: There are no data on the intrauterine fatty acid (FA) compositions of brain, liver and adipose tissue of infants born to women with high fish intakes. Subjects and methods: We analyzed the brain (n = 18), liver (n = 14) and adipose tissue (n = 11) FA compositions of 20 stillborn

  5. Electrospun composites of PHBV, silk fibroin and nano-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paşcu, Elena I.; Stokes, Joseph; McGuinness, Garrett B., E-mail: garrett.mcguinness@dcu.ie

    2013-12-01

    Electrospinning of fibrous scaffolds containing nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) embedded in a matrix of functional biomacromolecules offers an attractive route to mimicking the natural bone tissue architecture. Functional fibrous substrates will support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, while the role of HAp is to induce cells to secrete extracellular matrix (ECM) for mineralization to form bone. Electrospinning of biomaterials composed of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-(3-hydroxyvalerate) with 2% valerate fraction (PHBV), nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp), and Bombyx mori silk fibroin essence (SF), Mw = 90KDa, has been achieved for nHAp and SF solution concentrations of 2 (w/vol) % each and 5 (w/vol) % each. The structure and properties of the nanocomposite fibrous membranes were investigated by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy in combination with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (SEM/EDX), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), uniaxial tensile and compressive mechanical testing, degradation tests and in vitro bioactivity tests. SEM images showed smooth, uniform and continuous fibre deposition with no bead formation, and fibre diameters of between 10 and 15 μm. EDX and FT-IR confirmed the presence of nHAp and SF. After one month in deionised water, tests showed less than 2% weight loss with the samples retaining their fibrous morphology, confirming that this material biodegrades slowly. After 28 days of immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) an apatite layer was visible on the surface of the fibres, proving their bioactivity. Preliminary in vitro biological assessment showed that after 1 and 3 days in culture, cells were attached to the fibres, retaining their morphology while presenting a flattened appearance and elongated shape on the surface of fibres. Young's modulus was found to increase from 0.7 kPa (± 0.33 kPa) for electrospun samples of PHBV only to 1.4 kPa (± 0.54 kPa) for samples with 2 (w/vol) % each of nHAp and SF. Samples

  6. Electrospun composites of PHBV, silk fibroin and nano-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paşcu, Elena I.; Stokes, Joseph; McGuinness, Garrett B.

    2013-01-01

    Electrospinning of fibrous scaffolds containing nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) embedded in a matrix of functional biomacromolecules offers an attractive route to mimicking the natural bone tissue architecture. Functional fibrous substrates will support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, while the role of HAp is to induce cells to secrete extracellular matrix (ECM) for mineralization to form bone. Electrospinning of biomaterials composed of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-(3-hydroxyvalerate) with 2% valerate fraction (PHBV), nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp), and Bombyx mori silk fibroin essence (SF), Mw = 90KDa, has been achieved for nHAp and SF solution concentrations of 2 (w/vol) % each and 5 (w/vol) % each. The structure and properties of the nanocomposite fibrous membranes were investigated by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy in combination with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (SEM/EDX), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), uniaxial tensile and compressive mechanical testing, degradation tests and in vitro bioactivity tests. SEM images showed smooth, uniform and continuous fibre deposition with no bead formation, and fibre diameters of between 10 and 15 μm. EDX and FT-IR confirmed the presence of nHAp and SF. After one month in deionised water, tests showed less than 2% weight loss with the samples retaining their fibrous morphology, confirming that this material biodegrades slowly. After 28 days of immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) an apatite layer was visible on the surface of the fibres, proving their bioactivity. Preliminary in vitro biological assessment showed that after 1 and 3 days in culture, cells were attached to the fibres, retaining their morphology while presenting a flattened appearance and elongated shape on the surface of fibres. Young's modulus was found to increase from 0.7 kPa (± 0.33 kPa) for electrospun samples of PHBV only to 1.4 kPa (± 0.54 kPa) for samples with 2 (w/vol) % each of nHAp and SF. Samples

  7. Titanium-hydroxyapatite composites sintered at low temperature for tissue engineering: in vitro cell support and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comín, Romina; Cid, Mariana P; Grinschpun, Luciano; Oldani, Carlos; Salvatierra, Nancy A

    2017-04-26

    In clinical orthopedics, a critical problem is the bone tissue loss produced by a disease or injury. The use of composites from titanium and hydroxyapatite for biomedical applications has increased due to the resulting advantageous combination of hydroxyapatite bioactivity and favorable mechanical properties of titanium. Powder metallurgy is a simple and lower-cost method that uses powder from titanium and hydroxyapatite to obtain composites having hydroxyapatite phases in a metallic matrix. However, this method has certain limitations arising from thermal decomposition of hydroxyapatite in the titanium-hydroxyapatite system above 800°C. We obtained a composite from titanium and bovine hydroxyapatite powders sintered at 800°C and evaluated its bioactivity and cytocompatibility according to the ISO 10993 standard. Surface analysis and bioactivity of the composite was evaluated by X-ray diffraction and SEM. MTT assay was carried out to assess cytotoxicity on Vero and NIH3T3 cells. Cell morphology and cell adhesion on the composite surface were analyzed using fluorescence and SEM. We obtained a porous composite with hydroxyapatite particles well integrated in titanium matrix which presented excellent bioactivity. Our data did not reveal any toxicity of titanium-hydroxyapatite composite on Vero or NIH3T3 cells. Moreover, extracts from composite did not affect cell morphology or density. Finally, NIH3T3 cells were capable of adhering to and proliferating on the composite surface. The composite obtained displayed promising biomedical applications through the simple method of powder metallurgy. Additionally, these findings provide an in vitro proof for adequate biocompatibility of titanium-hydroxyapatite composite sintered at 800°C.

  8. The Economics of Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınörs, Nur; Haberal, Mehmet

    2018-03-01

    To determine the cost effectiveness of transplantation, we analyzed the financial economics of the organ and tissue transplant process. We compared the cost of this process with traditional modalities for treating endstage liver and kidney disease. Medical, surgical, legal, social, ethical, and religious issues are important in organ transplant procedures. Government, health insurance companies, and uninsured individuals are affected by the financial economics of organ transplantation. The distribution of financial burden differs among countries and is dependent on the unique circumstances of each country.

  9. Carcass characteristics and tissue composition of commercial cuts of lambs fed with banana crop residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Dayana do Carmo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of substitution of Cynodon hay with banana plantation residue hay on the carcass characteristics and tissue composition of commercial cuts of feedlot Santa Inês lambs. Twenty-five whole lambs were used, with an average age of five months and an initial live weight of 26.95 kg (± 1.5, distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments (1 = 40% Cynodon spp. hay + 60% concentrate; 2 = 20% banana leaf hay + 20% Cynodon spp. hay + 60% concentrate; 3 = 40% banana leaf hay + 60% concentrate; 4 = 20% banana pseudostem hay + 20% Cynodon spp. hay + 60% concentrate; 5 = 40% banana pseudostem hay + 60% concentrate and five repetitions. The lambs were slaughtered on day 69 of the experiment. The variables evaluated were: live weight without fasting (LWWF, live weight post-fasting (LWPF, morphometric measurements in vivo and postmortem, hot and cold carcass weights (HCW, CCW, hot and cold carcass yield (HCY, CCY, biological performance and weight loss by chilling. The carcasses were divided into eight commercial cuts: neck, shoulder, foreshank and hindshank, breast and flank, loin, leg and rack. The leg, shoulder and loin were dissected into muscle, fat and bone. The animals fed on pseudostem hay showed higher LWWF, LWPF, body length, HCW and CCW; however, the HCY, CCY, morphometric measurements and commercial cut weights and yields were not altered by the treatments. The use of pseudostem hay allows for heavier carcasses; however, the use of coproducts changed the characteristics and carcass yield of the assessed commercial cuts.

  10. Enhanced mechanical properties and biocompatibility of novel hydroxyapatite/TOPAS hybrid composite for bone tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ain, Qurat Ul [Department of Materials Engineering, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, Ahmad Nawaz, E-mail: ahmad.nawaz@scme.nust.edu.pk [Department of Materials Engineering, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan); Nabavinia, Mahboubeh [Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA (United States); Mujahid, Mohammad [Department of Materials Engineering, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-06-01

    The bioactivity and mechanical properties of hybrid composites of hydroxyapatite (HA) in cyclic olefinic copolymer (COC) also known commercially as TOPAS are investigated, first time, for regeneration and repair of the bone tissues. HA is synthesized to obtain the spherically shaped nanoparticles in the size range of 60 ± 20 nm. Various concentrations of HA ranging from 1 to 30 wt% are dispersed in TOPAS using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coupling agent for better dispersion and interaction of hydrophilic HA with hydrophobic TOPAS. Scanning electron microscope shows the uniform dispersion of HA ≤ 10 wt% in TOPAS and at higher concentrations > 10 wt%, agglomeration occurs in the hybrid composites. Tunable mechanical properties are achieved as the compressive modulus and strength are increased around 140% from 6.4 to 15.3 MPa and 185% from 0.26 to 0.74 MPa, respectively. Such increase in the mechanical properties of TOPAS is attributed to the anchoring of the polymer chains in the vicinity of HA nanoparticles owing to better dispersion and interfacial interactions. In comparison to neat TOPAS, hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA promoted the cell adhesion and proliferation significantly. The cell density and proliferation of TOPAS/HA hybrid composites is enhanced 9 and 3 folds, respectively, after 1 day culturing in preosteoblasts cells. Moreover, the morphology of cells changed from spherical to flattened spread morphology demonstrating clearly the migration of the cells for the formation of interconnected cellular network. Additionally, very few dead cells are found in hybrid composites showing their cytocompatibility. Overall, the hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA exhibited superior strength and stiffness along with enhanced cytocompatibility for bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • TOPAS/HA hybrid composites exhibited enhanced mechanical properties owing to better dispersion and interaction of HA. • Without affecting the degradation rate, the

  11. Enhanced mechanical properties and biocompatibility of novel hydroxyapatite/TOPAS hybrid composite for bone tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ain, Qurat Ul; Khan, Ahmad Nawaz; Nabavinia, Mahboubeh; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The bioactivity and mechanical properties of hybrid composites of hydroxyapatite (HA) in cyclic olefinic copolymer (COC) also known commercially as TOPAS are investigated, first time, for regeneration and repair of the bone tissues. HA is synthesized to obtain the spherically shaped nanoparticles in the size range of 60 ± 20 nm. Various concentrations of HA ranging from 1 to 30 wt% are dispersed in TOPAS using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coupling agent for better dispersion and interaction of hydrophilic HA with hydrophobic TOPAS. Scanning electron microscope shows the uniform dispersion of HA ≤ 10 wt% in TOPAS and at higher concentrations > 10 wt%, agglomeration occurs in the hybrid composites. Tunable mechanical properties are achieved as the compressive modulus and strength are increased around 140% from 6.4 to 15.3 MPa and 185% from 0.26 to 0.74 MPa, respectively. Such increase in the mechanical properties of TOPAS is attributed to the anchoring of the polymer chains in the vicinity of HA nanoparticles owing to better dispersion and interfacial interactions. In comparison to neat TOPAS, hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA promoted the cell adhesion and proliferation significantly. The cell density and proliferation of TOPAS/HA hybrid composites is enhanced 9 and 3 folds, respectively, after 1 day culturing in preosteoblasts cells. Moreover, the morphology of cells changed from spherical to flattened spread morphology demonstrating clearly the migration of the cells for the formation of interconnected cellular network. Additionally, very few dead cells are found in hybrid composites showing their cytocompatibility. Overall, the hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA exhibited superior strength and stiffness along with enhanced cytocompatibility for bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • TOPAS/HA hybrid composites exhibited enhanced mechanical properties owing to better dispersion and interaction of HA. • Without affecting the degradation rate, the

  12. The influence of parenteral nitrogen feeding on free amino acid composition of blood serum and hepatic tissue of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mil'ko, V.I.; Kirichenko, A.V.; Chalaya, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    A considerable change in the free am ino acid composition of blood serum and hepatic tissued was noted on the 7th and 14th days following total-body X-irradiation of rats with a dose of 2.9 Gy. The total free amino acid content of blood serum increased and that of hepatic tissue decreased by 85% (on an average) as compared to the intact controls. Quantitative changes in the content of individual amino acids were analysed. Polyamine injected enterally for 7 days and parenterally for 3 days after irradiation a the elimination of the postirradiation changes in the amino acid balance

  13. Transplantation: fantasy, fiction and fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Reginald

    2004-03-01

    Today organ transplantation is considered a routine surgical procedure. The idea of transferring tissues from one person to another has been inspiring to the minds of artists depicting the Saints Cosmos and Damian and also writers such as Mary Shelley. Early attempts at tissue transplantation were unsuccessful but in the last 50 years medical research has brought it into reality. The present paper looks at the subject from the realms of fantasy through the works of fiction and finally into everyday fact.

  14. Influence of feeding graded levels of canned sardines on the inflammatory markers and tissue fatty acid composition of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Pedro O; Martins, Susana V; Lopes, Paula A; Ramos, Cristina; Miguéis, Samuel; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pinto, Rui M A; Rolo, Eva A; Bispo, Paulo; Batista, Irineu; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Prates, José A M

    2014-08-14

    Canned sardines are a ready-to-use fish product with excellent nutritional properties owing to its high n-3 long-chain PUFA content, mainly EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3). The present study aimed to assess the effect of two dosages of canned sardines, recommended for the primary and secondary prevention of human CVD, on the inflammatory marker concentrations and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes and key metabolic tissues (liver, muscle, adipose tissue and brain) in the rat model. Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 11 % (w/w) of canned sardines (low-sardine (LS) diet) and a diet containing 22 % (w/w) of canned sardines (high-sardine (HS) diet) for 10 weeks. Daily food intake, weight gain, and organ and final body weights were not affected by the dietary treatments. The concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol decreased in both the LS and HS groups, while those of alanine aminotransferase and adiponectin increased. The concentrations of IL-1β increased only with the highest dosage of sardine. The dose-dependent influence of the graded levels of EPA+DHA was tissue specific. Compared with that of other tissues and erythrocytes, the fatty acid composition of the brain was less affected by the canned sardine-supplemented diets. In contrast, the retroperitoneal adipose tissue was highly responsive. The deposition ratios of EPA and DHA indicated that the LS diet was optimal for DHA deposition across the tissues, except in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Taken together, our findings indicate that a LS diet positively affects plasma lipid profiles and inflammatory mediators, whereas a HS diet has contradictory effects on IL-1β, which, in turn, is not associated with variations in the concentrations of other pro-inflammatory cytokines. This finding requires further investigation and pathophysiological understanding.

  15. The extracellular matrix: Structure, composition, age-related differences, tools for analysis and applications for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kular, Jaspreet K; Basu, Shouvik; Sharma, Ram I

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is a structural support network made up of diverse proteins, sugars and other components. It influences a wide number of cellular processes including migration, wound healing and differentiation, all of which is of particular interest to researchers in the field of tissue engineering. Understanding the composition and structure of the extracellular matrix will aid in exploring the ways the extracellular matrix can be utilised in tissue engineering applications especially as a scaffold. This review summarises the current knowledge of the composition, structure and functions of the extracellular matrix and introduces the effect of ageing on extracellular matrix remodelling and its contribution to cellular functions. Additionally, the current analytical technologies to study the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-related cellular processes are also reviewed.

  16. Impact of lenalidomide-based induction therapy on the mobilization of CD34+ cells, blood graft cellular composition, and post-transplant recovery in myeloma patients: a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Anu; Valtola, Jaakko; Silvennoinen, Raija; Ropponen, Antti; Siitonen, Timo; Putkonen, Mervi; Sankelo, Marja; Pelkonen, Jukka; Mäntymaa, Pentti; Varmavuo, Ville; Jantunen, Esa

    2017-10-01

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug that is also currently used in transplant-eligible patients with multiple myeloma. Previous studies have suggested a negative impact of lenalidomide on the mobilization of CD34 + cells. No data are available regarding the more detailed composition of blood grafts after lenalidomide. In a multicenter, prospective study, we analyzed the mobilization of CD34 + cells, graft cellular composition, and post-transplant hematologic recovery in 26 patients with multiple myeloma after lenalidomide-based induction and in 34 lenalidomide-naive controls with multiple myeloma. All patients were mobilized with low-dose cyclophosphamide plus granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor. The cellular composition of the grafts was analyzed from thawed, cryopreserved samples with flow cytometry. Graft function was evaluated by engraftment data and by complete blood counts until 12 months after the graft infusion. Patients in the lenalidomide arm had lower median peak CD34 + counts and approximately 40% lower CD34 + cell yields from the first apheresis session, but these differences were not significant. The median total number of CD34 + cells collected was comparable (6.4 vs. 7.5 × 10 6 /kg). The number of apheresis sessions was higher in the lenalidomide group (2 vs. 1; p = 0.039). The blood graft composition was comparable between the groups. Hematologic recovery within 12 months post-transplant did not differ between the groups. Lenalidomide-based induction seems to have an impact on the number of aphereses performed, but not on the total yields of the CD34 + cells in the graft. Neither cellular composition of the grafts nor post-transplant recovery was affected by the limited pre-transplant exposure to lenalidomide. © 2017 AABB.

  17. Photoactivated Composite Biomaterial for Soft Tissue Restoration in Rodents and in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hillel, Alexander T.; Unterman, Shimon; Nahas, Zayna; Reid, Branden; Coburn, Jeannine M.; Axelman, Joyce; Chae, Jemin J.; Guo, Qiongyu; Trow, Robert; Thomas, Andrew; Hou, Zhipeng; Lichtsteiner, Serge; Sutton, Damon; Matheson, Christine; Walker, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Soft tissue reconstruction often requires multiple surgical procedures that can result in scars and disfiguration. Facial soft tissue reconstruction represents a clinical challenge because even subtle deformities can severely affect an individual’s social and psychological function. We therefore developed a biosynthetic soft tissue replacement composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hyaluronic acid (HA) that can be injected and photocrosslinked in situ with transdermal ligh...

  18. 3D bio-etching of a complex composite-like embryonic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazar, Melis; Kim, Yong Tae; Song, Jiho; LeDuc, Philip R; Davidson, Lance A; Messner, William C

    2015-08-21

    Morphogenesis involves a complex series of cell signaling, migration and differentiation events that are coordinated as tissues self-assemble during embryonic development. Collective cell movements such as those that occur during morphogenesis have typically been studied in 2D with single layers of cultured cells adhering to rigid substrates such as glass or plastic. In vivo, the intricacies of the 3D microenvironment and complex 3D responses are pivotal in the formation of functional tissues. To study such processes as collective cell movements within 3D multilayered tissues, we developed a microfluidic technique capable of producing complex 3D laminar multicellular structures. We call this technique "3D tissue-etching" because it is analogous to techniques used in the microelectromechanics (MEMS) field where complex 3D structures are built by successively removing material from a monolithic solid through subtractive manufacturing. We use a custom-designed microfluidic control system to deliver a range of tissue etching reagents (detergents, chelators, proteases, etc.) to specific regions of multilayered tissues. These tissues were previously isolated by microsurgical excision from embryos of the African claw-toed frog, Xenopus laevis. The ability to shape the 3D form of multicellular tissues and to control 3D stimulation will have a high impact on tissue engineering and regeneration applications in bioengineering and medicine as well as provide significant improvements in the synthesis of highly complex 3D integrated multicellular biosystems.

  19. Development of Novel Biodegradable Amino Acid Ester Based Polyphosphazene-Hydroxyapatite Composites for Bone Tissue Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Nair, Lakshmi S; Singh, Anurima; Bender, Jared D; Greish, Yaser E; Brown, Paul W; Allcock, H. R; Laurencin, Cato T

    2005-01-01

    .... CPCs are attractive candidates for the development of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering, since they are moldable, resorbable, set at physiological temperature without the use of toxic chemicals...

  20. Pancreatic islet transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa-Giannella Maria

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No formulation of exogenous insulin available to date has yet been able to mimic the physiological nictemeral rhythms of this hormone, and despite all engineering advancements, the theoretical proposal of developing a mechanical replacement for pancreatic β cell still has not been reached. Thus, the replacement of β cells through pancreas and pancreatic islet transplantation are the only concrete alternatives for re-establishing the endogenous insulin secretion in type 1 diabetic patients. Since only 1 to 1.5% of the pancreatic mass corresponds to endocrine tissue, pancreatic islets transplantation arises as a natural alternative. Data from the International Islet Transplant Registry (ITR from 1983 to December 2000 document a total of 493 transplants performed around the world, with progressively worse rates of post-transplant insulin independence. In 2000, the "Edmonton Protocol" introduced several modifications to the transplantation procedure, such as the use of a steroid-free immunosuppression regimen and transplantation of a mean islet mass of 11,000 islet equivalents per kilogram, which significantly improved 1-year outcomes. Although the results of a 5-year follow-up in 65 patients demonstrated improvement in glycemic instability in a significant portion of them, only 7.5% of the patients have reached insulin independence, indicating the need of further advances in the preservation of the function of transplanted islet. In addition to the scarcity of organs available for transplantation, islets transplantation still faces major challenges, specially those related to cell loss during the process of islet isolation and the losses related to the graft site, apoptosis, allorejection, autoimmunity, and immunosuppression. The main strategies to optimize islet transplantation aim at improving all these aspects. Conclusion Human islet transplantation should be regarded as an intervention that can decrease the frequency of

  1. Fabrication of Chitin/Poly(butylene succinate/Chondroitin Sulfate Nanoparticles Ternary Composite Hydrogel Scaffold for Skin Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deepthi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin loss is one of the oldest and still not totally resolved problems in the medical field. Since spontaneous healing of the dermal defects would not occur, the regeneration of full thickness of skin requires skin substitutes. Tissue engineering constructs would provide a three dimensional matrix for the reconstruction of skin tissue and the repair of damage. The aim of the present work is to develop a chitin based scaffold, by blending it with poly(butylene succinate (PBS, an aliphatic, biodegradable and biocompatible synthetic polymer with excellent mechanical properties. The presence of chondroitin sulfate nanoparticles (CSnp in the scaffold would favor cell adhesion. A chitin/PBS/CSnp composite hydrogel scaffold was developed and characterized by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and swelling ratio of scaffolds were analyzed. The scaffolds were evaluated for the suitability for skin tissue engineering application by cytotoxicity, cell attachment, and cell proliferation studies using human dermal fibroblasts (HDF. The cytotoxicity and cell proliferation studies using HDF confirm the suitability of the scaffold for skin regeneration. In short, these results show promising applicability of the developed chitin/PBS/CSnps ternary composite hydrogel scaffolds for skin tissue regeneration.

  2. Composite hydrogel of chitosan-poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate) with chondroitin sulfate nanoparticles for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Manitha B; Baranwal, Gaurav; Vijayan, Prajuna; Keyan, Kripa S; Jayakumar, R

    2015-12-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration, occurring mainly in nucleus pulposus (NP), is a leading cause of low back pain. In seeking to mitigate this condition, investigators in the field of NP tissue engineering have increasingly studied the use of hydrogels. However, these hydrogels should possess appropriate mechanical strength and swelling pressure, and concurrently support the proliferation of chondrocyte-like cells. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a composite hydrogel for NP tissue engineering, made of chitosan-poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate) (CP) with chondroitin sulfate (CS) nanoparticles, without using a cross linker. The water uptake ability, as well as the viscoelastic properties of this composite hydrogel, was similar to native tissue, as reflected in the complex shear modulus and stress relaxation values. The hydrogel could withstand varying stress corresponding to daily activities like lying down (0.01 MPa), sitting (0.5 MPa) and standing (1.0 MPa) under dynamic conditions. The hydrogels were stable in PBS for 2 weeks and its stiffness, elastic and viscous modulus did not alter significantly during this period. Both CP and CP-CS hydrogels could assist the viability and adhesion of adipose derived rat mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs). The viability and chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs was significantly enhanced in presence of CS nanoparticles. Thus, CS nanoparticles-incorporated chitosan-PHBV hydrogels offer great potential for NP tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. PIGMENT CONTENT AND COMPOSITION IN AUTOTROPHIC AND HETEROTROPHIC LEAF TISSUES OF AMARANTH SPECIES A. TRICOLOR L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Gins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present there is numerous evidence of the antioxidant positive role in the defensive reaction that is capable to protect not only plants, but also humans against oxidative stress. Plant pigments such as natural dyes from leaves, flowers and fruits are known to have high antioxidant activity. Amaranth species A. tricolor L. cultivar ‘Early Splendor’ is a convenient model for the comparative studying of the formation processes of differently colored pigment composition in leaf tissues that differs in the ability to photosynthesize. Leaves of amaranth cultivar ‘Valentina’ were as a standard. The aim of the experiment was a comparative studying of the pigments content: amaranthine, chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids in the cauline leaves of amaranth cultivars ‘Valentina’ and ‘Early Splendor’, as well as in the red and green areas of the leaves. Analysis of the aqueous extract of red Early Splendor amaranth apical leaves showed the presence of betacyanin pigment - amaranthine, in the absorption spectrum in which peak was seen in the green region at 540 nm. In addition to the antioxidant amaranthine there are  also antioxidants which might be phenolic glycosides, and ascorbic acid in the extract, the total content of which is almost twice as small as in the leaves of amaranth cauline of this cultivar. Yellow fraction was found in the ethanolic extract of red leaves. Its absorption spectrum had peaks in the blue region at 445 nm and 472 nm and a shoulder at 422 nm that indicated the presence of betaxanthin, betalamic acid or carotenoids. Water-soluble antioxidants - amaranthine and ascorbic acid were found in  auline leaves of studied species. Their content in the leaves of Valentina cultivar was higher than in the leaves of cultivar ‘Early Splendor’, and the maximum level of photosynthetic pigments was found in ‘Early Splendor’ leaves. The obtained results showed that the amaranth is a promising source of pigments with the

  4. In vitro evaluation of three-dimensional single-walled carbon nanotube composites for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashim; Main, Benjamin J; Taylor, Brittany L; Gupta, Manu; Whitworth, Craig A; Cady, Craig; Freeman, Joseph W; El-Amin, Saadiq F

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop three-dimensional single-walled carbon nanotube composites (SWCNT/PLAGA) using 10-mg single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) for bone regeneration and to determine the mechanical strength of the composites, and to evaluate the interaction of MC3T3-E1 cells via cell adhesion, growth, survival, proliferation, and gene expression. PLAGA (polylactic-co-glycolic acid) and SWCNT/PLAGA microspheres and composites were fabricated, characterized, and mechanical testing was performed. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded and cell adhesion/morphology, growth/survival, proliferation, and gene expression analysis were performed to evaluate biocompatibility. Imaging studies demonstrated microspheres with uniform shape and smooth surfaces, and uniform incorporation of SWCNT into PLAGA matrix. The microspheres bonded in a random packing manner while maintaining spacing, thus resembling trabeculae of cancellous bone. Addition of SWCNT led to greater compressive modulus and ultimate compressive strength. Imaging studies revealed that MC3T3-E1 cells adhered, grew/survived, and exhibited normal, nonstressed morphology on the composites. SWCNT/PLAGA composites exhibited higher cell proliferation rate and gene expression compared with PLAGA. These results demonstrate the potential of SWCNT/PLAGA composites for musculoskeletal regeneration, for bone tissue engineering, and are promising for orthopedic applications as they possess the combined effect of increased mechanical strength, cell proliferation, and gene expression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Preparation of a biomimetic composite scaffold from gelatin/collagen and bioactive glass fibers for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi, Esmaeel; Azami, Mahmoud [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pediatric Urology Research Center, Section of Tissue Engineering and Stem Cells Therapy, Department of Pediatric Urology, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Tehran, Iran (IRI) (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moztarzadeh, Fatollah [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridi-Majidi, Reza [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamousi, Atefeh; Karimi, Roya [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center (BASIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-01

    Bone tissue is a composite material made of organic and inorganic components. Bone tissue engineering requires scaffolds that mimic bone nature in chemical and mechanical properties. This study proposes a novel method for preparing composite scaffolds that uses sub-micron bioglass fibers as the organic phase and gelatin/collagen as the inorganic phase. The scaffolds were constructed by using freeze drying and electro spinning methods and their mechanical properties were enhanced by using genipin crosslinking agent. Electron microscopy micrographs showed that the structure of composite scaffolds were porous with pore diameters of approximately 70–200 μm, this was again confirmed by mercury porosimetery. These pores are suitable for osteoblast growth. The diameters of the fibers were approximately 150–450 nm. Structural analysis confirmed the formation of desirable phases of sub-micron bioglass fibers. Cellular biocompatibility tests illustrated that scaffolds containing copper ion in the bioglass structure had more cell growth and osteoblast attachment in comparison to copper-free scaffolds. - Highlights: • Fabrication of 45S5 sub-micron bioglass fiber using electrospinning method. • Production of copper doped submicron bioglass fibers on 45S5 bioglass base by electrospinning sol gel route method. • Incorporation of bioglass/Cu-bioglass sub-micron fibers into gelatin/collagen matrix to form biomimetic composite scaffold which were non-cytotoxic according to MTT assay. • Discovering that copper can decrease the glass transition temperatures and enhance osteoblast cell adhesion and viability.

  6. Preparation of a biomimetic composite scaffold from gelatin/collagen and bioactive glass fibers for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi, Esmaeel; Azami, Mahmoud; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Moztarzadeh, Fatollah; Faridi-Majidi, Reza; Shamousi, Atefeh; Karimi, Roya; Ai, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Bone tissue is a composite material made of organic and inorganic components. Bone tissue engineering requires scaffolds that mimic bone nature in chemical and mechanical properties. This study proposes a novel method for preparing composite scaffolds that uses sub-micron bioglass fibers as the organic phase and gelatin/collagen as the inorganic phase. The scaffolds were constructed by using freeze drying and electro spinning methods and their mechanical properties were enhanced by using genipin crosslinking agent. Electron microscopy micrographs showed that the structure of composite scaffolds were porous with pore diameters of approximately 70–200 μm, this was again confirmed by mercury porosimetery. These pores are suitable for osteoblast growth. The diameters of the fibers were approximately 150–450 nm. Structural analysis confirmed the formation of desirable phases of sub-micron bioglass fibers. Cellular biocompatibility tests illustrated that scaffolds containing copper ion in the bioglass structure had more cell growth and osteoblast attachment in comparison to copper-free scaffolds. - Highlights: • Fabrication of 45S5 sub-micron bioglass fiber using electrospinning method. • Production of copper doped submicron bioglass fibers on 45S5 bioglass base by electrospinning sol gel route method. • Incorporation of bioglass/Cu-bioglass sub-micron fibers into gelatin/collagen matrix to form biomimetic composite scaffold which were non-cytotoxic according to MTT assay. • Discovering that copper can decrease the glass transition temperatures and enhance osteoblast cell adhesion and viability.

  7. Tissue composition of the leg and meat quality of sheep fed castor bean hulls in replacement of tifton hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Antas Urbano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of replacing Tifton hay with castor bean hulls (0, 33, 66 and 100% on the leg tissue composition, chemical composition, physicochemical parameters and sensorial traits of sheep meat were studied. A total of 28 non-castrated sheep averaging seven months in age with an average initial weight of 19.5±4.3 kg were assigned to a randomized block design with four treatments and seven replicates and were slaughtered after 70 days of confinement. At slaughter, body weight and leg, muscle and bone weights decreased linearly, whereas the muscle-to-bone ratio increased linearly according to the treatments. There was a quadratic effect on yellow intensity (maximum of 8.05 with replacement of 54.5% and the percentage of cooking losses (minimum of 33.8% with replacement of 45.17%. The treatment employed did not affect either the chemical composition or sensorial traits of the lamb meat. Although replacing Tifton hay with castor bean hulls alters the tissue composition of the leg as well as some physicochemical parameters of the meat, the sensory analysis indicated good acceptability of the meat, regardless of the inclusion of this byproduct.

  8. Preparation and comparative characterization of keratin–chitosan and keratin–gelatin composite scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaji, S.; Kumar, Ramadhar; Sripriya, R.; Kakkar, Prachi; Ramesh, D. Vijaya; Reddy, P. Neela Kanta; Sehgal, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    We report fabrication of three dimensional scaffolds with well interconnected matrix of high porosity using keratin, chitosan and gelatin for tissue engineering and other biomedical applications. Scaffolds were fabricated using porous Keratin–Gelatin (KG), Keratin–Chitosan (KC) composites. The morphology of both KG and KC was investigated using SEM. The scaffolds showed high porosity with interconnected pores in the range of 20–100 μm. They were further tested by FTIR, DSC, CD, tensile strength measurement, water uptake and swelling behavior. In vitro cell adhesion and cell proliferation tests were carried out to study the biocompatibility behavior and their application as an artificial skin substitute. Both KG and KC composite scaffolds showed similar properties and patterns for cell proliferation. Due to rapid degradation of gelatin in KG, we found that it has limited application as compared to KC scaffold. We conclude that KC scaffold owing to its slow degradation and antibacterial properties would be a better substrate for tissue engineering and other biomedical application. Highlights: ► Extraction of reduced keratin from horn meal. ► Preparation of keratin–gelatin and keratin–chitosan composite scaffolds. ► Characterizations of the composite scaffolds. ► Comparative cytotoxicity analysis on NIH3T3 fibroblasts.

  9. Media Compositions for Three-Dimensional Mammalian Tissue Growth under Microgravity Culture Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Normal mammalian tissue and the culturing process has been developed for the three groups of organ, structural and blood tissue.The cells are grown in vitro under microgravity culture conditions and form three dimensional cells aggregates with normal cell function. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.

  10. Media Compositions for Three Dimensional Mammalian Tissue Growth Under Microgravity Culture Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Normal mammalian tissue and the culturing process has been developed for the three groups of organ, structural and blood tissue. The cells are grown in vitro under microgravity culture conditions and form three dimensional cells aggregates with normal cell function. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.

  11. A simple method to evaluate the composition of tissue-equivalent phantom materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geske, G.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of a method to calculate the composition of phantom materials with given density and radiation-physical parameters mixed of components, of which are known their chemical composition and their effective specific volumes. By an example of a simple composition with three components the method is illustrated. The results of this example and some experimental details that must be considered are discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. Greener synthesis of electrospun collagen/hydroxyapatite composite fibers with an excellent microstructure for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yao, Hongchang; Wang, Jianshe; Wang, Dalu; Liu, Qian; Li, Zhongjun

    2015-01-01

    In bone tissue engineering, collagen/hydroxyapatite (HAP) fibrous composite obtained via electrospinning method has been demonstrated to support the cells’ adhesion and bone regeneration. However, electrospinning of natural collagen often requires the use of cytotoxic organic solvents, and the HAP crystals were usually aggregated and randomly distributed within a fibrous matrix of collagen, limiting their clinical potential. Here, an effective and greener method for the preparation of collagen/HAP composite fibers was developed for the first time, and this green product not only had 40 times higher mechanical properties than that previously reported, but also had an excellent microstructure similar to that of natural bone. By dissolving type I collagen in environmentally friendly phosphate buffered saline/ethanol solution instead of the frequently-used cytotoxic organic solvents, followed with the key step of desalination, co-electrospinning the collagen solution with the HAP sol, generates a collagen/HAP composite with a uniform and continuous fibrous morphology. Interestingly, the nano-HAP needles were found to preferentially orient along the longitudinal direction of the collagen fibers, which mimicked the nanostructure of natural bones. Based on the characterization of the related products, the formation mechanism for this novel phenomenon was proposed. After cross-linking with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl)-1-carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide, the obtained composite exhibited a significant enhancement in mechanical properties. In addition, the biocompatibility of the obtained composite fibers was evaluated by in vitro culture of the human myeloma cells (U2-OS). Taken together, the process outlined herein provides an effective, non-toxic approach for the fabrication of collagen/HAP composite nanofibers that could be good candidates for bone tissue engineering. PMID:25995630

  13. Enhanced mechanical properties and biocompatibility of novel hydroxyapatite/TOPAS hybrid composite for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ain, Qurat Ul; Khan, Ahmad Nawaz; Nabavinia, Mahboubeh; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    The bioactivity and mechanical properties of hybrid composites of hydroxyapatite (HA) in cyclic olefinic copolymer (COC) also known commercially as TOPAS are investigated, first time, for regeneration and repair of the bone tissues. HA is synthesized to obtain the spherically shaped nanoparticles in the size range of 60±20nm. Various concentrations of HA ranging from 1 to 30wt% are dispersed in TOPAS using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coupling agent for better dispersion and interaction of hydrophilic HA with hydrophobic TOPAS. Scanning electron microscope shows the uniform dispersion of HA≤10wt% in TOPAS and at higher concentrations >10wt%, agglomeration occurs in the hybrid composites. Tunable mechanical properties are achieved as the compressive modulus and strength are increased around 140% from 6.4 to 15.3MPa and 185% from 0.26 to 0.74MPa, respectively. Such increase in the mechanical properties of TOPAS is attributed to the anchoring of the polymer chains in the vicinity of HA nanoparticles owing to better dispersion and interfacial interactions. In comparison to neat TOPAS, hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA promoted the cell adhesion and proliferation significantly. The cell density and proliferation of TOPAS/HA hybrid composites is enhanced 9 and 3 folds, respectively, after 1day culturing in preosteoblasts cells. Moreover, the morphology of cells changed from spherical to flattened spread morphology demonstrating clearly the migration of the cells for the formation of interconnected cellular network. Additionally, very few dead cells are found in hybrid composites showing their cytocompatibility. Overall, the hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA exhibited superior strength and stiffness along with enhanced cytocompatibility for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Diet authentication in sheep from the composition of animal tissues and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Prache

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently an increased consumer demand for information on herbivore production factors, particularly animal diet. To meet these demands, producers and commercial entities develop specifications via quality certifications. There is therefore a need for analytical tools that may guarantee that the specification commitments have been fully met or to help with constructing them. The present paper reviews the current state of knowledge concerning diet authentication in sheep meat and milk, the different approaches that have been investigated, some leading examples concerning the discrimination of contrasting feeding situations, together with the persistence of some diet markers in the event of changes in animals' diet. The nature of the diet strongly influences the composition of the animal tissues and products, which is due to specific compounds that are directly transferred from the feed to the end product or that are transformed or produced by rumen micro-organisms or the animal's metabolism under the effect of specific diets. Some of these compounds can therefore be used as diet markers. Compounds such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, volatile compounds and ratios of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope are potential tracers in meat and milk or animal tissues of animal feeding diets. Moreover, differences in meat and milk composition induce differences in their optical properties, and therefore in their spectral features, which can also be used for diet authentication. These techniques have already allowed discrimination among products obtained in contrasting feeding conditions. Intermediate situations, for example in case of modification of the animal's diet, may be less easily recognized and may require a combination of tracing methods. In particular, the persistence of tracers when animals are stall-fed a concentrate-based diet after pasture and its implications for traceability are discussed. Finally

  15. Controlled surface topography regulates collective 3D migration by epithelial-mesenchymal composite embryonic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiho; Shawky, Joseph H; Kim, YongTae; Hazar, Melis; LeDuc, Philip R; Sitti, Metin; Davidson, Lance A

    2015-07-01

    Cells in tissues encounter a range of physical cues as they migrate. Probing single cell and collective migratory responses to physically defined three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments and the factors that modulate those responses are critical to understanding how tissue migration is regulated during development, regeneration, and cancer. One key physical factor that regulates cell migration is topography. Most studies on surface topography and cell mechanics have been carried out with single migratory cells, yet little is known about the spreading and motility response of 3D complex multi-cellular tissues to topographical cues. Here, we examine the response to complex topographical cues of microsurgically isolated tissue explants composed of epithelial and mesenchymal cell layers from naturally 3D organized embryos of the aquatic frog Xenopus laevis. We control topography using fabricated micropost arrays (MPAs) and investigate the collective 3D migration of these multi-cellular systems in these MPAs. We find that the topography regulates both collective and individual cell migration and that dense MPAs reduce but do not eliminate tissue spreading. By modulating cell size through the cell cycle inhibitor Mitomycin C or the spacing of the MPAs we uncover how 3D topographical cues disrupt collective cell migration. We find surface topography can direct both single cell motility and tissue spreading, altering tissue-scale processes that enable efficient conversion of single cell motility into collective movement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between increased epicardial adipose tissue volume and coronary plaque composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kennosuke; Yamamoto, Myong Hwa; Ebara, Seitarou; Okabe, Toshitaka; Saito, Shigeo; Hoshimoto, Koichi; Yakushiji, Tadayuki; Isomura, Naoei; Araki, Hiroshi; Obara, Chiaki; Ochiai, Masahiko

    2014-09-01

    To assess the relationship between epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) and plaque vulnerability in significant coronary stenosis using a 40-MHz intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging system (iMap-IVUS), we analyzed 130 consecutive patients with coronary stenosis who underwent dual-source computed tomography (CT) and cardiac catheterization. Culprit lesions were imaged by iMap-IVUS before stenting. The iMAP-IVUS system classified coronary plaque components as fibrous, lipid, necrotic, or calcified tissue, based on the radiofrequency spectrum. Epicardial adipose tissue was measured as the tissue ranging from -190 to -30 Hounsfield units. EATV, calculated as the sum of the fat areas on short-axis images, was 85.0 ± 34.0 cm(3). There was a positive correlation between EATV and the percentage of necrotic plaque tissue (R (2) = 0.34, P EATV and the percentage of fibrous tissue (R (2) = 0.24, P EATV (β = 0.14, P = 0.02) were independently associated with the percentage of necrotic plaque tissue. An increase in EATV was associated with the development of coronary atherosclerosis and, potentially, with the most dangerous type of plaque.

  17. Surface modification of nanofibrous polycaprolactone/gelatin composite scaffold by collagen type I grafting for skin tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Sneh; Chou, Chia-Fu; Dinda, Amit K.; Potdar, Pravin D.; Mishra, Narayan C.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a tri-polymer polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold has been fabricated by electrospinning for skin tissue engineering and wound healing applications. Firstly, PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning using a low cost solvent mixture [chloroform/methanol for PCL and acetic acid (80% v/v) for gelatin], and then the nanofibrous PCL/gelatin scaffold was modified by collagen type I (0.2–1.5 wt.%) grafting. Morphology of the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin composite scaffold that was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), showed that the fiber diameter was increased and pore size was decreased by increasing the concentration of collagen type I. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis indicated the surface modification of PCL/gelatin scaffold by collagen type I immobilization on the surface of the scaffold. MTT assay demonstrated the viability and high proliferation rate of L929 mouse fibroblast cells on the collagen type I-modified composite scaffold. FE-SEM analysis of cell-scaffold construct illustrated the cell adhesion of L929 mouse fibroblasts on the surface of scaffold. Characteristic cell morphology of L929 was also observed on the nanofiber mesh of the collagen type I-modified scaffold. Above results suggest that the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin scaffold was successful in maintaining characteristic shape of fibroblasts, besides good cell proliferation. Therefore, the fibroblast seeded PCL/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold might be a potential candidate for wound healing and skin tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold was fabricated for skin tissue engineering. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold showed higher fibroblast growth than PCL/gelatin one. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I might be one of the ideal scaffold for

  18. Variations in stomach contents and biochemical composition of tissues in some marine fishes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, P.G.; Rajagopal, M.D.

    Relationship between calorific values and protein, fat and carbohydrate of the stomach contents (food) and body tissues of marine fishes, Sardinella longiceps, Valenciennes, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier), Otolithus ruber (Schneider) and Lactarius...

  19. Altered Protein Composition of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Gertow

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: These findings demonstrate that adipose tissue of CKD patients shows signs of inflammation and disturbed functionality, thus potentially contributing to the unfavorable metabolic profile and increased risk of CVD in these patients.

  20. Differential effects of diet composition and timing of feeding behavior on rat brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle peripheral clocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul de Goede

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of feeding behavior and diet composition, as well as their possible interactions, on daily (clock gene expression rhythms have mainly been studied in the liver, and to a lesser degree in white adipose tissue (WAT, but hardly in other metabolic tissues such as skeletal muscle (SM and brown adipose tissues (BAT. We therefore subjected male Wistar rats to a regular chow or free choice high-fat-high sugar (fcHFHS diet in combination with time restricted feeding (TRF to either the light or dark phase. In SM, all tested clock genes lost their rhythmic expression in the chow light fed group. In the fcHFHS light fed group rhythmic expression for some, but not all, clock genes was maintained, but shifted by several hours. In BAT the daily rhythmicity of clock genes was maintained for the light fed groups, but expression patterns were shifted as compared with ad libitum and dark fed groups, whilst the fcHFHS diet made the rhythmicity of clock genes become more pronounced. Most of the metabolic genes in BAT tissue tested did not show any rhythmic expression in either the chow or fcHFHS groups. In SM Pdk4 and Ucp3 were phase-shifted, but remained rhythmically expressed in the chow light fed groups. Rhythmic expression was lost for Ucp3 whilst on the fcHFHS diet during the light phase. In summary, both feeding at the wrong time of day and diet composition disturb the peripheral clocks in SM and BAT, but to different degrees and thereby result in a further desynchronization between metabolically active tissues such as SM, BAT, WAT and liver.

  1. A review of fibrin and fibrin composites for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Alireza; Ashrafi, Seyed Jamal; Vaez-Ghaemi, Roza; Hatamian-Zaremi, Ashraf; Webster, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Tissue engineering has emerged as a new treatment approach for bone repair and regeneration seeking to address limitations associated with current therapies, such as autologous bone grafting. While many bone tissue engineering approaches have traditionally focused on synthetic materials (such as polymers or hydrogels), there has been a lot of excitement surrounding the use of natural materials due to their biologically inspired properties. Fibrin is a natural scaffold formed following tissue injury that initiates hemostasis and provides the initial matrix useful for cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Fibrin has captured the interest of bone tissue engineers due to its excellent biocompatibility, controllable biodegradability, and ability to deliver cells and biomolecules. Fibrin is particularly appealing because its precursors, fibrinogen, and thrombin, which can be derived from the patient's own blood, enable the fabrication of completely autologous scaffolds. In this article, we highlight the unique properties of fibrin as a scaffolding material to treat bone defects. Moreover, we emphasize its role in bone tissue engineering nanocomposites where approaches further emulate the natural nanostructured features of bone when using fibrin and other nanomaterials. We also review the preparation methods of fibrin glue and then discuss a wide range of fibrin applications in bone tissue engineering. These include the delivery of cells and/or biomolecules to a defect site, distributing cells, and/or growth factors throughout other pre-formed scaffolds and enhancing the physical as well as biological properties of other biomaterials. Thoughts on the future direction of fibrin research for bone tissue engineering are also presented. In the future, the development of fibrin precursors as recombinant proteins will solve problems associated with using multiple or single-donor fibrin glue, and the combination of nanomaterials that allow for the

  2. New Coll–HA/BT composite materials for hard tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanfir, Andrei Vlad [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, RO-011061 Bucharest (Romania); Voicu, Georgeta, E-mail: getav2001@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, RO-011061 Bucharest (Romania); Busuioc, Cristina; Jinga, Sorin Ion [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, RO-011061 Bucharest (Romania); Albu, Madalina Georgiana [Department of Collagen, Branch of Leather and Footwear Research, National Institute of Research and Development for Textile and Leather, 93 I. Minulescu Street, RO-031215 Bucharest (Romania); Iordache, Florin [Department of Fetal and Adult Stem Cell Therapy, “Nicolae Simionescu” Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology of Romanian Academy, 8 B.P. Hasdeu Street, RO-050568 Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-05-01

    The integration of ceramic powders in composite materials for bone scaffolds can improve the osseointegration process. This work was aimed to the synthesis and characterization of new collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (Coll–HA/BT) composite materials starting from barium titanate (BT) nanopowder, hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder and collagen (Coll) gel. BT nanopowder was produced by combining two wet-chemical approaches, sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. The resulting materials were characterized in terms of phase composition and microstructure by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the composite materials were assessed by in vitro tests. The synthesized BT particles exhibit an average size of around 35 nm and a spherical morphology, with a pseudo-cubic or tetragonal symmetry. The diffraction spectra of Coll–HA and Coll–HA/BT composite materials indicate a pronounced interaction between Col and the mineral phases, meaning a good mineralization of Col fibres. As well, the in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all biological samples, especially for Coll–HA/BT composite materials, fact that can be attributed to the ferromagnetic properties of BT. - Highlights: • Collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate composite materials were synthesized. • Barium titanate was produced by combining the sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. • The in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all samples.

  3. New Coll–HA/BT composite materials for hard tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanfir, Andrei Vlad; Voicu, Georgeta; Busuioc, Cristina; Jinga, Sorin Ion; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Iordache, Florin

    2016-01-01

    The integration of ceramic powders in composite materials for bone scaffolds can improve the osseointegration process. This work was aimed to the synthesis and characterization of new collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (Coll–HA/BT) composite materials starting from barium titanate (BT) nanopowder, hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder and collagen (Coll) gel. BT nanopowder was produced by combining two wet-chemical approaches, sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. The resulting materials were characterized in terms of phase composition and microstructure by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the composite materials were assessed by in vitro tests. The synthesized BT particles exhibit an average size of around 35 nm and a spherical morphology, with a pseudo-cubic or tetragonal symmetry. The diffraction spectra of Coll–HA and Coll–HA/BT composite materials indicate a pronounced interaction between Col and the mineral phases, meaning a good mineralization of Col fibres. As well, the in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all biological samples, especially for Coll–HA/BT composite materials, fact that can be attributed to the ferromagnetic properties of BT. - Highlights: • Collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate composite materials were synthesized. • Barium titanate was produced by combining the sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. • The in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all samples.

  4. Ultrasound Imaging Techniques for Spatiotemporal Characterization of Composition, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties in Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Cheri X; Hong, Xiaowei; Stegemann, Jan P

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound techniques are increasingly being used to quantitatively characterize both native and engineered tissues. This review provides an overview and selected examples of the main techniques used in these applications. Grayscale imaging has been used to characterize extracellular matrix deposition, and quantitative ultrasound imaging based on the integrated backscatter coefficient has been applied to estimating cell concentrations and matrix morphology in tissue engineering. Spectral analysis has been employed to characterize the concentration and spatial distribution of mineral particles in a construct, as well as to monitor mineral deposition by cells over time. Ultrasound techniques have also been used to measure the mechanical properties of native and engineered tissues. Conventional ultrasound elasticity imaging and acoustic radiation force imaging have been applied to detect regions of altered stiffness within tissues. Sonorheometry and monitoring of steady-state excitation and recovery have been used to characterize viscoelastic properties of tissue using a single transducer to both deform and image the sample. Dual-mode ultrasound elastography uses separate ultrasound transducers to produce a more potent deformation force to microscale characterization of viscoelasticity of hydrogel constructs. These ultrasound-based techniques have high potential to impact the field of tissue engineering as they are further developed and their range of applications expands.

  5. Comparative carcass and tissue nutrient composition of transgenic Yorkshire pigs expressing phytase in the saliva and conventional Yorkshire pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, C W; Meidinger, R G; Ajakaiye, A; Murray, D; Fan, M Z; Mandell, I B; Phillips, J P

    2014-10-01

    A transgenic line of Yorkshire (YK) pigs named the Cassie (CA) line was produced with a low copy number phytase transgene inserted in the genome. The transgenic line efficiently digests P, Ca, and other major minerals of plant dietary origin. The objectives of this study were to 1) compare carcass and tissue nutrient composition and meat quality traits for third generation hemizygous CA line market BW finisher pigs (n = 24) with age-matched conventional YK finisher pigs (n = 24) and 2) examine effects of outbreeding with high-index conventional YK boars on modifying carcass leanness from the third to sixth generations in CA line finisher boars (n = 73) and gilts (n = 103). Cassie boars (n = 12) and CA gilts (n = 12) were fed diets without supplemental P and comparable numbers of age-matched YK boars and gilts fed diets containing supplement P were raised throughout the finisher phase. The pigs were slaughtered and then fabricated into commercial pork primals before meat composition and quality evaluation. Proximate and major micronutrient composition was determined on tissues including fat, kidney, lean, liver, and skin. The main difference observed was greater (P = 0.033) crude fat content in CA boar carcasses and increased (P phytase action rather than to insertion of the transgene. However, from a meat composition perspective, transgenic expression of phytase in the CA line of YK pigs had little overall effect on meat composition. Outbreeding of high-index CA gilts with high-index commercial YK boars linearly reduced (P = 0.002) back fat thickness with a corresponding linear increase (P = 0.001) in lean yield in finisher CA gilts, although no change in these parameters was observed in CA finisher boars. The increase in lean yield in CA gilts by selective breeding without affecting the level of salivary phytase activity documents the value of conventional genetic selection in conjunction with genetic modification.

  6. Non-invasive optical estimate of tissue composition to differentiate malignant from benign breast lesions: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Paola; Paganoni, Anna Maria; Ieva, Francesca; Pifferi, Antonio; Quarto, Giovanna; Abbate, Francesca; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2017-01-01

    Several techniques are being investigated as a complement to screening mammography, to reduce its false-positive rate, but results are still insufficient to draw conclusions. This initial study explores time domain diffuse optical imaging as an adjunct method to classify non-invasively malignant vs benign breast lesions. We estimated differences in tissue composition (oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, lipid, water, collagen) and absorption properties between lesion and average healthy tissue in the same breast applying a perturbative approach to optical images collected at 7 red-near infrared wavelengths (635-1060 nm) from subjects bearing breast lesions. The Discrete AdaBoost procedure, a machine-learning algorithm, was then exploited to classify lesions based on optically derived information (either tissue composition or absorption) and risk factors obtained from patient’s anamnesis (age, body mass index, familiarity, parity, use of oral contraceptives, and use of Tamoxifen). Collagen content, in particular, turned out to be the most important parameter for discrimination. Based on the initial results of this study the proposed method deserves further investigation.

  7. Carinal transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, H; Shirakusa, T

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current techniques of management of carinal lesions are not always satisfactory. Carinal transplantation, if feasible, would be valuable in certain circumstances. METHODS AND RESULTS: Carinal transplantation experiments were performed in dogs. In early cross transplant experiments there were problems in controlling ventilation and in obtaining satisfactory anastomoses, and the animals failed to live for even a few days. In seven subsequent experiments the carinal graft was removed...

  8. Bioceramic/Poly (glycolic-poly (lactic acid composite induces mineralized barrier after direct capping of rat tooth pulp tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gala-Garcia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the histopathological pulp response following direct pulp capping of mechanically exposed teeth in rats with a composite of beta-tricalcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite bioceramic (BC and poly (glycolic-poly (lactic acid (PLGA material or a calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH2] material, compared to BC alone and a negative control of water. Pulp of the maxillary molars was exposed, followed by capping with the experimental material. The pulpal tissue response was assessed post-operatively at 1, 7, 14 and 30 d, followed by histological analysis. The Ca(OH2 group exhibited severe acute inflammatory cell infiltration at day 14. However after 30 d, a new hard tissue with macro porous obliteration of the pulp chamber and a characteristic necrotic area had appeared. BC and Ca(OH2 capping were associated with moderate inflammation and dentinal bridge similar. Meanwhile, in the BC/PLGA composite group, there was moderate inflammatory infiltrate and formation of a dense and complete dentinal bridge. In conclusion, the BC/PLGA composite material showed a large zone of tertiary dentin, and effectively reorganized the dentin-pulp complex.

  9. In Vitro Degradation of PHBV Scaffolds and nHA/PHBV Composite Scaffolds Containing Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naznin Sultana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the long-term in vitro degradation properties of scaffolds based on biodegradable polymers and osteoconductive bioceramic/polymer composite materials for the application of bone tissue engineering. The three-dimensional porous scaffolds were fabricated using emulsion-freezing/freeze-drying technique using poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV which is a natural biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. Nanosized hydroxyapatite (nHA particles were successfully incorporated into the PHBV scaffolds to render the scaffolds osteoconductive. The PHBV and nHA/PHBV scaffolds were systematically evaluated using various techniques in terms of mechanical strength, porosity, porous morphology, and in vitro degradation. PHBV and nHA/PHBV scaffolds degraded over time in phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C. PHBV polymer scaffolds exhibited slow molecular weight loss and weight loss in the in vitro physiological environment. Accelerated weight loss was observed in nHA incorporated PHBV composite scaffolds. An increasing trend of crystallinity was observed during the initial period of degradation time. The compressive properties decreased more than 40% after 5-month in vitro degradation. Together with interconnected pores, high porosity, suitable mechanical properties, and slow degradation profile obtained from long-term degradation studies, the PHBV scaffolds and osteoconductive nHA/PHBV composite scaffolds showed promises for bone tissue engineering application.

  10. Preparation and biological properties of a novel composite scaffold of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengdong Xiong

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we report the physico-chemical and biological properties of a novel biodegradable composite scaffold made of nano-hydroxyapatite and natural derived polymers of chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose, namely, n-HA/CS/CMC, which was prepared by freeze-drying method. The physico-chemical properties of n-HA/CS/CMC scaffold were tested by infrared absorption spectra (IR, transmission electron microscope(TEM, scanning electron microscope(SEM, universal material testing machine and phosphate buffer solution (PBS soaking experiment. Besides, the biological properties were evaluated by MG63 cells and Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs culture experiment in vitro and a short period implantation study in vivo. The results show that the composite scaffold is mainly formed through the ionic crossing-linking of the two polyions between CS and CMC, and n-HA is incorporated into the polyelectrolyte matrix of CS-CMC without agglomeration, which endows the scaffold with good physico-chemical properties such as highly interconnected porous structure, high compressive strength and good structural stability and degradation. More important, the results of cells attached, proliferated on the scaffold indicate that the scaffold is non-toxic and has good cell biocompatibility, and the results of implantation experiment in vivo further confirm that the scaffold has good tissue biocompatibility. All the above results suggest that the novel degradable n-HA/CS/CMC composite scaffold has a great potential to be used as bone tissue engineering material.

  11. Preparation and biological properties of a novel composite scaffold of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuyun, Jiang; Yubao, Li; Chengdong, Xiong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we report the physico-chemical and biological properties of a novel biodegradable composite scaffold made of nano-hydroxyapatite and natural derived polymers of chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose, namely, n-HA/CS/CMC, which was prepared by freeze-drying method. The physico-chemical properties of n-HA/CS/CMC scaffold were tested by infrared absorption spectra (IR), transmission electron microscope(TEM), scanning electron microscope(SEM), universal material testing machine and phosphate buffer solution (PBS) soaking experiment. Besides, the biological properties were evaluated by MG63 cells and Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) culture experiment in vitro and a short period implantation study in vivo. The results show that the composite scaffold is mainly formed through the ionic crossing-linking of the two polyions between CS and CMC, and n-HA is incorporated into the polyelectrolyte matrix of CS-CMC without agglomeration, which endows the scaffold with good physico-chemical properties such as highly interconnected porous structure, high compressive strength and good structural stability and degradation. More important, the results of cells attached, proliferated on the scaffold indicate that the scaffold is non-toxic and has good cell biocompatibility, and the results of implantation experiment in vivo further confirm that the scaffold has good tissue biocompatibility. All the above results suggest that the novel degradable n-HA/CS/CMC composite scaffold has a great potential to be used as bone tissue engineering material. PMID:19594953

  12. Characterization of elasticity and hydration of composite hydrogel based on collagen-iota carrageenan as a corneal tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinawati, M.; Triastuti, J.; Pursetyo, K. T.

    2018-04-01

    The cornea is a refractive element of the eye that serves to continue the stimulation of light into the eye it has a clear, transparent, elastic and relatively thick tissue. Factors caused corneal blindness, are dystrophy, keratoconus, corneal scaring. Hydrogels can be made from polysaccharide derivatives that have gelation properties such as iota carrageenan. Therefore, it is a need to develop composite hydrogel based collagen-iota carragenan as an engineeried corneal tissue with high elasticity and hydration properties. Collagen hydrogel has a maximum water content an has equlibrium up to 40 %, less than the human cornea, 81 % and under normal hydration conditions, the human cornea can transmit 87 % of visible light. In addition, the refractive index on the surface of the cornea with air is 1.375-1.380. Based on this study, it is necessary to conduct research on the development and composition of hydrogel composite collagen-iota carrageen hydrogen based on. The best result was K5 (5:5) treatment, which has the equilibrium water content of 87.07 % and viscosity of 10.7346 Pa.s.

  13. Melatonin improves spermatogonial stem cells transplantation efficiency in azoospermic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Gholami

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Administration of melatonin (20 mg/kg simultaneously with transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells in azoospermia mouse testis increases the efficiency of transplantation and improves structural properties of the testes tissue.

  14. A review of fibrin and fibrin composites for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alireza Noori,1 Seyed Jamal Ashrafi,2 Roza Vaez-Ghaemi,3 Ashraf Hatamian-Zaremi,4 Thomas J Webster5 1Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 2School of Medicine, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran; 3Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Tissue engineering has emerged as a new treatment approach for bone repair and regeneration seeking to address limitations associated with current therapies, such as autologous bone grafting. While many bone tissue engineering approaches have traditionally focused on synthetic materials (such as polymers or hydrogels, there has been a lot of excitement surrounding the use of natural materials due to their biologically inspired properties. Fibrin is a natural scaffold formed following tissue injury that initiates hemostasis and provides the initial matrix useful for cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Fibrin has captured the interest of bone tissue engineers due to its excellent biocompatibility, controllable biodegradability, and ability to deliver cells and biomolecules. Fibrin is particularly appealing because its precursors, fibrinogen, and thrombin, which can be derived from the patient’s own blood, enable the fabrication of completely autologous scaffolds. In this article, we highlight the unique properties of fibrin as a scaffolding material to treat bone defects. Moreover, we emphasize its role in bone tissue engineering nanocomposites where approaches further emulate the natural nanostructured features of bone when using fibrin and other nanomaterials. We also review the

  15. Microencapsulation improves inhibitory effects of transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells on pain after sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory bulb tissue transplantation inhibits P2X2/3 receptor-mediated neuropathic pain. However, the olfactory bulb has a complex cellular composition, and the mechanism underlying the action of purified transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs remains unclear. In the present study, we microencapsulated OECs in alginic acid, and transplanted free and microencapsulated OECs into the region surrounding the injured sciatic nerve in rat models of chronic constriction injury. We assessed mechanical nociception in the rat models 7 and 14 days after surgery by measuring paw withdrawal threshold, and examined P2X2/3 receptor expression in L 4-5 dorsal root ganglia using immunohistochemistry. Rats that received free and microencapsulated OEC transplants showed greater withdrawal thresholds than untreated model rats, and weaker P2X2/3 receptor immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglia. At 14 days, paw withdrawal threshold was much higher in the microencapsulated OEC-treated animals. Our results confirm that microencapsulated OEC transplantation suppresses P2X2/3 receptor expression in L 4-5 dorsal root ganglia in rat models of neuropathic pain and reduces allodynia, and also suggest that transplantation of microencapsulated OECs is more effective than transplantation of free OECs for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  16. Osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures following renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, J.; Nielsen, H.E.; Aarhus Univ.

    1981-01-01

    31 renal transplant recipients with posttransplant development of osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures were evaluated with regard to age, duration of dialysis before transplantation. Determination of metacarpal bone mass at the time of transplantation and registration of bone resorption and soft tissue calcification at the time of transplantation and at the time of onset of osteonecrosis and spontaneous fractures were made. Apart from the increased mean age in patients with spontaneous fractures no difference was seen between the groups. Osteonecrosis and spontaneous fractures occurred in areas of trabecular bone. It seems most likely that after renal transplantation the patients show bone complications of different localization. (orig.) [de

  17. Intervertebral Disc Tissue Engineering with Natural Extracellular Matrix-Derived Biphasic Composite Scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Xu

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering has provided an alternative therapeutic possibility for degenerative disc diseases. However, we lack an ideal scaffold for IVD tissue engineering. The goal of this study is to fabricate a novel biomimetic biphasic scaffold for IVD tissue engineering and evaluate the feasibility of developing tissue-engineered IVD in vitro and in vivo. In present study we developed a novel integrated biphasic IVD scaffold using a simple freeze-drying and cross-linking technique of pig bone matrix gelatin (BMG for the outer annulus fibrosus (AF phase and pig acellular cartilage ECM (ACECM for the inner nucleus pulposus (NP phase. Histology and SEM results indicated no residual cells remaining in the scaffold that featured an interconnected porous microstructure (pore size of AF and NP phase 401.4 ± 13.1 μm and 231.6 ± 57.2 μm, respectively. PKH26-labeled AF and NP cells were seeded into the scaffold and cultured in vitro. SEM confirmed that seeded cells could anchor onto the scaffold. Live/dead staining showed that live cells (green fluorescence were distributed in the scaffold, with no dead cells (red fluorescence being found. The cell-scaffold constructs were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice and cultured for 6 weeks in vivo. IVD-like tissue formed in nude mice as confirmed by histology. Cells in hybrid constructs originated from PKH26-labeled cells, as confirmed by in vivo fluorescence imaging system. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the feasibility of developing a tissue-engineered IVD in vivo with a BMG- and ACECM-derived integrated AF-NP biphasic scaffold. As well, PKH26 fluorescent labeling with in vivo fluorescent imaging can be used to track cells and analyse cell--scaffold constructs in vivo.

  18. Composite Match Index with Application of Interior Deformation Field Measurement from Magnetic Resonance Volumetric Images of Human Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penglin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas a variety of different feature-point matching approaches have been reported in computer vision, few feature-point matching approaches employed in images from nonrigid, nonuniform human tissues have been reported. The present work is concerned with interior deformation field measurement of complex human tissues from three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR volumetric images. To improve the reliability of matching results, this paper proposes composite match index (CMI as the foundation of multimethod fusion methods to increase the reliability of these various methods. Thereinto, we discuss the definition, components, and weight determination of CMI. To test the validity of the proposed approach, it is applied to actual MR volumetric images obtained from a volunteer’s calf. The main result is consistent with the actual condition.

  19. In vitro cytocompatibility evaluation of chitosan/graphene oxide 3D scaffold composites designed for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinescu, Sorina; Ionita, Mariana; Pandele, Andreea Madalina; Galateanu, Bianca; Iovu, Horia; Ardelean, Aurel; Costache, Marieta; Hermenean, Anca

    2014-01-01

    Extensively studied nowadays, graphene oxide (GO) has a benefic effect on cell proliferation and differentiation, thus holding promise for bone tissue engineering (BTE) approaches. The aim of this study was not only to design a chitosan 3D scaffold improved with GO for optimal BTE, but also to analyze its physicochemical properties and to evaluate its cytocompatibility and ability to support cell metabolic activity and proliferation. Overall results show that the addition of GO in the scaffold's composition improved mechanical properties and pore formation and enhanced the bioactivity of the scaffold material for tissue engineering. The new developed CHT/GO 3 wt% scaffold could be a potential candidate for further in vitro and in vivo osteogenesis studies and BTE approaches.

  20. RELEVANCE OF BIO IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE ESTIMATION OF BODY COMPOSITION IN DIALYSED AND KIDNEY TRANSPLANTED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Moreau

    2012-06-01

    DXA and BIS measurements were highly correlated in both DP and KTR. However, the large individual differences demonstrated that single values of FFM or FM may be interpreted carefully but BIS as DXA has ability to evaluate changes in body composition over time in longitudinal studies.

  1. Microtomography evaluation of dental tissue wear surface induced by in vitro simulated chewing cycles on human and composite teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Bedini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a 3D microtomography display of tooth surfaces after in vitro dental wear tests has been obtained. Natural teeth have been compared with prosthetic teeth, manufactured by three different polyceramic composite materials. The prosthetic dental element samples, similar to molars, have been placed in opposition to human teeth extracted by paradontology diseases. After microtomography analysis, samples have been subjected to in vitro fatigue test cycles by servo-hydraulic mechanical testing machine. After the fatigue test, each sample has been subjected again to microtomography analysis to obtain volumetric value changes and dental wear surface images. Wear surface images were obtained by 3D reconstruction software and volumetric value changes were measured by CT analyser software. The aim of this work has been to show the potential of microtomography technique to display very clear and reliable wear surface images. Microtomography analysis methods to evaluate volumetric value changes have been used to quantify dental tissue and composite material wear.

  2. Family refusal to donate organs and tissue for transplantation El rechazo familiar al pedido de donación de órganos y tejidos para transplante A recusa familiar para a doaçao de órgãos e tecidos para transplante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Leal de Moraes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to discover how potential eligible donor families perceive the decision-making process to refuse organ and tissue donation for transplantation. A qualitative research was performed in order to understand the families' perception, based on the situated-phenomenon structure. Eight family members were interviewed, with four themes and fourteen subthemes emerging from the analysis of the statements. The propositions that emerged from the study indicated that the essence of the phenomenon was manifested as a shocking or despairing situation, experienced through the hospitalization of the family member; distrust regarding organ donation; denial of brain death; grief and weariness due to the loss of the loved one, family conflicts for making the decision and the multiple causes for refusing donation. Therefore, the knowledge of this phenomenon can provide information to guide professional action involving the families of potential donors.La investigación tuvo como objetivo conocer la percepción que tienen los familiares de potenciales donadores sobre el proceso de toma de decisión para rechazar la donación de los órganos y tejidos para transplantes. Para comprender la percepción de los familiares fue utilizada la investigación cualitativa, según la modalidad estructura del fenómeno situado. Fueron entrevistados ocho familiares, de los que después de analizar los discursos, se obtuvieron cuatro temas y catorce subtemas. Las proposiciones que emergieron revelaron que la esencia del fenómeno fue revelada como vivenciar una situación de choque y desesperación con la internación del familiar, de desconfianza con la solicitud de la donación de los órganos, de negación de la muerte encefálica, de sufrimiento y desgaste ante la pérdida del ser querido, de conflictos familiares para la toma de decisión y de múltiples causas para rechazar la donación. Sendo así, el conocimiento de este fenómeno puede ofrecer elementos que

  3. Associations of physical activity and inactivity with body tissue composition among healthy Polish women and women after mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak, U; Demuth, A; Skrzypczak, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between physical activity and body composition among healthy women and women who have had mastectomy. This is in order to establish whether physical activity of women after breast cancer treatment improves composition and distribution of body mass components to a degree which will allow to achieve the body composition of healthy women. Research material consists of anthropometric measurements (body height, weight) of women and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) of body composition (using Akern - BIA 101 composition analyzer). Intensity of activity was assessed using the Physical Activity International Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 76 healthy women (active 44.74%, inactive 55.26%) and 70 females after mastectomy (54.29% and 45.71%, respectively). Mean chronological age of women after mastectomy was 53.40 years, SD=7.55, and of the healthy ones 52.38 years SD=11.01). A significant difference in body composition was noted among active and inactive women after mastectomy; namely the active females had lower weight (by approximately 12 kg), body mass index (BMI), level of fat mass (by approximately 8%) and (by approximately 5%) total body water. The active healthy women had 6% less fat mass, almost 4% more body water and 6% more fat free mass. Programmed physical activity undertaken by women after mastectomy is recommended and produces good results in the form of reduction of excessive body fat tissue. Through physical activity these women are able to achieve the same level of fat mass as healthy women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Surface modification of nanofibrous polycaprolactone/gelatin composite scaffold by collagen type I grafting for skin tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sneh; Chou, Chia-Fu; Dinda, Amit K; Potdar, Pravin D; Mishra, Narayan C

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a tri-polymer polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold has been fabricated by electrospinning for skin tissue engineering and wound healing applications. Firstly, PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning using a low cost solvent mixture [chloroform/methanol for PCL and acetic acid (80% v/v) for gelatin], and then the nanofibrous PCL/gelatin scaffold was modified by collagen type I (0.2-1.5wt.%) grafting. Morphology of the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin composite scaffold that was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), showed that the fiber diameter was increased and pore size was decreased by increasing the concentration of collagen type I. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis indicated the surface modification of PCL/gelatin scaffold by collagen type I immobilization on the surface of the scaffold. MTT assay demonstrated the viability and high proliferation rate of L929 mouse fibroblast cells on the collagen type I-modified composite scaffold. FE-SEM analysis of cell-scaffold construct illustrated the cell adhesion of L929 mouse fibroblasts on the surface of scaffold. Characteristic cell morphology of L929 was also observed on the nanofiber mesh of the collagen type I-modified scaffold. Above results suggest that the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin scaffold was successful in maintaining characteristic shape of fibroblasts, besides good cell proliferation. Therefore, the fibroblast seeded PCL/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold might be a potential candidate for wound healing and skin tissue engineering applications. © 2013.

  5. Optimization of Polymer-ECM Composite Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering: Effect of Cells and Culture Conditions on Polymeric Nanofiber Mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Goyal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of composite tissue scaffolds containing an extracellular matrix (ECM and synthetic polymer fibers is a new approach to create bioactive scaffolds that can enhance cell function. Currently, studies investigating the effects of ECM-deposition and decellularization on polymer degradation are still lacking, as are data on optimizing the stability of the ECM-containing composite scaffolds during prolonged cell culture. In this study, we develop fibrous scaffolds using three polymer compositions, representing slow (E0000, medium (E0500, and fast (E1000 degrading materials, to investigate the stability, degradation, and mechanics of the scaffolds during ECM deposition and decellularization, and during the complete cellularization-decell-recell cycle. We report data on percent molecular weight (% Mw retention of polymeric fiber mats, changes in scaffold stiffness, ECM deposition, and the presence of fibronectin after decellularization. We concluded that the fast degrading E1000 (Mw retention ≤ 50% after 28 days was not sufficiently stable to allow scaffold handling after 28 days in culture, while the slow degradation of E0000 (Mw retention ≥ 80% in 28 days did not allow deposited ECM to replace the polymer support. The scaffolds made from medium degrading E0500 (Mw retention about 60% at 28 days allowed the gradual replacement of the polymer network with cell-derived ECM while maintaining the polymer network support. Thus, polymers with an intermediate rate of degradation, maintaining good scaffold handling properties after 28 days in culture, seem best suited for creating ECM-polymer composite scaffolds.

  6. Overview of marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation is now an accepted form of therapy for many hematologic disorders including aplastic anemia, genetically determined diseases and malignant diseases, particularly leukemia, and for rescue of patients given intensive chemoradiotherapy for malignant disease. The donor may be a healthy identical twin, a family member or even an unrelated person. Selection is made on the basis of human leukocyte antigen tissue typing. Intensive chemoradiotherapy is used to suppress patients' immune systems to facilitate engraftment and destroy diseased marrow. Transfusion of platelets, erythrocytes and granulocytes (or all of these), antibiotic coverage and protection from infection are necessary during the pancytopenic period. Survival rates vary considerably depending on a patient's disease, clinical state and age. Patients with aplastic anemia transplanted early in the course of their disease have a survival rate of approximately 80%. Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are usually transplanted in a second or subsequent remission and have a survival rate of 25% to 40%. Patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia in remission have survivals ranging from 45% to 70%. More than 200 patients in the chronic phase of chronic granulocytic leukemia have been transplanted with survival ranging from 50% to 70%. Complications of marrow transplantation include marrow graft rejection, graft-versus-host disease, immunologic insufficiency and the possibility of recurrence of the leukemia. 14 references

  7. The effect of hemiplegia on bone mass and soft tissue body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iversen, E.; Hassager, C.; Christiansen, C.

    1989-01-01

    The content of bone mineral (BMC), lean tissue, and fat tissue were measured by single and dual photon absorptiometry in both the paretic and the nonparetic limbs of 15 patients, hemiplegic due to cerebrovascular accident 23-38 weeks earlier. Compared with the non-paretic arm, the paretic arm had approximately 10% lower (P < 0.01) BMC. This difference was largest at the measuring site with the highest ratio of trabecular to compact bone. The paretic leg had a 4% (P < 0.001) lower BMC than the non-paretic leg. For both the arms and the legs, the lean content was lower (P < 0.05) and the fat content higher (P < 0.01) in the paretic than in the non-paretic. This was relatively more pronounced in the arms than in the legs. We conclude that partial immobilization, owing to parasis after a cerebrovascular accident, results in characteristic changes in the affected limbs, with a marked decrease in the content of bone and lean tissue and a pronounced increase in fatty tissue. (author)

  8. Composition, Architecture, and Functional Implications of the Connective Tissue Network of the Extraocular Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoon, Linda K.; Vicente, André; Fitzpatrick, Krysta R.; Lindström, Mona

    2018-01-01

    Purpose We examined the pattern and extent of connective tissue distribution in the extraocular muscles (EOMs) and determined the ability of the interconnected connective tissues to disseminate force laterally. Methods Human EOMs were examined for collagens I, III, IV, and VI; fibronectin; laminin; and elastin using immunohistochemistry. Connective tissue distribution was examined with scanning electron microscopy. Rabbit EOMs were examined for levels of force transmission longitudinally and transversely using in vitro force assessment. Results Collagens I, III, and VI localized to the endomysium, perimysium, and epimysium. Collagen IV, fibronectin, and laminin localized to the basal lamina surrounding all myofibers. All collagens localized similarly in the orbital and global layers throughout the muscle length. Elastin had the most irregular pattern and ran longitudinally and circumferentially throughout the length of all EOMs. Scanning electron microscopy showed these elements to be extensively interconnected, from endomysium through the perimysium to the epimysium surrounding the whole muscle. In vitro physiology demonstrated force generation in the lateral dimension, presumably through myofascial transmission, which was always proportional to the force generated in the longitudinally oriented muscles. Conclusions A striking connective tissue matrix interconnects all the myofibers and extends, via perimysial connections, to the epimysium. These interconnections are significant and allow measurable force transmission laterally as well as longitudinally, suggesting that they may contribute to the nonlinear force summation seen in motor unit recording studies. This provides strong evidence that separate compartmental movements are unlikely as no region is independent of the rest of the muscle. PMID:29346490

  9. Multi-tissue omics analyses reveal molecular regulatory networks for puberty in composite beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e., hypothal...

  10. Self-assembled composite matrix in a hierarchical 3-D scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Muwan; Le, Dang Quang Svend; Baatrup, Anette

    2011-01-01

    It is of high clinical relevance in bone tissue engineering that scaffolds promote a high seeding efficiency of cells capable of osteogenic differentiation, such as human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We evaluated the effects of a novel polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold on h...

  11. Laser-assisted cold-sprayed hydroxyapatite/titanium composites: evaluation for tissues engineering applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research work seeks to establish titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V), in the field of tissue engineering, as material of interest for bone replacement with a particular focus on hip implants replacement. The aim of this study was to produce a surface...

  12. Improving Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Vascularized Composite Tissue Allotransplantation Via Histone Deacetylase Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    animal colony maintenance, tissue fixation and staining – 1 month Scott Levin – consultative support and VCA surgical advisory capacity – 0 months Seth...paraffin embedded for histopathology. • Histopathology was scored in a blinded fashion on an accepted scale for amount of muscle necrosis2, 3

  13. Laminated electrospun nHA/PHB-composite scaffolds mimicking bone extracellular matrix for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuoyue; Song, Yue; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Wei; Cui, Jihong; Li, Hongmin; Chen, Fulin

    2017-03-01

    Electrospinning is an effective means to generate nano- to micro-scale polymer fibers resembling native extracellular matrix for tissue engineering. However, a major problem of electrospun materials is that limited pore size and porosity may prevent adequate cellular infiltration and tissue ingrowth. In this study, we first prepared thin layers of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA)/poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) via electrospinning. We then laminated the nHA/PHB thin layers to obtain a scaffold for cell seeding and bone tissue engineering. The results demonstrated that the laminated scaffold possessed optimized cell-loading capacity. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibited better adherence, proliferation and osteogenic phenotypes on nHA/PHB scaffolds than on PHB scaffolds. Thereafter, we seeded MSCs onto nHA/PHB scaffolds to fabricate bone grafts. Histological observation showed osteoid tissue formation throughout the scaffold, with most of the scaffold absorbed in the specimens 2months after implantation, and blood vessels ingrowth into the graft could be observed in the graft. We concluded that electrospun and laminated nanoscaled biocomposite scaffolds hold great therapeutic potential for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Photoactivated Composite Biomaterial for Soft Tissue Restoration in Rodents and in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, Zayna; Reid, Branden; Coburn, Jeannine M.; Axelman, Joyce; Chae, Jemin J.; Guo, Qiongyu; Trow, Robert; Thomas, Andrew; Hou, Zhipeng; Lichtsteiner, Serge; Sutton, Damon; Matheson, Christine; Walker, Patricia; David, Nathaniel; Mori, Susumu; Taube, Janis M.; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue reconstruction often requires multiple surgical procedures that can result in scars and disfiguration. Facial soft tissue reconstruction represents a clinical challenge because even subtle deformities can severely affect an individual’s social and psychological function. We therefore developed a biosynthetic soft tissue replacement composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hyaluronic acid (HA) that can be injected and photocrosslinked in situ with transdermal light exposure. Modulating the ratio of synthetic to biological polymer allowed us to tune implant elasticity and volume persistence. In a small-animal model, implanted photocrosslinked PEG-HA showed a dose-dependent relationship between increasing PEG concentration and enhanced implant volume persistence. In direct comparison with commercial HA injections, the PEG-HA implants maintained significantly greater average volumes and heights. Reversibility of the implant volume was achieved with hyaluronidase injection. Pilot clinical testing in human patients confirmed the feasibility of the transdermal photocrosslinking approach for implantation in abdomen soft tissue, although an inflammatory response was observed surrounding some of the materials. PMID:21795587

  15. Influence of the chemical composition of human tissues on dose distributions in hadron-therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batin, E.

    2008-06-01

    To compute the dose distribution, treatment planning systems require the exact anatomical location of tissues provided by computed tomography (CT) and the exact range of hadron beams in tissues based on the water equivalent ratio (WER). Since CT numbers are determined with x-rays and with an energy different from that used in hadron-therapy, a relation between CT numbers and the WER must to be established. We propose a determination of the WER with a Monte-Carlo simulation (GEANT4). We have determined the WER for 76 human tissues for a 135 MeV proton beam and for a 290 MeV/A carbon beam. The difference between the stoichiometric calibration and the simulated WER is lower than 1%. An additional 2% uncertainty that arises from the uncertainty in the CT numbers measurement should also be considered. The calculated WER were used to convert the deposited energy curve into the human tissue deposited energy curve for a 135 MeV proton beam and for a 290 MeV/A carbon beam. For both beams, the difference between the rescaled Bragg peak location and the one from the simulated curve is lower than 0.5 mm over the whole range of CT numbers. The differences between the maximum deposited energy can reach 3% for the proton beam in bones and vary between 1.5% and 3.5% for all tissues for the carbon beam. The scaling in two dimensions can be improved by using an additional factor that takes the scattering into account. (author)

  16. Alterations in the Immune Cell Composition in Premalignant Breast Tissue that Precede Breast Cancer Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnim, Amy C; Hoskin, Tanya L; Arshad, Muhammad; Frost, Marlene H; Winham, Stacey J; Brahmbhatt, Rushin A; Pena, Alvaro; Carter, Jodi M; Stallings-Mann, Melody L; Murphy, Linda M; Miller, Erin E; Denison, Lori A; Vachon, Celine M; Knutson, Keith L; Radisky, Derek C; Visscher, Daniel W

    2017-07-15

    Purpose: Little is known about the role of the immune system in the earliest stages of breast carcinogenesis. We studied quantitative differences in immune cell types between breast tissues from normal donors and those from women with benign breast disease (BBD). Experimental Design: A breast tissue matched case-control study was created from donors to the Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank (KTB) and from women diagnosed with BBD at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) who either subsequently developed cancer (BBD cases) or remained cancer-free (BBD controls). Serial tissue sections underwent immunostaining and digital quantification of cell number per mm 2 for CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, CD20 + B cells, and CD68 + macrophages and quantification of positive pixel measure for CD11c (dendritic cells). Results: In 94 age-matched triplets, BBD lobules showed greater densities of CD8 + T cells, CD11c + dendritic cells, CD20 + B cells, and CD68 + macrophages compared with KTB normals. Relative to BBD controls, BBD cases had lower CD20 + cell density ( P = 0.04). Nearly 42% of BBD cases had no CD20 + B cells in evaluated lobules compared with 28% of BBD controls ( P = 0.02). The absence of CD20 + cells versus the presence in all lobules showed an adjusted OR of 5.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-23.1) for subsequent breast cancer risk. Conclusions: Elevated infiltration of both innate and adaptive immune effectors in BBD tissues suggests an immunogenic microenvironment. The reduced B-cell infiltration in women with later breast cancer suggests a role for B cells in preventing disease progression and as a possible biomarker for breast cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res; 23(14); 3945-52. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Carinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H; Shirakusa, T

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current techniques of management of carinal lesions are not always satisfactory. Carinal transplantation, if feasible, would be valuable in certain circumstances. METHODS AND RESULTS: Carinal transplantation experiments were performed in dogs. In early cross transplant experiments there were problems in controlling ventilation and in obtaining satisfactory anastomoses, and the animals failed to live for even a few days. In seven subsequent experiments the carinal graft was removed from one dog and transplanted into a second dog. Two dogs lived for over four months with immunosuppression. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that carinal transplantation can succeed if (1) the calibre of the graft is matched with that of the recipient; (2) there is an abundant blood supply to the graft; (3) appropriate immunosuppression is provided; (4) ventilation is adequate during surgery. Images PMID:1465758

  18. MSC in clinics: Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    DETRY, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    For several years, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been evaluated in vivo and in vitro for their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti- ischemia-reperfusion injury and “tissue repair” properties. These characteristics could make them interesting in various clinical applications, and particularly in organ transplantation. Taking advantage of our centre expertise and experience concerning MSC use in graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantation and using already functioning ...

  19. Tissue and Organ 3D Bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zengmin; Jin, Sha; Ye, Kaiming

    2018-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting enables the creation of tissue constructs with heterogeneous compositions and complex architectures. It was initially used for preparing scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. It has recently been adopted to create living tissues, such as cartilage, skin, and heart valve. To facilitate vascularization, hollow channels have been created in the hydrogels by 3D bioprinting. This review discusses the state of the art of the technology, along with a broad range of biomaterials used for 3D bioprinting. It provides an update on recent developments in bioprinting and its applications. 3D bioprinting has profound impacts on biomedical research and industry. It offers a new way to industrialize tissue biofabrication. It has great potential for regenerating tissues and organs to overcome the shortage of organ transplantation.

  20. Effect of Linseed Oil Dietary Supplementation on Fatty Acid Composition and Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue of Growing Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ebrahimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding oil palm frond silage based diets with added linseed oil (LO containing high α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, namely, high LO (HLO, low LO (LLO, and without LO as the control group (CON on the fatty acid (FA composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα, PPAR-γ, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD in Boer goats. The proportion of C18:3n-3 in subcutaneous adipose tissue was increased (P<0.01 by increasing the LO in the diet, suggesting that the FA from HLO might have escaped ruminal biohydrogenation. Animals fed HLO diets had lower proportions of C18:1 trans-11, C18:2n-6, CLA cis-9 trans-11, and C20:4n-6 and higher proportions of C18:3n-3, C22:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 in the subcutaneous adipose tissue than animals fed the CON diets, resulting in a decreased n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio (FAR in the tissue. In addition, feeding the HLO diet upregulated the expression of PPAR-γ (P<0.05 but downregulated the expression of SCD (P<0.05 in the adipose tissue. The results of the present study show that LO can be safely incorporated in the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with potential health beneficial FA (i.e., n-3 FA.

  1. In vitro-ex vivo correlations between a cell-laden hydrogel and mucosal tissue for screening composite delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakney, Anna K; Little, Adam B; Jiang, Yonghou; Woodrow, Kim A

    2016-11-01

    Composite delivery systems where drugs are electrospun in different layers and vary the drug stacking-order are posited to affect bioavailability. We evaluated how the formulation characteristics of both burst- and sustained-release electrospun fibers containing three physicochemically diverse drugs: dapivirine (DPV), maraviroc (MVC) and tenofovir (TFV) affect in vitro and ex vivo release. We developed a poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) hydrogel release platform for the rapid, inexpensive in vitro evaluation of burst- and sustained-release topical or dermal drug delivery systems with varying microarchitecture. We investigated properties of the hydrogel that could recapitulate ex vivo release into nonhuman primate vaginal tissue. Using a dimethyl sulfoxide extraction protocol and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, we achieved >93% recovery from the hydrogels and >88% recovery from tissue explants for all three drugs. We found that DPV loading, but not stacking order (layers of fiber containing a single drug) or microarchitecture (layers with isolated drug compared to all drugs in the same layer) impacted the burst release in vitro and ex vivo. Our burst-release formulations showed a correlation for DPV accumulation between the hydrogel and tissue (R 2 =   0.80), but the correlation was not significant for MVC or TFV. For the sustained-release formulations, the PLGA/PCL content did not affect TFV release in vitro or ex vivo. Incorporation of cells into the hydrogel matrix improved the correlation between hydrogel and tissue explant release for TFV. We expect that this hydrogel-tissue mimic may be a promising preclinical model to evaluate topical or transdermal drug delivery systems with complex microarchitectures.

  2. Greener synthesis of electrospun collagen/hydroxyapatite composite fibers with an excellent microstructure for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou YY

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yuanyuan Zhou,1,2 Hongchang Yao,1 Jianshe Wang,1 Dalu Wang,1 Qian Liu,1 Zhongjun Li11College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Institute of Enviromental and Municipal Engineering, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In bone tissue engineering, collagen/hydroxyapatite (HAP fibrous composite obtained via electrospinning method has been demonstrated to support the cells’ adhesion and bone regeneration. However, electrospinning of natural collagen often requires the use of cytotoxic organic solvents, and the HAP crystals were usually aggregated and randomly distributed within a fibrous matrix of collagen, limiting their clinical potential. Here, an effective and greener method for the preparation of collagen/HAP composite fibers was developed for the first time, and this green product not only had 40 times higher mechanical properties than that previously reported, but also had an excellent microstructure similar to that of natural bone. By dissolving type I collagen in environmentally friendly phosphate buffered saline/ethanol solution instead of the frequently-used cytotoxic organic solvents, followed with the key step of desalination, co-electrospinning the collagen solution with the HAP sol, generates a collagen/HAP composite with a uniform and continuous fibrous morphology. Interestingly, the nano-HAP needles were found to preferentially orient along the longitudinal direction of the collagen fibers, which mimicked the nanostructure of natural bones. Based on the characterization of the related products, the formation mechanism for this novel phenomenon was proposed. After cross-linking with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl-1-carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide, the obtained composite exhibited a significant enhancement in mechanical properties. In addition, the biocompatibility of the

  3. Fabrication of Nanohydroxyapatite/Poly(caprolactone Composite Microfibers Using Electrospinning Technique for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Izzat Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering fibrous scaffolds serve as three-dimensional (3D environmental framework by mimicking the extracellular matrix (ECM for cells to grow. Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL microfibers were fabricated to mimic the ECM as a scaffold with 7.5% (w/v and 12.5% (w/v concentrations. Lower PCL concentration of 7.5% (w/v resulted in microfibers with bead defects. The average diameter of fibers increased at higher voltage and the distance of tip to collector. Further investigation was performed by the incorporation of nanosized hydroxyapatite (nHA into microfibers. The incorporation of 10% (w/w nHA with 7.5% (w/v PCL solution produced submicron sized beadless fibers. The microfibrous scaffolds were evaluated using various techniques. Biodegradable PCL and nHA/PCL could be promising for tissue engineering scaffold application.

  4. Characterising human atherosclerotic carotid plaque tissue composition and morphology using combined spectroscopic and imaging modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Hilary E; Mulvihill, John J; Cunnane, Eoghan M; Walsh, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Calcification is a marked pathological component in carotid artery plaque. Studies have suggested that calcification may induce regions of high stress concentrations therefore increasing the potential for rupture. However, the mechanical behaviour of the plaque under the influence of calcification is not fully understood. A method of accurately characterising the calcification coupled with the associated mechanical plaque properties is needed to better understand the impact of calcification on the mechanical behaviour of the plaque during minimally invasive treatments. This study proposes a comparison of biochemical and structural characterisation methods of the calcification in carotid plaque specimens to identify plaque mechanical behaviour. Biochemical analysis, by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, was used to identify the key components, including calcification, in each plaque sample. However, FTIR has a finite penetration depth which may limit the accuracy of the calcification measurement. Therefore, this FTIR analysis was coupled with the identification of the calcification inclusions located internally in the plaque specimen using micro x-ray computed tomography (μX-CT) which measures the calcification volume fraction (CVF) to total tissue content. The tissue characterisation processes were then applied to the mechanical material plaque properties acquired from experimental circumferential loading of human carotid plaque specimen for comparison of the methods. FTIR characterised the degree of plaque progression by identifying the functional groups associated with lipid, collagen and calcification in each specimen. This identified a negative relationship between stiffness and 'lipid to collagen' and 'calcification to collagen' ratios. However, μX-CT results suggest that CVF measurements relate to overall mechanical stiffness, while peak circumferential strength values may be dependent on specific calcification geometries. This study

  5. Antibacterial glass and glass-biodegradable matrix composites for bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, João Pedro Silva

    2017-01-01

    Multiple joint and bone diseases affect millions of people worldwide. In fact the Bone and Joint Decade’s association predicted that the percentage of people over 50 years of age affected by bone diseases will double by 2020. Bone diseases commonly require the need for surgical intervention, often involving partial or total bone substitution. Therefore biodegradable biomaterials designed as bone tissue engineered (BTE) devices to be implanted into the human body, function as a ...

  6. Association between increased epicardial adipose tissue volume and coronary plaque composition

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Kennosuke; Yamamoto, Myong Hwa; Ebara, Seitarou; Okabe, Toshitaka; Saito, Shigeo; Hoshimoto, Koichi; Yakushiji, Tadayuki; Isomura, Naoei; Araki, Hiroshi; Obara, Chiaki; Ochiai, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) and plaque vulnerability in significant coronary stenosis using a 40-MHz intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging system (iMap-IVUS), we analyzed 130 consecutive patients with coronary stenosis who underwent dual-source computed tomography (CT) and cardiac catheterization. Culprit lesions were imaged by iMap-IVUS before stenting. The iMAP-IVUS system classified coronary plaque components as fibrous, lipid, necrotic, or ...

  7. The Study on Biocompatibility of Porous nHA/PLGA Composite Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering with Rabbit Chondrocytes In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the biocompatibility of a novel nanohydroxyapatite/poly[lactic-co-glycolic acid] (nHA/PLGA composite and evaluate its feasibility as a scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. Methods. Chondrocytes of fetal rabbit were cultured with nHA/PLGA scaffold in vitro and the cell viability was assessed by MTT assay first. Cells adhering to nHA/PLGA scaffold were then observed by inverted microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The cell cycle profile was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results. The viability of the chondrocytes on the scaffold was not affected by nHA/PLGA comparing with the control group as it was shown by MTT assay. Cells on the surface and in the pores of the scaffold increased in a time-dependent manner. Results obtained from flow cytometry showed that there was no significant difference in cell cycle profiles between the coculture group and control (P>0.05. Conclusion. The porous nHA/PLGA composite scaffold is a biocompatible and good kind of scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

  8. Injectable alginate-O-carboxymethyl chitosan/nano fibrin composite hydrogels for adipose tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikumar, Dhanya; Sajesh, K M; Soumya, S; Nimal, T R; Chennazhi, K P; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2015-03-01

    Injectable, biodegradable scaffolds are required for soft tissue reconstruction owing to its minimally invasive approach. Such a scaffold can mimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM), provide uniform distribution of cells and overcome limitations like donor site morbidity, volume loss, etc. So, here we report two classes of biocompatible and biodegradable hydrogel blend systems namely, Alginate/O-carboxymethyl chitosan (O-CMC) and Alginate/poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with the inclusion of fibrin nanoparticles in each. The hydrogels were prepared by ionic cross-linking method. The developed hydrogels were compared in terms of its swelling ratio, degradation profile, compressive strength and elastic moduli. From these preliminary findings, it was concluded that Alginate/O-CMC formed a better blend for tissue engineering applications. The potential of the formed hydrogel as an injectable scaffold was revealed by the survival of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the scaffold by its adhesion, proliferation and differentiation into adipocytes. Cell differentiation studies of fibrin incorporated hydrogel scaffolds showed better differentiation was confirmed by Oil Red O staining technique. These injectable gels have potential in soft tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. O anencéfalo como doador de órgãos e tecidos para transplante: possibilidades legais, morais e práticas Anencephalic babies as donors of organs and tissue for transplants: legal, moral and practical possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robledo Fonseca Rocha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os êxitos recentes dos transplantes terapêuticos fizeram com que o anencéfalo fosse cogitado como possível fonte de órgãos para o atendimento de neonatos. Os primeiros relatos científicos de sua execução bem sucedida estimularam discussões para averiguar as possibilidades morais de sua concessão. Os resultados dessas discussões produziram dificuldades práticas quase impeditivas para a conversão do neonato anencéfalo de potencial para real doador de órgãos. A doação de células-tronco e medula óssea por portadores de anencefalia, surpreendentemente, não foi ainda granjeada.The recent success of therapeutic transplants has led to anencephalic babies being considered as a possible source of organs for newborns. The first scientific reports of successful attempts to do this have sparked debate as to the moral issues involved. The results of these discussions have produced practical difficulties that make it almost impossible to convert na anencephalic neonate into a real organ donor. The donation of stem-cells and boné marrow by anencephalic babies has surprisingly still not been investigated.

  10. Effect of chemical composition on corneal tissue response to photopolymerized materials comprising 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and acrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jui-Yang, E-mail: jylai@mail.cgu.edu.tw

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between the feed composition of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)/acrylic acid (AAc) and hydrogel material compatibility towards ocular anterior segment tissues, particularly the corneal endothelium. The monomer solutions of HEMA and AAc were mixed at varying volume ratios of 92:0, 87:5, 82:10, 77:15, and 72:20, and were subjected to UV irradiation. Then, the 7-mm-diameter membrane implants made from photopolymerized materials were placed into the ocular anterior chamber for 4 days and assessed by biomicroscopic examinations, corneal thickness measurements, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses. The poly(HEMA-co-AAc) implants prepared from the solution mixture containing 0–10 vol.% AAc displayed good biocompatibility. However, with increasing volume ratio of AAc and HEMA from 15:77 to 20:72, the enhanced inflammatory response, decreased endothelial cell density, and increased ocular score and corneal thickness were observed, probably due to the influence of surface charge of copolymer membranes. On the other hand, the ionic pump function of corneal endothelium exposed to photopolymerized membranes was examined by analyzing the Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase alpha 1 subunit (ATP1A1) expression level. The presence of the implants having higher amount of AAc incorporated in the copolymers (i.e., 15.1 to 24.7 μmol) and zeta potential (i.e., -38.6 to − 56.5 mV) may lead to abnormal transmembrane transport. It is concluded that the chemical composition of HEMA/AAc has an important influence on the corneal tissue responses to polymeric biomaterials. - Highlights: • We examine the corneal tissue responses to photopolymerized biomaterials. • Carboxyl groups in copolymers increased with increasing volume ratio of AAc/HEMA. • 15–20 vol.% AAc raised ocular score and caused corneal endothelial loss and edema. • High anionic charge density stimulated inflammation

  11. Fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids of muscular tissue and brain of rats under the impact of vibration

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    N. M. Kostyshyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are important structural components of biological membranes, energy substrate of cells involved in fixing phospholipid bilayer proteins, and acting as regulators and modulators of enzymatic activity. Under the impact of vibration oscillations there can occur shifts in the ratio of different groups of fatty acids, and degrees of their saturation may change. The imbalance between saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which occurs later in the cell wall, disrupts fluidity and viscosity of lipid phase and causes abnormal cellular metabolism. Aim. In order to study the impact of vibration on the level of fatty acids of total lipids in muscular tissue and fatty acid composition of phospholipids in muscles and brain, experimental animals have been exposed to vertical vibration oscillations with different frequency for 28 days. Methods and results. Tissues fragments of hip quadriceps and brain of rats were used for obtaining methyl esters of fatty acids studied by the method of gas-liquid chromatography. It was found that the lipid content, ratio of its separate factions and fatty acid composition in muscular tissue and brain of animals with the action of vibration considerably varies. With the increase of vibration acceleration tendency to increase in absolute quantity of total lipids fatty acids can be observed at the account of increased level of saturated and monounsaturated ones. These processes are caused by activation of self-defense mechanisms of the body under the conditions of deviations from stabilized physiological norm, since adaptation requires certain structural and energy costs. Increase in the relative quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids of muscles and brain and simultaneous reduction in concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids are observed. Conclusion. These changes indicate worsening of structural and functional organization of muscles and brain cell membranes of

  12. Fabrication and characterization of PCL/gelatin composite nanofibrous scaffold for tissue engineering applications by electrospinning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Sneh; Dinda, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Narayan Chandra

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, composite nanofibrous tissue engineering-scaffold consisting of polycaprolactone and gelatin, was fabricated by electrospinning method, using a new cost-effective solvent mixture: chloroform/methanol for polycaprolactone (PCL) and acetic acid for gelatin. The morphology of the nanofibrous scaffold was investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) which clearly indicates that the morphology of nanofibers was influenced by the weight ratio of PCL to gelatin in the solution. Uniform fibers were produced only when the weight ratio of PCL/gelatin is sufficiently high (10:1). The scaffold was further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). FT-IR and TG analysis indicated some interactions between PCL and gelatin molecules within the scaffold, while XRD results demonstrated crystalline nature of PCL/gelatin composite scaffold. Cytotoxicity effect of scaffold on L929 mouse fibroblast cells was evaluated by MTT assay and cell proliferation on the scaffold was confirmed by DNA quantification. Positive results of MTT assay and DNA quantification L929 mouse fibroblast cells indicated that the scaffold made from the combination of natural polymer (gelatin) and synthetic polymer (PCL) may serve as a good candidate for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: ► PCL/Gelatin scaffold was successfully fabricated by electrospinning method. ► PCL in CHCl 3 /CH 3 OH and gelatin in acetic acid: a novel polymer-solvent system. ► The morphology of nanofibers was influenced by the weight ratio of PCL/gelatin. ► Chemical interactions between PCL and gelatin molecules enhanced cell growth. ► Cell culture studies indicate the suitability of scaffold for tissue regeneration

  13. Determination of composition and structure of spongy bone tissue in human head of femur by Raman spectral mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozielski, M; Buchwald, T; Szybowicz, M; Błaszczak, Z; Piotrowski, A; Ciesielczyk, B

    2011-07-01

    Biomechanical properties of bone depend on the composition and organization of collagen fibers. In this study, Raman microspectroscopy was employed to determine the content of mineral and organic constituents and orientation of collagen fibers in spongy bone in the human head of femur at the microstructural level. Changes in composition and structure of trabecula were illustrated using Raman spectral mapping. The polarized Raman spectra permit separate analysis of local variations in orientation and composition. The ratios of ν₂PO₄³⁻/Amide III, ν₄PO₄³⁻/Amide III and ν₁CO₃²⁻/ν₂PO₄³⁻ are used to describe relative amounts of spongy bone components. The ν₁PO₄³⁻/Amide I ratio is quite susceptible to orientation effect and brings information on collagen fibers orientation. The results presented illustrate the versatility of the Raman method in the study of bone tissue. The study permits better understanding of bone physiology and evaluation of the biomechanical properties of bone.

  14. Using of Synchrotron radiation for study of multielement composition of the small mammals diet and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezel, V S [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Marta str., 202, 620144, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Koutzenogii, K P [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya str., 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Mukhacheva, S V [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Marta str., 202, 620144, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Chankina, O V [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya str., 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Savchenko, T I [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya str., 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-21

    The Synchrotron radiation X-ray Fluorescence analysis (SRXRF) was used for estimation of 'geochemical selection' of elements by small mammals, which belong to different trophic groups and inhabit polluted and background areas (the Middle Ural). The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Cd, Pb in the diet and into hepar of a herbivorous (bank vole) and carnivorous (Laxmann's shrew) small mammals were compared. Herbivores play a particular role in chemical elements translocation between trophic levels, limiting element transition to consumers of the consequent levels. Whereas, insectivores concentrate most elements in their tissues under the same conditions.

  15. Ecocardiografia por Doppler tecidual no diagnóstico de rejeição após transplante cardíaco Ecocardiografía con Doppler tisular en el diagnóstico de rechazo después de transplante cardíaco Tissue doppler echocardiography in the diagnosis of heart transplantation rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Valério Coimbra Resende

    2011-07-01

    ,3%, especificidad de 73,8% (p = 0,001. En el análisis multivariado, la a'LAT (p = 0,001, a'SEP (p = 0,002, relación e'/a' LAT (p = 0,006, relación e'Mitral/e'LAT (p = 0,014, SINF (p = 0,009 fueron predictores de RC > 3A. Obtuvimos un escore con sensibilidad de 88,2%, precisión de 79,6%, y valor predictivo negativo de 92.9% para diagnosticar RC > 3A . El Doppler convencional (flujo mitral y pulmonar venoso no fue relevante para predecir la RC > 3A. CONCLUSIÓN: El estudio de IDT agregó información diagnóstica para predecir RC > 3A cuando fue comparado al Doppler convencional. El modelo basado en IDT puede volverse un método en potencial para detectar RC > 3A después de TC.BACKGROUND: Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of cellular rejection (CR after heart transplantation (HT. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that tissue Doppler imaging (TDI could detect CR > 3A and add diagnostic information compared to conventional Doppler. METHODS: Fifty-four HT patients underwent 129 EMB and a TDI echocardiographic study within 24 hours. We compared HT patients with CR > 3A versus HT patients with CR 3A in 39/129 (30.2% EMB. The best isolated predictor for CR diagnosis was a'LAT, with a sensitivity of 76.3%, specificity of 73.8% (p = 0.001. In the multivariate analysis, a'LAT (p = 0.001, a'SEP (p = 0.002, e'/a' LAT ratio (p = 0.006, e'Mitral/ e'LAT ratio (p = 0.014, SINF (p = 0.009 predicted CR > 3A. We obtained a score with a sensitivity of 88.2%, accuracy of 79.6% and negative predictive value of 92.9% to diagnose CR > 3A. Conventional Doppler (mitral and pulmonary venous flow was not relevant to predict CR > 3A. CONCLUSION: TDI added diagnostic information to predict CR > 3A compared to conventional Doppler. A TDI-based model could become a potential method to detect CR > 3A after Heart Transplantation.

  16. Alterações fisiológicas da morte encefálica em potenciais doadores de órgãos e tecidos para transplantes Los cambios fisiológicos de la muerte cerebral en potenciales donadores de órganos y tejidos para trasplante Physiological changes of brain death in potential donors of organs and tissues for transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gabriel Freire

    2012-12-01

    órnea (3,1%. Se cree que el conocimiento de estos cambios permite al equipo de atención de la salud dirigir sus acciones al potencial donador de acuerdo a sus necesidades y así mantener los órganos/tejidos viables para el trasplante.The objective was to describe the physiologic changes of brain death in potential donors of organs and tissues for transplantation. Exploratory descriptive study with prospective data and quantitative approach carried out in emergency and intensive care units hospital adult, in the period from April to October 2011. The population consisted of 32 potential donors of organs and tissues for transplantation. After approval of Ethics Committee, data were collected, tabulated and analyzed by descriptive statistics by SPSS 15.0 software and presented in tables. Physiological changes were: hypotension (100%, hypothermia (75%, hypernatremia (62,5%, diabetes insipidus (37,5%, hyperglycemia (32,3%, infection (25,0%, hypertension (9,4% and corneal ulcer (3,1%. It was found that knowledge of these changes allows the team of health care to direct the potential donors according to their needs and thus keep the organ/tissue viable for transplant.

  17. UV-B Radiation Impacts Shoot Tissue Pigment Composition in Allium fistulosum L. Cultigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin R. Abney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants from the Allium genus are valued worldwide for culinary flavor and medicinal attributes. In this study, 16 cultigens of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L. were grown in a glasshouse under filtered UV radiation (control or supplemental UV-B radiation [7.0 μmol·m−2·s−2 (2.68 W·m−2] to determine impacts on growth, physiological parameters, and nutritional quality. Supplemental UV-B radiation influenced shoot tissue carotenoid concentrations in some, but not all, of the bunching onions. Xanthophyll carotenoid pigments lutein and β-carotene and chlorophylls a and b in shoot tissues differed between UV-B radiation treatments and among cultigens. Cultigen “Pesoenyj” responded to supplemental UV-B radiation with increases in the ratio of zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin to zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin + violaxanthin, which may indicate a flux in the xanthophyll carotenoids towards deepoxydation, commonly found under high irradiance stress. Increases in carotenoid concentrations would be expected to increase crop nutritional values.

  18. SU-E-T-409: Evaluation of Tissue Composition Effect On Dose Distribution in Radiotherapy with 6 MV Photon Beam of a Medical Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbani, M; Tabatabaei, Z; Noghreiyan, A Vejdani [Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Meigooni, A Soleimani [Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate soft tissue composition effect on dose distribution for various soft tissues and various depths in radiotherapy with 6 MV photon beam of a medical linac. Methods: A phantom and Siemens Primus linear accelerator were simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. In a homogeneous cubic phantom, six types of soft tissue and three types of tissue-equivalent materials were defined separately. The soft tissues were muscle (skeletal), adipose tissue, blood (whole), breast tissue, soft tissue (9-component) and soft tissue (4-component). The tissue-equivalent materials included: water, A-150 tissue-equivalent plastic and perspex. Photon dose relative to dose in 9-component soft tissue at various depths on the beam’s central axis was determined for the 6 MV photon beam. The relative dose was also calculated and compared for various MCNPX tallies including,F8, F6 and,F4. Results: The results of the relative photon dose in various materials relative to dose in 9-component soft tissue and using different tallies are reported in the form of tabulated data. Minor differences between dose distributions in various soft tissues and tissue-equivalent materials were observed. The results from F6 and F4 were practically the same but different with,F8 tally. Conclusion: Based on the calculations performed, the differences in dose distributions in various soft tissues and tissue-equivalent materials are minor but they could be corrected in radiotherapy calculations to upgrade the accuracy of the dosimetric calculations.

  19. Adiposity, lipogenesis, and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues of Brahman and Angus crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, E M G; Sanders, J O; Lunt, D K; Gill, C A; Taylor, J F; Davis, S K; Riley, D G; Smith, S B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate differences in aspects of adipose tissue cellularity, lipid metabolism, and fatty and cholesterol composition in Angus and Brahman crossbred cattle. We hypothesized that in vitro measures of lipogenesis would be greater in three-fourths Angus progeny than in three-fourths Brahman progeny, especially in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissue. Progeny ( = 227) were fed a standard, corn-based diet for approximately 150 d before slaughter. Breed was considered to be the effect of interest and was forced into the model. There were 9 breed groups including all 4 kinds of three-fourths Angus calves: Angus bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 32), Angus bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 20), Brahman-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 24), and Angus-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 20). There were all 4 kinds of three-fourths Brahman calves: Brahman bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 21), Brahman bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 43), Brahman-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 26), and Angus-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 13). Additionally, F calves (one-half Brahman and one-half Angus) were produced only from Brahman-sired F bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 28). Contrasts were calculated when breed was an important fixed effect, using the random effect family(breed) as the error term. Most contrasts were nonsignificant ( > 0.10). Those that were significant ( Angus > F, three-fourths Brahman > F, and three-fourths crossbred progeny combined > F), s.c. adipocyte volume (three-fourths Angus > F and three-fourths bloods combined > F), lipogenesis from acetate in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman dams > three-fourths Brahman calves from F dams), and percentage 18:3-3 in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman-sired F dams Angus-sired F dams). Intramuscular adipocyte volume ( Angus cattle. Additionally, several differences were observed in i.m. adipose tissue that were consistent with this being a less-developed adipose

  20. Evaluation of Synthesized Nanohydroxyapatite-Nanocellulose Composites as Biocompatible Scaffolds for Applications in Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia S. Herdocia-Lluberes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic calcium phosphate (BCP crystals have been associated with many diseases due to their activation of signaling pathways that lead to their mineralization and deposition in intra-articular and periarticular locations in the bones. In this study, hydroxyapatite (HAp has been placed in a polysaccharide network as a strategy to minimize this deposition. This research consisted of the evaluation of varying proportions of the polysaccharide network, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs, and HAp synthesized via a simple sol-gel method. The resulting biocompatible composites were extensively characterized by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, dynamic light scattering (DLS, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that an nHAp = CNC ratio presented greater homogeneity in the size and distribution of the nanoparticles without compromising the crystalline structure. Also, incorporation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 was performed to evaluate the effects that this interaction would have in the constructs. Finally, the osteoblast cell (hFOB 1.19 viability assay was executed and it showed that all of the materials promoted greater cell proliferation while the nHAp > CNC proportion with the inclusion of the BMP-2 protein was the best composite for the purpose of this study.

  1. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that links the kidney to the bladder — is connected to your bladder. After the procedure After your ... three to eight weeks after transplant. No lifting objects weighing more than 10 pounds or exercise other ...

  2. Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  3. Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the primary problems with hepatitis C patients was universal recurrence of the virus after transplantation. However, with ... Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now ...

  4. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants Before (left) and after (right) - top ...

  5. Transplant rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antibodies References Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S. Transplantation immunology. In: Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S, eds. Cellular and Molecular Immunology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 17. ...

  6. Pancreas Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pancreas is a gland behind your stomach and in front of your spine. It produces the juices that ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. A pancreas transplant is surgery to place a healthy pancreas ...

  7. Infectious bursal disease virus infection leads to changes in the gut associated-lymphoid tissue and the microbiota composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Kubasová, Tereza; Rychlik, Ivan; Hoerr, Frederic J; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2018-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive poultry disease. IBD virus (IBDV) is the causative agent, which may lead to high morbidity and mortality rates in susceptible birds. IBDV-pathogenesis studies have focused mainly on primary lymphoid organs. It is not known if IBDV infection may modify the development of the gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) as well as the microbiota composition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of IBDV-infection on the bursa of Fabricius (BF), caecal tonsils (CT) and caecum, and to determine the effects on the gut microbiota composition in the caecum. Commercial broiler chickens were inoculated with a very virulent (vv) strain of IBDV at 14 (Experiment 2) or 15 (Experiment 1) days post hatch (dph). Virus replication, lesion development, immune parameters including numbers of T and B lymphocytes, macrophages, as well as the gut microbiota composition were compared between groups. Rapid IBDV-replication was detected in the BF, CT and caecum. It was accompanied by histological lesions including an infiltration of heterophils. In addition a significant reduction in the total mucosal thickness of the caecum was observed in vvIBDV-infected birds compared to virus-free controls (P < 0.05). vvIBDV infection also led to an increase in T lymphocyte numbers and macrophages, as well as a decrease in the number of B lymphocytes in the lamina propria of the caecum, and in the caecal tonsils. Illumina sequencing analysis indicated that vvIBDV infection also induced changes in the abundance of Clostridium XIVa and Faecalibacterium over time. Overall, our results suggested that vvIBDV infection had a significant impact on the GALT and led to a modulation of gut microbiota composition, which may lead to a higher susceptibility of affected birds for pathogens invading through the gut.

  8. Infectious bursal disease virus infection leads to changes in the gut associated-lymphoid tissue and the microbiota composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease (IBD is an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive poultry disease. IBD virus (IBDV is the causative agent, which may lead to high morbidity and mortality rates in susceptible birds. IBDV-pathogenesis studies have focused mainly on primary lymphoid organs. It is not known if IBDV infection may modify the development of the gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT as well as the microbiota composition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of IBDV-infection on the bursa of Fabricius (BF, caecal tonsils (CT and caecum, and to determine the effects on the gut microbiota composition in the caecum. Commercial broiler chickens were inoculated with a very virulent (vv strain of IBDV at 14 (Experiment 2 or 15 (Experiment 1 days post hatch (dph. Virus replication, lesion development, immune parameters including numbers of T and B lymphocytes, macrophages, as well as the gut microbiota composition were compared between groups. Rapid IBDV-replication was detected in the BF, CT and caecum. It was accompanied by histological lesions including an infiltration of heterophils. In addition a significant reduction in the total mucosal thickness of the caecum was observed in vvIBDV-infected birds compared to virus-free controls (P < 0.05. vvIBDV infection also led to an increase in T lymphocyte numbers and macrophages, as well as a decrease in the number of B lymphocytes in the lamina propria of the caecum, and in the caecal tonsils. Illumina sequencing analysis indicated that vvIBDV infection also induced changes in the abundance of Clostridium XIVa and Faecalibacterium over time. Overall, our results suggested that vvIBDV infection had a significant impact on the GALT and led to a modulation of gut microbiota composition, which may lead to a higher susceptibility of affected birds for pathogens invading through the gut.

  9. Computer tomographic investigation of subcutaneous adipose tissue as an indicator of body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan; Madsen, Mads T.; Nielsen, Mai B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Modern computer tomography (CT) equipment can be used to acquire whole-body data from large animals such as pigs in minutes or less. In some circumstances, computer assisted analysis of the resulting image data can identify and measure anatomical features. The thickness of subcutaneous...... adipose tissue at a specific site measured by ultrasound, is used in the pig industry to assess adiposity and inform management decisions that have an impact on reproduction, food conversion performance and sow longevity. The measurement site, called "P2", is used throughout the industry. We propose...... and expressed as a proportion of total volume (fat-index). A computer algorithm was used to determined 10,201 subcutaneous adipose thickness measurements in each pig for each scan. From these data, sites were selected where correlation with fat-index was optimal. Results Image analysis correctly identified...

  10. Outsourcing neural active control to passive composite mechanics: a tissue engineered cyborg ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Park, Sung Jin; Park, Kyung Soo; Park, Shirley; di Santo, Valentina; Deisseroth, Karl; Lauder, George V.; Mahadevan, L.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-11-01

    Translating the blueprint that stingrays and skates provide, we create a cyborg swimming ray capable of orchestrating adaptive maneuvering and phototactic navigation. The impossibility of replicating the neural system of batoids fish is bypassed by outsourcing algorithmic functionalities to the body composite mechanics, hence casting the active control problem into a design, passive one. We present a first step in engineering multilevel "brain-body-flow" systems that couple sensory information to motor coordination and movement, leading to behavior. This work paves the way for the development of autonomous and adaptive artificial creatures able to process multiple sensory inputs and produce complex behaviors in distributed systems and may represent a path toward soft-robotic "embodied cognition".

  11. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity in Different Tissues of Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Ram Bhandari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate glucosinolate profiles, vitamin C, total phenol, total flavonoid, and free sugar (glucose, fructose, and sucrose content, fatty acid composition, and antioxidant activity in floret and leaf of six cauliflower and broccoli cultivars. The level of chemical constituents as well as antioxidants significantly varied among crop types, cultivars, and their different parts, in that phytochemicals such as glucosinolate were statistically higher in florets compared with leaves in both broccoli and cauliflower cultivars. In contrast, total flavonoid and free sugar were found at higher levels in the leaf parts. The Asia purple cultivar exhibited statistically higher vitamin C (649.7 mg·100 g−1, total phenol (1345.2 mg·GAE 100 g−1, and total flavonoid (632.7 mg·CE 100 g−1 contents and consequently had the highest antioxidant activity (1.12 mg·mL−1 in its florets, while Baeridom and Bridal had the highest total glucosinolate (9.66 µmol·g−1 and free sugar (318.6 mg·g−1 contents, respectively compared with other cultivars. Likewise, the major fatty acids were palmitic (23.52%–38.42%, linoleic (13.09%–18.97%, and linolenic (26.32%–51.80% acids, which comprised the highest compositional ratio (more than 50% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in most cultivars. Among the antioxidants, total phenol exhibited the most significant positive correlation (r = 0.698 ** with antioxidant activity, followed by vitamin C (r = 0.522 ** and total flavonoid (r = 0.494 **, indicating their significant contributions to total antioxidant activity.

  12. Labeling and in vivo visualization of transplanted adipose tissue-derived stem cells with safe cadmium-free aqueous ZnS coating of ZnS-AgInS2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Yusuke; Yukawa, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Tatsuya; Nishi, Hiroyasu; Onoshima, Daisuke; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Torimoto, Tsukasa; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    The facile synthesis of ZnS-AgInS2 (ZAIS) as cadmium-free QDs and their application, mainly in solar cells, has been reported by our groups. In the present study, we investigated the safety and the usefulness for labeling and in vivo imaging of a newly synthesized aqueous ZnS-coated ZAIS (ZnS-ZAIS) carboxylated nanoparticles (ZZC) to stem cells. ZZC shows the strong fluorescence in aqueous solutions such as PBS and cell culture medium, and a complex of ZZC and octa-arginine (R8) peptides (R8-ZZC) can achieve the highly efficient labeling of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs). The cytotoxicity of R8-ZZC to ASCs was found to be extremely low in comparison to that of CdSe-based QDs, and R8-ZZC was confirmed to have no influence on the proliferation rate or the differentiation ability of ASCs. Moreover, R8-ZZC was not found to induce the production of major inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12p70, IL-6 and MCP-1) in ASCs. Transplanted R8-ZZC-labeled ASCs could be quantitatively detected in the lungs and liver mainly using an in vivo imaging system. In addition, high-speed multiphoton confocal laser microscopy revealed the presence of aggregates of transplanted ASCs at many sites in the lungs, whereas individual ASCs were found to have accumulated in the liver.

  13. Homogenization of tissues via picosecond-infrared laser (PIRL) ablation: Giving a closer view on the in-vivo composition of protein species as compared to mechanical homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, M; Wurlitzer, M; Krutilin, A; Kiani, P; Nimer, R; Omidi, M; Mannaa, A; Bussmann, T; Bartkowiak, K; Kruber, S; Uschold, S; Steffen, P; Lübberstedt, J; Küpker, N; Petersen, H; Knecht, R; Hansen, N O; Zarrine-Afsar, A; Robertson, W D; Miller, R J D; Schlüter, H

    2016-02-16

    Posttranslational modifications and proteolytic processing regulate almost all physiological processes. Dysregulation can potentially result in pathologic protein species causing diseases. Thus, tissue species proteomes of diseased individuals provide diagnostic information. Since the composition of tissue proteomes can rapidly change during tissue homogenization by the action of enzymes released from their compartments, disease specific protein species patterns can vanish. Recently, we described a novel, ultrafast and soft method for cold vaporization of tissue via desorption by impulsive vibrational excitation (DIVE) using a picosecond-infrared-laser (PIRL). Given that DIVE extraction may provide improved access to the original composition of protein species in tissues, we compared the proteome composition of tissue protein homogenates after DIVE homogenization with conventional homogenizations. A higher number of intact protein species was observed in DIVE homogenates. Due to the ultrafast transfer of proteins from tissues via gas phase into frozen condensates of the aerosols, intact protein species were exposed to a lesser extent to enzymatic degradation reactions compared with conventional protein extraction. In addition, total yield of the number of proteins is higher in DIVE homogenates, because they are very homogenous and contain almost no insoluble particles, allowing direct analysis with subsequent analytical methods without the necessity of centrifugation. Enzymatic protein modifications during tissue homogenization are responsible for changes of the in-vivo protein species composition. Cold vaporization of tissues by PIRL-DIVE is comparable with taking a snapshot at the time of the laser irradiation of the dynamic changes that occur continuously under in-vivo conditions. At that time point all biomolecules are transferred into an aerosol, which is immediately frozen. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. From partial to full-face transplantation: total ablation and restoration, a change in the reconstructive paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Juan P

    2014-01-01

    The innovation of composite vascularized allotransplantation has provided plastic and reconstructive surgeons with the ultimate tool for those patients that present with facial deformities that cannot be reconstructed with classical or more traditional techniques. Transplanting normal tissues allows for a true restorative surgery. Initial experiences included the substitution of missing anatomy, whereas after the first world's full-face transplant performed in Barcelona in March 2010, a true ablative surgery with a total restoration proved to be effective. We review the world's experience and the performance of our restorative protocol to depict this change in the reconstructive paradigm of facial transplantation. Facial transplants should be performed after a careful analysis of the defect, with a comprehensive ablation plan following esthetic units with sacrifice of all required tissues with a focus of global restoration of anatomy, aesthetics and function, respecting normal functioning muscles. Nowadays, facial transplants following strict esthetic units should restore disfigurement extending to small central areas, whereas major defects may require a total ablation and restoration with full-face transplants. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tissue-engineered matrices as functional delivery systems: adsorption and release of bioactive proteins from degradable composite scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushnie, Emily K; Khan, Yusuf M; Laurencin, Cato T

    2010-08-01

    A tissue-engineered bone graft should imitate the ideal autograft in both form and function. However, biomaterials that have appropriate chemical and mechanical properties for grafting applications often lack biological components that may enhance regeneration. The concept of adding proteins such as growth factors to scaffolds has therefore emerged as a possible solution to improve overall graft design. In this study, we investigated this concept by loading porous hydroxyapatite-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (HA-PLAGA) scaffolds with a model protein, cytochrome c, and then studying its release in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The HA-PLAGA scaffold has previously been shown to be bioactive, osteoconductive, and to have appropriate physical properties for tissue engineering applications. The loading experiments demonstrated that the HA-PLAGA scaffold could also function effectively as a substrate for protein adsorption and release. Scaffold protein adsorptive loading (as opposed to physical entrapment within the matrix) was directly related to levels of scaffold HA-content. The HA phase of the scaffold facilitated protein retention in the matrix following incubation in aqueous buffer for periods up to 8 weeks. Greater levels of protein retention time may improve the protein's effective activity by increasing the probability for protein-cell interactions. The ability to control protein loading and delivery simply via composition of the HA-PLAGA scaffold offers the potential of forming robust functionalized bone grafts. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Production of Composite Scaffold Containing Silk Fibroin, Chitosan, and Gelatin for 3D Cell Culture and Bone Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqing; Wang, Qiuke; Gu, Yebo; Zhu, Yu; Chen, Liang; Chen, Yunfeng

    2017-11-08

    BACKGROUND Bone tissue engineering, a powerful tool to treat bone defects, is highly dependent on use of scaffolds. Both silk fibroin (SF) and chitosan (Cs) are biocompatible and actively studied for reconstruction of tissue engineering. Gelatin (Gel) is also widely applied in the biomedical field due to its low antigenicity and physicochemical stability. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, 4 different types of scaffolds were constructed - SF, SF/Cs, SF/Gel, and SF/Cs/Gel - and we compared their physical and chemical properties as well as biological characterization of these scaffolds to determine the most suitable scaffold for use in bone regeneration. First, these scaffolds were produced via chemical cross-linking method and freeze-drying technique. Next, the characterization of internal structure was studied using scanning electron microscopy and the porosity was evaluated by liquid displacement method. Then, we compared physicochemical properties such as water absorption rate and degradation property. Finally, MC3T3-E1 cells were inoculated on the scaffolds to study the biocompatibility and osteogenesis of the three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds in vitro. RESULTS The composite scaffold formed by all 3 components was the best for use in bone regeneration. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that the best scaffold among the 4 studied for MC3T3-E1 cells is our SF/Cs/Gel scaffold, suggesting a new choice for bone regeneration that can be used to treat bone defects or fractures in clinical practice.

  17. A Novel High Mechanical Property PLGA Composite Matrix Loaded with Nanodiamond-Phospholipid Compound for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Song, Qingxin; Huang, Xuan; Li, Fengning; Wang, Kun; Tang, Yixing; Hou, Canglong; Shen, Hongxing

    2016-01-20

    A potential bone tissue engineering material was produced from a biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), loaded with nanodiamond phospholipid compound (NDPC) via physical mixing. On the basis of hydrophobic effects and physical absorption, we modified the original hydrophilic surface of the nanodiamond (NDs) with phospholipids to be amphipathic, forming a typical core-shell structure. The ND-phospholipid weight ratio was optimized to generate sample NDPC50 (i.e., ND-phospholipid weight ratio of 100:50), and NDPC50 was able to be dispersed in a PLGA matrix at up to 20 wt %. Compared to a pure PLGA matrix, the introduction of 10 wt % of NDPC (i.e., sample NDPC50-PF10) resulted in a significant improvement in the material's mechanical and surface properties, including a decrease in the water contact angle from 80 to 55°, an approximately 100% increase in the Young's modulus, and an approximate 550% increase in hardness, thus closely resembling that of human cortical bone. As a novel matrix supporting human osteoblast (hFOB1.19) growth, NDPC50-PFs with different amounts of NDPC50 demonstrated no negative effects on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, we focused on the behaviors of NDPC-PFs implanted into mice for 8 weeks and found that NDPC-PFs induced acceptable immune response and can reduce the rapid biodegradation of PLGA matrix. Our results represent the first in vivo research on ND (or NDPC) as nanofillers in a polymer matrix for bone tissue engineering. The high mechanical properties, good in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility, and increased mineralization capability suggest that biodegradable PLGA composite matrices loaded with NDPC may potentially be useful for a variety of biomedical applications, especially bone tissue engineering.

  18. Relevance of fiber integrated gelatin-nanohydroxyapatite composite scaffold for bone tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halima Shamaz, Bibi; Anitha, A.; Vijayamohan, Manju; Kuttappan, Shruthy; Nair, Shantikumar; Nair, Manitha B.

    2015-10-01

    Porous nanohydroxyapatite (nanoHA) is a promising bone substitute, but it is brittle, which limits its utility for load bearing applications. To address this issue, herein, biodegradable electrospun microfibrous sheets of poly(L-lactic acid)-(PLLA)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were incorporated into a gelatin-nanoHA matrix which was investigated for its mechanical properties, the physical integration of the fibers with the matrix, cell infiltration, osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration. The inclusion of sacrificial fibers like PVA along with PLLA and leaching resulted in improved cellular infiltration towards the center of the scaffold. Furthermore, the treatment of PLLA fibers with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide enhanced their hydrophilicity, ensuring firm anchorage between the fibers and the gelatin-HA matrix. The incorporation of PLLA microfibers within the gelatin-nanoHA matrix reduced the brittleness of the scaffolds, the effect being proportional to the number of layers of fibrous sheets in the matrix. The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells was augmented on the fibrous scaffolds in comparison to those scaffolds devoid of fibers. Finally, the scaffold could promote cell infiltration, together with bone regeneration, upon implantation in a rabbit femoral cortical defect within 4 weeks. The bone regeneration potential was significantly higher when compared to commercially available HA (Surgiwear™). Thus, this biomimetic, porous, 3D composite scaffold could be offered as a promising candidate for bone regeneration in orthopedics.

  19. Fabricating a pearl/PLGA composite scaffold by the low-temperature deposition manufacturing technique for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mingen; Li Yanlei; Suo Hairui; Wang Qiujun; Ge Yakun; Xu Ying; Yan Yongnian; Liu Li

    2010-01-01

    Here we developed a composite scaffold of pearl/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (pearl/PLGA) utilizing the low-temperature deposition manufacturing (LDM). LDM makes it possible to fabricate scaffolds with designed microstructure and macrostructure, while keeping the bioactivity of biomaterials by working at a low temperature. Process optimization was carried out to fabricate a mixture of pearl powder, PLGA and 1,4-dioxane with the designed hierarchical structures, and freeze-dried at a temperature of -40 deg. C. Scaffolds with square and designated bone shape were fabricated by following the 3D model. Marrow stem cells (MSCs) were seeded on the pearl/PLGA scaffold and then cultured in a rotating cell culture system. The adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts were determined using scanning electronic microscopy, WST-1 assay, alkaline phosphatase activity assay, immunofluorescence staining and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the composite scaffold had high porosity (81.98 ± 3.75%), proper pore size (micropores: <10 μm; macropore: 495 ± 54 μm) and mechanical property (compressive strength: 0.81 ± 0.04 MPa; elastic modulus: 23.14 ± 0.75 MPa). The pearl/PLGA scaffolds exhibited better biocompatibility and osteoconductivity compared with the tricalcium phosphate/PLGA scaffold. All these results indicate that the pearl/PLGA scaffolds fulfill the basic requirements of bone tissue engineering scaffold.

  20. Enhanced Bone Tissue Regeneration by Porous Gelatin Composites Loaded with the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ling Wang

    Full Text Available Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT is a traditional Chinese herbal decoction containing Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis. Pharmacological results indicate that DBT can stimulate bone cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of adding DBT to bone substitutes on bone regeneration following bone injury. DBT was incorporated into porous composites (GGT made from genipin-crosslinked gelatin and β-triclacium phosphates as bone substitutes (GGTDBT. The biological response of mouse calvarial bone to these composites was evaluated by in vivo imaging systems (IVIS, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT, and histology analysis. IVIS images revealed a stronger fluorescent signal in GGTDBT-treated defect than in GGT-treated defect at 8 weeks after implantation. Micro-CT analysis demonstrated that the level of repair from week 4 to 8 increased from 42.1% to 71.2% at the sites treated with GGTDBT, while that increased from 33.2% to 54.1% at GGT-treated sites. These findings suggest that the GGTDBT stimulates the innate regenerative capacity of bone, supporting their use in bone tissue regeneration.

  1. The design of and chronic tissue response to a composite nerve electrode with patterned stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeberg, M. J.; Stone, M. A.; Triolo, R. J.; Tyler, D. J.

    2017-06-01

    Objective. As neural interfaces demonstrate success in chronic applications, a novel class of reshaping electrodes with patterned regions of stiffness will enable application to a widening range of anatomical locations. Patterning stiff regions and flexible regions of the electrode enables nerve reshaping while accommodating anatomical constraints of various implant locations ranging from peripheral nerves to spinal and autonomic plexi. Approach. Introduced is a new composite electrode enabling patterning of regions of various electrode mechanical properties. The initial demonstration of the composite’s capability is the composite flat interface nerve electrode (C-FINE). The C-FINE is constructed from a sandwich of patterned PEEK within layers of pliable silicone. The shape of the PEEK provides a desired pattern of stiffness: stiff across the width of the nerve to reshape the nerve, but flexible along its length to allow for bending with the nerve. This is particularly important in anatomical locations near joints or organs, and in constrained compartments. We tested pressure and volume design constraints in vitro to verify that the C-FINE can attain a safe cuff-to-nerve ratio (CNR) without impeding intraneural blood flow. We measured nerve function as well as nerve and axonal morphology following 3 month implantation of the C-FINE without wires on feline peripheral nerves in anatomically constrained areas near mobile joints and major blood vessels in both the hind and fore limbs. Main Results. In vitro inflation tests showed effective CNRs (1.93  ±  0.06) that exceeded the industry safety standard of 1.5 at an internal pressure of 20 mmHg. This is less than the 30 mmHg shown to induce loss of conduction or compromise blood flow. Implanted cats showed no changes in physiology or electrophysiology. Behavioral signs were normal suggesting healthy nerves. Motor nerve conduction velocity and compound motor action potential did not change significantly

  2. Metabolic rates and biochemical compositions of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) tissue during periods of inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Wang, Fang; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Yunwei

    2010-03-01

    Estivation, hibernation, and starvation are indispensable inactive states of sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus in nature and in culture ponds. Generally, temperature is the principal factor that induces estivation or hibernation in the sea cucumber. The present study provided insight into the physiological adaptations of A. japonicus during the three types of inactivity (hibernation, estivation, and starvation) by measuring the oxygen consumption rates ( Vo2) and biochemical compositions under laboratory conditions of low (3°C), normal (17°C) and high (24°C) temperature. The results show that the characteristics of A. japonicus in dormancy (hibernation and estivation) states were quite different from higher animals, such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, but more closely resembled a semi-dormant state. It was observed that the shift in the A. japonicus physiological state from normal to dormancy was a chronic rather than acute process, indicated by the gradual depression of metabolic rate. While metabolic rates declined 44.9% for the estivation group and 71.7% for the hibernation group, relative to initial rates, during the 36 d culture period, metabolic rates were not maintained at constant levels during these states. The metabolic depression processes for sea cucumbers in hibernation and estivation appeared to be a passive and an active metabolic suppression, respectively. In contrast, the metabolic rates (128.90±11.70 μg/g h) of estivating sea cucumbers were notably higher (107.85±6.31 μg/g h) than in starving sea cucumbers at 17°C, which indicated that the dormancy mechanism here, as a physiological inhibition, was not as efficient as in higher animals. Finally, the principle metabolic substrate or energy source of sea cucumbers in hibernation was lipid, whereas in estivation they mainly consumed protein in the early times and both protein and lipid thereafter.

  3. [Liver transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Mirante, Vincenzo Giorgio; Rapaccini, Gian Ludovico; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    Liver transplantation represents the first choice treatment for patients with fulminant acute hepatitis and for patients with chronic liver disease and advanced functional failure. Patients in the waiting list for liver transplantation are classified according to the severity of their clinical conditions (evaluated using staging systems mostly based on hematochemical parameters related to liver function). This classification, together with the blood group and the body size compatibility, remains the main criterion for organ allocation. The main indications for liver transplantation are cirrhosis (mainly HCV-, HBV- and alcohol-related) and hepatocellular carcinoma emerging in cirrhosis in adult patients, biliary atresia and some inborn errors of metabolism in pediatric patients. In adults the overall 5-year survival ranges between 60 and 70%, in both American and European series. Even better results have been reported for pediatric patients: in fact, the 5-year survival rate for children ranges between 70 and 80% in the main published series. In this study we evaluated the main medical problems correlated with liver transplantation such as immunosuppressive treatment, acute and chronic rejection, infectious complications, the recurrence of the liver disease leading to transplantation, and cardiovascular and metabolic complications.

  4. Electrospun composites of PHBV, silk fibroin and nano-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paşcu, Elena I; Stokes, Joseph; McGuinness, Garrett B

    2013-12-01

    Electrospinning of fibrous scaffolds containing nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) embedded in a matrix of functional biomacromolecules offers an attractive route to mimicking the natural bone tissue architecture. Functional fibrous substrates will support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, while the role of HAp is to induce cells to secrete extracellular matrix (ECM) for mineralization to form bone. Electrospinning of biomaterials composed of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-(3-hydroxyvalerate) with 2% valerate fraction (PHBV), nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp), and Bombyx mori silk fibroin essence (SF), Mw=90KDa, has been achieved for nHAp and SF solution concentrations of 2 (w/vol) % each and 5 (w/vol) % each. The structure and properties of the nanocomposite fibrous membranes were investigated by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy in combination with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (SEM/EDX), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), uniaxial tensile and compressive mechanical testing, degradation tests and in vitro bioactivity tests. SEM images showed smooth, uniform and continuous fibre deposition with no bead formation, and fibre diameters of between 10 and 15 μm. EDX and FT-IR confirmed the presence of nHAp and SF. After one month in deionised water, tests showed less than 2% weight loss with the samples retaining their fibrous morphology, confirming that this material biodegrades slowly. After 28 days of immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) an apatite layer was visible on the surface of the fibres, proving their bioactivity. Preliminary in vitro biological assessment showed that after 1 and 3 days in culture, cells were attached to the fibres, retaining their morphology while presenting a flattened appearance and elongated shape on the surface of fibres. Young's modulus was found to increase from 0.7 kPa (±0.33 kPa) for electrospun samples of PHBV only to 1.4 kPa (±0.54 kPa) for samples with 2 (w/vol) % each of nHAp and SF. Samples prepared with

  5. Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasen, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter discusses the roles of composite laminates and aggregates in cryogenic technology. Filamentary-reinforced composites are emphasized because they are the most widely used composite materials. Topics considered include composite systems and terminology, design and fabrication, composite failure, high-pressure reinforced plastic laminates, low-pressure reinforced plastics, reinforced metals, selectively reinforced structures, the effect of cryogenic temperatures, woven-fabric and random-mat composites, uniaxial fiber-reinforced composites, composite joints in cryogenic structures, joining techniques at room temperature, radiation effects, testing laminates at cryogenic temperatures, static and cyclic tensile testing, static and cyclic compression testing, interlaminar shear testing, secondary property tests, and concrete aggregates. It is suggested that cryogenic composite technology would benefit from the development of a fracture mechanics model for predicting the fitness-for-purpose of polymer-matrix composite structures

  6. Fabrication and Properties of Silica Gel/Calcium Sulfate/Strontium-doped β-tricalcium Phosphate Composite Porous Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Xiao-su

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The calcium sulfate/strontium-doped β-tricalcium phosphate composite spherical pellets was fabricated, using the calcium sulfate/strontium-doped β-TCP as raw material, and through the stirring spray drying method, and then composite spherical pellets were combined with silica gel, porous silica gel/calcium sulfate/strontium-doped β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold was obtained by stacking aggregation method in the mould. The XRD, SEM and FT-IR, etc are employed to examine the chemical composition, composite morphology and structure characteristics, and the degradability, porosity, mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the scaffolds materials were studied. The results reveal that the composite porous scaffolds have irregular pore structure with pore size between 0.2-1.0mm, and they have a large number of micropores on each of the composite spherical pellets, with the aperture between 50-200μm. Moreover, the porosity of the composite scaffolds is about 62%, which can meet the requirements of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering in porosity; the cytotoxicity tests show the composite scaffolds have no cytotoxic effect and it has good degradation. Therefore, it has good application prospect in bone tissue engineering of the bone defect repair of non-bearing site.

  7. A literature-based cost analysis of tissue plasminogen activator for prevention of biliary stricture in donation after circulatory death liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J M; Bhutiani, N; Wei, D; Goldstein, L; Jones, C M; Cannon, R M

    2018-04-17

    This study sought to approximate the cost-effectiveness of tPA utilization for prevention of biliary strictures (PTBS) in donation after circulatory death liver transplantation (DCD-LT). Previously-reported PTBS rates in DCD-LT with and without tPA were used to calculate the number needed to treat (NNT) for prevention of one PTBS. The incremental cost of PTBS was then used to determine the cost effectiveness of tPA for prevention of PTBS. The incidence of PTBS in the setting of tPA administration was 20%, while incidence in patients without tPA use was 43% (p PTBS management, use of tPA in DCD-LT protocols was estimated to save $31,528 per PTBS prevented. Utilization of tPA in DCD-LT protocols represents one possible cost-effective strategy for prevention of PTBS in DCD-LT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Irradiation for xenogeneic transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halperin, E.C.; Knechtle, S.J.; Harland, R.C.; Yamaguchi, Yasua; Sontag, M.; Bollinger, R.R. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Radiology Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology)

    1990-05-01

    Xenogeneic transplantation (XT) is the transplantation of organs or tissues from a member of one species to a member of another. Mammalian species frequently have circulating antibody which is directed against the foreign organ irrespective of known prior antigen exposure. This antibody may lead to hyperacute rejection once it ensues so efforts must be directed towards eliminating the pre-existing antibody. In those species in which hyperacute rejection of xenografts does not occur, cell-mediated refection, similar to allograft rejection, may occur. It is in the prevention of this latter form of refection that radiation is most likely to be beneficial in XT. Both total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and selective lyphoid irradiation (LSI) have been investigated for use in conjunction with XT. TLI has contributed to the prolongation of pancreatic islet-cell xenografts from hamsters to rats. TLI has also markedly prolonged the survival of cardiac transplants from hamsters to rats. A more modest prolongation of graft survival has been seen with the use of TLI in rabbit-to-rat exchanges. Therapy with TLI, cyclosporine, and splenectomy has markedly prolonged the survival of liver transplants from hamsters to rats, and preliminary data suggest that TLI may contribute to the prolongation of graft survival in the transplantation of hearts from monkeys to baboons. SLI appears to have prolonged graft survival, when used in conjunction with anti-lymphocyte globulin, in hamster-to-rat cardiac graft exchanges. The current state of knowledge of the use of irradiaiton in experimental XT is reviewed. (author). 38 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs.

  9. Irradiation for xenogeneic transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halperin, E.C.; Knechtle, S.J.; Harland, R.C.; Yamaguchi, Yasua; Sontag, M.; Bollinger, R.R.; Duke Univ., Durham, NC

    1990-01-01

    Xenogeneic transplantation (XT) is the transplantation of organs or tissues from a member of one species to a member of another. Mammalian species frequently have circulating antibody which is directed against the foreign organ irrespective of known prior antigen exposure. This antibody may lead to hyperacute rejection once it ensues so efforts must be directed towards eliminating the pre-existing antibody. In those species in which hyperacute rejection of xenografts does not occur, cell-mediated refection, similar to allograft rejection, may occur. It is in the prevention of this latter form of refection that radiation is most likely to be beneficial in XT. Both total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and selective lyphoid irradiation (LSI) have been investigated for use in conjunction with XT. TLI has contributed to the prolongation of pancreatic islet-cell xenografts from hamsters to rats. TLI has also markedly prolonged the survival of cardiac transplants from hamsters to rats. A more modest prolongation of graft survival has been seen with the use of TLI in rabbit-to-rat exchanges. Therapy with TLI, cyclosporine, and splenectomy has markedly prolonged the survival of liver transplants from hamsters to rats, and preliminary data suggest that TLI may contribute to the prolongation of graft survival in the transplantation of hearts from monkeys to baboons. SLI appears to have prolonged graft survival, when used in conjunction with anti-lymphocyte globulin, in hamster-to-rat cardiac graft exchanges. The current state of knowledge of the use of irradiaiton in experimental XT is reviewed. (author). 38 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs

  10. Pre-liver transplant psychosocial evaluation predicts post-transplantation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Ariel A; Rowe, Mina; Eid, Ahmad; Bluth, Keren; Merhav, Hadar; Khalaileh, Abed; Safadi, Rifaat

    2018-08-01

    Psychosocial factors greatly impact the course of patients throughout the liver transplantation process. A retrospective chart review was performed of patients who underwent liver transplantation at Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center between 2002 and 2012. A composite psychosocial score was computed based on the patient's pre-transplant evaluation. Patients were divided into two groups based on compliance, support and insight: Optimal psychosocial score and Non-optimal psychosocial score. Post-liver transplantation survival and complication rates were evaluated. Out of 100 patients who underwent liver transplantation at the Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center between 2002 and 2012, 93% had a complete pre-liver transplant psychosocial evaluation in the medical record performed by professional psychologists and social workers. Post-liver transplantation survival was significantly higher in the Optimal group (85%) as compared to the Non-optimal group (56%, p = .002). Post-liver transplantation rate of renal failure was significantly lower in the Optimal group. No significant differences were observed between the groups in other post-transplant complications. A patient's psychosocial status may impact outcomes following transplantation as inferior psychosocial grades were associated with lower overall survival and increased rates of complications. Pre-liver transplant psychosocial evaluations are an important tool to help predict survival following transplantation.

  11. Pancreas transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, J.; Phillips, R.R.; Boardman, P.; Gleeson, F.V.; Anderson, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Cadaveric, whole pancreas transplantation has proved an effective therapy in the treatment of long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus and is capable of achieving an insulin-independent eugyclaemic state. As a result, this procedure is being increasingly performed. However, the surgical procedure is complex and unfamiliar to many radiologists. Imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives excellent results and can be used confidently to diagnose vascular, enteric, and immune-mediated complications. We present a review of the normal post-transplantation appearance and the features of early and late complications.

  12. Pancreas transplants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, J.; Phillips, R.R.; Boardman, P.; Gleeson, F.V. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Anderson, E.M. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ewan.anderson@orh.nhs.uk

    2009-07-15

    Cadaveric, whole pancreas transplantation has proved an effective therapy in the treatment of long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus and is capable of achieving an insulin-independent eugyclaemic state. As a result, this procedure is being increasingly performed. However, the surgical procedure is complex and unfamiliar to many radiologists. Imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives excellent results and can be used confidently to diagnose vascular, enteric, and immune-mediated complications. We present a review of the normal post-transplantation appearance and the features of early and late complications.

  13. Pancreas transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, J.F.; Hunter, D.W.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Letourneau, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Pancreas transplantation can be complicated by vascular thrombosis, stenosis, or anastomotic leak, complications that predispose to transplant pancreatectomy. The relative roles of noninvasive radiologic studies in such vascular complications have been correlated with angiographic or pathologic data. The results of 54 scintigraphic studies, 25 CT studies, 16 sonograms, and 23 color Doppler examinations have been correlated with those of 40 angiograms and 28 pathologic studies in a population of 185 recipients. CT (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 75%; accuracy, 92%) and US (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 80%; accuracy, 85%) were most helpful in noninvasive screening for vascular complications, while angiography remains nearly definite in the radiographic diagnosis of these problems

  14. Exposure of tumor-bearing mice to extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation modifies the composition of fatty acids in thymocytes and tumor tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapeyev, Andrew B; Kulagina, Tatiana P; Aripovsky, Alexander V

    2013-08-01

    To test the participation of fatty acids (FA) in antitumor effects of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR), the changes in the FA composition in the thymus, liver, blood plasma, muscle tissue, and tumor tissue in mice with Ehrlich solid carcinoma exposed to EHF EMR were studied. Normal and tumor-bearing mice were exposed to EHF EMR with effective parameters (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, 20 min daily during five consecutive days beginning the first day after the inoculation of tumor cells). Fatty acid composition of various organs and tissues of mice were determined using a gas chromatography. It was shown that the exposure of normal mice to EHF EMR or tumor growth significantly increased the content of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and decreased the content of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in all tissues examined. Exposure of tumor-bearing mice to EHF EMR led to the recovery of FA composition in thymocytes to the state that is typical for normal animals. In other tissues of tumor-bearing mice, the exposure to EHF EMR did not induce considerable changes that would be significantly distinguished between disturbances caused by EHF EMR exposure or tumor growth separately. In tumor tissue which is characterized by elevated level of MUFA, the exposure to EHF EMR significantly decreased the summary content of MUFA and increased the summary content of PUFA. The recovery of the FA composition in thymocytes and the modification of the FA composition in the tumor under the influence of EHF EMR on tumor-bearing animals may have crucial importance for elucidating the mechanisms of antitumor effects of the electromagnetic radiation.

  15. Breast tissue composition and its dependence on demographic risk factors for breast cancer: non-invasive assessment by time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Taroni

    Full Text Available Breast tissue composition is recognized as a strong and independent risk factor for breast cancer. It is a heritable feature, but is also significantly affected by several other elements (e.g., age, menopause. Nowadays it is quantified by mammographic density, thus requiring the use of ionizing radiation. Optical techniques are absolutely non-invasive and have already proved effective in the investigation of biological tissues, as they are sensitive to tissue composition and structure.Time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy was performed at 7 wavelengths (635-1060 nm on 200 subjects to derive their breast tissue composition (in terms of water, lipid and collagen content, blood parameters (total hemoglobin content and oxygen saturation level, and information on the microscopic structure (scattering amplitude and power. The dependence of all optically-derived parameters on age, menopausal status, body mass index, and use of oral contraceptives, and the correlation with mammographic density were investigated.Younger age, premenopausal status, lower body mass index values, and use of oral contraceptives all correspond to significantly higher water, collagen and total hemoglobin content, and lower lipid content (always p < 0.05 and often p < 10-4, while oxygen saturation level and scattering parameters show significant dependence only on some conditions. Even when age-adjusted groups of subjects are compared, several optically derived parameters (and in particular always collagen and total hemoglobin content remain significantly different.Time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy can probe non-invasively breast tissue composition and physiologic blood parameters, and provide information on tissue structure. The measurement is suitable for in vivo studies and monitoring of changes in breast tissue (e.g., with age, lifestyle, chemotherapy, etc. and to gain insight into related processes, like the origin of cancer risk associated with breast density.

  16. Composition of Dietary Fat Source Shapes Gut Microbiota Architecture and Alters Host Inflammatory Mediators in Mouse Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Edmond; Leone, Vanessa; Devkota, Suzanne; Wang, Yunwei; Brady, Matthew; Chang, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Background Growing evidence shows that dietary factors can dramatically alter the gut microbiome in ways that contribute to metabolic disturbance and progression of obesity. In this regard, mesenteric adipose tissue has been implicated in mediating these processes through the elaboration of pro-inflammatory adipokines. In this study, we examined the relationship of these events by determining the effects of dietary fat content and source on gut microbiota, as well as the effects on adipokine profiles of mesenteric and peripheral adipocytes. Methods Adult male C57Bl/6 mice were fed milk fat-, lard-(SFA sources), or safflower oil (PUFA)- based high fat diets for four weeks. Body mass and food consumption were measured. Stool 16S rRNA was isolated and analyzed via T-RFLP as well as variable V3-4 sequence tags via next gen sequencing. Mesenteric and gonadal adipose samples were analyzed for both lipogenic and inflammatory mediators via qRT-PCR. Results High-fat feedings caused more weight gain with concomitant increases in caloric consumption relative to low-fat diets. Additionally, each of the high fat diets induced dramatic and specific 16S rRNA phylogenic profiles that were associated with different inflammatory and lipogenic mediator profile of mesenteric and gonadal fat depots. Conclusions Our findings support the notion that dietary fat composition can both reshape the gut microbiota as well as alter host adipose tissue inflammatory/lipogenic profiles. They also demonstrate the interdependency of dietary fat source, commensal gut microbiota, and inflammatory profile of mesenteric fat that can collectively impact the host metabolic state. PMID:23639897