Sample records for composite pluton southern

  1. Origin of adakite-like plutons in southern Korea (United States)

    Oh, Jeong-Im; Choi, Sung Hi; Yi, Keewook


    We present Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions for two adakite-like intrusions in southern Korea (Jindong and Bongnae), including major and trace element concentrations, and the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon U-Pb age. Our aim is to constrain the origin and tectonomagmatic processes that gave rise to the plutons. A SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 88.7 ± 0.7 Ma was obtained from a Jindong granodiorite sample. The Jindong plutons belong to the medium-K calc-alkaline series, and have an overall enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILE), such as K, Rb, Ba, and Pb, and a relative depletion in high field strength elements, such as Nb, Ta, and Ti, compared with the neighboring elements in the primitive mantle-normalized multi-trace element variation diagram. It was found that (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70475-0.70596, (143Nd/144Nd)i = 0.512547-0.512604, [(εNd)i = + 0.4 to 2.2], and (206Pb/204Pb)i = 18.19-18.37, which fall within the field of the arc-type Cretaceous to Tertiary Bulguksa intrusive rocks in the Sr-Nd and Pb-Pb isotopic correlation diagrams. The elevated Sr/Y (17-40), but low La/Yb (3.7-8.8) ratios of the Jindong plutons, together with their coherent geochemical trends and U-shaped rare earth element (REE) patterns, indicate that they were not formed by slab melting, but by amphibole-dominated fractional crystallization of the Bulguksa-like arc magma. A SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 226.5 ± 2.5 Ma was obtained from a Bongnae tonalite sample. The Bongnae plutons belong to the shoshonitic series. Their trace element patterns resemble the Jindong samples, but are characterized by significantly negative U anomalies in mafic rocks. They also have elevated MgO, Ni, Co, Cr, Rb, Ba, Sr, and low Al2O3 and Na2O contents at a given SiO2 concentration compared with the Jindong plutons, and are typified by highly radiogenic Sr and unradiogenic Nd and Pb isotopic compositions: [(87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.71096-0.71290, (143Nd/144Nd)i = 0.511641-0.511681, (εNd)i = - 13

  2. Relationship of voluminous ignimbrites to continental arc plutons: Petrology of Jurassic ignimbrites and contemporaneous plutons in southern California (United States)

    Fohey-Breting, N. K.; Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Carter, C.A.; Schermer, E.R.


    Volcanism was broadly associated in both space and time with Mesozoic plutonism in the Cordillera continental margin arc, but the precise petrogenetic relationships between volcanic rocks and adjacent zoned plutons are not known. Igneous rocks in a tilted crustal section in California include four laterally extensive Jurassic ash flow tuffs from 550 to >1100 m thick underlain at deeper structural levels by Jurassic plutons. Zircon geochronology confirms previous correlations of individual tuffs, suggesting ignimbrites with eruptive volumes up to 800 km3 were deposited both during the apparent Early Jurassic plutonic lull as well as contemporaneous with solidification of regionally widespread Middle and Late Jurassic plutons. The tuffs are weakly to strongly porphyritic (5 to 55% phenocrysts) monotonous intermediate porphyritic dacite to low-silica rhyolite and show strong bulk rock chemical affinity to contemporaneous plutons. Trace element compositions of zircons from the tuffs and contemporaneous plutonic rocks record large and consistent differences in Hf/Zr and REE over similar ranges in Ti abundances, supporting bulk compositional similarities and illuminating similarities and variations in thermal histories despite the effects of hydrothermal alteration. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The rapakivi granite plutons of Bodom and Obbnäs, southern Finland: petrography and geochemistry

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    Kosunen, P.


    Full Text Available The Obbnäs and Bodom granite plutons of southernmost Finland show the typical petrographic and geochemical features of the Proterozoic rapakivi granites in Finland and elsewhere: they cut sharply across the 1900 Ma Svecofennian metamorphic bedrock and have the geochemical characteristics of subalkaline A-type granites. The Bodom pluton is composed of porphyritic granites (hornblende-, hornblende-biotite-, and biotite-bearing varieties and an even-grained granite that probably represent two separate intrusive phases. This lithologic variation does not occur in the Obbnäs pluton, which is almost entirely composed of porphyritic hornblende-biotite granite that gradually becomes more mafic to the southwest. Three types of hybrid granitoids resulting from magma mingling and mixing occur on the southwestern tip of the Obbnäs peninsula. The Bodom granites are syenogranites, whereas the composition of the Obbnäs granite varies from syeno- to monzogranite. The main silicates of both the Bodom and Obbnäs granites are quartz, microcline, plagioclase (An1541, biotite (siderophyllite, and generally also amphibole (ferropargasite or hastingsite. Plagioclase-mantled alkali feldspar megacrysts are absent or rare. The accessory minerals are fluorite, allanite, zircon, apatite, and iron-titanium oxides; the Obbnäs granite also contains titanite. The Bodom and Obbnäs granites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, with average A/CNK of 1.00 and 1.05, respectively, have high Fe/Mg (average FeOtot/[FeOtot+MgO] is 0.94 for the Bodom and 0.87 for the Obbnäs granites, and high Ga/Al (3.78 to 5.22 in Bodom and 2.46 to 4.18 in Obbnäs. The REE contents are high with LREE-enriched chondrite-normalized patterns and moderate (Obbnäs to relatively strong (Bodom negative Eu-anomalies. The Obbnäs granite is enriched in CaO, TiO2, MgO, and FeO, and depleted in SiO2 and K2O compared to the Bodom granites. Also, there are differences in the Ba, Rb, and Sr contents of

  4. Petrochemistry,Age and Petrogenesis of the Shexian Pluton in Southern Anhui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢凤鸣; 任思明; 等


    The Shexian gneissic granodiorite in southern Anhui trends NE55°from Shexian in the west to Guitoujian in the east with a length of 22km and an outcrop area of 32km .It was considered formerly to be Caledonian on the basis of a biotite K-Ar age of 474Ma(1982).However,new evi-dence indicates that it may be Early Jinning in age as shown by:(1)it is found intruding into the Mid-Proterozoic Shangxi Group and is unconformably overlain by the Sinian Xiuning Formation,and (2) a zircon U-Th-Pb age of 928 Ma is obtained for the pluton.The pluton is composed of plagioclase(An=27.37%),K-feldspar(14%),biotite(16%) and quartz(32%).Accessory minerals are ilmenite(150g/T),xenotime(15g/T),garnet(25g/T),monazite(10g/T),zircon(20g/T)and apatite(104g/T).Petrochemical characteristics of the intrusion are:(1)Al-enrichment(A/NKC=1.30);(2)H2O enrichment(H2O=1.74%);and (3)low oxidation index(?ˊ=0.10).It belongs to the continental crust transformation type as evidenced by :(1)MF and Mg/Y values of biotite are 0.41 and 0.31 respectively;(2)(87Sr/86Sr)=0.71119;(3)δEu=0.52;and (4)A/NKC=130.The Shexian pluton is therefore considered as a product of melting of phyllite at depth in the light of similarities in trace element and REE contents with the phyllite of the Banxi Group.Calculations of REE batch partial melting indicate that it may have re-sulted from 75% melting of the Banxi phyllite.

  5. Magma intrusion and accumulation in the southern Altiplano: Structural observations from the PLUTONS project (United States)

    West, M. E.; Christensen, D. H.; Pritchard, M. E.; Del Potro, R.; Gottsmann, J.; Unsworth, M.; Minaya, E.; Sunagua, M.; McNutt, S. R.; Yu, Q.; Farrell, A. K.


    The PLUTONS project is attempting to capture the process of magma intrusion and pluton formation, in situ, through multi-disciplinary study of known magmatic inflation centers. With support from the NSF Continental Dynamics program, and a sister project in the UK funded by NERC, two such centers are receiving focused study. Uturuncu volcano in the Altiplano of southern Bolivia is being investigated with combined seismics, magnetotellurics, geodesy, microgravity, geomorphology, petrology, geochemistry, historical studies and modeling. 350 km to the south, comparable investigations are targeting the Lastarria-Cordon del Azufre complex. Field studies are ongoing into 2013. In this presentation we highlight results from Uturuncu that bear on the crustal magmatic process. Seismic tomography, gravity and magnetotellurics indicate a complex structure in the upper 20 km with some evidence for partial melt. Seismic receiver functions indicate a layer of very low velocities across the region at 15-25 km depth that is almost certainly melt-rich. High conductivities corroborate the interpretation of a partial melt component to this layer. In addition to the throughgoing melt layer, seismic velocities and attenuation indicate shallow features above the melt body extending upward toward the surface. It is not clear whether these features are associated with recent uplift or are remnants from a previous period of activity. Uturuncu is seismically active with hundreds of locatable earthquakes each year. Seismic lineations and swarm behavior suggest that the seismicity reflects regional stress patterns. While there is little evidence that these earthquakes are the direct result of magmatic intrusion, the resulting high heat flow may be hastening existing strains.

  6. Zircon U-Pb age, Lu-Hf isotope, mineral chemistry and geochemistry of Sundamalai peralkaline pluton from the Salem Block, southern India: Implications for Cryogenian adakite-like magmatism in an aborted-rift (United States)

    Renjith, M. L.; Santosh, M.; Li, Tang; Satyanarayanan, M.; Korakoppa, M. M.; Tsunogae, T.; Subba Rao, D. V.; Kesav Krishna, A.; Nirmal Charan, S.


    The Sundamalai peralkaline pluton is one among the Cryogenian alkaline plutons occurring in the Dharmapuri Rift Zone (DRZ) of the Salem Block in the Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) of India. Here we present zircon U-Pb age and Lu-Hf isotopic composition, mineral chemistry and geochemistry of the pluton to explore the petrogenesis and geodynamic implications. Systematic modal variation of orthoclase, Na-plagioclase, Ca-amphibole (ferro-edenite and hastingsite) and quartz developed quartz-monzonite and granite litho units in the Sundamalai pluton. Thermometry based on amphibole-plagioclase pair suggests that the pluton was emplaced and solidified at around 4.6 kbar pressure with crystallization of the major phases between 748 and 661 °C. Estimated saturation temperature of zircon (712-698 °C) is also well within this range. However, apatite saturation occurred at higher temperatures between 835 and 870 °C, in contrast with monazite saturation (718-613 °C) that continued up to the late stage of crystallization. Estimated oxygen fugacity values (log fO2: -14 to -17) indicate high oxidation state for the magma that stabilized titanite and magnetite. The magmatic zircons from Sundamalai pluton yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 832.6 ± 3.2 Ma. Geochemically, the Sundamalai rocks are high-K to shoshonitic, persodic (Na2O/K2O ratio > 1), silica-saturated (SiO2:65-72 wt.%), and peralkaline in composition (aluminum saturation index, ASI effect) controlled differentiation between quartz-monzonite and granite. Both rock types have high content of Na2O (5.1-6.3 wt.%), Ba (350-2589 ppm) and Sr (264-1036 ppm); low content of Y (8.7-17 ppm) and Yb (0.96-1.69 ppm); elevated ratios of La/Yb (11-46) and Sr/Y (46-69) and are depleted in Ti, with a positive Sr anomaly suggesting an adakite-like composition and garnet controlled melting of a plagioclase-poor source. The low content of MgO (aborted rifting along the DRZ generating the magma that crystallized the Sundamalai

  7. Compositional and kinetic controls on liquid immiscibility in ferrobasalt-rhyolite volcanic and plutonic series (United States)

    Charlier, Bernard; Namur, Olivier; Grove, Timothy L.


    We present major element compositions of basalts and their differentiation products for some major tholeiitic series. The dry, low-pressure liquid lines of descent are shown to approach or intersect the experimentally-defined compositional space of silicate liquid immiscibility. Ferrobasalt-rhyolite unmixing along tholeiitic trends in both volcanic and plutonic environments is supported by worldwide occurrence of immiscible globules in the mesostasis of erupted basalts, unmixed melt inclusions in cumulus phases of major layered intrusions such as Skaergaard and Sept Iles, and oxide-rich ferrogabbros closely associated with plagiogranites in the lower oceanic crust. Liquid immiscibility is promoted by low-pressure, anhydrous fractional crystallization that drives the low Al2O3, high FeO liquids into the two-liquid field. Kinetic controls can be important in the development of two-liquid separation. The undercooling that occurs at the slow cooling rates of plutonic environments promotes early development of liquid immiscibility at higher temperature. In contrast rapid cooling in erupted lavas leads to large undercoolings and liquid immiscibility develops at significantly lower temperatures. Unmixing leads to the development of a compositional gap characterized by the absence of intermediate compositions, a feature of many tholeiitic provinces. The compositions of experimental unmixed silica-rich melts coincide with those of natural rhyolites and plagiogranites with high FeOtot and low Al2O3, suggesting the potential role of large-scale separation of immiscible Si-rich liquid in the petrogenesis of late-stage residual melts. No trace of the paired ferrobasaltic melt is found in volcanic environments because of its uneruptable characteristics. Instead, Fe-Ti ± P-rich gabbros are the cumulate products of immiscible Fe-rich melts in plutonic settings. The immiscibility process may be difficult to identify because both melts crystallize the same phases with the same

  8. Intrusive rocks of the Holden and Lucerne quadrangles, Washington; the relation of depth zones, composition, textures, and emplacement of plutons (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.


    The core of the northern Cascade Range in Washington consists of Precambrian and upper Paleozoic metamorphic rocks cut by numerous plutons, ranging in age from early Triassic to Miocene. The older plutons have been eroded to catazonal depths, whereas subvolcanic rocks are exposed in the youngest plutons. The Holden and Lucerne quadrangles span a -sizeable and representative part of this core. The oldest of the formations mapped in these quadrangles is the Swakane Biotite Gneiss, which was shown on the quadrangle maps as Cretaceous and older in age. The Swakane has yielded a middle Paleozoic metamorphic age, and also contains evidence of zircon inherited from some parent material more than 1,650 m.y. old. In this report, the Swakane is assigned an early Paleozoic or older age. It consists mostly of biotite gneiss, but interlayered with it are scattered layers and lenses of hornblende schist and gneiss, clinozoisite-epidote gneiss, and quartzite. Thickness of the Swakane is many thousands of meters, and the base is not exposed. The biotite gneiss is probably derived from a pile of siliceous volcanic rocks containing scattered sedimentary beds and basalt flows. Overlying the Swakane is a thick sequence of eugeosynclinal upper Paleozoic rocks metamorphosed to amphibolite grade. The sequence includes quartzite and thin layers of marble, hornblende schist and gneiss, graphitic schist, and smaller amounts of schist and gneiss of widely varying compositions. The layers have been tightly and complexly folded, and, in places, probably had been thrust over the overlying Swakane prior to metamorphism. Youngest of the supracrustal rocks in the area are shale, arkosic sandstone, and conglomerate of the Paleocene Swauk Formation. These rocks are preserved in the Chiwaukum graben, a major structural element of the region. Of uncertain age, but possibly as old as any of the intrusive rocks in the area, are small masses of ultramafic rocks, now almost completely altered to

  9. Subsurface profiling of granite pluton using microtremor method: southern Aravalli, Gujarat, India (United States)

    Joshi, Aditya U.; Sant, Dhananjay A.; Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Rangarajan, Govindan; Limaye, Manoj A.; Mukherjee, Soumyajit; Charola, Mitesh J.; Bhatt, Meghnath N.; Mistry, Sagar P.


    We report, using the microtremor method, a subsurface granitic pluton underneath the Narukot Dome and in its western extension along a WNW profile, in proximity of eastern fringe of Cambay Rift, India. The dome and its extension is a part of the Champaner Group of rocks belonging to the Mesoproterozoic Aravalli Supergroup. The present finding elucidates development of an asymmetric double plunge along Narukot Dome. Microtremor measurements at 32 sites were carried out along the axial trace (N95°) of the dome. Fourier amplitude spectral studies were applied to obtain the ratio between the horizontal and vertical components of persisting Rayleigh waves as local ambient noise. Fundamental resonant frequencies with amplitude ≥1-sigma for each site are considered to distinguish rheological boundary. Two distinct rheological boundaries are identified based on frequency ranges determined in the terrain: (1) 0.2219-10.364 Hz recorded at 31 stations identified as the Champaner metasediment and granite boundary, and (2) 10.902-27.1119 Hz recorded at 22 stations identified as the phyllite and quartzite boundary. The proposed equation describing frequency-depth relationship between granite and overlaying regolith matches with those already published in the literature. The morphology of granite pluton highlights the rootless character of Champaner Group showing sharp discordance with granitic pluton. The findings of manifestation of pluton at a shallower depth imply a steep easterly plunge within the Champaner metasediments, whereas signature of pluton at a deeper level implies a gentle westerly plunge. The present method enables to assess how granite emplacement influences the surface structure.

  10. Apatite trace element and halogen compositions as petrogenetic-metallogenic indicators: Examples from four granite plutons in the Sanjiang region, SW China (United States)

    Pan, Li-Chuan; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Song; Bi, Xian-Wu; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Li, Chusi


    The abundances of trace elements including Sr, Ga and rare earth elements (REE) and halogens in apatite crystals from four intermediate-felsic plutons in the Zhongdian terrane in the Sanjiang region have been determined using electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to evaluate the potential of apatite as a petrogenic-metallogenic indicator. The selected plutons include one that is not mineralized (the Triassic Xiuwacu pluton, or the TXWC pluton), one that hosts a porphyry-type Cu deposit (the Pulang pluton, or the PL pluton), one that hosts a porphyry-type Mo deposit (the Tongchanggou pluton, or the TCG pluton), and one that hosts a vein-type Mo deposit (the Cretaceous Xiuwacu pluton, or the CXWC pluton). Except for the CXWC pluton, the other three plutons have adakite-like trace element signatures in whole rocks. The results from this study show that REE, Sr and halogens in apatite can be used to track magma compositions, oxidation states and crystallization history. Apatite crystals from the adakite-like plutons are characterized by much higher Sr/Y and δEu than the non-adakite-type pluton. This means that apatite, which is not susceptible to alteration, is a useful tool for identifying the adakite-like plutons that no longer preserve the initial Sr/Y ratios in whole rocks due to weathering and hydrothermal alteration. Based on apatite Ga contents and δEu values, it is inferred that the parental magmas for the two adakite-like plutons containing porphyry-type Cu and Mo mineralization are more oxidized than that for the non-adakite-type pluton containing vein-type Mo mineralization. Apatite crystals from the vein-type Mo deposit have much lower Cl/F ratios than those from the porphyry-type Cu and Mo deposits. Apatite crystals from the adakite-like pluton without Cu or Mo mineralization is characterized by much lower Cl/F ratios than those from the adakite-like plutons that host the porphyry-type Cu and Mo deposits. The

  11. Metasomatic Stages and Scapolitization Effects on Chemical Composition of Pasveh Pluton, NW Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S A Mazhari; S Amini; J Ghalamghash; F Bea


    Pasveh gabbros are mafic component of a plutonic complex in the northwest SanandajSirjan Zone.These cumulative rocks are composed of plagioclase and calcic clinopyroxene (Cpx),which yield unusually high CaO (>19 wt.%) in whole-rock chemistry.Petrographical and geochemical data suggest that Pasveh gabbros can be divided into two groups:free scapolite and scapolite-bearing gabbros.The second group has higher Na2O,K2O,and P2O5 relative to free scapolite ones and is enriched in LIL (large ion lithophile) and HFS (high field strength) elements.Two stages of metasomatism affected the primary composition of mafic rocks.Firstly,high temperature reaction caused to invert primary high Ti clinopyroxene to low Ti clinopyroxene+high Ti amphibole.This reaction was extensive and included all gabbrolc samples.Hydrothermal fluids involved in this process can be derived from dehydration reactions of country rocks or from other magmas incorporated in the formation of Pasveh complex pluton.The second metasomatic stage relates to scapolitization of limited parts of gabbroic rocks.An external saline fluid,which is composed of major NaCI and minor KCI and P2O5 components,impacted locally on Pasveh gabbros and formed the second metasomatic stage.Possible sources of Na and CI are primary evaporites or brines,which were present in the host sediments of the gabbros.The carbonate-free nature of these hydrothermal fluids suggests that hydrothermal fluids responsible for the formation of scapolite in Pasveh gabbros are derived from marine evaporitic parentage.

  12. The evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of the Nasrand Plutonic complex by using mineral composition

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    Fatemeh Sarjoughian


    Full Text Available Introduction Mineral composition is sensitive to variations in the composition of the magma and can be used to characterize the physical conditions of crystallization such as temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity and water content. The studies have demonstrated that geobarometery by amphibole provides a tool for determining the depth of crystallization and knowledge of the depth of crystallization of hornblende through to solidification of calc-alkaline plutons (Anderson and Smith, 1995. The composition of pyroxene can be used as crystallization pressure and temperature indicators of pyroxene too. Anlytical methods The mineral compositions of the Nasrand intrusion were determined by electron microprobe, with special emphasis on the amphibole, feldspar, and pyroxene at the Naruto University, Japan, the EPMA (Jeol- JXA-8800R was used at operating conditions of 15 kV, 20 nA acceleration voltage and 20s counting time. Results The Nasrand intrusion (33°13'–33°15' N, 52°33'–52°34'E with an outcrop area of about 40 km2 is situated in the Urumieh–Dokhtar magmatic belt, SE of Ardestan. It is composed of granite and granodiorite and various dikes of diorite and gabbro which are intruded in it. It is intruded into Eocene volcanic rocks, including andesite, rhyolite, and dacite. The petrographical studies indicate that the granitic and granodioritic rocks contain major minerals such as quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, and amphibole, which are in an approximate equilibrium state. The gabbroic-dioritic dikes usually show microgranular porphyric texture. They mainly consist of plagioclase, amphibole, and pyroxene. The plagioclase shows variable composition from albite to oligoclase in the granitoid rocks and from oligoclase to bytownite in dioritic and gabbroic dikes (Deer et al., 1991. The amphiboles are calcic and their composition varies from hornblende to actinolite, whereas the composition of the basic dikes is inclined to hastingsite (Leake et

  13. U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of zircons in plutonic rocks from the central Famatinian arc, Argentina (United States)

    Otamendi, Juan E.; Ducea, Mihai N.; Cristofolini, Eber A.; Tibaldi, Alina M.; Camilletti, Giuliano C.; Bergantz, George W.


    The Famatinian arc formed around the South Iapetus rim during the Ordovician, when oceanic lithosphere subducted beneath the West Gondwana margin. We present combined in situ U-Th-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses for zircon to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Famatinian magmatism. Zircon crystals sampled from four intermediate and silicic plutonic rocks confirm previous observations showing that voluminous magmatism took place during a relatively short pulse between the Early and Middle Ordovician (472-465 Ma). The entire zircon population for the four plutonic rocks yields coherent εHf negative values and spreads over several ranges of initial εHf(t) units (-0.3 to -8.0). The range of εHf units in detrital zircons of Famatinian metasedimentary rocks reflects a prolonged history of the cratonic sources during the Proterozoic to the earliest Phanerozoic. Typical tonalites and granodiorites that contain zircons with evolved Hf isotopic compositions formed upon incorporating (meta)sedimentary materials into calc-alkaline metaluminous magmas. The evolved Hf isotope ratios of zircons in the subduction related plutonic rocks strongly reflect the Hf isotopic character of the metasedimentary contaminant, even though the linked differentiation and growth of the Famatinian arc crust was driven by ascending and evolving mantle magmas. Geochronology and Hf isotope systematics in plutonic zircons allow us understanding the petrogenesis of igneous series and the provenance of magma sources. However, these data could be inadequate for computing model ages and supporting models of crustal evolution.

  14. Mineral Chemistry and Crystallization Conditions of the Late Cretaceous Mamba Pluton from the Eastern Gangdese, Southern Tibetan Plateau

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    Xiaowei Li; Xuanxue Mo; Mark Scheltens; Qi Guan


    The Late Cretaceous Mamba granodiorite belongs to a part of the Mesozoic Gangdese con-tinental magmatic belt. No quantitative mineralogical study has been made hitherto, and hence the depth at which it formed is poorly constrained. Here we present mineralogical data for the Mamba pluton, in-cluding host rocks and their mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs), to provide insights into their overall crystallization conditions and information about magma mixing. All amphiboles in the Mamba pluton are calcic, withB(Ca+Na)>1.5, and Si=6.81–7.42 apfu for the host rocks and Si=6.77–7.35 apfu for the MMEs. The paramount cation substitutions in amphibole include edenite type and tschermakite type. Biotites both in the host rocks and the MMEs collectively have high MgO (13.19 wt.%–13.03 wt.%) contents, but define a narrow range of Al apfu (atoms per formula unit) variations (2.44–2.57). The oxygen fugacity es-timates are based on the biotite compositions cluster around the NNO buffer. The calculated pressure ranges from 1.2 to 2.1 kbar according to the aluminum-in-hornblende barometer. The computed pressure varies from 0.9 to 1.3 kbar based on the aluminum-in-biotite barometer which corresponds to an average depth of ca. 3.9 km. Besides, the estimates of crystallization pressures vary from 0.8 to 1.4 kbar based on the amphibole barometer proposed by Ridolfi et al. (2010), which can be equivalent to the depths ranging from 3.1 to 5.2 km. The MMEs have plagioclase oscillatory zonings and quartz aggregates, probably indi-cating the presence of magma mixing. Besides, core-to-rim element variations (Rb, Sr, Ba, and P) for the K-feldspar megacrysts serve as robust evidence to support magma mixing and crystal fractionation. This indicates the significance of the magma mixing that contributes to the formation of K-feldspar megacryst zonings in the Mamba pluton.

  15. Iron mineralization and associated skarn development around southern contact of the Eğrigöz pluton (northern Menderes Massif-Turkey) (United States)

    Uǧurcan, Okşan Gökçen; Oyman, Tolga


    The Eğrigöz pluton is located in the northern portion of the Menderes Massif, which is the largest known metamorphic core complex that is also characterized by large-scale extension. Kalkan and Karaağıl skarn deposits are located on the southern border of the Eğrigöz Pluton, whereas Katrandağ mineralization developed along the roof pendant. Skarnization in these three areas is associated with the peraluminous, I-type, calc-alkaline, high-K calc-alkaline Eğrigöz Pluton. Geochemical characteristics of the pluton indicate that it was generated in a continental arc setting. Kalkan, Karaağıl, and Katrandağ skarns are hosted in marble bands in two-mica gneiss of the Kalkan Formation, a locally dolomitic and clay-bearing limestone of the Arıkaya Formation and locally dolomitised limestone of the Balıkbaşı Formation, respectively. Skarn development occurred sequentially in two stages, prograde and retrograde. In Kalkan skarn, prograde stage is characterized by clinopyroxene (Di56-73 Hd26-43 Joh1-2), garnet (Adr45-69 Grs30-52 Alm0-1.4 Sps0.7-2.3), amphibole, and magnetite, whereas retrograde stage is dominated by epidote, amphibole, chlorite, quartz, and calcite. In Karaağıl, both calcic and magnesian skarn association occurred as a result of local variations in dolomite content in Arıkaya Formation. The prograde assemblage of magnesian skarn is composed chiefly of spinel, amphibole and olivine. These mineral assemblages were, partially or fully, altered to serpentine, talc, and chlorite during retrograde alteration. Mesh textures of the serpentine indicates that the serpentine was altered from olivine. Olivine was completely destroyed during retrograde alteration without relict grains remaining. Calcic skarn paragenesis include garnet (Grs36-80Adr20-62Alm0-2.2Sps0.2-2.6), clinopyroxene (Di81-92 Hd7-19 Jo0-1), and plagioclase, that belongs to the earlier stage, and amphibole of the retrograde stage. High grossular end member of the garnet probably

  16. Growth of a Large Composite Magma System: the EJB Pluton, Eastern California. (United States)

    Matty, D. J.; Vervoort, J.; Dufrane, A.; Hart, G.; Student, J.; Morgan, S.


    The composite EJB pluton crops out in the White-Inyo Mountains of eastern California, and comprises the Eureka Valley monzonite (EVM), the Joshua Flat quartz monzonite (JFQM), the Beer Creek granite (BCG), and an unnamed diorite. While sometimes equivocal, field relationships suggest that the EVM was emplaced first, followed by the JFQM, and finally the BCG; the diorite predates the BCG. Sylvester and others (GSAB, 1978) reported zircon U-Pb ages of 179±2 Ma for the EVM and 174±5 Ma for the JFQM. Coleman and others (GSAB, 2003) determined a U-Pb age of 179±3 Ma (via Pb-loss trajectory) for the BCG. Because of the uncertainty in the ages and ambiguous field relations, the sequence and duration of EJB magmatism remain unclear. To understand more fully the timing of EJB magmatism, we separated zircons from 12 samples collected from each of the main EJB units. These samples were characterized using light microscopy, SEM and CL techniques. U-Pb ages were determined from individual zircons by LA-ICP-MS following the method of Chang and others (G3, 2006). For the ages reported below, the reported uncertainties are based on factors within the analysis, but do not include external factors such as sample/standard bias or other matrix effects. Overall uncertainty in LA-ICPMS U-Pb geochronology is hard to assess, but we estimate that all ages reported below are subject to a minimum 2% uncertainty. We determined a concordant U-Pb age of 180±2 Ma for the EVM, which agrees with the results of Sylvester and others (1978). The unnamed diorite produced a concordant U-Pb age of 177±3 Ma. Concordant U-Pb ages of 172±2, 172±3, 173±2, 174±2, and 175±2 Ma were determined for individual samples of the JFQM and agree with the age reported by Sylvester and others (1978) of 174±5 Ma. Concordant U-Pb ages of 168±4, 168±3, 169±1, 172±2, and 172±2 Ma were determined for individual BCG samples. Within the reported error, there is no difference in age between individual samples of

  17. Petrography and mineral chemistry of the composite Deboullie Pluton, northern Maine, USA: implications for the genesis of Cu-Mo mineralization (United States)

    Loferski, P.J.; Ayuso, R.A.


    Biotite and apatite mineral chemistry, particularly halogen abundances and ratios, are used to investigate the relation of the two contrasting parts of the Deboullie composite pluton (syenite-granodiorite) located in northern Maine. Biotite mineral chemistry helps to classify the weakly developed porphyry-style mineralization (Cu-Mo) associated with syenitic rocks of the Deboullie pluton. Biotite and apatite occur within the matrix of the rocks and within small multiphase inclusions hosted by clinopyroxene. The inclusions are interpreted to be crystallized melt inclusions rather than solid inclusions, that were trapped by clinopyroxene during growth. The multiphase inclusions consist of K-feldspar + quartz + biotite + apatite + magnetite. On a regional scale, biotite compositions from granitic plutons in Maine do not vary in a systematic manner. -from Authors

  18. Zircon U-Pb Dating and Ore-bearing Properties Evaluation of Yanshanian Shuitou Pluton in Southern Jiangxi Province%赣南燕山期水头岩体的锆石铀-铅年代学研究及其含矿性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于扬; 陈振宇; 陈郑辉; 侯可军; 赵正; 许建祥; 张家菁; 曾载淋


    水头岩体是目前赣南地区缺少精确年龄数据的复式岩体之一.对赣南水头岩体中的锆石样品进行了U-Pb法年代学研究,测年结果显示该岩体主体年龄为(142.7±0.6)Ma,属于燕山期的产物,并不是前人认为的加里东期.但也存在前期(海西期和加里东期)的同位素年龄信息记录,说明该岩体是复式岩体,存在至少三期岩浆活动.对水头岩体进行了岩石学、地球化学研究,简要论述了岩石成因及含矿性.水头岩体主体为黑云母花岗岩,为过铝质钾玄岩系,轻稀土和重稀土中等分馏,负Eu异常明显.初步认为水头岩体是原地重熔交代作用形成的复式岩体.岩石化学资料数据显示,该岩体具备稀土成矿母岩的基本条件.%The Shuitou pluton is one of the composite plutons without accurate dating age in Southern Jiangxi province. Zircon samples taken from the Shuitou pluton were selected for U-Pb dating. The obtained age of (142.7 ± 0.6) Ma confirmed that this granitic pluton belongs to the Yanshanian era and not the Caledonian era as a previous study has reported. Other old ages were also obtained for this pluton (such as Hercynian and Caledonian), which indicates that there were at least three periods of magmatic activity. This study indicates that Shuitou pluton is a composite pluton. Combining the pelrological and geochemical study on this pluton, petrogenesis and ore-bearing properties are illustrated briefly in this paper. The Shuitou pluton mainly consists of biotite granites, which can be attributed to the peraluminous shoshonitic series with a middle fraclionation of light rare earth element (LREE) and heavy rare earth element (HREE), and obvious Eu anomalies. These data indicate that the Shuitou pluton is a composite pluton formed by the result of in-situ-melting of granite. The geochemical data from this study show that this pluton has major mineralization conditions of mother rock for REE deposits.

  19. Zircon U-Pb geochronology, Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic composition and geological significance of the Late Triassic Baijiazhuang and Lvjing granitic plutons in West Qinling Orogen (United States)

    Duan, Meng; Niu, Yaoling; Kong, Juanjuan; Sun, Pu; Hu, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Shuo; Li, Jiyong


    The Qinling Orogen was a consequence of continental collision of the South China Craton with the North China Craton in the Triassic and caused widespread granitoid magmatism. However, the petrogenesis of these granitoids remains controversial. In this paper, we choose the Baijiazhuang (BJZ) and Lvjing (LJ) plutons in the West Qinling Orogen for a combined study of the zircon U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock major and trace element compositions and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic characteristics. We obtained zircon crystallization ages of 216 Ma and 212 Ma for the BJZ and the LJ plutons, respectively. The granitoid samples from both plutons have high K2O metaluminous to peraluminous compositions. They are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), light rare earth elements (LREEs) and depleted in high field-strength elements (HFSEs) with significant negative Eu anomalies. The BJZ samples have initial Sr isotopic ratios of 0.7032 to 0.7078, εNd(t) of - 10.99 to - 8.54 and εHf (t) of - 10.22 to - 6.41. The LJ granitoids have initial Sr isotopic ratios of 0.7070 to 0.7080, εNd(t) of - 5.37 to - 4.58 and εHf(t) of - 3.64 to - 1.78. The enriched isotopic characteristics of the two plutons are consistent with their source being dominated by ancient continental crust. However, two BJZ samples show depleted Sr isotope compositions, which may infer possible involvement of mantle materials. Mantle-derived melt, which formed from partial melting of mantle wedge peridotite facilitated by dehydration of the subducted/subducting Mianlue ocean crust, provide the required heat for the crustal melting while also contributing to the compositions of these granitoids. That is, the two granitic plutons are magmatic responses to the closure of the Mianlue ocean basin and the continental collision between the Yangtze and South Qinling crustal terranes.

  20. Geochemical evidence for contribution of ore-forming materials from peraluminous granite basement-- Taking Fucheng pluton and No. 6722 uranium deposit in southern Jiangxi Province as examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Bangtong(章邦桐); CHEN; Peirong(陈培荣); YANG; Dongsheng(杨东生); KONG; Xinggong(孔兴功)


    Using the induced fission-track method, mobile uranium leaching and lead isotope analysis, this work obtianed geochemical features of the peraluminous Fucheng granite basement and the host rock (shoshonite) of the No. 6722 uranium deposit in southern Jiangxi Province. (i) Uranium contents of the leucocratic rock-forming minerals (0.18 ?g/g for quartz, 0.36 ?g/g for feldspar) are lower than the uranium content of the whole rock (4.6 ?g/g). Biotite and some accessory mineral inclusions (zircon, monazite and uraninite) are the main uranium carriers of the Fucheng granite pluton. The fissure uranium in altered minerals (hydromica and chlorite) increased evidently. (ii) Leachable rate of mobile uranium in the biotite granite is 10.4%, while that in the altered granite increased to 31%. (iii) Caculation based on lead isotopes shows that during alteration the Fucheng granite lost uranium (?U = ?37% - ?65%), whereas the Caotaobei shoshonite gained uranium (?U = +37%- +58%). These features suggest that the ore-forming material of the No. 6722 uranium deposit was mainly derived from the altered peraluminous granite basement of Fucheng pluton.

  1. Time-scales of assembly and thermal history of a composite felsic pluton: constraints from the Emerald Lake area, northern Canadian Cordillera, Yukon (United States)

    Coulson, Ian M.; Villeneuve, Mike E.; Dipple, Gregory M.; Duncan, Robert A.; Russell, James K.; Mortensen, James K.


    Knowledge of the time-scales of emplacement and thermal history during assembly of composite felsic plutons in the shallow crust are critical to deciphering the processes of crustal growth and magma chamber development. Detailed petrological and chemical study of the mid-Cretaceous, composite Emerald Lake pluton, from the northern Canadian Cordillera, Yukon Territory, coupled with U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology, indicates that this pluton was intruded as a series of magmatic pulses. Intrusion of these pulses produced a strong petrological zonation from augite syenite, hornblende quartz syenite and monzonite, to biotite granite. Our data further indicate that multiple phases were emplaced and cooled to below the mineral closure temperatures over a time-scale on the order of the resolution of the 40Ar/ 39Ar technique (˜1 Myr), and that emplacement occurred at 94.3 Ma. Simple thermal modelling and heat conduction calculations were used to further constrain the temporal relationships within the intrusion. These calculations are consistent with the geochronology and show that emplacement and cooling were complete in less than 100 kyr and probably 70±5 kyr. These results demonstrate that production, transport and emplacement of the different phases of the Emerald Lake pluton occurred essentially simultaneously, and that these processes must also have been closely related in time and space. By analogy, these results provide insights into the assembly and petrogenesis of other complex intrusions and ultimately lead to an understanding of the processes involved in crustal development.

  2. Iron variation within a granitic pluton as determined by near-infrared reflectance (United States)

    Baird, A. K.


    One-hundred fifty-one previously chemically analyzed samples of tonalite from the Lakeview Mountains pluton, southern California batholith, were analyzed for their iron content using near-infrared spectrophotometry. Compared to the earlier analyses of the same sample set by X-ray fluorescence spectrography, the infrared data have higher analytical variance but clearly define patterns of compositional zonation in the pluton which are closely similar to those patterns obtained from X-ray data; petrogenetic interpretations for the pluton would be the same from either data set. Infrared spectral data can be obtained directly in the field with relatively simple instruments and field measurements can be made to average local heterogeneities that often mask significant plutonic variations.

  3. Petrogenesis and significance of the Hongshan syenitic pluton,South Taihang: zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age, chemical compositions and Sr-Nd isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Hongshan syenitic pluton (South Taihang) is mainly made up of hornblende syenite and minor granite. SHRIMP zircon dating yields a U-Pb age of 135 ± 2.7 Ma for the emplacement of the pluton, while biotite Rb-Sr isotopic data give an isochron of 120.3 ± 2.4 Ma. Hongshan syenites show low silica, high alkalis and LILE such as Sr, and exhibit negligible Eu anomalies or slightly positive anomalies in the REE patterns. The syenites show quite enriched isotopic compositions with Isr from 0. 7052 to 0. 7102 and εNd( t ) from - 7.5 to - 11. 1. Petrogenesis of the pluton can be that partial melting of an enriched lithospheric mantle gave birth to an alkali basaltic magma, which subsequently underplated in the lower crust and experienced a coupled fractionation of ferromagnesian phases like pyroxene and hornblende and minor ( < 10 % ) contamination of lower continental crust, producing the Hongshan syenites that partially evolved into granite through combined fractionation of hornblende and feldspar. Our data are not in agreement with a previous model that the syenites originated from melting of lower crust in a thickened crust circumstance, and thus do not support the speculation of "East China Plateau" in the Mesozoic.

  4. Origin of the fluorine-rich highly differentiated granites from the Qianlishan composite plutons (South China) and implications for polymetallic mineralization (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Ma, Xinghua; Wang, Zhiqiang


    Many composite granite plutons occur in South China, accompanied by large-scale polymetallic mineralization. Each composite pluton is composed of main-phase granite and late-stage highly differentiated granite. Traditionally, the highly differentiated granite is thought to be residual melt of the former via fractionation, and ore-forming materials and fluids are from granite magma itself. We propose a different model for the origin of the granites and related mineralization, based on petrological and geochemical studies on the Qianlishan composite plutons that host the supergiant Shizhuyuan W-Sn-Bi-Mo deposit. The main-phase granite shows features of normal granites, while the highly differentiated granite is characterized by F-rich, water-deficient, low fO2, alkalinity, REE tetrad effect, and modified behavior of some trace elements, e.g., very high K/Ba and low K/Rb and Zr/Hf ratios. We suggest that the parent magma of the highly differentiated granite was derived from melting of dominantly lower crustal rocks, triggered by underplating of a new pulse of basaltic magmas; small amounts of basaltic magmas and volatiles such as fluorine were involved in the source of the granite. Addition of fluorine lowered the solidus temperature and viscosity of granite magma, and thus prolonged the process of magma evolution. This resulted in extreme fractional crystallization, and intense interaction between melt and circulating waters from country rocks, forming the unusual geochemical features of the granite. The high temperature circulating waters, along with metamorphic fluids released from deep crustal rocks, subsequently, extract ore-forming metals from country rocks through forming F-bearing complexation, forming the polymetallic deposits.

  5. Complex trace element effects of source mixing-fractional crystallization composite processes in Kalaan granodiorite pluton along Wulungu tectonic belt,northern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; A.Masuda


    Mixing-fractional crystallization composite processes generate 6 complex patterns,which aresynthesized into 3 models,on C21/C31-C11/C31 ratio correlation plots of trace eleroents E1,E2,E3 according totheir relative incompatibility.Three of the six effects are clearly displayed on ratio-ratio correlation plots oftrace elements in the Kalaan granodiorite pluton,indicative of a source mixing-fractional crystallization compositeprocess.The overlying lithospheric mantle was modified by the subduction of oceanic plate during Palaeozoic.The incompatibility order of the 7 concerned trace elements is DTa

  6. The Shahewan rapakivi-textured granite – quartz monzonite pluton, Qinling orogen, central China: mineral composition and petrogenetic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Wang


    Full Text Available The Mesozoic Shahewan pluton consists of four texturally different types of biotite-hornblende quartz monzonite. In the porphyritic types alkali feldspar occurs as euhedral or ovoidal megacrysts that are often mantled by one or more plagioclase shells, and as smaller grains in the groundmass. Quartz, plagioclase (An20–28, biotite, and hornblende occur as inclusions in the alkali feldspar megacrystsand, more abundantly, in the groundmass. Euhedral quartz crystals in the groundmass are not as common and well developed as in typical rapakivi granite. Compared to typical rapakivi granites, the mafic minerals (biotite and hornblende are rich in Mg and poor in Fe, and the whole rock is low in Si, K, F, Ga, Zr, LREE, Fe/Mg, and K/Na. The rocks of the Shahewan pluton are thus regarded as rapakivi-textured quartz monzonites and granites but not true rapakivi granites.

  7. Spatial and temporal evolution of Liassic to Paleocene arc activity in southern Peru unraveled by zircon U-Pb and Hf in-situ data on plutonic rocks (United States)

    Demouy, Sophie; Paquette, Jean-Louis; de Saint Blanquat, Michel; Benoit, Mathieu; Belousova, Elena A.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; García, Fredy; Tejada, Luis C.; Gallegos, Ricardo; Sempere, Thierry


    Cordilleran-type batholiths are built by prolonged arc activity along active continental margins and provide detailed magmatic records of the subduction system evolution. They complement the stratigraphic record from the associated forearcs and backarcs. We performed in-situ U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotope measurements on zircon grains from a large set of plutonic rocks from the Coastal Batholith in southern Peru. This batholith emplaced into the Precambrian basement and the Mesozoic sedimentary cover. We identify two major periods of voluminous arc activity, during the Jurassic (200-175 Ma) and the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene (90-60 Ma). Jurassic arc magmatism mainly resulted in the emplacement of a dominantly mafic suite with ɛHf values ranging from - 9.5 to + 0.1. Published ages south of the Arequipa area suggest that the arc migrated southwestward out of the study area during the Middle Jurassic. After a magmatic gap of 85 Ma, arc activity abruptly resumed 90 Ma ago in Arequipa. Intrusive bodies emplaced into both basement and older Jurassic intrusions and strata. This activity culminated between 70 and 60 Ma with the emplacement of very large volumes of dominantly quartz-dioritic magmas. This last episode may be considered as a flare-up event, characterized by intense magmatic transfers into the crust and rapid relief creation. The Late Cretaceous-Paleocene initial ɛHf are shifted toward positive values (up to + 3.3 and + 2.6) compared to the Jurassic ones, indicating either a larger input of juvenile magmas, a lesser interaction with the ancient crust, or an increase of re-melting of young mantle-derived mafic lower crust. These magmatic fluxes with juvenile component are coeval with the onset of the crustal thickening at 90 Ma and represent a significant contribution to the formation of the continental crust in this area.

  8. Zircon U-Pb Ages Chronicle 3 Myr of Episodic Crystallization in the Composite Miocene Tatoosh Pluton, Mount Rainier National Park, Washington Cascades (United States)

    Bacon, C. R.; Du Bray, E. A.; Wooden, J. L.; Mazdab, F. K.


    Zircon geochronology of upper crustal plutons can constrain longevities of intermediate to silicic magmatic systems. As part of a larger study of the geochemistry and metallogeny of Tertiary Cascades magmatic arc rocks, we used the USGS-Stanford SHRIMP RG to determine 20 to 28 238U-206Pb ages for zircons from each of 6 quartz monzodiorite (qmd), quartz monzonite (qm), or granodiorite (grd) samples representative of the Tatoosh pluton, and one grd from the nearby Carbon River stock. The 7x12 km composite Tatoosh pluton, discontinuously exposed on the south flank of Mount Rainier, consists of at least 4 petrographic/compositional phases, here termed Pyramid Peak, Nisqually, Reflection Lake, and Tatoosh. These collectively intrude gently folded and weakly metamorphosed basaltic andesite flows and volcaniclastic rocks of the Eocene Ohanapecosh Formation, silicic ignimbrites and sedimentary rocks of the Oligocene Stevens Ridge Formation, and basaltic to intermediate volcanic rocks of the Miocene Fifes Peak Formation. Histograms and relative probability plots of U- Pb ages indicate 2 to 4 age populations within each sample. The weighted mean age of each of the youngest populations (all ±2σ) is interpreted as the time of final solidification: Pyramid Peak qmd (58.5% SiO2) 17.4±0.2 Ma, Nisqually grd (in Paradise Valley; 65.4% SiO2) 16.7±0.2 Ma, Nisqually grd (at Christine Falls; 66.4% SiO2) 17.3±0.2 Ma, Reflection Lake qm (along Pinnacle Peak trail; 66.6% SiO2) 17.1±0.2 Ma, Tatoosh grd (in Stevens Canyon; 67.8% SiO2) 18.2±0.2 Ma, Tatoosh grd (south of Louise Lake; 69.3% SiO2) 19.3±0.1 Ma, and Carbon River grd (68.0% SiO2) 17.4±0.3 Ma. The older Nisqually grd age is indistinguishable from a TIMS zircon age of 17.5±0.1 Ma reported by Mattinson (GSA Bulletin 88:1509-1514, 1977) for grd from a nearby locality. None of the 164 SHRIMP-RG U-Pb ages, including cores, is older than 21 Ma. The relatively small, high-level pluton likely was emplaced and solidified in pulses

  9. [Analysis of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Plasma Mass Spectrometry of Pangxidong Composite Granitoid Pluton and Its Implications for Magmatic Differentiation]. (United States)

    Zeng, Chang-yu; Ding, Ru-xin; Li, Hong-zhong; Zhou, Yong-zhang; Niu, Jia; Zhang, Jie-tang


    Pangxidong composite granitoid pluton located in the southwestern margin of Yunkai massif. The metamorphic grade of this pluton increases from outside to inside, that is, banded-augen granitic gneisses, gneissoid granites and granites distribute in order from edge to core. X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Plasma Mass Spectrometry are conducted to study the geochemical characteristics of the three types of rocks. The result shows that all the three types of rocks are peraluminous rocks and their contents of main elements and rare earth elements change gradually. From granitic gneisses to granites, the contents of Al₂O₃, CaO, MgO, TiO₂, total rare earth elements and light rare earth elements increase, but the contents of SiO₂ and heavy rare earth elements decrease. It is suggested that the phylogenetic relationship exists between granitic gneisses, gneissoid granites and granites during the multi-stage tectonic evolution process. Furthermore, the remelting of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks in Yunkai massif is probably an important cause of granitoid rocks forming. The evolutionary mechanism is probably that SiO₂ and heavy rare earth elements were melt out from the protolith and gradually enriched upward, but Al₂O₃, CaO, MgO, TiO₂ and light rare earth elements enriched downward.

  10. Correct nomenclature for the Angadimogar pluton, Kerala, southwestern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H M Rajesh


    The proper usage of modal composition and geochemical classification of granitoids is discussed for assigning a proper nomenclature for the Angadimogar pluton,Kerala,southwestern India.This discussion is mainly aimed at addressing questions concerning the nomenclature of Angadimogar pluton (syenite vs. granite).Modal composition and whole-rock XRD data clearly show that the pluton exposed near Angadimogar is a quartz-syenite and its geochemistry is typical of a ferroan, metaluminous,alkali (A-type)granitoid.

  11. Petrology of some Mexican mesozoic-cenozoic plutons: Sources and tectonic environments (United States)

    Stein, G.; Lapierre, H.; Monod, O.; Zimmermann, J.-L.; Vidal, R.


    In central and southern Mexico, three Late Mesozoic to Early Tertiary plutonic suites have been investigated. They record the evolution of the Mexican Pacific margin through space and time and more specifically its crustal thickness. In Central Mexico the La Angostura pluton (110-100 Ma) is calc-alkaline and intrudes a Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous exotic arc, represented by the Guanajuato magmatic sequence. Both pluton and country rocks were affected by a greenschist facies metamorphism. Their high ɛNd(i) and low ɛSr(i) values are more or less similar to those of the Guanajuato arc tholeiitic rocks and suggest that both the calc-alkaline intrusions and the arc tholeiitic suite were derived from a mantle source essentially uncontaminated by a crustal component. The La Angostura calc-alkaline plutonic rocks could represent the remnants of the mature stage of this arc before its tectonic emplacement on the western margin of the North American craton. In the vicinity of the La Angostura pluton, the Eocene (ɛ50 Ma) Comanja and La Estancia granodiorites are chemically similar to volcanic arc granites and their low ɛNd(i) and high ɛSr(i) ratios suggest that they were derived from a mantle source highly contaminated by continental crust. Finally, the youngest plutonic suite (38 Ma), exposed near Zihuatanejo ranges from gabbro to granodiorite and displays calc-alkaline compositional features. Their ɛNd(i) and ɛSr(i) ratios indicate that the Zihuatanejo plutonic suite was derived from a mantle source which has been weakly contaminated by subducted sediments and/or continental crust. The contrasting petrology, chemistry and isotopic ratios of the Comanja-La Estancia granodiorites and the Zihuatanejo gabbro-granodiorite suite reflect a difference in thickness of their continental basement.


    Barrick, J.G.; Manion, J.P.


    A precipitation process for recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution is described. In the process for precipitating plutonium as plutonous peroxide, hydroxylamine or hydrazine is added to the plutoniumcontaining solution prior to the addition of peroxide to precipitate plutonium. The addition of hydroxylamine or hydrazine increases the amount of plutonium precipitated as plutonous peroxide. (AEC)

  13. Early paleozoic granodioritic plutons in the Shedong W-Mo ore district, Guangxi, southern China: Products of re-melting of middle Proterozoic crust due to magma underplating (United States)

    Jiang, Xingzhou; Kang, Zhiqiang; Xu, Jifeng; Feng, Zuohai; Pang, Chongjin; Fang, Guicong; Wu, Jiachang; Xiong, Songquan


    The Shedong W-Mo ore district in the south-central Dayaoshan Uplift of Guangxi, southern China hosts the Baoshan and Pingtoubei deposits, both of which occur in granodioritic plutons. Zircon U-Pb dating of granodiorites and its mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) in the Baoshan deposit yielded ages of 439.8 ± 3.2 and 441.1 ± 2.2 Ma, respectively. Granodiorites have moderate SiO2 (54.5-63.0 wt.%) and high Al2O3 (15.4-17.8 wt.%) contents, wide variations in major element ratios, significant rare earth element fractionation, and small negative Eu anomalies. They are rich in Th, U, Zr, and Hf, and depleted in Ba, Nb, and Ti. Their initial 87Sr/86Sr, εNd(t), and εHf(t) values are in the range of 0.7086-0.7091, -5.2 to -6.6 and -6.3 to +1.6, respectively. Rounded or lenticular MMEs have relatively low silica and high mafic components, depletion in Eu, Sr, and Zr, and marked negative Eu anomalies. Rb/Sr and Nb/Ta ratios, and εNd(t) and εHf(t) values of the MMEs are higher than those of host granodiorites, indicating a different magmatic source. Zircon U-Pb dating of the unexposed granodiorite porphyry in the Pingtoubei deposit yielded an age of 440.0 ± 1.7 Ma. The granodiorite porphyries have high SiO2 and low K2O, FeOT, and MgO contents, with similar trace element features to the granodiorites at the Baoshan deposit, although the former has small negative Eu anomalies. Its initial 87Sr/86Sr values range from 0.7162 to 0.7173, εNd(t) values from -8.7 to -12.3, and εHf(t) values from -7.8 to +1.3, indicative of a crustal source. Nd and Hf two-stage model ages of the granodiorites, MMEs, and granodiorite porphyries have a narrow range between 1.3 and 2.2 Ga. We propose that the granodiorites and MMEs at the Baoshan deposit were produced through re-melting of middle Proterozoic crust as a result of underplating of mantle-derived magmas in a transitional compression-to-extension tectonic setting. Mantle-derived magmas provided the heat and material for the formation

  14. Bullialdus - Strengthening the case for lunar plutons (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.


    Although many craters expose materials of a composition different from that of the local surroundings, Bullialdus has excavated material representing three distinct stratigraphic zones that occur in the upper 6 km of crust, the top two of which are gabbroic and the deepest of which is noritic. This three-component stratigraphy at Bullialdus provides strong evidence that the lunar crust includes pockets of compositionally layered material reminiscent of mafic layered plutons. When combined with previous information on the compositional diversity at other large craters, these remote analyses obtained in a geologic context substantially strengthen the hypothesis suggested from lunar samples that plutons play an integral role in lunar crustal evolution.

  15. Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the early Mesozoic Xitian granitic pluton in the middle Qin-Hang Belt, South China: Constraints from zircon U-Pb ages and bulk-rock trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions (United States)

    Wu, Qianhong; Cao, Jingya; Kong, Hua; Shao, Yongjun; Li, Huan; Xi, Xiaoshuang; Deng, Xuantong


    The Xitian pluton in southeast Hunan province is one of the early Mesozoic (Indosinian) granitic plutons in the South China Block. It is composed of biotite adamellite with K-feldspar megacrysts, biotite adamellite, and biotite granite that have U-Pb zircon ages of 229.9 ± 1.4 Ma, 223.6 ± 1.3 Ma, and 224.0 ± 1.4 Ma, respectively. The Indosinian granitoids in the Xitian pluton belong to S-type granites, with highly radiogenic initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.71397-0.71910), negative εNd(t) values ranging from -10.1 to -9.4, and old Nd model ages (1858-1764 Ma). They are enriched in radiogenic Pb isotopes, with (206Pb/204Pb)t ranging from 18.130 to 18.903, (207Pb/204Pb)t from 15.652 to 15.722, and (208Pb/204Pb)t from 38.436 to 39.037, respectively. These features indicate that the granitoidswithin the Xitian pluton were formed from magmas generated by remelting of metapelite and metapsammite of the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic basement at temperatures of ca. 800 °C, with low oxygen fugacity. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of the rocks from Xitian pluton indicate that the granitic magmas were mixed with less than 10% mantle-derived magmas. We suggest that the Xitian pluton was emplaced in an extensional tectonic setting related to release of compressional stresses within the thickened crust during the early Mesozoic.

  16. Compositional zonation of the shallow La Gloria pluton (Central Chile) by late-stage extraction/redistribution of residual melts by channelization: Numerical modeling (United States)

    Aravena, A.; Gutiérrez, F. J.; Parada, M. A.; Payacán, Í.; Bachmann, O.; Poblete, F.


    The origin of highly evolved magmas (e.g. rhyolites) has been a long-standing controversy in earth sciences. They are commonly thought to be generated in the upper crust by melt extraction from mush zones, but due to the rapid cooling of magma reservoirs in such shallow and typically cold environments, high magma emplacement rates of intermediate magmas are thought to be necessary to maintain large silicic mushes above the solidus long enough for the high-SiO2 melts extraction to occur. Late-stage redistribution of interstitial melts (i.e. heat and mass) by channels/dikes within those mushes has been invoked as a mechanism to preserve silicic mushes above their solidi for longer periods (i.e. delaying their final crystallization), but the nature of this process and its implications on plutons zonation are still poorly understood. Here, using time-dependent numerical modeling, we study the feasibility of late-stage interstitial melt extraction/redistribution by channels/dikes from a crystalline mush. Our model accounts for magma fluid dynamics, extraction of residual melts and thermal evolution of the crystallizing magma system and its hosting rocks, considering the thermal effect of the redistributing material. The model was applied to explain the anatomy of the well-documented La Gloria pluton (LGP, Central Chile), which exhibits increasing contents of SiO2 and abundant leucocratic dikes toward the margins, interpreted as trapped residual melts generated elsewhere in the magma chamber. Our results suggest that favorable conditions for extracting late-stage residual melts are reached at temperatures of 750 °C (60 vol% crystallinity), at least for compositions similar to LGP dikes. Simulations correspond to 30 kyr of reservoir cooling, when the concentric compositional zonation of LGP is reproduced after a short period of extraction (< 15 kyr) and outward redistribution of silicic melt, with an extracted mass fraction of up to 0.17. An inward growing crystal

  17. Reconnaissance geochemical exploration of the plutons of quartz monzonite and granite in the Jabal Lababa and Ar Rayth areas, southern Asir, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Overstreet, W.C.; Assegaff, A.B.; Jambi, Mohammed; Hussain, M.A.; Selner, G.I.; Matzko, J.J.


    Geochemical reconnaissance for rare metals in plutons of albite-muscovite granite and quartz monzonite in the vicinity of Jabal Lababa disclosed positive geochemical anomalies for beryllium, tantalum, thorium, lanthanum, niobium, tin, yttrium, and zirconium. The low anomalous values for the rare metals in rocks and the short mechanical dispersion trains, seldom exceeding 4 km in length, of rare-metal-bearing heavy minerals, are interpreted to indicate that primary deposits of these metals are lacking, and any placers would be small and low in tenor.

  18. Thermal evolution of plutons: a parameterized approach. (United States)

    Spera, F


    A conservation-of-energy equation has been derived for the spatially averaged magma temperature in a spherical pluton undergoing simultaneous crystallization and both internal (magma) and external (hydrothermal fluid) thermal convection. The model accounts for the dependence of magma viscosity on crystallinity, temperature, and bulk composition; it includes latent heat effects and the effects of different initial water concentrations in the melt and quantitatively considers the role that large volumes of circulatory hydrothermal fluids play in dissipating heat. The nonlinear ordinary differential equation describing these processes has been solved for a variety of magma compositions, initial termperatures, initial crystallinities, volume ratios of hydrothermal fluid to magma, and pluton sizes. These calculations are graphically summarized in plots of the average magma temperature versus time after emplacement. Solidification times, defined as the time necessary for magma to cool from the initial emplacement temperature to the solidus temperature vary as R(1,3), where R is the pluton radius. The solidification time of a pluton with a radius of 1 kilometer is 5 x 10(4) years; for an otherwise identical pluton with a radius of 10 kilometers, the solidification time is approximately 10(6) years. The water content has a marked effect on the solidification time. A granodiorite pluton with a radius of 5 kilometers and either 0.5 or 4 percent (by weight) water cools in 3.3 x 10(5) or 5 x 10(4) years, respectively. Convection solidification times are usually but not always less than conduction cooling times.

  19. Thermal effects of the Santa Eulália Plutonic Complex (southern Portugal on the meta-igneous and metasedimentary host rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz, C.


    Full Text Available The Santa Eulália Plutonic Complex (SEPC is a late-Variscan granitic body located in the northern part of the Ossa Morena Zone, a inner zone of the Variscan Iberian Massif. The SEPC host rocks are composed of meta-igneous and metasedimentary units, from Upper Proterozoic to Paleozoic ages, with a NW-SE structure, cross-cut by the SEPC. The SEPC host rocks, with low grade metamorphism show well preserved primary sedimentary or igneous mineralogical, textural and structural features. The thermal effect induced by the SEPC is restricted to the roof pendants. At N and NE of the SEPC, textures and paragenesis resulting from thermal metamorphism, are not related to the SEPC intrusion but to a previous magmatism, controlled by the NW-SE regional anisotropies. The restriction of the thermal effects to the pluton roof may be caused by a combination of several interrelated factors: higher volume of granitic mass, thermal effect by advection of fluids and longer period of prevalence of high thermal conditions. The geochemical study of SEPC host rocks shows the heterogeneous character and diversity of metasedimentary, igneous and meta-igneous rocks. The whole rock geochemical data indicate that all the metasedimentary lithologies derived from an upper continental crustal source and the igneous and meta-igneous rocks show no evidence of metasomatic effects by the SEPC emplacement.El Complejo Plutónico de Santa Eulalia (CPSE es un cuerpo granítico tardi-Varisco situado en la parte norte de la Zona de Ossa Morena, en la zona interior del Macizo Ibérico Varisco. Las rocas encajantes del CPSE están compuestas por unidades meta-ígneas y metasedimentarias, de edades que van desde el Proterozoico Superior hasta el Paleozoico, con una estructura de dirección NW-SE, cortada por el CPSE. Las rocas encanjantes del CPSE, con metamorfismo de bajo grado conservan estructuras, mineralogía y textura primarias. El efecto térmicoinducido por el CPSE se limita a los

  20. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-O isotope composition of granitoids of the Early Cretaceous Copiapó plutonic complex (27°30'S), Chile (United States)

    Marschik, Robert; Fontignie, Denis; Chiaradia, Massimo; Voldet, Pia


    Early Cretaceous plutonic rocks exposed south of Copiapó form part of the Coastal Batholith of northern Chile. These rocks intrude arc-derived volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks and marine limestones that were deposited in the Early Cretaceous Atacama backarc basin. The Copiapó plutonic complex consists mainly of calc-alkaline, medium- to coarse-grained diorite, granodiorite, tonalite, monzodiorite, and quartz monzonite. The plutonic rocks are subalkaline to alkaline, metaluminous, magnetite-series, volcanic arc, I-type granitoids. Batholithic magmas are a heat, potential fluid, metal, and sulphur source for the hydrothermal iron oxide-rich Cu-Au mineralization in the Candelaria-Punta del Cobre district. Ore-related hydrothermal alteration affected large portions of the Copiapó complex. The least altered batholithic rocks have initial 87Sr/ 86Sr of 0.703070-0.703231; initial 143Nd/ 144Nd of 0.512733-0.512781; and 206Pb/ 204Pb, 207Pb/ 204Pb, and 208Pb/ 204Pb of 18.428-18.772, 15.550-15.603, and 38.127-38.401, respectively. The δ18O values for these rocks range from +6.9 to +8.6‰. Isotope signatures and trace element distributions suggest that the magmas are mantle derived. A subduction fluid-modified mantle source may explain the geochemical characteristics of the Copiapó complex. The ascent of magmas occurred along deep-rooted structures without significant crustal contamination, though minor contamination by relatively young (e.g. Jurassic) igneous rocks during ascent is possible. Intrusive rocks with high-K to shoshonitic characteristics probably represent residual liquids of less evolved magmas. The regional geologic context suggests that the plutons of the Copiapó complex were emplaced at a relatively shallow crustal level of 2-3 km.

  1. Petrological and geochemical constraints on the origin of mafic dykes intruding the composite Kaçkar Pluton from the eastern Blacksea magmatic arc, NE Turkey (United States)

    Aydin, Faruk; Oguz, Simge; Baser, Rasim; Uysal, Ibrahim; Sen, Cüneyt; Karsli, Orhan; Kandemir, Raif


    Geological, petrographical and geochemical data of mafic dykes intruding the composite Kaçkar Pluton from the eastern Blacksea magmatic arc (EBMA), NE Turkey, provide new insights into the nature of the metasomatizing agents in subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the region during the late Mesozoic-early Tertiary. Mafic dykes from the Çaykara and Hayrat (Trabzon), and also Ikizdere (Rize) areas from the northern margin of the EBMA consist of basalts, dolerites, lamprophyres (basic member) and lesser basaltic andesites and trachyandesites (evolved member). All dykes have no deformation and metamorphism. The outcrops of these dykes vary, with thickness from 0.2 to 10 m. and visible length from 3 to 20 m. In general, the mafic dykes dip steeply and cut directly across the Kaçkar Pluton, and show NW- and NE-trending, roughly parallel to the orientations of the EBMA main faults. Most of the dyke samples display subaphyric to porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of plagioclase (up to 10%), clinopyroxene (5-20%), amphibole (5-15%), and some contain variable amount of biotite (5-20%), lesser quartz (1-2%), and minor euhedral zircon, apatite and Fe-Ti oxides. The basic members of the mafic dykes have SiO2 of 44.1-51.9%, MgO of 4.5-12.1%, and TiO2 >mostly 0.8% (up to 2.3%) with K2O+Na2O of 1.3-6.6% with mostly subalkaline character. They are relatively high in mg-number (0.45-0.73) and transition metals (V=171-376 ppm, Co=22-45 ppm, Ni=3-148 ppm, and Sc=21-49 ppm). The evolved members of the dykes exhibit relatively higher SiO2 (57.1-60.2%) and K2O+Na2O (5.6-9.0%), and lower MgO (2.2-5.9%) and TiO2 (0.5-0.8%) contents than those from the basic dykes. Also, these samples have slightly low mg-number (0.41-0.65) and transition metals (V=99-172 ppm, Co=9-22 ppm, Ni=1-43 ppm, and Sc=9-20 ppm). In the Harker diagrams, all samples of the mafic dykes form a continuous array, and exhibit similar geochemical characteristics. In general, SiO2 inversely correlates with MgO, Fe

  2. Composite fish diversity off southern California (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map shows composite diversity averaged between 4 data sets: RecFIN recreational hook and line, SCCWRP trawls, NMFS benthic trawls, and kelp diver surveys....

  3. Death Valley turtlebacks: Mesozoic contractional structures overprinted by Cenozoic extension and metamorphism beneath syn-extensional plutons (United States)

    Pavlis, T. L.; Miller, M.; Serpa, L.


    -thrust belts. Our work to the east of Death Valley suggests these thrusts were part of a NW trending thrust system that overprinted an older NE trending fold-thrust system that tracks into the Death Valley region from Nevada. These NW trending thrusts probably underlie all of the southern Black Mountains (south of the turtlebacks) and we suggest that pre-extensional structural relief along these basement thrusts placed basement at shallow crustal levels throughout what is now the Black Mountains; a conclusion consistent with the absence of rocks younger than Cambrian beneath Tertiary unconformities throughout the southern Death Valley region. In Late Miocene time, a major detachment system formed and the turtlebacks represent a mid-crustal shear zone developed during that time period, but this system is older, and structurally beneath younger detachments systems that comprise the Amargosa fault system. During motion on the detachment, an ~2km thick plutonic sheet was emplaced along the shear zone forming the Miocene plutonic assemblages of the Black Mountains, and produced upper amphibolite facies metamorphic assemblages along the floor of the pluton in what are now the Copper Canyon and Mormon Point turtlebacks, but the Badwater Turtleback escaped this metamorphism due to a different structural position. Motion continued along the floor of the pluton but syn-extensional folding produced structural relief along folds with axes parallel to the extension direction. Ultimately a new detachment system cut obliquely across the older extensional system, removing the roof of the pluton, but cutting down to its floor in the turtlebacks. This fault system formed a complex detachment system updip in the famous 'Amargosa Chaos', and removing the entire cover sequence from the Black Mountains (~10-12km of crustal section). The turtlebacks are therefore a composite structure in which extension contemporaneous with folding, presumably as a result of distributed transcurrent motion during

  4. The chemical and isotopic differentiation of an epizonal magma body: Organ Needle pluton, New Mexico (United States)

    Verplanck, P.L.; Farmer, G.L.; McCurry, M.; Mertzman, S.A.


    Major and trace element, and Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of whole rocks and mineral separates from the Oligocene, alkaline Organ Needle pluton (ONP), southern New Mexico, constrain models for the differentiation of the magma body parental to this compositionally zoned and layered epizonal intrusive body. The data reveal that the pluton is rimmed by lower ??(Nd) (~-5) and higher 87Sr/86Sr (~0.7085) syenitic rocks than those in its interior (??(Nd) ~ 2, 87Sr/86Sr ~0.7060) and that the bulk compositions of the marginal rocks become more felsic with decreasing structural depth. At the deepest exposed levels of the pluton, the ??(Nd)~-5 lithology is a compositionally heterogeneous inequigranular syenite. Modal, compositional and isotopic data from separates of rare earth element (REE)-bearing major and accesory mineral phases (hornblende, titanite, apatite, zircon) demonstrate that this decoupling of trace and major elements in the inequigranular syenite results from accumulation of light REE (LREE)-bearing minerals that were evidently separated from silicic magmas as the latter rose along the sides of the magma chamber. Chemical and isotopic data for microgranular mafic enclaves, as well as for restite xenoliths of Precambrian granite wall rock, indicate that the isotopic distinction between the marginal and interior facies of the ONP probably reflects assimilation of the wall rock by ??(Nd) ~-2 mafic magmas near the base of the magma system. Fractional crystallization and crystal liquid separation of the crystally contaminated magma at the base and along the margins of the chamber generated the highly silicic magmas that ultimately pooled at the chamber top.

  5. Spatially controlled Fe and Si isotope variations: an alternative view on the formation of the Torres del Paine pluton (United States)

    Gajos, Norbert A.; Lundstrom, Craig C.; Taylor, Alexander H.


    We present new Fe and Si isotope ratio data for the Torres del Paine igneous complex in southern Chile. The multi-composition pluton consists of an approximately 1 km vertical exposure of homogenous granite overlying a contemporaneous 250-m-thick mafic gabbro suite. This first-of-its-kind spatially dependent Fe and Si isotope investigation of a convergent margin-related pluton aims to understand the nature of granite and silicic igneous rock formation. Results collected by MC-ICP-MS show a trend of increasing δ56Fe and δ30Si with increasing silica content as well as a systematic increase in δ56Fe away from the mafic base of the pluton. The marginal Torres del Paine granites have heavier Fe isotope signatures (δ56Fe = +0.25 ± 0.02 2se) compared to granites found in the interior pluton (δ56Fe = +0.17 ± 0.02 2se). Cerro Toro country rock values are isotopically light in both Fe and Si isotopic systems (δ56Fe = +0.05 ± 0.02 ‰; δ30Si = -0.38 ± 0.07 ‰). The variations in the Fe and Si isotopic data cannot be accounted for by local assimilation of the wall rocks, in situ fractional crystallization, late-stage fluid exsolution or some combination of these processes. Instead, we conclude that thermal diffusion or source magma variation is the most likely process producing Fe isotope ratio variations in the Torres del Paine pluton.

  6. Phytoplankton composition and biomass across the southern Indian Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlüter, Louise; Henriksen, Peter; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel


    Phytoplankton composition and biomass was investigated across the southern Indian Ocean. Phytoplankton composition was determined from pigment analysis with subsequent calculations of group contributions to total chlorophyll a (Chl a) using CHEMTAX and, in addition, by examination in the microscope....... The different plankton communities detected reflected the different water masses along a transect from Cape Town, South Africa, to Broome, Australia. The first station was influenced by the Agulhas Current with a very deep mixed surface layer. Based on pigment analysis this station was dominated by haptophytes......, pelagophytes, cyanobacteria, and prasinophytes. Sub-Antarctic waters of the Southern Ocean were encountered at the next station, where new nutrients were intruded to the surface layer and the total Chl a concentration reached high concentrations of 1.7 μg Chl a L−1 with increased proportions of diatoms...

  7. Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Reverse Zoning in the Andong Granitoid Pluton, Andong Batholith, Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang Koo HWANG


    The Andong pluton consists of comagmatic granitoid rocks which constitute outstanding examples of reversely zoned granitoids. The pluton has three lithofacies: hornblende biotite tonalite, biotite granodiorite and porphyritic biotite granite. The zoned pattern forms by locating a tonalite core containing high-temperature mafic assemblages in central part,granodiorite rims in marginal part, and a porphyritic granite cap containing more felsic assemblages in topside of the pluton.Mineral abundances as well as bulk compositions of the granitoids indicate that the interior is enriched in mafic minerals and that it shows higher contents of oxides than the margin and topside. The compositional gradients change gradually with continuity between the lithofacies. The regular compositional variations within the pluton support the argument that the pluton behaved as an individual petrochemical system. Model abundances of the granitoids are in agreement with the bulk compositional gradients, suggesting that no significant interaction with country rocks occurred. Remobilization (resurgence) of deeper parts of the system into the more felsic magmas of the chamber explains the reverse zoning. Fractional crystallization was of importance and probably accounts for the selective removal of the settling phases. The Andong pluton is an example of reversely zoned plutons related by remobilization of more mafic but consanguineous magmas. Large-scale upwelling occurred in the pluton leading to the present arrangement of three lithofacies. It is conceivable that remnants of the reverse zoning become more difficult to discern as the plutonic rocks reach the latest stages of their evolution. In this case, the Andong pluton represents an earlier stage in the evolution of a felsic system that is usually represented by the final stages in normally zoned plutons.

  8. The oxygen isotope composition of granitoid and sedimentary rocks of the southern Snake Range, Nevada (United States)

    Lee, D.E.; Friedman, I.; Gleason, J.D.


    Six diverse intrusive igneous types are exposed as discrete outcrops within an area of 900 km2 in the southern Snake Range, White Pine County, Nevada. The previously recognized variety among these igneous types is reflected in the wide range of ??18O values (-1.1 to 13.4 permil) found in these rocks. This range of ??18O values probably results from differences in source material and post-crystallization history of the different intrusive types. The Jurassic intrusive of the Snake Creek-Williams Canyon area represents the chemical equivalent of a large part of a differentiation sequence, with the entire range of composition (63-76 percent SiO2) exposed over a horizontal distance of about five km. The rather regular increase of ??18O values from the most mafic to the most felsic parts of this pluton, together with ??18O values determined for constituent minerals recovered from five of the samples, supports a fractional crystallization model. The high ??18O values found (10.2-12.2 permil) indicate that the magma likely was derived from or assimilated sedimentary materials. Nine samples of the Cretaceous two-mica granite of the Pole Canyon-Can Young Canyon area have ??18O values in the range 10.6-12.1 permil. These high ??18O values, an initial87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7165, and the presence of muscovite along with an accessory mineral suite limited to monazite, apatite, zircon, and an allanite-like mineral, characterize this intrusive mass as an S-type granite. It probably formed through anatexis of late Precambrian pelitic rocks. The granitoid rock exposed in the Young Canyon-Kious Basin area is Tertiary (32 m.y.). Most of this intrusive has been cataclastically deformed as a result of late (18 m.y.) movement on the overlying Snake Range decollement. The undeformed portion of this intrusive has ??18O values of 8.7-10.0 permil. However, the deformed portion of this intrusive has ??18O values as low as -1.1 permil, apparently resulting from isotopic exchange between this

  9. SHRIMP U-Pb dating and geochemistry of the Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the Korean Peninsula: A new tectonic model of the Cretaceous Korean Peninsula (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won; Kwon, Sanghoon; Park, Seung-Ik; Lee, Changyeol; Cho, Deung-Lyong; Lee, Hong-Jin; Ko, Kyoungtae; Kim, Sook Ju


    The Cretaceous tectonomagmatism of the Korean Peninsula was examined based on geochemical and geochronological data of the Cretaceous plutonic rocks, along with distribution of volcano-sedimentary nonmarine N- to NE-trending fault bounded sedimentary basins. We conducted sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical compositions of 21 Cretaceous plutonic rocks, together with previously published data, from the central to southern Korean Peninsula. Four age groups of plutonic rocks were identified: Group I (ca. 119-106 Ma) in the northern to central area, Group II (ca. 99-87 Ma) in the central southern area, Group III (ca. 85-82 Ma) in the central to southern area, and Group IV (ca. 76-67 Ma) in the southernmost area. These results indicate a sporadic trenchward-younging trend of the Cretaceous magmatism in the Korean Peninsula. The Group I, II, and III rocks are dominated by high-K calc-alkaline I-type rocks with rift-related A-type granitoids. In contrast, the Group IV rocks are high-K calc-alkaline I-type plutonic rocks with no A-type rocks. The geochemical signatures of the entire groups indicated LREEs (light rare earth elements) enrichments and negative Nb, Ta, and Ti anomalies, indicating normal arc magmatism. A new tectonic model of the Cretaceous Korean Peninsula was proposed based on temporal and spatial distribution of the Cretaceous plutons represented by four age groups; 1) magmatic quiescence throughout the Korean Peninsula from ca. 160 to 120 Ma, 2) intrusions of the I- and A-type granitoids in the northern and central Korean Peninsula (Group I plutonic rocks from ca. 120 to 100 Ma) resulted from the partial melting of the lower continental crust due to the rollback of the Izanagi plate expressed as the conversion from flat-lying subduction to normal subduction. The Gyeongsang nonmarine sedimentary rift basin in the Korean Peninsula and adakite magmatism preserved in the present-day Japanese Islands

  10. How do granitoid magmas mix with each other? Insights from textures, trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic composition of apatite and titanite from the Matok pluton (South Africa) (United States)

    Laurent, Oscar; Zeh, Armin; Gerdes, Axel; Villaros, Arnaud; Gros, Katarzyna; Słaby, Ewa


    In plutonic systems, magma mixing is often modelled by mass balance based on whole-rock geochemistry. However, magma mixing is a chaotic process and chemical equilibration is controlled by non-linear diffusive-advective processes unresolved by the study of bulk samples. Here we present textural observations, LA-(MC-)ICP-MS trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic data of accessory apatites and titanites from a hybrid granodiorite of the Neoarchean Matok pluton (South Africa), collected in a zone of conspicuous mixing between mafic and felsic magmas. Apatite grains mostly show a pronounced zoning in CL images, corresponding to abrupt changes in REE and HFSE concentrations recording their transfer through compositionally different melt domains during mixing. These grains crystallized early, at temperatures of 950-1000 °C. Titanite grains crystallized at temperatures of 820-900 °C (Zr-in-sphene thermometry). They show limited intra-grain chemical variations but huge inter-grain compositional scatter in REE and HFSE, pinpointing crystallization within a crystal mush, from isolated melt pockets having different composition from one another owing to incomplete chemical homogenization and variable Rayleigh fractionation. These chemical-textural characteristics, in combination with partitioning models and Polytopic Vector Analysis, point to "self-mixing" between co-genetic dioritic and granodioritic/granitic magmas. Both resulted from differentiation of mantle-derived mafic melts, showing that mixing does not necessarily involve magmas from contrasted (crust vs. mantle) sources. Systematic variations in ɛNd t (-4.5 to -2.5) and 87Sr/86Sr(i) (0.703-0.707) of titanite and apatite grains/domains crystallized from the two magmas point to an isotopically inhomogeneous mantle source, which is not resolved by bulk-rock isotopic data. Interaction between the two magmas must have occurred at relatively high temperatures (ca. 900°C) so that their viscosity contrast remained low

  11. Micro-structural and compositional variations of hydrothermal epidote-group minerals from a peralkaline granite, Corupá Pluton, Graciosa Province, South Brazil, and their petrological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio R.F. Vlach


    Full Text Available Epidote-group minerals, together with albite, quartz, fluorite, Al-poor and Fe-rich phyllosilicates, zircon, and minor oxides and sulphides, are typical hydrothermal phases in peralkaline alkali-feldspar granites from the Corupá Pluton, Graciosa Province, South Brazil. The epidote-group minerals occur as single crystals and as aggregates filling in rock interstices and miarolitic cavities. They display complex recurrent zoning patterns with an internal zone of ferriallanite-(Ce, followed by allanite-(Ce, then epidote-ferriepidote, and an external zone with allanite-(Ce, with sharp limits, as shown in BSE and X-ray images. REE patterns show decreasing fractionation degrees of LREE over HREE from ferriallanite to epidote. The most external allanite is enriched in MREE. LA-ICP-MS data indicate that ferriallanite is enriched (>10-fold in Ti, Sr and Ga, and depleted in Mg, Rb, Th and Zr relative to the host granite. Allanite has lower Ga and Mn and higher Zr, Nb and U contents as compared to ferriallanite, while epidote is enriched in Sr, U and depleted in Pb, Zr, Hf, Ti and Ga. The formation of these minerals is related to the variable concentrations of HFSE, Ca, Al, Fe and F in fluids remaining from magmatic crystallization, in an oxidizing environment, close to the HM buffer. L-MREE were in part released by the alteration of chevkinite, their main primary repository in the host rocks.Minerais do grupo do epidoto, com albita, quartzo, fluorita, filossilicatos pobres em Al e ricos em Fe, zircão e quantidades menores de óxidos e sulfetos são fases hidrotermais típicas em álcali-feldpato granitos peralcalinos do Pluton Corupá, Província Graciosa, Sul do Brasil. Os minerais do grupo do epidoto ocorrem como cristais individuais ou agregados que preenchem interstícios e cavidades miarolíticas na rocha. Mostram zonamento complexo, recorrente, descrito por uma zona interna de ferriallanita-(Ce, seguida por allanita-(Ce, epidoto-ferriepidoto e uma

  12. Late-stage sinking of plutons (United States)

    Glazner, A.F.; Miller, D.M.


    Many granodiorite to diorite plutons in the Great Basin of western North America are surrounded by rim monoclines or anticlines that suggest relative downward movement of the plutons while wall rocks were hot and ductile. We propose that such plutons rise to a level of approximately neutral buoyancy and then founder as their densities increase ??? 40% during crystallization. Late-stage sinking of intermediate to mafic plutons should be common when wall rocks are rich in weak, low-density minerals such as quartz and calcite. Structures related to sinking will overprint those related to initial pluton emplacement and may be mistaken for regional tectonic structures.

  13. Bullialdus Crater: Excavation and Exposure of an Mg- or Alkali-Suite Pluton? (United States)

    Klima, R. L.; Cahill, J. T. S.; Hagerty, J.; Lawrence, D.


    The reflectance spectra of Bullialdus Crater suggest an enhancement of OH^- relative to the surroundings. We examine local mineralogy and the spatial distribution of local Th and OH^- signatures to investigate the composition of the excavated pluton.

  14. Intrusive rocks and plutonic belts of southeastern Alaska, U.S.A. (United States)

    Brew, David A.; Morrell, Robert P.; Roddick, J.A.


    About 30 percent of the 175,000-km2 area of southeastern Alaska is underlain by intrusive igneous rocks. Compilation of available information on the distribution, composition, and ages of these rocks indicates the presence of six major and six minor plutonic belts. From west to east, the major belts are: the Fairweather-Baranof belt of early to mid-Tertiary granodiorite; the Muir-Chichagof belt of mid-Cretaceous tonalite and granodiorite; the Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt of porphyritic granodiorite, quartz diorite, and diorite of probable Cretaceous age; the Klukwan-Duke belt of concentrically zoned or Alaskan-type ultramafic-mafic plutons of mid-Cretaceous age within the Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt; the Coast Plutonic Complex sill belt of tonalite of unknown, but perhaps mid-Cretaceous, age; and the Coast Plutonic Complex belt I of early to mid-Tertiary granodiorite and quartz monzonite. The minor belts are distributed as follows: the Glacier Bay belt of Cretaceous and(or) Tertiary granodiorite, tonalite, and quartz diorite lies within the Fair-weather-Baranof belt; layered gabbro complexes of inferred mid-Tertiary age lie within and are probably related to the Fairweather-Baranof belt; the Chilkat-Chichagof belt of Jurassic granodiorite and tonalite lies within the Muir-Chichagof belt; the Sitkoh Bay alkaline, the Kendrick Bay pyroxenite to quartz monzonite, and the Annette and Cape Fox trondhjemite plutons, all interpreted to be of Ordovician(?) age, together form the crude southern southeastern Alaska belt within the Muir-Chichagof belt; the Kuiu-Etolin mid-Tertiary belt of volcanic and plutonic rocks extends from the Muir-Chichagof belt eastward into the Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt; and the Behm Canal belt of mid- to late Tertiary granite lies within and next to Coast Plutonic Complex belt II. In addition, scattered mafic-ultramafic bodies occur within the Fairweather-Baranof, Muir-Chichagof, and Coast Plutonic Complex belts I and II. Palinspastic

  15. An AMS study of the Takidani pluton (Japan) (United States)

    Hartung, Eva; Caricchi, Luca; Floess, David; Wallis, Simon; Harayama, Satoru


    Large plutonic bodies are typically constructed incrementally often by under-accretion of distinct successive magma pulses. Petrography and geochemistry of the Takidani Pluton (1.54 Ma ± 0.23 Ma) in the Northern Japanese Alps show that the chemical and textural variability observed at the roof of this intrusion is best explained by the segregation of residual melt from a crystallising magma body. We carried out a magnetic susceptibility survey (bulk susceptibility and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility) to identify the structures associated with the emplacement and extraction of residual melts from a magmatic mush. Additionally, we determined shape preferred orientations (SPO) of amphibole at several locations within the Takidani pluton. From bottom to top of the intrusion, the bulk susceptibility is about constant in the main granodioritic part, decreases roofwards within the porphyritic unit, before increasing again within the marginal granodiorite close to the contact with the overlaying Hotaka Andesite. Such variability mimics the major and trace elements compositional variability measured in the whole rock samples. Magnetic foliations are observed at the western tectonic contact of the pluton potentially indicating overprint, while most other magnetic fabrics across the pluton are characterised by triaxial ellipsoids of magnetic susceptibility or magnetic lineations. Our preliminary data and the lack of internal contacts indicate that Takidani Pluton was likely emplaced as a series of successive magma pulses finally merging to produce a large connected magma body. While amphibole foliations may likely be the results of super-solidus tectonic overprint, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data may be related to post-emplacement melt segregation.

  16. Zircon U-Pb Dating and Mineralization Prospective of the Triassic Qingxi Pluton in Southern Jiangxi Province%赣南印支期清溪岩体的锆石U-Pb年代学研究及其含矿性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于扬; 陈振宇; 陈郑辉; 侯可军; 赵正; 许建祥; 张家菁; 曾载淋


    清溪岩体是赣南地区缺少精确年龄数据的含稀土岩体之一.对赣南清溪岩体中的锆石样品进行了U-Pb法年代学研究,测年结果显示该岩体主体年龄为229.3±0.8 Ma和227.0±1.0 Ma,属于印支期产物,并不是前人认为的属于加里东期.对清溪岩体进行了岩石学、地球化学的研究,简要论述了其含矿性,认为清溪岩体主体为黑云母花岗岩,为过铝质钾玄岩系,轻稀土和重稀土中等分馏,负Eu异常不明显.岩石化学资料数据显示,该岩体稀土总量较高,具备成矿母岩的基本条件.%The Qingxi pluton is a rare earth element mineralized granite located in southern Jiangxi province.Zircons from the Qingxi granite were analyzed using MC-ICP-MS method,which yield U-Pb ages of 229.3 ±0.8 Ma and 227.0 ±1.0 Ma,respectively.The new ages confirm that the granite was intruded in Indosinian.The Qingxi pluton consists mainly of biotite granite,which is of peraluminous shoshonitic and characterized by mildly fractionated REE without obvious Eu anomalies.∑REE of this pluton is rather high (269 × 10 ~6 -298×10 ~6),which is one of the prerequisites for REE mineralization in the weathering crust.

  17. Pluton emplacement and magmatic arc construction: A model from the Patagonian batholith (United States)

    Bruce, Robert; Nelson, Eric; Weaver, Stephen


    A model of batholithic construction in Andean arcs and its applicability to possibly similar environments in the past is described. Age and compositional data from the Patagonian batholith of southern Chile show a long history of magmatism in any given area (total age range is 15 to 157 Ma), but different regions appear to have different magmatic starting ages. Furthermore, mafic rocks seem to be the oldest components of any given region. An assembly line model involving semicontinuous magmatism and uplift was outlined, which has implications for other terranes: uplift rates will be proportional to observed ranges in age, and total uplift will be proportional to the age of the oldest pluton in any given area. It is suggested that misleading results would be obtained if only small areas of similar terranes in the Archean were available for study.

  18. Uranium-Lead Zircon Ages and Sr, Nd, and Pb Isotope Geochemistry of Selected Plutonic Rocks from Western Idaho (United States)

    Unruh, Daniel M.; Lund, Karen; Kuntz, Mel A.; Snee, Lawrence W.


    Across the Salmon River suture in western Idaho, where allochthonous Permian to Cretaceous oceanic rocks are juxtaposed against Proterozoic North American rocks, a wide variety of plutonic rocks are exposed. Available data indicate much variation in composition, source, and structural state of these plutons. The plutonic rocks were long described as the western border zone of the Cretaceous Idaho batholith but limited pre-existing age data indicate more complicated origins. Because the affinity and age of the plutonic rocks cannot be reliably determined from field relations, TIMS U-Pb dating in conjunction with Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic studies of selected plutons across the suture in western Idaho were undertaken. The data indicate three general groups of plutons including (1) those that intruded the island arc terranes during the Triassic and Jurassic, those that intruded near the western edge of oceanic rocks along the suture in the Early Cretaceous, and the plutons of the Idaho batholith that intruded Proterozoic North American rocks in the Late Cretaceous. Plutons that intruded Proterozoic North American rocks commonly include xenocrystic zircons and in several cases, ages could not be determined. The least radiogenic Sr and most radiogenic Nd are found among the Blue Mountains superterrane island arc samples. Suture-zone plutons have isotopic characteristics that span the range between Idaho batholith and island arc samples but mostly follow island arc signatures. Plutons of the Idaho batholith have the most radiogenic initial Pb and Sr ratios and the least radiogenic Nd of the samples analyzed.

  19. Plutons and accretionary episodes of the Klamath Mountains, California and Oregon (United States)

    Irwin, William P.; Wooden, Joseph L.


    The Klamath Mountains consist of various accreted terranes and include many plutons that range in composition from gabbro to granodiorite. Some of the plutons (preaccretionary plutons) were parts of terranes before the terranes accreted; others (accretionary plutons) intruded during or after the accretion of their host terrane(s). This report attempts to (1) graphically illustrate how the Klamath Mountains grew by the accretion of allochthonous oceanic terranes during early Paleozoic to Cretaceous times, (2) identify the plutons as either preaccretionary or accretionary, and (3) genetically relate the plutonic intrusions to specific accretionary episodes. The eight accretionary episodes portrayed in this report are similar to those shown by Irwin and Mankinen (1998) who briefly described the basis for the timing of the episodes and who illustrated the ~110 degrees of clockwise rotation of the Klamath Mountains since Early Devonian time. Each episode is named for the accreting terrane. In all episodes (Figs. 1-8), the heavy black line represents a fault that separates the accreting oceanic rocks on the left from earlier accreted terranes on the right. The preaccretionary plutons are shown within the accreting oceanic crustal rocks to the left of the heavy black line, and the accretionary plutons in most instances are shown intruding previously accreted terranes to the right. Episodes earlier than the Central Metamorphic episode (Fig. 1), and that may have been important in the formation of the early Paleozoic nucleous of the province (the Eastern Klamath terrane), are not known. The 'Present Time' distribution of the accreted terranes and plutons is shown at a large scale in Figure 9. The schematic vertical section (Fig. 10) depicts the terranes as a stack of horizontal slabs that include or are intruded by vertical plutons. Note that at their base the ~170 Ma preaccretionary plutons of the Western Hayfork subterrane are truncated by the ~164 Ma Salt Creek

  20. Ages and geochemical comparison of coeval plutons and volcanics from the central and eastern Aleutian arc (United States)

    Cai, Y.; Kelemen, P. B.; Goldstein, S. L.; Yogodzinski, G. M.; Hemming, S. R.; Rioux, M. E.; Cooperdock, E. H. G.


    On average, arc volcanics are compositionally different from the bulk continental crust. The relatively little known plutonic part of intra-oceanic arcs is more similar to continental crust, and may play a significant role for understanding continental crust formation. Our pilot study [1] demonstrated that in the central and eastern Aleutian islands, predominantly tholeiitic Quaternary volcanic rocks have statistically different Pb-Nd-Sr-Hf isotopic signatures than predominantly calc-alkaline Miocene and older plutonic rocks, showing that these plutonics and volcanics were derived from compositionally different sources. However, studies of older volcanics are needed to determine whether (1) there was a change in magma chemistry in the central and eastern Aleutian arc between the Miocene and the present-day, or (2) coeval plutonics and volcanics are compositionally different, and formed by different processes. For example, silica- and water-rich calc-alkaline magmas may preferentially stall and form plutons after extensive degassing and rapid viscosity increase in the mid-crust, while silica- and water-poor tholeiitic magmas tend to erupt at the surface. Here we report new geochronological and geochemical results on samples collected during the 2015 GeoPRISMS shared logistics field campaign. We collected more than 500 volcanic and plutonic samples from Unalaska, Umnak and Atka islands, including pillow lavas, sills, and larger plutons. A subset of 50 samples has been analyzed for major and trace element chemistry, Pb-Nd-Sr-Hf isotopes, and Ar-Ar geochronology. So far,40Ar/39Ar cooling dates measured for the volcanics span a wide range, from zero to 35 Ma, which is comparable to the age distribution of the plutons ( 9 Ma to 39 Ma) from these islands. The forthcoming, combined geochronology and geochemistry of coeval plutonics and volcanics will contribute to our understanding of the connections between arc magmatism and continental crust formation. [1] Cai et al

  1. On the role of contamination and hybridism in formation of the composite Raumid pluton granites (Pamir Mnts.): Results of Sm-Nd Isotope Study (United States)

    Volkov, V. N.; Shatagin, K. N.; Kramchaninov, A. Yu.


    This work presents isotope Sm-Nd data obtained for bulk samples of granites of all 8 emplacement phases of the Raumid granite massif, which occurred 35 Ma ago at a hypabyssal depth during the orogenic stage of development of Southern Pamir fold system. The 147Sm/144Nd ratio in studied collection of granite samples ranges between 0.091 and 0.323; the ɛNd( T) value is-4.0. The Sm-Nd isotope study results suggest that all granite varieties distinguished in the Raumid massif are comagmatic formations and contamination and hybridization processes did not play any role in REE distribution in granites. At this, the source of parental magma did not change during granite generation. We assume that the only process, resulted in the trace element evolution in granites, was differentiation of three batches of magma sequentially uplifted from the source.

  2. Volcanic-plutonic parity and the differentiation of the continental crust. (United States)

    Keller, C Brenhin; Schoene, Blair; Barboni, Melanie; Samperton, Kyle M; Husson, Jon M


    The continental crust is central to the biological and geological history of Earth. However, crustal heterogeneity has prevented a thorough geochemical comparison of its primary igneous building blocks-volcanic and plutonic rocks-and the processes by which they differentiate to felsic compositions. Our analysis of a comprehensive global data set of volcanic and plutonic whole-rock geochemistry shows that differentiation trends from primitive basaltic to felsic compositions for volcanic versus plutonic samples are generally indistinguishable in subduction-zone settings, but are divergent in continental rifts. Offsets in major- and trace-element differentiation patterns in rift settings suggest higher water content in plutonic magmas and reduced eruptibility of hydrous silicate magmas relative to dry rift volcanics. In both tectonic settings, our results indicate that fractional crystallization, rather than crustal melting, is predominantly responsible for the production of intermediate and felsic magmas, emphasizing the role of mafic cumulates as a residue of crustal differentiation.

  3. Natural radioactivity levels in granitic plutons and groundwaters in Southeast part of Eskisehir, Turkey. (United States)

    Orgün, Y; Altinsoy, N; Gültekin, A H; Karahan, G; Celebi, N


    The present work investigated the radioactivity level of the granitoid plutons and its effect on the groundwaters in the southeast part of Eskisehir. Fourteen granitic samples from the Kaymaz and Sivrihisar plutons and 11 groundwater samples from the near vicinity of the pluton were analyzed. The activity concentrations measured for (238)U and (232)Th ranged from 43.59+/-2 to 651.80+/-24 Bq/kg, and 51.16+/-3 to 351.94+/-13 Bq/kg, respectively. The activity concentrations obtained for (40)K varied from 418.50+/-17 to 1618.03+/-66 Bq/kg. The absorbed dose rates in air outdoors ranged from 87.14 to 531.81 nGy/h. All the results obtained from the Kaymaz pluton are higher than those from the Sivrihisar. The U (ave. 16.6 ppm) and Th (ave. 49.9 ppm) values of the Kaymaz pluton are higher than the average concentrations of the magmatic rocks of granitic composition. These results are consistent with high dose rates of the pluton. The gross-alpha activities in the groundwater samples ranged from 0.009 to 1.64 Bq/l and the gross-beta activities from 0.006 to 0.89 Bq/l. The highest gross-alpha value was found in the sample taken from near the Kaymaz pluton. The concentrations of (222)Rn varied from 0.060 to 0.557 Bq/l.

  4. Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area, northern Sierra Nevada, California (United States)

    Kulow, Matthew J.; Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Girty, Melissa S.; Harwood, David S.


    The northernmost occurrences of extensive, glaciated exposures of the Sierra Nevada batholith occur in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area of the northern Sierra Nevada. The plutonic rocks in this area, which are termed here the Castle Valley plutonic assemblage, crop out over an area of 225 km2 and for the most part are shown as a single undifferentiated mass on previously published geological maps. In the present work, the plutonic assemblage is divided into eight separate intrusive units or lithodemes, two of which each consist of two separate plutons. Compositions are dominantly granodiorite and tonalite, but diorite and granite form small plutons in places. Spectacular examples of comb layering and orbicular texture occur in the diorites. U-Pb zircon ages have been obtained for all but one of the main units and range from ~120 to 114 Ma, indicating that the entire assemblage was emplaced in a narrow time frame in the Early Cretaceous. This is consistent with abundant field evidence that many of the individual phases were intruded penecontemporaneously. The timing of emplacement correlates with onset of major Cretaceous plutonism in the main part of the Sierra Nevada batholith farther south. The emplacement ages also are similar to isotopic ages for gold-quartz mineralization in the Sierran foothills west of the study area, suggesting a direct genetic relationship between the voluminous Early Cretaceous plutonism and hydrothermal gold mineralization.

  5. Rb-Sr isotopic composition of granites in the Western Krušné hory/Erzgebirge pluton, Central Europe: record of variations in source lithologies, mafic magma input and postmagmatic hydrothermal events (United States)

    Dolejš, David; Bendl, Jiří; Štemprok, Miroslav


    The late Variscan (327-318 Ma) Western Krušné hory/Erzgebirge pluton (Czech Republic and Germany) represents a multiply emplaced intrusive sequence ranging from low-F biotite monzogranites (with rare minor bodies of gabbrodiorites and granodiorites) to high-F topaz-zinnwaldite alkali-feldspar granites. This granite suite is characterized by progressively increasing concentrations of incompatible elements (Li, Rb, F), monotonous decrease in mafic components and compatible elements (FeOtot, MgO, TiO2, CaO, Sr) with increasing silica. Consequently, this leads to extreme variations in the Rb/Sr ratios (0.52 to 59), which impose highly variable 87Rb/86Sr and 87Sr/86Sr signatures. The low-F biotite monzogranites represent isotopically heterogeneous mixture with (87Sr/86Sr)323 = 0.707-0.709 between partial melts from the Saxothuringian metasediments and mantle-derived mafic precursors. The medium-F two-mica microgranites show variable (87Sr/86Sr)323 = 0.708-0.714, indicating involvement of multiple precursors and more mature crustal protoliths. The evolved high-F topaz-zinnwaldite alkali-feldspar granites were derived from a precursor with (87Sr/86Sr)320 = 0.707-0.708 at 324-317 Ma by differentiation, which produced the extreme Rb/Sr enrichment and variations. The Li/Rb ratios remain nearly constant (~0.5), thus insensitive to the degree of geochemical differentiation. In comparison to terrestrial variations, the high Li/Rb values indicate derivation of granitic magmas from predominantly sedimentary precursors, in accord with 7Li-6Li and 143Nd-144Nd isotope composition reported previously. The Rb-Sr element variations in each granite unit are sligthly different and indicate ascent and emplacement of separate magma batches, which do not form a single liquid line of descent. We consider the enrichment of granites in incompatible elements (Li, Rb, F) and compatible depletion of ferromagnesian components, CaO and Sr as a combined effect of multiple precursors, changes in

  6. Use of olivine and plagioclase saturation surfaces for the petrogenetic modeling of recrystallized basic plutonic systems (United States)

    Hanson, G. N.


    During petrogenetic studies of basic plutonic rocks, there are at least three major questions to be considered: (1) what were the relative proportions of cumulate crystals and intercumulus melt in a given sample? (2) what is the composition and variation in composition of the melts within the pluton? and (3) what is the original composition of the liquids, their source and evolution prior to the time of emplacement? Use of both saturation surfaces can place strong limits on the compositions of potential cumulate phases and intercumulus melts. Consideration of appropriate trace elements can indicate whether a sample is an orthocumulate, adcumulate or mesocumulate. Thus, when trace element and petrographic data are considered together with the saturation surfaces, it should be possible to begin to answer the three major questions given above, even for strongly recrystallized basic plutons.

  7. U-Pb zircon and monazite geochronology of the Hercynian two-mica granite composite pluton of Cabeceiras de Basto (Northern Portugal); Geochronologie U-Pb sur zircon et monazite du massif composite de granite a deux micas hercynien de Cabeceiras de Basto (Nord-Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A.; Noronha, F. [Universidade do Porto (Portugal). Centro de Geologia; Leterrier, J. [Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Bertrand, J.M. [Universite de Savoie, 73 - Le-Bourget-du-Lac (France). Laboratoire de geodynamique des Chaines alpines


    The zircon and monazite U-Pb minimum age of the Hercynian peraluminous two-mica composite granite pluton of Cabeceiras de Basto (Northern Portugal) is 311 {+-} 1 Ma (2 {sigma}). This age, well constrained by a concordant monazite of 311{+-}4 Ma (2{sigma}), is in good agreement with the age suggested for the syn-kinematic, syn-D3, Iberian granites of the Hercynian orogeny (315-305; Pinto et al., 1987). The ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr){sub i} and {xi}{sub Nd} isotopic ratios, calculated for 311 Ma, suggest that the three granite units which constitute the massif may derive from an heterogeneous crustal source dated (upper intercept of the discordance) around 1200 Ma. (authors) 21 refs.

  8. Genesis of felsic plutonic magmas and their igneous enclaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemens, John D.; Maas, Roland; Waight, Tod Earle


    -type Pyalong pluton was emplaced, apparently along an east-west-orientated fracture zone. Around 367 Ma, the main I-type Baynton pluton intruded as numerous shallow-dipping sheets. The last plutonic event was the intrusion of the broad, thin, flat-lying, and crosscutting sheet of the I-type Beauvallet pluton...

  9. The Petrogenesis of the Late Cretaceous Mamba Pluton from the Eastern Gangdese: Constraints from Mineralogy (United States)

    Li, X.


    Occurred as stock,the late Cretaceous Mamba pluton, located at the southeast part of the Gangdese terrane, was one of the granitoid intrusions in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Gangdese gaint magmatic belt, which is composed of Southern Gangdese, Gangdese back-arc fault uplift belt, Middle Gangdes, The Shiquanhe-Laguo Tso-Yongzhu-Nam Tso-Jiali Ophiolitic Méange Zone, and northern Gangdese from south to north, bounded by Indus-Yarlung Zangbo suture zone to the south, and Bangong Tso-Nujiang suture zone to the north(Zhu et al., 2008a), and the Mamba Pluton intruded pre-Ordovician Sumdo Group and early formed intrusions(T3, J1, J3), was unconformably overlied by Eocene Pana Formation. The modal mineralogy of selected samples from Mamba Pluton are calculated via Matlab: quartz(25%), plagioclase(40%), K-feldspar(18%), biotite(9%) and hornblende(5%), with subordinate primary epidote(buffers, but very close to NNO buffer, indicationg relatively moderate oxdizing conditions.. Emplacement depths estimated from aluminum-in-hornblende geobarometry indicate that the Mamba Pluton was emplaced at the pressure of c.a.1.33kbar, corresponding to 4.75km in depth.Temperatures of emplacement calculated with the hornblende-plagioclase thermometer range from 645 Celsius to 780 Celsius.Since the Mamba Pluton and contemporary plutons are unconformably overlain by Eocene volcanic rocks, namley Pana Formation regionally, thus the Mamba pluton must have been exposed at(or near) the surface prior to the Eocene, indicating the existence of protoplateau as proposed by Wang et al(2008).

  10. Near-roof structure and crack-seal emplacement, Colosseum pluton, Sierra Nevada, California (United States)

    Bartley, J. M.; Glazner, A. F.; Coleman, D. S.


    Field evidence from diverse localities indicates that dike-like granitic plutons are emplaced by magmatic crack-seal, yielding plutons that are essentially huge composite dikes. Plutons that are equant in map view may also form by crack-seal from increments that are subhorizontal and vertically stacked, but field evidence to assess this hypothesis is scarce. Here we present evidence that the Late Cretaceous, granitic Colosseum pluton of Moore (1963), which crops out along the Sierra Nevada crest southwest of Big Pine, California, may have been emplaced as horizontal sheets by crack-seal. The equant outcrop pattern of the elliptical, 2x3 km Colosseum pluton as mapped by Moore (1963) mainly reflects Pleistocene glacial erosion that cut ~600 m down through the pluton's gently sloping roof contact. Moore mapped a steep eastern contact with the Spook pluton, but our field observations suggest that the Spook and Colosseum plutons may be the same. This would imply that the pluton is much larger and that the map pattern is not elliptical. Additionally, the exposed intrusive contact everywhere dips gently, but the eastern intrusive contact has been cut off by the Sierran frontal fault. If so, up to 2.5 km of largely unexplored vertical relief in the pluton is exposed on the eastern escarpment of the Sierra Nevada. Geologic and bulk magnetic susceptibility mapping of near-roof rocks revealed the following. (1) Although the intrusive contact sharply truncates wall-rock foliation, xenoliths are absent, even at contacts, indicating that stoping was an insignificant process. (2) The pluton contains a subhorizontal sheet of leucogranite that is broadly concordant with the roof but bounded both above and below by more typical biotite granodiorite. This sheet may represent one or more intrusive increments. (3) Along the western contact, thin tabular apophyses of the pluton intrude its subvertically layered and foliated roof. Although some of these dip steeply and are concordant

  11. Reconnaissance study of the Taylor Mountains pluton, southwestern Alaska (United States)

    Hudson, Travis L.; Miller, Marti L.; Klimasauskas, Edward P.; Layer, Paul W.


    The Taylor Mountains pluton is a Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (median age 65 + or ? 2 Ma) epizonal, composite biotite granite stock located about 235 km (145 mi) northeast of Dillingham in southwestern Alaska. This 30 km2 (12 mi2) pluton has sharp and discordant contacts with hornfels that developed in Upper Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks of the Kuskokwim Group. The three intrusive phases in the Taylor Mountains pluton, in order of emplacement, are (1) porphyritic granite containing large K-feldspar phenocrysts in a coarse-grained groundmass, (2) porphyritic granite containing large K-feldspar and smaller, but still coarse, plagioclase, quartz, and biotite phenocrysts in a fine-grained groundmass, and (3) fine-grained, leucocratic, equigranular granite. The porphyritic granites have different emplacement histories, but similar compositions; averages are 69.43 percent SiO2, 1.62 percent CaO, 5.23 percent FeO+MgO, 3.11 percent Na2O, and 4.50 percent K2O. The fine-grained, equigranular granite is distinctly felsic compared to porphyritic granite; it averages 75.3 percent SiO2, 0.49 percent CaO, 1.52 percent FeO+MgO, 3.31 percent Na2O, and 4.87 percent K2O. Many trace elements including Ni, Cr, Sc, V, Ba, Sr, Zr, Y, Nb, La, Ce, Th, and Nd are strongly depleted in fine-grained equigranular granite. Trace elements are not highly enriched in any of the granites. Known hydrothermal alteration is limited to one tourmaline-quartz replacement zone in porphyritic granite. Mineral deposits in the Taylor Mountains area are primarily placer gold (plus wolframite, cassiterite, and cinnabar); sources for these likely include scattered veins in hornfels peripheral to the Taylor Mountain pluton. The granite magmas that formed the Taylor Mountains pluton are thought to represent melted continental crust that possibly formed in response to high heat flow in the waning stage of Late Cretaceous subduction beneath interior Alaska.

  12. Is there a geochemical link between volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Organ Mountains caldera? (United States)

    Memeti, V.; Davidson, J.


    Results from separate volcanic and plutonic studies have led to inconsistent conclusions regarding the origins and thus links between volcanic and plutonic systems in continental arcs and the magmatic processes and time scales responsible for their compositional variations. Some have suggested that there is a geochemical and geochronological disconnect between volcanic and plutonic rocks and hence have questioned the existence of magma mush columns beneath active volcanoes. Investigating contemporary volcanic and plutonic rocks that are spatially connected is thus critical in exploring these issues. The ca. 36 Ma Organ Mountains caldera in New Mexico, USA, represents such a system exposing contemporaneous volcanic and plutonic rocks juxtaposed at the surface due to tilting during extensional tectonics along the Rio Grande Rift. Detailed geologic and structural mapping [1] and 40Ar/39Ar ages of both volcanics and plutons [2] demonstrate the spatial and temporal connection of both rock types with active magmatism over >2.5 myr. Three caldera-forming ignimbrites erupted within 600 kyr [2] from this system with a total erupted volume of 500-1,000 km3 as well as less voluminous pre- and post-caldera trachyte and andesite lavas. The ignimbrite sequence ranges from a crystal-poor, high-SiO2 rhyolite at the base to a more crystal-rich, low-SiO2 rhyolite at the top. Compositional zoning with quartz-monzonite at the base grading to syenite and alaskite at the top is also found in the Organ Needle pluton, the main intrusion, which is interpreted to be the source for the ignimbrites [1]. Other contemporaneous and slightly younger plutons have dioritic to leucogranitic compositions. We examined both volcanic and plutonic rocks with petrography and their textural variations with color cathodoluminescence, and used whole rock element and Sr, Nd and Pb isotope geochemistry to constrain magma compositions and origins. Electron microprobe analyses on feldspars have been completed to

  13. Definition of magmatic suites in ediacaran bodies of the NE Province Borborema (State of Rio Grande do Norte: Pitombeira, Taipu and Gameleira Plutons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tatiany Duarte de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The Pitombeira, Taipu and Gameleira plutons, located in the northeasternmost portion of the São José do Campestre Domain within the Borborema Province (NE, Brazil, are subjects of lithogeochemical studies in the present work. The Pitombeira Pluton comprises a monzo- to syenogranitic facies defined by K-feldspar phenocrysts, and a quartz-dioritic to tonalitic facies, mainly as enclaves, with laths of plagioclase showing compositional zoning and chilled rims. The Taipu Pluton is made of equigranular, locally porphyritic, monzo- to syenogranites, whereas the Gamaleira Pluton encompasses tonalitic and grano- dioritic rocks with porphyritic textures and compositionally zoned plagioclase crystals. Geochemical discriminant diagrams reveal that the rocks forming the Gameleira Pluton are metaluminous, with a calc-alkaline signature and magnesian character, contrasting with the subalkaline (high-K calc-alkaline signature and ferroan character of the Taipu and Pitombeira Plutons, where the former is highly peraluminous and the latter is metaluminous to slightly peraluminous. Rare Earth Elements patterns are similar to all plutons and register negative Eu anomalies and a relative enrichment of LREE over HREE, with LaN/YbN ratios between 9.38 to 16.20 (Gamaleira Pluton, 17.99 to 31.39 (granitic facies of the Pitombeira Pluton, 14.15 to 21.81 (dioritic facies of the Pitombeira Pluton and 15.17 to 175.41 (Taipu Pluton. Based on the combined investigation of structural, textural and geochemical data, a late- to post-collisional tectonic environment is suggested for the plutons here studied.

  14. Crustal composition in southern Norway from active and passive source seismology (United States)

    Stratford, W. R.; Frassetto, A. M.; Thybo, H.


    Crustal composition and structure beneath the Fennoscandian shield are highly variable due to the method of crustal accretion and the long history of extensional and compressional tectonics. In southern Norway, the Moho and crust are inferred to be the youngest of the shield, however, it is likely that a large discrepancy between crustal age and Moho age exists beneath the high southern Scandes where the Caledonian orogeny was in effect and beneath the Oslo Graben where 60 million years of rifting and magmatism has altered the crust. Crustal structure in southern Norway was targeted with a multi-disciplinary seismic study (Magnus-Rex - Mantle investigations of Norwegian uplift Structure). Three ~400 km long active source seismic profiles across the southern Norway and a region wide array of broadband seismometers were deployed. P and S-wave arrivals were recorded in the Magnus-Rex project, from which Poisson ratios for the crust in southern Norway are calculated from both active source profiling and receiver functions. Unusually strong S-wave arrivals allow rare insight into crustal Poisson’s ratio structure, within crustal layers, that is not normally available from active source data and are usually determined by earthquake tomography studies where only bulk crustal values are available. An average Poisson’s ratio of 0.25 is calculated for the crust in southern Norway, suggesting it is predominantly of felsic-intermediate composition and lacks any significant mafic lower crust. This differs significantly from the adjacent crust in the Svecofennian domain of the Fennoscandian shield where Moho depths reach ~50 km and an up to 20 km thick mafic lower crust is present. The vast difference in Moho depths in the Fennoscandian shield are, therefore, mostly due to the variation in thickness of the high Vp lower crust. Estimates of crustal composition and the effect of Magma intrusion within the Oslo Graben, and possible delamination of the lowermost crust beneath

  15. A comparative study of two rear-arc plutons and implications for the Fuegian Andes tectonic evolution: Mount Kranck Pluton and Jeu-Jepén Monzonite, Argentina (United States)

    González-Guillot, M.; Prezzi, C.; Acevedo, R. D.; Escayola, M.


    A petrologic, geochemical and geophysical study of two Late Cretaceous plutons of the Fuegian Andes is carried out: the Jeu-Jepén Monzonite (JJM) and the Mt. Kranck Pluton (MKP). The plutons show a wide lithological spectrum from ultramafic lithologies (clinopyroxenites and hornblendites), gabbros, diorites to late stage K-feldspar syenite veins. They represent the top of magmatic chambers exposed at or close to the roof level. Mode and chemistry indicate a monzonitic-mildly alkaline trend with high K2O content, equivalent to shoshonitic series. Trace element composition is typical of arc magmas. These features plus their high LILE content (Ba 320-1600 ppm, Sr 475-1560 ppm), high LILE/HFSE ratio (Rb/Zr 0.6-1.6) and age confirm they belong to a rear-arc, monzonitic to mildly alkaline suite (the Fuegian Potassic Magmatism). Therefore, they represent the farthest-from-the-trench plutons in the suite. The petrographical and chemical characteristics of the plutons suggest the lithological spectrum is the result of magmatic differentiation. The process involved crystal accumulation and magma mingling at the early stages, favored either by injections of fresh magma from deeper reservoirs and/or the action of convective currents within the chamber. Country rock assimilation also took part simultaneously with crystallization. The JJM and MKP lie along the trace of a Cenozoic left-lateral strike-slip fault (Magallanes-Fagnano fault system), on opposite blocks. However, lithological, chemical and geophysical subtle differences between these two plutons suggest they evolved in individual magmatic chambers and therefore the distance between them cannot be used as an estimation of total offset along the fault, as was indicated in previous studies.

  16. Petrology and radiogeology of the Stripa pluton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, H.; Flexser, S.; Andersson, L.


    Both the quartz monzonite and the metavolcanic leptite which it intruded are strongly fractured. Two stages of fracture filling are evident; an earlier stage encompassing quartz, sericite, feldspar, epidote, and chlorite, and a later stage dominated by carbonate minerals. The Stripa quartz monozite is chemically and mineralogically distinct from other plutons in the region. Muscovite is the predominant mica in the quartz monzonite; biotite has been altered to chlorite, hornblende is absent, and accessory minerals are scarce. In contrast, in other plutons in the Stripa region, biotite and hornblende are prominent mafic minerals and accessory minerals are abundant. The Stripa quartz monzonite is also considerably more radioactive than the the leptite and other plutons in the region. Uranium and thorium abundances are both approx. 30 ppM, considerably higher than in normal granitic rocks where the thorium-to-uranium ratio generally exceeds 2. Potassium-argon dating of muscovite from the Stripa quartz monzonite indicates that this rock may be older, at 1691 million years than granitic rock of the neighboring Gusselby and Kloten massifs, whose ages, based on K-Ar dating of biotite, are respectively 1604 and 1640 m.y. Heat flow and heat productivity considerations show that although Stripa quartz monzonite contains high abundances of radioelements, the pluton has little efect on the regional heat flow. If it occurs in a layered plutonic setting, it is not more than 1.5 km thick; otherwise it may comprise a stock, dike, or border phase that is relatively small compared with the large granitic plutons exposed in the region.

  17. Geophysical and geologic studies in southern Mecklenburg County and vicinity, North Carolina and South Carolina (United States)

    Wilson, Frederick A.


    Geophysical methods consisting of gravity, aeromagnetics and aeroradioactivity have been applied to part of the Charlotte and Carolina slate belts in southern Mecklenburg County and vicinity to help interpret geology, lithology and structure. High aeroradioactivity is associated with potassium-rich granitic plutons, muscovite-rich gneisses, schists, and metavolcanic rocks; positive gravity and magnetic anomalies are associated with gabbro plutons; and negative gravity anomalies are associated with granitic plutons. At the west side of the slate belt, the Tillery phyllite is interpreted as having undergone progressive metamorphism. The underlying Uwharrie Formation extends into the Charlotte belt where it is mapped as metavolcanic rocks. Gravity models of the Carolina slate belt indicate that it is a synform containing a wedge of metasedimentary and volcanoclastic rock on plutonic basement. The basement is exposed in the adjacent Charlotte belt antiform. The northern Charlotte belt contains mainly plutonic rocks which have been divided into 3 supergroups of plutons based upon chemistry, mineralogy, texture, and age. They are: 1. Old Plutonic supergroup - plutons 545-490 m.y. that are medium to coarse-grained tonalite, quartz diorite, and granodiorites. 2. Concord-Salisbury supergroup -- plutons 426-350 m.y. which form sheet-like intrusions of differentiated gabbro; local volcanic centers with ring complexes 13 km in diameter that suggest magma chambers 0 - 8 km deep; smaller bodies of diorite, monzonite, and syenite; and small Salisbury type granodiorites. 3. Landis supergroup -- plutons 350-280 m.y. that are usually very coarse-grained, porphyritic, 'big feldspar,' potassium-rich granites. The Mecklenburg-Weddington gabbro complex of the Concord-Salisbury supergroup, the largest feature in the study area, contains three large gabbro plutons. The gabbro intruded old Plutonic complex rocks and could-have produced the metamorphic reaction K-feldspar + sillimanite

  18. Fuzzy Logic Modelling and Hidden Geodynamic Parameters of Earth: What is the role of Fluid Pathaways and Hydrothermal Stages on the Mineralization Variations of Kozbudaklar Pluton over Southern Uludag (United States)

    Kocaturk, Huseyin; Kumral, Mustafa


    Plate tectonics is one of the most illustrated theory and biggest geo-dynamic incident on earth surface and sub-surface for the earth science. Tectonic settlement, rock forming minerals, form of stratigraphy, ore genesis processes, crystal structures and even rock textures are all related with plate tectonic. One of the most known region of Turkey is Southern part of Uludaǧ and has been defined with three main lithological union. Region is formed with metamorphics, ophiolites and magmatic intrusions which are generally I-type granodiorites. Also these intrusion related rocks has formed and altered by high grade hydrothermal activity. This study approaches to understand bigger to smaller frameworks of these processes which between plate tectonics and fluid pathways. Geodynamic related fuzzy logic modelling is present us compact conclusion report about structural associations for the economic generations. Deformation structures and fluid pathways which related with plate tectonics progressed on our forearc system and each steps of dynamic movements of subducting mechanism has been seemed affect both hydrothermal stages and mineral variations together. Types of each deformation structure and mineral assemblages has characterized for flux estimations which can be useful for subsurface mapping. Geoanalytical results showed us clear characteristic stories for mutual processes. Determined compression and release directions on our map explains not only hydrothermal stages but also how succesion of intrusions changes. Our fuzzy logic models intersect sections of physical and chemical interactions of study field. Researched parameters like mafic minerals and enclave ratios on different deformation structures, cross sections of structures and relative existing sequence are all changes with different time periods like geochemical environment and each vein. With the combined informations in one scene we can transact mineralization processes about region which occurs in

  19. Multiphase groundwater flow near cooling plutons (United States)

    Hayba, D.O.; Ingebritsen, S.E.


    We investigate groundwater flow near cooling plutons with a computer program that can model multiphase flow, temperatures up to 1200??C, thermal pressurization, and temperature-dependent rock properties. A series of experiments examines the effects of host-rock permeability, size and depth of pluton emplacement, single versus multiple intrusions, the influence of a caprock, and the impact of topographically driven groundwater flow. We also reproduce and evaluate some of the pioneering numerical experiments on flow around plutons. Host-rock permeability is the principal factor influencing fluid circulation and heat transfer in hydrothermal systems. The hottest and most steam-rich systems develop where permeability is of the order of 10-15 m2. Temperatures and life spans of systems decrease with increasing permeability. Conduction-dominated systems, in which permeabilities are ???10-16m2, persist longer but exhibit relatively modest increases in near-surface temperatures relative to ambient conditions. Pluton size, emplacement depth, and initial thermal conditions have less influence on hydrothermal circulation patterns but affect the extent of boiling and duration of hydrothermal systems. Topographically driven groundwater flow can significantly alter hydrothermal circulation; however, a low-permeability caprock effectively decouples the topographically and density-driven systems and stabilizes the mixing interface between them thereby defining a likely ore-forming environment.

  20. Petrology and radiogeology of the Stripa pluton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, Harold; Flexser, Steve; Andersson, Lennart


    To better define the character of the rock encompassing the thermomechanical and hydrological experiments at the Stripa mine in central Sweden, and to help determine the size of the Stripa pluton, detailed studies were conducted of the petrology and radiogeology of the quartz monzonite and adjacent rocks. Petrologic studies emphasized optical petrography, with supplementary X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and microprobe analyses. Radiogeologic investigations were based primarily on surface and underground gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of uranium, thorium and potassium, supplemented by laboratory gamma spectrometric analyses and fission-track radiographic determinations of the locations and abundance of uranium in the rock matrix. Both the quartz monzonite and the metavolcanic leptite which it intruded are strongly fractured. Two stages of fracture filling are evident; an earlier stage encompassing quartz, sericite, feldspar, epidote, and chlorite, and a later stage dominated by carbonate minerals. The Stripa quartz monzonite is chemically and mineralogically distinct from other plutons in the region. Muscovite is the predominant mica in the quartz monzonite; biotite has been altered to chlorite, hornblende is absent, and accessory minerals are scarce. In contrast, in other plutons in the Stripa region biotite and hornblende are prominent mafic minerals and accessory minerals are abundant. The Stripa quartz monzonite is also considerably more radioactive than the leptite and other plutons in the region. Uranium and thorium abundances are both- 30 ppm, considerably higher than in "normal" granitic rocks where the thorium-to-uranium ratio generally exceeds 2. Potassium-argon dating of muscovite from the Stripa quartz monzonite indicates that this rock may be older, at 1691 million years than granitic rock of the neighboring Gusselby and Kloten massifs, whose ages, based on K-Ar dating of biotite, are respectively 1604 and 1640 m.y. Heat flow and heat

  1. Mediterranean diet adherence and body composition among Southern Italian adolescents. (United States)

    Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Antoci, Mariagrazia; Cagnetti, Antonella; Giogianni, Gabriele; Nolfo, Francesca; Rametta, Stefania; Pecora, Giulia; Marranzano, Marina

    Adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet has been associated with health benefits in young populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardio-metabolic parameters in adolescents living in Sicily, Southern Italy. A cross-sectional study was conducted during two school years (2012-2013 and 2013-2014) on 1643 adolescents of 11-16 years attending 15 secondary schools. Socio-demographic, dietary, lifestyle, and anthropometric data were collected. The KIDMED score was used to evaluate the adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Linear and logistic regression models were used to test the association between the variable of interest and the outcomes. A higher percentage of boys compared with girls was overweight (30.8% vs. 25.4%) and obese (28.7% vs. 18.5%) and only 9.1% had high adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Vegetable intake was negatively associated with being overweight/obese whereas higher intake of sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fast foods was associated with overweight and obesity. A good adherence to the Mediterranean diet resulted in 30% decreased odds of being overweight or obese (odd ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval: 0.56-0.87) in both boys and girls. An inverse correlation was found between KIDMED score and BMI, waist circumference and fat mass. No relation with blood pressure was found. Mediterranean dietary pattern resulted significantly associated with weight status in adolescents. These results underline the importance of providing lifestyle and dietary habits education to prevent overweight and obesity in adolescent. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Olivine Major and Trace Element Compositions in Southern Payenia Basalts, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Portnyagin, Maxim; Hoernle, Kaj;


    Olivine major and trace element compositions from 12 basalts from the southern Payenia volcanic province in Argentina have been analyzed by electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The olivines have high Fe/Mn and low Ca/Fe and many fall at the end...... by subduction-zone fluids and/or melts. The increasing contributions from the pyroxene-rich source in the southern Payenia basalts are correlated with an increasing Fe-enrichment, which caused the olivines to have lower forsterite contents at a given Ni content. Al-in-olivine crystallization temperatures...

  3. Petrology, geochemistry and thermobarometry of the northern area of the Flamenco pluton, Coastal Range batholith, northern Chile. A thermal approach to the emplacement processes in the Jurassic andean batholiths (United States)

    Rodríguez, Natalia; Díaz-Alvarado, Juan; Rodríguez, Carmen; Riveros, Karl; Fuentes, Paulina


    Hbl-Pl pairs in domains that preserve the original igneous textures yield temperatures above 820 °C. This is characteristic of self-granulitization processes during the sequential emplacement of composite batholiths. In addition, the thermal modeling was used in order to compare the expected and observed thermal contact aureole of the intrusive body. Model P-T conditions have been established between 3 and 4 kbars (extracted from the thermobarometric results), and temperatures between 1159 °C (liquidus temperature for a tonalitic composition) and 992 °C (fixed at the rheological threshold of a 50% crystal fraction). The thermal modeling estimates a homogeneous contact aureole, where the established temperatures for the melting reactions in the host-rocks are located at distances between 200 and 650 m from the magma chamber boundary, whereas the temperatures for Crd stabilization extend 1500 m far from the contact in the case of the emplacement at liquidus temperatures and 4 kbars. According to field observations, the contact aureole presents a scarce development in the northern area of the Flamenco pluton, with few migmatite outcrops and less than 1 Km in thickness for Crd-schists. However, in the southern contact, partially melted rocks are described at distances up to 2 km from the Flamenco pluton boundary. The processes of self-granulitization and the differences between the observed and calculated (by the thermal modeling of one single pulse) contact aureole suggests a process of incremental emplacement for the Flamenco pluton, by accretion of magmatic pulses from north to south (in its current position), where the thermal maturity reached through the repeated magmatic intrusion generates a more extensive area of high-grade metamorphism.

  4. Structural evolution of the Rieserferner Pluton: insight into the localization of deformation and regional tectonics implications (United States)

    Ceccato, Alberto; Pennacchioni, Giorgio


    deformation structures within the RFP is controlled by the development and later reactivation in shear of two main sets of joints during cooling and progressive exhumation of the pluton. These joints were either exploited as faults or localized ductile shear zones. In the RFP, the kinematics of shear reactivation is complex, with the same joint set recording different senses of shear and transport directions. Preliminary kinematic analysis and qualitative paleostress reconstruction show that there has been a clockwise rotation of the main regional shortening direction from WNW-ESE, during the first ductile event, to N-S during later brittle deformation. These two different shortening directions fit with those inferred, respectively, for Austroalpine nappe stacking by Ratschbacher (1989) and for the Alpine convergence during late Oligocene-Miocene within the Tauern window (Pennacchioni & Mancktelow, 2007). References Cesare, B. (1994). Hercynite as the product of staurolite decomposition in the contact aureole of Vedrette di Ries, eastern Alps, Italy. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 116(3), 239-246. Pennacchioni, G., Di Toro, G., Brack, P., Menegon, L., & Villa, I. M. (2006). Brittle-ductile-brittle deformation during cooling of tonalite (Adamello, Southern Italian Alps). Tectonophysics, 427(1), 171-197. Pennacchioni, G., & Mancktelow, N. S. (2007). Nucleation and initial growth of a shear zone network within compositionally and structurally heterogeneous granitoids under amphibolite facies conditions. Journal of Structural Geology, 29(11), 1757-1780. Ratschbacher, L., Frisch, W., Neubauer, F., Schmid, S. M., & Neugebauer, J. (1989). Extension in compressional orogenic belts: the eastern Alps. Geology, 17(5), 404-407. Romer, R. L., & Siegesmund, S. (2003). Why allanite may swindle about its true age. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 146(3), 297-307. Steenken, A., Siegesmund, S., & Heinrichs, T. (2000). The emplacement of the Rieserferner Pluton (Eastern

  5. Source variation for Mesozoic granitoid plutons in the White-Inyo Range, California, and implications for changes in the lithospheric structure (United States)

    Gammel, E.; Nabelek, P. I.; Phillips, E. H. W.; Scott, S. R.; Sims, K. W. W.


    shallower lithospheric material, or (2) two source materials are present at all times with varying degrees of mixing; older plutons represent a greater degree of mixing whereas younger plutons are primarily unmixed. Whole rock isotopic data and amphibole, pyroxene, feldspar compositional data will be used to explore these hypotheses.

  6. Moho depth and crustal composition in Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina;


    heterogeneous crustal structure with short wavelength variations in thickness (H), Vp/Vs-ratio (composition), and Moho sharpness, which defines ~20 blocks that do not everywhere coincide with surface tectonic features. In the Zimbabwe Craton, the Tokwe block has H = 35–38 km and Vp/Vs = 1.74–1.79 whereas...... the thicker crust in the Tati block (H = 47–51 km)may be related to deformation of the Archean crust along the cratonicmargin. Two distinct crustal blocks with similar crustal thickness (42–46 km) but significantly different Vp/Vs-ratios are recognized in the Limpopo Belt. Extreme values of 1......-existing lower crust, which is further supported by a very sharp Moho transition. The exposed cross-section in the Vredefort impact crater is non-representative of cratonic crust due to shallowMoho (34 km) and high Vp/Vs ~ 1.80 attributed to shock metamorphism. High Vp/Vs = 1.76 is typical of the Witwatersrand...

  7. The amphiboles of the REE-rich A-type peralkaline Strange Lake pluton - fingerprints of magma evolution (United States)

    Siegel, Karin; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.; van Hinsberg, Vincent J.


    Major and trace element compositions of amphibole in igneous environments commonly reflect evolving magma compositions. In this study, we use the amphibole-group minerals from the Strange Lake, REE-enriched peralkaline granitic pluton to gain insights into the evolution of the magma. This 1240 Ma old pluton consists of two main intrusive facies, an early hypersolvus granite, which occurs as separate northern and southern intrusions, and a more evolved transsolvus granite. In the hypersolvus granite the amphibole is a late interstitial phase, whereas in the transsolvus granite, it is present as phenocrysts. The amphibole compositions vary from calcic-sodic (ferro-ferri-katophorite) in the southern hypersolvus granite to sodic (arfvedsonite, ferro-ferri-leakeite) in the other, more evolved granitic units. High Na, Si, Li, and low Al and Ca concentrations in the amphibole phenocrysts of the transsolvus granite indicate formation from a more evolved magma compared to the hypersolvus granite, despite the fact that these crystals formed early. We interpret the increasing Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in the amphibole of the hypersolvus granite to reflect crystal chemical effects (Na/Ca-ratio) and increasingly oxidizing conditions in the magma, whereas in the phenocrysts of the transsolvus granite, the increasing ratio was the product of increasing proportions of F- and OH- in the melt. The amphiboles of all the granite units have elevated Nb, Zr, Hf and REE concentrations compared to the bulk rock, suggesting that these elements are compatible in amphibole. By contrast the much lower Ti concentration was due to saturation of the magma in sodium-titanosilicates. The amphibole REE concentrations vary greatly among the granite units. Amphibole of the southern and northern hypersolvus granite contains 0.16 and 0.07 wt.% ∑ REE + Y, on average, respectively, and in the transsolvus granite, the average ∑ REE content is only 0.01 wt.%, despite the more evolved nature of its host

  8. Zircon U-Pb Dating of Dayishan and Tashan Plutons in Hunan Province and Its Tectonic Implications%湖南大义山、塔山岩体锆石U-Pb年龄及其构造意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 张岳桥; 苏金宝; 李建华; 董树文


    The distribution and intrusion of Early Mesozoic granites in central South China such as Dayishan pluton and Tashan pluton are closely related to folded structure in this region. Precise chronologic studies can constrain the age of the tectonic deformation. This paper report zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS ages of the southern part of Dayishan pluton based on dating of 3 samples:the age of the eastern margin is (171.8±1.9) Ma, that of the western margin is (169.9±1.8) Ma and that of the central part is (164.2±2.6) Ma. The zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS age of the eastern part of Tashan pluton is (247±5.9) Ma. Dayishan pluton experienced two phases of intrusion between 164.2 and 171.8 Ma and formed a composite pluton;after that, it experienced rapid uplift prior to 125 Ma, and then it was rapidly raised to the surface at the cooling rate of 1°C/Ma. Dayishan pluton and Tashan pluton recorded Indosinian and Yanshanian magmatic activities. The EW-trending structural zone controlled Indosinian granites, such as Yangmingshan and Tashan; the ages of Dayishan and Qitianling plutons constrain the Yanshanian tectonic deformation, and the formation of the NNE-trending folds in South China should be earlier than (171.8±1.9) Ma.%华南中部地区大义山、塔山等早中生代花岗岩的展布和侵入特征与这一时期褶皱构造之间存在着非常密切的关系,对这些岩体进行精确年代学研究,可以为构造变形时代提供年代学约束。大义山岩体南部地区锆石U-Pb LA-ICP-MS年龄为东缘(171.8±1.9) Ma、西缘(169.9±1.8) Ma、中部(164.2±2.6) Ma,塔山岩体东段为(247±5.9) Ma。大义山岩体在164.2—171.8 Ma之间经历两个期次的侵入,形成了一个复式岩体,岩体形成后至125 Ma经历了快速隆升,之后以接近1°C/Ma的冷却速率抬升到地表。大义山和塔山岩体记录了华南早中生代印支和燕山两期重要的岩浆活动。阳明山、塔山岩体等E—W向展布岩体受

  9. Zircon LA-ICPMS study and petrogenesis simulation of Dahuabei pluton in the Wulashan area,Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dapeng Li; Yuelong Chen; Liemeng Chen; Zhong Wang; Jinbao Liu


    Dahuabei pluton in the Wulashan area,Inner Mongolia,is an alkaline and peraluminous granitic pluton.LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating of zircons indicates that this pluton crystallized at 330±10 Myr.The pluton did not experience apparent zircon fractionation.The consistent temperatures between Zr saturation (765℃) and the average zircon-rutile Ti equilibrium (780℃),together with zircon ages and their CL images,indicated that there were no inherited zircons in this pluton.Through the simulation of the dry-system crystallization process of magma cooling at 200 MPa and 1100-709℃,the phase diagram and composition evolution tendency of different phases were obtained.The magma reached its liquidus at 1069℃.Sanidine was the first crystallized phase;at 709℃ the residual magma was less than 4%,and the range of 1069-719℃ should be the most suitable approach to the real condition.It is shown that at least some part of the pluton underwent such isobaric equilibrium crystallization processes during its crystallization.

  10. Rapid middle Miocene extension and unroofing of the southern Ruby Mountains, Nevada (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Howard, Keith A.; Fleck, Robert J.; Wooden, Joseph L.


    Paleozoic rocks in the northern Ruby Mountains were metamorphosed during Mesozoic crustal shortening and Cenozoic magmatism, but equivalent strata in the southern Ruby Mountains were never buried deeper than stratigraphic depths prior to exhumation in the footwall of a west dipping brittle normal fault. In the southern Ruby Mountains, Miocene sedimentary rocks in the hanging wall of this fault date from 15.2 to 11.6 Ma and contain abundant detritus from the Paleozoic section. Apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He samples of the Eocene Harrison Pass pluton record rapid cooling that peaked ca. 17–15 Ma, while apatite fission track data from Jurassic plutons east and west of the southern Ruby Mountains indicate near-surface temperatures (pluton to be partially reset rather than to directly record fault slip. Our new data, together with published data on the distribution and composition of Miocene basin fill, suggest that rapid middle Miocene slip took place on the west dipping brittle detachment that bounds the Ruby Mountains and East Humboldt Range for 150 km along strike. This fault was thus active during a period of rapid extension (ca. 17–15 to 12–10 Ma) documented widely across the northern Basin and Range Province.

  11. Norite and charnockites from the Venda Nova Pluton, SE Brazil: Intensive parameters and some petrogenetic constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cezar Mendes


    Full Text Available The Venda Nova Pluton (VNP is a zoned ring structure emplaced in the southern portion of the Neoproterozoic Araçuai Belt, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. It is a slightly westward tilted cylinder-like intrusion, with an almost circular horizontal section. In the center of this structure, an off-centered gabbro-noritic core, surrounded by syeno-monzonitic rocks, intrudes an outer ring of charnockites and norite. These envelop the syeno-monzonitic and gabbro-noritic center, as a narrow discontinuous belt. While, in the core intrusion, mingling and mixing processes are widespread and well documented in the literature, in the outer ring, the norite and charnockite layers show predominantly homogeneous and isotropic internal structures. Nevertheless, smaller interaction zones between charnockites and norite denote a comparatively more restricted mingling process. The norite is a fine-grained rock with hypidiomorphic granular to intergranular texture. The charnockites are medium-grained and made up of: (a orthopyroxene-tonalite, (b orthopyroxene-quartz-diorite, and (c orthopyroxene-granodiorite with hypidiomorphic granular to porphyritic textures. In all lithotypes both ortho- and clinopyroxene are replaced by hornblende and biotite. Two contrasting compositional sequences have been recognized, based on whole rock geochemistry: (1 a basic, with tholeiitic affinities (norite and, (2 an intermediate, medium-K calc-alkaline, comprising the charnockites. Estimated crystallization temperatures, which have been calculated from micro-probe analysis of pyroxenes, range from 915 ± 25 °C to 960 ± 50 °C. Re-equilibration temperature (ilmenite-magnetite calibration is around 600 ± 50 °C. This indicates oxygen fugacities four order of magnitude below the FMQ-buffer and a reduced environment. Coeval pressure conditions estimated from the Al-content in hornblende range from 5.5 ± 0.6 kbar. Data obtained for the norite point toward an evolution from

  12. Dichotomy of The Messada Pluton, Serbo-Macedonian Massif, Greece: From Rifting to Subduction (United States)

    Vasilatos, Charalampos


    The Messada pluton is a mafic intrusion that is located about 12 km SW of Serres town, (Macedonia Greece) that intrudes the two mica, biotite and the augen gneisses of the Vertiskos formation (Serbo-Macedonian massif). The aim of this study is to investigate, define and evaluate the geochemical characteristics of the pluton in order to determine the geotectonic environment in which the parental magma has been formed. The Mesada pluton is a mid to coarse grained intrusion presenting petrographic variety from diorite and quartz diorite to tonalite and granodiorite. The variety in petrography reflects its chemical inhomogeneity in major and trace elements. It is suggested that parts of pluton have been formed by distinctly different types of magmas originated in diverse geotectonic settings. Those parts of quartz diorite and tonalite composition, present similar geochemical characteristics, LILE/HFSE ratios and negative Nb, but no Ti anomalies in their primitive mantle normalized trace elements spider grams. They exhibit higher HFS values than those of granodioritic composition. Moreover, their ORG normalized spider grams not only suggest that they have been evolved by a common parental magma, but also present the typical characteristics of a “crust dominated” within plate pluton that may have been formed in an early stage during rifting, prior to a subsequent subduction episode. This interpretation may be in accordance with the suggestion for the Gondwanian origin of the more silicic Triassic rift related meta-granites (e.g. Arnea plutonic complex) of the Serbo-Macedonian massif. In contrary; the parts of Mesada pluton of granodioritic composition, exhibit a calc-alkaline to high K calc-alkaline magmatic suite and present higher LILE/HFSE and LREE/HREE ratios, related to a higher crustal component contribution for the magma genesis. Furthermore, their primitive mantle normalized spider grams’ present negative anomalies at Nb and Ti. These characteristics

  13. Formation of the Yandangshan volcanic-plutonic complex (SE China) by melt extraction and crystal accumulation (United States)

    Yan, Li-Li; He, Zhen-Yu; Jahn, Bor-ming; Zhao, Zhi-Dan


    The association of volcanic and shallow plutonic rocks in caldera may provide important clues to the geochemical evolution of silicic magma systems. The Yandangshan caldera is a typical example of late Mesozoic volcanic-plutonic complex in SE China. It is composed of a series of rhyolitic extrusives and subvolcanic intrusions of porphyritic quartz syenites. In this work, we conducted petrological and geochemical studies, as well as zircon dating, on the coexisting volcanic and plutonic rocks from the Yandangshan caldera. The results of SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating revealed that the crystallization of the rhyolitic extrusives and subvolcanic intrusions was contemporaneous within analytical errors and in a short period (104-98 Ma). Geochemically, the volcanic rocks are characterized by high Rb/Sr and Rb/Ba ratios and depletion in Ba, Sr, P, Eu and Ti, while the shallow plutons show high K, Ba, Al, Fe and low Rb/Sr and Rb/Ba ratios with insignificant negative Eu anomalies. The volcanic and plutonic rocks have a similar range of zircon Hf isotopic compositions (εHf(t) = - 10.0 to + 1.5) and TDM2 model ages of 2.10-1.23 Ga. They also have comparable whole-rock Sr and Nd isotopic compositions ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7084-0.7090; εNd(t) = - 7.8 to - 6.5) and zircon oxygen isotopic compositions (δ18O mainly = 4.5 to 6.0‰). We argue that the volcanic-plutonic complex of the Yandangshan caldera was formed by reworking of Paleoproterozoic lower crusts in the eastern Cathaysia block, and that the complex could be linked by fractional crystallization and crystal accumulation in a shallow magma chamber. The volcanic rocks represent the highly fractionated end-member, whereas the subvolcanic intrusions of porphyritic quartz syenites could be the residual crystal mushes. This case study could have a general implication for the genetic relationship between volcanic and shallow plutonic rocks in calderas.

  14. Igneous banding, schlieren and mafic enclaves in calc-alkaline granites: The Budduso pluton (Sardinia) (United States)

    Barbey, P.; Gasquet, D.; Pin, C.; Bourgeix, A. L.


    This study deals with the origin of igneous layering in plutons, and, especially, the extent layering is related to mafic-silicic magma interactions. The Budduso pluton (Sardinia) shows three main scales of organization. (i) Large scale lithological variations correspond to three main magmatic units, with differentiation increasing from the Outer (hornblende-bearing biotite granodiorite/monzogranite) to the Middle (biotite monzogranite) and the Inner (leucomonzogranite) units. The striking homogeneity of 87Sr/ 86Sr initial ratios (0.7090 ± 4) and ɛNd(t) values (- 5.6 ± 0.1) strongly suggests that magma isotopic equilibration was achieved prior to emplacement, whereas mixing/mingling structures observed within the pluton reflect second-stage processes involving broadly cogenetic components. (ii) Metre to decametre-scale igneous layering may be isomodal or modally-graded, locally with cross-layering. Biotite and plagioclase compositions are similar in both biotite-rich and quartzofeldspathic layers, as are the trace-element patterns which differ only by relative abundances. This precludes an origin by fractional crystallization. A penetrative submagmatic fabric superimposed on the layering and corresponding mainly to flattening can be ascribed to interference between pluton growth and regional deformation. (iii) Composite layering and schlieren are commonly associated to mafic microgranular enclaves, locally within synmagmatic shear zones or disrupted synplutonic dykes. In that case, there is a progressive shift in biotite XFe values from the core of enclave (˜ 0.65) to the host monzogranite (˜ 0.72): schlieren in the monzogranite show biotite XFe values similar to that of the host rock, whereas schlieren close to mafic enclaves show lower XFe values (˜ 0.69) towards those of enclave rims. These features can be ascribed to three main processes: (i) assembly of differentiated (± mixed/mingled) magmatic pulses; (ii) local hydrodynamic sorting related to density

  15. Seismic structure and composition of the crust beneath the southern Scandes, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Thybo, Hans


    New results on P and S-wave seismic velocity structure in southern Norway indicate that the crust has an average Poisson's ratio of 0.25, is predominantly of felsic-intermediate composition and lacks a significant mafic lower crust. A crustal scale refraction seismic study (Magnus-Rex — Mantle...... investigations of Norwegian uplift structure, refraction experiment) acquired data along three 300 to 400 km long active source seismic profiles across the Southwest Scandinavian Domain in southern Norway, the youngest section of the Fennoscandian shield. Moho depths in the Domain are 36–40 km, thinning towards...... the continental shelf and Oslo Graben. The high Vp lower crust beneath the Southwest Scandinavian Domain (Vp > 7 km/s) is around 4 km thick. Crustal structure in the adjacent Svecofennian Domain differs significantly; Moho depths reach ~ 50 km and an up to 24 km thick high Vp lower crust is present. Strong P...

  16. Lithospheric delamination in post-collisional setting: Evidence from intrusive magmatism from the North Qilian orogen to southern margin of the Alxa block, NW China (United States)

    Zhang, Liqi; Zhang, Hongfei; Zhang, Shasha; Xiong, Ziliang; Luo, Biji; Yang, He; Pan, Fabin; Zhou, Xiaochun; Xu, Wangchun; Guo, Liang


    Post-collisional granitoids are widespread in the North Qilian and southern margin of the Alxa block and their petrogenesis can provide important insights into the lithospheric processes in a post-collisional setting. This paper carries out an integrated study of U-Pb zircon dating, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions for five early Paleozoic intrusive plutons from the North Qilian to southern margin of the Alxa block. The geochronological and geochemical results show that their magmatism can be divided into three periods with distinct geochemical features. The early-period intrusive rocks ( 440 Ma) include the Lianhuashan (LHS) and Mengjiadawan (MJDW) granodiorites. Both of them display high Sr/Y ratios (52-91), coupled with low Y and HREE contents, implying that they were derived from partial melting of thickened lower crust, with garnet in the residue. The middle-period intrusive rocks ( 430 Ma), including the MJDW quartz diorites and Yangqiandashan (YQDS) granodiorites, are high-K calc-alkaline with low Sr/Y values. The geochemical and isotopic data suggest that they are generated from partial melting of lower crust without garnet in the residue. The late-period intrusive rocks (414-422 Ma), represented by the Shengrongsi (SRS) and Xinkaigou (XKG) plutons, are A-type or alkali-feldspar granites. They are possibly derived from partial melting of felsic crustal material under lower pressure condition. Our data show decreasing magma crystallization ages from MJDW pluton in the north and LHS pluton in the south to the SRS and XKG plutons in the central part of the study area. We suggest that such spatial and temporal variations of magmatic suites were caused by lithospheric delamination after the collision between the Central Qilian and the Alxa block. A more plausible explanation is that the delamination propagated from the margin part of the thickened lithosphere to inward beneath the North Qilian and southern margin of the Alxa block.

  17. Temporal variations in lead concentrations and isotopic composition in the Southern California Bight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S.A.; Flegal, A.R. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States))


    Lead concentrations in surface waters of the Southern California Bight appear to have decreased threefold (from >170 to <60 pM) since they were initially measured by Clair Patterson and his associates in the 1970s. The decrease parallels a threefold decline in anthropogenic inputs of industrial lead to the bight over the past two decades. Moreover, mass balance calculations indicate that the primary source of lead to the bight now is upwelling. This is evidenced by the isotopic compositions of surface waters in the bight, which are most characteristic of Asian industrial lead aerosols (0.4793 [le] [sup 206]Pb/[sup 208]Pb [le] 0.4833) deposited in oceanic waters of the North Pacific. While the decrease in surface water lead concentrations in the bight reflects the reduction in industrial lead emissions from the United States, the isotopic compositions of surface waters in the southern reach of the bight reflect a concurrent increase in industrial lead emissions from Mexico (0.4852 [le] [sup 206]Pb/[sup 208]Pb [le] 0.4877). The isotopic composition ([sup 208]Pb/[sup 207]Pb [approximately] 2.427) of elevated lead concentrations of surface waters in San Diego Bay indicate that lead is being remobilized from contaminated sediments within that bay.

  18. Why are plutons dry? Outgassing mechanisms of crustal magmatic bodies (United States)

    parmigiani, andrea; Huber, Christian; Bachmann, Olivier; Leclaire, Sébastien


    Magma bodies crystallizing to completion within the crust (i.e., forming plutons) typically undergo significant amounts of second boiling (i.e. cooling and crystallization of dominantly anhydrous minerals lead to volatile saturation and bubble nucleation/growth). The low water content ( 6 wt % H2O for evolved compositions in subduction zones), testify that outgassing from crystalline mushy reservoirs must be an efficient and widespread process. Understanding this outgassing mechanism is key to understand how volatiles are transferred from mantle depths to the surface. From the hydrodynamics point of view, the mass balance of exsolved volatiles in these plutonic bodies is controlled by the difference between the rate of degassing (formation of bubbles by 2nd boiling) and outgassing (transport of gas out of the magma body). In this study, we use pore-scale multiphase modeling to constrain these rates as function of the crystal and volatile contents in the magma. Because second boiling is a slow process, one can consider equilibrium degassing as a valid assumption. Outgassing, on the other end, is controlled by the competition between buoyancy, capillary and viscous forces. Our numerical simulations are used to determine the most efficient setting for gas to escape its magmatic trap. The high viscosity of interstitial melts and capillary forces (due to the non-wetting nature of the gas phase with most of the mineral phases in magmatic systems) strongly limits gas transport until vertically extensive gas channels are generated. We show that channels can readily form in volatile-rich coarse-grained mush zones in the upper crust, and allow efficient outgassing at crystallinities around 50-75 vol%, when millimetric bubbles can still win capillary resistive forces.

  19. Multi-sensor geophysical constraints on crustal melt in the central Andes: the PLUTONS project (United States)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Comeau, M. J.; West, M. E.; Christensen, D. H.; Mcfarlin, H. L.; Farrell, A. K.; Del Potro, R.; Gottsmann, J.; McNutt, S. R.; Michelfelder, G.; Diez, M.; Elliott, J.; Henderson, S. T.; Keyson, L.; Delgado, F.; Unsworth, M. J.


    The central Andes is a key global location to quantify storage, transport, and volumes of magma in the Earth's crust as it is home to the world's largest zone of partial melt (the Altiplano-Puna Magma or Mush Body, APMB) as well as the more recently documented Southern Puna Magma Body (SPMB). We describe results from the recently completed international PLUTONS project that focused inter-disciplinary study on two sites of large-scale surface uplift that presumably represent ongoing magmatic intrusions in the mid to upper crust - Uturuncu, Bolivia (in the center of the APMB) and Lazufre on the Chile-Argentina border (on the edge of the SPMB). In particular, a suite of geophysical techniques (seismology, gravity, surface deformation, and electro-magnetic methods) have been used to infer the current subsurface distribution and quantity of partial melts in combination with geochemical and lab studies on samples from the area. Both Uturuncu and Lazufre show separate geophysical anomalies in the upper and mid/lower crust (e.g., low seismic velocity, low resistivity, etc.) indicating multiple distinct reservoirs of magma and/or hydrothermal fluids with different properties. The characteristics of the geophysical anomalies differ somewhat depending on the technique used - reflecting the different sensitivity of each method to subsurface melt of different compositions, connectivity, and volatile content. For example, the depth to the top of the APMB is shallower in a joint ambient noise tomography and receiver function analysis compared to a 3D magnetotelluric inversion. One possibility is that the seismic methods are detecting brines above the APMB that do not have a large electromagnetic signature. Comparison of the geophysical measurements with laboratory experiments at the APMB indicate a minimum of 4-25% melt averaged over the region is needed -- higher melt volumes are permitted by the gravity and MT data and may exist in small regions. However, bulk melt values above

  20. Supraglacial dust and debris: geochemical compositions from glaciers in Svalbard, southern Norway, Nepal and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Casey


    Full Text Available Alpine glacier samples were collected in four contrasting regions to measure supraglacial dust and debris geochemical composition and quantify regional variability. A total of 70 surface glacier ice, snow and debris samples were collected in Svalbard, southern Norway, Nepal and New Zealand. Trace elemental abundances in snow and ice samples were measured via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Supraglacial debris mineral, bulk oxide and trace element composition were determined via X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF. A total of 45 major, trace and rare earth elements and 10 oxide compound abundances are reported. Elemental abundances revealed sea salt aerosol and metal enrichment in Svalbard, low levels of crustal dust and marine influences to southern Norway, high crustal dust and anthropogenic enrichment in the Khumbu Himalayas, and sulfur and metals attributed to quiescent degassing and volcanic activity in northern New Zealand. Rare earth element and Al/Ti elemental ratios demonstrated distinct provenance of particulates in each study region. Ca/S elemental ratio data showed seasonal denudation in Svalbard and southern Norway. Ablation season atmospheric particulate transport trajectories were mapped in each of the study regions and suggest provenance pathways. The in situ data presented provides first-order glacier surface geochemical variability as measured in the four diverse alpine glacier regions. The surface glacier geochemical data set is available from the PANGAEA database at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.773951. This geochemical surface glacier data is relevant to glaciologic ablation rate understanding as well as satellite atmospheric and land-surface mapping techniques currently in development.

  1. Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. (United States)

    Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F


    This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient

  2. River Valley pluton, Ontario - A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province (United States)

    Ashwal, Lewis D.; Wooden, Joseph L.


    This paper presents Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic data indicating a late-Archean/early-Proterozoic age for the River Valley anorthositic pluton of the southwestern Grenville Province of Sudbury, Ontario. Pb-Pb isotopic data on 10 whole-rock samples ranging in composition from anorthosite to gabbro yield an age of 2560 + or - 155 Ma. The River Valley pluton is thus the oldest anorthositic intrusive yet recognized within the Grenville Province. The Sm-Nd isotopic system records an age of 2377 + or - 68 Ma. High Pb-208/Pb-204 of deformed samples relative to igneous-textured rocks implies Th introduction and/or U loss during metamorphism in the River Valley area. Rb-Sr data from igneous-textured and deformed samples and from mineral separates give an age of 2185 + or - 105 Ma, indicating substantial disturbance of the Rb-Sr isotopic system.

  3. Sr and Nd isotopic and trace element compositions of Quaternary volcanic centers of the Southern Andes (United States)

    Futa, K.; Stern, C.R.


    Isotopic compositions of samples from six Quaternary volcanoes located in the northern and southern extremities of the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ, 33-46??S) of the Andes and from four centers in the Austral Volcanic Zone (AVZ, 49-54??S) range for 87Sr 86Sr from 0.70280 to 0.70591 and for 143Nd 144Nd from 0.51314 to 0.51255. The ranges are significantly greater than previously reported from the southern Andes but are different from the isotopic compositions of volcanoes in the central and northern Andes. Basalts and basaltic andesites from three centers just north of the Chile Rise-Trench triple junction have 87Sr 86Sr, 143Nd 144Nd, La Yb, Ba La, and Hf Lu that lie within the relatively restricted ranges of the basic magmas erupted from the volcanic centers as far north as 35??S in the SVZ of the Andes. The trace element and Sr and Nd isotopic characteristics of these magmas may be explained by source region contamination of subarc asthenosphere, with contaminants derived from subducted pelagic sediments and seawater-altered basalts by dehydration of subducted oceanic lithosphere. In the northern extremity of the SVZ between 33?? and 34??S, basaltic andesites and andesites have higher 87Sr 86Sr, Rb Cs, and Hf Lu, and lower 143Nd 144Nd than basalts and basaltic andesites erupted farther south in the SVZ, which suggests involvement of components derived from the continental crust. In the AVZ, the most primitive sample, high-Mg andesite from the southernmost volcanic center in the Andes (54??S) has Sr and Nd isotopic compositions and K Rb and Ba La similar to MORB. The high La Yb of this sample suggests formation by small degrees of partial melting of subducted MORB with garnet as a residue. Samples from centers farther north in the AVZ show a regionally regular northward increase in SiO2, K2O, Rb, Ba, Ba La, and 87Sr 86Sr and decrease in MgO, Sr, K Rb, Rb Cs, and 143Nd 144Nd, suggesting increasingly greater degrees of fractional crystallization and associated intra

  4. Geochemistry of the Topuk Pluton associated with the Kozbudaklar W-skarn deposit (Western Anatolia, Turkey): Implication for crystallization conditions (United States)

    Orhan, Ayşe; Demirbilek, Mehmet; Mutlu, Halim


    The Kozbudaklar scheelite-bearing skarn deposit in the Tavşanlı Zone, western Turkey, occurs at the contact between Eocene Topuk pluton and Triassic İnönü marble of calcic character. The Topuk pluton is medium-coarse grained, granodiorite in composition and has a hypidiomorphic equigranular texture. The host rock contains mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) of monzodiorite-monzogabbro composition and is interrupted by porphyritic granodiorite and granite-aplite vein rocks. The pluton is calk-alkaline, metaluminous and composed of I-type melt character. δ18O and δD compositions of silicate minerals from granodioritic host rock are 5.9-10.6‰ and -77.0 to -71.4‰ and conformable with the range of unaltered I-type granites. Trace element contents indicate that pluton is crystallized from mantle-derived magma interacted with continental crust in a volcanic arc or subduction related setting. Major and trace element concentrations of Topuk pluton are quite consistent with geochemical patterns of Cu-skarn granitoids. Results of mineral chemistry analysis of the pluton yield that plagioclases are of oligoclase-andesine, amphiboles are of magnesio-hornblende and biotites are of ferro-magnesian composition. Amphiboles and biotites of granodioritic host rock are represented by calc-alkaline, I-type melt composition evolved in a subduction environment. Based on the results of plagioclase-Al in hornblende and amphibole chemistry data from the pluton, two different stages are proposed for the magma crystallization. The first stage was developed in a relatively deeper environment (>15 km) under high pressure (>4 kbar) and low log ƒO2 (>-17.6) conditions which reflect fractional crystallization and magma-mixing depth of basaltic magma and these conditions are not correlated with scheelite mineralization. The second crystallization stage of magma which proceeded at shallow depths (-12.9 to -11.0) values are accompanied by high H2O contents (5.39-6.88 wt.%). High water

  5. Temporal and spatial patterns of microbial community biomass and composition in the Southern California Current Ecosystem (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew G.; Landry, Michael R.; Selph, Karen E.; Wokuluk, John J.


    As part of the California Current Ecosystem Long Term Ecological Research (CCE-LTER) Program, samples for epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry (FCM) were collected at ten 'cardinal' stations on the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) grid during 25 quarterly cruises from 2004 to 2010 to investigate the biomass, composition and size-structure of microbial communities within the southern CCE. Based on our results, we divided the region into offshore, and inshore northern and southern zones. Mixed-layer phytoplankton communities in the offshore had lower biomass (16±2 μg C L-1; all errors represent the 95% confidence interval), smaller size-class cells and biomass was more stable over seasonal cycles. Offshore phytoplankton biomass peaked during the winter months. Mixed-layer phytoplankton communities in the northern and southern inshore zones had higher biomass (78±22 and 32±9 μg C L-1, respectively), larger size-class cells and stronger seasonal biomass patterns. Inshore communities were often dominated by micro-size (20-200 μm) diatoms; however, autotrophic dinoflagellates dominated during late 2005 to early 2006, corresponding to a year of delayed upwelling in the northern CCE. Biomass trends in mid and deep euphotic zone samples were similar to those seen in the mixed-layer, but with declining biomass with depth, especially for larger size classes in the inshore regions. Mixed-layer ratios of autotrophic carbon to chlorophyll a (AC:Chl a) had a mean value of 51.5±5.3. Variability of nitracline depth, bin-averaged AC:Chl a in the mixed-layer ranged from 40 to 80 and from 22 to 35 for the deep euphotic zone, both with significant positive relationships to nitracline depth. Total living microbial carbon, including auto- and heterotrophs, consistently comprised about half of particulate organic carbon (POC).

  6. Timing and nature of tertiary plutonism and extension in the Grouse Creek Mountains, Utah (United States)

    Egger, A.E.; Dumitru, T.A.; Miller, E.L.; Savage, C.F.I.; Wooden, J.L.


    The Grouse Creek-Albion-Raft River metamorphic core complex in northwestern Utah and southern Idaho is characterized by several Tertiary plutons with a range of ages and crosscutting relations that help constrain the timing of extensional deformation. In the Grouse Creek Mountains, at least three distinct, superimposed, extension-related Tertiary deformational events are bracketed by intrusive rocks, followed by a fourth event: motion on range-bounding faults. The Emigrant Pass plutonic complex was emplaced at depths of less than 10 km into Permianage rocks. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon analysis indicates a three-stage intrusion of the complex at 41.3 ?? 0.3 Ma, 36.1 ?? 0.2 Ma, and 34.3 ?? 0.3 Ma. The two youngest phases represent distinctly younger intrusive event(s) than the oldest phase, separated by more than 5 m.y. The oldest phase cuts several metamorphosed and deformed younger-on-older faults, providing a pre-41 Ma age bracket for oldest extension-related deformation in the region. The youngest phase(s) are interpreted to have been intruded during delelopment of a map-scale. N-S-trending recumbent fold, the Bovine Mountain fold, formed during vertical shortening of roof rocks during intrusion. This second event folded older normal faults that are likely pre-41 Ma. Zircons from the youngest part of the pluton show inheritance from Archean basement (???2.5 Ga) and from its Proterozoic sedimentary cover (???1.65 Ga). The Red Butte pluton, emplaced at 15-20 km depth, intruded highly metamorphosed Archean orthogneiss at 25.3 ?? 0.5 Ma; cores of some zircons yield latest Archean ages of 2.55 Ga. The pluton is interpreted to have been intruded during a third deformational and metamorphic event that resulted in vertical flattening fabrics formed during NW to EW stretching, ultimately leading to thinning of cover and top-to-the west motion on the Ingham Pass fault. The Ingham Pass fault represents an important structure in the Grouse Creek Mountains, as it juxtaposes two parts

  7. Composite fish culture for mosquito control in rice fields in southern India. (United States)

    Victor, T J; Chandrasekaran, B; Reuben, R


    Composite culture of edible fishes (common carp, Cryprinus carpio; silver carp, Hypopthalmithys molitrix, grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella; catla, Catla catla; rohu, Labeo rohita; and mrigal, Cirrhinus mrigala) in rice fields in the Cauvery delta of Tamil Nadu, southern India, resulted in 81.0% reduction in the immature mosquito population of anophelines and 83.5% of culicines. Analysis of fish feces for mosquito larval head capsules showed that common carp and silver carp are effective larvivores. The selective feeding of common carp on culicines and silver carp on anophelines is correlated to their trophic niches. Net profit in the fish-cum-rice fields was 2.5 times greater than fields in which rice alone was cultured. Hence, rice-cum-fish culture can be recommended to the farming community in this area.

  8. Geology, petrography and geochemistry of the A-type granites from the Morro Redondo Complex (PR-SC, southern Brazil, Graciosa Province

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    Full Text Available The Morro Redondo Complex is one of the most important occurrences of the Graciosa A-type Province, southern Brazil. It consists of the Papanduva and Quiriri granitic plutons and a contemporaneous bimodal volcanic association. The Papanduva Pluton includes massive and deformed peralkaline alkali-feldspar granites with Na-Ca and Na-amphiboles and clinopyroxenes. The deformed types are the most evolved rocks in the province and carry rare ‘agpaitic’ minerals, some being described for the first time in granites from Brazil. The larger Quiriri Pluton comprises massive, slightly peraluminous, biotite syeno- and monzogranites with rare Ca-amphibole. Biotite compositions are relatively homogeneous, whereas sodic amphiboles and clinopyroxenes show increasing Na and Fe3+ evolving paths. The Morro Redondo granites are ferroan, with high SiO2, alkalis and HFSE contents; the peralkaline types registering the highest fe#. LILE and HFSE abundances increase with the agpaitic index and the most evolved are HHP granites, with radiogenic heat production up to 5.7 µWm–3. Geothermobarometric estimates indicate emplacement under low pressures (∼100 MPa, at temperatures up to 850-800 °C, and relatively reduced (QFM and oxidized (+1 REPLACE_LT ΔQFM REPLACE_LT +3 environments for the Papanduva and Quiriri Plutons, respectively. In both cases, melts evolved to relatively high oxidation states upon crystallization progress.

  9. Distinctly different parental magmas for plutons and lavas in the central Aleutian arc (United States)

    Cai, Y.; Rioux, M. E.; Kelemen, P. B.; Goldstein, S. L.; Bolge, L.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.


    While it is generally agreed that continental crust is generated by arc magmatism, average arc lavas are basaltic while the bulk continental crust is andesitic, and this has led to many models for secondary reprocessing of the arc crust in order to form continental crust. We report new data on calc-alkaline plutons in the central Aleutians showing that they have distinctly different sources compared to Holocene tholeiitic lavas. Therefore the lavas are not representative of the net magmatic transfer from the mantle into the arc crust. Eocene to Miocene (9-39 Ma) intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks from the central Aleutian arc show higher SiO2 at a given Mg#, higher ɛNd- and ɛHf-values, and lower Pb isotope ratios than Holocene volcanic rocks from the same region. Instead, the plutonic rocks resemble volcanics from the western Aleutians isotopically, and have chemical compositions similar to bulk continental crust. These data could reflect temporal variation of Aleutian magma source compositions, from Eocene-Miocene "isotopically depleted" and predominantly calc-alkaline to Holocene "isotopically enriched" and predominantly tholeiitic. Alternatively, they may reflect different transport and emplacement processes for the magmas that form plutons and lavas: calc-alkaline magmas with higher Si content and high viscosity may preferentially form plutons, perhaps after extensive mid-crustal degassing of initially high water contents. The latter case implies that the upper and middle arc crust is more like the calc-alkaline bulk composition of the continental crust than the lavas alone. Crustal reprocessing mechanisms that preserve upper and middle arc crust, while removing lower arc crust, can account for the genesis and evolution of continental crust. Since gabbroic lower arc crust extends from ca 20-40 km depth, and is density stable over most of this depth range, "delamination" of dense lithologies [1] may not be sufficient to accomplish this. Alternatively

  10. The distribution, geochronology and geochemistry of early Paleozoic granitoid plutons in the North Altun orogenic belt, NW China: Implications for the petrogenesis and tectonic evolution (United States)

    Meng, Ling-Tong; Chen, Bai-Lin; Zhao, Ni-Na; Wu, Yu; Zhang, Wen-Gao; He, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Bin; Han, Mei-Mei


    Abundant early Paleozoic granitoid plutons are widely distributed in the North Altun orogenic belt. These rocks provide clues to the tectonic evolution of the North Altun orogenic belt and adjacent areas. In this paper, we report an integrated study of petrological features, U-Pb zircon dating, in situ zircon Hf isotope and whole-rock geochemical compositions for the Abei, 4337 Highland and Kaladawan Plutons from north to south in the North Altun orogenic belt. The dating yielded magma crystallization ages of 514 Ma for the Abei Pluton, 494 Ma for the 4337 Highland Pluton and 480-460 Ma for the Kaladawan Pluton, suggesting that they are all products of oceanic slab subduction because of the age constraint. The Abei monzogranites derived from the recycle of Paleoproterozoic continental crust under low-pressure and high-temperature conditions are products of subduction initiation. The 4337 Highland granodiorites have some adakitic geochemical signatures and are sourced from partial melting of thickened mafic lower continental crust. The Kaladawan quartz diorites are produced by partial melting of mantle wedge according to the positive εHf(t) values, and the Kaladawan monzogranite-syenogranite are derived from partial melting of Neoproterozoic continental crust mixing the juvenile underplated mafic material from the depleted mantle. These results, together with existing data, provide significant information about the evolution history of oceanic crust subduction during the 520-460 Ma. The initiation of subduction occurred during 520-500 Ma with formation of Abei Pluton; subsequent transition from steep-angle to flat-slab subduction at ca.500 Ma due to the arrival of buoyant oceanic plateaus, which induces the formation of 4337 Highland Pluton. With ongoing subduction, the steep-angle subduction system is reestablished to cause the formation of 480-460 Ma Kaladawan Pluton. Meanwhile, it is this model that account for the temporal-spatial distribution of these early

  11. Species composition and bathymetric distribution of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia on the Southern Mexican Pacific coast

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    Rosalinda Abeytia


    Full Text Available Gorgonians are important components of coastal ecosystems, as they provide niches, natural compounds with medical applications and are used as bioindicators. Species composition and assemblage structure of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia were studied along a bathymetric profile in the Southern Mexican Pacific coast. Species composition was based on specimens collected within a depth range of 0-70m in 15 sites. The relative abundance of species was determined in six sites at four depths (5, 10, 20 and 25m using three 10m2 transects at each depth level. Twenty-seven species of gorgonians belonging to six genera and three families were registered. The species composition varied with depth: 11 species were distributed between 0-25m depth, while 17 species were found between 40-70m depth interval. The shallow zone is characterized by a relatively large abundance of gorgonians, dominated by colonies of Leptogorgia cuspidata and L. ena. In contrast, the deepest zone was characterized by relatively low abundance of gorgonians, dominated by L. alba, the only species observed in both depth intervals. The similarity analysis showed differences in the composition and abundance of species by depth and site, suggesting that the main factor in determining the assemblage structure is depth. Results of this study suggest that the highest richness of gorgonian species in the study area may be located at depths of 40-70m, whereas the highest abundances are found between 5 and 10m depth. This study represents a contribution to the poorly known eastern Pacific gorgonian biota.

  12. Species composition and bathymetric distribution of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) on the Southern Mexican Pacific coast. (United States)

    Abeytia, Rosalinda; Guzmán, Hector M; Breedy, Odalisca


    Gorgonians are important components of coastal ecosystems, as they provide niches, natural compounds with medical applications and are used as bioindicators. Species composition and assemblage structure of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) were studied along a bathymetric profile in the Southern Mexican Pacific coast. Species composition was based on specimens collected within a depth range of 0-70 m in 15 sites. The relative abundance of species was determined in six sites at four depths (5, 10, 20 and 25 m) using three 10 m2 transects at each depth level. Twenty-seven species of gorgonians belonging to six genera and three families were registered. The species composition varied with depth: 11 species were distributed between 0-25m depth, while 17 species were found between 40-70 m depth interval. The shallow zone is characterized by a relatively large abundance of gorgonians, dominated by colonies of Leptogorgia cuspidata and L. ena. In contrast, the deepest zone was characterized by relatively low abundance of gorgonians, dominated by L. alba, the only species observed in both depth intervals. The similarity analysis showed differences in the composition and abundance of species by depth and site, suggesting that the main factor in determining the assemblage structure is depth. Results of this study suggest that the highest richness of gorgonian species in the study area may be located at depths of 40-70 m, whereas the highest abundances are found between 5 and 10 m depth. This study represents a contribution to the poorly known eastern Pacific gorgonian biota.

  13. PGE mineralization and melt composition of chromitites in Proterozoic ophiolite complexes of Eastern Sayan, Southern Siberia

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    O. Kiseleva


    Full Text Available The Ospino-Kitoi and Kharanur ultrabasic massifs represent the northern and southern ophiolite branches respectively of the Upper Onot ophiolitic nappe and they are located in the southeastern part of the Eastern Sayan (SEPES ophiolites. Podiform chromitites with PGE mineralization occur as lensoid pods within dunites and rarely in harzburgites or serpentinized peridotites. The chromitites are classified into type I and type II based on their Cr#. Type I (Cr# = 59–85 occurs in both northern and southern branches, whereas type II (Cr# = 76–90 occurs only in the northern branch. PGE contents range from ∑PGE 88–1189 ppb, Pt/Ir 0.04–0.42 to ∑PGE 250–1700 ppb, Pt/Ir 0.03–0.25 for type I chromitites of the northern and southern branches respectively. The type II chromitites of the northern branch have ∑PGE contents higher than that of type I (468–8617 ppb, Pt/Ir 0.1–0.33. Parental melt compositions, in equilibrium with podiform chromitites, are in the range of boninitic melts and vary in Al2O3, TiO2 and FeO/MgO contents from those of type I and type II chromitites. Calculated melt compositions for type I chromitites are (Al2O3melt = 10.6–13.5 wt.%, (TiO2melt = 0.01–0.44 wt.%, (Fe/Mgmelt = 0.42–1.81; those for type II chromitites are: (Al2O3melt = 7.8–10.5 wt.%, (TiO2melt = 0.01–0.25 wt.%, (Fe/Mgmelt = 0.5–2.4. Chromitites are further divided into Os-Ir-Ru (I and Pt-Pd (II based on their PGE patterns. The type I chromitites show only the Os-Ir-Ru pattern whereas type II shows both Os-Ir-Ru and Pt-Pd patterns. PGE mineralization in type I chromitites is represented by the Os-Ir-Ru system, whereas in type II it is represented by the Os-Ir-Ru-Rh-Pt system. These results indicate that chromitites and PGE mineralization in the northern branch formed in a suprasubduction setting from a fluid-rich boninitic melt during active subduction. However, the chromitites and PGE mineralization of the southern

  14. Soil organic matter composition and quality across fire severity gradients in coniferous and deciduous forests of the southern boreal region (United States)

    Jessica R. Miesel; William C. Hockaday; Randy Kolka; Philip A. Townsend


    Recent patterns of prolonged regional drought in southern boreal forests of the Great Lakes region, USA, suggest that the ecological effects of disturbance by wildfire may become increasingly severe. Losses of forest soil organic matter (SOM) during fire can limit soil nutrient availability and forest regeneration. These processes are also influenced by the composition...

  15. Sorption Isotherm of Southern Yellow Pine—High Density Polyethylene Composites

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    Feihong Liu


    Full Text Available Temperature and relative humidity (RH are two major external factors, which affect equilibrium moisture content (EMC of wood-plastic composites (WPCs. In this study, the effect of different durability treatments on sorption and desorption isotherms of southern yellow pine (SYP-high density polyethylene (HDPE composites was investigated. All samples were equilibriumed at 20 °C and various RHs including 16%, 33%, 45%, 66%, 75%, 85%, 93%, and100%. EMCs obtained from desorption and absorption for different WPC samples were compared with Nelson’s sorption isotherm model predictions using the same temperature and humidity conditions. The results indicated that the amount of moisture absorbed increased with the increases in RH at 20 °C. All samples showed sorption hysteresis at a fixed RH. Small difference between EMC data of WPC samples containing different amount of ultraviolet (UV stabilizers were observed. Similar results were observed among the samples containing different amount of zinc borate (ZB. The experimental data of EMCs at various RHs fit to the Nelson’s sorption isotherm model well. The Nelson’s model can be used to predicate EMCs of WPCs under different RH environmental conditions.

  16. Processes controlling the Si-isotopic composition in the Southern Ocean and application for paleoceanography

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    F. Fripiat


    Full Text Available Southern Ocean biogeochemical processes have an impact on global marine primary production and global elemental cycling, e.g. by likely controlling glacial-interglacial pCO2 variation. In this context, the natural silicon isotopic composition30Si of sedimentary biogenic silica has been used to reconstruct past Si-consumption:supply ratios in the surface waters. We present a new dataset in the Southern Ocean from a IPY-GEOTRACES transect (Bonus-GoodHope which includes for the first time summer δ30Si signatures of suspended biogenic silica (i for the whole water column at three stations and (ii in the mixed layer at seven stations from the subtropical zone up to the Weddell Gyre. In general, the isotopic composition of biogenic opal exported to depth was comparable to the opal leaving the mixed layer and did not seem to be affected by any diagenetic processes during settling, even if an effect of biogenic silica dissolution cannot be ruled out in the northern part of the Weddell Gyre. We develop a mechanistic understanding of the processes involved in the modern Si-isotopic balance, by implementing a mixed layer model. We observe that the accumulated biogenic silica (sensu Rayleigh distillation should satisfactorily describe the δ30Si composition of biogenic silica exported out of the mixed layer, within the limit of the current analytical precision on the δ30Si. The failures of previous models (Rayleigh and steady state become apparent especially at the end of the productive period in the mixed layer, when biogenic silica production and export are low. This results from (1 a higher biogenic silica dissolution:production ratio imposing a lower net fractionation factor and (2 a higher Si-supply:Si-uptake ratio supplying light Si-isotopes into the mixed layer. The latter effect is especially expressed when the summer mixed layer becomes strongly Si-depleted, together with a large

  17. Processes controlling the Si-isotopic composition in the Southern Ocean and application for paleoceanography

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    F. Fripiat


    Full Text Available Southern Ocean biogeochemical processes have an impact on global marine primary production and global elemental cycling, e.g. by likely controlling glacial-interglacial pCO2 variation. The natural silicon isotopic composition30Si of sedimentary biogenic silica has been used to reconstruct past Si-consumption:supply ratio in the surface waters. We present a new dataset in the Southern Ocean which includes for the first time summer δ30Si signatures of suspended biogenic silica (i for the whole water column at three stations and (ii in the mixed layer at seven stations from the sub-tropical zone up to the Weddell Gyre.

    In general, the biogenic silica isotopic composition at depth reflected a mixed layer origin and seemed not affected by any diagenetic effect in the water column, even if in the northern part of the Weddell Gyre an effect of biogenic silica dissolution cannot be ruled out.

    We develop a mechanistic understanding of the processes involved in the modern Si-isotopic balance, by implementing a mixed layer model. We observe that the accumulated biogenic silica (sensu Rayleigh should satisfactorily describe the δ30Si composition of biogenic silica exported out of the mixed layer, within the limit of the current analytical precision on the δ30Si. The failures of previous models (Rayleigh and steady state become apparent especially at the end of the productive period in the mixed layer, when biogenic silica production is low. This results from: (1 a higher biogenic silica dissolution:production ratio imposing a lower net fractionation factor and (2 a higher Si-supply:Si-uptake ratio supplying light Si-isotopes into the mixed layer. The latter effect is especially expressed when the summer mixed layer becomes strongly Si-depleted together with a large vertical silicic acid gradient.

  18. In situ chemical composition measurement of individual cloud residue particles at a mountain site, southern China (United States)

    Lin, Qinhao; Zhang, Guohua; Peng, Long; Bi, Xinhui; Wang, Xinming; Brechtel, Fred J.; Li, Mei; Chen, Duohong; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying; Zhou, Zhen


    To investigate how atmospheric aerosol particles interact with chemical composition of cloud droplets, a ground-based counterflow virtual impactor (GCVI) coupled with a real-time single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was used to assess the chemical composition and mixing state of individual cloud residue particles in the Nanling Mountains (1690 m a. s. l. ), southern China, in January 2016. The cloud residues were classified into nine particle types: aged elemental carbon (EC), potassium-rich (K-rich), amine, dust, Pb, Fe, organic carbon (OC), sodium-rich (Na-rich) and Other. The largest fraction of the total cloud residues was the aged EC type (49.3 %), followed by the K-rich type (33.9 %). Abundant aged EC cloud residues that mixed internally with inorganic salts were found in air masses from northerly polluted areas. The number fraction (NF) of the K-rich cloud residues increased within southwesterly air masses from fire activities in Southeast Asia. When air masses changed from northerly polluted areas to southwesterly ocean and livestock areas, the amine particles increased from 0.2 to 15.1 % of the total cloud residues. The dust, Fe, Pb, Na-rich and OC particle types had a low contribution (0.5-4.1 %) to the total cloud residues. Higher fraction of nitrate (88-89 %) was found in the dust and Na-rich cloud residues relative to sulfate (41-42 %) and ammonium (15-23 %). Higher intensity of nitrate was found in the cloud residues relative to the ambient particles. Compared with nonactivated particles, nitrate intensity decreased in all cloud residues except for dust type. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on in situ observation of the chemical composition and mixing state of individual cloud residue particles in China.

  19. Characteristic Features and U—Pb Isotopic Ages of Zircons in a Middle Proterozoic Granite Pluton from Baohan Area,Hainan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓铁殷; 陈毓蔚; 等


    The crystal form,chemical composition and U-Pb isotopic composition of various zircon fractions is a Middle Proterozoic granite pluton from the Baoban area suggest that the zircons are typically magmatogenic in nature,and different from those of sedimentary and epigenetic orgins.The various zircon fractions yielded and age of about 1440.87Ma,which may represent the ge of zircon crystallization.The so-called aoban-group migmatite is,as a matter of fact,a Middle Proterozoic granite pluton.

  20. Isotopic composition of dissolved iron in the Equatorial Pacific and the Southern oceans (United States)

    Radic, A.; Lacan, F.; Jeandel, C.; Poitrasson, F.; Sarthou, G.


    Iron is a fundamental element linking ocean biogeochemistry and climate. Iron isotopes are a very promising tool for the study of the iron oceanic cycle, notably for tracing its sources to the ocean and/or for studying its speciation. Several studies reports iron isotopic data in the marine environment: in plankton tows, pore waters, aerosols, seafloor or marginal seas (Bergquist and Boyle, 2006; Severmann et al., 2006; De Jong et al., 2007). To link these isotopic data together and to fully study the iron isotope marine cycle, we need to document the central reservoir in the marine environment : dissolved iron in seawater, espacially in High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (NHLC) areas. So far there are very few comunicated data of dissolved iron isotopic composition in the open ocean (Rouxel, 2008; Lacan et al., 2008; John and Andkins, 2009;). Here, the first profiles in HNLC areas will be presented : 2 full-depth profiles in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (EUCFe 2006), 2 full-depth profiles in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean (Bonus-GoodHope 2008) and some data from the Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean, KEOPS 2005). δ56Fe values range from -0.7‰ to more than 1.0‰. All the samples from the Equatorial Pacific Ocean display positive values (heavy iron) whereas samples from the Sourthern Ocean display rather negative values (light iron), especially around 450 m deepth. These results will be discussed in terms of iron sources to ocean. Potential applications of this new tracer for studying internal oceanic processes, such as biological uptake, will be discussed.

  1. Richness, composition and relationships of the floras of selected forests in southern Africa

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    C. J. Geldenhuys


    Full Text Available Species lists of 14 widely separated forests representing particular geographic regions in southern Africa were used to study the size and composition of the individual floras, the similarities between them, and possible determinants of the observed patterns. The forests contain 1 438 species which belong to 155 families and 661 genera. The growth form spectra show specific patterns amongst the individual forests such as an abundance of ferns in montane forests, and of woody plants and vines in coastal forests. The richness of a forest flora increases with increasing altitudinal range within the forest. Significant linear species-area relationships exist for both woody and herbaceous species, but explain only 30% and 38% of the variation respectively in the size of the floras. In a multiple regression model the number of dispersal corridors, the proximity to other forests and mean altitude explained 81% of the variation in the number of woody species. The number of landscape types and of dispersal corridors explained 75% of the variation in number of herbaceous species. Several other factors contribute to the disproportionately large floras of relatively small forests such as at Umtamvuna, Sabie and Richards Bay. A high proportion of unique taxa are present (30% woody and 42% herbaceous species. The shared taxa show definite trends of the southward attenuation of species and the presence of elements of the Afromontane and Indian Ocean Coastal Regions.In conclusion, it is suggested that the southern Cape forests have been isolated from forests along the escarpment and mountains to the east since at least the Pliocene due to the Sundays River valley which stretches from the coast to the escarpment in the arid interior.

  2. Determinants of crop diversity and composition in Enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia

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    Tesfaye Abebe


    Full Text Available Households in much of the tropics depend for their livelihoods on the variety and continued production of food and other products that are provided by their own farms. In such systems, maintenance of agrobiodiversity and ensuring food security are important for the well being of the population. The enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia that are dominated by two native perennial crops, Coffee (Coffea arabica L. and Enset (Enset ventricosum Welw. Cheesman, are examples of such agricultural systems. This study was conducted in Sidama administrative zone of Southern Ethiopia to determine the factors that influence the diversity and composition of crops in the systems. Data were collected from 144 sample homegardens selected from four districts. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to relate indices of crop diversity and area share of major crops with the physical and socioeconomic factors. The study revealed that socioeconomic factors, mainly proximity to markets, affected negatively crop species richness. The production area of the main crops enset and coffee decreased with increasing proximity to market and road while that of maize and khat increased. At household level, farm size had a significant effect on area share of enset and coffee. As farm size increased the share of the cash crop, coffee increased but that of the staple, enset declined. Enset, which is the backbone of the system in terms of food security, is declining on small farms and the share of monoculture maize system is increasing. The trend towards declining agrobiodiversity, and reduction in the production area of the main perennial crops and their gradual replacement with monoculture fields could make the systems liable to instability and collapse. As these sites are high potential agricultural areas, intensification can be achieved by integrating high-value and more productive crops, such as fruits, spices and vegetables, while maintaining the

  3. Richness, composition and relationships of the floras of selected forests in southern Africa

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    C. J. Geldenhuys


    Full Text Available Species lists of 14 widely separated forests representing particular geographic regions in southern Africa were used to study the size and composition of the individual floras, the similarities between them, and possible determinants of the observed patterns. The forests contain 1 438 species which belong to 155 families and 661 genera. The growth form spectra show specific patterns amongst the individual forests such as an abundance of ferns in montane forests, and of woody plants and vines in coastal forests. The richness of a forest flora increases with increasing altitudinal range within the forest. Significant linear species-area relationships exist for both woody and herbaceous species, but explain only 30% and 38% of the variation respectively in the size of the floras. In a multiple regression model the number of dispersal corridors, the proximity to other forests and mean altitude explained 81% of the variation in the number of woody species. The number of landscape types and of dispersal corridors explained 75% of the variation in number of herbaceous species. Several other factors contribute to the disproportionately large floras of relatively small forests such as at Umtamvuna, Sabie and Richards Bay. A high proportion of unique taxa are present (30% woody and 42% herbaceous species. The shared taxa show definite trends of the southward attenuation of species and the presence of elements of the Afromontane and Indian Ocean Coastal Regions.In conclusion, it is suggested that the southern Cape forests have been isolated from forests along the escarpment and mountains to the east since at least the Pliocene due to the Sundays River valley which stretches from the coast to the escarpment in the arid interior.

  4. Microgranitoid Enclaves in Some I—and S—type Granites from Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金城; 陶仙聪; 等


    The three I-type plutons of Guantian(GT),Guidong(GD),Shangbao(SB)and the two S-type plutons of Xucun(XC)and Xiuning(XN) as well as their microgranitoid enclaves in southern China have been studied,Restite in the Motianling(MT) metasomatic granite in this area is described in this paper as well,Microgranitoid enclaves in the I-type granitoids may be divied into autoliths and schlierens which have marked differences both in petrography and geochemistry.In the S-type granitoids,schlierens are the major microgranitoid enclaves,but autoliths are rare.The metasomatic granite contains only restite without other enclaves.The microgranitoid enclaves and their host rocks have close ∈Nd(T)values and the same minerals within them are similar in composition.The microgranitoid enclaves,in general,don't represent the products of mixing of the syn-plutonic foreign mafic magma and the host acidic magma.They are the records of the evolution of intermediate-acidic magma itself.The formation of autoliths is related to the interdiffusion of different constituents in magma.Schlierens are the products of immiscible fractionation of the magma.

  5. Atmospheric aerosol compositions and sources at two national background sites in northern and southern China (United States)

    Zhu, Qiao; He, Ling-Yan; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Cao, Li-Ming; Gong, Zhao-Heng; Wang, Chuan; Zhuang, Xin; Hu, Min


    Although China's severe air pollution has become a focus in the field of atmospheric chemistry and the mechanisms of urban air pollution there have been researched extensively, few field sampling campaigns have been conducted at remote background sites in China, where air pollution characteristics on a larger scale are highlighted. In this study, an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), together with an Aethalometer, was deployed at two of China's national background sites in northern (Lake Hongze site; 33.23° N, 118.33° E; altitude 21 m) and southern (Mount Wuzhi site; 18.84° N, 109.49° E; altitude 958 m) China in the spring seasons in 2011 and 2015, respectively, in order to characterize submicron aerosol composition and sources. The campaign-average PM1 concentration was 36.8 ± 19.8 µg m-3 at the northern China background (NCB) site, which was far higher than that at the southern China background (SCB) site (10.9 ± 7.8 µg m-3). Organic aerosol (OA) (27.2 %), nitrate (26.7 %), and sulfate (22.0 %) contributed the most to the PM1 mass at NCB, while OA (43.5 %) and sulfate (30.5 %) were the most abundant components of the PM1 mass at SCB, where nitrate only constituted a small fraction (4.7 %) and might have contained a significant amount of organic nitrates (5-11 %). The aerosol size distributions and organic aerosol elemental compositions all indicated very aged aerosol particles at both sites. The OA at SCB was more oxidized with a higher average oxygen to carbon (O / C) ratio (0.98) than that at NCB (0.67). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis was used to classify OA into three components, including a hydrocarbon-like component (HOA, attributed to fossil fuel combustion) and two oxygenated components (OOA1 and OOA2, attributed to secondary organic aerosols from different source areas) at NCB. PMF analysis at SCB identified a semi-volatile oxygenated component (SV-OOA) and a low-volatility oxygenated

  6. Sr and Nd isotopic and trace element compositions of Quaternary volcanic centers of the southern Andes

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    Futa, Kiyoto; Stern, C.R.


    Isotopic compositions of samples from six Quaternary volcanoes located in the northern and southern extremities of the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ, 33-46/sup 0/S) of the Andes and from four centers in the Austral Volcanic Zone (AVZ, 49-54/sup 0/S) range for /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr from 0.70280 to 0.70591 and for /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd from 0.51314 to 0.51255. Basalts and basaltic andesites from three centers just north of the Chile Rise-Trench triple junction have /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr, /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd, La/Yb, Ba/La and Hf/Lu that lie within the relatively restricted ranges of the basic magmas erupted from the volcanic centers as far north as 35/sup 0/S in the SVZ of the Andes. The trace element and Sr and Nd isotopic characteristics of these magmas may be explained by source region contamination of subarc asthenosphere, with contaminants derived from subducted pelagic sediments and seawater-altered basalts by dehydration of subducted oceanic lithosphere. In the northern extremity of the SVZ between 33/sup 0/ and 34/sup 0/S, basaltic andesites and andesites have higher /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr, Rb/Cs, and Hf/Lu, and lower /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd than basalts and basaltic andesites erupted farther south in the SVZ, which suggests involvement of components derived from the continental crust. In the AVZ, the most primitive sample, high-Mg andesite from the southernmost volcanic center in the Andes (54/sup 0/S) has Sr and Nd isotopic compositions and K/Rb and Ba/La similar to MORB. The high La/Yb of this sample suggests formation by small degrees of partial melting of subducted MORB with garnet as a residue. Samples from centers farther north in the AVZ show a regionally regular northward increase in SiO/sub 2/, K/sub 2/O, Rb, Ba, Ba/La, and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr and decrease in MgO, Sr, K/Rb, Rb/Cs, and /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd, suggesting increasingly greater degrees of fractional crystallization and associated intra-crustal contamination. (orig./SHOE).

  7. Noble gas composition of subcontinental lithospheric mantle: An extensively degassed reservoir beneath Southern Patagonia (United States)

    Jalowitzki, Tiago; Sumino, Hirochika; Conceição, Rommulo V.; Orihashi, Yuji; Nagao, Keisuke; Bertotto, Gustavo W.; Balbinot, Eduardo; Schilling, Manuel E.; Gervasoni, Fernanda


    Patagonia, in the Southern Andes, is one of the few locations where interactions between the oceanic and continental lithosphere can be studied due to subduction of an active spreading ridge beneath the continent. In order to characterize the noble gas composition of Patagonian subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), we present the first noble gas data alongside new lithophile (Sr-Nd-Pb) isotopic data for mantle xenoliths from Pali-Aike Volcanic Field and Gobernador Gregores, Southern Patagonia. Based on noble gas isotopic compositions, Pali-Aike mantle xenoliths represent intrinsic SCLM with higher (U + Th + K)/(3He, 22Ne, 36Ar) ratios than the mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) source. This reservoir shows slightly radiogenic helium (3He/4He = 6.84-6.90 RA), coupled with a strongly nucleogenic neon signature (mantle source 21Ne/22Ne = 0.085-0.094). The 40Ar/36Ar ratios vary from a near-atmospheric ratio of 510 up to 17700, with mantle source 40Ar/36Ar between 31100-6800+9400 and 54000-9600+14200. In addition, the 3He/22Ne ratios for the local SCLM endmember, at 12.03 ± 0.15 to 13.66 ± 0.37, are higher than depleted MORBs, at 3He/22Ne = 8.31-9.75. Although asthenospheric mantle upwelling through the Patagonian slab window would result in a MORB-like metasomatism after collision of the South Chile Ridge with the Chile trench ca. 14 Ma, this mantle reservoir could have remained unhomogenized after rapid passage and northward migration of the Chile Triple Junction. The mantle endmember xenon isotopic ratios of Pali-Aike mantle xenoliths, which is first defined for any SCLM-derived samples, show values indistinguishable from the MORB source (129Xe/132Xe =1.0833-0.0053+0.0216 and 136Xe/132Xe =0.3761-0.0034+0.0246). The noble gas component observed in Gobernador Gregores mantle xenoliths is characterized by isotopic compositions in the MORB range in terms of helium (3He/4He = 7.17-7.37 RA), but with slightly nucleogenic neon (mantle source 21Ne/22Ne = 0.065-0.079). We

  8. Nd-Sr isotopic geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology of the Fe granitic gneiss and Lajedo Granodiorite: implications for paleoproterozoic evolution of the Mineiro Belt, southern Sao Francisco craton, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Wilson [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas]. E-mail:; Avila, Ciro Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Museu Nacional. Dept. de Geologia e Paleontologia]. E-mail:; Nunes, Luciana Cabral [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail:


    The Fe granitic gneiss and Lajedo granodiorite belong to a voluminous felsic-mafic plutonism, tectonically linked to Paleoproterozoic magmatic evolution of the Mineiro Belt, southern portion of the Sao Francisco Craton, central-eastern Brazil. The Fe pluton is located north of the Lenheiros shear zone and is intrusive with respect to the Rio das Mortes greenstone belt and pyroxenite - gabbroic bodies, as indicated by xenoliths of gneiss and amphibolite, in the first case, and pyroxenite in the latter. The Lajedo granodiorite is located south of the Lenheiros shear zone and cuts the metamafic rocks of the Forro peridotite - pyroxenite and mafic and intermediate rocks of the Nazareno greenstone belt, as evidenced by xenoliths from the latter unit. The modal composition of the Fe granitic gneiss lies within the ranges of monzogranite and syenogranite. It is peraluminous and shows a large variation in K{sub 2}O content, which implies a middle-K calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline tendency. The Lajedo modal composition is consistent with granodioritic and tonalitic compositions. It indicates a predominantly peraluminous composition and calc-alkaline character. The U-Pb zircon crystallization age of the Fe granitic gneiss is 2191 {+-} 9 Ma, whereas the Lajedo granodiorite yields 2208 {+-} 26 Ma. The Nd/Sr characteristics of the Fe and Lajedo plutons are consistent with mixtures of enriched mantle (EMI-type), DMM and crustal components during magma genesis in a plutonic arc setting, while the low {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sri ratios point to contribution of mafic rock protoliths during magma genesis. This is also in accordance with the characteristic xenoliths observed within the investigated plutons from the Nazareno and Rio das Mortes greenstone belts. The Fe granitic gneiss and Lajedo granodiorite show tectonic characteristics which are comparable to those of nearby coeval plutons: Brito quartz-diorite (2221 +- 2 Ma), Brumado de Cima granodiorite (2219 {+-} 2 Ma), Brumado

  9. Volatile composition of four southern highbush blueberry cultivars and effect of growing location and harvest date. (United States)

    Du, Xiaofen; Plotto, Anne; Song, Mei; Olmstead, James; Rouseff, Russell


    The volatile composition of four southern highbush blueberry cultivars ('Primadonna', 'Jewel', 'Snowchaser', and 'FL02-40') grown in two locations (Gainesville and Haines City, FL) and harvested multiple times was investigated. A total of 42 volatiles were identified, including 8 esters, 12 terpenoids, 11 aldehydes, 7 alcohols, and 4 ketones. Twelve of these volatiles are reported for the first time in highbush blueberries, with 10 being positively identified: (Z)-3-hexenal, (E,E)-2,4-hexadienal, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (E,E)-2,4-nonedienal, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, butyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, and geranyl acetate. The dominant volatiles were aldehydes followed by terpenoids and esters, with distinct varietal profiles. 'Primadonna' was characterized by a large amount of esters and C-6 aldehydes. In contrast, fewer than 4 esters were found in 'FL02-40' and 'Snowchaser', respectively, but they produced more terpenoids than 'Primadonna' and 'Jewel'. Location and/or harvest date affected the production of volatiles in 'Primadonna', but not so much in the other cultivars.

  10. Composition And Characteristic Of The Surficial Sediments In The Southern Corniche Of Jeddah, Red Sea Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha A Al-Dubai


    Full Text Available This work discusses the composition and characteristic of the surficial sediments in the southern corniche of Jeddah, Saudi Red Sea coast, in an attempt to infer the surficial distribution pattern of minerals and provenance of sediments. Twenty-six superficial sediments samples were collected from backreef and forereef areas and were analyzed for grain size, CaCO3 content, and mineralogy. The textural of grain size range from gravel to mud fraction. The mud-dominated substrates (<63 µm occur generally in the back-reef area near the shoreline (sheltered area and in the lagoon. Gravel rich-sediments are mostly found in forereef regions. The highest content of aragonite and Mg-calcite occur in the forereef area, probably because to suitability the forereef region for chemical and biochemical precipitation of these minerals. High Mg-calcite and Dolomite are low in both the regions. The pyrite occurs in lagoon; this indicates the reductive conditions in this part. However, on the contrary the percentage of carbonate minerals were low in the backreef-flat area, which could be attributed to the supply of non-carbonate terrigenous materials. The terrigenous material contains quartz, k-feldspar, plagioclase and amphibole minerals and are dominant in backreef-flat area with averages of 12.7%, 7.13%, 2.93% and 0.65%, respectively. Their abundance could be attributed to the supply of terrigenous materials by Aeolian deposits and intermittent Wadis.

  11. Spectroscopy of southern Galactic disk planetary nebulae. Notes on chemical composition and emission-line stars

    CERN Document Server

    Górny, S K


    We present low resolution spectroscopic observations for a sample of 53 planetary nebulae (PNe) located in the southern sky between Vela and Norma constellations and pertaining to the Galactic disk with expected Galactocentric distance range of 5 to 10 kpc. We derive nebular chemical composition and plasma parameters with the classical empirical method. For most of the observed objects it is done for the first time. The distributions of the chemical abundances of the observed disk sample are generally indistinguishable from Galactic bulge and inner-disk PNe populations. The exceptions are possible differences in He/H distribution comparing to bulge PNe and Ne/Ar comparing to inner-disk PNe sample. The derived O/H ratios for the observed disk PNe fit to the concept of flattening of the chemical gradient in the inner parts of the Milky Way. We use the spectra to search for emission-line central stars in the observed sample. We found 6 new emission-line central stars comprising examples of all known types: WEL, ...

  12. Marine biogeochemical influence on primary sea spray aerosol composition in the Southern Ocean: predictions from a mechanistic model (United States)

    McCoy, D.; Burrows, S. M.; Elliott, S.; Frossard, A. A.; Russell, L. M.; Liu, X.; Ogunro, O. O.; Easter, R. C.; Rasch, P. J.


    Remote marine clouds, such as those over the Southern Ocean, are particularly sensitive to variations in the concentration and chemical composition of aerosols that serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Observational evidence indicates that the organic content of fine marine aerosol is greatly increased during the biologically active season near strong phytoplankton blooms in certain locations, while being nearly constant in other locations. We have recently developed a novel modeling framework that mechanistically links the organic fraction of submicron sea spray to ocean biogeochemistry (Burrows et al., in discussion, ACPD, 2014; Elliott et al., ERL, 2014). Because of its combination of large phytoplankton blooms and high wind speeds, the Southern Ocean is an ideal location for testing our understanding of the processes driving the enrichment of organics in sea spray aerosol. Comparison of the simulated OM fraction with satellite observations shows that OM fraction is a statistically significant predictor of cloud droplet number concentration over the Southern Ocean. This presentation will focus on predictions from our modeling framework for the Southern Ocean, specifically, the predicted geographic gradients and seasonal cycles in the aerosol organic matter and its functional group composition. The timing and location of a Southern Ocean field campaign will determine its utility in observing the effects of highly localized and seasonal phytoplankton blooms on aerosol composition and clouds. Reference cited: Burrows, S. M., Ogunro, O., Frossard, A. A., Russell, L. M., Rasch, P. J., and Elliott, S.: A physically-based framework for modelling the organic fractionation of sea spray aerosol from bubble film Langmuir equilibria, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 14, 5375-5443, doi:10.5194/acpd-14-5375-2014, 2014. Elliott, S., Burrows, S. M., Deal, C., Liu, X., Long, M., Ogunro, O., Russell, L. M., and Wingenter O.. "Prospects for simulating macromolecular surfactant

  13. Development of modal layering in granites: a case study from the Carna Pluton, Connemara, Ireland (United States)

    McKenzie, Kirsty; McCarthy, William; Hunt, Emma


    Modal layering in igneous rocks uniquely record dynamic processes operating in magma chambers and also host a large proportion of Earth's strategic mineral deposits. This research investigates the origin of biotite modal layering and primary pseudo-sedimentary structures in felsic magmas, by using a combination of Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) analysis and Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) to determine the mechanisms responsible for the development of these structures in the Carna Pluton, Connemara, Ireland. The Carna Pluton is a composite granodiorite intrusion and is one of five plutons comprising the Galway Granite Complex (425 - 380 Ma). Prominent 30 cm thick modal layers are defined by sharp basal contacts to a biotite-rich (20%) granite, which grades upward over 10 cm into biotite-poor, alkali-feldspar megacrystic granite. The layering strikes parallel to, and dips 30-60° N toward the external pluton contact. Pseudo-sedimentary structures (cross-bedding, flame structures, slumping and crystal graded bedding) are observed within these layers. Petrographic observations indicate the layers contain euhedral biotite and fresh undeformed quartz and feldspar. Throughout the pluton, alkali-feldspar phenocrysts define a foliation that is sub-parallel to the strike of biotite modal layers. Together these observations indicate that the intrusion's concentric foliation, biotite layers and associated structures formed in the magmatic state and due to a complex interaction between magma flow and crystallisation processes. Biotite CSDs (>250 crystals per sample) were determined for nine samples across three biotite-rich layers in a single unit. Preliminary CSD results suggest biotite within basal contacts accumulated via fractional crystallisation within an upward-growing crystal pile, likely reflecting the yield strength of the magma as a limiting factor to gravitational settling of biotite. This is supported by the abrupt decrease in mean biotite crystal size across

  14. Plutonism in the central part of the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California (United States)

    Bateman, Paul C.


    remnants of country rocks within the eastern part of the batholith, although strongly deformed, are autochthonous or have been displaced only short distances, whereas some Mesozoic strata in the western metamorphic belt may be allochthonous. Probably the strata in the western metamorphic belt were deposited in marginal basins and island arcs, but the possibility that they were transported from distant places has not been disproved. All the country rocks have been strongly deformed, most of them more than once. Tectonic disturbances occurred during the Devonian and Mississippian (Antler? orogeny), the Permian and (or) Early Triassic (Sonoman? orogeny), the Late Jurassic (Nevadan orogeny), and at various other times during emplacement of the batholith and uplift that accompanied and followed its emplacement. The strata in the western metamorphic belt probably were deformed in an early Mesozoic subduction complex. The plutonic rocks range in composition from gabbro to leucogranite, but tonalite, granodiorite, and granite are the most common rock types. Most are medium to coarse grained, but some small rock masses are fine grained. Most have hypidiomorphic-granular textures and are equigranular, but some having compositions close to the boundary between granite and granodiorite contain large crystals of alkali feldspar. Serpentinized ultramafic rocks are present locally in the western metamorphic belt within and adjacent to the Melones fault zone. Except for serpentinized ultramafic rocks, trondhjemite, and most granites, all the plutonic rocks contain significant amounts of hornblende. Most of the granitoids are metaluminous or weakly peraluminous; strongly peraluminous granites are present only in the White Mountains. Most of the granitoids are assigned to units of lithodemic rank, and most of these units are assigned to intrusive suites. Plutons assigned to the same lithodeme are composed of rock of similar composition, fabric, and age and are presumed to h

  15. Variation on Foraminiferal Composition in Cretaceous Black-Gray-Red Bed Sequence of Southern Tibet, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Xiaoqiao; Si Jialiang


    An Upper Cretaceous black-gray-red bed sequence was deposited in the Tethys-Himalayan Sea where abundant foraminifera,especially planktons,were yielded. In the shallow shelf to the upper slope on the north margin of Indian plate was recorded an extinction-recovery-radiation cycle of foraminiferal fauna highly sensitive to paleoceanographical changes. The black unit, consisting of the Late Cenomanian-earliest Turonian beds, displays a major extinction, with keeled planktonic and many benthic species as the principal victims at the end of the Cenomanian when existed only low diversity, surface water-dwelling foraminifera. The gray unit spans a long-term recovery interval from the Turonian to the early Santonian with keeled planktonic foraminifera returning stepwise to the water column. The planktonic biota in the red unit, extremely abundant, indicate a biotic radiation during the Late Santonian and the Early Campanian, implying that the high oxygen levels had returned to all the oceanic depth levels, and that the water stratification disappeared, followed by the radiation of all depth-dwellers. The variation on foraminiferal faunas from the whole sequence refers to the extreme warm climate that appeared in the Middle Cretaceous and to the declined temperature toward the late epoch. Substantial deposits for this warming and cooling zones represent the black shales in the Middle Cretaceous and the red beds in the later period of the southern Tibet. The change in the foraminiferal composition corresponded to the formation of dysaerobic facies and to the development of high-oxidized circumstances.

  16. Geochemistry of uranium and thorium and natural radioactivity levels of the western Anatolian plutons, Turkey (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Argyrios; Altunkaynak, Şafak; Koroneos, Antonios; Ünal, Alp; Kamaci, Ömer


    Seventy samples from major plutons (mainly granitic) of Western Anatolia (Turkey) have been analyzed by γ-ray spectrometry to determine the specific activities of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K (Bq/kg). Τhe natural radioactivity ranged up to 264 Bq/kg for 238U, 229.62 Bq/kg for 226Ra, up to 207.32 Bq/kg for 232Th and up to 2541.95 Bq/kg for 40K. Any possible relationship between the specific activities of 226Ra, 238U, 232Th and 40K and some characteristics of the studied samples (age, rock-type, colour, grain size, occurrence, chemical and mineralogical composition) was investigated. Age, major and trace element geochemistry, color, pluton location and mineralogical composition are likely to affect the concentrations of the measured radionuclides. The range of the Th/U ratio was large (0.003-11.374). The latter, along with 226Ra/238U radioactive secular disequilibrium, is also discussed and explained by magmatic processes during differentiation.

  17. Ferrobasalt-rhyolite immiscibility in tholeiitic volcanic and plutonic series (Invited) (United States)

    Charlier, B.; Namur, O.; Kamenetsky, V. S.; Grove, T. L.


    One atmosphere experiments show that silicate liquid immiscibility develops between Fe-rich and Si-rich melts below 1000-1020°C in compositionally diverse lavas that represent classical tholeiitic trends, such as Mull, Iceland, Snake River Plain and Sept Iles. Extreme iron enrichment along the evolution trend is not necessary; immiscibility also develops during iron depletion and silica enrichment after Fe-Ti oxide saturation. Natural liquid lines of descent for major tholeiitic series also approach or intersect the experimentally-defined compositional space of immiscibility. The importance of ferrobasalt-rhyolite unmixing in both volcanic and plutonic environments is supported by worldwide occurrence of immiscible globules in the mesostasis of erupted basalts, and by unmixed melt inclusions in cumulus phases of major layered intrusions such as Sept Iles, Skaergaard and Sudbury. A clear case of liquid immiscibility is also recorded in intrusive tholeiitic gabbros from the Siberian Large Igneous Province and is evidenced by textures and compositions of millimeter-sized silicate melt pools trapped in native iron. An important implication of immiscibility in natural ferrobasaltic provinces is the development of a compositional gap characterized by the absence of intermediate compositions, a major feature observed in many tholeiitic provinces and referred to as the Daly gap. The compositions of experimental silica-rich immiscible melts coincide with those of natural rhyolites with high FeOtot and low Al2O3, which suggests a potential role for large-scale immiscibility in the petrogenesis of late-stage ferroan silicic melts. No evidence for the paired ferrobasaltic melt is observed in volcanic provinces, probably because of its uneruptable characteristics. Instead, Fe-Ti×P-rich gabbros crystallized at depth and are the cumulate products of immiscible Fe-rich melts in plutonic settings, a feature clearly evidenced in the Sept Iles intrusion. The production of

  18. A review on the nomenclature of Angadimogar and Kumbdaje plutons, Kasaragod district, Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, A.; Gopinathan, V.; Gopinath, K.S.; Rao, V.P.

    plutons show high content of silica and other silic minerals and confirm that they are in fact granites The major oxide chemistry of the plutons is similar to the major granitic plutons of South India Thus, contrary to the earlier views, we suggest...

  19. The Early Paleozoic Tectonic Evolution of the West Kunlun Mountains: New Constraint from the North Kiida Pluton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁超; 周辉; 孙敏; 李继亮; 侯泉林


    Systematic geochemical studies have been conducted on the North Küda Pluton,Pluton is a potassium-rich (K2O>5.4wt%) I-type granitic pluton and does not contain any alkaline ferromagnesian mineral. Its relatively high REE, LILE (e. g. Rb, Cs, U and Th) and HFSE (e. g. Nb, Zr) contents make it very akin to the A-type granites. Its heterogeneous Sr (87Sr/86Sri= 0. 7049~0. 7098) and Nd (εNdT = - 1.05~ - 4.04) isotope compositions preclude the possibility of a pure sedimentary or igneous source. Instead, its geochemical compositions suggest that it may be derived from partial melting of a complex source, which consists of igneous and sedimentary rocks. Its intraplate characteristics, together with coeval mafic dykes,indicate an extensional environment at the end of Caledonian. The recognition of the extensional event does not support a continuous subduction-accretion model for the Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the West Kunlun Mountains. On the contrary, it provides new evidence for the twostage island-arc model.

  20. The Early Paleozoic Tectonic Evolution of the West Kunlun Mountains:New Constraint from the North Kueda Pluton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁超; 周辉; 等


    Systematic geochemical studies have been conducted on the North Kueda Pluton,West Kunlun,in order to reveal its petrogenesis and tectonic implications.The North Kueda Pluton is a potassium-rich(K2O>5.4wt%)I-type granitic pluton and does not contain any alkaline ferromagnesian mineral.Its relatively high REE,LILE(e.g.Rb,Cs,U and Th)and HFSE(e.g.Nd,Zr)contents make it very akin to the A-type granites.Its heterogenenous Sr(87Sr/86Sri=0.7049-0.7098)and Nd(εNdT=-1.05--4.04)isotope compositions preclude the possibility of a pure sedimentary or igneous source.Instead,its geochemical compositions suggest that it may be derived from partial melting of a complex source,which onsists of igneous and sedimentary rocks.Its intraplate characteristics,together with coeval mafic dykes, indicate an extensional environment at the end of Caledonian.The recognition of the extensional event does not support a continuous subduction-accretion model for the Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the West Kunlun Mountains.On the Contrary,it provides new evidence for the twostage island-arc model.

  1. Chemical composition, main sources and temporal variability of PM1 aerosols in southern African grassland (United States)

    Tiitta, P.; Vakkari, V.; Josipovic, M.; Croteau, P.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Jaars, K.; Pienaar, J. J.; Ng, N. L.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.; Laaksonen, A.; Worsnop, D. R.; Laakso, L.


    Southern Africa is a significant source region of atmospheric pollution, yet long-term data on pollutant concentrations and properties from this region are rather limited. A recently established atmospheric measurement station in South Africa, Welgegund, is strategically situated to capture regional background emissions, as well as emissions from the major source regions in the interior of South Africa. We measured non-refractive submicron aerosols (NR-PM1) and black carbon over a one year period in Welgegund, and investigated the seasonal and diurnal patterns of aerosol concentration levels, chemical composition, acidity and oxidation level. Based on air mass back trajectories, four distinct source regions were determined for NR-PM1. Supporting data utilized in our analysis included particle number size distributions, aerosol absorption, trace gas concentrations, meteorological variables and the flux of carbon dioxide. The dominant submicron aerosol constituent during the dry season was organic aerosol, reflecting high contribution from savannah fires and other combustion sources. Organic aerosol concentrations were lower during the wet season, presumably due to wet deposition as well as reduced emissions from combustion sources. Sulfate concentrations were usually high and exceeded organic aerosol concentrations when air-masses were transported over regions containing major point sources. Sulfate and nitrate concentrations peaked when air masses passed over the industrial Highveld (iHV) area. In contrast, concentrations were much lower when air masses passed over the cleaner background (BG) areas. Air masses associated with the anti-cyclonic recirculation (ACBIC) source region contained largely aged OA. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of aerosol mass spectra was used to characterize the organic aerosol (OA) properties. The factors identified were oxidized organic aerosols (OOA) and biomass burning organic aerosols (BBOA) in the dry season and low

  2. Ductile strain rate recorded in the Symvolon syn-extensional plutonic body (Rhodope core complex, Greece) (United States)

    Cirrincione, Rosolino; Fazio, Eugenio; Ortolano, Gaetano; Fiannacca, Patrizia; Kern, Hartmut; Mengel, Kurt; Pezzino, Antonino; Punturo, Rosalda


    The present contribution deals with quantitative microstructural analysis, which was performed on granodiorites of the syn-tectonic Symvolon pluton (Punturo et al., 2014) at the south-western boundary of the Rhodope Core Complex (Greece). Our purpose is the quantification of ductile strain rate achieved across the pluton, by considering its cooling gradient from the centre to the periphery, using the combination of a paleopiezometer (Shimizu, 2008) and a quartz flow law (Hirth et al., 2001). Obtained results, associated with a detailed cooling history (Dinter et al., 1995), allowed us to reconstruct the joined cooling and strain gradient evolution of the pluton from its emplacement during early Miocene (ca. 700°C at 22 Ma) to its following cooling stage (ca. 500-300°C at 15 Ma). Shearing temperature values were constrained by means of a thermodynamic approach based on the recognition of syn-shear assemblages at incremental strain; to this aim, statistical handling of mineral chemistry X-Ray maps was carried out on microdomains detected at the tails of porphyroclasts. Results indicate that the strain/cooling gradients evolve "arm in arm" across the pluton, as also testified by the progressive development of mylonitic fabric over the magmatic microstructures approaching the host rock. References • Dinter, D. A., Macfarlane, A., Hames, W., Isachsen, C., Bowring, S., and Royden, L. (1995). U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Symvolon granodiorite: Implications for the thermal and structural evolution of the Rhodope metamorphic core complex, northeastern Greece. Tectonics, 14 (4), 886-908. • Shimizu, I. (2008). Theories and applicability of grain size piezometers: The role of dynamic recrystallization mechanisms. Journal of Structural Geology, 30 (7), 899-917. • Hirth, G., Teyssier, C., and Dunlap, J. W. (2001). An evaluation of quartzite flow laws based on comparisons between experimentally and naturally deformed rocks. International Journal of Earth

  3. Climate change impacts on southern Ross Sea phytoplankton composition, productivity, and export (United States)

    Kaufman, Daniel E.; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Smith, Walker O.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Dinniman, Michael S.; Hemmings, John C. P.


    The Ross Sea, a highly productive region of the Southern Ocean, is expected to experience warming during the next century along with reduced summer sea ice concentrations and shallower mixed layers. This study investigates how these climatic changes may alter phytoplankton assemblage composition, primary productivity, and export. Glider measurements are used to force a one-dimensional biogeochemical model, which includes diatoms and both solitary and colonial forms of Phaeocystis antarctica. Model performance is evaluated with glider observations, and experiments are conducted using projections of physical drivers for mid-21st and late-21st century. These scenarios reveal a 5% increase in primary productivity by midcentury and 14% by late-century and a proportional increase in carbon export, which remains approximately 18% of primary production. In addition, scenario results indicate diatom biomass increases while P. antarctica biomass decreases in the first half of the 21st century. In the second half of the century, diatom biomass remains relatively constant and P. antarctica biomass increases. Additional scenarios examining the independent contributions of expected future changes (temperature, mixed layer depth, irradiance, and surface iron inputs from melting ice) demonstrate that earlier availability of low light due to reduction of sea ice early in the growing season is the primary driver of productivity increases over the next century; shallower mixed layer depths additionally contribute to changes of assemblage composition and export. This study further demonstrates how glider data can be effectively used to facilitate model development and simulation, and inform interpretation of biogeochemical observations in the context of climate change.Plain Language SummaryUnderstanding how the global ocean responds to climate change requires knowing the natural behavior of individual regions and anticipating how future changes will affect each region differently. It

  4. Seasonal variability and long-term evolution of tropospheric composition in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Wai


    Full Text Available Present-day and future impacts of biomass burning and other sources in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere are studied by global chemical transport model (GCTM, satellites retrievals and surface measurements. The spring CO peaks found at Mahe Island (Western Indian Ocean are attributed to the burnings in India but not those from Northern Africa. Easter Island (Eastern Pacific Ocean is impacted indirectly by the hemispheric zonal transport of CO due to the burnings in Southern Africa/Latin America, via the westerlies. An increasing trend for CO by 0.33 ppb yr-1 in the past decade at Ascension Island is attributed to the combined effects of Latin American/Southern Africa burnings and increase of CH4 level. Changes in water vapour and UV over Southern Atlantic Ocean (SAO in future January have dominated effects on the O3 distribution. More than 55% of O3 concentrations over SAO in both present-day and future September are not directly affected by the emissions (including lightning over the adjacent two continents but attributable to transport of O3 from outside due to CO and CH4 oxidation and stratospheric intrusion. High NOx emissions in both continents in future increase the PAN concentrations over remote oceans at higher southern latitudes (> 35° S as far as those near Australia, affecting the O3 budget over there. Future changes of biomass burning and anthropogenic NOx emissions in Southern Africa lead to a new area of O3 maximum near South Africa. The resulted O3 outflow to the Indian Ocean is pronounced due to the effects of the persistent anti-cyclone. A general reduction of future OH radical concentrations is predicted over the remote marine boundary layer in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere, due to the increases in CH4 and CO emissions combined with the low-NOx environment.

  5. Petrochemical evolution of the White Mfolozi Granite pluton: Evidence for a late Palaeoarchaean A-type granite from the SE Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa (United States)

    Misra, Saumitra; Reinhardt, Jürgen; Wilson, Allan H.


    this model, post-partial melting magma mixing is perhaps critical in explaining the Daly gap in composition and extreme variations in chemical (e.g., SiO2) and isotopic compositions observed in many bimodal A-type granite suites. The emplacement of the oldest known A-type granitoid suite in the Kaapvaal Craton, the WMG pluton, marks a period of stabilization of the craton before erosion and deposition of the overlying volcano-sedimentary succession of the Pongola Supergroup.

  6. Does the Lagoa do Peixe sandbar opening influence the macrophyte richness and composition in Southern Brazil wetlands?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Silvia Rolon


    Full Text Available The Lagoa do Peixe has its connection with the sea artificially opened every year at the end of winter. However, this management has been carried out without the evaluation of the impact of this opening in the aquatic biodiversity. This information is crucial for the management of the natural resources of the Lagoa do Peixe National Park, the unique Ramsar site in Southern Brazil. The following questions were analyzed: (1 Do richness and composition of aquatic macrophytes from Lagoa do Peixe floodplain varies temporarily according to the sandbar opening and closing? (2 Does the variation pattern of the macrophyte community changed according to the sandbar opening and closing? A set of eight sampling sites of 1ha were selected over the Lagoa do Peixe floodplain: four sites not influenced by the artificial sandbar opening and four sites influenced by this event, being two sites closer to the sandbar opening and the two sites distant to the sandbar opening. The samplings were carried out between November 2007 and October 2009. The results show that although the artificial sandbar breaching does not affect the aquatic macrophyte richness at the floodplain, it affects the dynamics of species composition. The hydrological variation related to this management can be the main factor of the continuous change in the species composition in the floodplain, especially in the Southern portion. In order to avoid impacts in the macrophyte conservation, the artificial sandbar opening should be considered carefully, since the area of study is one of the most important conservation units to wetland systems in Southern Brazil.

  7. Does the Lagoa do peixe sandbar opening influence the macrophyte richness and composition in Southern Brazil wetlands? (United States)

    Rolon, Ana Silvia; Rocha, Odete; Maltchik, Leonardo


    The Lagoa do Peixe has its connection with the sea artificially opened every year at the end of winter. However, this management has been carried out without the evaluation of the impact of this opening in the aquatic biodiversity. This information is crucial for the management of the natural resources of the Lagoa do Peixe National Park, the unique Ramsar site in Southern Brazil. The following questions were analyzed: (1) Do richness and composition of aquatic macrophytes from Lagoa do Peixe floodplain varies temporarily according to the sandbar opening and closing? (2) Does the variation pattern of the macrophyte community changed according to the sandbar opening and closing? A set of eight sampling sites of 1ha were selected over the Lagoa do Peixe floodplain: four sites not influenced by the artificial sandbar opening and four sites influenced by this event, being two sites closer to the sandbar opening and the two sites distant to the sandbar opening. The samplings were carried out between November 2007 and October 2009. The results show that although the artificial sandbar breaching does not affect the aquatic macrophyte richness at the floodplain, it affects the dynamics of species composition. The hydrological variation related to this management can be the main factor of the continuous change in the species composition in the floodplain, especially in the Southern portion. In order to avoid impacts in the macrophyte conservation, the artificial sandbar opening should be considered carefully, since the area of study is one of the most important conservation units to wetland systems in Southern Brazil.

  8. The geochemistry of volcanic, plutonic and turbiditic rocks from Sumba, Indonesia (United States)

    Lytwyn, J.; Rutherford, E.; Burke, K.; Xia, C.


    Rocks that reveal the geology of Sumba for times before the Later Miocene (˜16 Ma) are relatively few and are not particularly well exposed. This has led to uncertainty about the nature of the basement rocks of the island and especially about whether Sumba originated as a fragment of Australia, or of that part of southeastern Eurasia which many authors have called Sundaland. A third possibility is that Sumba is underlain by arc material generated on the ocean floor and is not a fragment of either continent. We have studied the geochemistry of volcanic, plutonic and turbiditic rocks collected from Sumba in an attempt to provide additional insight into the island's origin and history between Late Cretaceous (˜86 Ma) and Early Miocene (˜16 Ma) times. Late Cretaceous to Early Oligocene (˜31 Ma) volcanic rocks on Sumba range compositionally from basalts to andesites, and are of typical oceanic island-arc affinity, exhibiting geochemical characteristics similar to those of high-Al basalts and their derivatives. Compositions indicate evolution along both calc-alkaline and tholeiitic trends. Some samples show indications of possible modifications by slab-derived melts and/or related fluids and also of contamination by turbiditic sediments. Gabbros and diorites collected from the Paleocene Tanadaro intrusion are compositionally similar to the associated volcanic rocks and, we consider, represent the plutonic equivalents of high-Al basalt. The geochemistry of Cretaceous turbiditic sedimentary rocks on Sumba indicates close proximity to an intra-oceanic island-arc environment. These results are consistent with the geochemical, sedimentological, stratigraphic, paleontological and paleomagnetic results of other investigators which together indicate that: (1) Late Cretaceous to Early Oligocene volcanic, plutonic and volcaniclastic rocks of Sumba are island-arc- and forearc-related; (2) the arc involved appears to have been what we refer to as the Great Indonesian Volcanic

  9. The Early Andean Magmatic Province (EAMP): 40Ar/ 39Ar dating on Mesozoic volcanic and plutonic rocks from the Coastal Cordillera, northern Chile (United States)

    Oliveros, Verónica; Féraud, Gilbert; Aguirre, Luis; Fornari, Michel; Morata, Diego


    The Early Andean Magmatic Province (EAMP), consists of about 150 000 km 3 of volcanic and plutonic units in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile and southern Peru and represents a major magmatic Mesozoic event in the world, for which the precise age of the thick volcanic series was unknown. Thirty 40Ar/ 39Ar analyses were carried out on primary mineral phases of volcanic and plutonic rocks from northern Chile (18°30'-24°S). Reliable plateau and "mini plateau" ages were obtained on plagioclase, amphibole and biotite from volcanic and plutonic rocks, despite widespread strong alteration degree. In the Arica, Tocopilla and Antofagasta (700 km apart) regions, the ages obtained on lava flows constrain the volcanic activity between 164 and 150 Ma and no N-S migration of volcanism is observed. The uppermost lava flows of the volcanic sequence at the type locality of the La Negra Formation extruded at ca. 153-150 Ma, suggesting the end of the volcanic activity of the arc at that time. The oldest volcanic activity occurred probably at ca. 175-170 Ma in the Iquique area, although no plateau age could be obtained. The plutonic bodies of the same regions were dated between ca. 160 and 142 Ma, indicating that they were partly contemporaneous with the volcanic activity. At least one volcanic pulse around 160 Ma is evidenced over the entire investigated reach of the EAMP, according to the ages found in Arica, Tocopilla, Michilla and Mantos Blancos regions. The episodic emplacement of huge amounts of subduction related volcanism is observed throughout the whole Andean history and particularly during the Jurassic (southern Peru, northern Chile and southern Argentina). These events probably correspond to periodic extensional geodynamic episodes, as a consequence of particular subduction conditions, such as change of obliquity of the convergence, change in the subduction angle, slab roll back effect or lower convergence rate, that remain to be precisely defined.

  10. Nd-Sr Isotopic Geochemistry and U-Pb Geochronology of the Fé Granitic Gneiss and Lajedo Granodiorite: Implications for Paleoproterozoic Evolution of the Mineiro Belt, Southern São Francisco Craton, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Teixeira


    Full Text Available The Fé granitic gneiss and Lajedo granodiorite belong to a voluminous felsic-mafic plutonism, tectonically linked toPaleoproterozoic magmatic evolution of the Mineiro Belt, southern portion of the São Francisco Craton, central-easternBrazil. The Fé pluton is located north of the Lenheiros shear zone and is intrusive with respect to the Rio das Mortesgreenstone belt and pyroxenite - gabbroic bodies, as indicated by xenoliths of gneiss and amphibolite, in the first case, andpyroxenite in the latter. The Lajedo granodiorite is located south of the Lenheiros shear zone and cuts the metamafic rocks ofthe Forro peridotite – pyroxenite and mafic and intermediate rocks of the Nazareno greenstone belt, as evidenced by xenolithsfrom the latter unit. The modal composition of the Fé granitic gneiss lies within the ranges of monzogranite and syenogranite.It is peraluminous and shows a large variation in K2O content, which implies a middle-K calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkalinetendency. The Lajedo modal composition is consistent with granodioritic and tonalitic compositions. It indicates a predominantlyperaluminous composition and calc-alkaline character. The U-Pb zircon crystallization age of the Fé granitic gneiss is 2191± 9 Ma, whereas the Lajedo granodiorite yields 2208 ± 26 Ma. The Nd/Sr characteristics of the Fé and Lajedo plutons areconsistent with mixtures of enriched mantle (EMI-type, DMM and crustal components during magma genesis in a plutonicarc setting, while the low 87Sr/86Sri ratios point to contribution of mafic rock protoliths during magma genesis. This is also inaccordance with the characteristic xenoliths observed within the investigated plutons from the Nazareno and Rio das Mortesgreenstone belts. The Fé granitic gneiss and Lajedo granodiorite show tectonic characteristics which are comparable to thoseof nearby coeval plutons: Brito quartz-diorite (2221 ± 2 Ma, Brumado de Cima granodiorite (2219 ± 2 Ma, Brumado de

  11. Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of feldspar, apatite and sphene as a guide to the nature of the sub-Andean mantle and crust-mantle interaction in the coastal batholith, Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukasa, S.B.; Barreiro, B.A.


    Common Pb isotopic compositions for 65 feldspar samples from the 188-37 Ma gabbroic to monzogranitic plutons of the Peruvian Coastal batholith (PCB) show changes along strike that can be related to variable contamination of mantle-derived magmas by Precambrian basement (PB). The dominant Pb component in mafic plutons of the Lima segment (LS) is similar to the isotopically homogeneous reservoir (IHR) identified by others for rocks in central and southern Chile. It has been suggested that the IHR is enriched subcontinental mantle. More siliceous rocks in the LS have considerably higher Pb ratios, suggesting that they have a component of supracrustal materials. Feldspars from plutons in the Arequipa and Toquepala segments (ATS) of the PCB have low PB ratios. The data plot between the PB and IHR fields on Pb correlation diagrams, indicating that these end members were the principal magma sources in southern Peru. /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr compositions for a small group of apatite and sphene samples selected on the basis of extreme PB ratios in coexisting feldspars are negatively correlated and support the magmagenetic models proposed using the more thorough Pb analyses. Also, mass balance considerations using Nd and Sr concentrations suggest that contamination of IHR magmas by PB was magmatic and not the result of subsolidus diffusion. Contamination of plutons in the ATS by PB and lack of it in the LS supports crustal models by Couch et al. (1981) and Jones (1981) which show a thick PB layer in southern Peru and an extremely thin layer beneath the LS.

  12. Contrasting magmatic structures between small plutons and batholiths emplaced at shallow crustal level (Sierras de Córdoba, Argentina) (United States)

    Pinotti, Lucio P.; D'Eramo, Fernando J.; Weinberg, Roberto F.; Demartis, Manuel; Tubía, José María; Coniglio, Jorge E.; Radice, Stefania; Maffini, M. Natalia; Aragón, Eugenio


    Processes like injection, magma flow and differentiation and influence of the regional strain field are here described and contrasted to shed light on their role in the formation of small plutons and large batholiths their magmatic structures. The final geometric and compositional arrangement of magma bodies are a complex record of their construction and internal flow history. Magma injection, flow and differentiation, as well as regional stresses, all control the internal nature of magma bodies. Large magma bodies emplaced at shallow crustal levels result from the intrusion of multiple magma batches that interact in a variety of ways, depending on internal and external dynamics, and where the early magmatic, growth-related structures are commonly overprinted by subsequent history. In contrast, small plutons emplaced in the brittle-ductile transition more likely preserve growth-related structures, having a relatively simple cooling history and limited internal magma flow. Outcrop-scale magmatic structures in both cases record a rich set of complementary information that can help elucidate their evolution. Large and small granitic bodies of the Sierra Pampeanas preserve excellent exposures of magmatic structures that formed as magmas stepped through different rheological states during pluton growth and solidification. These structures reveal not only the flow pattern inside magma chambers, but also the rheological evolution of magmas in response to temperature evolution.

  13. Composition and biogeography of forest patches on the inland mountains of the southern Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Geldenhuys, CJ


    Full Text Available Patterns in species richness of 23 small, isolated forests on the inland mountains of the southern Cape were studied. Species richness of woody plants and vines of the Kouga-Baviaanskloof Forests was higher than in the western mountain complexes...

  14. Stratigraphy, geochemistry and tectonic significance of the Oligocene magmatic rocks of western Oaxaca, southern Mexico (United States)

    Martiny, B.; Martinez-Serrano, R. G.; Moran-Zenteno, D. J.; MacIas-Romo, C.; Ayuso, R.A.


    In Western Oaxaca, Tertiary magmatic activity is represented by extensive plutons along the continental margin and volcanic sequences in the inland region. K-Ar age determinations reported previously and in the present work indicate that these rocks correspond to a relatively broad arc in this region that was active mainly during the Oligocene (~ 35 to ~ 25 Ma). In the northern sector of western Oaxaca (Huajuapan-Monte Verde-Yanhuitlan), the volcanic suite comprises principally basaltic andesite to andesitic lavas, overlying minor silicic to intermediate volcaniclastic rocks (epiclastic deposits, ash fall tuffs, ignimbrites) that were deposited in the lacustrine-fluvial environment. The southern sector of the volcanic zone includes the Tlaxiaco-Laguna de Guadalupe region and consists of intermediate to silicic pyroclastic and epiclastic deposits, with silicic ash fall tuffs and ignimbrites. In both sectors, numerous andesitic to dacitic hypabyssal intrusions (stocks and dikes) were emplaced at different levels of the sequence. The granitoids of the coastal plutonic belt are generally more differentiated than the volcanic rocks that predominate in the northern sector and vary in composition from granite to granodiorite. The studied rocks show large-ion lithophile element (LILE) enrichment (K, Rb, Ba, Th) relative to high-field-strength (HFS) elements (Nb, Ti, Zr) that is characteristic of subduction-related magmatic rocks. On chondrite-normalized rare earth element diagrams, these samples display light rare earth element enrichment (LREE) and a flat pattern for the heavy rare earth elements (HREE). In spite of the contrasting degree of differentiation between the coastal plutons and inland volcanic rocks, there is a relatively small variation in the isotopic composition of these two suites. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios obtained and reported previously for Tertiary plutonic rocks of western Oaxaca range from 0.7042 to 0.7054 and ??Nd values, from -3.0 to +2.4, and for

  15. Variations of the aerosol concentration and chemical composition over the arid steppe zone of Southern Russia in summer (United States)

    Artamonova, M. S.; Gubanova, D. P.; Iordanskii, M. A.; Lebedev, V. A.; Maksimenkov, L. O.; Minashkin, V. M.; Obvintsev, Y. I.; Chketiani, O. G.


    Variations in the surface aerosol over the arid steppe zone of Southern Russia have been measured. The parameters of atmospheric aerosol (mass concentration, both dispersed and elemental compositions) and meteorological parameters were measured in Tsimlaynsk raion (Rostov oblast). The chemical composition of aerosol particles in the atmospheric surface layer has been determined, and the coefficients of enrichment of elements with respect to clarkes in the Earth's crust have been calculated. It is shown that, in summer, arid aerosols are transported from both alkaline and sandy soils of Kalmykia to the air basin over the observation zone. Aerosol particles in the surface air layer over this region have been found to contain the products of combustion of oil, coal, and ethylized fuel. These combustion products make a small contribution to the total mass concentration of atmospheric aerosol; however, they are most hazardous to the health of people because of their sizes and heavy-metal contents. A high concentration of submicron sulfur-containing aerosol particles of chemocondensation nature has been recorded. Sources of aerosol of both natural and anthropogenic origins in southern Russia are discussed.

  16. Fracture controls on valley persistence: the Cairngorm Granite pluton, Scotland (United States)

    Hall, A. M.; Gillespie, M. R.


    Valleys are remarkably persistent features in many different tectonic settings, but the reasons for this persistence are rarely explored. Here, we examine the structural controls on valleys in the Cairngorms Mountains, Scotland, part of the passive margin of the eastern North Atlantic. We consider valleys at three scales: straths, glens and headwater valleys. The structural controls on valleys in and around the Cairngorm Granite pluton were examined on satellite and aerial photographs and by field survey. Topographic lineaments, including valleys, show no consistent orientation with joint sets or with sheets of microgranite and pegmatitic granite. In this granite landscape, jointing is not a first-order control on valley development. Instead, glens and headwater valleys align closely to quartz veins and linear alteration zones (LAZs). LAZs are zones of weakness in the granite pluton in which late-stage hydrothermal alteration and hydro-fracturing have greatly reduced rock mass strength and increased permeability. LAZs, which can be kilometres long and >700 m deep, are the dominant controls on the orientation of valleys in the Cairngorms. LAZs formed in the roof zone of the granite intrusion. Although the Cairngorm pluton was unroofed soon after emplacement, the presence of Old Red Sandstone (ORS) outliers in the terrain to the north and east indicates that the lower relief of the sub-ORS basement surface has been lowered by 1 km of vertical erosion and for 400 Myr. This valley persistence is a combined product of regionally low rates of basement exhumation and of the existence of LAZs in the Cairngorm pluton and sub-parallel Caledonide fractures in the surrounding terrain with depths that exceed 1 km.

  17. Magmatic and solid state structures of the Abu Ziran pluton: Deciphering transition from thrusting to extension in the Eastern Desert of Egypt (United States)

    Fritz, Harald; Loizenbauer, Jürgen; Wallbrecher, Eckart


    The 606 Ma old Abu Ziran granite of the Eastern Desert of Egypt intruded the southern margin of the Meatiq dome in a sinistral shear extensional setting. Its emplacement was enabled by a system of NW-trending sinistral shears, related Riedel shears and N-S extensional shear zones and faults. Magmatic flow was east-directed and controlled by Riedel shears that progressively rotated to an orientation favourable for extension. Strain markers that document magmatic flow show eastward decreasing strain together with strain increase from pluton centre to margins. This is explained by Newtonian flow between non-parallel plates and differences in flow velocities across the pluton. Solid state fabrics including shear fabrics, orientation of late magmatic dykes and quartz tension gashes, together with quartz C-axes distributions, document southward extensional shear within the solidified pluton and adjacent host rocks. Extensional shear is correlated with exhumation of the Meatiq dome coeval and soon after pluton solidification (585 Ma). Pressure temperature evolutionary paths, derived from fluid inclusions, show a clockwise path with exhumation by isothermal decompression in the Meatiq dome. By contrast, the overlying volcanosedimentary nappes experienced an anti-clockwise path released by temperature rise due to pluton emplacement followed by isobaric cooling. Quartz fabrics indicate high-temperature coaxial N-S flow in the northern Meatiq dome and lower-temperature, non-coaxial southward flow within the overlaying superficial nappe. This is explained by the exhumation process itself that progressively localised into simple shear domains when rocks approached higher crustal levels. Late extension at ca. 580 Ma was pure shear dominated and resulted in reversal of shear, now dextral, in the western Meatiq shear zone.

  18. Rb-Sr whole-rock and mineral ages, K-Ar, 40Ar/39Ar, and U-Pb mineral ages, and strontium, lead, neodymium, and oxygen isotopic compositions for granitic rocks from the Salinian Composite Terrane, California: (United States)

    Kistler, R.W.; Champion, D.E.


    This report summarizes new and published age and isotopic data for whole-rocks and minerals from granitic rocks in the Salinian composite terrane, California. Rubidium-strontium whole-rock ages of plutons are in two groups, Early Cretaceous (122 to 100 Ma) and Late Cretaceous (95 to 82 Ma). Early Cretaceous plutons occur in all granitic rock exposures from Bodega Head in the north to those from the Santa Lucia and Gabilan Ranges in the central part of the terrane. Late Cretaceous plutons have been identified in the Point Reyes Peninsula, the Santa Lucia and the Gabilan Ranges, and in the La Panza Range in the southern part of the terrane. Ranges of initial values of isotopic compositions are 87Sr/86Sr, 0.7046-0.7147, δ18O, +8.5 to +12.5 per mil, 206Pb/204Pb, 18.901-19.860, 207Pb/204Pb, 15.618-15.814, 208Pb/204Pb, 38.569- 39.493, and εNd, +0.9 to -8.6. The initial 87Sr/86Sr=0.706 isopleth is identified in the northern Gabilan Range and in the Ben Lomond area of the Santa Cruz Mountains, in Montara Mountain, in Bodega Head, and to the west of the Farallon Islands on the Cordell Bank. This isotopic boundary is offset about 95 miles (160km) by right-lateral displacements along the San Gregorio-Hosgri and San Andreas fault systems.

  19. La Escalerilla pluton, San Luis Argentina: The orogenic and post-orogenic magmatic evolution of the famatinian cycle at Sierras de San Luis (United States)

    Morosini, Augusto Francisco; Ortiz Suárez, Ariel Emilio; Otamendi, Juan Enrique; Pagano, Diego Sebastián; Ramos, Gabriel Alejandro


    Field relationships, geochemical analysis and two new absolute ages (LA-MC-ICP-MS U/Pb-zircon) allow the division of the La Escalerilla pluton (previously considered to be a single granitic body) into two different plutons: a new La Escalerilla pluton (s.s.), dated at 476.7 ± 9.6 Ma, that represents the northern portion, and the El Volcán pluton, dated at 404.5 ± 8.5 Ma, located in the southern sector. The La Escalerilla pluton is composed of three facies: (1) biotite-bearing granodiorite, (2) porphyritic biotite-bearing granite, and (3) porphyritic two micas-bearing leucogranite, being the presence of late-magmatic dykes in these facies common. The El Volcán pluton is composed of two main facies: 1) porphyritic biotite-bearing granite, and 2) two micas-bearing leucogranite, but amphibole-bearing monzodioritic and tonalititic mega-enclaves are also common, as well as some dykes of amphibole and clinopyroxene-bearing syenites. A peculiarity between the two plutons is that their most representative facies (porphyritic biotite-bearing granites) have, apart from different absolute ages, distinctive geochemical characteristics in their concentrations of trace elements; the La Escalerilla granite is comparatively poorer in Ba, Sr, Nb, La, Ce, P, and richer in Rb, Tb, Y, Tm and Yb. The El Volcán granite is notably enriched in Sr and depleted in Y, resulting in high Sr/Y ratios (12.67-39.08) compared to the La Escalerilla granite (1.11-2.41). These contrasts indicate that the separation from their sources occurred at different depths: below 25 km for the La Escalerilla, and above 30 km for the El Volcán. Moreover, the contrasts allow us to interpret a thin crust linked to an environment of pre-collisional subduction for the first case, and a thickened crust of post-collisional environment for the second, respectively.

  20. Landscape composition and spatial prediction of alveolar echinococcosis in southern Ningxia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R J Pleydell

    Full Text Available Alveolar echinococcosis (AE presents a serious public health challenge within China. Mass screening ultrasound surveys can detect pre-symptomatic AE, but targeting areas identified from hospital records is inefficient regarding AE. Prediction of undetected or emerging hotspots would increase detection rates. Voles and lemmings of the subfamily Arvicolinae are important intermediate hosts in sylvatic transmission systems. Their populations reach high densities in productive grasslands where food and cover are abundant. Habitat availability is thought to affect arvicoline population dynamic patterns and definitive host-intermediate host interactions. Arvicoline habitat correlates with AE prevalence in Western Europe and southern Gansu Province, China.Xiji County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, borders southern Gansu. The aims of this study were to map AE prevalence across Xiji and test arvicoline habitat as a predictor. Land cover was mapped using remotely sensed (Landsat imagery. Infection status of 3,205 individuals screened in 2002-2003 was related, using generalised additive mixed models, to covariates: gender; farming; ethnicity; dog ownership; water source; and areal cover of mountain pasture and lowland pasture. A Markov random field modelled additional spatial variation and uncertainty. Mountain pasture and lowland pasture were associated with below and above average AE prevalence, respectively.Low values of the normalised difference vegetation index indicated sub-optimality of lowland pasture for grassland arvicolines. Unlike other known endemic areas, grassland arvicolines probably did not provide the principal reservoir for Echinococcus multilocularis in Xiji. This result is consistent with recent small mammal surveys reporting low arvicoline densities and high densities of hamsters, pikas and jerboas, all suitable intermediate hosts for E. multilocularis, in reforested lowland pasture. The risk of re-emergence is discussed. We

  1. Shear Wave Velocity Structure of Southern African Crust: Evidence for Compositional Heterogeneity within Archaean and Proterozoic Terrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kgaswane, E M; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Dirks, P H H M; Durrheim, R J; Pasyanos, M E


    Crustal structure in southern Africa has been investigated by jointly inverting receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities for 89 broadband seismic stations spanning much of the Precambrian shield of southern Africa. 1-D shear wave velocity profiles obtained from the inversion yield Moho depths that are similar to those reported in previous studies and show considerable variability in the shear wave velocity structure of the lower part of the crust between some terrains. For many of the Archaean and Proterozoic terrains in the shield, S velocities reach 4.0 km/s or higher over a substantial part of the lower crust. However, for most of the Kimberley terrain and adjacent parts of the Kheis Province and Witwatersrand terrain, as well as for the western part of the Tokwe terrain, mean shear wave velocities of {le} 3.9 km/s characterize the lower part of the crust along with slightly ({approx}5 km) thinner crust. These findings indicate that the lower crust across much of the shield has a predominantly mafic composition, except for the southwest portion of the Kaapvaal Craton and western portion of the Zimbabwe Craton, where the lower crust is intermediate-to-felsic in composition. The parts of the Kaapvaal Craton underlain by intermediate-to-felsic lower crust coincide with regions where Ventersdorp rocks have been preserved, and thus we suggest that the intermediate-to-felsic composition of the lower crust and the shallower Moho may have resulted from crustal melting during the Ventersdorp tectonomagmatic event at c. 2.7 Ga and concomitant crustal thinning caused by rifting.

  2. Post-collisional adakitic biotite plagiogranites from Guangtoushan pluton (Mianxian, central China): Petrogenesis and tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Jiangfeng; LAI Shaocong; LI Yongfei


    The post-collisional Guangtoushan pluton intruded into the Mianlue suture, Central China. Geochemi-cally, the Guangtoushan biotite plagiogranites show many close compositional similarities to high-silica adakites from the supra-subduction zone setting, but tend to have a higher concentration of K2O (3.22%-3.84%). Chondrite-normalized rare earth element pattems are characterized by high ratios of (La/Yb)N, concave-upward shapes of the heavy rare earth element (HREE), and a lack of significant Eu anomalies. In conjunction with high abundances of Ba and Sr, as well as low abundances of Y and HREE, these pattems suggest a feldspar-poor, garnet±amohibole-rich fractionation mineral assemblage. Coupled with previous studies, we suggest that the Guangtoushan biotite plagiogranites were likely to be caused by subducting slab break-off during the late orogenic stage in the West Qinling orogenic belt.

  3. Intermetallic compounds, copper and palladium alloys in Au-Pd ore of the Skaergaard pluton, Greenland (United States)

    Rudashevsky, N. S.; Rudashevsky, V. N.; Nielsen, T. F. D.


    Copper-palladium intermetallic compounds and alloys (2314 grains) from the Au-Pd ore of the Skaergaard layered gabbroic pluton have been studied. Skaergaardite PdCu, nielsenite PdCu3, (Cu,Pd)β, (Cu,Pd)α, (Pd,Cu,Au,Pt) alloys, and native palladium have been identified as a result of 1680 microprobe analyses. The average compositions and various chemical varieties of these minerals are characterized, as well as vertical and lateral zoning in distribution of noble metals. The primary Pd-Cu alloys were formed within a wide temperature interval broadly synchronously with cooling and crystallization of host gabbro and in close association with separation of Fe-Cu sulfide liquid. In the course of crystallization of residual gabbroic melt enriched in iron, noble and heavy metals and saturated with the supercritical aqueous fluid, PGE and Au are selectively concentrated in the Fe-Cu sulfide phase as Pd-Cu and Cu-Au alloys.

  4. Neo-tectonic fracturing after emplacement of quaternary granitic pluton in the Kakkonda geothermal field, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, N.; Kato, O. [JMC Goethermal Eng. Co., Ltd., Iwate-ken (Japan); Kanisawa, S.; Ishikawa, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)


    The fracture which occurs in the Kakkonda geothermal system was formed by neo-tectonic stress after the emplacement of the neo-granite (Quaternary Kakkonda Granite) at middle Pleistocene to recent. The characteristic contrast in permeability at ca.1.5 km is strongly controlled by the contact metamorphic zone, especially cordierite and higher grade metamorphic zones, in which the high temperature (320{degrees}C<) and low permeable deep reservoir was created. The five geothermal wells 2.5-3.0 km deep have clarified that a microearthquake zone below -1.0 km shows high permeability especially at the margin of the Kakkonda Granite, and low permeability outside of a microearthquake zone. The Kakkonda Granite is a composite pluton which has very few fractures inside of it. Thus, neo-tectonic fracturing has developed in the non-metamorphosed Tertiary formations and the margin of the Kakkonda Granite.

  5. Petrogenesis of the Neoproterozoic Ngondo Plutonic complex (Cameroon, west central Africa): a case of late-collisional ferro-potassic magmatism (United States)

    Tagne-Kamga, Gabriel


    The Ngondo complex is a late-collisional pluton, which was emplaced around 600 Ma along a N030° E strike-slip shear zone in the southwestern part of the Neoproterozoic Fold Belt of Cameroon. It comprises three successively emplaced plutonic groups of rocks: (i) mafic to felsic intrusive rocks (MFR), (ii) fine-grained granites (FGG) and (iii) coarse-grained granites (CGG). Late aplitic and pegmatite dykes were emplaced along brittle fractures in these plutons. The complex is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, high-K, calc-alkaline to " trans-alkaline" ferro-potassic, with mineralogical and geochemical characteristic of I-type granites. The plutonic rocks are characterised by high Ba, Sr, Rb and ∑REE concentrations and low Ni and Cr contents in the mafic members. They also display chondrite-normalised REE patterns characterised by variable LREE enrichment, moderate to minor HREE fractionation with moderate to pronounced negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu∗: 0.6-0.9 (MFR), 0.2-0.5 (FGG), 0.3-0.7 (CGG)). Trace element distribution patterns for the three plutonic groups are similar with a distinctive depletion in Nb, Sr and Ti relative to other trace elements and a greater enrichment in LILE compared to HFSE. These plutonic groups present distinct evolutionary trends precluding their origin from differentiation of a single parental magma. The geochemical and isotopic data indicate that they derived from partial melting of heterogeneous (meta)-igneous mafic lower crustal materials, having possibly the composition of amphibolitised high-K calc-alkaline basaltic andesites and andesitic metagreywackes. Petrographic evidences such as the presence of quartz-ocelli, xenocrysts of feldspar, fragments of country rocks (migmatitic gneisses) strongly indicate that crustal contamination may have played an important role in the genesis of the plutonic rocks. This contamination process is further supported by the variation of major and trace elements together with Sr-Nd isotopic data

  6. A comparative study on isotopic composition of precipitation in wet tropic and semi-arid stations across southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Unnikrishnan Warrier; M Praveen Babu


    Isotopic composition of monthly composite precipitation samples from Kozhikode ( = 31), a wet tropic station and Hyderabad ( = 25), a semi-arid station across southern India were studied for a period of four years from 2005 to 2008. During the study period, the Kozhikode station recorded an average rainfall of 3500 mm while the Hyderabad station showed an average rainfall of 790 mm. The average stable isotope values in precipitation at the Kozhikode station were 18O= -3.52‰, d-excess = 13.72‰; 18O = -2.94‰, d-excess = 10.57‰; and 18O = -7.53‰, d-excess = 13.79‰, respectively during the pre-monsoon (March–May), monsoon (June–September) and post-monsoon (October–February) seasons. For the Hyderabad station, the average stable isotope values were 18O = −5.88‰, d-excess = 2.34‰; 18O = −4.39‰, d-excess = 9.21‰; and 18O = −8.69‰, d-excess = 14.29‰, respectively for the three seasons. The precipitation at the two stations showed distinctive isotopic signatures. The stable isotopic composition of precipitation at the Hyderabad station showed significant variations from the global trend while the Kozhikode station almost followed the global value. These differences are mainly attributed to the latitudinal differences of the two stations coupled with the differences in climatic conditions.

  7. Chemical and isotopic evolution of the coastal batholith of southern Peru (United States)

    Boily, M.; Brooks, C.; Ludden, J. N.; James, D. E.


    Southeast of Arequipa, the Coastal Batholith of southern Peru is composed of two segments (Arequipa and Toquepala) including five superunits which were emplaced in discrete magmatic pulses from the Jurassic to the Paleocene eras (190-61 Ma). Most superunits intruded a Precambrian basement dominated by granulitic and amphibolitic rocks showing a strong enrichment in large ion lithophile elements, low ɛNd p (-21 to -29) and 206Pb/204Pbp (16.11-17.03 (Tilton and Barreiro, 1980)), and high ɛSr p (+396 to +999) values. Major and trace element analyses reveal that each superunit is formed by distinct suites of calc-alkaline plutons (i.e., "I" type) that range in composition from quartz gabbro to monzogranite. For the whole plutonic suite located in southern Peru, the evolution toward negative ɛNd i and positive ɛSr i values is followed by a significant decrease in 206Pb/204Pbi ratios but is also related to the density of Precambrian outcrops. This led us to classify the intrusives into three groups. Group 1 consists of intrusives carrying positive ɛNd i (+2.4 to +0.4) and generally negative ɛSr i values (-7.4 to +0.7). They are located in the Ilo-Moquegua transect (17°22'-17°80'S), an area where Precambrian exposure is scarce. Group 2 consists of plutons with intermediate ɛ values (i.e., ɛNd i = +0.5 to -2.2 and ɛSr i = +7.1 to +55.7), which are found in the vicinity of Arequipa and Tarata where numerous Precambrian outcrops are present. Finally, group 3 is composed of intrusives showing negative ɛNd i (-4.4 to -8.0) and positive ɛSr i values (+27.1 to +56.1), including one anomalous granodiorite exposed near Tarata and two samples collected in the Arequipa quadrangle near the contact with the Charcani gneiss. There are several petrogenetic models which can explain the trace element, isotopic, and geographic correlations observed within the Coastal Batholith of southern Peru. One simple model advocates that the parental mafic magma(s) of the plutonic suites

  8. Formation of lower continental crust by relamination of buoyant arc lavas and plutons (United States)

    Kelemen, Peter B.; Behn, Mark D.


    The formation of the Earth's continents is enigmatic. Volcanic arc magmas generated above subduction zones have geochemical compositions that are similar to continental crust, implying that arc magmatic processes played a central role in generating continental crust. Yet the deep crust within volcanic arcs has a very different composition from crust at similar depths beneath the continents. It is therefore unclear how arc crust is transformed into continental crust. The densest parts of arc lower crust may delaminate and become recycled into the underlying mantle. Here we show, however, that even after delamination, arc lower crust still has significantly different trace element contents from continental lower crust. We suggest that it is not delamination that determines the composition of continental crust, but relamination. In our conceptual model, buoyant magmatic rocks generated at arcs are subducted. Then, upon heating at depth, they ascend and are relaminated at the base of the overlying crust. A review of the average compositions of buoyant magmatic rocks -- lavas and plutons -- sampled from the Aleutians, Izu-Bonin-Marianas, Kohistan and Talkeetna arcs reveals that they fall within the range of estimated major and trace elements in lower continental crust. Relamination may thus provide an efficient process for generating lower continental crust.

  9. Diversity, composition and density of trees and shrubs in agroforestry homegardens in Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abebe, T.; Sterck, F.J.; Wiersum, K.F.; Bongers, F.


    Diversity of trees and shrubs in agricultural systems contributes to provision of wood and non-wood products, and protects the environment, thereby, enhancing socioeconomic and ecological sustainability of the systems. This study characterizes the diversity, density and composition of trees in the a

  10. Plutonic xenoliths from Martinique, Lesser Antilles: evidence for open system processes and reactive melt flow in island arc crust (United States)

    Cooper, George F.; Davidson, Jon P.; Blundy, Jon D.


    The Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc is remarkable for the abundance and variety of erupted plutonic xenoliths. These samples provide a window into the deeper crust and record a more protracted crystallisation history than is observed from lavas alone. We present a detailed petrological and in situ geochemical study of xenoliths from Martinique in order to establish their petrogenesis, pre-eruptive storage conditions and their contribution to construction of the sub-volcanic arc crust. The lavas from Martinique are controlled by crystal-liquid differentiation. Amphibole is rarely present in the erupted lavas, but it is a very common component in plutonic xenoliths, allowing us to directly test the involvement of amphibole in the petrogenesis of arc magmas. The plutonic xenoliths provide both textural and geochemical evidence of open system processes and crystal `cargos'. All xenoliths are plagioclase-bearing, with variable proportions of olivine, spinel, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and amphibole, commonly with interstitial melt. In Martinique, the sequence of crystallisation varies in sample type and differs from other islands of the Lesser Antilles arc. The compositional offset between plagioclase (~An90) and olivine (~Fo75), suggests crystallisation under high water contents and low pressures from an already fractionated liquid. Texturally, amphibole is either equant (crystallising early in the sequence) or interstitial (crystallising late). Interstitial amphibole is enriched in Ba and LREE compared with early crystallised amphibole and does not follow typical fractionation trends. Modelling of melt compositions indicates that a water-rich, plagioclase-undersaturated reactive melt or fluid percolated through a crystal mush, accompanied by the breakdown of clinopyroxene, and the crystallisation of amphibole. Geothermobarometry estimates and comparisons with experimental studies imply the majority of xenoliths formed in the mid-crust. Martinique cumulate xenoliths are

  11. Structural characterization of the Misajé granitic pluton (NW Cameroon): constraints from magnetic and field observations (United States)

    Fozing, Eric Martial; Njanko, Théophile; Naba, Séta; Kwékam, Maurice; Njonfang, Emmanuel; Rochette, Pierre


    The Misajé granitic pluton, emplaced between 569 and 560 Ma in an amphibolitic and gneissic host rock, comprises four petrographic units namely biotite-hornblende granite (BHG), granodiorite (Gd), biotite granite (BG), and leucocratic granite (LG). Four major tectonic events have been described in the studied area: a D1-early tectonic event, responsible of the E-W flat foliation which has been progressively transposed by a D2 tectonic event. A D2 event has developed heterogeneous simple shear in a dextral transpressive context with moderate to strong dipping NE-SW striking foliation; a D3 tectonic event has lead to a sinistral N-S ductile shear characterized by N- to ENE-striking foliation and E-W strike-slip shear corridors and a D4 tectonic event that developed N-S dextral ductile strike-slip deformation. The magnetic study of the pluton, based on the AMS parameters, reveals the coexistence of both paramagnetic (dominated by iron-bearing silicates; 54 % of sites) and ferromagnetic (due to the occurrence of PSD and MD grains of magnetite or other ferromagnetic minerals; 46 % of sites) behaviors. Magnetic foliation shows best poles at 55/82 for the whole pluton, 95/32 in BHG, and 273/83 in BG, and the magnetic lineation trends are mostly NNE-SSW with best lines at 210/8, 198/19, and 36/3, respectively. The trend of the magnetic lineation in BG indicates an S-shape trajectory, suggesting a sinistral sense of shear motion along discrete E-W corridors situated at the northern and southern ends. Kinematic indicators in BG point to a sinistral sense of shear, suggesting its emplacement during the D3 event. The close relationship between K 1 and K 3 points to a syn-kinematic emplacement and crystallization of the Misajé granitic pluton during the Pan-African event, and the tectonic evolution of the study area is considered to be coeval with the tectonic evolution of the trans-Saharan Pan-African belt of eastern Nigeria.

  12. Temporal evolution, petrography and composition of dolostones in the Upper Devonian Plavinas Regional Stage, southern Estonia and northern Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kleesment


    Full Text Available The Upper Devonian Plavinas Regional Stage in southern Estonia and northern Latvia is represented by dolostones containing interlayers of dolomitic marlstones and limestones. Petrographic, cathodoluminescence, electron microprobe and isotope techniques were used to investigate diagenetic evolution of dolostones. The rock succession has been affected by multiple dia­genetic events. Based on petrographic and geochemical data, six dolomite textures were identified. The crystal size (5–1200 μm and morphology of dolomites are variable. Commonly, dolomites are close to the stoichiometric composition, with low iron and manganese content. Their stable isotope composition (δ13C, δ18O differs greatly from that of dolomite precipitated from Frasnian seawater. Dolomitization is more pronounced in the lower part of the studied sequence, in the Snetnaya Gora Formation and Lower Pskov unit where carbonates are completely dolomitized, whereas upwards in the section the dolomite content decreases. Voids and pores of the Lower Pskov unit are mainly open, but partly or completely occluded in the Upper Pskov unit. Void-filling dolomite has slightly and void-filling calcite notably depleted stable isotope signatures. Major dedolomitization and calcite-filling processes took place during the final uplift and emergence of the northern part of the Baltic basin, connected with the migration of karst-related meteoric waters into previously dolomitized horizons within carbonate rocks.

  13. Isotopic composition and identification of the origins of individuals buried in a Neolithic collective grave at Bronocice (southern Poland). (United States)

    Szostek, K; Haduch, E; Stepańczak, B; Kruk, J; Szczepanek, A; Pawlyta, J; Głąb, H; Milisauskas, S


    The oxygen present in a human organism comes from numerous sources, but the major factor that causes variation in the isotopic composition of this element in a tissue is available drinking water. The isotopic ratio of oxygen in an organism's tissue, including that found in bones and teeth, reflects the isotopic oxygen composition typical for the area where a given individual developed and lived. Of particular interest with regard to this issue were a series of skeletons from the multiple grave discovered at the Funnel Beaker-Baden settlement at Bronocice (southern Poland). The question therefore arose whether the specimens buried in this grave were part of the local community. The oxygen isotope level was established using apatite isolated from bones or teeth. A femur and root dentine samples taken from permanent teeth were subjected to oxygen isotope analysis. The oxygen isotope level of the site was established on the basis of local water precipitation and measurements taken from the oxygen isotope concentration in apatite samples isolated from the bones of animals co-occurring with the studied human group. It has been found that the oxygen isotope levels in the bones and dentine of almost all the analysed specimens from the excavated site at Bronocice were within the established range for the area's environment, providing evidence for their local origin. Thus, it can be assumed that the analysed group inhabiting the macrosettlement at Bronocice during the Funnel Beaker phase of the Baden culture was most probably of local origin.

  14. Composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and vegetation corridors in Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa O. Mesquita


    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation leads to isolation and reduce habitat areas, in addition to a series of negative effects on natural populations, affecting richness, abundance and distribution of animal species. In such a text, habitat corridors serve as an alternative for connectivity in fragmented landscapes, minimizing the effects of structural isolation of different habitat areas. This study evaluated the richness, composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and in the relevant vegetation corridors that connect these fragments, located in Southern Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Ten sites were sampled (five forest fragments and five vegetation corridors using the capture-mark-recapture method, from April 2007-March 2008. A total sampling effort of 6 300 trapnights resulted in 656 captures of 249 individuals. Across the 10 sites sampled, 11 small mammal species were recorded. Multidimensional scaling (MDS ordinations and ANOSIM based on the composition of small mammal communities within the corridor and fragment revealed a qualitative difference between the two environments. Regarding abundance, there was no significant difference between corridors and fragments. In comparing mean values of abundance per species in each environment, only Cerradomys subflavus showed a significant difference, being more abundant in the corridor environment. Results suggest that the presence of several small mammal species in the corridor environment, in relatively high abundances, could indicate corridors use as habitat, though they might also facilitate and/or allow the movement of individuals using different habitat patches (fragments.

  15. What Factors Affect Diversity and Species Composition of Endangered Tumbesian Dry Forests in Southern Ecuador?


    Espinosa Iñiguez, Carlos Ivan; Cabrera, Omar; Luzuriaga, Arantzazu L.; Escudero, Adrián


    This paper reports a study on species richness and composition of Tumbesian dry forest communities. We tested two alternative hypotheses about species assemblage processes in tropical dry forests: (1) species assemblage is determined by the filtering effect of environmental conditions and (2) species assemblage is determined by facilitative processes along the gradient of water availability, and thus, species richness and evenness increase as water becomes limited. In addition, we also explor...

  16. Meaningful call combinations and compositional processing in the southern pied babbler (United States)

    Engesser, Sabrina; Ridley, Amanda R.; Townsend, Simon W.


    Language’s expressive power is largely attributable to its compositionality: meaningful words are combined into larger/higher-order structures with derived meaning. Despite its importance, little is known regarding the evolutionary origins and emergence of this syntactic ability. Although previous research has shown a rudimentary capability to combine meaningful calls in primates, because of a scarcity of comparative data, it is unclear to what extent analog forms might also exist outside of primates. Here, we address this ambiguity and provide evidence for rudimentary compositionality in the discrete vocal system of a social passerine, the pied babbler (Turdoides bicolor). Natural observations and predator presentations revealed that babblers produce acoustically distinct alert calls in response to close, low-urgency threats and recruitment calls when recruiting group members during locomotion. On encountering terrestrial predators, both vocalizations are combined into a “mobbing sequence,” potentially to recruit group members in a dangerous situation. To investigate whether babblers process the sequence in a compositional way, we conducted systematic experiments, playing back the individual calls in isolation as well as naturally occurring and artificial sequences. Babblers reacted most strongly to mobbing sequence playbacks, showing a greater attentiveness and a quicker approach to the loudspeaker, compared with individual calls or control sequences. We conclude that the sequence constitutes a compositional structure, communicating information on both the context and the requested action. Our work supports previous research suggesting combinatoriality as a viable mechanism to increase communicative output and indicates that the ability to combine and process meaningful vocal structures, a basic syntax, may be more widespread than previously thought. PMID:27155011

  17. Interactions between plutonism and detachments during metamorphic core complex formation, Serifos Island (Cyclades, Greece) (United States)

    Rabillard, Aurélien; Arbaret, Laurent; Jolivet, Laurent; Le Breton, Nicole; Gumiaux, Charles; Augier, Romain; Grasemann, Bernhard


    In order to better understand the interactions between plutonic activity and strain localization during metamorphic core complex formation, the Miocene granodioritic pluton of Serifos (Cyclades, Greece) is studied. This pluton (11.6-9.5 Ma) intruded the Cycladic Blueschists during thinning of the Aegean domain along a system of low-angle normal faults belonging to the south dipping West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS). Based on structural fieldwork, together with microstructural observations and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, we recognize a continuum of deformation from magmatic to brittle conditions within the magmatic body. This succession of deformation events is kinematically compatible with the development of the WCDS. The architecture of the pluton shows a marked asymmetry resulting from its interaction with the detachments. We propose a tectonic scenario for the emplacement of Serifos pluton and its subsequent cooling during the Aegean extension: (1) A first stage corresponds to the metamorphic core complex initiation and associated southwestward shearing along the Meghàlo Livadhi detachment. (2) In the second stage, the Serifos pluton has intruded the dome at shallow crustal level, piercing through the ductile/brittle Meghàlo Livadhi detachment. Southwest directed extensional deformation was contemporaneously transferred upward in the crust along the more localized Kàvos Kiklopas detachment. (3) The third stage was marked by synmagmatic extensional deformation and strain localization at the contact between the pluton and the host rocks resulting in nucleation of narrow shear zones, which (4) continued to develop after the pluton solidification.

  18. Magmatic Source Composition and Magmatism of the Volcanic Rocks in the Area of Kuruktag, Southern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Changyi; BAI Kaiyin; HI Aizhi; ZHAO Xiaoning; ZHANG Hongbo


    In the Sinian-Cambrian strata in the area of Kuruktag, southern Xingjiang, four layers of volcanic rocks occurred in the Early Sinian Beiyixi Formation, Late Sinian Zhamoketi Formation and Shuiquan Formation, and Early Cambrian Xishanbulake Formation, respectively. Volcanics of the Shuiquan Formation and Xishanbulake Formation are of alkali basalt series, those of the Zhamoketi Formation are of alkali basalt series and tholeiite series, and those of the Beiyixi Formation are obviously characterized by bimodal assemblage and mostly belong to alkali volcanics. Multi-element distribution patterns of the rocks show continental tumescence characters of interplate basalt.Fractional crystallization of plagioclase led to negative Eu-anomalies of some volcanics and the cumulation of olivine resulted in high MgO and low SiO2 content of some volcanic rocks. The SiO2 saturability of volcanic rocks of the Xishanbulake Formation and Shuiquan Formation is lower than that of tholeiite of the Zhamoketi Formation. Correspondingly, the abundance of incompatible elements in the first two formations is higher than those in the last formation, and the differences can be attributed to the different degrees of partial melting. The intense fractionation of REE and the obvious depletion of HREE suggest that these volcanic rocks were derived from garnet Iherzolite of the mantle in the continental lithosphere. The Ba/Nb, La/Nb, Ba/La, Ba/Th and Rb/Nb rations demonstrate that these volcanic rocks were exclusively derived from the enriched mantle, mainly the EMI type mantle.

  19. Body composition and prediction equations using skinfold thickness for body fat percentage in Southern Brazilian adolescents. (United States)

    Ripka, Wagner Luis; Ulbricht, Leandra; Gewehr, Pedro Miguel


    The purpose of this study was to: a) determine the nutritional status of Brazilian adolescents, and; b) present a skinfold thickness model (ST) to estimate body fat developed with Brazilian samples, using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method. The main study group was composed of 374 adolescents, and further 42 adolescents for the validation group. Weight, height, waist circumference measurements, and body mass index (BMI) were collected, as well as nine ST-biceps (BI), triceps (TR), chest (CH), axillary (AX) subscapularis (SB), abdominal (AB), suprailiac (SI), medial thigh (TH), calf (CF), and fat percentage (%BF) obtained by DXA. The prevalence of overweight in adolescents was 20.9%, and obesity 5.8%. Regression analysis through ordinary least square method (OLS) allowed obtainment of three equations with values of R2 = 0.935, 0.912 and 0.850, standard error estimated = 1.79, 1.78 and 1.87, and bias = 0.06, 0.20 and 0.05, respectively. the innovation of this study lies in presenting new regression equations for predicting body fat in Southern Brazilian adolescents based on a representative and heterogeneous sample from DXA.

  20. Raptor community composition in the Texas Southern High Plains lesser prairie-chicken range (United States)

    Behney, A.C.; Boal, Clint W.; Whitlaw, H.A.; Lucia, D.R.


    Predation can be a factor in preventing prey population growth and sustainability when prey populations are small and fragmented, and when predator density is unrelated to the density of the single prey species. We conducted monthly raptor surveys from February 2007 to May 2009 in adjacent areas of the Texas Southern High Plains (USA) that do and do not support lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act. During the summer period corresponding to prairie-chicken nesting and brood-rearing, Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) were the most abundant raptor. During the lekking and overwintering period, the raptor community was diverse, with northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) being the most abundant species. Raptor abundance peaked during the early autumn and was lowest during the spring. Utility poles were a significant predictor of raptor density at survey points and Swainson's hawks and all raptors, pooled, were found in greater densities in non-prairie-chicken habitat dominated by mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa). Avian predation risk on prairie-chickens, based on presence and abundance of raptors, appears to be greatest during winter when there is a more abundant and diverse raptor community, and in areas with utility poles.

  1. Species Composition and Seasonal Distribution of Mosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern New Jersey, Burlington County. (United States)

    Verna, Thomas N


    A total of 36,495 larvae consisting of 45 species from 11 genera were collected from 7,189 sites from southern New Jersey, Burlington County between the months of March and October, 2001-2014. Density and seasonal distribution were determined among natural and artificial habitat. The most dominant species collected from natural habitat was Aedes vexans (Meigen) followed by Ochlerotatus canadensis canadensis (Theobald), Culex restuans Theobald, Culex pipiens L., and Culex territans Walker. The most dominant species collected from artificial habitat was Aedes albopictus (Skuse) followed by Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Theobald), Cx. restuans, Cx. pipiens, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say). Cx. restuans and Cx. pipiens were the only species categorized as dominant among both natural and artificial habitat and comprised greater than half the total density. Sympatry was common among dominant species from artificial habitat where a significant percentage of the total collection contained multiple species. The most common types of natural habitats were forested depressions and stream flood plains whereas rimless vehicle tires and various plastic containers were the most common artificial habitats. The pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea L. was the only habitat exclusive to one species. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  2. A PCR detection method for rapid identification of Melissococcus pluton in honeybee larvae. (United States)

    Govan, V A; Brözel, V; Allsopp, M H; Davison, S


    Melissococcus pluton is the causative agent of European foulbrood, a disease of honeybee larvae. This bacterium is particularly difficult to isolate because of its stringent growth requirements and competition from other bacteria. PCR was used selectively to amplify specific rRNA gene sequences of M. pluton from pure culture, from crude cell lysates, and directly from infected bee larvae. The PCR primers were designed from M. pluton 16S rRNA sequence data. The PCR products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed as originating from M. pluton by sequencing in both directions. Detection was highly specific, and the probes did not hybridize with DNA from other bacterial species tested. This method enabled the rapid and specific detection and identification of M. pluton from pure cultures and infected bee larvae.

  3. Geochronology of Zircon from Modern Plutons Beneath Two Contrasting Arc Volcanoes (United States)

    Bacon, C. R.


    Ion microprobe (SHRIMP RG) 238U-230Th zircon dating documents recent crystallization of shallow plutons beneath two caldera volcanoes where magmas evolved mainly by crystallization differentiation. Mount Mazama, Oregon, is a medium-K calc-alkaline Cascade arc volcano whose 7.7-ka climactic eruption ejected granodiorite and related plutonic blocks during formation of Crater Lake caldera. Mount Veniaminof, Alaska, is a medium-K tholeiitic Aleutian arc volcano that ejected granodiorite, diorite, and gabbro blocks in its 3.7-ka caldera-enlarging eruption. Zircons in four granodiorite blocks from Mazama crystallized at various times between 20 ka and greater than 300 ka, with concentrations of model ages near 50-70, 110, and 200 ka that correspond to periods of dacitic volcanism dated by K-Ar (Bacon and Lowenstern, 2005, EPSL 233:277-293). Multiple-age zircon populations are common. The youngest zircon model ages in blocks from different locations around the caldera are similar to ages of nearby volcanic vents and may help map the distribution of intrusions within a composite pluton. Mazama zircons typically have many 10's to 100's of ppm U and Th, and grew relatively late in high- crystallinity magmas. U-Th model ages of zircon from a 27-ka rhyodacite, the only eruptive unit known with common zircon, are similar to those from granodiorite. Survival of these recycled crystals in zircon- undersaturated hydrous rhyodacitic magma suggests little time from entrainment to the 27-ka eruption. In contrast, the voluminous 7.7-ka climactic rhyodacite is virtually lacking in zircon, indicating dissolution of any granodioritic debris in the hot, vigorously growing silicic magma body during the intervening period. Veniaminof erupted basaltic through rhyodacitic magmas over the past 250 kyr. Gabbro, diorite, and miarolitic granodiorite blocks from Veniaminof represent cumulate mush and vapor-saturated residual melt segregations (Bacon, Sisson, and Mazdab, 2006, EOS 87:36:U41B-05

  4. Investigating late Holocene variations in hydroclimate and the stable isotope composition of precipitation using southern South American peatlands: a hypothesis (United States)

    Daley, T. J.; Mauquoy, D.; Chambers, F. M.


    Ombrotrophic raised peatlands provide an ideal archive for integrating late Holocene records of variations in hydroclimate and the estimated stable isotope composition of precipitation with recent instrumental measurements. Modern measurements of mean monthly surface air temperature, precipitation and δD and δ18O values in precipitation from the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries provide a short but invaluable record with which to investigate modern relationships between these variables, thereby enabling improved interpretation of the peatland palaeodata. Data from two stations in the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) from Tierra del Fuego (Punta Arenas, Chile and Ushuaia, Argentina) were analysed for the period 1982 to 2008. In both locations, δD and δ18O values have decreased in response to quite different trends in local surface air temperature and total precipitation amount. At Ushuaia, the fall in δ18O values is associated with an increase in the mean annual amount of precipitation. At Punta Arenas, the fall in δ18O values is weakly associated with decrease in the precipitation amount and an increase in local temperatures. The pattern in both records is consistent with an increase in the zonal intensity of the southern westerly wind belt. These regional differences, observed in response to a known driver, should be detectable in peatland sites close to the GNIP stations. There is currently insufficient availability of suitably temporally resolved data to test for these regional differences over the last 3000 yr. Existing peatland palaeoclimate data from two sites near Ushuaia, however, provide evidence for changes in the late Holocene that are consistent with the pattern observed in modern observations. Furthermore, the records suggest synchroneity in millennial-scale oscillations between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

  5. Investigating late Holocene variations in hydroclimate and the stable isotope composition of precipitation using southern South American peatlands: a hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Daley


    Full Text Available Ombrotrophic raised peatlands provide an ideal archive for integrating late Holocene records of variations in hydroclimate and the estimated stable isotope composition of precipitation with recent instrumental measurements. Modern measurements of mean monthly surface air temperature, precipitation and δD and δ18O values in precipitation from the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries provide a short but invaluable record with which to investigate modern relationships between these variables, thereby enabling improved interpretation of the peatland palaeodata. Data from two stations in the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP from Tierra del Fuego (Punta Arenas, Chile and Ushuaia, Argentina were analysed for the period 1982 to 2008. In both locations, δD and δ18O values have decreased in response to quite different trends in local surface air temperature and total precipitation amount. At Ushuaia, the fall in δ18O values is associated with an increase in the mean annual amount of precipitation. At Punta Arenas, the fall in δ18O values is weakly associated with decrease in the precipitation amount and an increase in local temperatures. The pattern in both records is consistent with an increase in the zonal intensity of the southern westerly wind belt. These regional differences, observed in response to a known driver, should be detectable in peatland sites close to the GNIP stations. There is currently insufficient availability of suitably temporally resolved data to test for these regional differences over the last 3000 yr. Existing peatland palaeoclimate data from two sites near Ushuaia, however, provide evidence for changes in the late Holocene that are consistent with the pattern observed in modern observations. Furthermore, the records suggest synchroneity in millennial-scale oscillations between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

  6. Airborne studies of aerosol emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa: 2. Aerosol chemical composition (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Andreae, T. W.; Annegarn, H.; Beer, J.; Cachier, H.; Le Canut, P.; Elbert, W.; Maenhaut, W.; Salma, I.; Wienhold, F. G.; Zenker, T.


    We investigated smoke emissions from fires in savanna, forest, and agricultural ecosystems by airborne sampling of plumes close to prescribed burns and incidental fires in southern Africa. Aerosol samples were collected on glass fiber filters and on stacked filter units, consisting of a Nuclepore prefilter for particles larger than ˜1-2 μm and a Teflon second filter stage for the submicron fraction. The samples were analyzed for soluble ionic components, organic carbon, and black carbon. Onboard the research aircraft, particle number and volume distributions as a function of size were determined with a laser-optical particle counter and the black carbon content of the aerosol with an aethalometer. We determined the emission ratios (relative to CO2 and CO) and emission factors (relative to the amount of biomass burnt) for the various aerosol constituents. The smoke aerosols were rich in organic and black carbon, the latter representing 10-30% of the aerosol mass. K+ and NH4+ were the dominant cationic species in the smoke of most fires, while Cl- and SO42- were the most important anions. The aerosols were unusually rich in Cl-, probably due to the high Cl content of the semiarid vegetation. Comparison of the element budget of the fuel before and after the fires shows that the fraction of the elements released during combustion is highly variable between elements. In the case of the halogen elements, almost the entire amount released during the fire is present in the aerosol phase, while in the case of C, N, and S, only a small proportion ends up as particulate matter. This suggests that the latter elements are present predominantly as gaseous species in the fresh fire plumes studied here.

  7. Does the Lagoa do Peixe sandbar opening influence the macrophyte richness and composition in Southern Brazil wetlands?

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    Ana Silvia Rolon


    Full Text Available The Lagoa do Peixe has its connection with the sea artificially opened every year at the end of winter. However, this management has been carried out without the evaluation of the impact of this opening in the aquatic biodiversity. This information is crucial for the management of the natural resources of the Lagoa do Peixe National Park, the unique Ramsar site in Southern Brazil. The following questions were analyzed: (1 Do richness and composition of aquatic macrophytes from Lagoa do Peixe floodplain varies temporarily according to the sandbar opening and closing? (2 Does the variation pattern of the macrophyte community changed according to the sandbar opening and closing? A set of eight sampling sites of 1ha were selected over the Lagoa do Peixe floodplain: four sites not influenced by the artificial sandbar opening and four sites influenced by this event, being two sites closer to the sandbar opening and the two sites distant to the sandbar opening. The samplings were carried out between November 2007 and October 2009. The results show that although the artificial sandbar breaching does not affect the aquatic macrophyte richness at the floodplain, it affects the dynamics of species composition. The hydrological variation related to this management can be the main factor of the continuous change in the species composition in the floodplain, especially in the Southern portion. In order to avoid impacts in the macrophyte conservation, the artificial sandbar opening should be considered carefully, since the area of study is one of the most important conservation units to wetland systems in Southern Brazil.La Lagoa do Peixe, en el sur de Brasil, tiene conexión artificial con el mar, porque cada año, al final del invierno, se abre un canal con tractor. Sin embargo, esta práctica se ha levado a cabo sin la evaluación de los efectos de esta apertura en la biodiversidad acuática. Las siguientes preguntas fueron analizadas: (1 ¿Varían la

  8. Fluid geochemistry of the Mondragone hydrothermal systems (southern Italy): water and gas compositions vs. geostructural setting (United States)

    Cuoco, Emilio; Minissale, Angelo; Di Leo, Antonella "Magda"; Tamburrino, Stella; Iorio, Marina; Tedesco, Dario


    The geochemistry of natural thermal fluids discharging in the Mondragone Plain has been investigated. Thermal spring emergences are located along the Tyrrhenian coast in two different areas: near Padule-S. Rocco (41°7.5'N 13°53.4'E) at the foot of Mt. Petrino, and near Levagnole (41°8.5'N 13°51.3'E) at the foot of Mt. Pizzuto. The water isotopic composition of both thermal discharges is lighter than the one of local shallow groundwater (δ18O ≅ -6.3‰ SMOW vs. ≅ -5.9‰; δD ≅ -40‰ SMOW vs. ≅ -36‰, respectively) as a consequence of inland higher altitude of recharge by rainfall, suggesting that thermal water undergoes a deep and long flow-path before emerging along the coast. The chemical composition of the highest temperature samples of two areas points that fluids in the hydrothermal reservoir(s) interact with similar lithologies, since they are both hosted in the lower sedimentary carbonate formations of the Campanian-Latial Apennine succession. However, the two spring systems are different in terms of temperature and salinity (Levagnole: ≅50 °C and 8.9 g/L vs. Padule: ≅32 °C and 7.4 g/L, respectively). The higher salinity of Levagnole springs is due to a longer interaction with evaporite material embedded in Miocene sedimentary formations and to the eventual mixing, during rising, with fresh seawater close to the seashore. The chemical and isotopic composition of the free gases associated with the springs, again suggests a different source of the two hydrothermal systems. Comparing the 3He/4He measured ratios with other gas emissions located NE and SE of Mt. Massico-Roccamonfina alignment, it is evident that the Levagnole thermal springs are related to the northern Latial mantle wedge where the 3He/4He is about 0.5 R/Ra, whereas the Padule-S. Rocco springs, although being only 3.5 km south of Levagnole, are related to the Campanian mantle wedge where R/Ra is always ≥2.0. Such a difference in 3He/4He ratio in a very short distance

  9. Geology, composition, and physicochemical model of sparry magnesite deposits of the Southern Urals (United States)

    Krupenin, M. T.; Kol'tsov, A. B.


    The metasomatic nature of magnesite formation, sequence and timing of geological processes, and solution sources have been established by comprehensive geological and geochemical study of the typical Satka and Ismakaevo deposits of sparry magnesite in the South Ural province. The hydrothermal metasomatic formation of magnesite is related to injection of high-Mg evaporite brine into heated carbonate rocks within permeable rift zones. The numerical physicochemical simulation of solution-rock interaction allowed us to determine the necessary prerequisites for sparry magnesite formation: the occurrence of marine salt solutions with a high Mg/Ca ratio and heating of solutions before or during their interaction with host carbonate rocks. The contribution of compositionally various solution sources, the temperature variation regime, proportions of CO2 and H2S concentrations in solution created specific features of particular deposits.

  10. Yellow and red ochre pigments from southern Portugal: Elemental composition and characterization by WDXRF and XRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, M. [Conservation and Restoration Department, Science and Technology Faculty, Univ. Nova of Lisbon, Monte da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Atomic Physics Center, Lisbon University, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail:; Carvalho, M.L. [Atomic Physics Center, Lisbon University, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Seruya, A. [Conservation and Restoration Department, Science and Technology Faculty, Univ. Nova of Lisbon, Monte da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Portuguese Institute of Conservation Restoration (IPCR), Rua das janelas Verdes 37, 1300-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Candeias, A.E. [Chemistry Department and Evora Chemistry Center, University of Evora, Rua Romao Ramalho, 59 Evora (Portugal); Mirao, J. [Giosciences Department and Evora Geophysics Center, University of Evora, Rua Romao Ramalho, 59 Evora (Portugal); Queralt, I. [Laboratory of X-ray Analytical Applications, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' CSIC, Sole' Sabari' s s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    Three different yellow and red ochre pigments geological sources from Alentejo-Terras rossas, schist units and weathered iron ore deposits-were studied by elemental and phase analysis complemented with Munsell and CIELAB colour parameters. Central aims were to underline the mineralogical and chemical distinctiveness of natural pigment sources and establish a connection between local geology and use of specific colour pigments in traditional lime wash mural paintings. According to the chemical composition the Fe abundance is 6 times higher than average crust values. The Terras Rossas are characterized by higher Ca contents. In yellow and red schists, phyllosilicates are major minerals, so pigments from these units are enriched in K and Rb. Besides Fe, the pigments from weathered ores are enriched in metals like Pb, As, Cu, and Zn, which can be used as fingerprints.

  11. Magmatic arc construction: Constraints from the structure of the Coast plutonic complex (United States)

    Andronicos, C. L.


    The Coast plutonic complex of British Columbia exposes the middle crust of a vigorous magmatic arc formed in the late Cretaceous and early Cenozoic. The arc is divided into two parts by the crustal scale Coast shear zone. West of the Coast shear zone between Prince Rupert and Douglas Channel plutons were emplaced at pressures between 500 and 850 MPa, are elongate with steeply dipping contacts and have tadpole shaped terminations. The steeply dipping sides of the plutons are concordant with country rock foliations that grade into mylonitic foliations in the cores of transpressive shear zones which strike NW parallel to the arc axis. Field relationships demonstrate that pluton emplacement occurred during displacement on the shear zones, folding of adjacent country rocks and pluton enhanced anatexis of host rocks. Pressure differences in single plutons and across shear zones attests to major vertical displacements during pluton construction. The data indicate that the plutons record emplacement during major transpressive deformation and crustal thickening. The tabular shape of the plutons, their steep dips and concordance with country rock fabric show that pluton emplacement and plate scale deformation were synchronous between ~120 and 85 Ma. East of plutons that intrude the Coast shear zone a sequence of upper amphibolite to granulite facies gneiss and migmatite (central gneiss complex) occurs that host gently dipping tonalite and granodiorite sills. Mineral assemblages in country rocks of the sills track uplift and exhumation from pressures of ~800 MPa to 200 MPa during sill emplacement between ~75 and 50 Ma. The gently to moderately dipping fabrics that host the sills are the result of transposition of an earlier steeply dipping foliation. Sill emplacement occurred during both contractional and extensional deformation as indicated by a reversal in shear from reverse to normal sense observed at a regional scale. The sills are concordant with host rock foliations and

  12. Melt segregation evidence from a young pluton, Takidani Granodiorite (Japan) (United States)

    Hartung, Eva; Caricchi, Luca; Floess, David; Wallis, Simon; Harayama, Satoru; Chiaradia, Massimo; Kouzmanov, Kalin


    We are presenting new petrological data from one of the youngest exposed plutons in the world, the Takidani Granodiorite (Japan), which has been suggested as a source for large volume ignimbrites (> 300km3). Takidani Granodiorite (1.54 Ma ± 0.23 Ma) is located within the active Norikura Volcanic Chain in the Northen Japan Alps and has been previously linked to large andesitic (1.76 Ma ± 0.17 Ma) and rhyolitic eruptions (1.75 Ma ± 0.17 Ma). The pluton is vertically zoned and consists of granites (67 to 68 wt.% SiO2) in the lower section, granodiorites (65 to 66 wt.% SiO2) in the middle section, a chemically more evolved fine-grained porphyritic unit (67 to 71 wt.% SiO2) near the roof and a marginal granodiorite at the roof (67 to 68 wt.% SiO2). The porphyritic texture of the more evolved unit near the roof indicates rapid crystallisation, which could be the result of the late intrusion of this unit at the roof of the magmatic system. However, no sharp contact is found between the underlying granodiorite and the porphyritic unit. Instead, a gradual change in rock fabric, whole-rock chemistry and mineralogy is observed suggesting that melt was extracted from the granodiorite. Electron microprobe analyses of plagioclases show three main crystal populations (Type I, II and III) with distinct anorthite and Fe contents. Type I plagioclase (An30-40) occurs dominantly within the marginal granodiorite at the roof. Type II plagioclase (An40-45) are common in the granodiorite and porphyritic unit. Type III plagioclase (An45-50) is predominantly present in the granite. All plagioclase populations share a common sodic rim (An22) across the different units. Takidani Granodiorite rocks are compared to crystallisation experiments from similar magmatic suites. Emplacement conditions of the Takidani Granodiorite are obtained from the latter as well as barometry, thermometry and hygrometry indicating that magmas were ultimately emplaced at around 200 MPa, 850° C to 875° C and

  13. Effects of oil and gas development on vertebrate community composition in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California

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    C.M. Fiehler


    Full Text Available Oil and gas development in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California is extensive and has impacted natural habitats for sensitive species. The effects of this habitat loss and degradation on these species are not well understood. Our objective was to determine habitat characteristics, wildlife community composition, and species abundance relative to the level of oilfield development in saltbush scrub habitat. Sixteen study sites were identified with 4 each in areas with high (>100 well pads, medium (11–50 well pads, low (1–10 well pads, and no (0 well pads oil field development, as measured by numbers of well pads with active oil production and the proportion of habitat disturbed. Surveys were conducted from March 2008 to May 2010 to assess the abundance and diversity of herbaceous plants, shrubs, birds, reptiles, and small and medium-sized mammals. As oilfield development and associated habitat disturbance increased, herbaceous plant cover and shrub abundance decreased while herbaceous plant diversity increased, largely due to colonization by non-native species. Among animals, generalist lizard, bird, and mammal species increased, as did non-endemic species particularly birds. Conversely, some endemic species, including several special status species, declined or were not detected as the level of oilfield development increased. Ecological community composition remains largely intact at low levels of oilfield development, but is profoundly altered at higher levels with some effects apparent at moderate levels. Best management practices such as spatially consolidating facilities, limiting road construction, and controlling non-native plants could reduce ecological impacts from oilfield activities in saltbush scrub habitat.

  14. Diversity, composition and phenology of araneid orb-weavers (Araneae, Araneidae associated with riparian forests in southern Brazil

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    Everton N. L. Rodrigues


    Full Text Available The Araneidae is a speciose family including web-spinning spiders that are very abundant in various terrestrial ecosystems. Several studies demonstrate that changes in vegetation surrounding rivers, streams and brooks affect the associated araneofauna. The aim of this research was to compare differences found in diversity (abundance and richness, composition and phenology of Araneidae spiders sampled in different habitats in four riparian forest catchments in southern Brazil. Samples were taken from riparian forests in four rivers of Rio Grande do Sul State: Piratini, Camaquã, Sinos and Maquiné rivers, each in a different hydrographic basin. Samples were taken twice seasonally on each basin during two years, sampling the araneofauna of the tree-shrub strata with beating tray. Six transects were employed on each basin, two per habitat: edge with grassland, forest interior and river edge. Araneids totalled 20 genera and 65 species. Comparing riparian forests significant differences are found. Spider abundance differed among riparian forests as well as species richness. Overall, Piratini river riparian forest had the higher abundance and richness for Araneidae; the lower values were in Sinos river forest. The stronger degradation and fragmentation of the riparian forests of Sinos river probably influenced the results, with human disturbance gradients associated negatively to web building. We present data on the diversity of these spiders, which were very abundant in the riparian forest interior and very rich in species in the grassland/riparian forest edge. Species composition also differs among the studied habitats (the above plus river/riparian forest edge. For the most abundant species the phenological pattern across the seasons was also analysed.

  15. Essential oil chemical composition and antifungal effects on Sclerotium cepivorum of Thymus capitatus wild populations from Calabria, southern Italy

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    Mariateresa Russo


    Full Text Available The paper reports the qualitative and quantitative composition and its antifungal activities of Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffmanns. & Link, Lamiaceae, essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of plants collected in Calabria, Southern Italy. The essential oils of 22 samples were analysed by GC-Flame ionization detection and GC/MS. A total of sixty five compounds were identified. Phenols were present in highest percentage (average: 79,03%. Carvacrol was the main component (81,52%-78,40% in all samples, confirming that T. capitatus is a carvacrol chemotype, according to literature data for this species. This essential oil was also characterized by high level of biogenetic precursor of the phenols: p-cimene (4,98%, γ-terpinene (3,13% and by β-cariophyllene, were the most abundant sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Antifungal activity against Sclerotium cepivorum Berk., a soil born fungus, was tested. At the concentration of 250 ppm there was no development of fungal mycelium. To our knowledge, studies have never been conducted on Calabria wild populations of T. capitatus essential oil nor were conducted studies on parasitic fungi of specific interest for crops such as Sclerotium cepivorum.

  16. Protist community composition during early phytoplankton blooms in the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean) (United States)

    Georges, C.; Monchy, S.; Genitsaris, S.; Christaki, U.


    Microbial eukaryotic community composition was examined by 18S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing, during the early phase of spring phytoplankton blooms induced by natural iron fertilization, off Kerguelen Island in the Southern Ocean (KEOPS2 cruise). A total of 999 operational taxonomical units (OTUs), affiliated to 30 known high-level taxonomic groups, were retrieved from 16 samples collected in the upper 300 m water column. The alveolata group was the most abundant in terms of sequence number and diversity (696 OTUs). The majority of alveolata sequences were affiliated to Dinophyceae and to two major groups of marine alveolates (MALV-I and MALV-II). In the upper 180 m, only 13% of the OTUs were shared between of the fertilized stations and the reference site characterized by high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters. Fungi and Cercozoa were present in iron-fertilized waters, but almost absent in the HNLC samples, while Haptophyta and Chlorophyta characterized the HNLC sample. Finally, the 300 m depth samples of all stations were differentiated by the presence of MALV-II and Radiolaria. Multivariate analysis, examining the level of similarity between different samples, showed that protistan assemblages differed significantly between the HNLC and iron-fertilized stations, but also between the diverse iron-fertilized blooms.

  17. Composition and structure of aggregates from compacted soil horizons in the southern steppe zone of European Russia (United States)

    Sorokin, A. S.; Abrosimov, K. N.; Lebedeva, M. P.; Kust, G. S.


    The composition and structure of aggregates from different agrogenic soils in the southern steppe zone of European Russia have been studied. It is shown that the multi-level study (from the macro- to microlevel) of these horizons makes it possible to identify soil compaction caused by different elementary soil processes: solonetz-forming, vertisol-forming, and mechanical (wheel) compaction in the rainfed and irrigated soils. The understanding of the genesis of the compaction of soil horizons (natural or anthropogenic) is important for the economic evaluation of soil degradation. It should enable us to make more exact predictions of the rates of degradation processes and undertake adequate mitigation measures. The combined tomographic and micromorphological studies of aggregates of 1-2 and 3-5 mm in diameter from compacted horizons of different soils have been performed for the first time. Additional diagnostic features of negative solonetz- forming processes (low open porosity of aggregates seen on tomograms and filling of a considerable part of the intraped pores with mobile substance) and the vertisol-forming processes (large amount of fine intraaggregate pores seen on tomograms and a virtual absence of humus-clay plasma in the intraped zone)—have been identified. It is shown that the combination of microtomographic and micromorphological methods is helpful for studying the pore space of compacted horizons in cultivated soils.

  18. The genetic relationship between mafic dike swarms and plutonic reservoirs in the mesozoic of central chile (30°-33°45'S): insights from AMS and geochemistry (United States)

    Creixell, Christian; Parada, Miguel Ángel; Morata, Diego; Roperch, Pierrick; Arriagada, César


    Five mafic dike swarms between 30° and 33°45'S were studied for their geochemical signature and kinematics of magma flow directions by means of AMS data. In the Coastal Range of central Chile (33°-33°45'S), Middle Jurassic dike swarms (Concón and Cartagena dike swarms, CMDS and CrMDS, respectively) and an Early Cretaceous dike swarm (El Tabo Dike Swarm, ETDS) display the presence of dikes of geochemically enriched (high-Ti) and depleted (low-Ti) basaltic composition. These dikes show geochemical patterns that are different from the composition of mafic enclaves of the Middle Jurassic Papudo-Quintero Complex, and this suggests that the dikes were injected from reservoirs not related to the plutonic complex. The mantle source appears to be a depleted mantle for Jurassic dikes and a heterogeneous-enriched lithospheric mantle for Cretaceous dikes. In the ETDS, vertical and gently plunging magma flow vectors were estimated for enriched and depleted dikes, respectively, which suggest, together with variations in dike thickness, that reservoirs were located at different depths for each dike family. In the Elqui Dike Swarm (EDS) and Limarí Mafic Dike Swarm (LMDS), geochemical patterns are similar to those of the mafic enclaves of the Middle Jurassic plutons. In the LMDS, east to west magma flow vectors are coherent with injection from neighbouring pluton located to the east. In the EDS, some dikes show geochemical and magma flow patterns supporting the same hypothesis. Accordingly, dikes do not necessarily come from deep reservoir; they may propagate in the upper crust from coeval shallow pluton chamber.

  19. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of high-K "sanukitoids" from the Bulai pluton, Central Limpopo Belt, South Africa: Implications for geodynamic changes at the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary (United States)

    Laurent, Oscar; Martin, Hervé; Doucelance, Régis; Moyen, Jean-François; Paquette, Jean-Louis


    The Neoarchaean Bulai pluton is a magmatic complex intrusive in the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt (Limpopo Province, South Africa). It is made up of large volumes of porphyritic granodiorites with subordinate enclaves and dykes of monzodioritic, enderbitic and granitic compositions. New U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating on zircon yield pluton-emplacement ages ranging between 2.58 and 2.61 Ga. The whole pluton underwent a high-grade thermal overprint at ~ 2.0 Ga, which did not affect the whole-rock compositions for most of the major and trace-elements, as suggested by a Sm-Nd isochron built up with 16 samples and yielding an age consistent with U-Pb dating. The whole-rock major- and trace-element compositions evidence that the Bulai pluton belongs to a high-K, calc-alkaline to shoshonitic suite, as well as unequivocal affinities with "high-Ti" sanukitoids. Monzodioritic enclaves and enderbites have both "juvenile" affinities and a strongly enriched signature in terms of incompatible trace elements (LREE, HFSE and LILE), pointing to an enriched mantle source. Based on trace-element compositions, we propose the metasomatic agent at their origin to be a melt deriving from terrigenous sediments. We therefore suggest a two-step petrogenetic model for the Bulai pluton: (1) a liquid produced by melting of subducted terrigenous sediments is consumed by reactions with mantle peridotite, producing a metasomatic assemblage; (2) low-degree melting of this metasomatized mantle gives rise to Bulai mafic magmas. Such a model is supported by geochemical modelling and is consistent with previous studies concluding that sanukitoids result from interactions between slab melts and the overlying mantle wedge. Before 2.5 Ga, melting of hydrous subducted metabasalts produced large volumes of TTG (Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite) forming most of the volume of Archaean continental crust. By constrast, our geochemical study failed in demonstrating any significant role played by melting of

  20. Temporal Evolution of Volcanic and Plutonic Magmas Related to Porphyry Copper Ores Based on Zircon Geochemistry (United States)

    Dilles, J. H.; Lee, R. G.; Wooden, J. L.; Koleszar, A. M.


    Porphyry Cu (Mo-Au) and epithermal Au-Ag ores are globally associated with shallow hydrous, strongly oxidized, and sulfur-rich arc intrusions. In many localities, long-lived magmatism includes evolution from early andesitic volcanic (v) and plutonic (p) rocks to later dacitic or rhyolitic compositions dominated by plutons. We compare zircon compositions from three igneous suites with different time spans: Yerington, USA (1 m.y., p>v), El Salvador, Chile (4 m.y., p>v), and Yanacocha, Peru (6 m.y., v>p). At Yerington granite dikes and ores formed in one event, at ES in 2 to 3 events spanning 3 m.y., and at Yanacocha in 6 events spanning 5 m.y. At both ES and Yanacocha, high-Al amphiboles likely crystallized at high temperature in the mid-crust and attest to deep magmas that periodically recharged the shallow chambers. At Yanacocha, these amphiboles contain anhydrite inclusions that require magmas were sulfur-rich and strongly oxidized (~NNO+2). The Ti-in-zircon geothermometer provides estimates of 920º to 620º C for zircon crystallization, and records both core to rim cooling and locally high temperature rim overgrowths. Ore-related silicic porphyries yield near-solidus crystallization temperatures of 750-650°C consistent with low zircon saturation temperatures. The latter zircons have large positive Ce/Ce* and small negative Eu/Eu*≥0.4 anomalies attesting to strongly oxidized conditions (Ballard et al., 2001), which we propose result from crystallization and SO2 loss to the magmatic-hydrothermal ore fluid (Dilles et al., 2015). The Hf, REE, Y, U, and Th contents of zircons are diverse in the magma suites, and Th/U vs Yb/Gd plots suggest a dominant role of crystal fractionation with lesser roles for both crustal contamination and mixing with high temperature deep-sourced mafic magma. Ce/Sm vs Yb/Gd plots suggest that magma REE contents at <900°C are dominated by early crystallization of hornblende and apatite, and late crystallization (~<780°C) of titanite

  1. An Archean Geomagnetic Reversal in the Kaap Valley Pluton, South Africa (United States)

    Layer; Kroner; McWilliams


    The Kaap Valley pluton in South Africa is a tonalite intrusion associated with the Archean Barberton Greenstone Belt. Antipodal paleomagnetic directions determined from the central and marginal parts of the pluton record a geomagnetic reversal that occurred as the pluton cooled. The age of the reversal is constrained by an 40Ar/39Ar plateau age from hornblende at 3214 +/- 4 million years, making it the oldest known reversal. The data presented here suggest that Earth has had a reversing, perhaps dipolar, magnetic field since at least 3.2 billion years ago.

  2. Regional variations in the lead isotopic composition of galena from southern Korea with implications for the discrimination of lead provenance (United States)

    Jeong, Youn-Joong; Cheong, Chang-sik; Shin, Dongbok; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Jo, Hui Je; Gautam, Mukesh Kumar; Lee, Insung


    This study presents a comprehensive database (n = 215) of lead isotopes in galena from the southern Korean peninsula using new and published data. Of the 69 metal mines examined, predominantly skarn- and hydrothermal-type Pb-Zn-Au-Ag-Cu deposits were observed and were associated with Mesozoic magmatic activities. Galena samples from each geotectonic unit showed discrete lead isotopic signatures. The Gyeongsang basin samples were characteristically unradiogenic and had restricted variations in lead isotopic composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.16-18.59, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.48-15.64, 208Pb/204Pb = 37.87-38.77). Their 208Pb/204Pb range indicated an involvement of source materials less thorogenic than the associated granites. The galena samples from Cambro-Ordovician carbonate rocks of the northeastern Yeongnam massif and eastern Taebaeksan basin had the most radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb (19.28 ± 0.14) and 207Pb/204Pb (15.833 ± 0.027) ratios. Their lead isotopic trend indicated a combined contribution of ore lead from granitic magmas, Precambrian basements, and overlain host rocks. Less radiogenic galena samples from the middle to southwestern parts of the Yeongnam massif and Okcheon belt showed limited lead isotopic variations (206Pb/204Pb = 18.332 ± 0.065, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.693 ± 0.012, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.93 ± 0.07 on average), probably resulted from mixing with a common crustal basement. The differences in lead isotopes between the radiogenic and unradiogenic groups from the Yeongnam massif and Okcheon belt may reflect the spatial dissimilarity of involved crustal rocks. The old crust appears to have significantly contributed ore lead to galenas from the western Gyeonggi massif, but the geochronological meaning of their steep 207Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb trend is not clear. The comprehensive database constructed by the present study suggests that lead province in the southern Korean peninsula may be subdivided into four discrete zones. Linear discriminant analysis showed that more

  3. Brasiliano-age granitoids in the Sergipana Fold Belt, NE Brazil: the Coronel João Sá Pluton (United States)

    Mcreath, I.; Lafon, J. M.; Davison, I.; Chaves, J. M.; Conceiçāo, H.


    The Coronel João Sá pluton is a zoned Brasiliano-age, late- to post-tectonic intrusion in the Macururé schist domain of the Sergipana Foldbelt, Northeast Brazil. Biotite-hornblende granodiorite predominates, and flattened ultramafic to intermediate enclaves are present. Igneous orientations are present but fabrics produced by strong solid-state flattening are absent. Rb-Sr whole rock isochrons including enclaves and their host rocks yielded a probable intrusion age of 614 Ma which dates the waning phase of the dominant deformation which produced the F2 foliation of the Sergipana belt and is close to ages reported for late tectonic granites in other Brasiliano domains of Northeast Brazil. More radiogenic Sr (I Sr(614) = 0.71008 ± 52) is present in some felsic rocks, while less radiogenic Sr (I Sr(614) = 0.70814 ± 18) is mainly found in the more mafic core of the main body. Sr isotopic equilibrium between most enclaves and their host rocks was attained. Textural evidence, especially in the enclaves, shows that magma mixing occurred, but late biotite formation in the enclaves caused modifications of their chemical compositions. The geological, petrographical and isotopic evidence shows that the pluton was probably fed by a complex feeder system into the crust under extensional conditions. Variable upper crustal contamination was probably responsible for the isotopic heterogeneity of Sr.

  4. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of anorogenic basic volcanic-plutonic rocks of the Kundal area, Malani Igneous Suite, western Rajasthan, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Krishnakanta Singh; G Vallinayagam


    The Kundal area of Malani Igneous Suite consists of volcano-plutonic rocks. Basalt flows and gabbro intrusives are associated with rhyolite. Both the basic rocks consist of similar mineralogy of plagioclase, clinopyroxene as essential and Fe-Ti oxides as accessories. Basalt displays sub-ophitic and glomeroporphyritic textures whereas gabbro exhibits sub-ophitic, porphyritic and intergrannu- lar textures. They show comparable chemistry and are enriched in Fe, Ti and incompatible ele- ments as compared to MORB/CFB. Samples are enriched in LREE and slightly depleted HREE patterns with least significant positive Eu anomalies. Petrographical study and petrogenetic mod- eling of [Mg]-[Fe], trace and REE suggest cogenetic origin of these basic rocks and they probably derived from Fe-enriched source with higher Fe/Mg ratio than primitive mantle source. Thus, it is concluded that the basic volcano-plutonic rocks of Kundal area are the result of a low to moderate degree (> 30%) partial melting of source similar to picrite/komatiitic composition. Within plate, anorogenic setting for the basic rocks of Kundal area is suggested, which is in conformity with the similar setting for Malani Igneous Suite.

  5. Forceful Emplacement of Granitic Plutons in an Extensional Tectonic Setting: Syn-kinematic Plutons in the Yagan-Onch Hayrhan Metamorphic Core Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 郑亚东; 李天兵; 高永军; 马铭波


    It is generally considered that granitic plutons are forcefully emplaced in a compressional setting and permissively emplaced in an extensional setting. This paper, however, shows that syn-kinematic (extensional) elliptic granitic plutons in the Yagan-Onch Hayrhan metamorphic core complex (MCC) have relatively strong forceful emplacement, which are indicated by (1) concentric distribution of the rock units, (2) a strain pattern with strong strains on the margins and low strains at the centre of a pluton, and particularly (3) syn-emplacement shortening of the host rocks within the aureole. The strain analysis for the host rocks shows that the host-rock ductile shortening, I.e. Forceful emplacement, provides about 16?24% of the emplacement space for the present plutons. All these suggest that forceful emplacement occurs not only in a compressional tectonic setting, but also in an extensional setting. This study further demonstrates the significance of the multiple emplacement of granitic plutons and provides new information about the causality between granitic magmatism and the formation of the MCC and its dynamics.

  6. The Aguilar pluton (23°12‧ S-65°40‧ W; NW Argentina): Petrological implications on the origin of the Late Jurassic intraplate magmatism in the Central Andes (United States)

    Omarini, Ricardo H.; Gioncada, Anna; Vezzoli, Luigina; Mazzuoli, Roberto; Cristiani, Chiara; Sureda, Ricardo J.


    The Late Jurassic Aguilar pluton is located in NW Argentina, about 300-400 Km east of the Tarapacá basin, representing the backarc basin linked to the Jurassic volcanic arc. This small-size and compositionally heterogeneous pluton intruded the metasedimentary rocks of the Ordovician Santa Victoria Group, along the Cobres-Salinas Grandes lineament. A revision of published geochemical data in the light of new field and petrological results, allows us to propose a model concerning the petrogenesis and emplacement mechanisms of Aguilar pluton and to discuss its geodynamic setting. The pluton is mainly composed of metaluminous and nearly peraluminous granitoids, showing the geochemical characteristics of ferroan granites. The volumetrically subordinate mafic rocks are both ne- and hy-normative, and their primary magmas were generated by partial melting of a pristine Proterozoic mantle. Aguilar rocks display a rather limited range in (87Sr/86Sr)i, compared to the entire rift-related plutonic suite, i.e., 0.703198-0.704601, and ɛNdt from -1.06 to 3.82, calculated at 149 Ma. Fractional crystallization of mantle-derived magmas and crustal contamination processes explain the evolution to produce strongly silica-oversaturated magmas, which emplaced in the continental crust. The petrological data indicate that magma emplacement and cooling occurred at rather shallow depth. Multiple injections of magma batches into the magma chamber caused mingling and mixing processes early in the crystallization history. The Aguilar pluton is one of the several igneous complexes whose formation was associated with the extensional tectonics active during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous in NW Argentina. Based on the geological position and the igneous rocks affinity, we exclude that the Late Jurassic magmatism was generated in an orogenic setting and envisage that it was linked to the early extensional phase that preceded the Cretaceous continental rifting, related to the break-up of the South

  7. Geochemistry of mylonitic tourmaline-bearing granite- gneiss pluton in the northeast of June mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Moradi


    Full Text Available Introduction Studied mylonitic granite-gneiss body is located in the Northwest of the Azna region in the Lorestan province close to the June dimension stone mine. It is a part of the metamorphic- magmatic complex including granite-gneiss, amphibolite, marble and schist. The crystalline basement is attributed to late-Neoproterozoic and it indicates a Panafrican basement, which yields a laser-ablation ICP–MS U–Pb zircon ages of 608 ± 18 Ma and 588 ± 41 Ma (Shakerardakani et al., 2015. There are two granite-gneiss plutons in the complex that are Galeh– Dezh (Shabanian et al., 2009, and June plutons. The Galeh-Doz pluton are previously proposed as syn-deformation pluton with a major S-shaped bend which has been imparted during dextral shearing with a Late Cretaceous (Mohajjel and Fergusson, 2000. However, new age dating on the pluton using U–Pb in the magmatic zircon produced the late-Neoproterozoic dates (Nutman et al., 2014; Shakerardakani et al., 2015. The granite-gneiss plutons show mylonitic fabrics and microstructures (Shabanian et al., 2010. The geochemical characteristics of mylonitic granite-gneiss body near June mine in NW Azna, is in the focus of our research. Materials and methods Petrographic investigations of 30 thin sections were made. Then eight samples were selected and analyzed for whole rock major, trace and REE compositions by ICP-emission spectrometry and ICP-mass spectrometry using natural rock standards as reference samples for calibration at the ACME Analytical Laboratories in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Results The studied gneiss- granitic body has lepido-granoblastic texture as its major texture. It variably shows evidence of dynamic deformation from ultramylonite to protomylonite. The gneiss- granite consists of quartz, alkali feldspar (mostly as perthite, plagioclase, biotite, white mica (muscovite and phengitic muscovite. Accessory phases in the granitoid include, tourmaline, zircon, magmatic epidote

  8. Insights into past atmospheric lead emissions using lead concentrations and isotopic compositions in historic lichens and fungi (1852-2008) from central and southern Victoria, Australia (United States)

    Wu, Liqin; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Handley, Heather K.; Gulson, Brian L.


    Lead concentrations and lead isotopic compositions were determined in historic central and southern Victoria, Australia lichen (Cladonia and Usnea) and fungi (Trametes) samples collected between 1852 and 2008 to evaluate long-term atmospheric lead contamination sources. The data are grouped into four time intervals of 1850-1931, 1932-1984, 1985-2001 and 2002-2008 corresponding to the history of leaded petrol use in Australia. Elevated lichen and fungi lead concentrations and relatively high isotopic compositions from the period 1850-1931 are attributed to lithogenic sources, gold mining activities and early industrialisation. Significant increases in lichen and fungi lead concentrations and concomitant lower lead isotopic compositions correspond to the marked increase in lead emissions from leaded petrol use after 1932. Following the end of leaded petrol use in 2002 lead isotopic composition values 'recover' toward more lithogenic values. However, the lead isotopic composition data indicate that the environmental impact from leaded petrol emissions persists in contemporary samples dated to 2002-2008. Overall, the data reveal that herbarium lichens and fungi from central and southern Victoria can be used as proxies for environmental lead emissions over the past 150 years.

  9. Post-orogenic shoshonitic magmas of the Yzerfontein pluton, South Africa: the `smoking gun' of mantle melting and crustal growth during Cape granite genesis? (United States)

    Clemens, J. D.; Buick, I. S.; Frei, D.; Lana, C.; Villaros, A.


    The post-orogenic Yzerfontein pluton, in the Saldania Belt of South Africa was constructed through numerous injections of shoshonitic magmas. Most magma compositions are adequately modelled as products of fractionation, but the monzogranites and syenogranites may have a separate origin. A separate high-Mg mafic series has a less radiogenic mantle source. Fine-grained magmatic enclaves in the intermediate shoshonitic rocks are autoliths. The pluton was emplaced between 533 ± 3 and 537 ± 3 Ma (LA-SF-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon), essentially synchronously with many granitic magmas of the Cape Granite Suite (CGS). Yzerfontein may represent a high-level expression of the mantle heat source that initiated partial melting of the local crust and produced the CGS granitic magmas, late in the Saldanian Orogeny. However, magma mixing is not evident at emplacement level and there are no magmatic kinships with the I-type granitic rocks of the CGS. The mantle wedge is inferred to have been enriched during subduction along the active continental margin. In the late- to post-orogenic phase, the enriched mantle partially melted to produce heterogeneous magma batches, exemplified by those that formed the Yzerfontein pluton, which was further hybridised through minor assimilation of crustal materials. Like Yzerfontein, the small volumes of mafic rocks associated with many batholiths, worldwide, are probably also low-volume, high-level expressions of crustal growth through the emplacement of major amounts of mafic magma into the deep crust.

  10. Chronology and cooling history of the Tianmenshan pluton in South Jiangxi Province and their geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qingtao; MAO Jianren; HU Qing; ZHAO Xilin; YE Haimin


    Geochronological studies on the crust-derived Tianmenshan pluton were undertaken by SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating and Ar-Ar dating of biotite, muscovite and K-feldspar, giving a petrogenetic age of 167 Ma. Owing to the closure systems in different minerals, the cooling history of the pluton can be determined with an age-temperature diagram. The late hydrothermal event has been recognized, which is related probably with mineralization. In terms of the comparative geochronological and petrologic records, it is concluded that there are some constrains on tectonic evolution and that the formation of the Tianmenshan pluton proceeded in a transition period from lndosinian post-orogeny extension to strong compressive tectonics. And the timing of the hydrothermal event matches the compressive climax of the Yanshanian orogeny. The temporal gap between granite emplacement and wolframite mineralization could last 10-20 Ma owing to the low cooling rate of the pluton.

  11. Bedrock geologic map of the Knox Mountain pluton area, Marshfield and Peacham, Vermont (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG08-3 Kim, J., Charnock, R., Chow, D. and Springston, G., 2008, Bedrock geologic map of the Knox Mountain pluton area, Marshfield and Peacham,...

  12. Petrology and Geochemistry of Neoproterozoic Arc Plutons Beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain, SRS, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maryak, M.


    In this report is presented first a brief review of the regional geologic setting of the Savannah River Site, descriptions of the plutonic rock units sampled here, whole rock geochemical data on the plutonic igneous rocks, and finally, a discussion of how the crystalline basement rocks of the Savannah River Site formed and how they may correlate with other terranes exposed in the Piedmont of the Carolinas, Georgia, and Virginia.

  13. Strain Localization Within a Syn-Tectonic Pluton in a Back-Arc Extensional Context: the Naxos granodiorite (Cyclades, Greece) (United States)

    Bessiere, Eloïse; Rabillard, Aurélien; Arbaret, Laurent; Jolivet, Laurent; Augier, Romain; Menant, Armel


    Naxos Island is part of the central Cyclades (Aegean Sea, Greece) where a series of migmatite-cored metamorphic domes were exhumed below large-scale detachment systems during a Cenozoic back-arc extension. On Naxos, the Miocene exhumation history of the high-temperature metamorphic dome was notably achieved through two anastomosing and closely spaced top-to-the-north detachments belonging to the Naxos-Paros detachment system. According to previous contributions, the late exhumation stages were accompanied by the emplacement of a syn-kinematic I-type granodiorite that intruded a ductile-then-brittle detachment. Later the detachment migrated at the interface between the pluton and the metamorphic unit under ductile-to-brittle conditions. To clarify how extensional deformation was precisely distributed within the pluton, a multi-scale approach from field observations to laboratory investigations was undertaken. Through macro- to micro-structural observations, we show a continuous deformation history from magmatic to solid-state ductile/brittle conditions under an overall north-directed shearing deformation. The early magmatic or sub-solidus deformation is evidenced in a large part of the granodiorite, notably in its southern part where the original intrusive contact is still preserved. Solid-state deformation is recorded further north when approaching the detachment zone, highlighted by a thicker cataclastic zone and numerous pseudotachylite veins. From these field observations, we defined six strain facies, leading us to propose a qualitative strain map of the Naxos granodiorite. Based on field pictures and X-ray tomography of oriented samples collected along the strain gradient, we quantified the intensity of mineralogical fabrics in 2D and 3D. This step required the treatment of 600 rocks samples and pictures using SPO2003 (Shape Preferred Orientation) and Intercepts2003. Measured shape variations of the strain ellipsoid thus corroborate the large-scale strain

  14. Forecasting the atmospheric composition of southern West Africa with COSMO-ART during the DACCIWA measurement campaign (United States)

    Deetz, Konrad; Vogel, Bernhard


    The Dynamics-aerosol-chemistry-cloud interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project (Knippertz et al., 2015) investigates the influence of anthropogenic and natural emissions on the atmospheric composition over Southern West Africa (SWA). Between 1 June and 31 July 2016 the DACCIWA measurement campaign took place in SWA, including ground based and airborne observations. By using the regional scale comprehensive model system COSMO-ART (Vogel et al., 2009), operational numerical forecasts of the atmospheric composition including aerosols and gas phase compounds were conducted between 8 May and 31 July 2016. The forecasts cover the domain 25°W to 35°E and 20°S to 30°N with a grid mesh size of 28km and a lead time of 57h. The primary assignment of the forecasts was to support the DACCIWA aircraft campaign (27 June to 17 July 2016) in terms of the decision making of the flight routes of the research aircrafts. Visualizations of the forecast results were daily uploaded to the public available server Apart from the support of the DACCIWA measurement campaign, the COSMO-ART model dataset is highly valuable for identifying time periods feasible for post-campaign case study simulations, the extensive validation of COSMO-ART with observational data and the derivation of model climatologies to raise knowledge in meteorological and the atmospheric composition characteristics of SWA. The presentation will show validation results of the COSMO-ART forecasts with ground based and airborne measurements from the DACCIWA campaign as well as remote sensing observations. COSMO-ART well reproduces the diurnal cycle of the observed ozone concentration at Savé site and shows very good agreement of mineral dust AOD compared to CAMS model results whereas the anthropogenic aerosol seems to be overestimated by COSMO-ART compared to MODIS AOD and AERONET observations. We will present model climatologies of the NLLS characteristics and the spatial structure of the pollution

  15. Shear wave velocity structure of the lower crust in southern Africa: evidence for compositional heterogeneity within Archaean and Proterozoic terrains

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kgaswane, EM


    Full Text Available The nature of the lower crust across the southern African shield has been investigated by jointly inverting receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities for 89 broadband seismic stations located in Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe...

  16. Rubidium-strontium geochronology and plate-tectonic evolution of the southern part of the Arabian Shield (United States)

    Fleck, Robert J.; Greenwood, W.R.; Hadley, D.G.; Anderson, R.E.; Schmidt, D.L.


    Rubidium-strontium studies of Precambrian volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Arabian Shield document an early development of the Arabian craton between 900 and 680 m.y. (million years) ago. Geologic studies indicate an island-arc environment characterized by andesitic (dioritic) magmas, volcaniclastic sedimentation, rapid deposition, and contemporaneous deformation along north or northwest-trending axes. Magmatic trends show consistent variation in both composition and geographic location as a function of age. The oldest units belong to an assemblage of basaltic strata exposed in western Saudi Arabia that yield an age of 1165:!:110 m.y. The oldest andesitic strata studied yield an age of 912:!:76 m.y. The earliest plutonic units are diorite to trondhjemite batholiths that range from 800 to 9,00 m.y. in age and ,occur along the western and southern parts of Saudi Arabia. Younger plutonic units, 680 to 750 m.y. in age, range from quartz diorite to granodiodte and become more abundant in the central and northeastern parts of the Arabian Shield. Initial 'Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for both dioritic groups range from 0.7023 to 0.7030 and average 0.7027. The absence of sialic detritus in sedimentary units and the evidence for an island-arc environment suggest the early development of the Arabian craton at a convergent plate margin between plates of oceanic lithosphere. Active subduction apparently extended from at least 900 m.y. to about 680 m.y. Subsequent to this subduction-related magmatism and tectonism, called the Hijaz tectonic cycle, the Arabian craton was sutured to the late Precambrian African plate in a collisional event. This period of orogeny, represented in Arabia and eastern Africa by the Mozambiquian or Pan-African event, extended from some time before 650 m.y. to at least 540 m.y. and perhaps 520 m.y. B.P. Although the tectonic processes of subduction and continental collision during the 900+ to 500-m.y. period require similar directions of plate convergence, the

  17. New petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data for the Reguengos de Monsaraz pluton (Ossa Morena Zone, SW Iberian Massif, Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, A.; Santos, J. F.; Azevedo, M. R.; Mendez, M. H.; Ribeiro, S.


    The Reguengos de Monsaraz pluton is a late to post-tectonic Variscan intrusion occurring in the Ossa Morena Zone (Iberian Variscan Chain). The dominant lithological types are tonalites and granodiorites, but the internal area of the massif is composed of gabbro-dioritic rocks. Field evidence shows that the intrusion is heterogeneous at mesoscopic scale suggesting that the emplacement of mafic and felsic magmas was contemporaneous. Petrographic and geochemical studies reveal that the different lithologic types define a continuous sequence with compositions varying from metaluminous to slightly peraluminous and a typical calc-alkaline signature. In Harker variation diagrams, it is possible to observe systematic rectilinear correlations pointing to the involvement of magma mingling/mixing processes in the petrogenesis of this sequence. Rb-Sr isotopic data, using a mineral-mineral pair from a granodiorite sample, yielded an age of 298 Ma, interpreted as a cooling age after igneous crystallization. (Author) 13 refs.

  18. Growth of plutons by incremental emplacement of sheets in crystal-rich host: Evidence from Miocene intrusions of the Colorado River region, Nevada, USA (United States)

    Miller, C.F.; Furbish, D.J.; Walker, B.A.; Claiborne, L.L.; Koteas, G.C.; Bleick, H.A.; Miller, J.S.


    Growing evidence supports the notion that plutons are constructed incrementally, commonly over long periods of time, yet field evidence for the multiple injections that seem to be required is commonly sparse or absent. Timescales of up to several million years, among other arguments, indicate that the dominant volume does not remain largely molten, yet if growing plutons are constructed from rapidly solidifying increments it is unlikely that intrusive contacts would escape notice. A model wherein magma increments are emplaced into melt-bearing but crystal-rich host, rather than either solid or crystal-poor material, provides a plausible explanation for this apparent conundrum. A partially solidified intrusion undoubtedly comprises zones with contrasting melt fraction and therefore strength. Depending on whether these zones behave elastically or ductilely in response to dike emplacement, intruding magma may spread to form sheets by either of two mechanisms. If the melt-bearing host is elastic on the relevant timescale, magma spreads rather than continuing to propagate upward, where it encounters a zone of higher rigidity (higher crystal fraction). Similarly, if the dike at first ascends through rigid, melt-poor material and then encounters a zone that is weak enough (poor enough in crystals) to respond ductilely, the ascending material will also spread because the dike tip ceases to propagate as in rigid material. We propose that ascending magma is thus in essence trapped, by either mechanism, within relatively crystal-poor zones. Contacts will commonly be obscure from the start because the contrast between intruding material (crystal-poorer magma) and host (crystal-richer material) is subtle, and they may be obscured even further by subsequent destabilization of the crystal-melt framework. Field evidence and zircon zoning stratigraphy in plutons of the Colorado River region of southern Nevada support the hypothesis that emplacement of magma replenishments into a

  19. Investigating late Holocene variations in hydroclimate and the stable isotope composition of precipitation using southern South American peatlands: an hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Daley


    Full Text Available Ombrotrophic raised peatlands provide an ideal archive for integrating late Holocene records of variations in hydroclimate and the estimated stable isotope composition of precipitation with recent instrumental measurements. Modern measurements of mean monthly surface air temperature, precipitation, and δD and δ18O-values in precipitation from the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries provide a short but invaluable record with which to investigate modern relationships between these variables, thereby enabling improved interpretation of the peatland palaeodata. Stable isotope data from two stations in the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP from southern South America (Punta Arenas, Chile and Ushuaia, Argentina were analysed for the period 1982 to 2008 and compared with longer-term meteorological data from the same locations (1890 to present and 1931 to present, respectively. δD and δ18O-values in precipitation have exhibited quite different trends in response to local surface air temperature and precipitation amount. At Punta Arenas, there has been a marked increase in the seasonal difference between summer and winter δ18O-values. A decline in the deuterium excess of summer precipitation at this station was associated with a general increase in relative humidity at 1000 mb over the surface of the Southeast Pacific Ocean, believed to be the major vapour source for the local precipitation. At Ushuaia, a fall in δ18O-values was associated with an increase in the mean annual amount of precipitation. Both records are consistent with a southward retraction and increase in zonal wind speed of the austral westerly wind belt. These regional differences, observed in response to a known driver, should be detectable in peatland sites close to the GNIP stations. Currently, insufficient data with suitable temporal resolution are available to test for these regional differences over the

  20. Investigating late Holocene variations in hydroclimate and the stable isotope composition of precipitation using southern South American peatlands: an hypothesis (United States)

    Daley, T. J.; Mauquoy, D.; Chambers, F. M.; Street-Perrott, F. A.; Hughes, P. D. M.; Loader, N. J.; Roland, T. P.; van Bellen, S.; Garcia-Meneses, P.; Lewin, S.


    Ombrotrophic raised peatlands provide an ideal archive for integrating late Holocene records of variations in hydroclimate and the estimated stable isotope composition of precipitation with recent instrumental measurements. Modern measurements of mean monthly surface air temperature, precipitation, and δD and δ18O-values in precipitation from the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries provide a short but invaluable record with which to investigate modern relationships between these variables, thereby enabling improved interpretation of the peatland palaeodata. Stable isotope data from two stations in the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) from southern South America (Punta Arenas, Chile and Ushuaia, Argentina) were analysed for the period 1982 to 2008 and compared with longer-term meteorological data from the same locations (1890 to present and 1931 to present, respectively). δD and δ18O-values in precipitation have exhibited quite different trends in response to local surface air temperature and precipitation amount. At Punta Arenas, there has been a marked increase in the seasonal difference between summer and winter δ18O-values. A decline in the deuterium excess of summer precipitation at this station was associated with a general increase in relative humidity at 1000 mb over the surface of the Southeast Pacific Ocean, believed to be the major vapour source for the local precipitation. At Ushuaia, a fall in δ18O-values was associated with an increase in the mean annual amount of precipitation. Both records are consistent with a southward retraction and increase in zonal wind speed of the austral westerly wind belt. These regional differences, observed in response to a known driver, should be detectable in peatland sites close to the GNIP stations. Currently, insufficient data with suitable temporal resolution are available to test for these regional differences over the last 3000 yr. Existing peatland palaeoclimate data from two

  1. Constraints on the depth of generation and emplacement of a magmatic epidote-bearing quartz diorite pluton in the Coast Plutonic Complex, British Columbia (United States)

    Chang, J.M.; Andronicos, C.L.


    Petrology and P-T estimates indicate that a magmatic epidote-bearing quartz diorite pluton from Mt. Gamsby, Coast Plutonic Complex, British Columbia, was sourced at pressures below ???1.4 GPa and cooled nearly isobarically at ???0.9 GPa. The P-T path indicates that the magma was within the stability field of magmatic epidote early and remained there upon final crystallization. The pluton formed and crystallized at depths greater than ???30 km. REE data indicate that garnet was absent in the melting region and did not fractionate during crystallization. This suggests that the crust was less than or equal to ???55 km thick at 188 Ma during the early phases of magmatism in the Coast Plutonic Complex. Late Cretaceous contractional deformation and early Tertiary extension exhumed the rocks to upper crustal levels. Textures of magmatic epidote and other magmatic phases, combined with REE data, can be important for constraining the P-T path followed by magmas. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Anthropogenic imprints on nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation nitrate in a nitrogen-polluted city in southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. T. Fang


    Full Text Available Nitric acid (HNO3 or nitrate (NO3 is the dominant sink for reactive nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2 in the atmosphere. In many Chinese cities, HNO3 is becoming a significant contributor to acid deposition. In the present study, we used the denitrifier method to measure nitrogen (N and oxygen (O isotopic composition of NO3 in 113 precipitation samples collected from Guangzhou City in southern China over a two-year period (2008 and 2009. We attempted to better understand the spatial and seasonal variability of atmospheric NOx sources and the NO3 formation pathways in this N-polluted city in the Pearl River Delta region. The δ15N values of NO3 (versus air N2 ranged from −4.9 to +10.1‰, and averaged +3.9‰ in 2008 and +3.3‰ in 2009. Positive δ15N values were observed throughout the year, indicating the anthropogenic contribution of NOx emissions, particularly from coal combustion. Different seasonal patterns of δ15N-NO3 were observed between 2008 and 2009, which might reflect different human activities associated with the global financial crisis and the intensive preparations for the 16th Asian Games. Nitrate δ18O values (versus Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water varied from +33.4 to +86.5‰ (average +65.0‰ and +67.0‰ in 2008 and 2009, respectively, a range being lower than those reported for high altitude and polar areas. Several δ18O values were observed lower than the expected minimum of 50‰ at our study site. This was likely caused by the reaction of NO with peroxy radicals; peroxy radicals can compete with O3 to convert NO to NO2, thereby donate O atoms with much lower δ18O value than that of O3 to atmospheric NO3

  3. Carbon-13 isotope composition of the mean CO2 source in the urban atmosphere of Krakow, southern Poland (United States)

    Zimnoch, Miroslaw; Jasek, Alina; Rozanski, Kazimierz


    Quantification of carbon emissions in urbanized areas constitutes an important part of the current research on the global carbon cycle. As the carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric carbon dioxide can serve as a fingerprint of its origin, systematic observations of δ13CO2 and/or Δ14CO2, combined with atmospheric CO2mixing ratio measurements can be used to better constrain the urban sources of this gas. Nowadays, high precision optical analysers based on absorption of laser radiation in the cavity allow a real-time monitoring of atmospheric CO2 concentration and its 13CO2/12CO2 ratio, thus enabling better quantification of the contribution of different anthropogenic and natural sources of this gas to the local atmospheric CO2load. Here we present results of a 2-year study aimed at quantifying carbon isotopic signature of the mean CO2 source and its seasonal variability in the urban atmosphere of Krakow, southern Poland. The Picarro G2101-i CRDS isotopic analyser system for CO2and 13CO2/12CO2 mixing ratio measurements has been installed at the AGH University of Science and Technology campus in July 2011. Air inlet was located at the top of a 20m tower mounted on the roof of the faculty building (ca. 42m a.g.l.), close to the city centre. While temporal resolution of the analyser is equal 1s, a 2-minute moving average was used for calculations of δ13CO2 and CO2 mixing ratio to reduce measurement uncertainty. The measurements were calibrated against 2 NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) primary standard tanks for CO2 mixing ratio and 1 JRAC (Jena Reference Air Cylinder) isotope primary standard for δ13C. A Keeling approach based on two-component mass and isotope balance was used to derive daily mean isotopic signatures of local CO2 from individual measurements of δ13CO2 and CO2 mixing ratios. The record covers a 2-year period, from July 2011 to July 2013. It shows a clear seasonal pattern, with less negative and less variable δ13CO2 values

  4. Plutons: Simmer between 350° and 500°C for 10 million years, then serve cold (Invited) (United States)

    Coleman, D. S.; Davis, J.


    The growing recognition that continental plutons are assembled incrementally over millions of years requires reexamination of the thermal histories of intrusive rocks. With the exception of the suggestion that pluton magma chambers can be revitalized by mafic input at their deepest structural levels, most aspects of modern pluton petrology are built on the underlying assumption that silicic plutons intrude as discrete thermal packages that undergo subsequent monotonic decay back to a steady-state geothermal gradient. The recognition that homogeneous silicic plutons are constructed over timescales too great to be single events necessitates rethinking pluton intrusion mechanisms, textures, thermochronology, chemical evolution and links to volcanic rocks. Three-dimensional thermal modeling of sheeted (horizontal and vertical) incremental pluton assembly (using HEAT3D by Wohletz, 2007) yields several results that are largely independent of intrusive geometry and may help understand bothersome field and laboratory results from plutonic rocks. 1) All increments cool quickly below hornblende closure temperature. However, late increments are emplaced into walls warmed by earlier increments, and they cycle between hornblende and biotite closure temperatures, a range in which fluid-rich melts are likely to be present. These conditions persist until the increments are far from the region of new magma flux, or the addition of increments stops. These observations are supported by Ar thermochronology and may explain why heterogeneous early marginal intrusive phases often grade into younger homogeneous interior map units. 2) Early increments become the contact metamorphic wall rocks of later increments. This observation suggests that much of the contact metamorphism associated with a given volume of plutonic rock is “lost” via textural modification of early increments during intrusion of later increments. Johnson and Glazner (CMP, in press) argue that mappable variations in

  5. Age and isotopic fingerprints of some plutonic rocks in the Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith with special reference to the dark wiborgite of the Ristisaari Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rämö, O.T.


    Full Text Available The mid-Proterozoic, locus classicus Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith of southeastern Finland and adjacent Russia comprises a varying, bimodal (silicic-basic sequence of plutonic, subvolcanic, and volcanic rocks. At the current level of erosion silicic rocks are dominant, the most prominent of which are wiborgites and dark wiborgites (that have been considered to mark the main build-up stage of the batholith and pyterlites. New observations and optical microscopy data from the dark wiborgite-dominated Ristisaari Island in the southern, off-shore part of the Wiborg batholith show that dark plagioclase megacrysts in dark wiborgite are calcic xenocrysts. They were probably incorporated into wiborgite magma from consanguineous massiftype anorthosite magmas in the course of the evolution of the bimodal magmatic system. Our new ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon age of the Ristisaari Island dark wiborgite, 1627±3 Ma, is the youngest isotopic age so far determined for the plutonic rocks of the Wiborg batholith. This, combined with preexisting U-Pb zircon data, implies a minimum duration of 12 m.y. (1642–1630 Ma for the emplacement of the plutonic rocks of the batholith. Combined with data on highlevel dike rocks, a window of at least 20 m.y. (1642–1622 Ma is implied. Furthermore, as the batholith grew, the overall locus of magmatism may have shifted southwards. New whole-rock Nd isotope data on the dark wiborgite of the Ristisaari Island and three further granites of the batholith, as well as Nd (whole-rock and Sr (whole-rock, plagioclase isotope data on a spectrolite massif-type anorthosite from the east-central part of the batholith, are also presented. These data suggest that the lithosphere across the Wiborg batholith area in the southeastern part of the Svecofennian orogen may vary slightly in overall mantle separation age.

  6. Million-year melt-presence in monotonous intermediate magma for a volcanic-plutonic assemblage in the Central Andes: Contrasting histories of crystal-rich and crystal-poor super-sized silicic magmas (United States)

    Kaiser, Jason F.; de Silva, Shanaka; Schmitt, Axel K.; Economos, Rita; Sunagua, Mayel


    The melt-present lifetime of super-sized monotonous intermediate magmas that feed supereruptions and end life as granodioritic plutons is investigated using zircon chronochemistry. These data add to the ongoing discussion on magma assembly rates and have implications for how continental batholiths are built. Herein, we estimate ∼1.1 Ma of continuous melt presence before and after the climactic caldera-forming 2.89 ± 0.01 Ma (2σ error) Pastos Grandes Ignimbrite (PGI) supereruption (∼1500 km3 of magma) in the Andes of southwest Bolivia. Zircon crystallization in PGI pumice and lava from the faulted Southern Postcaldera Dome span ∼0.7 Ma prior to the climactic eruption and formation of the eponymous caldera, whereas younger, unfaulted Postcaldera Dome lavas (termed Northern and Middle) and a granodioritic plutonic clast within the products of a Pleistocene eruption indicate a further ∼0.4 Ma of post-climactic zircon crystallization. Bulk-rock compositions as well as zircon thermometry and geochemistry indicate the presence of homogeneous dacitic magma before and after the climactic eruption, but a trend to zircon crystallization at higher temperatures and from less evolved melts is seen for post-climactic zircon. We propose a model in which a large volume of crystal-rich dacite magma was maintained above solidus temperatures by periodic andesitic recharge that is chemically invisible in the erupted components. The climactic caldera-forming eruption vented the upper portions of the magma system zircon was saturated. Zircon in postcaldera lavas indicate that residual magma from this system remained locally viable for eruption at least for some time after the caldera-forming event. Subsequently, deeper "remnant" dacite magma previously outside the zone of zircon saturation rose to shallower levels to re-establish hydraulic and isostatic equilibrium where zircon crystallization commenced anew, and drove more resurgent volcanism and uplift. The same magma

  7. Microstructure and magnetic fabric in the Shuanghe pluton: A synkinematic granite in Eastern Dabie Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Kunguang; LIU; Qiang; LIU; Yuyan; MA; Changqian; XU


    Strain analyses for the Shuanghe pluton show that the main strain planes suffered distinct deformation. The main strain value (XZ) is up to 1.59-2.18, and the value of Flinn index (K) ranges from 0.11 to 0.82. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements reveal that the orientations of the magnetic foliation and lineation gently dip SE, consistent with the macroscopic foliation of the pluton. The value of anisotropy degree (P) ranges from 1.109 to 1.639, and the shape parameter (7) from 0.079 to 0.534. These studies prove that the pluton was deformed under strong compression. Quartz c-axis textures, defined by monoclinic or triclinic asymmetry, usually developed the high maxima paralleling the b-axis, which is defined by the developed in the high-ultrahigh pressure rocks (UHP) which were captured in the pluton or country rocks. It is concluded that the Shuanghe pluton emplaced under regional compression slightly after the formation of UHP, and it is characterized by synkinematic granitic deformation.

  8. Age of Yingfeng rapakivi granite pluton on the north flank of Qaidam and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Qinghui; LU Xinxiang; WANG Fei; SUN Yangui; WEI Xiangdong; XlNG Zuoyun


    The Yingfeng rapakivi granite on the north flank of Qaidam is a newly discovered Proterozoic rapakivi pluton in China, which was found after the discovery of Shachang rapakivi in Miyun County, Beijing and Kuandian rapakivi in Jilin Province. Yingfeng rapakivi pluton is exposed on the north side of the suture belt between Qinling-Kunlun orogenic belt and North China plate. U-Pb zircon isotopic dating and Ar-Ar isotopic dating of both hornblende and K-feldspar from the Yingfeng rapakivi granite have been conducted. The results show that the age of (1776±33)Ma at the upper intercept in Concorde diagram represents the age of formation of the pluton,whereas the age of (526 ± 281) Ma at the lower intercept and Ar-Ar mineral dating of hornblende and K-feldspar correspond to the age of a later event affecting the pluton, suggesting that Yingfeng pluton has ever been affected by strong regional Caledonian-Hercynian tectonic movement after its formation. The discovery of middle Proterozoic Yingfeng rapakivi granite provides a petrologic evidence for the timing of cratonization of both the continental crust basement in western China and the basement of the North China plate and for a rifting event taking place in the mid-Proterozoic, suggesting that an amalgamation of ancient China continents had ever happened during the "L(u) liang Movement" between the early Proterozoic and the mid-Proterozoic.

  9. Ion Microprobe U-Th Ages of Zircon From Plutonic Rock Fragments Ejected by Mount Veniaminof Volcano, Alaska Peninsula (United States)

    Bacon, C. R.; Sisson, T. W.; Mazdab, F. K.


    Mount Veniaminof volcano in the Aleutian arc provides an unusual opportunity to directly relate volcanic rocks to a coeval shallow pluton. Fragments of medium- to coarse-grained plutonic rock were ejected during Veniaminof's 3700 14C yr B.P. caldera-forming eruption. The gabbro, diorite, and miarolitic granodiorite fragments are direct evidence of assembly of a shallow pluton consisting of cumulate mush and vapor- saturated residual melt segregations. We used the USGS-Stanford SHRIMP RG (Sensitive High-Resolution Ion MicroProbe with Reverse Geometry) to analyze ~30-μm-diameter areas a few μm deep on individual polished 40-150 μm zircons separated from these plutonic rocks. Samples were sputtered with a 16-22 nA primary beam of 16O- ions and secondary ion intensities were measured for 90Zr216O, 180Hf16O, 238U, 230Th16O, background, 232Th16O, and 238U16O. Crystallization ages for the single zircon populations in each rock were determined by fitting isochrons to SHRIMP RG data plotted on (230Th/232Th) versus (238U/232Th) activity ratio diagrams, after rejecting analyses affected by contamination from the epoxy mounting medium (combination of 232Th and epoxy constituents that overlaps 230Th16O). The SHRIMP RG analyses define 238U-230Th isochron ages of 17.5 ± 1.8 ka and 11.7 +4.7/-4.5 ka for zircon crystallization in granodiorite and diorite, respectively (±2σ). Sparse zircons from two gabbro samples give 238U-230Th model ages of 36.6 +7.1/-6.7 ka and 26.4 +6.7/-6.4 ka using initial activity ratios defined by the granodiorite and diorite isochrons. Zircons from granodiorite and diorite, commonly bearing ~0.2-5 μm fluid inclusions, have exceptionally high U and Th contents (up to 2 and 5 wt.%, respectively) that may be explained by crystallization in the presence of late-magmatic aqueous fluid during passive degassing in the shallow subsurface. Veniaminof erupted medium- K basaltic through dacitic magmas over the past ~250 kyr that define an arc tholeiitic trend

  10. Geochronology of plutonic rocks and their tectonic terranes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, southeast Alaska: Chapter E in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2008-2009 (United States)

    Brew, David A.; Tellier, Kathleen E.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Nielsen, Diane C.; Smith, James G.; Sonnevil, Ronald A.


    We have identified six major belts and two nonbelt occurrences of plutonic rocks in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve and characterized them on the basis of geologic mapping, igneous petrology, geochemistry, and isotopic dating. The six plutonic belts and two other occurrences are, from oldest to youngest: (1) Jurassic (201.6–145.5 Ma) diorite and gabbro of the Lituya belt; (2) Late Jurassic (161.0–145.5 Ma) leucotonalite in Johns Hopkins Inlet; (3) Early Cretaceous (145.5–99.6 Ma) granodiorite and tonalite of the Muir-Chichagof belt; (4) Paleocene tonalite in Johns Hopkins Inlet (65.5–55.8 Ma); (5) Eocene granodiorite of the Sanak-Baranof belt; (6) Eocene and Oligocene (55.8–23.0 Ma) granodiorite, quartz diorite, and granite of the Muir-Fairweather felsic-intermediate belt; (7) Eocene and Oligocene (55.8–23.0 Ma) layered gabbros of the Crillon-La Perouse mafic belt; and (8) Oligocene (33.9–23.0 Ma) quartz monzonite and quartz syenite of the Tkope belt. The rocks are further classified into 17 different combination age-compositional units; some younger belts are superimposed on older ones. Almost all these plutonic rocks are related to Cretaceous and Tertiary subduction events. The six major plutonic belts intrude the three southeast Alaska geographic subregions in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, from west to east: (1) the Coastal Islands, (2) the Tarr Inlet Suture Zone (which contains the Border Ranges Fault Zone), and (3) the Central Alexander Archipelago. Each subregion includes rocks assigned to one or more tectonic terranes. The various plutonic belts intrude different terranes in different subregions. In general, the Early Cretaceous plutons intrude rocks of the Alexander and Wrangellia terranes in the Central Alexander Archipelago subregion, and the Paleogene plutons intrude rocks of the Chugach, Alexander, and Wrangellia terranes in the Coastal Islands, Tarr Inlet Suture Zone, and Central Alexander Archipelago subregions.

  11. Thermochronology of the Cornubian batholith in southwest England: Implications for pluton emplacement and protracted hydrothermal mineralization (United States)

    Chesley, J.T.; Halliday, A.N.; Snee, L.W.; Mezger, K.; Shepherd, T.J.; Scrivener, R.C.


    The metalliferous ore deposits of southwest England are associated with biotite-muscovite granites that intruded upper Paleozoic sediments and volcanic rocks at the end of the Hercynian Orogeny. The hydrothermal mineralization can be subdivided into four stages: 1. (1) exoskarns 2. (2) high-temperature tin and tungsten oxide-bearing sheeted greisen bordered veins and Sn-bearing tourmaline veins and breccias 3. (3) polymetallic quartz-tourmaline-chlorite-sulfide-fluorite-bearing fissure veins, which represent the main episode of economic mineralization 4. (4) late-stage, low-temperature polymetallic fluorite veins. U-Pb dating of monazite and xenotime and 40Ar 39Ar dating of muscovite were used to determine emplacement ages and cooling times for individual plutons within the Cornubian batholith, as well as separate intrusive phases within the plutons. In addition, 40Ar 39Ar ages from hornblende and secondary muscovite and Sm-Nd isochron ages from fluorite were employed to determine the relationship between pluton emplacement and different stages of mineralization. The U-Pb ages indicate that granite magmatism was protracted from ~300 Ma down to ~275 Ma with no evidence of a major hiatus. There is no systematic relation between the age of a pluton and its location within the batholith. The U-Pb ages for separate granite phases within a single pluton are resolvable and indicate that magma emplacement within individual plutons occurred over periods of as much as 4.5 myrs. Felsic porphyry dike emplacement was coeval with plutonism, but continued to ~270 Ma. The geochronologic data suggest that the Cornubian batholith originated from repeated melting events over 30 myrs and was formed by a series of small coalescing granitic bodies. Cooling rates of the main plutons are unrelated to emplacement age, but decrease from the southwest to the northeast from ~210??C myr-1 to ~60??C myr-1 with a mean of 100??C myr-1. These slow cooling rates appear to reflect the addition of

  12. Composition and distribution of planktonic ciliates in the southern South China Sea during late summer: Comparison between surface and 75 m deep layer (United States)

    Liu, Huaxue; Shen, Pingping; Li, Chunhou; Chen, Zuozhi; Qi, Zhanhui; Huang, Honghui


    Ciliates are very important components in most marine ecosystem. They are trophic link between the microbial food web and grazing food chain. In this study, ciliates were collected from 11 sites in the southern South China Sea (SCS) during August 25 to September 28, 2011. Their composition and distribution at the surface and 75 m deep depth of the ocean were studied. A total of 30 species belonging to 22 genera were identified, and 22 species of 15 genera were Tintinnids. Eutintinnus fraknoii and E. stramentus were the most common species. The other dominants were strombidiids ciliates including Strombidium conicum and S. globosaneum, which were followed by the tide form, Mesodinium pulex. Ciliates abundance ranged from 46 ind L-1 to 368 ind L-1 in the open sites, 46-368 ind L-1 at surface and 73-198 ind L-1 at 75 m deep layer. In the Yongshu reef, ciliates abundance ranged from 167 ind L-1 to 365 ind L-1 in the water column, similar to that in Sanya coral reef waters. Ciliates composition showed obvious difference between surface and 75 m deep layer at station S2 ( P deep layer, salinity was negatively related to mixed layer depth ( P < 0.05), but positively to chlorophyll a concentration ( P < 0.05), indicating that the change of vertical mixing in water column influenced vertical distribution of ciliates in the southern SCS.

  13. Remarkable isotopic and trace element trends in potassic through sodic Cretaceous plutons of the Yukon-Koyukuk Basin, Alaska, and the nature of the lithosphere beneath the Koyukuk terrane (United States)

    Arth, Joseph G.; Criss, Robert E.; Zmuda, Clara C.; Foley, Nora K.; Patton, W. W., Jr.; Miller, T. P.


    During the period from 110 to 80 m.y. ago, a 450-km-long magmatic belt was active along the northern margin of Yukon-Koyukuk basin and on eastern Seward Peninsula. The plutons intruded Upper Jurassic(?) and Lower Cretaceous volcanic arc rocks and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in Yukon-Koyukuk basin and Proterozoic and lower Paleozoic continental rocks in Seward Peninsula. Within Yukon-Koyukuk basin, the plutons vary in composition from calc-alkalic plutons on the east to potassic and ultrapotassic alkalic plutons on the west. Plutons within Yukon-Koyukuk basin were analyzed for trace element and isotopic compositions in order to discern their origin and the nature of the underling lithosphere. Farthest to the east, the calc-alkalic rocks of Indian Mountain pluton are largely tonalite and sodic granodiorite, and have low Rb (average 82 ppm), high Sr (>600 ppm), high chondrite-normalized (cn) Ce/Yb (16-37), low δ18O (+6.5 to +7.1), low initial 87Sr/86Sr (SIR) (0.704), and high initial 143Nd/144Nd (NIR) (0.5126). These rocks resemble those modelled elsewhere as partial melts and subsequent fractionates of basaltic or gabbroic metaigneous rocks, and may be products of melting in the deeper parts of the Late Jurassic(?) and Early Cretaceous volcanic arc. Farthest to the west, the two ultrapotassic bodies of Selawik and Inland Lake are high in Cs (up to 93 ppm), Rb (up to 997 ppm), Sr, Ba, Th, and light rare earth elements, have high (Ce/Yb)cn (30, 27), moderate to low δ18O (+8.4, +6.9), high SIR (0.712, 0.710), and moderate NIR (0.5121-0.5122). These rocks resemble rocks of Australia and elsewhere that were modelled as melts of continental mantle that had been previously enriched in large cations. This mantle may be Paleozoic or older. The farthest west alkalic pluton of Selawik Hills is largely monzonite, quartz monzonite, and granite; has moderate Rb (average 284 ppm), high Sr (>600 ppm), high (Ce/Yb)cn (15-25), moderate δ18O (+8.3 to +8.6), high SIR (0

  14. Evidence for a close phylogenetic relationship between Melissococcus pluton, the causative agent of European foulbrood disease, and the genus Enterococcus. (United States)

    Cai, J; Collins, M D


    The 16S rRNA gene sequence of Melissococcus pluton, the causative agent of European foulbrood disease, was determined in order to investigate the phylogenetic relationships between this organism and other low-G + C-content gram-positive bacteria. A comparative sequence analysis revealed that M. pluton is a close phylogenetic relative of the genus Enterococcus.

  15. Samail Ophiolite plutonic suite: Field relations, phase variation, cryptic variation and layering, and a model of a spreading ridge magma chamber (United States)

    Pallister, J. S.; Hopson, C. A.


    Geologic mapping of an intact plutonic sequence within the Samail ophiolite in the Ibra area, southeastern Oman Mountains, reveals stratigraphic, structural, and petrologic details of oceanic layer 3. Four measured stratigraphic sections, each spaced about 5 km apart across the southern flank of Jabal Dimh, define a time-transgressive progression within the ophiolite and reveal geometric and petrologic features of a spreading-ridge magma chamber. The sections show the following vertical sequence: (1) dunite (chr-ol cumulates ± harzburgite xenoliths) 0-200 m thick, grading up from a transition zone with harzburgite tectonite, (2) interlayered wehrlite-melagabbro-gabbro (cpx-ol and ol-cpx-pl cumulates) 0-100 m thick, (3) layered gabbro (chiefly ol-cpx-pl cumulates but including recurrent intervals of cumulus wehrlite and melagabbro) 2.6-5.5 km thick, (4) planar laminated nonlayered gabbro (chiefly ol-cpx-pl cumulates) 100-400 m thick, (5) hypidiomorphic (ol)-hb-cpx gabbro (high-level gabbro) 200-800 m thick, (6) small, discontinous diorite to plagiogranite bodies at or near the top of the gabbro. Cumulus textures (adcumulus > mesocumulus), planar lamination, and cumulus layering (phase, ratio, and grain size layers at mm to 10-m scale, commonly graded) within this sequence show that crystals accumulated from the base of the magma chamber upward to within a few hundred meters of the top; downward solidification from the roof was minor. Cyclicity within the cumulus sequence is represented by the recurrence of olivine-rich intervals (melagabbo and wehrlite) up to high stratigraphic levels and by hundreds of phase-graded layers (ol-rich at the bases to pl-rich at the tops), individually up to 5 m thick. Limited cryptic variation relative to closed-system layered intrusions and the limited range in solid-solution components of olivine (Fo69-90), plagioclase (An62-95) and clinopyroxene (En40-54, Fs4-16, Wo37-49) from the cumulus suite require replenishment of the magma

  16. Interaction between two contrasting magmas in the Albtal pluton (Schwarzwald, SW Germany): textural and mineral-chemical evidence (United States)

    Michel, Lorenz; Wenzel, Thomas; Markl, Gregor


    The magmatic evolution of the Variscan Albtal pluton, Schwarzwald, SW Germany, is explored using detailed textural observations and the chemical composition of plagioclase and biotite in both granite and its mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs). MMEs probably formed in a two-step process. First, mafic magma intruded a granitic magma chamber and created a boundary layer, which received thermal and compositional input from the mafic magma. This is indicated by corroded "granitic" quartz crystals and by large "granitic" plagioclase xenocrysts, which contain zones of higher anorthite and partly crystallized from a melt of higher Sr content. Texturally, different plagioclase types (e.g. zoned and inclusion-rich types) correspond to different degrees of overprint most likely caused by a thermal and compositional gradient in the boundary layer. The intrusion of a second mafic magma batch into the boundary layer is recorded by a thin An50 zone along plagioclase rims that crystallized from a melt enriched in Sr. Most probably, the second mafic intrusion caused disruption of the boundary layer, dispersal of the hybrid magma in the granite magma and formation of the enclaves. Rapid thermal quenching of the MMEs in the granite magma is manifested by An30 overgrowths on large plagioclase grains that contain needle apatites. Our results demonstrate the importance of microtextural investigations for the reconstruction of possible mixing end members in the formation of granites.

  17. Effect of varying frontal systems on stable oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of modern planktic foraminifera of Southern Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tiwari, M.; Mohan, R.; Meloth, T.; Naik, S.S.; Sudhakar, M.

    , sediment cores and other physi- cal oceanographic parameters were collected. Here, we present the isotopic results obtained from planktic foraminifera from the plankton net samples and sur- face sediments. We find that, in this region too, plank- tic... characteristics in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. The δ 18 O value of planktic foraminifera is mainly governed by SST fluctuations: the samples be- come isotopically heavier polewards. Further, the plank- tic foraminifera appear to secrete...

  18. Time span of plutonism, fabric development, and cooling in a Neoproterozoic magmatic arc segment: U Pb age constraints from syn-tectonic plutons, Sark, Channel Islands, UK (United States)

    Miller, Brent V.; Samson, Scott D.; D'Lemos, Richard S.


    New U-Pb zircon and titanite dates from syn-tectonic plutons on the British Channel Island of Sark constrain the time span of plutonism, fabric development, and cooling in this part of the Neoproterozoic Cadomian magmatic arc. The Tintageu leucogneiss is a mylonitic unit that was dated previously at 615.6 +4.2-2.3 Ma. The Port du Moulin quartz diorite, which intruded the Tintageu unit, contains a high-strain solid-state deformation fabric that is less intense than, but parallel to, fabrics in the leucogneiss and yields a U-Pb zircon date of 613.5 +2.3-1.5 Ma. The Little Sark quartz diorite also displays solid-state deformation fabrics in addition to relict magmatic textures, and yields a U-Pb zircon date of 611.4 +2.1-1.3 Ma. The North Sark granodiorite is largely penetratively undeformed, exhibits mainly magmatic fabrics and textures and has a U-Pb zircon date of 608.7 +1.1-1.0 Ma. Two fractions of titanite from each intrusion are essentially concordant and are identical within error, with mean dates of 606.5±0.4 Ma (Port du Moulin quartz diorite), 606.2±0.6 Ma (Little Sark quartz diorite), 606.4±0.6 Ma (North Sark granodiorite). The new U-Pb data, in combination with previous U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar data and previous field studies, confirm the syn-tectonic nature of the Sark plutons and quantify the time span (ca. 7 m.y.) required for intrusion and sufficient crystallization of each body to record incremental strain during waning deformation. Titanite U-Pb and hornblende 40Ar/ 39Ar dates mark final cooling about 2 m.y. after intrusion of the last pluton.

  19. Modeling strength loss in wood by chemical composition. Part I, An individual component model for southern pine (United States)

    J. E. Winandy; P. K. Lebow


    In this study, we develop models for predicting loss in bending strength of clear, straight-grained pine from changes in chemical composition. Although significant work needs to be done before truly universal predictive models are developed, a quantitative fundamental relationship between changes in chemical composition and strength loss for pine was demonstrated. In...

  20. Late magmatic stage of the zoned Caleu pluton (Central Chile): insights from zircon crystallization conditions (United States)

    Molina, P. G.; Parada, M.; Gutierrez, F. J.; Chang-Qiang, M.; Jianwei, L.; Yuanyuan, L.


    The Caleu pluton consists of three N-S elongated lithological zones: Gabbro-Diorite Zone (GDZ), Tonalite Zone (TZ) and Granodiorite Zone (GZ); western, middle and eastern portions of the pluton, respectively. The zones are thought to be previously differentiated in a common, isotopically depleted (Sr-Nd), subjacent magma reservoir at a 4 kbar equivalent depth. The emplacement should have occurred at the climax of the Cretaceous rifting. We present preliminary results of U238/Pb206 zircon geochronology; zircon saturation, Tsat(Zrn), and crystallization temperatures (Ti-in-Zrn); as well as relative oxidation states at time of crystallization, based on: (i) the sluggish REE and HFSE subsolidus diffusivities in zircon; (ii) the behavior of Ti4+↔Si4+ and Ce4+↔Zr4+ isovalent replacement, in addition to a constrained TiO2 activity in almost all typical crustal rocks; and (iii) relative oxidation states at time of crystallization, respectively. The latter are obtained by interpolation of the partition coefficients of trivalent (REE) and tetravalent (HFSE) curves in Onuma diagrams for each zircon, and then estimating relative Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ratios. Results obtained from 4 samples (a total of 77 zircon grains) collected from the three mentioned lithological zones indicate U/Pb ages of approximately 99.5 ±1.5 Ma, 96.8 ±0.6 Ma, and 94.4 +2.2 -0.8 Ma; and Ti-in Zrn ranges of ca. 720-870°C, ca. 680-820°C and ca. 750-840°C, for the GDZ, TZ and GZ samples, respectively. On the other hand Tsat(Zrn) of ca. 750-780°C in the TZ, and ca. 830-890°C in the GZ, were obtained. As expected saturation temperatures are similar or higher than Ti-in-Zrn obtained in zircon grains of TZ and GZ, respectively. Cathodoluminiscence images in zircon suggest a magmatic origin, due to absence of complex zoning patterns and fairly well conserved morphologies. Exceptionally the GDZ sample zircons show evidence of inheritance, indicating a xenocrystic and/or antecrystic origin. A relative Ce

  1. The Montalet granite, Montagne Noire, France: An Early Permian syn-extensional pluton as evidenced by new U-Th-Pb data on zircon and monazite (United States)

    Poilvet, Jean-Charles; Poujol, Marc; Pitra, Pavel; Van Den Driessche, Jean; Paquette, Jean-Louis


    Dating the magmatism in the Montagne Noire gneiss dome in the southern French Massif Central is a key point for understanding the Late Palaeozoic evolution of this part of the Variscan belt, which is characterised by compressive tectonics during the Carboniferous and extensional tectonics during Stephanian-Permian times. The Montalet granite crops out in the north-western part of the dome and was first considered as an early syntectonic intrusion related to compressive deformation. More recently, it has been dated at 327 Ma and considered as contemporaneous with the diapiric ascent of the Montagne Noire gneiss dome before the Stephanian-Permian extension. We show that in fact, this pluton was emplaced 294 ± 1 Ma ago and is therefore contemporaneous with the Stephanian-Permian extension. This age is consistent with the interpretation of the Montagne Noire Massif as an extensional gneiss dome.

  2. U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of Bibi-Maryam pluton, eastern Iran: Implication for the late stage of the tectonic evolution of the Sistan Ocean (United States)

    Delavari, Morteza; Amini, Sadraddin; Schmitt, Axel K.; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Mark Harrison, T.


    The Bibi-Maryam pluton crops out in the Sistan suture zone, eastern Iran. This pluton is a 1.5 × 2 km stock composed of leucocratic tonalite, granodiorite and granite. U-Pb zircon geochronology of a leucogranite indicates an emplacement age of 58.6 ± 2.1 Ma (95% confidence). The Bibi-Maryam rock suite is sodic with elevated Na2O/K2O (2.9 to 5.5), Sr/Y (15.6-62.2), La/Yb (13.3-22.2), and low MgO (0.86-1.81) abundances. It lacks significant Eu anomalies. Because of these geochemical characteristics, Bibi-Maryam rocks are similar to high-SiO2 adakites. Trace element modeling indicates that the Bibi-Maryam adakitic rocks could be produced by 5-8% non-modal batch partial melting from a source with composition of 95% N-MORB + 5% sediment in the presence of 35-40% amphibole + 5-10% garnet + 55-60% clinopyroxene + 1% apatite + 1% rutile. This source mineralogy is similar to hornblende eclogite or garnet amphibolites. Collectively, these data provide new constraints for the evolution of the Sistan suture zone and suggest that the Bibi-Maryam pluton formed via slab melting in an oceanic arc and pre-plate collision tectonic setting. This implies that the closure of the Sistan Ocean and Lut-Afghan continental blocks collision happened after the Bibi-Maryam emplacement at 58.6 ± 2.1 Ma.

  3. Crustal thickening prior to 220 Ma in the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt: Insights from the Late Triassic granitoids in the Xiao-Nuomuhong pluton (United States)

    Xia, Rui; Wang, Changming; Deng, Jun; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Li, Wenliang; Qing, Min


    The East Kunlun Orogenic Belt (EKOB) played an important role in plate tectonics, magma generation, and crustal evolution. Late Triassic granodiorites and their mafic micro-granular enclaves (MMEs) from Xiao-Nuomuhong in the EKOB were studied for geochemistry and geochronology to constrain their petrogenesis. Zircon LA-ICP-MS dating indicates that the Xiao-Nuomuhong granodiorites are coeval with their MMEs (∼222 Ma). The granodiorites are high-K calc-alkaline rocks that are enriched in Rb, Th, U and LREE, and depleted in Cr, Ni and HFSE, with high Sr/Y ratios (82.2-85.3) and geochemically resemble the lower crust-derived adakites. The MMEs are also high-K calc-alkaline rocks, with high Al2O3 (16.8-18.8 wt.%), low Mg# (30-40), Nb, Zr and Hf, with weak negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu# = 0.8-0.9). We suggest the MMEs are mafic magmatic globules that were injected into the felsic host magma. The adakitic rocks from the Xiao-Nuomuhong pluton were generated by partial melting of thickened crust, while the primitive compositions of the MMEs were most likely from the lithospheric mantle beneath the EKOB. The Late Triassic Xiao-Nuomuhong pluton is important evidence that crustal thickening in the EKOB occurred prior to 220 Ma. The pluton is interpreted as the result of mixing between thickened lower crust-derived melts and lithospheric mantle-derived mafic melts and the protracted magmatic response to the break-off of the Paleo-Tethys oceanic slab at ∼232 Ma.

  4. Tectonic rotations and internal structure of Eocene plutons in Chuquicamata, northern Chile (United States)

    Somoza, R.; Tomlinson, A. J.; Zaffarana, C. B.; Singer, S. E.; Puigdomenech Negre, C. G.; Raposo, M. I. B.; Dilles, J. H.


    A paleomagnetic and AMS study on Eocene plutonic complexes in the Calama area, northern Chile, reveals high-temperature, high-coercivity magnetizations of dominantly thermoremanent origin and magnetic fabrics controlled by magnetite. The paleomagnetic results indicate that ~ 43 Ma plutons underwent clockwise tectonic rotation, whereas adjacent ~ 39 Ma plutons did not undergo discernible rotation. This points to a middle Eocene age for the younger tectonic rotations associated with the Central Andean Rotation Pattern in the Chuquicamata-Calama area. The petrofabric in these rocks formed under conditions ranging from purely magmatic (i.e. before full crystallization) to low-temperature solid-state deformation. AMS and paleomagnetism suggest that the plutonic bodies were formed by progressive amalgamation of subvertical magma sheets spanning multiple magnetic polarity chrons. The parallelism between magmatic and tectonic foliations suggests that regional tectonic stress controlled ascent, emplacement and rock deformation during cooling. In this context, we suggest that magma ascent and emplacement in the upper crust likely exploited Mesozoic structures which were locally reactivated in the Eocene.

  5. The Lac-Croche plutonic complex, Quebec: basement of Grenville paragneisses?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, K.


    A concordant body of presumably igneous, but deformed and at least partly recrystallized rocks, the Lac-Croche Plutonic Complex, consists of leuconoritic and mangeritic gneisses, and of monzonitic and granitic rocks. It is surrounded by gneisses, at least partly of sedimentary origin. Inclusions of

  6. Thermal modification of hematite-ilmenite intergrowths in the Ecstall pluton, British Columbia, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownlee, S.J.; Feinberg, J.M.; Harrison, R.J.;


    In this study, we examine the effects of reheating on finely exsolved hematite-ilmenite intergrowths from the similar to 91 Ma Ecstall pluton using reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As a result of the emplacement of the you......In this study, we examine the effects of reheating on finely exsolved hematite-ilmenite intergrowths from the similar to 91 Ma Ecstall pluton using reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As a result of the emplacement...... of the younger adjacent similar to 52 Ma Quottoon pluton, samples closer to a thermal boundary have experienced greater degrees of thermal alteration. Five main microstructural features characterize hematite-ilmenite intergrowths from the Ecstall: (I) exsolution lamellae of hematite and ilmenite; (II) oxidation....... Higher temperatures also enhanced oxidation in ilmenite. The formation of magnetite altered the bulk magnetic properties of these samples, increasing NRM intensity. This study underscores the need to consider a pluton's post-emplacement thermal history before making tectonic interpretations based...

  7. The Lac-Croche plutonic complex, Quebec: basement of Grenville paragneisses?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, K.


    A concordant body of presumably igneous, but deformed and at least partly recrystallized rocks, the Lac-Croche Plutonic Complex, consists of leuconoritic and mangeritic gneisses, and of monzonitic and granitic rocks. It is surrounded by gneisses, at least partly of sedimentary origin. Inclusions of

  8. Using micro-scale evidence to understand regional-scale hydrothermal alteration of plutonic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plümper, O.; King, H. E.; Putnis, A.


    Subsolidus re-equilibration of plutonic feldspars induced by hydrothermal fluids provides a valuable record of fluid-rock interactions that affect large volumes of the Earth's continental crust (Taylor, 1977). The effect of hydrothermal fluids has important implications for the interpretation of the

  9. Using micro-scale evidence to understand regional-scale hydrothermal alteration of plutonic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plümper, O.; King, H. E.; Putnis, A.


    Subsolidus re-equilibration of plutonic feldspars induced by hydrothermal fluids provides a valuable record of fluid-rock interactions that affect large volumes of the Earth's continental crust (Taylor, 1977). The effect of hydrothermal fluids has important implications for the interpretation of the

  10. Study of the Emplacement Mechanism of the Fenghuangshan Granite Pluton and Related Cu-Au Mineralization in Tongling, Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ganguo; ZHANG Da; LI Dongxu; ZHANG Xiangxin; SHAO Yongjun; ZANG Wenshuan; WANG Qunfeng


    The Fenghuangshan Pluton is located in the Tongling polymineral-cluster district in the middle-lower section of the Yangtze metallogenic belt. In tectonic terms, it is in the middle of the Guichi-Fanchang faulted fold bundle of the lower Yangtze Platform fold belt between the Dabie Orogenic Belt and the Jiangnan Massif. Analyses of the structural deformation characteristics of both the contact zone and the interior of the pluton are used to explain its emplacement mechanism. The foliation and lineation of the pluton, consisting of the oriented distribution of dark minerals and xenoliths, mainly concentrate along the margin of the pluton. Toward the center of the pluton, the foliation structure becomes weak, showing intense compression formation at the margin, and reflecting the conformable intrusion of the pluton. The relatively gentle lineation is evidence of a rotatory emplacement mechanism. Relatively steep marginal foliation reflects compression expanding. Affected by the thermal power of the pluton, the metamorphism of the contact zone has zonation. Both the strike of the axial plane of fold at the contact zone and that of the flow cleavage of the ductile shear zone are consistent with the boundary of the pluton, which reflects the speciality of conformable intrusion. The hinges of the folds are mostly inclined and erect, reflecting both the rotation of the pluton and its upward spiraling emplacement mechanism. Boudins developed in both the contact zone and the steep strata indicate the emplacement characteristic of the ballon expanding. The surrounding rock of the contact zone shortens horizontally. The average percentage of shortening is 39.7%, which further proves the mechanism of the pluton expanding, and the space occupied by the active expanding intrusion was provided by the shortening of the surrounding rock. The left-lateral shear shown by the ductile shear zone and the rheomorphic fold reveals that the pluton emplacement and the deformation of

  11. Studies on the species composition and biodiversity of free-living marine nematodes in the southern Huanghai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yong; ZHANG Zhinan; LIU Xiaoshou; ZHANG Yan


    Free-living marine nematodes were sampled and studied at a grid of 22 stations (from 32°29.35' to 37°0.56'N, 122°0.37' to 125°1.16'E) in the southern Huanghai Sea in January 2003. Nematode abundance varied from 50.5 to 127.2 ind./cm2 [(83.1 ±24.7) ind./cm2] at different stations, 80.1% of the total nematodes were in the surface layer (0~2 cm) of sediments. Two hundred and twenty-three species or taxa of marine nematodes belonging to 145 genera, 32 families and four orders were identified and first recorded in the Huanghai Sea. The common dominant species were Dorylaimopsis rabalaisi, Terschellingia longicaudata, Sphaerolaimus balticus, Metalinhomoeus longiseta, Quadricoma scanica, Prochromadorella sp., Paramonohystera riemanni, Marylynnia sp. 1, Vasostoma spiratum, Halalaimus spp.,Pierrickia sp.1 and Promonhysterafaber. Nematode diversity was correlated with sediment granularity. Pearson correlation analysis showed that Shannon-Wiener index had highly significant positive correlation with a sand content and negative correlation with a silt-clay content (P<0.01); species richness index (d) had significant positive correlation with the sand content and negative correlation with the silt-clay content (P<0.05). The diversity of the southern Huanghai Sea was lower than that in the center of Bohai Sea, but the dominance was higher.

  12. Seasonal variations in the biochemical composition and reproductive cycle of the ghost crab Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius, 1787) in Southern Brazil. (United States)

    Antunes, Graziani de Freitas; do Amaral, Ana Paula Nunes; Ribarcki, Fabiana Pinto; Wiilland, Elenir de Fátima; Zancan, Denise Maria; Vinagre, Anapaula Sommer


    The ghost crab, Ocypode quadrata, is found on sandy beaches from the United States to Southern Brazil. Because there is still little information about the metabolism and reproduction of O. quadrata on the southern coast of Brazil, the objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the effect of seasonal variations on the carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism of O. quadrata at Rondinha Beach, a beach with high anthropogenic activity, and to compare it with data from Siriú Beach, which has less human activity; and (ii) describe the effect of seasonal variations on the histological characteristics of male and female gonads, in order to assess the reproductive capacity of the crabs. The gonads of male crabs showed no significant variations in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and glycogen levels; however, histological analysis of the testes revealed that they are mature in the summer. In females, the GSI and glycogen values are higher in summer, concomitantly with the presence of mature oocytes. These results suggest that the reproductive peak of O. quadrata occurs in summer. The seasonal analysis of the biochemical parameters, as well as comparison with Siriú Beach, demonstrated that the ghost crabs of Rondinha Beach have a different pattern of metabolism than those of Siriú. This difference may be a consequence of differences in the environmental conditions as well as in the anthropogenic pressures, such as vehicle traffic and the increase in human population at the beach in summer.

  13. Bioactive potential of Vitis labrusca L. grape juices from the Southern Region of Brazil: phenolic and elemental composition and effect on lipid peroxidation in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; Alves, Tatiana de Lima; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Cunha, Heloisa Pamplona; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T


    Grapes are rich in polyphenols with biologically active properties. Although the bioactive potential of grape constituents are frequently reported, the effects of Brazilian Vitis labrusca L. grape juices ingestion have not been demonstrated in humans. This study identified the phenolic and elemental composition of red and white grape juices and the effect of organic and conventional red grape juice consumption on lipid peroxidation in healthy individuals. Concentrations of anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids and the in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the organic juice. The macro-elements K, Ca, Na and Mg were the most abundant minerals in all juices. The acute consumption of red grape juices promoted significant decrease of lipid peroxides in serum and TBARS levels in plasma. It is concluded that red V. labrusca L. grape juices produced in Southern Brazil showed lipid peroxidation inhibition abilities in healthy subjects, regardless of the cultivation system.

  14. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnke, Simone M.; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Soglio, Fabio K. Dal [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade; Diefenbach, Lucia M.G. [Fundacao Estadual de Producao e Pesquisa em Saude (FEPPS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Biologicas. Lab. Central do Estado (LACEN)


    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leaf miner, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 deg 68S and 51 deg 46W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. (author)

  15. Composition of mixed flocks of understory forest birds in areas of the Atlantic coast and lowlands of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Guimarães Azevedo


    Full Text Available An accompaniment of forest mixed flocks was carried in two localities of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, one on a forest hillside of the Atlantic on the Island of Santa Catarina (June to September, 2000 and another in a quaternary plain forest of the Volta Velha Reserve, Itapoá (June to November, 2000. Sixty-four species of birds were registered from the 79 identified flocks, 33 of which showed a frequency of occurrence above 10%. The flocks had an average number of six species. The nuclear species responsible for the aggregation and compacting of the flocks, for the two localities was Basileuterus culicivorus. The mixed flocks presented little difference in their composition in the two areas. This is probably due to the history of the colonization and the distinct forest formations of the two areas involved.

  16. First compositional evidences on the local production of Dressel 2-4 amphorae in Calabria (Southern Italy): characterization and mixing simulations (United States)

    Miriello, D.; Bloise, A.; De Luca, R.; Apollaro, C.; Crisci, G. M.; Medaglia, S.; Taliano Grasso, A.


    Dressel 2-4 amphorae are a type of pottery, which was used to transport wine and produced in the Mediterranean area between the first century BC and the second century AD. This study shows, for the first time, that their production also occurred in Ionian Calabria. These results were achieved by studying 11 samples of archaeological pottery (five samples of Dressel 2-4 and six samples of other ceramic types) taken from Cariati (Calabria—Southern Italy). The composition of the pottery was compared with that of the local raw materials (clays and sands) potentially usable for their production. Samples were studied by polarized optical microscopy and analysed by XRF, XRPD and Raman spectroscopy. An innovative approach, based on Microsoft Excel optimizer "Solver" add-in on geochemical data, was used to define the provenance of archaeological pottery and to calculate the mixtures of local clay and sand needed for the production of the pottery itself.

  17. Geographically diverse Australian isolates of Melissococcus pluton exhibit minimal genotypic diversity by restriction endonuclease analysis. (United States)

    Djordjevic, S P; Smith, L A; Forbes, W A; Hornitzky, M A


    Melissococcus pluton, the causative agent of European foulbrood is an economically significant disease of honey bees (Apis mellifera) across most regions of the world and is prevalent throughout most states of Australia. 49 Isolates of M. pluton recovered from diseased colonies or honey samples in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria were compared using SDS-PAGE, Western immunoblotting and restriction endonuclease analyses. DNA profiles of all 49 geographically diverse isolates showed remarkably similar AluI profiles although four isolates (one each from Queensland, South Australia, New South Wales and Victoria) displayed minor profile variations compared to AluI patterns of all other isolates. DNA from a subset of the 49 Australian and three isolates from the United Kingdom were digested separately with the restriction endonucleases CfoI, RsaI and DraI. Restriction endonuclease fragment patterns generated using these enzymes were also similar although minor variations were noted. SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins from 13 of the 49 isolates from different states of Australia, including the four isolates which displayed minor profile variations (AluI) produced indistinguishable patterns. Major immunoreactive proteins of approximate molecular masses of 21, 24, 28, 30, 36, 40, 44, 56, 60, 71, 79 and 95 kDa were observed in immunoblots of whole cell lysates of 22 of the 49 isolates and reacted with rabbit hyperimmune antibodies raised against M. pluton whole cells. Neither SDS-PAGE or immunoblotting was capable of distinguishing differences between geographically diverse isolates of M. pluton. Collectively these data confirm that Australian isolates of M. pluton are genetically homogeneous and that this species may be clonal. Plasmid DNA was not detected in whole cell DNA profiles of any isolate resolved using agarose gel electrophoresis.

  18. Support for a Uniformitarian Model of Continental Mantle Lithosphere Formation from the "Near-Cratonic" Composition of Proterozoic Southern African Mantle Lithosphere (United States)

    Janney, P. E.


    The transition at the end of the Archean between the generation of cratonic and mobile belt continental lithosphere is regarded as a first-order change in the mode of generation of continental lithosphere. It is widely debated whether this transition represented a fundamental change in the process by which the lithospheric mantle was generated (i.e., as melting residues of deep-seated mantle upwellings to residues of relatively shallow mantle melting at subduction zones), or whether it primarily reflected a more gradual change in the conditions (i.e., temperatures, depths and degrees of melting) of lithosphere generation in a suprasubduction zone setting. The marked contrast, in many cases, between the major element compositions of peridotite xenoliths from Archean cratons and those from adjacent post-Archean mobile belts has accentuated the significance of this transition. Peridotite xenoliths from the post-Archean mobile belt terranes surrounding the Kaapvaal craton in southern Africa are clearly Proterozoic in age from Re-Os isotope constraints, but they are unusual in that they share several key similarities in composition and mineralogy with Archean Kaapvaal peridotites (e.g., low bulk-rock Al2O3, relatively low modal olivine and high modal orthopyroxene). Although they lack the low FeO and high olivine Mg# values of the most extreme Kaapvaal samples, they show a very large degree of overlap (extending to olivine Mg# values of greater than 93 for example). These similarities support a common mode of origin for cratonic and post-cratonic lithosphere in southern Africa (although varying somewhat in the degrees and depths of melt extraction) and a similar history of post-formation modification. A comparison of the conditions of melt extraction for cratonic and post-cratonic lithosphere inferred from compatible and mildly incompatible trace elements will be presented.

  19. Simulation of upper-ocean biogeochemistry with a flexible-composition phytoplankton model: C, N and Si cycling and Fe limitation in the Southern Ocean (United States)

    Mongin, Mathieu; Nelson, David M.; Pondaven, Philippe; Tréguer, Paul


    We previously reported the application of an upper-ocean biogeochemical model in which the elemental composition of the phytoplankton is flexible and responds to changes in light and nutrient availability [Mongin, M., Nelson, D., Pondaven, P., Brzezinski, M., Tréguer, P., 2003. Simulation of upper-ocean biogeochemistry with a flexible-composition phytoplankton model: C, N and Si cycling in the western Sargasso Sea. Deep-Sea Research I 50, 1445-1480]. That model, applied in the western Sargasso Sea, considered the cycles of C, N and Si in the upper 400 m and limitation of phytoplankton growth by N, Si and light. We now report a new version of this model that includes Fe cycling and Fe limitation and its application in the Southern Ocean. The model includes two phytoplankton groups, diatoms and non-siliceous forms. Uptake of NO 3- by phytoplankton is light dependent, but NH 4+, Si(OH) 4 and Fe uptake are not and can therefore continue through the night. The model tracks the resulting C/N and Fe/C ratios of both groups and Si/N ratio of diatoms, and permits uptake of C, N, Fe and Si to proceed independently when those ratios are close to those of nutrient-replete phytoplankton. When they indicate a deficiency cellular C, N, Fe or Si, uptake of the non-limiting elements is controlled by the content of the limiting element in accordance with the cell-quota formulation of [Droop, M., 1974. The nutrient status of algal cell in continuous culture. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 54, 825-855]. The model thus identifies the growth-limiting element and quantifies the degree of limitation from the elemental composition of the phytoplankton. We applied this model at the French KERFIX site in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean, using meteorological forcing for that site from 1991 to 1995. As in the Sargasso Sea application, the flexible-composition structure provides simulations that are consistent with field data with only minimal

  20. Siderite deposits in northern Italy: Early Permian to Early Triassic hydrothermalism in the Southern Alps (United States)

    Martin, Silvana; Toffolo, Luca; Moroni, Marilena; Montorfano, Carlo; Secco, Luciano; Agnini, Claudia; Nimis, Paolo; Tumiati, Simone


    We present a minero-petrographic, geochemical and geochronological study of siderite orebodies from different localities of the Southern Alps (northern Italy). Siderite occurs as veins cutting the Variscan basement and the overlying Lower Permian volcano-sedimentary cover (Collio Fm.), and as both veins and conformable stratabound orebodies in the Upper Permian (Verrucano Lombardo and Bellerophon Fms.) and Lower Triassic (Servino and Werfen Fms.) sedimentary sequences of the Lombardian and the Venetian Alps. All types of deposits show similar major- and rare-earth (REE)-element patterns, suggesting a common iron-mineralizing event. The compositions of coexisting siderite, Fe-rich dolomite and calcite suggest formation from hydrothermal fluids at relatively high temperature conditions (≥ 250 °C). Geochemical modelling, supported by REE analyses and by literature and new δ13C and δ18O isotopic data, suggests that fluids responsible for the formation of siderite in the Variscan basement and in the overlying Lower Permian cover were derived from dominant fresh water, which leached Fe and C from volcanic rocks (mainly rhyolites/rhyodacites) and organic carbon-bearing continental sediments. On the basis of U-Th-Pb microchemical dating of uraninite associated with siderite in the Val Vedello and Novazza deposits (Lombardian Alps), the onset of hydrothermalism is constrained to 275 ± 13 Ma (Early-Mid Permian), i.e., it was virtually contemporaneous to the plutonism and the volcanic-sedimentary cycle reported in the same area (Orobic Basin). The youngest iron-mineralizing event is represented by siderite veins and conformable orebodies hosted in Lower Triassic shallow-marine carbonatic successions. In this case, the siderite-forming fluids contained a seawater component, interacted with the underlying Permian successions and eventually replaced the marine carbonates at temperatures of ≥ 250 °C. The absence of siderite in younger rocks suggests an Early Triassic

  1. The Southern Baja - Islas Marías - Sinaloa Transect: What is common? What was moving? (United States)

    Schaaf, P. E.; Perez-Venzor, J.; Solis, G.; Hernandez, T.; Arrieta, G. F.; Pompa, V.; Villanueva, D.


    The Gulf of California extensional province constitutes an issue of ongoing multidiscipline investigations. It is considered as a result of late Miocene to Pliocene faulting and 'Comondu-type' magmatism related to Pacific-North America plate boundary motions. Transtensional faulting has rifted Baja California obliquely away from mainland Mexico over the past 12 Ma. To understand these processes and to reconstruct transportation distances, it is helpful to look back into the past. In this contribution we present a V-shaped lithological and geochronological profile, starting from the Los Cabos Block, Baja California Sur to the west, passing southerly Islas Marias Islands in the mouth of the Gulf and ending in south-central Sinaloa (Mazatlan region) to the east. All three locations display 80 Ma plutonic rocks of granodioritic to tonalitic compositions with similar Sr and Nd isotope signatures. Voluminous to minor shaped early Cretaceous gabbro outcrops are found south of La Paz (Novillo Massif) and ca. 30 km N of Mazatlan. The basement of the three sites is composed of 160-170 Ma (+/- migmatitic) orthogneisses, covered by schists and paragneisses with detrital zircon peaks at ca. 260, 520, and 1000 Ma. Abundant calc-silicates are found in the southern Los Cabos Block as well as on Maria Madre Island. Sandstones and shales from Islas Marias can be divided into two units with minimum detrital zircon ages of 80 Ma and 21 Ma, respectively. The micropaleontological record in these sediments indicates repeated uplift and subsidence events, related to the opening of the Gulf of California. In Maria Magdalena island, the sedimentary sequence is intruded in sills by Islas Marias rock units give strong evidence for their common and continuous magmatic and metamorphic evolution and confirm a 400-450 km NW displacement of southern Baja. Larger offsets are difficult to constrain from geological and paleomagnetic data. Southern Baja granitoids belong to the Cordilleran batholitic

  2. The use of kelp sieve tube sap metal composition to characterize urban runoff in southern California coastal waters. (United States)

    Fink, Laurel A; Manley, Steven L


    This study introduces an innovative method for biomonitoring using giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) sieve tube sap (STS) metal concentrations as an indication of pollution influence. STS was sampled from fronds collected from 10 southern California locations, including two reference sites on Santa Catalina Island. Using ICP-MS methodology, STS concentrations of 17 different metals were measured (n=495). Several metals associated with pollution showed the highest STS concentrations and most seasonal variation from populations inside the Port of Los Angeles/Long Beach. Lowest concentrations were measured at less-urbanized areas: Santa Catalina Island and Malibu. Some metals showed a spatial gradient in STS metal concentration with increasing distance from point sources (i.e. Los Angeles River). Cluster analyses indicate that polluted seawater may affect kelp uptake of metals essential for cellular function. Results show that this method can be useful in describing bioavailable metal pollution with implications for accumulation within an important ecosystem.

  3. The effect of Kuroshio Current on nitrate dynamics in the southern East China Sea revealed by nitrate isotopic composition (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Wu, Zaixing; Yuan, Yongquan; Zhou, Peng; Cao, Xihua


    In spring 2014 (May-June), in the southern East China Sea (ECS) and east of Taiwan, nutrient and isotope samples were collected and analyzed. Also, dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll-a, and physical parameters were determined. The Kuroshio subsurface water intruded into the ECS and separated into two branches on the continental shelf: the nearshore Kuroshio branch current (NKBC) and the offshore Kuroshio branch current (OKBC). Nitrate concentration in the Kuroshio subsurface water slightly decreased east of Taiwan by assimilation and was supplied by upwelling currents northeast of Taiwan. The variations of DO, nitrate, and nitrogen isotopes in the bottom water showed that continuous nitrification occurred in the NKBC after intrusion into the ECS. This process might contribute to the hypoxia zone near the coast of Zhejiang Province, China. Our results also indicated that internal nitrogen cycles appeared in NKBC since the isotope fractionation ratio of oxygen and nitrogen (18ɛ:15ɛ) in NO3- was 1.40. The NO3- flux and budget were calculated in the NKBC via numerical simulations. It demonstrated that at least ˜0.52 kmol NO3-·s-1 was produced by nitrification from DH9 to DH5 transect, and ˜0.11 kmol NO3-·s-1 was consumed in the DH4 transect. Moreover, according to the Rayleigh model, primary production in most of southern ECS was supported by the intrusion of the Kuroshio subsurface water, causing 5‰ isotope fractionation. In some of nearshore stations which located in the northern investigated area, the assimilated nitrate was contributed from both the NKBC and coastal currents originated from the Changjiang diluted water.

  4. Geological differentiation explains diversity and composition of fish communities in upland streams in the southern Amazon of Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbeláez, F.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Maldonado-Ocampo, J.A.


    Fish biomass, species richness and composition were compared between upland streams draining two contrasting geological units (Pebas and Tsa) in Colombian Amazonia. Because Pebas sediments reportedly show higher levels of base concentrations than Tsa sediments, we expected that the fish communities

  5. Composition of diatom communities and their contribution to plankton biomass in the naturally iron-fertilized region of Kerguelen in the Southern Ocean. (United States)

    Lasbleiz, Marine; Leblanc, Karine; Armand, Leanne K; Christaki, Urania; Georges, Clément; Obernosterer, Ingrid; Quéguiner, Bernard


    In the naturally iron-fertilized surface waters of the northern Kerguelen Plateau region, the early spring diatom community composition and contribution to plankton carbon biomass were investigated and compared with the high nutrient, low chlorophyll (HNLC) surrounding waters. The large iron-induced blooms were dominated by small diatom species belonging to the genera Chaetoceros (Hyalochaete) and Thalassiosira, which rapidly responded to the onset of favorable light-conditions in the meander of the Polar Front. In comparison, the iron-limited HNLC area was typically characterized by autotrophic nanoeukaryote-dominated communities and by larger and more heavily silicified diatom species (e.g. Fragilariopsis spp.). Our results support the hypothesis that diatoms are valuable vectors of carbon export to depth in naturally iron-fertilized systems of the Southern Ocean. Furthermore, our results corroborate observations of the exported diatom assemblage from a sediment trap deployed in the iron-fertilized area, whereby the dominant Chaetoceros (Hyalochaete) cells were less efficiently exported than the less abundant, yet heavily silicified, cells of Thalassionema nitzschioides and Fragilariopsis kerguelensis Our observations emphasize the strong influence of species-specific diatom cell properties combined with trophic interactions on matter export efficiency, and illustrate the tight link between the specific composition of phytoplankton communities and the biogeochemical properties characterizing the study area.

  6. Large-Eddy Simulation of Shallow Cumulus over Land: A Composite Case Based on ARM Long-Term Observations at Its Southern Great Plains Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yunyan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Klein, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Fan, Jiwen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Chandra, Arunchandra S. [Division of Meteorology and Physical Oceanography, University of Miami, Miami, Florida; Kollias, Pavlos [School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York; Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Tang, Shuaiqi [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California


    Based on long-term observations by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program at its Southern Great Plains site, a new composite case of continental shallow cumulus (ShCu) convection is constructed for large-eddy simulations (LES) and single-column models. The case represents a typical daytime non-precipitating ShCu whose formation and dissipation are driven by the local atmospheric conditions and land-surface forcing, and are not influenced by synoptic weather events. The case includes: early-morning initial profiles of temperature and moisture with a residual layer; diurnally-varying sensible and latent heat fluxes which represent a domain average over different land-surface types; simplified large-scale horizontal advective tendencies and subsidence; and horizontal winds with prevailing direction and average speed. Observed composite cloud statistics are provided for model evaluation. The observed diurnal cycle is well-reproduced by LES, however the cloud amount, liquid water path, and shortwave radiative effect are generally underestimated. LES are compared between simulations with an all-or-nothing bulk microphysics and a spectral bin microphysics. The latter shows improved agreement with observations in the total cloud cover and the amount of clouds with depths greater than 300 meters. When compared with radar retrievals of in-cloud air motion, LES produce comparable downdraft vertical velocities, but a larger updraft area, velocity and updraft mass flux. Both observation and LES show a significantly larger in-cloud downdraft fraction and downdraft mass flux than marine ShCu.

  7. A Fresh Plutonic Igneous Angrite Containing Grain Boundary Glass From Tamassint, Northwest Africa (United States)

    Irving, A. J.; Kuehner, S. M.; Rumble, D.


    Tamassint Angrite: A small fragmented stone found in June 2006 south of Tamassint oasis in the Morocco-Algeria border region represents a new type of angrite lithology, unlike the coarse grained metamorphic or fine grained "basaltic" to quench-textured examples known previously. This extremely fresh, fusion-crusted specimen has a coarse grained (0.6-12 mm) plutonic igneous cumulate texture, and is composed of Al-Ti-rich clinopyroxene (33.4%), pure anorthite (28.6%), Ca-rich olivine (18.7%) with prominent exsolution lamellae (10-50 μm wide) of kirschsteinite, ulvöspinel (18.5%), and accessory glass, troilite and metal. Subhedral anorthite grains are partially enclosed within larger ulvöspinel grains. Mineral compositions are as follows: clinopyroxene (Fs20.8-33.3Wo53-54.9, Al2O3 = 5.7 to 9.4 wt.%, TiO2 = 0.9 to 2.9 wt.%, FeO/MnO = 85-278), olivine (Fa72.6-74.7Ln3.5-3.6, CaO = 2.1 wt.%, FeO/MnO = 70-87), kirschsteinite (Fa44.7-45.4Ln46-47.2, FeO/MnO = 73-82), ulvöspinel (TiO2 = 27.6 wt.%, Al2O3 = 5.5 wt.%). Reintegration of the kirschsteinite lamellae gives a pre-exsolution olivine composition of Fa68.1Ln12.2 with 7.3 wt.% CaO. Present along grain boundaries (notably between anorthite and ulvöspinel) are narrow (5-20 μm) curvilinear zones of glass associated with secondary kirschteinite, clinopyroxene and olivine (which show similar curvilinear morphology and truncate kirschsteinite lamellae). Glass compositions plot close to a mixing line between anorthite and ulvöspinel. Replicate oxygen isotopic analyses of acid-washed minerals by laser fluorination gave δ18O = 3.881, 3.845, δ17O = 1.967, 1.927, Δ17O = -0.0745, -0.0956 per mil (for TFL slope = 0.526). Comparison With NWA 2999: We previously showed [1] that angrite Northwest Africa 2999 is a metamorphically annealed breccia with distinctive symplectites and coronas representing forward and reverse versions of the same solid state reaction. We suggested that these disequilibrium textures required burial

  8. Investigating late Holocene variations in hydroclimate and the stable isotope composition of precipitation using southern South American peatlands: a hypothesis


    T. J. Daley; Mauquoy, D.; F.M. Chambers


    Ombrotrophic raised peatlands provide an ideal archive for integrating late Holocene records of variations in hydroclimate and the estimated stable isotope composition of precipitation with recent instrumental measurements. Modern measurements of mean monthly surface air temperature, precipitation and δD and δ18O values in precipitation from the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries provide a short but invaluable record w...

  9. Investigating late Holocene variations in hydroclimate and the stable isotope composition of precipitation using southern South American peatlands: an hypothesis


    T. J. Daley; Mauquoy, D.; F.M. Chambers; Street-Perrott, F. A.; Hughes, P.D.M.; Loader, N.J.; Roland, T. P.; Bellen, S.; Garcia-Meneses, P.; S Lewin


    Ombrotrophic raised peatlands provide an ideal archive for integrating late Holocene records of variations in hydroclimate and the estimated stable isotope composition of precipitation with recent instrumental measurements. Modern measurements of mean monthly surface air temperature, precipitation, and δD and δ18O-values in precipitation from the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries provide a short but invaluable record with which to inves...

  10. Oil composition and genetic biodiversity of ancient and new olive (Olea europea L.) varieties and accessions of southern Italy. (United States)

    Cicatelli, Angela; Fortunati, Tancredi; De Feis, Italia; Castiglione, Stefano


    The present study is focused on determining the olive oil fatty acid composition of ancient and recent varieties of the Campania region (Italy), but also on molecularly characterizing the most common cultivated varieties in the same region, together with olive trees of the garden of the University Campus of Salerno and of three olive groves of south Italy. Fatty acid methyl esters in the extra virgin oil derived olive fruits were determined, during three consecutive harvests, by gas chromatography. The statistical analysis on fatty acid composition was performed with the ffmanova package. The genetic biodiversity of the olive collection was estimated by using eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and calculating the most commonly used indexes. "Dice index" was employed to estimate the similarity level of the analysed olive samples, while the Structure software to infer their genetic structure. The fatty acid content of extra virgin olive oils, produced from the two olive groves in Campania, suggests that the composition is mainly determined by genotype and not by cultural practices or climatic conditions. Furthermore, the analysis conducted on the molecular data revealed the presence of 100 distinct genotypes and seven homonymies out of the 136 analysed trees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Post-collisional polycyclic plutonism from the Zagros hinterland: the Shaivar Dagh plutonic complex, Alborz belt, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghazadeh, Mehraj; Castro, Antonio; Badrzadeh, Zahra; Vogt, Katharina


    The petrological and geochronological study of the Cenozoic Shaivar Dagh composite intrusion in the Alborz Mountain belt (NW Iran) reveals important clues to decipher complex relations between magmatic and tectonic processes in the central sectors of the Tethyan (Alpine–Himalayan) orogenic belt. Thi

  12. Biochemical composition of seven species of cyanobacteria isolated from different aquatic habitats of Western Ghats, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanth Rama Rajeshwari


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the biochemical constituents of seven species of cyanobacteria namely, Calothrix fusca, Gloeocapsa livida, Lyngbya limnetica and Scytonema bohneri isolated from Panekal sulfur spring. The species namely, Oscillatoria acuminata from petrochemical refinery, O. calcuttensis from dairy effluent and O. foreaui from a sewage drain located in the Western Ghats of Southern India under laboratory culture conditions. The biochemical constituents were analyzed in terms of total carbohydrates, total protein, total free amino acid, total lipid, fatty acid and mineral contents. The analysis showed that maximum amount of total carbohydrate in S. bohneri (28.4% dry weight and minimum in O. foreaui (8.0% of dry weight. Maximum amount of total protein and total free amino acid were in O. foreaui (7% of dry weight. O. calcuttensis showed higher amount of total lipid (20% dry weight. A total of 12 types of fatty acids were detected among which lauric acid was in highest quantity in all the seven species. Among the polyunsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid was present in all the species ranging from 1.68 to 3.89%. O. foreaui showed highest quantities of copper, manganese, ferrous and zinc. Nickel was maximum in S. bohneri (11.05 µgmL-1. O. acuminata showed highest quantity of magnesium (21.050 mg g-1 and it was least in O. foreaui (12.812 mg g-1.

  13. Texture and composition of the Rosa Marina beach sands (Adriatic coast, southern Italy: a sedimentological/ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti Massimo


    Full Text Available Beach sands from the Rosa Marina locality (Adriatic coast, southern Italy were analysed mainly microscopically in order to trace the source areas of their lithoclastic and bioclastic components. The main cropping out sedimentary units were also studied with the objective to identify the potential source areas of lithoclasts. This allowed to establish how the various rock units contribute to the formation of beach sands. The analysis of the bioclastic components allows to estimate the actual role of organisms regarding the supply of this material to the beach. Identification of taxa that are present in the beach sands as shell fragments or other remains was carried out at the genus or family level. Ecological investigation of the same beach and the recognition of sub-environments (mainly distinguished on the basis of the nature of the substrate and of the water depth was the key topic that allowed to establish the actual source areas of bioclasts in the Rosa Marina beach sands. The sedimentological analysis (including a physical study of the beach and the calculation of some statistical parameters concerning the grain-size curves shows that the Rosa Marina beach is nowadays subject to erosion.

  14. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Memory Pieces are open compositions to be realised solo by an improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them...

  15. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl


    New Year is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. It is included in "From the Danish Seasons" (see under this title). See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You...

  16. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl


    Strategies are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them in full...

  17. Magnetic properties of ilmenite-hematite single crystals from the Ecstall pluton near Prince Rupert, British Columbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownlee, Sarah J.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Kasama, Takeshi


    and hematite, the primary paleomagnetic recorder in the Ecstall pluton. Measurements of hysteresis properties, low-temperature remanence, and room temperature isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition and observations from magnetic force microscopy and off-axis electron holography indicate that samples...

  18. Sample-scale zircon geochemical and geochronological heterogeneities as indicators of residual liquid infiltration events in the incrementally assembled Caleu Pluton, Central Chile (United States)

    Molina, P. G.; Parada, M. A.; Gutiérrez, F. J.; Ma, C.; Li, J.; Liu, Y.


    The Upper Cretaceous metaluminous Caleu Pluton is emplaced at a depth equivalent of 2kbar and consists of four lithological zones: the Gabbro-Dioritic Zone (GDZ), the Quartz-Monzodioritic Zone (QMDZ), the Granodioritic Zone (GZ) and the Monzogranitic Zone (MGZ). The zones would have been fed from a deeper magma reservoir emplaced at a 4 kbar. U238/Pb206 LA-ICP-MS geochronology of zircon grains of the four lithological zones (82 analyzed spots, 4 samples) indicates a maximum zircon crystallization range of ca. 106-91 Ma for the pluton as a whole. The U-Pb zircon age distribution of the four samples shows three inflection points at about 101, 99 and 96 Ma, separating four zircon crystallization events with the following weighted average ages and 2σ confidence intervals: 103.×1.6 Ma (n=4), 100.3×0.68 Ma (n=14), 97.49×0.49 Ma (n=25) and 94.66×0.44 Ma (n=30). The GDZ sample records the first three events, the GZ and QMDZ samples record the last three events while the MGZ only have zircons formed during the last two events. It is interesting to note that the youngest event of zircon formation coincide with the Ar/Ar cooling ages (95-93 Ma) previously obtained in hornblende, biotite and plagioclase of the four lithological zones, as a consequence of a rapid pluton exhumation. Temperatures of zircon crystallization (Ti-in-Zrn) obtained in each sample are variable and roughly lower than the zircon saturation temperatures. Most of the Ti-in-Zrn temperatures indicate late-stage crystallization conditions, consistent with the calculated melt composition from which zircons would have crystallized and the observed coexistence of zircons with quartz-orthoclase symplectites, hornblende and interstitial anhedral biotite. There are variable and overlapped total incompatible element concentrations in zircons of the four lithological zones regardless its age and Ti-in-Zrn temperatures, indicating that the melts from which zircon crystallized at different moments, were equivalent

  19. Middle Triassic magma mixing in an active continental margin: Evidence from mafic enclaves and host granites from the Dewulu pluton in West Qinling, central China (United States)

    Huang, X.; Mo, X.; Yu, X.


    The Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen was formed through the collision of the North and South China blocks, but the precise timing of the closure of the Paleo-Tethys ocean between the two blocks remains debated. Large volumes of Triassic granites associated with mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) were emplaced in the Qinling terrane. This paper presents field observations, petrography, geochronology and geochemistry of the MMEs and their host granites from the Dewulu pluton in West Qinling. The host rocks comprise granodiorite and granodioritic porphyry, and the The MMEs range in composition from gabbroic diorite to diorite. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages suggest that the granites and MMEs were coeval at ca. 245 Ma. The granites are relatively enriched in LILE and depleted in HFSE, and have evolved Sr-Nd-Pb and zircon Hf isotopic compositions [initial 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7070-0.7076, ɛNd(t) = -7.5 to -6.8, ɛHf(t) = -8.2 to -4.2], indicative of an origin from the amphibolitic lower crust. The near-primitive gabbro-dioritic MMEs bear a remarkable geochemical resemblance to the high-magnesium andesite (HMA), such as moderate SiO2 (~55 wt.%), low FeOT/MgO (~0.75), high Cr (268-308 ppm) and MgO (8.58-8.77 wt.%) with Mg# of ~70. Additionally, they exhibit lower initial 87Sr/86Sr, higher ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t), and more radiogenic Pb isotopes than the dioritic MMEs which share similar isotopic compositions with the granites. These features, together with the presence of the specific minerals in the MMEs (e.g., felsic xenocrysts and acicular apatite), point to mixing process between the lower crust-derived magmas and the melts produced by the reaction of the subducting sediment-derived components and the overlying mantle. Taking into account the regional occurrence of synchronous plutonic-volcanic complexes (250-234 Ma) ranging from basaltic to granitic variants, we suggest that the Dewulu pluton formed in an active continental margin in response to the local extension triggered by the

  20. Nutrient composition and nutritional importance of green leaves and wild food resources in an agricultural district, Koutiala, in southern Mali. (United States)

    Nordeide, M B; Hatløy, A; Følling, M; Lied, E; Oshaug, A


    This paper discusses the nutrient composition and the nutritional importance of green leaves and wild gathered foods in an area with surplus food production in Mali. In this West African country, there is little information about the nutrient composition and the nutritional quality of foods in general, and of wild gathered foods in particular. Food frequency was collected in two cross-sectional surveys. Focus group discussions with women in the area were used to collect information about seasonality, availability and preparation of various foods. Selected food samples were collected for chemical analysis of nutrient composition. The food samples of green leaves (Adansonia digitata, Amaranthus viridis, Tamarindus indica, Allium cepa), seeds and flour (Parkia biglobosa) and fruits (Tamarindus indica) were analysed for water, energy, fat, protein, minerals, amino acids and carotenoids. Availability and use of the foods varied with seasons. In the rainy season, wild gathered foods (e.g. A. digitata) were used as much as fresh cultivated foods (e.g., A. viridis and A. cepa). The wild food resources were more frequently used in rural than in urban areas, with A. digitata as the dominating green leaves. Green leaves were rich in energy, protein and minerals (calcium, iron). Leaves of A. viridis were, in particular, rich in beta-carotene (3290 micrograms/100 g). Chemical score in dried green leaves varied from 47 (A. cepa) to 81 (A. digitata), with lysine as the first limiting amino acid. P. biglobosa fermented seeds, with 35% fat and 37% protein were a complementary source of lysine in the diet. Based on the seasonality, the frequency of use and the nutrient contents of selected green leaves and wild gathered foods in Koutiala district, it is concluded that these traditional and locally produced foods are valuable and important nutrient contributors in the diet both in rural and urban areas, but most important in rural areas.

  1. Impact of moisture source regions on the isotopic composition of precipitation events at high-mountain continental site Kasprowy Wierch, southern Poland (United States)

    Rozanski, Kazimierz; Chmura, Lukasz; Dulinski, Marek


    Five-year record of deuterium and oxygen-18 isotope composition of precipitation events collected on top of the Kasprowy Wierch mountain (49° 14'N, 19° 59'E, 1989 m a.s.l.) located in north-western High Tatra mountain ridge, southern Poland, is presented and discussed. In total 670 precipitation samples have been collected and analysed. Stable isotope composition of the analysed precipitation events varied in a wide range, from -2.9 to -26.6‰ for δ18O and from -7 to -195 ‰ for δ2H. The local meteoric water line (LMWL) defined by single events data (δ2H=(7.86±0.05)δ18O+(12.9±0.6) deviate significantly from the analogous line defined by monthly composite precipitation data available for IAEA/GNIP station Krakow-Balice (50o04'N, 19o55'E, 220 m a.s.l.), located ca. 100 km north of Kasprowy Wierch ((δ2H=(7.82±0.11)δ18O+(6.9±1.1). While slopes of those two LMWLs are statistically indistinguishable, the intercept of Kasprowy Wierch line is almost two times higher that that characterizing Krakow monthly precipitation. This is well-documented effect associated with much higher elevation of Kasprowy Wierch sampling site when compared to Krakow. The isotope data for Kasprowy Wierch correlate significantly with air temperature, with the slope of the regression line being equal 0.35±0.02 ‰oC for δ18O, whereas no significant correlation with precipitation amount could be established. The impact of moisture source regions on the isotopic composition of precipitation events collected at Kasprowy Wierch site was analysed using HYSPLITE back trajectory model. Five-days back trajectories were calculated for all analysed precipitation events and seasonal maps of trajectory distribution were produced. They illustrate changes in the prevailing transport patterns of air masses bringing precipitation to the sampling site. Back trajectories for the events yielding extreme isotopic composition of precipitation collected at Kasprowy Wierch were analyzed in detail

  2. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of the youngest exposed pluton in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Analysis using the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) shows that the Yongsheng pluton, located to the south of Huadian County, Jilin Province, in the North China Craton, has a zircon U-Pb isotopic emplacement age of (31.6±13) Ma. It is therefore the youngest exposed pluton so far recognized in eastern China. Although geochemical data indicate intensive crystal fractionation, the Sr-Nd isotopic features suggest that the magmatic source region of the lithospheric mantle was weakly depleted. This implies that the previous enriched lithospheric mantle had been replaced by juvenile asthenospheric mantle before or during the Palaeogene. This recognition has great significance for future work on the Mesozoic-Cenozoic geological evolution and deep geological processes in eastern China.

  3. Late Pleistocene pluton formation during the waning stages of the Altiplano-Puna ignimbrite flare-up (United States)

    Tierney, C. R.; Schmitt, A. K.; Lovera, O. M.; de Silva, S. L.


    The latest phase of volcanism during the late Mio- to Pleistocene ignimbrite flare-up in the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex consists of a series of late Pleistocene lava domes (Chao, Chillahuita, Chanka, Chascon-Runtu Jarita, and Tocopuri) which are distributed over a roughly elliptical area of ~2,000 km2. With a collective volume of ~40 km3, these represent a waning of magmatic activity from the peak of the flare-up. Zircon chronochemistry and zircon age spectra were modeled using a finite-difference thermal- and mass-balance model for open-system magma evolution (recharge-assimilation-fractional crystallization; RAFC) where zircon crystallization is treated in accord with experimentally calibrated zircon saturation. Zircon rims and interiors were dated (U-Th, U-Pb) for a total of 252 crystals distributed equally over the domes, with a ~50% subset also analyzed for trace elements. The domes share remarkably consistent zircon crystallization histories: the youngest zircon rim ages (ca. 83 to 104 ka) are near the 40Ar/39Ar eruption ages (ca. 87 to 120 ka; sanidine and biotite), but a significant population of rim ages predates eruption, often ranging to secular equilibrium. U-Pb interior ages of crystals with secular equilibrium rim ages date to ca. 2.0 Ma, and a single core of Chascon to 3.5 Ma. Ti-in-zircon, backed by indirectly T-dependent compositional parameters, show that zircon crystallized at steady-state in a magma reservoir with essentially insignificant (<10-4 °C/a) secular cooling. Most zircon rims postdate peak flare-up, but nevertheless record a protracted and continuous crystallization history. To match the record of zircon production, time-integrated recharge rates of ~1 ×10-3 km3/a are required. At lower rates, older zircon ages are predicted for the dominant zircon rim age population than observed. At higher rates zircon would crystallize late, resulting in a lack of antecrysts. Intermediate recharge rates that best match the data call for at

  4. The impact of geology on the migration of fluorides in mineral waters of the Bukulja and Brajkovac pluton area, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papić Petar


    Full Text Available One of the hydrogeochemical parameters that classify groundwater as mineral water is the content of fluoride ions. Their concentration is both important and limited for bottled mineral waters. Hydrochemical research of mineral waters in the surrounding area of Bukulja and Brajkovac pluton, in central Serbia, was conducted in order to define the chemical composition and genesis of these waters. They are carbonated waters, with content of fluoride ranging from 0.2 up to 6.6 mg/L. Since hydrochemical analyses showed variations in the major water chemistry, it was obvious that, apart from hydrochemical research, some explorations of the structure of the regional terrain would be inevitable. For these purposes, some additional geological research was performed, creating an adequate basis for the interpretation of the genesis of these carbonated mineral waters. The results confirmed the significance of the application of hydrochemical methods in the research of mineral waters. The work tended to emphasize that “technological treatment” for decreasing the concentration of fluoride in mineral waters occurs in nature, indicating the existence of natural defluoridization. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43004

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments from the Southern Yellow Sea: Concentration, composition profile, source identification and mass inventory. (United States)

    Wang, Guoguang; Peng, Jialin; Xu, Xiang; Zhang, Dahai; Li, Xianguo


    The Southern Yellow Sea (SYS) is believed to be influenced by the contaminants from mainland China and the Korean peninsula. Here we report the first record about concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the sediments of the SYS. The concentrations of ∑(7)PBDEs (BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183) and BDE-209 were 0.064-0.807 ng g(-1) (dry weight) and 0.067-1.961 ng g(-1) with a mean value of 0.245 ng g(-1) and 0.652 ng g(-1), respectively. These are distinctively low compared with the PBDE levels previously reported in other regions of the world. PBDE concentrations gradually increased from the coastal areas to the central mud area. BDE-209 was the dominant congener, accounting for 70.2-91.6% of the total PBDEs. Congener profiles of PBDEs were similar to those in sediments from the Bohai Sea (BS), Laizhou Bay and modern Yellow River, which might be a tentative indication that they shared similar sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that PBDEs in the SYS were mainly from continental runoff (69.0%) and atmospheric deposition (31.0%). Depth profile of PBDEs in a sediment core collected from the edge of the central mud area showed that concentration of BDE-209 rapidly increased in recent years, which is in accordance with the replacement in demand and consumption of Penta- and Octa-BDEs by the Deca-BDE. Compared with BS, East China Sea, Erie and Ontario, the SYS was a relatively weak sink of PBDEs (0.102-1.288 t yr(-1) for ∑(7)PBDEs and 0.107-3.129 t yr(-1) for BDE-209) in the world.

  6. Variation and temporal patterns in the composition of the surface ichthyoplankton in the southern Bay of Biscay (W. Atlantic) (United States)

    d'Elbée, Jean; Castège, Iker; Hémery, Georges; Lalanne, Yann; Mouchès, Claude; Pautrizel, Françoise; D'Amico, Frank


    From September 2000 to December 2006, surface plankton samples were collected on a monthly basis, from a station located in the southern Bay of Biscay (43°37N; 1°43W France), near the deep Capbreton canyon. In this paper, the results for the ichthyoplankton assemblage are presented. Among the 62 taxa recorded, only 35 were present in the larval stage whilst only 10 were represented by their eggs. Taxa represented by both stages (eggs+larvae; N=17) had the highest abundance. The presence in the surface plankton assemblage of species, at either or both stage, is interpreted within the context of the bathymetric distribution of species. The maxima in abundance and diversity occurred in February-March, for eggs, and May-June, for larvae. This 3-month time-lag between the stages is proposed to be related to the timing of egg spawning and larval recruitment to the pelagic environment. Mean egg abundances (82.4±29.8 eggs/10 m 2) were 10-fold higher than the larval abundances (7.1±1.8 larvae/10 m 2). Despite pronounced monthly variability, no statistically significant decrease in either egg or larvae abundance was observed during this 6-year study period. Compared with previous published studies, this study shows that the peak in ichthyoplankton diversity occurred two months earlier. In addition, the spawning period occurred over the whole year, even during autumn and winter. Using ordination techniques, the annual sequence appearance of taxa are described at the study site: Gadiforms, Ammodytidae and Pleuronectiforms were present during the winter whilst Sparidae, Blennidae, Labridae and Gobiidae, formed the summer group. Only three species, European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, European pilchard Sardina pilchardus and Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus were recorded throughout the year.

  7. Petrology, Magnetic susceptibility, Tectonic setting and mineralization associated with Plutonic and Volcanic Rocks, Eastern Bajestan and Taherabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Ghoorchi


    Full Text Available Study area is located in district of Bajestan and Ferdows cities, NE of Iran. Structurally, this area is part of Lut block. The oldest exposed rocks, to the north of intrusive rocks and in Eastern Bajestan, are meta-chert, slate, quartzite, thin-bedded crystalline limestone and meta-argillite. The sedimentary units are: Sardar Formation (Carboniferous, Jamal Formation (Permian, Sorkh Shale and Shotori Formations (Triassic, carbonateous rocks (Cretaceous and lithostratigraphically equivalent to Kerman conglomerate (Cretaceous-Paleocene are exposed in this area. Based on relative age, magmatism in eastern Bajestan and Taherabad started after Late Cretaceous and it has been active and repeated during Tertiary time. At least, three episodes of volcanic activities are recognized in this area. The first stage was mainly volcanic flow with mafic composition and minor intermediate. The second episode was mainly intermediate in composition. The third stage was changed to acid-intermediate in composition. Since the plutonic rocks intruded the volcanic rocks, therefore they may be Oligo-Miocene age. Bajestan intrusive rocks are granite-granodiorite-quartz monzonite. Taherabad intrusive rocks are diorite-quartz diorite- monzonite-latite. Bajestan intrusive rocks are reduced type (ilmenite series and Taherabad intrusive rocks are oxidized type (magnetite series.Based on geochemical analysis including trace elements, REE and isotopic data, Bajestan intrusive rocks formed in continental collision zone and the magma has crustal origin. Taherabad intrusive rocks were formed in subduction zone and magma originated from oceanic crust. Taherabad intrusive rock has exploration potential for Cu-Au and pb.

  8. Composition, production and procurement of glass at San Vincenzo Al Volturno: an early Medieval monastic complex in Southern Italy. (United States)

    Schibille, Nadine; Freestone, Ian C


    136 glasses from the ninth-century monastery of San Vincenzo and its workshops have been analysed by electron microprobe in order to situate the assemblage within the first millennium CE glass making tradition. The majority of the glass compositions can be paralleled by Roman glass from the first to third centuries, with very few samples consistent with later compositional groups. Colours for trailed decoration on vessels, for vessel bodies and for sheet glass for windows were largely produced by melting the glass tesserae from old Roman mosaics. Some weakly-coloured transparent glass was obtained by re-melting Roman window glass, while some was produced by melting and mixing of tesserae, excluding the strongly coloured cobalt blues. Our data suggest that to feed the needs of the glass workshop, the bulk of the glass was removed as tesserae and windows from a large Roman building. This is consistent with a historical account according to which the granite columns of the monastic church were spolia from a Roman temple in the region. The purported shortage of natron from Egypt does not appear to explain the dependency of San Vincenzo on old Roman glass. Rather, the absence of contemporary primary glass may reflect the downturn in long-distance trade in the later first millennium C.E., and the role of patronage in the "ritual economy" founded upon donations and gift-giving of the time.

  9. Composition, production and procurement of glass at San Vincenzo Al Volturno: an early Medieval monastic complex in Southern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schibille

    Full Text Available 136 glasses from the ninth-century monastery of San Vincenzo and its workshops have been analysed by electron microprobe in order to situate the assemblage within the first millennium CE glass making tradition. The majority of the glass compositions can be paralleled by Roman glass from the first to third centuries, with very few samples consistent with later compositional groups. Colours for trailed decoration on vessels, for vessel bodies and for sheet glass for windows were largely produced by melting the glass tesserae from old Roman mosaics. Some weakly-coloured transparent glass was obtained by re-melting Roman window glass, while some was produced by melting and mixing of tesserae, excluding the strongly coloured cobalt blues. Our data suggest that to feed the needs of the glass workshop, the bulk of the glass was removed as tesserae and windows from a large Roman building. This is consistent with a historical account according to which the granite columns of the monastic church were spolia from a Roman temple in the region. The purported shortage of natron from Egypt does not appear to explain the dependency of San Vincenzo on old Roman glass. Rather, the absence of contemporary primary glass may reflect the downturn in long-distance trade in the later first millennium C.E., and the role of patronage in the "ritual economy" founded upon donations and gift-giving of the time.

  10. Erupted frothy xenoliths may explain lack of country-rock fragments in plutons (United States)

    Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R.; Schmeling, Harro; Koyi, Hemin; Blythe, Lara


    Magmatic stoping is discussed to be a main mechanism of magma emplacement. As a consequence of stoping, abundant country-rock fragments should occur within, and at the bottom of, magma reservoirs as “xenolith graveyards”, or become assimilated. However, the common absence of sufficient amounts of both xenoliths and crustal contamination have led to intense controversy about the efficiency of stoping. Here, we present new evidence that may explain the absence of abundant country-rock fragments in plutons. We report on vesiculated crustal xenoliths in volcanic rocks that experienced devolatilisation during heating and partial melting when entrained in magma. We hypothesise that the consequential inflation and density decrease of the xenoliths allowed them to rise and become erupted instead of being preserved in the plutonic record. Our thermomechanical simulations of this process demonstrate that early-stage xenolith sinking can be followed by the rise of a heated, partially-molten xenolith towards the top of the reservoir. There, remnants may disintegrate and mix with resident magma or erupt. Shallow-crustal plutons emplaced into hydrous country rocks may therefore not necessarily contain evidence of the true amount of magmatic stoping during their emplacement. Further studies are needed to quantify the importance of frothy xenolith in removing stoped material.

  11. Two stages of isotopic exchanges experienced by the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    18O/16O and D/H of coexisting feldspar, quartz, and biotite separates of twenty samples collected from the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang, China are determined. It is shown that the Ertaibei pluton experienced two stages of isotopic exchanges. The second stage of 18O/16O and D/H exchanges with meteoric water brought about a marked decrease in the δ18O values of feldspar and biotite from the second group of samples. The D/H of biotite exhibits a higher sensitivity to the meteoric water alteration than its 18O/16O. However, the first stage of 18O/16O exchange with the 18O-rich aqueous fluid derived from the dehydration within the deep crust caused the δ18OQuartz-Feldspar reversal. It is inferred that the dehydration-melting may have been an important mechanism for anatexis. It is shown that the deep fluid encircled the Ertaibei pluton like an envelope which serves as an effective screen to the surface waters.

  12. Two stages of isotopic exchanges experienced by the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    18O/16O and D/H of coexisting feldspar, quartz, and biotite separates of twenty samples collected from the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang, China are determined. It is shown that the Ertaibei pluton experienced two stages of isotopic exchanges. The second stage of 18O/16O and D/H exchanges with meteoric water brought about a marked decrease in the δ18O values of feldspar and biotite from the second group of samples. The D/H of biotite exhibits a higher sensitivity to the meteoric water alteration than its 18O/16O. However, the first stage of 18O/16O exchange with the 18O-rich aqueous fluid derived from the dehydration within the deep crust caused the Δ18OQuariz-Feidspar reversal. It is inferred that the dehydration-melting may have been an important mechanism for anatexis. It is shown that the deep fluid encircled the Ertaibei pluton like an envelope which serves as an effective screen to the surface waters.

  13. Erupted frothy xenoliths may explain lack of country-rock fragments in plutons. (United States)

    Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R; Schmeling, Harro; Koyi, Hemin; Blythe, Lara


    Magmatic stoping is discussed to be a main mechanism of magma emplacement. As a consequence of stoping, abundant country-rock fragments should occur within, and at the bottom of, magma reservoirs as "xenolith graveyards", or become assimilated. However, the common absence of sufficient amounts of both xenoliths and crustal contamination have led to intense controversy about the efficiency of stoping. Here, we present new evidence that may explain the absence of abundant country-rock fragments in plutons. We report on vesiculated crustal xenoliths in volcanic rocks that experienced devolatilisation during heating and partial melting when entrained in magma. We hypothesise that the consequential inflation and density decrease of the xenoliths allowed them to rise and become erupted instead of being preserved in the plutonic record. Our thermomechanical simulations of this process demonstrate that early-stage xenolith sinking can be followed by the rise of a heated, partially-molten xenolith towards the top of the reservoir. There, remnants may disintegrate and mix with resident magma or erupt. Shallow-crustal plutons emplaced into hydrous country rocks may therefore not necessarily contain evidence of the true amount of magmatic stoping during their emplacement. Further studies are needed to quantify the importance of frothy xenolith in removing stoped material.

  14. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils from Two Species of Thymus Growing Wild in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Senatore


    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of the aerial parts of two samples of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl, collected in Campania and in Sicily, and two samples of Thymus pulegioides L. from the same regions, were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed. Considering the four oils together, seventy-eight different compounds were identified: 57 for Thymus longicaulis from Sicily (91.1% of the total oil, 40 for Thymus longicaulis from Campania (91.5% of the oil, 39 for Thymus pulegioides from Sicily (92.5% of the oil and 29 for Thymus pulegioides from Campania (90.1% of the oil. The composition of the oils is different, although the most abundant components are identical in T. pulegioides. The essential oils showed antibacterial activity against eight selected microorganisms.

  15. Future species composition will affect forest water use after loss of eastern hemlock from southern Appalachian forests. (United States)

    Brantley, Steven; Ford, Chelcy R; Vose, James M


    Infestation of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) with hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae) has caused widespread mortality of this key canopy species throughout much of the southern Appalachian Mountains in the past decade. Because eastern hemlock is heavily concentrated in riparian habitats, maintains a dense canopy, and has an evergreen leaf habit, its loss is expected to have a major impact on forest processes, including transpiration (E(t)). Our goal was to estimate changes in stand-level E(t) since HWA infestation, and predict future effects of forest regeneration on forest E(t) in declining eastern hemlock stands where hemlock represented 50-60% of forest basal area. We used a combination of community surveys, sap flux measurements, and empirical models relating sap flux-scaled leaf-level transpiration (E(L)) to climate to estimate the change in E(t) after hemlock mortality and forecast how forest E(t) will change in the future in response to eastern hemlock loss. From 2004 to 2011, eastern hemlock mortality reduced annual forest E(t) by 22% and reduced winter E(t) by 74%. As hemlock mortality increased, growth of deciduous tree species--especially sweet birch (Betula lenta L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and the evergreen understory shrub rosebay rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum L.)--also increased, and these species will probably dominate post-hemlock riparian forests. All of these species have higher daytime E(L) rates than hemlock, and replacement of hemlock with species that have less conservative transpiration rates will result in rapid recovery of annual stand E(t). Further, we predict that annual stand E(t) will eventually surpass E(t) levels observed before hemlock was infested with HWA. This long-term increase in forest E(t) may eventually reduce stream discharge, especially during the growing season. However, the dominance of deciduous species in the canopy will result in a

  16. Nitrogen cycling in the Southern Ocean Kerguelen Plateau area: evidence for significant surface nitrification from nitrate isotopic compositions (United States)

    Dehairs, F.; Fripiat, F.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Trull, T. W.; Fernandez, C.; Davies, D.; Roukaerts, A.; Fonseca Batista, D.; Planchon, F.; Elskens, M.


    This paper presents whole water column data for nitrate N, O isotopic composition for the Kerguelen Plateau area and the basin extending east of Heard Island, aiming at understanding the N-cycling in this naturally iron fertilized area that is characterized by large re-current phytoplankton blooms. The KEOPS 2 expedition (October-November 2011) took place in spring season and complements knowledge gathered during an earlier summer expedition to the same area (KEOPS 1, February-March 2005). As noted by others a remarkable condition of the system is the moderate consumption of nitrate over the season (nitrate remains >20 μM) while silicic acid becomes depleted, suggesting significant recycling of nitrogen. Nitrate isotopic signatures in the upper water column do mimic this condition, with surprising overlap of spring and summer regressions of δ18ONO3 vs. δ15NNO3 isotopic compositions. These regressions obey rather closely the 18ϵ/15ϵ discrimination expected for nitrate uptake (18ϵ/15ϵ = 1), but regression slopes as large as 1.6 were observed for the mixed layer above the Kerguelen Plateau. A preliminarily mass balance calculation for the early bloom period points toward significant nitrification occurring in the mixed layer and which may be equivalent to up to 47% of nitrate uptake above the Kerguelen Plateau. A further finding concerns deep ocean low δ18ONO3 values (Polar Front Zone and which cannot be explained by remineralization and nitrification of the local particulate nitrogen flux, which is too small in magnitude. However, the studied area is characterized by a complex recirculation pattern that would keep deep waters in the area and could impose a seasonally integrated signature of surface water processes on the deep waters.

  17. Nitrogen cycling in the Southern Ocean Kerguelen Plateau area: evidence for significant surface nitrification from nitrate isotopic compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dehairs


    Full Text Available This paper presents whole water column data for nitrate N, O isotopic composition for the Kerguelen Plateau area and the basin extending east of the island, aiming at understanding the N-cycling in this naturally iron fertilized area that is characterized by large re-current phytoplankton blooms. The KEOPS 2 expedition (October–November 2011 took place in spring season and complements knowledge gathered during an earlier summer expedition to the same area (KEOPS 1, February–March 2005. As noted by others a remarkable condition of the system is the moderate consumption of nitrate over the season (nitrate remains > 20 μM while silicic acid becomes depleted, suggesting significant recycling of nitrogen. Nitrate isotopic signatures in the upper water column do mimic this condition, with surprising overlap of spring and summer regressions of δ18ONO3 vs. δ15NNO3 isotopic compositions. These regressions obey rather closely the 18ϵ/15ϵ discrimination expected for nitrate uptake (18ϵ/15ϵ = 1, but regression slopes as large as 1.6 were observed for the mixed layer above the Kerguelen Plateau. A preliminary mass balance calculation for the early bloom period points toward significant nitrification occurring in the mixed layer and which could account for up to 80 % of nitrate uptake above the Kerguelen Plateau. A further finding concerns deep ocean low δ18ONO3 values (< 2‰ underlying high chlorophyll waters at the Polar Front Zone and which cannot be explained by remineralisation and nitrification of the local particulate nitrogen flux, which is too small in magnitude. However, the studied area is characterised by a complex recirculation pattern that would keep deep waters in the area and could impose a seasonally integrated signature of surface water processes on the deep waters.

  18. Oxygen isotope trajectories of crystallizing melts: Insights from modeling and the plutonic record (United States)

    Bucholz, Claire E.; Jagoutz, Oliver; VanTongeren, Jill A.; Setera, Jacob; Wang, Zhengrong


    Elevated oxygen isotope values in igneous rocks are often used to fingerprint supracrustal alteration or assimilation of material that once resided near the surface of the earth. The δ18O value of a melt, however, can also increase through closed-system fractional crystallization. In order to quantify the change in melt δ18O due to crystallization, we develop a detailed closed-system fractional crystallization mass balance model and apply it to six experimentally- and naturally-determined liquid lines of descent (LLDs), which cover nearly complete crystallization intervals (melt fractions of 1 to content, will control the specific δ18O path of a crystallizing melt. Hydrous melts, typical of subduction zones, undergo larger increases in δ18O during early stages of crystallization due to their lower magmatic temperatures, greater initial increases in SiO2 content, and high temperature stability of low δ18O phases, such as oxides, amphibole, and anorthitic plagioclase (versus albite). Conversely, relatively dry, tholeiitic melts only experience significant increases in δ18O at degrees of crystallization greater than 80%. Total calculated increases in melt δ18O of 1.0-1.5‰ can be attributed to crystallization from ∼50 to 70 wt.% SiO2 for modeled closed-system crystallizing melt compositions. As an example application, we compare our closed system model results to oxygen isotope mineral data from two natural plutonic sequences, a relatively dry, tholeiitic sequence from the Upper and Upper Main Zones (UUMZ) of the Bushveld Complex (South Africa) and a high-K, hydrous sequence from the arc-related Dariv Igneous Complex (Mongolia). These two sequences were chosen as their major and trace element compositions appear to have been predominantly controlled by closed-system fractional crystallization and their LLDs have been modeled in detail. We calculated equilibrium melt δ18O values using the measured mineral δ18O values and calculated mineral

  19. Tourmaline occurrences within the Penamacor-Monsanto granitic pluton and host-rocks (Central Portugal): genetic implications of crystal-chemical and isotopic features (United States)

    da Costa, I. Ribeiro; Mourão, C.; Récio, C.; Guimarães, F.; Antunes, I. M.; Ramos, J. Farinha; Barriga, F. J. A. S.; Palmer, M. R.; Milton, J. A.


    Tourmalinization associated with peraluminous granitic intrusions in metapelitic host-rocks has been widely recorded in the Iberian Peninsula, given the importance of tourmaline as a tracer of granite magma evolution and potential indicator of Sn-W mineralizations. In the Penamacor-Monsanto granite pluton (Central Eastern Portugal, Central Iberian Zone), tourmaline occurs: (1) as accessory phase in two-mica granitic rocks, muscovite-granites and aplites, (2) in quartz (±mica)-tourmaline rocks (tourmalinites) in several exocontact locations, and (3) as a rare detrital phase in contact zone hornfels and metapelitic host-rocks. Electron microprobe and stable isotope (δ18O, δD, δ11B) data provide clear distinctions between tourmaline populations from these different settings: (a) schorl-oxyschorl tourmalines from granitic rocks have variable foititic component (X□ = 17-57 %) and Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratios (0.19-0.50 in two-mica granitic rocks, and 0.05-0.19 in the more differentiated muscovite-granite and aplites); granitic tourmalines have constant δ18O values (12.1 ± 0.1 ‰), with wider-ranging δD (-78.2 ± 4.7 ‰) and δ11B (-10.7 to -9.0 ‰) values; (b) vein/breccia oxyschorl [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.31-0.44] results from late, B- and Fe-enriched magma-derived fluids and is characterized by δ18O = 12.4 ‰, δD = -29.5 ‰, and δ11B = -9.3 ‰, while replacement tourmalines have more dravitic compositions [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.26-0.64], close to that of detrital tourmaline in the surrounding metapelitic rocks, and yield relatively constant δ18O values (13.1-13.3 ‰), though wider-ranging δD (-58.5 to -36.5 ‰) and δ11B (-10.2 to -8.8 ‰) values; and (c) detrital tourmaline in contact rocks and regional host metasediments is mainly dravite [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.35-0.78] and oxydravite [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.51-0.58], respectively. Boron contents of the granitic rocks are low (Monsanto pluton, either as direct tourmaline precipitation in cavities and fractures crossing the

  20. Pluton emplacement in a releasing bend in a transpressive regime: the arrozal granite in the Paraíba do Sul shear belt, Rio de Janeiro. (United States)

    Nummer, Alexis R; Machado, Rômulo; Dehler, Nolan M


    The Arrozal Granite, situated in the southwestern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, has a granitic to granodioritic composition. It contains a strong mylonitic foliation along its border, passing gradually to a well-developed magmatic foliation towards its center. Structural analysis indicates that the Arrozal Granite was emplaced along the Além-Paraíba Shear Zone in a dextral transpressive tectonic regime. A regional shift of the trend along this shear zone from NE-SW to E-W, observed in the area, is interpreted to be casually related to the creation of space for the emplacement of the granite. Our data indicate that releasing bends may have played an important role for space generation during the emplacement of the Arrozal Granite and other plutons.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Effects of Upwelling on the Fatty Acid Composition of Benthic Filter Feeders in the Southern Benguela Ecosystem: Not All Upwelling Is Equal (United States)

    McQuaid, Christopher David; Noyon, Margaux


    Variability in mesoscale nearshore oceanographic conditions plays an important role in the distribution of primary production and food availability for intertidal consumers. Advection of nutrient rich waters by upwelling usually allows the proliferation of diatoms, later replaced by dinoflagellates. We examined upwelling effects on the fatty acid (FA) signature of a benthic intertidal filter feeder to identify its response to pulsed variability in food availability. The study took place in two contrasting seasons and at two upwelling and two non-upwelling sites interspersed within the southern Benguela upwelling system of South Africa. We investigated the FA composition of the adductor muscles and gonads of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to assess how FA are apportioned to the different tissues and whether this changes between upwelling and non-upwelling conditions. In situ temperature loggers used to identify upwelling conditions at the four sites indicated that such events occurred only at the upwelling centres and only in summer. Tissues differed strongly, with gonads presenting a higher proportion of essential FAs. This could reflect the faster turnover rate of gonad tissue or preferential retention of specific FA for reproductive purposes. FA composition did not vary as a direct function of upwelling, but there were strong dissimilarities among sites. Upwelling influenced mussel diets at one upwelling site while at the other, the expected signature of upwelling was displaced downstream of the core of upwelling. Condition Index (CI) and Gonad Index (GI) differed among sites and were not influenced by upwelling, with GI being comparable among sites. In addition, FA proportions were consistent among sites, indicating similar food quality and quantity over time and under upwelling and non-upwelling conditions. This suggests that the influence of upwelling on the west coast of South Africa is pervasive and diffuse, rather than discrete; while nearshore

  2. [Characteristics of soil microbial biomass and community composition in three types of plantations in southern subtropical area of China]. (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Xia; Shi, Zuo-Min; Luo, Da; Liu, Shi-Rong; Lu, Li-Hua


    By using fumigation-extraction method and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis, this paper studied the characteristics of soil microbial biomass and community composition in the Erythrophleum fordii, Castanopsis hystrix, and Pinus massoniana plantations in south subtropical China. The soil microbial biomass, total PLFAs, bacterial PLFAs, and fungal PLFAs in the plantations were significantly affected by the plantation type and season, and the soil microbial biomass, total PLFAs, and individual PLFA signatures were higher in dry season than in rainy season. The C. hystrix plantation had the highest soil microbial biomass carbon and total PLFAs, while the E. fordii plantation had the highest soil microbial biomass nitrogen. There was a significant positive correlation between the soil pH and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) PLFA (16:1omega5c). The soil total PLFAs, gram-positive bacterial PLFAs, saprophytic fungal PLFA (18:2omega6,9c), and the ratio of gram-positive to gram-negative bacterial PLFAs were significantly positively correlated with soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus, suggesting that the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus contents were the most important nutrient factors affecting the numbers and types of the soil microorganisms. In addition, the ectomycorrhizae fungal PLFA (18:1omega9c) and AMF PLFA were significantly correlated with the soil C/N ratio.

  3. Oil fatty acid composition of eighteen Mediterranean olive varieties cultivated under the arid conditions of Boughrara (southern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrouk, Mokhtar


    Full Text Available In this study, eighteen olive varieties, originating from Spain, France, Italy, Greece and Algeria, and maintained at the olive experimental station of Boughrara (arid region of Tunisia were evaluated for their oil yield and fatty acid composition. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among varieties for all traits (p En este estudio, dieciocho variedades de aceituna procedentes de España, de Francia, de Italia, de Grecia y de Argelia, cultivadas en la estación experimental del olivo de Boughrara (región árida de Túnez, fueron evaluadas para el rendimiento en aceite y la composición de ácidos grasos. El análisis de la varianza mostró diferencias significativas entre todas las variedades (p < 0.01. El análisis de “clusters” jerárquico clasificó las variedades en tres grandes grupos. El primer grupo incluía un subgrupo compuesto por siete variedades de aceituna Changlot Real, Koroneiki, Verdial de Vélez- Málaga, Coratina, Lechín de Granada, Cornezuelo y Leccino, que se caracterizan por su alto rendimiento en aceite, alto contenido en oleico y bajo contenido en ácidos palmítico y linoleico. Las composiciones de ácidos grasos de aceites provenientes de estas variedades se conforman con estándares internacionales y son mejores si las comparamos con la de Chemlali (el cultivo más abundante en Túnez. Finalmente, los ácidos grasos mayoritarios (palmítico (C16:0, oleico (C18:1 y linoleico (C18:2 de nueve de los aceites de oliva virgen estudiados fueron comparados con los de las mismas variedades cultivadas en sus áreas originarias. A excepción de los aceites Koroneiki y Olivière que mostraron una composición de ácidos grasos inalterable y del aceite Cornezuelo en el que se observó un aumento del nivel de ácido oleico y un descenso del nivel de ácido linoleico, la mayoría de los aceites mostró disminución de ácido oleico y aumento de los porcentajes de ácido palmítico y linoleico, compar

  4. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl


    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound/video files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample, or the visuals will not appear at all....... Please DOWNLOAD them to see/hear them in full length! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performance instructions as well as specially designated recordings, as long as the author is mentioned. Please see http...

  5. Southern Tibetan Oligocene-Miocene adakites: A record of Indian slab tearing (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Yun; Ducea, Mihai N.; Ding, Lin; Pullen, Alex; Kapp, Paul; Hoffman, Derek


    Oligocene-Miocene granitoids exposed within the 1500-km-long Gangdese arc of southern Tibet exhibit adakitic compositions. Five plutonic samples from the southeastern Lhasa terrane near Namche Barwa area were analyzed to determine their geochemical characteristics and to better understand the geodynamic evolution of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis orogen. The samples, yielded U-Pb zircon ages in the range of 30-26 Ma, are intermediate to silicic in composition and have elevated K2O (1.5-8.9), Th/La ratios (0.14-1.10), low MgO (< 2%) and Mg# (< 50), as well as high initial 87Sr/86Sri (0.7062-0.7103) and low εNd(t) (- 10.9 to - 1.0) isotopic compositions. In addition, these granitic and granodioritic rocks have high Sr/Y (66-306) and La/Yb (25-312) ratios, a characteristic of adakitic rocks. In-situ zircon εHf(t) isotopic compositions are in the range of + 8.1 to - 1.9. Within the framework of the Tibetan-Himalayan orogenesis we attribute these rocks to represent partial melting and mixing products of two end-member components of the lower Tibetan crust: the roots of the relatively juvenile Gangdese arc crust and newly-underplated high-potassium mafic magmas. Adakitic magmatism initiated at 30-26 Ma near the eastern Himalayan syntaxis and systematically decreases in age to the west to 18-9 Ma near Shigatse. We attribute this temporal-spatial distribution of adakitic magmatism within the Gangdese arc, along with the regional Oligo-Miocene geology, to the progressive tearing of the Indian plate. Based on the decrease in age of adakitic magmatism from east to west we hypothesize that the tear initiated beneath the eastern Himalayan syntaxis and propagated westward.

  6. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age, geochemistry and Nd isotope of the Guandaoshan pluton in SW Sichuan: Petrogenesis and tectonic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xianhua(李献华); LI; Zhengxiang(李正祥); ZHOU; Hanwen(周汉文); LIU; Ying(刘颖); LIANG; Xirong(梁细荣); LI; Wuxian(李武显)


    SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age, geochemical and Nd isotopic data are reported for the Neoproterozoic Guandaoshan pluton in the Yanbian region, SW Sichuan. This pluton is of typical I-type granite and emplaced at (857±13) Ma. Geochemical and Nd isotopic characters suggest that the pluton was generated by partial melting of pre-existing, young (late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic) low-K tholeiitic protolith within an intraplate anorogenic setting. The Guandaoshan pluton probably records the earliest magmatism induced by the proposed ca. 860-750 Ma mantle superplume beneath the supercontinent Rodinia.

  7. U-Pb ages and geochemistry of zircon from Proterozoic plutons of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges, Colorado, U.S.A.: Implications for crustal growth of the central Colorado province (United States)

    Moscati, Richard J.; Premo, Wayne R.; Dewitt, Ed; Wooden, Joseph L.


    A broad study of zircons from plutonic rocks of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges of west-central Colorado (U.S.A.) was undertaken to significantly refine the magmatic chronology and chemistry of this under-studied region of the Colorado province. This region was chosen because it lies just to the north of the suspected arc-related Gunnison-Salida volcano-plutonic terrane, which has been the subject of many recent investigations—and whose origin is still debated. Our new results provide important insights into the processes active during Proterozoic crustal evolution in this region, and they have important ramifications for broader-scope crustal evolution models for southwestern North America.Twenty-four new U-Pb ages and sequentially acquired rare-earth element (REE), U, Th, and Hf contents of zircon have been determined using the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG). These zircon geochemistry data, in conjunction with whole-rock major- and trace-element data, provide important insights into zircon crystallization and melt fractionation, and they help to further constrain the tectonic environment of magma generation.Our detailed zircon and whole-rock data support the following three interpretations:(1) The Roosevelt Granite in the southern Sawatch Range was the oldest rock dated at 1,766 ± 7 Ma, and it intruded various metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Geochemistry of both whole-rock and zircon supports the contention that this granite was produced in a magmatic arc environment and, therefore, is likely an extension of the older Dubois Greenstone Belt of the Gunnison Igneous Complex (GIC) and the Needle Mountains (1,770–1,755 Ma). Rocks of the younger Cochetopa succession of the GIC, the Salida Greenstone Belt, and the Sangre de Cristo Mountains (1,740–1,725 Ma) were not found in the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges. This observation strongly suggests that the northern edge of the Gunnison-Salida arc terrane underlies the

  8. Microstructure and magnetic fabric in the Shuanghe pluton:A synkinematic granite in Eastern Dabie Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kunguang; LIU Qiang; LIU Yuyan; MA Changqian; XU Yajun; YANG Kuifeng


    Strain analyses for the Shuanghe pluton show that the main strain planes suffered distinct deformation. The main strain value (XZ) is up to 1.59-2.18, and the value of Flinn index (K) ranges from 0.11 to 0.82. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements reveal that the orientations of the magnetic foliation and lineation gently dip SE, consistent with the macroscopic foliation of the pluton. The value of anisotropy degree (P) ranges from 1.109 to 1.639, and the shape parameter (7) from 0.079 to 0.534. These studies prove that the pluton was deformed under strong compression. Quartz c-axis textures, defined by monoclinic or triclinic asymmetry, usually developed the high maxima paralleling the b-axis, which is defined by the developed in the high-ultrahigh pressure rocks (UHP) which were captured in the pluton or country rocks. It is concluded that the Shuanghe pluton emplaced under regional compression slightly after the formation of UHP, and it is characterized by synkinematic granitic deformation.

  9. Petrology of upper Eocene-Oligocene plutonic rocks of Moalleman Damghan area (United States)

    Kohansal, Reza; Zolfaghari, Seddigheh; Hashem Emami, Mohammad


    The plutonic rocks of this area include cryptodoms, hypoabyssal plutonic bodies and dikes which intruded in to the late Lutetian- late Eocene rocks. The hypoabyssal plutonic rocks in Moalleman are classified in to two main groups: - Acidic rocks, including microgranite to microgranodiorite. - Intermediate rocks, including microquartzmonzodiorite to microquartzdiorite of hypoabyssal type. Presence of fine-grained mafic xenoliths with abundant biotite, amphibole and pyroxene in the intermediate rocks may be considered as an evidence of the role of mantle melting occurrence in the formation of these rocks. Occurrence of a felsitic texture, showing a high differentiation coefficient and existence of large quarts which are embayed, rounded and infiltered by material, and finally turmalinization in the acidic rocks due to Boron metasomatism suggest the role of crust in the formation of afore mentioned rocks as well. In some acidic rocks plagioclases show oscillatory zoning. This phenomenon along with the fact that biotite granites in these rocks crystallized before crystallization of quarts and after crystallization of alkali feldspar suggest that the crystallization of these rocks accomplished in the presence of 2 percent water, pertitic texture in some feldspars of the intermediate rocks this conclusion. Supports on the basis of the geochemical studies most of the hypoabyssal rocks of Moalleman area fall in subalkaline- calcoalkaline fields. Variation of immobile incompatible trace elements versus differentiation coefficient and the situation of samples in winkler diagram show the role of crustal- melting in the formation of acidic rocks. Trace element content of some rocks (e.g. Cu and Sm) with in this group show mantle specification, while some other rocks (e.g. Zr, Th, Hf) show crustal specification. The intermediate rocks of the study area therefore, indicate a hybridization of magmas from both the mantle and crust. Study of the temperature and water vapour

  10. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeast United States-Southern Piedmont subregion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A literature study was conducted on the geology of the Southern Piedmont province in the states of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The purpose was to identify geologic areas potentially suitable for containment of a repository for the long-term isolation of solidified radioactive waste. The crystalline rocks of the Southern Piedmont province range in age from Precambrian to Paleozoic, and are predominantly slates, phyllites, argillites, schists, metavolcanics, gneisses, gabbros, and granites. These rock units were classified as either favorable, potentially favorable, or unfavorable as potential study areas based on an evaluation of the geologic, hydrologic, and geotechnical characteristics. No socio-economic factors were considered. Rocks subjected to multiple periods of deformation and metamorphism, or described as highly fractured, or of limited areal extent were generally ranked as unfavorable. Potentially favorable rocks are primarily the high-grade metamorphic gneisses and granites. Sixteen areas were classified as being favorable for additional study. These areas are primarily large igneous granite plutons as follows: the Petersburg granite in Virginia; the Rolesville-Castallia, Churchland, and Landis plutons in North Carolina; the Liberty Hill, Winnsboro, and Ogden plutons in South Carolina; and the Siloam, Elberton, and six unnamed granite plutons in Georgia.

  11. Biochemical composition and physicochemical properties of two red seaweeds (Gracilaria fisheri and G. tenuistipitata from the Pattani Bay in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payap Masniyom


    Full Text Available The proximate composition, dietary fiber, element and amino acid contents, as well as some physicochemical propertiesof the two red seaweeds (Gracilaria fisheri and G. tenuistipitata collected from the Pattani Bay in Southern Thailand in therainy and summer seasons of 2006 were determined in order to evaluate their potential nutritional value. The protein content ofG. tenuistipitata (21.6% DW was significantly higher than that of G. fisheri (11.6% DW (P<0.05. The two seaweed speciescontained lipid (1.7–3.6% DW, ash (7.9–22.9% DW, total dietary fiber (TDF (57.5–64.0% DW, soluble dietary fiber (SDF(15.6–18.8%DW and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF (38.9–45.2% DW. G. tenuistipitata collected in the rainy season hadhigher level of lipid (P<0.05 whereas the level of ash was higher in the summer. In contrast, G. fisheri had higher levels oflipid, ash and TDF (P<0.05 when collected in rainy season. There was no significant differences in SDF, ISF and TDF betweenthe two seaweeds. The result indicated that the two species contained high levels of K and Cl. The essential amino acidswith the highest content in the two species were arginine, leucine and threonine. The swelling capacity (SWC, water holdingcapacity (WHC and oil holding capacity (OHC ranged from 5.2 to 12.5 ml/g DW, 5.5 to 10.1 g/g DW and 1.8 to 2.3 g oil/gDW, respectively, with the SWC, WHC and OHC of G. tenuistipitata being higher than those of G. fisheri. This studysuggested that both Gracilaria species could potentially be used as raw material or ingredients to improve nutritive valueand functional properties in human diet and animal feed.

  12. Changes of concentrations and possibility of accumulation of bisphenol A and alkylphenols, depending on biomass and composition, in zooplankton of the Southern Baltic (Gulf of Gdansk). (United States)

    Staniszewska, Marta; Nehring, Iga; Mudrak-Cegiołka, Stella


    The focus of the present study was to find the relationship between concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) in zooplankton and seasonal changes in the composition and biomass of particular zooplankton taxa in the Gulf of Gdansk (Southern Baltic) in the years 2011-2012. Assays of BPA, OP and NP in water and zooplankton samples were performed using the HPLC/FL system. High mean concentrations of the studied compounds, determined in spring (405.9 (BPA); 25.7 (OP); 111.2 (NP) ng g(-1) dw), can be linked to the high proportion of meroplankton in that season. Rotifera also had an influence on the rise in concentrations of the studied compounds but to a lesser degree, while the lowest concentrations (determined in summer) can be associated with the high participation of Copepoda and Cladocera in zooplankton biomass. It was also observed that juvenile forms can be more susceptible to accumulating endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). This is indicated by the positive correlation between BPA concentration in zooplankton and the proportion of Copepoda nauplii biomass in spring (r = 0.90; p < 0.05). In most cases, greater zooplankton biomass accumulated higher concentrations and loads of the studied compounds. With biomass growth (to 123.32 μg m(-3)), the bioconcentration factor also rose (to max 46.1·10(3)), demonstrating that unlike typical hydrophobic compounds the studied EDCs do not become "diluted" in zooplankton biomass. The highest BPA concentrations from all compounds may be connected with anthropogenic sources located in the coastal zone.

  13. Simulated impacts of mountain pine beetle and wildfire disturbances on forest vegetation composition and carbon stocks in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Caldwell


    Full Text Available Forests play an important role in sequestering carbon and offsetting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, but changing disturbance regimes may compromise the capability of forests to store carbon. In the Southern Rocky Mountains, a recent outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB has caused levels of tree mortality that are unprecedented in recorded history. To evaluate the long-term impacts of both this insect outbreak and another characteristic disturbance in these forests, high-severity wildfire, we simulated potential changes in species composition and carbon stocks using the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS. Simulations were completed for 3 scenarios (no disturbance, actual MPB infestation, and modeled wildfire using field data collected in 2010 at 97 plots in the lodgepole pine-dominated forests of eastern Grand County, Colorado, which were heavily impacted by MPB after 2002. Results of the simulations showed that (1 lodgepole pine remained dominant over time in all scenarios, with basal area recovering to pre-disturbance levels 70–80 yr after disturbance; (2 wildfire caused a greater magnitude of change than did MPB in both patterns of succession and distribution of carbon among biomass pools; (3 levels of standing-live carbon returned to pre-disturbance conditions after 40 vs. 50 yr following MPB vs. wildfire disturbance, respectively, but took 120 vs. 150 yr to converge with conditions in the undisturbed scenario. Lodgepole pine forests appear to be relatively resilient to both of the disturbances we modeled, although changes in climate, future disturbance regimes, and other factors may significantly affect future rates of regeneration and ecosystem response.

  14. Mixing and melt sources in the Miocene Aztec Wash pluton (Nevada, USA) as revealed by zircon Hf and O and whole rock Sr, Nd, and Hf isotopes (United States)

    Ryan, M.; Miller, J. S.; Miller, C. F.; Bromley, S.; Davies, G. R.; Schmitt, A. K.


    The 15.6 Ma Aztec Wash Pluton (AWP) is one of several Miocene intrusions located within the northern Colorado River extensional corridor. Extensive E-W tilting of fault blocks has exposed the pluton from the roof to 5 km structural depth. Earlier field and petrologic studies subdivided the AWP into two distinct zones: (1) a Granite Zone (GZ) comprised of relatively homogeneous granite with subtle differences in textures and mineralogy; (2) a Heterogeneous Zone (HZ), which interfingers the GZ, contains evidence for mafic and felsic magma input with a wide compositional range (42-78 wt% SiO2), and abundant field evidence for hybridization. Previous whole rock geochemistry and zircon trace element analyses indicated that compositional variation was produced by multi-component mixing between mafic and felsic melts within the HZ. New whole rock Sr, Nd, and Hf isotope data from the HZ show that all rocks (including high-silica granites) formed by mixing Precambrian crust and enriched mantle, with mixtures having a large mantle fraction (≥50%). New Hf (n=189) and O (n=241) isotope analyses of zircon from samples in the HZ confirm these melt sources and provide a broader perspective on hybridization processes within the AWP. Zircon grains from all samples show heterogeneous Hf and O isotopic compositions (-5 to -18 ɛHf; 4.5-7.5% δ18O), but despite the clear signature of Precambrian crust in the whole rock data, obvious Precambrian zircons (or cores) were mostly absent; only one zircon was clearly Precambrian (ɛHf = -25). Resolvable intragrain variability is relatively limited (including the Precambrian grain, which is unzoned). Zircons from hand samples and from compositional groups also show heterogeneous ɛHf and δ18O values, although the spreads are more restricted than in the whole data set (6-10 ɛHf in granites, 5-7 ɛHf in intermediate "hybrids", 5-6 ɛHf in gabbro/diorite sheets). Oxygen isotope values for the zircons also show intra-handsample heterogeneity

  15. Origin of the late Early Cretaceous granodiorite and associated dioritic dikes in the Hongqilafu pluton, northwestern Tibetan Plateau: A case for crust-mantle interaction (United States)

    Li, Jiyong; Niu, Yaoling; Hu, Yan; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yu; Duan, Meng; Sun, Pu


    We present a detailed study of geochronology, mineral chemistries, bulk-rock major and trace element abundances, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions of the granodiorite and associated dioritic dikes in the Hongqilafu pluton at the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The granodiorite and dioritic dikes yielded zircon U-Pb ages of 104 Ma and 100 Ma, respectively. The dioritic dikes comprise varying lithologies of gabbroic diorite, diorite porphyry and granodiorite porphyry, exhibiting a compositional spectrum from intermediate to felsic rocks. Their mineral compositions display disequilibrium features such as large major element compositional variations of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and amphibole crystals. These dioritic dikes are enriched in incompatible elements (Ba, Rb, Th, U, K) and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes (87Sr/86Sri: 0.7066 to 0.7071, εNd(t): - 5.3 to - 7.4, εHf(t): - 3.6 to - 6.2). We suggest that the dioritic dikes were most likely derived from partial melting of mantle wedge metasomatized by the subducted/subducting seafloor with a sediment component, followed by AFC processes with fractional crystallization of clinopyroxene, amphibole and plagioclase and assimilation of lower continental crust. The mantle-wedge derived magma parental to the dioritic dikes underplated and induced the lower continental crust to melt, forming the felsic crustal magma parental to the granodiorite with mantle melt signatures and having more enriched isotope compositions (87Sr/86Sri: 0.7087 to 0.7125, εNd(t): - 9.5 to - 11.6, εHf(t): - 10.3 to - 14.1) than those of the dioritic dikes. The Hongqilafu pluton is thus the product of mantle-crust interaction at an active continental margin subduction setting over the period of several million years. This understanding further indicates that the closure timing of the Shyok back-arc basin and the collision between the Kohistan-Ladakh Arc and the Karakoram Terrane may have taken place later than 100 Ma.

  16. Revisiting the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis: Argon-argon geochronology and paleomagnetism of the Ecstall, Butedale, and Smith Island plutons, British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Brownlee, Sarah Jo

    The controversy concerning terrane displacements in western British Columbia, otherwise known as the Baja-BC hypothesis, is revisited using paleomagnetism, rock magnetism, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and thermal modeling. We studied three plutons in northwest British Columbia, the Ecstall, Butedale, and Smith Island plutons. The Ecstall pluton is the focus of this research as it has been the subject of considerable debate over the cause of systematic variations in paleomagnetic direction across the ˜25 km wide pluton. Hollister et al. (2004) proposed that magnetization carried by lamellar magnetism in ilmenite-hematite was variably reset during reheating by emplacement of the younger Quottoon plutonic complex on the eastern margin of the Ecstall pluton, thus causing the systematic variations in paleomagnetic direction. To test this hypothesis we conducted a number of studies on samples from the Ecstall pluton. First, a detailed mineralogic study using scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy found evidence of microstructural and mineralogic changes to the magnetic oxides of the Ecstall pluton as a function of distance from the Quottoon plutonic complex. Second, rock magnetic experiments on single crystals of Fe-Ti oxides confirm changes to the magnetic properties of single crystals that are related to both microstructure and distance from the Quottoon plutonic complex. Third, spatial trends in 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages from hornblende and biotite were found to be consistent with reheating by the Quottoon plutonic complex. In addition to reheating by the Quottoon plutonic complex, thermal modeling suggests that spatial trends in 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages are most consistent with a thermal history that also includes northeast side up tilt of the Ecstall. The Smith Island and Butedale plutons do not show evidence for tilting in their 40Ar/39Ar cooling age trends, and paleomagnetic directions from these plutons are approximately concordant with the

  17. Mixing and mingling in the evolution of andesite dacite magmas; evidence from co-magmatic plutonic enclaves, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand (United States)

    Cole, J. W.; Gamble, J. A.; Burt, R. M.; Carroll, L. D.; Shelley, D.


    The southeastern side of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand is marked by a line of andesite/dacite/low-silica rhyolite complexes. Co-magmatic plutonic enclaves occur within the lavas of the four youngest complexes: White Island, Motuhora (Whale Island), Edgecumbe and Tauhara. The enclaves range from coarse-grained gabbros, diorites, granodiorites and a syenite to finer-grained dolerites and microdiorites. The more mafic types are generally porphyritic with large phenocrysts of plagioclase, usually with extensive sieve textures in the cores and corroded margins. Most of these enclaves, including the coarser-grained plutonic examples, contain glass and many are miarolitic. Diorites and microdiorites/dolerites predominate at White Island, Motuhora and Edgecumbe; many are porphyritic. Enclaves at Tauhara are more variable; those collected from Hipaua Dome include a range from microdiorites to quartz microdiorites and those from Rubbish Tip Dome include microdiorites, a granodiorite, and a syenite. Most enclaves show textural evidence for disequilibrium with multiple populations of plagioclase and pyroxene. They also show considerable textural variation, even within a thin section, with coarse-grained gabbros/diorites intimately mixed with finer-grained dolerites/microdiorites. Geochemically and isotopically, most enclaves have a similar composition with their host lavas, although some have lower silica contents. Enclaves at Motuhora and Tauhara are isotopically more variable, indicating multiple sources and a more complex petrogenesis. Most diorite/microdiorite enclaves are interpreted to represent parts of a crystal mush formed during fractionation of andesite/dacite magma, and entrained during later rise of magma to the surface. The granodiorite from Rubbish Tip Dome, Tauhara, probably represents part of a silicic magma chamber within the crust that fed the host low-silica rhyolite lava dome. Variability within the enclaves indicates the complexity likely to occur

  18. The Precambrian/Lower Cambrian pluton from Vila Nova (Central Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, A. I. M.; Silva, M. M. V. G.; Antunes, I. M. H. R.


    The Vila Nova pluton is a small, Pre-Variscan granitic body that intruded rocks of the Central Iberian Zone near the contact with the Ossa Morena Zone and is affected by several shear zones and faults. Its contact metamorphic aureole is constituted by micaschist with porphyroblasts in the outer zone and hornfels in the inner zone. Small mainstreamed xenoliths are dispersed all over the body. The pluton has a great mineralogical heterogeneity with pronounced variations in muscovite/biotite and plagioclase/ microcline contents and is classified as granite, granodiorite or tonalite. It is a leuco granite, highly peraluminous (A/CN K = 1.31 - 1.64), magnesian and calc-alkaline to alkaline-calcic. The variation diagrams show curvilinear trends with silica. Eu/Eu* = 0.47 - 0.77 and there is a slight enrichment in LREE relative to HREE. The normalized diagrams indicated dominantly crustal granite, related to subduction. U-Pb isotopic data of zircon and monazite gives 540-542 Ma age. (Author) 19 refs.

  19. Zircon SHRIMP Dating for the Weiya Pluton, Eastern Tianshan: Its Geological Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zunzhong; GU Lianxing; WU Changzhi; LI Weiqiang; XI Aihua; WANG Shuo


    The timing of the emplacement of the Weiya pluton remains controversial due to the absence of systematic and precise dating.This paper reports zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating of different lithologic phases in the Weiya pluton,and discusses the genesis and tectonic environment.The ages of gabbro,quartz syenite,diorite porphyrite and fine-grained granite are 236±6 Ma,246±6 Ma,233±8 Ma and 237±8 Ma,respectively.All these phases were formed in early-middle Indosinian (Triassic) in a post-orogenic environment.In addition to underplating,intraplating of mantle-derived magmas is also a substantial mechanism for magma generation and vertical accretion of the continental crust.Granitoid rocks are important products of vertical continental accretion as underplating evolves gradually to intraplating.The existence of post-orogenic Indosinian granites shows that the middle Tianshan orogenic belt underwent an important tectonic conversion from the Paleo-Asian ocean subduction-collision system to the Paleo-Tethys ocean regime.

  20. Reworked old crust-derived shoshonitic magma: The Guarany pluton, Northeastern Brazil (United States)

    Ferreira, Valderez P.; Sial, Alcides N.; Pimentel, Marcio M.; Armstrong, Richard; Guimarães, Ignez P.; da Silva Filho, Adejardo F.; de Lima, Mariucha Maria C.; da Silva, Thyego R.


    The 572 Ma Guarany stock consists of magmatic epidote-bearing hornblende monzodiorite to biotite granite that intruded Paleoproterozoic orthogneisses about 10 km inland from the coast in northeastern Brazil. Co-magmatic diorite enclaves and dikes are abundant throughout the pluton. The monzodiorite-granite pluton and diorite enclaves are shoshonitic and display continuous trends in variation diagrams. They display chemical and isotopic characteristics of crustal melts, such as enrichment in incompatible elements, high back-calculated initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (avg. 0.71253), negative εNd (0.57Ga) values (avg. - 14.58), as well as high and variable (+ 9.1 to + 11.1‰VSMOW) δ18O (zircon) values. Correlations between O-isotope and whole-rock silica contents, as well as initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios with 1/Sr concentrations, suggest hybridization of a lower continental crustal melt with more felsic crustal rocks, concomitant with fractional crystallization. Amphibole chemistry and whole rock Zr, TiO2 and P2O5 contents suggest magma solidification at a pressure 7 kbar and near liquidus temperature 900 °C. The parental magma was likely formed by partial melting of old (tDM = 2.0 Ga) amphibolitic lower continental crustal rocks, in a post-collisional setting, probably triggered by underplating of mantle-derived mafic magma during the period of relaxation after collision.

  1. Oxygen isotope exchange kinetics between coexistent minerals and water in the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 李志安; 赵志忠


    Coexistent minerals quartz, feldspar and biotite vary widely in δ18O value and display remarkable 18O/16O disequilibrium relations in the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang. The 18O/16O exchange reaction definitely occurred between granite and water. Initial δ18O values of the granite and exotic water are evaluated by the mass balance consideration. The results show that the 18O/16O exchange reaction is not necessarily accompanied by what geologists describe as petrological and mineralogiesl alteration effects, indicating that the exchange reaction occurs at a comparatively high temperature during subsolidus cooling of magmas. Exchange mechanism is mainly controlled by diffusion. It is demonstrated through quantitative modelling that the hydrothermal system associated with the Ertaibei pluton lived for 0.8-3 Ma, with a fluid flow rate of 3 × 10-14 mol · s-1 and water/rock (W/R) ratio of 0.79 - 3.08. Flow path and initial heterogeneity of the exotic metamorphic fluid are modelled with the δ1

  2. Syn-extensional plutonism and peak metamorphism in the albion-raft river-grouse creek metamorphic core complex (United States)

    Strickland, A.; Miller, E.L.; Wooden, J.L.; Kozdon, R.; Valley, J.W.


    The Cassia plutonic complex (CPC) is a group of variably deformed, Oligocene granitic plutons exposed in the lower plate of the Albion-Raft River- Grouse Creek (ARG) metamorphic core complex of Idaho and Utah. The plutons range from granodiorite to garnet-bearing, leucogranite, and during intrusion, sillimanite- grade peak metamorphism and ductile attenuation occurred in the country rocks and normal-sense, amphibolite-grade deformation took place along the Middle Mountain shear zone. U-Pb zircon geochronology from three variably deformed plutons exposed in the lower plate of the ARG metamorphic core complex revealed that each zircon is comprised of inherited cores (dominantly late Archean) and Oligocene igneous overgrowths. Within each pluton, a spread of concordant ages from the Oligocene zircon overgrowths is interpreted as zircon recycling within a long-lived magmatic system. The plutons of the CPC have very low negative whole rock ??Nd values of -26 to -35, and initial Sr values of 0.714 to 0.718, consistent with an ancient, crustal source. Oxygen isotope ratios of the Oligocene zircon overgrowths from the CPC have an average ??18O value of 5.40 ?? 0.63 permil (2SD, n = 65) with a slight trend towards higher ??18O values through time. The ??18O values of the inherited cores of the zircons are more variable at 5.93 ?? 1.51 permil (2SD, n = 29). Therefore, we interpret the plutons of the CPC as derived, at least in part, from melting Archean crust based on the isotope geochemistry. In situ partial melting of the exposed Archean basement that was intruded by the Oligocene plutons of the CPC is excluded as the source for the CPC based on field relationships, age and geochemistry. Correlations between Ti and Hf concentrations in zircons from the CPC suggest that the magmatic system may have become hotter (higher Ti concentration in zircon) and less evolved (lower Hf in zircon concentration) through time. Therefore, the CPC represents prolonged or episodic magmatism

  3. Composites (United States)

    Taylor, John G.

    The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

  4. Fall sex/age composition, body condition, disease screening and collaring of northern and southern Alaska Peninsula caribou herds, 1998 final report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A report on a study of the population dynamics and health of the Northern Alaska Peninsula Caribou Herd and the Southern Alaska Peninsula Caribou Herd.

  5. Construction of an Upper Crustal Reservoir by Lateral Magma Propagation: New insights from Geochronological Data of La Gloria Pluton, Central Chile (United States)

    Gutiérrez, F. J.; Guillong, M.; Payacán, I. J.; Aravena, A.; Bachmann, O.; Parada, M. A.


    La Gloria Pluton (LGP) is a 10 Ma shallow elongated NNW reservoir of 17 km length and 4-6 km width as part of a NS trend of Miocene plutons in Central Chile. New LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages in zircons of La Gloria Pluton indicate that crystallization occurs mostly within an interval between 11.2 to 10 Ma, with southeastward decreasing ages. Zircon crystallization ages are consistently older at the boundaries of the pluton than at the center for a given cross-section. At regional scale the ages of LGP follows a plutonic trend of southward decreasing age: Estero Yerba Loca (10 Ma) and San Francisco Batholith (SFB), in the north; and Cerro Mesón Alto (12.5 Ma) and San Gabriel (SG; 13 Ma), in the south. Both regional and local (within-LGP) age trends suggest: 1) a progressive northward migration of the main deep magmatic source during the Miocene; and 2) a southeastward lateral propagation of the magma during the reservoir construction. The lateral propagation of the magma is also supported by subhorizontal mineral and magnetic lineations with a preferred NNW orientation within LGP. The within-pluton age distribution and internal configuration suggest incremental construction with horizontal propagation of magma within channels. Because the lateral migration of the magma play an important role on the thermal structure of the cooling pluton we perform numerical simulations that account for reheating caused by refilling along the axial core of the pluton . We speculate that pre-existing shallow crustal structures (faults and folds) would allow lateral magma canalization, particularly between the lower highly deformed volcanic Abanico Fm. and the less deformed overlaying volcanic Farellones Fm. The pluton distribution and internal organization in and around LGP suggest incremental construction with vertical and horizontal migration of magma within channels and reservoirs, yielding plutonic complexes with protracted ages and elongated geometries.

  6. Seasonal Variation, Chemical Composition, and Analgesic and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst. Codd in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Alves Ferreira


    Full Text Available The seasonal variation of the chemical composition of the essential oil from fresh leaves of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst. Codd grown in southern Brazil was analyzed by GC-MS, and the analgesic and antimicrobial activities of this oil were assayed. The yield of essential oil ranged from 0.17% to 0.26%, with the maximum amount in winter and the minimum in spring. The results obtained from principal components analysis (PCA revealed the existence of high chemical variability in the different seasons. The samples were clearly discriminated into three groups: winter, autumn, and spring-summer. Samples collected during winter contained the highest percentages of calyculone (24.70%, abietadiene (13.54%, and viridiflorol (4.20%. In autumn, the major constituents were ledol (8.74% and cis-muurolol-5-en-4-α-ol (13.78%. Samples collected in spring-summer contained the highest percentages of fenchone (12.67%, 14-hydroxy-9-epi-caryophyllene (24.36%, and α-cadinol (8.33%. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes were predominant in all the samples analyzed. The observed chemovariation might be environmentally determined by a seasonal influence. The essential oil, when given orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg, exhibited good analgesic activity on acetic acid-induced writhing in mice, inhibiting the constrictions by 38.94% to 46.13%, and this effect was not affected by seasonal variation. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil against the bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, and Enterobacter cloacae, and the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was assessed by the disc diffusion method and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration. The results obtained, followed by measurement of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, indicated that S. aureus, B. subtilis, and Candida albicans were the

  7. Composites (United States)

    Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-Nędza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.


    It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

  8. The composition of zircon in Variscan granites from Northern Portugal

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    Martins, H. C.B.


    Full Text Available A group of slightly peraluminous Variscan plutons in Northern Portugal were selected from the study of zircon composition. The selected plutons are: the Vila Pouca de Aguiar and the Lavadores-Madalena plutons with I-type affinities and the Vieira do Minho pluton, an l-S transitional type. Zircon occurs as euhedral to subhedral crystals and exhibit finely concentric oscillatory magmatic zoning mainly related to variations of Hf, Y, U and Th concentrations. Most zircon crystals show the dominant “xenotime” substitution. The zircon crystals have Zr/Hf ratio in the range of 21 to 52, with no significant differences between the different granites. These values are in the same range of other peraluminous granites and are in accordance with a crustal signature of zircon. Moreover, the range of Zr/Hf values in zircon crystals overlaps with that of crustal sources and consequently to the potential protoliths proposed in the genesis of the Vieira do Minho and the Vila Pouca de Aguiar plutons, namely meta-igneous crustal sources at different levels. Although zircon from the Lavadores-Madalena pluton has a compositional range similar to the other plutons, an origin by hibridisation has been proposed. However, similar zircon chemistry between this pluton and Vila Pouca de Aguiar and Vieira do Minho plutons could also suggest a similar crustal source.Se han seleccionado tres plutones graniticos variscos en el norte de Portugal para el estudio de la composición del circón. Los plutones son: Vila Pouca de Aguiar y Lavadores-Madalena con afinidad de tipo-I y el plutón de Vieira do Minho de tipo transicional I-S. Los circones se presentan en cristales euhédricos a subhédricos y tienen zonados magmáticos, concéntricos oscilatorios finos ligados principalmente a variaciones de las concentraciones del Hf, Y, U y Th. La mayoría de los cristales de circón muestran la sustitución dominante “xenotima”. Los zircones tienen relaciones Zr/Hf que var

  9. Distinct 238U/235U ratios and REE patterns in plutonic and volcanic angrites: Geochronologic implications and evidence for U isotope fractionation during magmatic processes (United States)

    Tissot, François L. H.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Grove, Timothy L.


    Angrites are differentiated meteorites that formed between 4 and 11 Myr after Solar System formation, when several short-lived nuclides (e.g., 26Al-26Mg, 53Mn-53Cr, 182Hf-182W) were still alive. As such, angrites are prime anchors to tie the relative chronology inferred from these short-lived radionuclides to the absolute Pb-Pb clock. The discovery of variable U isotopic composition (at the sub-permil level) calls for a revision of Pb-Pb ages calculated using an ;assumed; constant 238U/235U ratio (i.e., Pb-Pb ages published before 2009-2010). In this paper, we report high-precision U isotope measurement for six angrite samples (NWA 4590, NWA 4801, NWA 6291, Angra dos Reis, D'Orbigny, and Sahara 99555) using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry and the IRMM-3636 U double-spike. The age corrections range from -0.17 to -1.20 Myr depending on the samples. After correction, concordance between the revised Pb-Pb and Hf-W and Mn-Cr ages of plutonic and quenched angrites is good, and the initial (53Mn/55Mn)0 ratio in the Early Solar System (ESS) is recalculated as being (7 ± 1) × 10-6 at the formation of the Solar System (the error bar incorporates uncertainty in the absolute age of Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions - CAIs). An uncertainty remains as to whether the Al-Mg and Pb-Pb systems agree in large part due to uncertainties in the Pb-Pb age of CAIs. A systematic difference is found in the U isotopic compositions of quenched and plutonic angrites of +0.17‰. A difference is also found between the rare earth element (REE) patterns of these two angrite subgroups. The δ238U values are consistent with fractionation during magmatic evolution of the angrite parent melt. Stable U isotope fractionation due to a change in the coordination environment of U during incorporation into pyroxene could be responsible for such a fractionation. In this context, Pb-Pb ages derived from pyroxenes fraction should be corrected using the U isotope composition

  10. New observations on the Ni-Co ores of the southern Arburese Variscan district (SW Sardinia, Italy) (United States)

    Naitza, Stefano; Secchi, Francesco; Oggiano, Giacomo; Cuccuru, Stefano


    Among the European Variscan regions, the Arburese district, located in the Paleozoic basement of SW Sardinia (Italy) is remarkable for its metallogenic complexity, and offers good opportunities to investigate time/space and genetic links between post-collisional Variscan intrusive magmatism and mineral deposits. The district hosts a large variety of mineral deposits and occurrences, which include the Pb-Zn (Cu, Ag) mesothermal veins of the Montevecchio Lode System, one of the largest and richest Variscan hydrothermal ore deposit of Europe, now exhausted. Ore deposits are genetically related to the emplacement of the Late Variscan (304±1 Ma) Arbus Pluton, a granitoid composite intrusion ranging from monzogabbroic to granodioritic and to peraluminous leucogranitic rock-types. After more than a century of geological studies in the area, several metallogenic issues are still unresolved; among them, the occurrence in the southern sectors of little known polymetallic Ni-Co-(Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag-Bi) veins, a kind of mineralization quite unusual for the Sardinian basement. These hydrothermal deposits are hosted by very low-grade metamorphic rocks at short distance from the intrusion, where contact effect generate also hornfels. Spatial, structural and textural characters of the hydrothermal system are coherent and in apparent continuity with those of the Montevecchio Lode System. Ni-Co ores are hosted by a system of parallel, 1-2 m thick high-angle veins that discontinuously follow the southwestern and southern contacts of the Arbus Pluton for about 7 km. They constantly dip SSW, sideways with respect to the pluton contact, and show a prevalence of fracture infilling (banded and brecciated) textures, with alternating quartz and siderite bands, cockades and frequent inclusions of wallrock fragments. Wallrocks are usually silicified, bleached and/or sericitized. Systematic studies of ore textures and parageneses from different veins along the system have been performed by standard

  11. Oxygen Isotope Perspectives on Magma Sources and Pluton Assembly in Convergent Margin Batholiths (United States)

    Lackey, J.


    Oxygen isotope (δ18O) analysis of zircon in the Sierra Nevada batholith (SNB) yields fresh insight on the origin of this and other convergent margin batholiths. Zircon precisely and accurately maps (δ18O) variation by circumventing the effects of differentiation and sub-solidus alteration[1]. New temporal and spatial δ18O patterns are recognized, and the findings have bearing in current debates on the tempo and mode of pluton and intrusive suite assembly [2-4]. At large scales, regional belts of high and low δ18O reveal markedly contrasting budgets of crust and mantle in magma sources at different points during formation of the batholith. Contrary to original thinking, recycling of supracrustal rocks is greater in the western than eastern SNB. Gradients of δ18O show variable input of crust and mantle within these regional belts; however, sharp shifts in δ18O between some belts suggest pre-batholith lithospheric breaks. Generally, δ18O breaks do not coincide with the 0.706 Sri line suggesting isotopic decoupling, either in sources or during crustal contamination. Where present, crustal contamination is limited to veneers on plutons, and is largely restricted to the western SNB. Careful investigation of individual intrusive suites, reveals details of source longevity. In the Tuolumne suite, limited variability of δ18O suggests remarkably source homogeneity despite evidence for protracted emplacement[2,4]. In contrast, the John Muir suite shows distinct trends in its older and younger plutons, with a δ18O transition recorded in the Lake Edison granodiorite. Thus, some suites may draw from stable sources over several million years, with differentiation in the upper crust creating zoning and textural diversity; others record source switching or depletion of sources. Over time, shifts in δ18O in the SNB are punctuated by major pulses of magmatism suggesting reorganization of sources, likely in response to intra-arc deformation[5]. Overall, results show that a

  12. U-Pb zircon geochronology of Paleoproterozoic plutons from the northern midcontinent, USA: Evidence for subduction flip and continued convergence after geon 18 Penokean orogenesis (United States)

    Holm, D.K.; Van Schmus, W. R.; MacNeill, L.C.; Boerboom, Terrence; Schweitzer, D.; Schneider, D.


    We propose that the late Paleoproterozoic igneous and deformational history preserved in the northern midcontinent United States can be explained by a change in subduction-polarity from geon 18 south-dipping subduction during Penokean accretion to geon 17 north-dipping subduction as convergence continued after Penokean orogenesis. New U-Pb zircon ages indicate that late to post-Penokean magmatism occurred at ca. 1800, 1775, and 1750 Ma and generally migrated southeastward across the newly accreted Penokean terrane. We suggest that geon 17 Yavapai slab rollback caused continental arc magmatism to step southeastward between 1800 and 1750 Ma. As the slab steepened, reduced compressional stresses and magma-induced thermal weakening allowed for collapse of the overthickened portions of the Penokean crust. Postcollapse crustal stabilization (the 1750-1650 Ma Baraboo interval) was followed by geon 16 Mazatzal arc accretion further south. The 1900-1600 Ma tectonic history of the north-central United States, not surprisingly, records events related to the southward growth and tectonic development of the southern Laurentian margin. New and published 40Ar/ 39Ar mineral ages delineate the northern and western extent of geon 16 Mazatzal deformation. Interestingly, only little exhumed crust intruded by a small volume of shallow-level ca. 1750 Ma plutons (and associated rhyolites) was deformed significantly during geon 16. In contrast, more deeply exhumed crust and crust pervasively invaded by a large volume of post-Penokean magma (i.e., East-Central Minnesota Batholith) were largely unaffected by Mazatzal deformation and reheating. We suggest that posttectonic intrusions and crustal thinning were an important step in strengthening and stabilizing the crust in the southern Lake Superior region. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  13. Proterozoic subduction and terrane amalgamation in the southwestern Grenville province, Canada: Evidence from ultrapotassic to shoshonitic plutonism (United States)

    Corriveau, Louise


    A late Grenvillian (1089-1076 Ma) subduction regime followed by terrane amalgamation is postulated as the paleoenvironment of a 400-km-long belt of potassium-rich alkaline and shoshonitic plutons in the Central metasedimentary belt of the southwestern Grenville province, Canada. Emplacement of the plutons postdates the regional metamorphism in the country rock, but predates major shear zones that form a structural boundary for the plutonic belt. The extent, timing, and magmatic affinities of the suite delineate the Gatineau domain within the current Mont-Laurier terrane of Quebec and are compelling evidence for the allochthonous nature of the Elzevir terrane and its extension eastward to Rideau Lake in Ontario and northward into the Gatineau domain. The belt trends northeast, the emplacement ages are younger to the southeast, and the magmatic affinities are those of island-arc ultrapotassic to shoshonitic rocks. This is interpreted to reflect the existence of a southeast-dipping, northeast-trending subduction zone beneath the combined Elzevir-Gatineau terrane between 1089 and 1076 Ma. Subsequent to subduction, amalgamation of the Elzevir terrane to the other terranes formed the Central metasedimentary belt, which then accreted and collided with the allochthonous polycyclic belt. These events provide evidence that the Ottawan orogeny commenced at ca. 1090 Ma in the Central metasedimentary belt. A modern analogue of this plutonism and its tectonic setting may have been the magmatism and arc-continent collision and subduction setting of the Sunda are, Indonesia.

  14. Zircon petrochronology reveals the temporal link between porphyry systems and the magmatic evolution of their hidden plutonic roots (the Eocene Coroccohuayco deposit, Peru) (United States)

    Chelle-Michou, Cyril; Chiaradia, Massimo; Ovtcharova, Maria; Ulianov, Alexey; Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik


    We present zircon geochronologic (LA-ICPMS and ID-TIMS), trace element and Hf isotopic evidence for a complex evolution of the plutonic roots of the Eocene Coroccohuayco porphyry system, southern Peru. LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating has initially been carried out to optimize grain selection for subsequent high-precision ID-TIMS dating and to characterize crustal assimilation (xenocrystic cores). This combined in-situ and whole-grain U-Pb dating of the same grains has been further exploited to derive a robust temporal interpretation of the complex magmatic system associated with the Coroccohuayco porphyry-skarn deposit. Our data reveal that a heterogeneous gabbrodioritic complex was emplaced at ca. 40.4 Ma and was followed by a nearly 5 Ma-long magmatic lull until the emplacement of dacitic porphyry stocks and dykes associated with the mineralizing event at ca. 35.6 Ma. However, at the sample scale, zircons from the porphyries provide insight into a 2 Ma-long lived “hidden” magmatism (probably at 4-9 km paleodepth) prior to porphyry intrusion and mineralization for which no other evidence can be found on the surface today. These dates together with zircon trace element analysis and Hf isotopes argue for the development of a long-lived magmatic system dominated by amphibole fractionation with an increasing amount of crustal assimilation and the development of a large and sustained thermal anomaly. The system was probably rejuvenated at an increasing rate from 37.5 to 35.6 Ma with injection of fresh and oxidized magma from the lower crust, which caused cannibalism and remelting of proto-plutons. The porphyry intrusions at Coroccohuayco were emplaced at the peak thermal conditions of this upper crustal magma chamber, which subsequently cooled and expelled ore fluids. Zircon xenocrysts and Hf isotopes in the porphyritic rocks suggest that this large upper crustal system evolved at stratigraphic levels corresponding to Triassic sediments similar to the Mitu group that may be

  15. Exploring the plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge:new drilling at Hess Deep

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    Gillis, Kathryn M. [Univ. of Victoria, BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences; Snow, Jonathan E. [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States). Earth & Atmospheric Sciences; Klaus, Adam [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). United States Implementing Organization.; Guerin, Gilles [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Borehole Research Group; Abe, Natsue [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokosuka (Japan). Inst. for Research on Earth Evolution (IFREE); Akizawa, Norikatsu [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Ceuleneer, Georges [Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees (UMS 831), CNRS; Cheadle, Michael J. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Adriao, Alden de Brito [Federal Univ. of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil). Geology Inst. (IGEO); Faak, Kathrin [Ruhr Univ., Bochum (Germany). Geological Inst.; Falloon, Trevor J. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS (Australia). Inst. for Marine and Antarctic Studies; Friedman, Sarah A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Godard, Marguerite M. [Univ. Montpellier II (France). Geosciences Montpellier-UMR 5243; Harigane, Yumiko [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Marine Geology Dept.; Horst, Andrew J. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Earth Science; Hoshide, Takashi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Science; Ildefonse, Benoit [Univ. Montpellier II (France). Lab. de Tectonophysique; Jean, Marlon M. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology and Environmental Geosciences; John, Barbara E. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Koepke, Juergen H. [Univ. of Hannover (Germany). Inst. of Mineralogy; Machi, Sumiaki [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Maeda, Jinichiro [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Natural History Sciences; Marks, Naomi E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Chemistry and Material Sciences Dept.; McCaig, Andrew M. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Earth and Environment; Meyer, Romain [Univ. of Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Earth Science and Centre for Geobiology; Morris, Antony [Univ. of Plymouth (United Kingdom). School of Earth, Ocean & Environmental Sciences; Nozaka, Toshio [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Python, Marie [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Saha, Abhishek [Indian Inst. of Science (IISC), Bangalore (India). Centre for Earth Sciences; Wintsch, Robert P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences


    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hess Deep Expedition 345 was designed to sample lower crustal primitive gabbroic rocks that formed at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) in order to test models of magmatic accretion and the intensity of hydrothermal cooling at depth. The Hess Deep Rift was selected to exploit tectonic exposures of young EPR plutonic crust, building upon results from ODP Leg 147 as well as more recent submersible, remotely operated vehicle, and near-bottom surveys. The primary goal was to acquire the observations required to test end-member crustal accretion models that were in large part based on relationships from ophiolites, in combination with mid-ocean ridge geophysical studies. This goal was achieved with the recovery of primitive layered olivine gabbros and troctolites with many unexpected mineralogical and textural relationships, such as the abundance of orthopyroxene and the preservation of delicate skeletal olivine textures.

  16. The probable continuum between emplacement of plutons and mare volcanism in lunar crustal evolution (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.


    A scenario for the formation of the Moon is advanced and is argued to be consistent with both known data and the leading hypothesis regarding the formation of the Moon. It is concluded that, although the volume of mare basalts is estimated to be only 0.1 percent of the lunar total, this value should not be taken to represent the amount of partial melt produced within the lunar interior, nor should the mare basalts be viewed as representing the only products of internal heating. The actual amount of magnetic activity is certain to be substantially larger, but cannot be estimated without a global assessment of lunar highland heterogeneity and the character, scale, and abundance of lunar plutons.

  17. Neogene Uplift and Exhumation of Plutonic Bodies in the Beni Bou Ifrour Massif (Nador, northeastern Morocco) (United States)

    Lebret, Noëmie; Jolivet, Laurent; Branquet, Yannick; Bourdier, Jean-Louis; Jolivet, Marc; Marcoux, Eric


    In Neogene times, the whole Mediterranean Sea was the center of an intense magmatic activity. This post-collisional magmatism produced a large amount of volcanic edifices through the Alpine belts, together with some intrusives. These plutonic bodies can be associated with skarn-type mineralization, well-known in Elba Island or Serifos Island (Cyclades), where they are generally exhumed by detachment faults. In Morocco, the plutons hosted by the Beni Bou Ifrour massif are connected to the biggest skarn-type iron concentrations of the country (production > 60 Mt, reserves ≈ 25 Mt). The purpose of this work is to explain the late uplift of this massif and subsequent exhumation of the intrusives. As a final product of the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence since ca. 70 Ma, the Rif Mountains constitute the westernmost segment of the Mediterranean Alpine belts. In the oriental part of this range, volcanic summits and Paleozoic to Mesozoic massifs outcrop in the surrounding Mio-Pliocene plains. The Beni Bou Ifrour massif, in the Nador province, consists in a dome-shaped folded Mesozoic series (Domerian to Barremian) affected by a slight epizonal regional metamorphism (ca. 14-12 Ma), dislocated by Neogene NE-SW faults and eventually sealed by upper Miocene transgressive sediments. The hosted intrusives (7.58 ± 0.03 Ma; Duggen et al., 2005) are the plutonic equivalents to the potassic calc-alkaline lavas (andesites mainly) from the surrounding "satellite" volcanic massifs. They turn out to stand in higher topographic position than the younger shoshonitic lavas of the neighboring Gourougou stratovolcano (6.12 ± 0.01 Ma; Duggen et al., 2005). Previous studies have attributed this uplift to the action of normal faults (pull-apart basins; Guillemin & Houzay, 1982), thrusting (Kerchaoui, 1985; 1995) or even of a caldeira resurgence (El Bakkali, 1995). To discriminate against those exhumation mechanisms, field work has been performed, coming along with new cross-sections to

  18. The plutonic-volcanic connection: are we even on the right track? (Invited) (United States)

    Lundstrom, C.; Chakraborty, P.; Zambardi, T.


    The connection between silicic volcanic and plutonic rocks is full of contradictions. Foremost, granitic plutons reflect long slow incremental emplacement yet vast amounts of aphyric ignimbrite can be erupted rapidly. Heat flow, geophysical tomography, geochronology, geochemistry and petrology all provide observations, yet we are far from any consensus. The two most popular suggestions for forming ignimbrites, extraction of partial melt from a granitic upper crust reservoir or lower crustal hot zone melting, are each inconsistent with some observations/constraints. 100% melting of a granite mush, which may be consistent with many observations, was previously proposed1 but dismissed due to the large amount of latent heat needed to completely melt a mush. This work first presents new non-traditional isotope ratio data (Fe, Si) for plutonic and volcanic rocks suites showing that like Harker diagrams, volcanics and plutonics produce identical systematic behavior with differentiation. δ56Fe forms upwardly curving trends with increasing silica whereas δ30Si increases linearly. The logical deduction is that volcanics reflect 100% mobilization of a granite mush (not necessarily melting). While the origin of NTSI variations remains debated, the systematic NTSI trends are consistent with prediction of a top-down thermal migration zone refining (TMZR) process2. In part 2, we assume TMZR generates a granitic mush and propose that an instability in this mush leads to a runaway effect that results in eruption of aphyric ignimbrite. Experiments show that wet andesite evolves to granite at the cold (400°C) end of a thermal gradient3 with hydrous peralkaline melt existing interstitially. Previous work4 shows that such melts show retrograde immiscibility, segregating into a water rich melt and a water poor melt with temperature increase. Thus, as the mush builds down into hot crust, it crosses the immiscibility boundary triggering release of the water-rich phase; buoyant rise and

  19. A Structural-Thermal Model of the Karkonosze Pluton (Sudetes Mountains, SW Poland) for Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Use (United States)

    Bujakowski, Wiesław; Barbacki, Antoni; Miecznik, Maciej; Pająk, Leszek; Skrzypczak, Robert


    The main objective of this study was to develop a spatial temperature distribution of the Karkonosze Pluton to indicate optimum locations for HDR systems at drillable depth. HDR geothermal technology makes it possible to extract heat from the Earth in areas where no hydro-geothermal resources are present. To produce electricity in a binary cycle, system temperatures of > 100°C are usually required. In this paper, the authors have analysed the potential opportunities for applying HDR technology in the area of the Karkonosze Pluton, which is regarded as an optimum location for the application of the HDR concept (due to the potential for stimulation offered by the mechanical properties of the granites, radiogenic heat production, modern tectonic activity, and the thickness of the pluton). The model used in the analysis, which takes into account a hypothetical assessment of the manner and paths of fluid migration within the pluton, provides an insight into the spatial distribution of subsurface temperatures. It thus allows the location of relatively shallow high-temperature zones, which are optimal for the efficient application of HDR technology, to be identified. With respect to this technology, the Szklarska Poręba area and the NE part of the pluton seem to be better targets than the Cieplice central area, where the model indicated much lower temperatures (e.g. at a depth of 5,000 m, estimated temperatures in the vicinity of Szklarska Poręba were about 185°C and in the vicinity of Cieplice they were about 140°C).

  20. The Fazenda Gavião granodiorite and associated potassic plutons as evidence for Palaeoproterozoic arc-continent collision in the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, Brazil (United States)

    Costa, Felipe G.; Oliveira, Elson P.; McNaughton, Neal J.


    Several granitic plutons have intruded the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, São Francisco craton, Brazil, in the time interval 2163-2080 Ma, but their tectonic significance is poorly understood. The Fazenda Gavião granodiorite (FGG) is one of a set of plutons emplaced along the western boundary of the greenstone belt with Archaean migmatite-gneiss basement. The pluton is mostly composed of hornblende granodiorite, occasionally crosscut by syn-plutonic mafic dykes. The FGG is metaluminous, medium- to high-K calc-alkaline with relatively constant silica abundances (SiO2 ˜ 63-66 wt%), high Sr (900-800 ppm) and high Ba (1000-1500 ppm). The associated mafic dykes are ultrapotassic, with high abundances of Ba, Sr, MgO, Ni, Cr, and light rare earth elements, suggesting derivation from partial melts of an enriched mantle source. The FGG originated probably by fractional crystallization from a primitive K-rich mafic magma that interacted with crustal melts. Its zircon U-Pb SHRIMP age of 2106 ± 6 Ma indicates that the FGG is younger than the early (2163-2127 Ma) tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) and calc-alkaline arc plutons of the greenstone belt, and is closely related in time and space with potassic to ultrapotassic plutons (ca. 2110-2105 Ma). The negative ɛNd(t) of FGG and coeval K-rich plutons of the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt contrasts markedly with the positive ɛNd(t) of the older arc plutons, indicating a major change of isotope signatures in granites of the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt with time. This isotope shift may be related to magma contamination with older continental material and/or derivation of the parental potassic magma from enriched lithospheric mantle sources. We suggest that the K-rich plutons were emplaced during or shortly after Palaeoproterozoic arc-continent collision.

  1. Tracking fluid action in Little Sark Pluton (Channel Islands, UK): a UV laserprobe Ar/Ar study of excess 40Ar (United States)

    Schwenzer, S. P.; Schwanethal, J.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Sherlock, S. C.


    Little Sark pluton (Channel Islands, UK) is a weakly to moderately deformed pluton of quartz diorite composition. Zircon from Little Sark has been dated as 611.4(+2.1/-1.3) Ma [Miller et al. 1991, Tectonophysics, 312], whereas titanite has an age of 606.2±0.6 Ma. Hornblende yields an Ar-Ar age of 606.4±3.4 Ma [Dallmeyer et al., 1991, J. Geol. Soc. London 148]. The rocks show evidence for post-magmatic hydrous alteration including chloritisation of biotite, and sericite formation in feldspar. We investigated the alteration in order to understand its influence on the Ar-Ar system. Detailed petrographic investigations of two samples indicate different deformation levels - S1, (less deformed), and S2 (more deformed). The feldspar is andesine to oligoclase in composition, but contains K-rich areas with patchy and sometimes cleavage guided sericitization. Mafic minerals include hornblende and biotite (the latter partially chloritized). Ar-Ar investigations were carried out using high spatial resolution UV laser ablation gas release in combination with a Nu instruments Noblesse gas mass spectrometer using spots of 80 to 140 μm diameter. Mafic minerals in S1 have highly variable 38Ar/39Ar and 37Ar/39Ar ratios and unusually high atmospheric contents for such old samples, possibly reflecting the presence of fluid inclusions associated with the sericite, particularly in the feldspar. The apparent ages in their entirety range from 429 to 668 Ma. Hornblende yields homogeneous apparent ages, whereas the younger and older ages are measured in both micas and feldspars, whose apparent ages range from 245-670 Ma. The modal age for feldspar is around 400-450 Ma, but this may not have geological meaning. Sample S2 shows many of the same features as S1. Mafic minerals span a slightly smaller age range and feldspars display apparent ages of ~245-645 Ma with a mode around 480 Ma. The alteration of both samples appears to have been accompanied by the introduction of 40Ar-rich fluids

  2. Probing the volcanic-plutonic connection and the genesis of crystal-rich rhyolite in a deeply dissected supervolcano in the Nevada Great Basin: Source of the late Eocene Caetano Tuff (United States)

    Watts, Kathryn E.; John, David A.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Schmitt, Axel K.


    Late Cenozoic faulting and large-magnitude extension in the Great Basin of the western USA has created locally deep windows into the upper crust, permitting direct study of volcanic and plutonic rocks within individual calderas. The Caetano caldera in north–central Nevada, formed during the mid-Tertiary ignimbrite flare-up, offers one of the best exposed and most complete records of caldera magmatism. Integrating whole-rock geochemistry, mineral chemistry, isotope geochemistry and geochronology with field studies and geologic mapping, we define the petrologic evolution of the magmatic system that sourced the >1100 km3Caetano Tuff. The intra-caldera Caetano Tuff is up to ∼5 km thick, composed of crystal-rich (30–45 vol. %), high-silica rhyolite, overlain by a smaller volume of comparably crystal-rich, low-silica rhyolite. It defies classification as either a monotonous intermediate or crystal-poor zoned rhyolite, as commonly ascribed to ignimbrite eruptions. Crystallization modeling based on the observed mineralogy and major and trace element geochemistry demonstrates that the compositional zonation can be explained by liquid–cumulate evolution in the Caetano Tuff magma chamber, with the more evolved lower Caetano Tuff consisting of extracted liquids that continued to crystallize and mix in the upper part of the chamber following segregation from a cumulate-rich, and more heterogeneous, source mush. The latter is represented in the caldera stratigraphy by the less evolved upper Caetano Tuff. Whole-rock major, trace and rare earth element geochemistry, modal mineralogy and mineral chemistry, O, Sr, Nd and Pb isotope geochemistry, sanidine Ar–Ar geochronology, and zircon U–Pb geochronology and trace element geochemistry provide robust evidence that the voluminous caldera intrusions (Carico Lake pluton and Redrock Canyon porphyry) are genetically equivalent to the least evolved Caetano Tuff and formed from magma that remained in the lower chamber after

  3. Probing the volcanic-plutonic connection and the genesis of crystal-rich rhyolite in a deeply dissected supervolcano in the Nevada Great Basin: Source of the late Eocene Caetano Tuff (United States)

    Watts, Kathryn E.; John, David A.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Schmitt, Axel K.


    Late Cenozoic faulting and large-magnitude extension in the Great Basin of the western USA has created locally deep windows into the upper crust, permitting direct study of volcanic and plutonic rocks within individual calderas. The Caetano caldera in north–central Nevada, formed during the mid-Tertiary ignimbrite flare-up, offers one of the best exposed and most complete records of caldera magmatism. Integrating whole-rock geochemistry, mineral chemistry, isotope geochemistry and geochronology with field studies and geologic mapping, we define the petrologic evolution of the magmatic system that sourced the >1100 km3Caetano Tuff. The intra-caldera Caetano Tuff is up to ∼5 km thick, composed of crystal-rich (30–45 vol. %), high-silica rhyolite, overlain by a smaller volume of comparably crystal-rich, low-silica rhyolite. It defies classification as either a monotonous intermediate or crystal-poor zoned rhyolite, as commonly ascribed to ignimbrite eruptions. Crystallization modeling based on the observed mineralogy and major and trace element geochemistry demonstrates that the compositional zonation can be explained by liquid–cumulate evolution in the Caetano Tuff magma chamber, with the more evolved lower Caetano Tuff consisting of extracted liquids that continued to crystallize and mix in the upper part of the chamber following segregation from a cumulate-rich, and more heterogeneous, source mush. The latter is represented in the caldera stratigraphy by the less evolved upper Caetano Tuff. Whole-rock major, trace and rare earth element geochemistry, modal mineralogy and mineral chemistry, O, Sr, Nd and Pb isotope geochemistry, sanidine Ar–Ar geochronology, and zircon U–Pb geochronology and trace element geochemistry provide robust evidence that the voluminous caldera intrusions (Carico Lake pluton and Redrock Canyon porphyry) are genetically equivalent to the least evolved Caetano Tuff and formed from magma that remained in the lower chamber after

  4. Bulk rock composition and geochemistry of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the Grey Porri Tuff and selected lavas of the Monte dei Porri volcano, Salina, Aeolian Islands, southern Italy (United States)

    Doherty, Angela L.; Bodnar, Robert J.; De Vivo, Benedetto; Bohrson, Wendy A.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Messina, Antonia; Tracy, Robert J.


    The Aeolian Islands are an arcuate chain of submarine seamounts and volcanic islands, lying just north of Sicily in southern Italy. The second largest of the islands, Salina, exhibits a wide range of compositional variation in its erupted products, from basaltic lavas to rhyolitic pumice. The Monte dei Porri eruptions occurred between 60 ka and 30 ka, following a period of approximately 60,000 years of repose. The bulk rock composition of the Monte dei Porri products range from basaltic-andesite scoria to andesitic pumice in the Grey Porri Tuff (GPT), with the Monte dei Porri lavas having basaltic-andesite compositions. The typical mineral assemblage of the GPT is calcic plagioclase, clinopyroxene (augite), olivine (Fo72−84) and orthopyroxene (enstatite) ± amphibole and Ti-Fe oxides. The lava units show a similar mineral assemblage, but contain lower Fo olivines (Fo57−78). The lava units also contain numerous glomerocrysts, including an unusual variety that contains quartz, K-feldspar and mica. Melt inclusions (MI) are ubiquitous in all mineral phases from all units of the Monte dei Porri eruptions; however, only data from olivine-hosted MI in the GPT are reported here. Compositions of MI in the GPT are typically basaltic (average SiO2 of 49.8 wt %) in the pumices and basaltic-andesite (average SiO2 of 55.6 wt %) in the scoriae and show a bimodal distribution in most compositional discrimination plots. The compositions of most of the MI in the scoriae overlap with bulk rock compositions of the lavas. Petrological and geochemical evidence suggest that mixing of one or more magmas and/or crustal assimilation played a role in the evolution of the Monte dei Porri magmatic system, especially the GPT. Analyses of the more evolved mineral phases are required to better constrain the evolution of the magma.

  5. New petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data for the Reguengos de Monsaraz pluton (Ossa Morena Zone, SW Iberian Massif, Portugal

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    Antunes, A.


    Full Text Available The Reguengos de Monsaraz pluton is a late to post-tectonic Variscan intrusion occurring in the Ossa Morena Zone (Iberian Variscan Chain. The dominant lithological types are tonalites and granodiorites, but the internal area of the massif is composed of gabbro-dioritic rocks. Field evidence shows that the intrusion is heterogeneous at mesoscopic scale suggesting that the emplacement of mafic and felsic magmas was contemporaneous. Petrographic and geochemical studies reveal that the different lithologic types define a continuous sequence with compositions varying from metaluminous to slightly peraluminous and a typical calc-alkaline signature. In Harker variation diagrams, it is possible to observe systematic rectilinear correlations pointing to the involvement of magma mingling/mixing processes in the petrogenesis of this sequence. Rb-Sr isotopic data, using a mineral-mineral pair from a granodiorite sample, yielded an age of 298 Ma, interpreted as a cooling age after igneous crystallization.

    El plutón de Reguengos de Monsaraz es una intrusión varisca tardi- a post- tectónica localizada en la Zona de Ossa Morena (Cadena Varisca Ibérica. Los tipos litológicos dominantes son las tonalitas y las granodioritas aunque la zona mas interna del macizo está formada por rocas gabro-dioríticas. Las evidencias de campo muestran que todos los tipos litológicos son heterogéneos a escala mesoscópica y sugieren que el emplazamiento de los magmas máficos y félsicos fue contemporáneo. Los estudios petrográficos y geoquímicos muestran que los diferentes litotipos definen una secuencia continua con una afinidad calcoalcalina típica y composiciones variando desde metaluminosas a peraluminosas. En los diagramas de Harker se observan correlaciones rectilíneas sistemáticas, lo que sugiere que la mezcla de magmas tuvo un papel decisivo en su petrogénesis. Los datos isotópicos de Rb-Sr, usando un par mineral-mineral de una granodiorita

  6. The Precambrian/Lower Cambrian pluton from Vila Nova (Central Portugal

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    Reis, A. I.M.


    Full Text Available The Vila Nova pluton is a small, Pre-Variscan granitic body that intruded rocks of the Central Iberian Zone near the contact with the Ossa Morena Zone and is affected by several shear zones and faults. Its contact metamorphic aureole is constituted by micaschist with porphyroblasts in the outer zone and hornfels in the inner zone. Small metasedimentar xenoliths are dispersed all over the body. The pluton has a great mineralogical heterogeneity with pronounced variations in muscovite/biotite and plagioclase/microcline contents and is classified as granite, granodiorite or tonalite. It is a leucogranite, highly peraluminous (A/CNK = 1.31 – 1.64, magnesian and calc-alkaline to alkaline-calcic. The variation diagrams show curvilinear trends with silica. Eu/Eu* = 0.47 – 0.77 and there is a slight enrichment in LREE relative to HREE. The normalized diagrams indicated dominantly crustal granite, related to subduction. U-Pb isotopic data of zircon and monazite gives 540-542 Ma age.

    El plutón de Vila Nova es un pequeño cuerpo granítico pre-varisco, que intruyó en las rocas de la Zona Centro Ibérica, cerca del contacto con la Zona de Ossa Morena, siendo afectado por varias fallas y zonas de cizalla. Su aureola de metamorfismo de contacto consiste en esquistos con porfiroblastos y corneanas. Pequeños xenolitos metasedimentarios aparecen dispersos por todo el cuerpo granítico. Presenta una gran diversidad mineralógica, con amplias variaciones en las relaciones biotita/moscovita y microclina/plagioclasa, siendo clasificado como tonalita-granodiorita-granito. Se trata de un leucogranito fuertemente peralumínico (A/CNK = 1.31 – 1.64, magnesiano y calco-alcalino a alcalino-cálcico. Los diagramas muestran variaciones curvilíneas con la variación de sílice. Eu/Eu* = 0.47 – 0.77 y hay un ligero enriquecimiento de LREE en relación con HREE. Los diagramas indican que la norma es un granito dominante de la corteza, relacionados con la

  7. Duality of magmatism in the plutonic sequence of the Sumail Nappe, Oman (United States)

    Juteau, T.; Ernewein, M.; Reuber, I.; Whitechurch, H.; Dahl, R.


    Detailed field mapping of the crustal sequence in several areas of the Sumail Ophiolite Nappe, mainly in the Fizh, the Salahi and the Haylayn blocks, and comparisons with other well-studied areas, have shown that the crustal sequence was constructed by two distinct, although nearly contemporaneous, magmatic series: The first, a gabbroic series, was emplaced during the accretion stage at an oceanic spreading centre which formed the layered gabbro unit, the high-level isotropic gabbro unit and their by-products, the sheeted dyke complex and the lower extrusives. Fine-grained homogeneous, planar-laminated gabbros commonly occur at the top of the layered gabbro sequence. In some specific areas (Wadi Haymiliyah and Wadi Rajmi), these are strongly differentiated Fe-Ti-rich gabbronorites and norites, which coincide with large-scale discontinuities within the plutonic sequence, interpreted as axial discontinuities of the spreading magma chambers. The second series, an ultramafic wehrlitic series, is locally rooted in the upper mantle (i.e., the impregnated dunitic transition zone). This has intruded the whole crustal sequence up to the pillow lavas. Countless discordant and concordant wehrlitic bodies intruded the plutonic sequence, making up 20-40% of it in volume. We describe the various settings and forms of these intrusions, which were largely underestimated in previous studies. We also describe their mineralogy and textures, and show with chemical and mineralogical arguments that these bodies evolved as relatively closed systems, independently from each other. We infer from the study of the contacts that the gabbros were still hot and consolidated just at the moment of the wehrlitic intrusion. At the base of the crust however, indications of immiscibility between gabbros and wehrlites are common, suggesting that both magmatic series were quite contemporaneous. The wehrlites are commonly isotropic and may exhibit an internal layering of the dunite

  8. Preliminary Geologic Map of the San Fernando 7.5' Quadrangle, Southern California: A Digital Database (United States)

    Yerkes, R.F.


    . The San Fernando area lies on the southern slopes of the San Gabriel Mountains. The basement rocks here include high-grade metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age. The mountains are largely composed of crystalline basement that includes the Pelona Scist of probable Mesozoic age that has been overthrust by Precambrian gneisses; the gneisses were subsequently intruded by Mesozoic plutons prior to overthrusting along the latest Cretaceous Vincent thrust. Gneisses of somewhat variable composition and possibly varying ages are found in four terranes, but not all are in contact with Pelona Schist. Large tracts of Precambrian (1.2 billion years old) andesine anorthosite are intrusive into 1.7 billion year-old Mendenhall gneiss, and are found in the western part of the San Gabriels. Mixed with these are younger marble, limestone, and schist of possible Paleozoic age found in association with plutons along the southern margin of the range. The older rocks are intruded by diorite, quartz diorite, and granodiorite of Jurassic age. Also present are siliceous sedimentary rocks of Jurassic age. A thick section of Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks overlie these units. The sediments located south of the San Gabriel Fault are totally different in character from those on the northern range flank, and mostly resemble the western Transverse Ranges due to their deposition in the southeastern Ventura basin; approximately 3,000 m of these sediments are exposed north and west of the city of San Fernando in the Tujunga syncline. Some of the Tertiary rocks are Paleocene and Eocene in age, but the bulk of these rocks are Oligocene and Miocene in age. The Vasquez and Sespe Formations of basal basaltic volcanic and sandstone are Oligocene and lower Miocene in age. These are overlain by clastic rocks of Tick Canyon and Mint Canyon Formations of middle to late Miocene age. Above these rocks are the Castaic, Modelo, and Santa Margarita Formations of fossiliferous marine shale, sand

  9. Inhomogeneous Shearing Around Major Shear Zone: Evidence From the Magnetic Fabric of Late-Panafrican Plutons in the Tuareg Shield (Algeria) (United States)

    Henry, B.; Derder, M. E.; Bayou, B.; Guemache, M.; Nouar, O.; Ouabadi, A.; Djellit, H.; Amenna, M.; Hemmi, A.


    Teg Orak and Tihaliouine are Late-Panafrican granitic intrusions situated in the Tuareg shield, northwest of Tamanrasset. Both plutons are located close to the 4°50 accident, one of the N-S major shear zone cutting the Hoggar. They are constituted of several granitic facies, indicating differentiation and multiphase intrusion. They show only very locally preferred visible orientation of their minerals. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) was determined on samples collected along cross-sections in the Teg Orak (349 samples for 43 sites) and Tihaliouine (160 samples for 21 sites) plutons. At Tihaliouine, the AMS presents relatively scattered directions, with magnetic foliation having often strike similar to that of the plutons border. At Teg Orak, samples collected in the north-western part of the pluton present also AMS rather in relation with orientation of the pluton border. For all the other samples, including those from an aplitic dyke crossing the granite and whatever the facies of the granite, the fabric is very coherent. Magnetic lineation is subhorizontal, striking NW-SE. Magnetic foliation plunges to the NE on the north-eastern part of the plutons, has a weak dip in the central part and plunges to the SW in the south-western part. This disposition indicates deformation of the eastern part of the granite during late magmatic stages in relation with dextral strike-slip movement along the shear zone. Tihaliouine and western Teg Orak (mainly with fabric related with magma flow) intruded within older granite while eastern part of Teg Orak (with fabric related to deformation) is located within diorites and metamorphic rocks. In the Teg Orak - Tihaliouine area, granitic host-rocks acted therefore as a rigid block, protecting the studied plutons from the effect of regional deformation, while metamorphic and more basic plutonic rocks had a more deformable behavior and allowed intrusion strain.

  10. Petrological and Mineralogical Study of Enclaves in Plutons in the Typical Mining Districts of Tongling,Anhui and Its Bearing on the Process of Magmatism—Metallogeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Two types of enclaves occur in magmatic plutons in Tongling,Anhui.Enclaves of the first type are residuals of metamorphic rocks of high amphibolite facies,and those of the other type are magmatic rocks ranging from monzonitic to dioritic in composition. A combined petrological and mineralogical study has been carried out on the two types of enclaves in order to estimate their forming conditions and analyze their relations to their as to have an insight into the material sources of magmatic rocks and associated mineral deposits and give a clue to better understanding the mechanism of magmatism-metallogeny.This leads us to propose a new metallogenic model for strats-bound skarn-type ore deposits associated with a syntectic type of magmatic rocks.The new model can be simply summarized as partial melting of old metamorphic basement rocks at depth and accumulating,differentiating and positioning of magmas to form deep-level and shallow-level magma chambers,follower by mixing of different magmas associated with their crypto-explosion,migration of gas-bearing ore fluids and precipitation of metals in fluids within the magmas.

  11. The Ajo Mining District, Pima County, Arizona--Evidence for Middle Cenozoic Detachment Faulting, Plutonism, Volcanism, and Hydrothermal Alteration (United States)

    Cox, Dennis P.; Force, Eric R.; Wilkinson, William H.; More, Syver W.; Rivera, John S.; Wooden, Joseph L.


    Introduction: The Ajo porphyry copper deposit and surrounding Upper Cretaceous rocks have been separated from their plutonic source and rotated by detachment faulting. Overlying middle Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks have been tilted and show evidence for two periods of rotation. Following these rotations, a granitic stock (23.7?0.2 Ma) intruded basement rocks west of the Ajo deposit. This stock was uplifted 2.5 km to expose deep-seated Na-Ca alteration.

  12. Adakitic-like magmatism in western Ossa-Morena Zone (Portugal): Geochemical and isotopic constraints of the Pavia pluton (United States)

    Lima, S. M.; Neiva, A. M. R.; Ramos, J. M. F.


    Granitic rocks are a major component of the Earth's continental crust and occur in a wide variety of tectonic settings. Their chemical and isotopic characterization is crucial to the recognition of the potential sources and mechanisms involved in their generation. In this study, we present the first whole rock chemical and isotopic (Sr-Nd-O) data for the Pavia pluton (328-317 Ma), located near the western border of the Ossa-Morena Zone (Évora Massif, Portugal). Major and trace element geochemistry suggests that the different granitic phases composing this intrusive body (enclaves, granites (s.l.) and crosscutting dikes) represent independent magma pulses and the majority is similar to TTGs and adakites. The little Sr-Nd-O isotopic variation, with (87Sr/86Sr)328 = 0.70428-0.70560, ɛNd328 ranging between - 3.4 and + 0.4 and δ18O varying from + 5.6‰ to + 8.4‰ implies an isotopically similar protolith for all phases. The most viable mechanism for the generation of the Pavia pluton adakitic-like magmatism is assimilation-fractional crystallization of a mantle-derived magma. This mechanism was also invoked to explain the genesis of other plutons within the Évora Massif but they have a distinct chemistry (typical arc calc-alkaline rocks). The chemical differences between them and the Pavia pluton granitic rocks are interpreted as the result of lower degrees of crustal assimilation and higher degrees of contamination of mantle-derived magmas by the sinking slab (after subduction blocking and subsequent slab break-off).

  13. Ion-adsorption REEs in regolith of the Liberty Hill pluton, South Carolina, USA: An effect of hydrothermal alteration (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Yesavage, Tiffany; Foley, Nora K.


    Ion-adsorbed rare earth element (REE) deposits supply the majority of world heavy REE production and substantial light REE production, but relatively little is known of their occurrence outside Southeast Asia. We examined the distribution and forms of REEs on a North American pluton located in the highly weathered and slowly eroding South Carolina Piedmont. The Hercynian Liberty Hill pluton experiences a modern climate that includes ~ 1500 mm annual rainfall and a mean annual temperature of 17 °C. The pluton is medium- to coarse-grained biotite-amphibole granite with minor biotite granite facies. REE-bearing phases are diverse and include monazite, zircon, titanite, allanite, apatite and bastnäsite. Weathered profiles were sampled up to 7 m-deep across the ~ 400 km2 pluton. In one profile, ion-adsorbed REEs plus yttrium (REE + Y) ranged up to 581 mg/kg and accounted for up to 77% of total REE + Y in saprolite. In other profiles, ion-adsorbed REE + Y ranged 12–194 mg/kg and only accounted for 3–37% of totals. The profile most enriched in ion-adsorbed REEs was located along the mapped boundary of two granite facies and contained trioctahedral smectite in the saprolite, evidence suggestive of hydrothermal alteration of biotite at that location. Post-emplacement deuteric alteration can generate easily weathered REE phases, particularly fluorocarbonates. In the case of Liberty Hill, hydrothermal alteration may have converted less soluble to more soluble REE minerals. Additionally, regolith P content was inversely correlated with the fraction ion-adsorbed REEs, and weathering related secondary REE-phosphates were found in some regolith profiles. Both patterns illustrate how low P content aids in the accumulation of ion-adsorbed REEs. The localized occurrence at Liberty Hill sheds light on conditions and processes that generate ion-adsorbed REEs.

  14. Single Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Dating of the Guandimiao and Wawutang Granitic Plutons in Hunan, South China and Its Petrogenetic Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Weifeng; CHEN Peirong; ZHOU Xinmin; HUANG Hongye; DING Xing; SUN Tao


    The Guandimao and Wawutang plutons are located at the center of Hunan, South China.The former is mainly composed of biotite monzonitic granites/granodiorites and two-mica monzonitic granites, but the latter only consists of biotite monzonitic granites. The zircon ages of 203.0±1.6 Ma (biotite monzonitic granites) and 208.0±3.2 Ma (two-mica monzonitic granites) for the Guandimao pluton and 204±3 Ma for the Wawutang pluton obtained with the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating indicate that they were formed during the late Indosinian. In consideration of other geochronological data from Indosinlan rocks of South China and adjacent regions, it is inferred that the two plutons were derived from crustal materials by decompressional melting in a post-collisional tectonic setting during spontaneous thinning of the thickened curst. Moreover, the inherited zircon age of 1273±k57 Ma from the Wawutang pluton indicates that the source of the two plutons is related to the early Proterozoic crustal basement.

  15. [Discussion on diagenesis of Xilingang pluton-constrained by X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy, plasma mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Tang, Yu-Kun; Chen, Guo-Neng; Zhang, Ke; Huang, Hai-Hua


    The results on Xilingang pluton, mainly consisting of red beds, granites containing numerous debris of red beds and granites, obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, plasma mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy show: (1) Xilingang pluton from red beds, granites containing numerous debris of red beds to granites has obvious characteristics of decreasing silicon and alkali content, and rising ignition loss, dark mineral content and oxidation index; (2) Chondrite-normalized REE distribution curves and primitive mantle-normalized spider diagram for trace elements of redbed, granites containing numerous debris of red beds and granites have a good consistency, the distribution characteristics of elements are similar to Nanling transformation-type granite; (3) The value of Raman spectrogram characteristic peak of quartz crystal in Xilingang granite decreased from the center of quartz crystal, and FWHM is steady. According to the above, the authors believe that Xilingang granite formed was related to in-situ melting of red beds and underlying strata and magma consolidation. Volatile components were discharged continuously, and oxidation index decreased gradually in the melting process. In the process of diagenesis, the top of pluton tend to be an ongoing silicon and alkali increase, while TFeO and MgO continue to migrate to bottom, and crystallization environment is a relatively closed and steady system.

  16. Early Paleozoic subduction processes of the Paleo-Asian Ocean: Insights from geochronology and geochemistry of Paleozoic plutons in the Alxa Terrane (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Zhao, Guochun; Sun, Min; Han, Yigui; Eizenhöfer, Paul R.; Hou, Wenzhu; Zhang, Xiaoran; Zhu, Yanlin; Wang, Bo; Liu, Dongxing; Xu, Bing


    The Alxa Terrane is situated in a key area between the North China and Tarim cratons. Paleozoic magmatic records in this terrane place important constraints on the subduction processes of the southern Paleo-Asian Ocean. New data of zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock elemental and isotopic data reveal two groups of intermediate to felsic plutons in the Alxa Terrane. One group consists of diorites and granitoids that were emplaced at ca. 460-440 Ma and characterized by lower Al2O3/TiO2 ratios and higher TiO2 contents, implying high temperature-low pressure crystallization conditions and a shallow source region. The second group is dominated by granitoids aged at ca. 420-407 Ma and displays high Sr and Ba, low Y and high rare earth elements, with very high Sr/Y ratios and mostly positive Eu anomalies. These characteristics imply low temperature-high pressure crystallization conditions and source regions at deep crustal levels where garnet is stable in the residual phase. Both of the two groups are mostly calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline, depleted in Nb, Ta and Ti and enriched in Ba, K and Sr, indicative of an arc affinity most likely related to the southward subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Zircon εHf(t) and whole-rock εNd(t) values of these magmatic rocks decrease from 458 Ma to 440 Ma and increase from 417 Ma to 407 Ma, whereas whole-rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios display an opposite trend. Such an isotopic change suggests a tectonic switch from an advancing to a retreating subduction regime at ~ 407 Ma. Synthesized data from this and previous studies suggest that the 460-400 Ma magmatic arc in the Alxa Terrane represented the western extension of the Paleozoic arc belt on the northern margin of the North China Craton.

  17. Young cumulate complex beneath Veniaminof caldera, Aleutian arc, dated by zircon in erupted plutonic blocks (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Mazdab, Frank K.


    Mount Veniaminof volcano, Alaska Peninsula, provides an opportunity to relate Quaternary volcanic rocks to a coeval intrusive complex. Veniaminof erupted tholeiitic basalt through dacite in the past ˜260 k.y. Gabbro, diorite, and miarolitic granodiorite blocks, ejected 3700 14C yr B.P. in the most recent caldera-forming eruption, are fragments of a shallow intrusive complex of cumulate mush and segregated vapor-saturated residual melts. Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) analyses define 238U-230Th isochron ages of 17.6 ± 2.7 ka, 5 +11/-10 ka, and 10.2 ± 4.0 ka (2σ) for zircon in two granodiorites and a diorite, respectively. Sparse zircons from two gabbros give 238U-230Th model ages of 36 ± 8 ka and 26 ± 7 ka. Zircons from granodiorite and diorite crystallized in the presence of late magmatic aqueous fluid. Although historic eruptions have been weakly explosive Strombolian fountaining and small lava effusions, the young ages of plutonic blocks, as well as late Holocene dacite pumice, are evidence that the intrusive complex remains active and that evolved magmas can segregate at shallow levels to fuel explosive eruptions.

  18. The intrusive complexof the Island of Giglio: geomagnetic characteristics of plutonic facies with low susceptibility contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cavallini


    Full Text Available Two main plutonic facies characterize the intrusive complex of the Island of Giglio, and the trend of their contact at depth has been modelled using a 2D½ analysis based on a detailed geomagnetic survey in order to verify the geological hypothesis of the subsurface geometry of this contact. The magnetic anomaly connected with the discontinuity is quite low, due to the small difference between the magnetic susceptibilities of the two granitic facies. Development of this model of inversion of the magnetic field, which is in good agreement with the geological interpretation, was made possible by: 1 accurate control of the geomagnetic time variations and consequent temporal reduction, 2 a very low level of the artificial magnetic noise, 3 high density of the magnetic survey, 4 detailed knowledge of the mapped geologic contact between facies and of their petrologic characteristics, and 5 direct local measurements of the magnetic susceptibilities of the key lithologies. The model shows the trends of the geological contact, as projected in three E-W sections, that dips eastward in the range between 210 and 540, supporting the geologic hypothesis that the Pietrabona facies represents an external shell of the shallowly emplaced Giglio monzogranite intrusion.

  19. Natural radionuclides in the rocks of the Valle del Cervo Pluton in Piedmont. (United States)

    Sesana, Lucia; Fumagalli, Marco; Carnevale, Mauro; Polla, Giancarla; Facchini, Ugo; Colombo, Annita; Tunesi, Annalisa; De Capitani, Luisa; Rusconi, Rosella


    Monitoring of the gamma radiation in Valle del Cervo Pluton was performed by determining U and Th contents in the main rock types cropping out over the entire area and pertaining to the granitic complex, syenitic complex and monzonitic complex. In particular, syenitic rocks were largely used as building and ornamental materials (e.g. Sienite della Balma). All the samples are fresh and do not present joints or fractures filled with U minerals. In the crushed samples the activity of uranium varies from 346 to 764 Bq/kg. Concentration of thorium varies from 202 to 478 Bq/kg. For all the analysed rocks uranium activity is higher than thorium one. The lowest value of radioactive concentration is referred to rocks of the granitic complex. The most active rocks are syenites. The data confirm the high activities of Valle del Cervo rock types, strongly connected with high K content of the source magma (geochemical signature); on the contrary, the activity seems to be not related to the location of the samples.

  20. Comparison between several multi-parameter seismic inversion methods in identifying plutonic igneous rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haijun; Xu Yongzhong; Huang Zhibin; Chen Shizhong; Yang Zhilin; Wu Gang; Xiao Zhongyao


    With the objective of establishing the necessary conditions for 3-D seismic data from a Permian plutonic oilfield in western China,we compared the technology of several multi-parameter seismic inversion methods in identifying igneous rocks.The most often used inversion methods are Constrained Sparse Spike Inversion (CSSI).Artificial Neural Network Inversion (ANN) and GR Pseudo-impedance Inversion.Through the application of a variety of inversion methods with log curves correction,we obtained relatively high-resolution impedance and velocity sections,effectively identifying the lithology of Permian igneous rocks and inferred lateral variation in the lithology of tgneous rocks.By means of a comprehensive comparative study,we arrived at the following conclusions:the CSSI inversion has good waveform continuity,and the ANN inversion has lower resolution than the CSSI inversion.The inversion results show that multi-parameter seismic inversion methods are an effective solution to the identification of igneous rocks.

  1. Fission Track Geochronology of Xiaonanchuan Pluton and the Morphotectonic Evolution of Eastern Kunlun since Late Miocene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology of seven samples from the Xiaonanchuan(小南川) pluton in the Kunlun (昆仑) pass area was carried out, for the purpose of determining the timing of cooling and the relation between the exhumation and the morphotectonic processes. The AFT ages yield low denudation rates of 0.020-0.035 mm/ a during the late Miocene, which correspond to a stable geomorphic and weak tectonic uplifting environment. The low denudation rates can be considered as the approximate tectonic uplifting rates. The AFT geochronology shows paroxysmally rapid cooling since the Pliocene and an apparent material unroofing of more than 3 km in the Xiaonanchuan area. This was not the result of simple denudation. The rapid cooling was coupled with the intensive orogeny since the Pliocene, which was driven by tectonic uplifting. The accelerated relief building was accompanied by a series of faulting, which caused the basin and the valley formation and sinking. The space pattern of the AFT ages also shows differential uplifting, which decreases northwardly. This trend is supported by the regional AFT data, which indicate that the exhumation decreases northwardly in eastern Kunlun. This trend also exists in east-west orientation from the western Kunlun range to the eastern. The uplifting trend is also supported by geomorphic characteristics including the elevation and the relief differences as well as the distribution of the Late Cenozoic volcanism.

  2. Small scale heterogeneity of Phanerozoic lower crust: evidence from isotopic and geochemical systematics of mid-Cretaceous granulite gneisses, San Gabriel Mountains, southern California (United States)

    Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.; May, D.J.


    An elongate belt of mid-Cretaceous, compositionally banded gneisses and granulites is exposed in Cucamonga terrane, in the southeastern foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California. Banded gneisses include mafic granulites of two geochemical types: type 1 rocks are similar to high Al arc basalts and andesites but have higher HFSE (high-field-strength-element) abundances and extremely variable LILE (largeion-lithophile-element) abundances, while type 2 rocks are relatively low in Al and similar to alkali rich MOR (midocean-ridge) or intraplate basalts. Intercalated with mafic granulites are paragneisses which include felsic granulites, aluminous gneisses, marble, and calc-silicate gneisses. Type 1 mafic granulites and calcic trondhjemitic pegmatites also oceur as cross-cutting, synmetamorphic dikes or small plutons. Small-scale heterogeneity of deep continental crust is indicated by the lithologic and isotopic diversity of intercalated ortho-and paragneisses exposed in Cucamonga terrane. Geochemical and isotopic data indicate that K, Rb, and U depletion and Sm/Nd fractionation were associated with biotite +/- muscovite dehydration reactions in type 1 mafic granulites and aluminous gneisses during high-grade metamorphism. Field relations and model initial isotopic ratios imply a wide range of protolith ages, ranging from Early Proterozoic to Phanerozoic. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Permian-Triassic Magmatism Along the Southern Gondwana Margin: Correlating Proximal and Distal Volcanic Deposits (United States)

    McKay, M. P.; Weislogel, A. L.; Fildani, A.


    Active margins are dominated by erosion, structural deformation, tectonic dissection, and igneous intrusions. These destructive processes lead to an incomplete record of past magmatism in active margins. Volcanic airfall tuffs that are transported and deposited in distal sedimentary basins may be more likely to be preserved in the rock record. Tuffs, however, may be affected by atmospheric fractionation during transport, postdepositional weathering, and diagenesis during burial, potentially altering ash texture, mineralogy, and geochemistry. We use outcrop observations, stratigraphic relationships, whole rock geochemistry, U-Pb zircon geochronology, and zircon rare-earth element geochemistry from Permian-Triassic strata of South Africa and South America to correlate distal volcanic ashes to proximal volcanic deposits and plutonic suites within southern Gondwana. U-Pb zircon signals of the tuffs are treated as "detrital"; the distinct zircon signals were then used to correlate distal airfall ashes to potential magmatic sources. This suggests that airfall fractionation of zircon populations is not a significant concern in tuff geochronology. Additionally, zircon inheritance may be a useful tool in matching far-traveled ashes with parental magmatic suites. Although previous studies have shown that the geochemistry of volcanic tuff deposits varies with distance from the volcanic vent, we employ whole rock and zircon REE compositions to differentiate distinct magmatic periods using distal ashes that were deposited >750 km from the volcanic source. The results of this study support a geochronologic interpretation that the Karoo strata of S. Africa are >10 Ma younger than previously thought based on biostratigraphy. Since the Karoo basin is heavily studied as a record of the end-Permian extinction and paleoclimate change, our results have major implication for this key time in Earth History.

  4. Post-collisional plutonism with adakitic signatures: The Triassic Yangba granodiorite (Bikou terrane, northern Yangtze Block)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Jiangfeng; LAI Shaocong; LI Yongfei


    The post-collisional Yangba granodiorite intruded into the Bikou metasedimentary-volcanic group, southern Mianlue Suture, central China. The host granodiorites contain many mafic microgranular enclaves which have acicular apatite, phenocrysts of host granodiorites, implying that the enclaves have been incorporated as magma globules into host granodioritic magma and undergone rapid cooling. The variation trends of major and trace elements between enclaves and host rocks suggest a mixing and mingling process with respect to their petrogenesis. The mafic microgranular enclaves are characterized by shoshonite with SiO2≤63%, σ (4.54-6.18)>3.3, high K2O content (4.22%-6.04%), K2O/Na2O>1; in the K2O-SiO2 diagram, all the samples plot in the shoshonite field, which are enriched in LILE and LREE, with obvious Nb, Ta negative anomalies, indicating a subducting fluid-metasomatised mantle source. Zircon LA-ICP-MS dating of the granodiorites yielded an age of 215.4±8.3 Ma, indicating they were formed during the late-orogenic or post-collisional stage (≤242±21 Ma) of the South Qinling Mountain Belt. The host granodiorites have many close compositional similarities to high-silica adakites from supra-subduction zone setting, but tend to have a higher concentration of K2O (3.22%-3.84%) and Mg#. Chondrite-normalized rare-earth element patterns are characterized by high ratios of (La/Yb)N, the extreme HREE depletion and a lack of significant Eu anomalies. In conjunction with the high abundances of Ba and Sr as well as the low abundances of Y and HREE, these patterns suggest a feldspar-poor, garnet ± amphibole-rich fractionation mineral assemblage. High Mg# values demonstrate that the host granodiorites were contaminated by enclave magma. On a whole, integrated geological and geochemical studies suggested the Yangba granodiorites and their mafic microgranular enclaves resulted from mixing of enriched mantle-derived shoshonitic magma and thickened lower crust-derived felsic

  5. Constraints on mantle evolution from 187Os/ 188Os isotopic compositions of Archean ultramafic rocks from southern West Greenland (3.8 Ga) and Western Australia (3.46 Ga) (United States)

    Bennett, Victoria C.; Nutman, Allen P.; Esat, Tezer M.


    Initial 187Os/ 188Os isotopic compositions for geochronologically and geologically well -constrained 3.8-Ga spinel peridotites from the Itsaq Gneiss Complex of southern West Greenland and chromite separates from 3.46-Ga komatiites from the Pilbara region of Western Australia have been determined to investigate the osmium isotopic evolution of the early terrestrial mantle. The measured compositions of 187Os/ 188Os(0) = 0.10262 ± 2, from an olivine separate, and 0.10329 ± 3, for a spinel separate from ˜3.8-Ga peridotite G93/42, are the lowest yet reported from any terrestrial sample. The corrections for in situ decay over 3.8 Ga for these low Re/Os phases are minimal and change the isotopic compositions by only 0.5 and 2.2% for the spinel and the olivine, respectively, resulting in 187Os/ 188Os (3.8 Ga) = 0.1021 ± 0.0002 and 0.1009 ± 0.0002, respectively. These data extend direct measurement of Os isotopic compositions to much earlier periods of Earth history than previously documented and provide the best constraints on the Os isotopic composition of the early Archean terrestrial mantle. Analyses of Pilbara chromites yield 3.46-Ga mantle compositions of 0.1042 ± 0.0002 and 0.1051 ± 0.0002. These new data, combined with published initial Os isotopic compositions from late Archean and early Proterozoic samples, are compatible with the mantle, or at least portions of it, evolving from a solar system initially defined by meteorites to a modern composition of 187Os/ 188Os(0) = 0.1296 ± 0.0008 as previously suggested from peridotite xenolith data ( Meisel et al., 2001); the associated 187Re/ 188Os(0) = 0.435 ± 0.005. Thus, chondritic 187Os/ 188Os compositions were a feature of the upper mantle for at least 3.8 billion years, requiring chondritic Re/Os ratios to have been a characteristic of the very early terrestrial mantle. In contrast, nonchondritic initial compositions of some Archean komatiites demonstrate that Os isotopic heterogeneity is an ancient feature

  6. 2D compositional modeling of petroleum generation, expulsion and migration in the Southern compartment of the Reconcavo Basin, Brazil; Modelisation compositionnelle 2D de la genese, expulsion et migration du petrole dans le compartiment sud du Bassin de Reconcavo, Bresil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroz Penteado, H.L. de


    The Reconcavo Basin is part of a rift formed between the Late Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this thesis was the compositional modeling of petroleum generation, expulsion and migration along a cross-section in the Southern Compartment of the basin with the Temispack basin simulation software. A geochemical study of the lacustrine shales of the Gomo Member (Candelas Fm.) has been performed to determine their petroleum potential, the evolution of maturation with depth and changes in petroleum composition. Hydrogen indices of immature kerogens (400-850 mg/g TOC) were shown to be higher than those of whole rocks, thus indicating a retention of Rock-Eval pyrolysis products in the mineral matrix of these type I source rocks. Saturates (30-50% of organic extracts in the immature zone) increase both in absolute and in relative (60-80%) terms in the oil window (2000-2600 m) because of a partial secondary cracking of NSOs and aromatics. After having tested several scenarios of geodynamic evolution between the Aptian and the Oligocene, a variable thickness of post-rift sediments (maximum of 1200 m) has been shown to be necessary to calibrate maturity parameters. Petroleum migration has been modeled to understand migration pathways as well as the role of faults as drains. Thus, two petroleum migration systems have been identified for the Dom Joao and Cexis accumulations. Petroleum compositional variations have been modeled by coupling the processes of retention and secondary cracking. A good calibration of compositions was obtained with secondary cracking parameters for NSOs and aromatics which are close to those of the main primary cracking reaction of a type I kerogen, coupled with a retention of 50% of NSOs within the source rocks. (author)

  7. The Fractal Behavior of Crystal Distribution of la Gloria Pluton, Chile (United States)

    Gutiérrez, F. J.; Payacán, I. J.; Pasten, D.; Aravena, A.; Gelman, S. E.; Bachmann, O.; Parada, M. A.


    We utilize fractal analysis to study the spatial distributions of crystals in a 10 Ma granitic intrusion (La Gloria pluton) located in the central Chilean Andes. Previous work determined the crystal size distribution (CSD) and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) tensors throughout this pluton. Using orthogonal thin sections oriented along the AMS tensor axes, we have applied fractal analysis in three magmatic crystal families: plagioclase, ferromagnesian minerals (biotite and amphibole), and Fe-Ti oxides (magnetite with minor ilmenite). We find that plagioclase and ferromagnesian minerals have a Semi-logarithmic CSD (S-CSD), given by: log(n/n0)= -L/C (1) where n [mm-4], n0 [mm-4], L [mm] and C [mm] are crystal density, intercept (nucleation density; L=0), size of crystals (three axes) and characteristic length, respectively. In contrast, Fe-Ti oxides have a Fractal CSD (F-CSD, power law size distribution), given by: log(n)= - Dn log(L) + n1 (2) where Dn and n1 [log(mm-4)] are a non-dimensional proportionality constant and the logarithm of the initial crystallization density (n1 = log(n(L=1 mm))), respectively. Finally, we calculate the fractal dimension (D0) by applying the box-counting method on each crystal thin section image, using: log(N) = -D0 log(ɛ) (3) where N and ɛ are the number of boxes occupied by minerals and the length of the square box, respectively. Results indicate that D0 values (eq. 3) are well defined for all minerals, and are higher for plagioclase than for ferromagnesian minerals and lowest for Fe-Ti oxides. D0 values are correlated with n0 and -1/C for S-CSD (eq. 1), and with n1 values for F-CSD (eq. 2). These correlations between fractal dimensions with CSD parameters suggest crystal growth follows a fractal behaviour in magmatic systems. Fractal behaviour of CSD means that the spatial distribution of crystals follows an all-scale pattern as part of a self-organized magmatic system. We interpret S-CSD of plagioclase and

  8. Landscape composition as a determinant of diversity and functional feeding groups of aquatic macroinvertebrates in southern rivers of the Araucanía, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fierro


    Full Text Available Changes in land use which directly or indirectly affect freshwater fauna constitute one of the principal anthropic factors which have caused world biological diversity to disappear rapidly during recent decades. This fauna includes aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates, organisms presenting temporal and spatial variation due to a variety of factors, one of which is the diverse food resources available in the rivers. To assess the effect of anthropic activities on this fauna, the distribution, abundance and characterisation of the functional feeding groups of aquatic macroinvertebrates were analysed, together with the physical and chemical variables in the environments of four coastal river basins of southern south-central Chile. A total of 104 taxa of macroinvertebrates were recorded, the principal component of the community being the Diptera (26 taxa. The abundance and richness of taxa were greater in summer and lower in winter. The most abundant species belong to the order Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera. Macroinvertebrates were affected by different land use: stations with less anthropic activity and greater altitude had higher macroinvertebrates abundance, while the lowest abundance was found at the lowest stations. The functional feeding groups which were most abundant spatially and temporally were the collector-gatherers and the shredders. The physical and chemical water quality variables proved to be of exceptional quality in all the stations. These results suggest that policies governing changes in land use in central and southern Chile should take into account the dramatic alterations that these changes impose on the macroinvertebrates community. Policies for biodiversity conservation should therefore focus on these small but important organisms in the north Patagonian region of South America, which is a hotspot of world diversity.

  9. Silurian A-type granitoids in the southern margin of the Tongbai-Dabieshan: Evidence from SHRIMP zircon geochronology and geochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Changqian; SHE; Zhenbing; XU; Pin; WANG; Lingyan


    SHRIMP U-Pb dating on magmatic zircons extracted from a riebeckite quartz syenite in the Huangyangshan pluton in Suizhou, the southern margin of Tongbai-Dabieshan yielded an age of 439±6Ma. According to the morphology and high Th/U ratios of the zircons, the age is interpreted as crystallization timing of the pluton. The Huangyangshan pluton is composed of peralkaline quartz syenite, alkaline granite and syenite. All of the rocks are characterized by high agpaitic index (A.I.=(Na+K)/Al, molar ratio) and Fe-number [FeOT/(FeOT+MgO)], low CaO and MgO contents, enrichment of high field strength elements (i.e. Nb, Zr, Ga, Y, Hf) and light REEs, evidently negative Eu anomalies and high Ga/Al ratios, which are consistent with anorogenic A-type granitoids. Being part of the South Qinling-South Dabieshan Paleozoic alkaline rock belt, the Huangyangshan A-type granitoid pluton results from the Paleozoic extension-initial rifting in the northern margin of the Yangtze Craton related to the opening of the eastern Paleo-Tethyan Ocean.

  10. Precise Dating and Geological Significance of the Caledonian Shangyou Pluton in South Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jianren; ZENG Qingtao; LI Zilong; HU Qing; ZHAO Xilin; YE Haimin


    The zircon SHRIMP dating age for the Shangyou granites is 464+11 Ma. The geological feature of the pluton is consistent with the isotopic age, which shows that it is a product of Caledonian orogenesis. The Shangyou granites are regarded as peraluminous crust-derived granites to possess the typical geochemical characteristics of calc-alkaline rocks on the active continental margin with enriched Si, K, AI (A/CNK = 1.11 on average), HREE, Rb, U, Th and heavily depleted V, Cr, Co, Ni, as well as Ti-Y, Nb-Ta, Zr, St, P and Ba, to be commonly corundum normative (av C = 1.44). The Shangyou granites with higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.707126-0.712186),εNd(t) values (-7.29 to-10.22) and (tDM) values (1.52-1.63 Ga), which are considered to result from partial melting of continental crust metamorphic sedimentary rocks with relatively low of crust maturation degree corresponding to the Middle Proterozoic, to have some possible contributions of mantle-derived components. The Shangyou granites are regarded as post-collision granites, which were formed in a transitional tectonic setting from compression to extension in the Middle Ordovician period after the Yangtze plate was subducted beneath the Cathaysian plate. The Ar-Ar total ages of K-feldspar and biotite are 292.1 Ma and 295.5 Ma respectively, which have recorded information of a late-stage thermal alteration event.

  11. Geologic and hydrologic controls on the economic potential of hydrothermal systems associated with upper crustal plutons (United States)

    Weis, Philipp; Driesner, Thomas; Scott, Samuel; Lecumberri-Sanchez, Pilar


    Heat and mass transport in hydrothermal systems associated with upper crustal magmatic intrusions can result in resources with large economic potential (Kesler, 1994). Active hydrothermal systems can form high-enthalpy geothermal reservoirs with the possibility for renewable energy production. Fossil continental or submarine hydrothermal systems may have formed ore deposits at variable crustal depths, which can be mined near today's surface with an economic profit. In both cases, only the right combination of first-order geologic and hydrologic controls may lead to the formation of a significant resource. To foster exploration for these hydrothermal georesources, we need to improve our understanding of subsurface fluxes of mass and energy by combining numerical process modelling, observations at both active and fossil systems, as well as knowledge of fluid and rock properties and their interactions in natural systems. The presentation will highlight the role of non-linear fluid properties, phase separation, salt precipitation, fluid mixing, permeability structure, hydraulic fracturing and the transition from brittle to ductile rock behavior as major geologic and hydrologic controls on the formation of high-enthalpy and supercritical geothermal resources (Scott et al., 2015), and magmatic-hydrothermal mineral resources, such as porphyry copper, massive sulfide and epithermal gold deposits (Lecumberri-Sanchez et al., 2015; Weis, 2015). References: Kesler, S. E., 1994: Mineral Resources, economics and the environment, New York, McMillan, 391. Lecumberri-Sanchez, P., Steele-MacInnis, M., Weis, P., Driesner, T., Bodnar, R.J. (2015): Salt precipitation in magmatic-hydrothermal systems associated with upper crustal plutons. Geology, v. 43, p. 1063-1066, doi:10.1130/G37163.1 Scott, S., Driesner, T., Weis, P. (2015): Geologic controls on supercritical geothermal resources above magmatic intrusions. Nature Communications, 6:7837 doi: 10.1038/ncomms8837 Weis, P. (2015): The

  12. The Serra da Graciosa A-type granites and syenites, southern Brazil. Part 1: regional setting and geological characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme A.R. Gualda


    Full Text Available The Serra da Graciosa region includes important occurrences of granites and syenites of the Graciosa A-type Province (formerly Serra do Mar Suite, southern Brazil. Using fieldwork, petrography, and remote sensing imagery, we characterize the geology of the plutons in the region. Five individual plutons were recognized. Two correspond to the previously defined Marumbi and Anhangava Plutons. We divide the former "Graciosa Pluton" into three new plutons: Capivari, Órgãos, and Farinha Seca. The plutons are elliptical with northeast-southwest orientation. Two petrographic associations can be recognized: an alkaline association that includes peralkaline and metaluminous hypersolvus alkalifeldspar granites and syenites (Anhangava, Farinha Seca, Órgãos, and an aluminous association composed of metaluminous and weakly peraluminous subsolvus granites (Capivari, Órgãos, Anhangava, Marumbi. Occurrences of each association are limited to one individual pluton or to portions of a pluton, and the age relationships are not well established. Monzodioritic rocks are found marginal to the Órgãos and Farinha Seca Plutons, and interaction with silicic magmas locally produced hybrid quartz syenites (Farinha Seca Pluton. Geothermobarometry indicates emplacement at shallow crustal levels (P = 2 ± 0.6 kbar, and crystallization temperatures within the interval 900-700ºC for the granitic and syenitic rocks, and 1000-750ºC for the monzodioritic rocks.A região da Serra da Graciosa inclui importantes ocorrências de granitos e sienitos da Província Graciosa de Tipo-A (originalmente chamada de Suite Serra do Mar, Sul do Brasil. Com base em trabalho de campo, petrografia, e imagens de sensoriamento remoto, é feita a caracterização dos plútons da região. Cinco plútons independentes são reconhecidos. Dois deles correspondem a plútons já definidos na região, os Plútons Marumbi e Anhangava; os três restantes derivam da subdivisão do "Maciço Graciosa" em

  13. Diversity and composition of tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae in an area of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil: is the fauna more diverse in the grassland or in the forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Gianluppi Ferro


    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is considered a biodiversity hotspot for conservation, because its fauna and flora are highly endemic and suffer from loss of natural habitats. This study assessed the composition and diversity of tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae in two floristic formations of the southern Atlantic Forest (grassland and Araucaria forest and in a transition zone (forest edge. The moths were attracted to UV light reflected onto a white sheet. A total of 3,574 tiger moths were collected, representing 121 species. The rarefaction curves showed that the tiger-moth assemblage collected in the grassland was more diverse than the assemblages from the Araucaria forest and the transition zone. The assemblages in the forest and forest edge resembled each other, whereas the grassland assemblage was distinct. The composition of the tiger-moth assemblages was related to the environmental characteristics [habitat type (grassland, edge, or forest, altitude, temperature, air relative humidity] and the location of the sites. The faunal similarity decreased in response to increasing environmental and geographical distances between the sites. The responsiveness of tiger moths to small-scale variation in environmental and geographical parameters indicates their good potential as environmental indicators.

  14. Eocene magmatic processes and crustal thickening in southern Tibet: Insights from strongly fractionated ca. 43 Ma granites in the western Gangdese Batholith (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Zhu, Di-Cheng; Cawood, Peter A.; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Chung, Sun-Lin; Zhang, Liang-Liang; Liu, Dong; Zheng, Yuan-Chuan; Dai, Jin-Gen


    This study reports zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotope, whole-rock major and trace element, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope data for the Dajia pluton, western Gangdese Batholith, in southern Tibet. These data indicate that the pluton consists of moderately (Group 1) and strongly (Group 2) fractionated granites that were emplaced synchronously at ca. 43 Ma. Group 1 samples have SiO2 contents of 69-72 wt.% and vary in terms of the differentiation index (DI = 84-93). These rocks are depleted in Ba, Nb, Sr, P, and Ti, with moderate negative Eu anomalies, and display low heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and Y abundances. Group 2 samples are characterized by high SiO2 (75-78 wt.%) and DI (95-97); significantly negative Eu anomalies; marked concave-upward middle REE (Gd-Ho) patterns; and Ba, Sr, P, and Ti anomalies that are significantly more negative than those of Group 1 samples. Group 1 samples have whole-rock εNd(t) (- 5.9 to - 6.0), εHf(t) (- 4.0 to - 4.5), and zircon εHf(t) (- 6.0 to + 5.8) values identical to those of Group 2 samples [εNd(t) = - 5.7 to - 6.7, εHf(t) = - 3.5 to - 2.9, and zircon εHf(t) = - 2.0 to + 4.2], as well as similar initial Pb isotopic compositions. These data indicate that the two groups were derived from a common source region with garnet as a residual mineral phase. Group 1 samples were most likely derived from partial melting of garnet-bearing amphibolite (rather than eclogite) within the juvenile southern Lhasa crust and mixed with the enriched components from the subducting ancient Indian continental crust and/or the ancient central Lhasa basement. Group 2 samples are interpreted as the products of extensive fractional crystallization (plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite, apatite, allanite, titanite, monazite, and ilmenite) of the melts represented by Group 1 samples. Low HREEs and Y abundances of the Dajia pluton, together with the presence of strongly fractionated granites (Group 2) identified for the first time in the Gangdese Batholith

  15. 中国古代南方白瓷的组成特征研究%Research on the Composition Characteristics of Chinese Ancient Southern White Porcelain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴隽; 叶正隆; 吴军明; 张茂林; 李其江; 王丽丽; 江鹏飞


    The southern white porcelain is the rise in our country's pottery, it is later than the development of northern white porcelain, but it is rising stars, blockbuster, well-grounded, keeping continuous. Jingdezhen kiln and Dehua kiln are the most representative kilns among the southern white porcelain kilns, the present paper used EDXRF to test 30 pieces of Song, Yuan and Ming period' Dehua white porcelains and Jingdezhen Yuan dynasty Shufu white porcelains samples to analyze the different characteristics of the bodies and the glaze of these samples in terms of time and space. The results show that in the bodies and the glaze of Jingdezhen Shufu white porcelains the iron content is obviously on the high side, and the Dehua white porcelains' potassium content is obviously on the high side, and along with time development they have been in a rising trend, which should be the main reason for the sudden rise of Dehua white porcelain sculptures.%景德镇窑和德化窑是南方白釉瓷窑口中最具有代表性的两个窑口.该文利用能量色散X射线荧光光谱分析仪,对30件宋、元、明时期的德化白瓷以及元代景德镇枢府白瓷样品进行了测试,并从时空角度对比分析了不同白瓷样品胎釉的组成特征.结果表明,景德镇枢府白瓷胎釉组成铁含量均明显偏高,而德化白瓷胎釉组成中的钾含量均明显偏高,且随着时间发展具有上升趋势,这应是德化雕塑白瓷异军突起的主要原因.

  16. U Pb dating of the end of the Pan-African orogeny in the Tuareg shield: the post-collisional syn-shear Tioueine pluton (Western Hoggar, Algeria) (United States)

    Paquette, J. L.; Caby, R.; Djouadi, M. T.; Bouchez, J. L.


    The Tioueine pluton intrudes the Neoproterozoic series of the Iskel terrane, located in the Tuareg shield, western Hoggar. The consistency of the internal structures as well as the nature and organization of the associated microstructures demonstrate that the Tioueine pluton was emplaced syn-kinematically while N-S strike-slip shear zones were active. The syn-tectonic emplacement of the Tioueine massif implies that this pluton, although belatedly crystallized, entirely belongs to the concept of post-collisional magmatism. In order to date precisely the late Pan-African tectono-metamorphic event in the studied area, an U-Pb age of 523±1 Ma was obtained from abraded zircons of a late quartz-syenite from the Tioueine pluton. This early Cambrian age is younger than the other plutons of the Tuareg shield, which were mainly emplaced between 630 Ma and 580 Ma. This dating also shows that the Tuareg shield was not a single coherent block at 525 Ma, but rather an amalgam of active terranes moving each other along major shear zones. Finally, the Tioueine massif represents probably the final welding of the Tuareg shield assembly of terranes and consequently the end of the post-collisional orogenic episode in the whole Pan-African belt.

  17. Indoor radon risk associated to post-tectonic biotite granites from Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton, northern Portugal. (United States)

    Martins, L M O; Gomes, M E P; Teixeira, R J S; Pereira, A J S C; Neves, L J P F


    At Vila Pouca de Aguiar area, northern Portugal, crops out a post-tectonic Variscan granite pluton, related with the Régua-Vila Real-Verín fault zone, comprising three types of biotite granites. Among these granites, PSG granite yield the highest average contents of U, probably due to its enrichment in accessory U-bearing minerals such as zircon. In the proximity of faults and joints, these granites are often affected by different degrees of hydrothermal alteration, forming reddish altered rocks, commonly known as "episyenites". These altered rocks are probably associated to the occurrence of hydrothermal processes, which led to uranium enrichment in the most advanced stages of episyenitization. In these granites, both average gamma absorbed dose rates in outdoor and indoor air are higher than those of the world average. Furthermore, even in the worst usage scenario, all these granites can be used as a building material, since their annual effective doses are similar to the limit defined by the European Commission. The geometric mean of radon activity of 91 dwellings located at the Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton is 568Bqm(-3), exceeding that of other northern Portuguese granites. Measurements carried out during a winter season, indicate that 62.6% of the analysed dwellings yield higher indoor radon average values than the Portuguese legislation limit (400Bqm(-3)), and annual effective doses due higher than the world's average value (1.2mSvy(-1)). The interaction of geogenic, architectural and anthropogenic features is crucial to explain the variance in the geometric mean of radon activity of dwellings from Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton, but the role of geologic faults is probably the most important decisive factor to increase the indoor radon concentration in dwellings. Hence, the development of awareness campaigns in order to inform population about the incurred radiological risks to radon exposure are highly recommended for this specific area. Copyright © 2016

  18. Geochronology and Geochemical Characteristics of the Early Mesozoic Tangquan Pluton in Southwestern Fujian and Its Tectonic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jianren; HU Qing; XU Naizheng; XIE Fanggui; TAO Kuiyuan


    The Tangquan granodioritic pluton in Datian County, southwestern Fujian, China, which extends in a NE direction with an exposed area of about 130 km2, used to be considered a product of Early Cretaceous magmatism. The present study suggests for the first time that the pluton was formed in the Early Jurassic by using multiple methods for isotopic dating, which give zircon U-Pb ages of 186.8 Ma and 179.0 Ma, Rb-Sr isochron age of 162.02(4.5 Ma, and biotite 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 158.1(0.7 Ma. The cooling rate for the pluton was relatively low (4.76°C/Ma) during the early stage (183(162 Ma) because of the compressional environment. It was emplaced in a higher cooling rate (50°C/Ma) in an extensional environment during the later stage (162(158 Ma). The granodiorites are metaluminous(peraluminous, relatively enriched in Na2O and depleted in K2O, and characteristic of I-type granites of crust-mantle mixed sources. They are moderately enriched in Rb, Th, Hf and LREE, and depleted in Ti, Nb, Ta and Sr, and have geochemical features of cal-alkaline rocks of an island arc or active continental margin. Their (87Sr/86Sr)i ratio varies from 0.70769 to 0.70822, εNd(t) from -9.68 to -10.07 and TDM from 1.52 to 1.55 Ga. They were formed by mixing of mantle-derived mafic magma with the granitic magma resulting from partial melting of crust-derived materials in an upwelling of the asthenospheric mantle in South China during the Early Mesozoic.

  19. Internal fabrics in magmatic plutons emplaced in extended brittle crust - insight from analogue models with AMS (Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility) (United States)

    Mirzaei, Masoud; Zavada, Prokop; Machek, Matej; Roxerova, Zuzana


    Magma emplacement in extended brittle crust was simulated by injecting plaster of Paris (magma) into a large sandbox with central deformable rubber sheet. Analog magma is during the experiments injected through small circular inlet cut in the center of the elastic sheet. Injection force oscillation during the steadily evacuating analog magma was recorded during the experiments and regularly showed 3-4 increases followed by a quick drop. The recorded oscillation amplitude is largest for static injection without extension of the sandbox, which formed a columnar body with concentric and zonal internal fabric. Experiments including normal or oblique 20% extension resulted in along rift axis elongated oblate ellipsoidal pluton with rift parallel ridges in the top part of the pluton. Inspection of horizontal profiles show bone-shaped internal zoning patterns limited by conjugate sets of shear zones. Orientation of these internal shear zones is correlated with the sand-clock fault pattern developed in the overburden sand pack. Another set of shear zones parallel with the long axes of the plutons (rift axis) are associated with successive emplacement of distinct plaster pulses during the buildup of the entire body. The innermost lastly emplaced pulses of plaster display weak vertical magnetic fabrics with vertical lineations, while the outer shells of already emplaced plaster reveal stronger and margin parallel oblate magnetic fabrics with subhorizontal lineations. We interpret the vertical innermost fabrics as a result of active ascent of plaster from the injection inlet, while the fabrics in the outer zones likely reflect push due to inflation of the inner domain reflected in the reworking of the magnetic fabric.

  20. Zircon-apatite U-Pb geochronology, zircon Hf isotope composition and geochemistry of granite batholith in the northern Mexico: Implications for Tectonomagmatic evolution of southern Cordillera. (United States)

    Mahar, M. A.; Goodell, P.


    We present the zircon-apatite U-Pb ages and zircon Hf isotope composition of the granite batholith exposed at the western boundary of Chihuahua. Granidiorite samples were analyzed from both, north and south of the Rio El Fuerte and Sinforosa Lineament. Based on previous studies, the WWN-EES trending Sinforosa Lineament is proposed as the manifestation of a terrane boundary between Seri in the north and Tahue terrane in the south. Zircon U-Pb data indicate that the magmatism spans a time period of 36 Ma from 89 to 53 Ma to the north of the Sinforosa Lineament while granodiorites in the south of the Sinforosa Lineament are dated at 59 Ma. The U-Pb apatite ages are variable in the north of the Sinforosa Lineament and range from 86-51 Ma. These apatite dates are 1-28 Ma younger than the corresponding zircon U-Pb crystallization ages. This indicates variable cooling rates and moderate to shallow emplacement. In contrast, in the south of the Sinforosa Lineament, the U-Pb apatite ages (64-59 Ma) are indistinguishable from the zircon U-Pb age (59 Ma), indicating rapid cooling and shallow emplacement. Zircon morphology and U-Pb dating revealed the absence of inherited component in the zircon ages, as no inheritance of any age has been observed. Most of the northwestern Mexico is underlain by Precambrian-Paleozoic-Jurassic basement. However, in the study area, U-Pb dating does not support the involvement of the older basement in generating the granite magmas. The weighted mean initial ɛHf (t) isotope composition of granodiorites on both sides of the Sinforosa Lineament varies from +2 to +5. However, Hf isotope composition in the south of the Sinforosa Lineament is more heterogeneous and relatively evolved with weighted Mean ɛHf (t) = +1.45. The Hf isotope composition is consistent with the previously reported near bulk silicate Sr-Nd isotope values. We suggest that the magmatic rocks in this region are not derived from melting of a felsic older crust beneath the batholith

  1. Geographical distribution and age composition of Euphausia superba larvae (Crustacea:Euphausiacea) in the South Shetland Islands region and southern Scotia Sea in relation to environmental conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qian; XU Zhaoli; HUANG Hongliang; CHEN Xuezhong; FENG Chunlei; LI Lingzhi


    Spatial distribution patterns of the different life stages of Euphausia superba in the region of the South Shet-land Islands and southern Scotia Sea (Antarctica) were assessed based on scientific survey data collected in January and February of 2010. Adults, eggs, nauplii, metanauplii, calyptopis I-III, and furcilia I-II were found in the investigation. The abundance of larvae averaged 1 172.8 ind./m2, with calyptopis I and II as the dominant stages. Habitat occupancy patterns varied among Euphausia superba at different stages, and three sub-regions were identified by cluster analysis. The degree of larval development increased from west to east. Larvae were not observed north of the South Shetland Islands. Calyptopis I was predominant in the water between Elephant Island and the South Orkney Islands, which featured no thermocline. Older stages, including calyptopis II and III and furcilia I and II, were common in north and northeast of the South Orkney Islands, which were characterized by high temperature and high chlorophyll concentration. Distri-bution and abundance of the early life stages of E. superba were associated with specific environmental con-ditions. According to Biota-Environment matching (BIOENV ), the distributions of E. superba larvae were correlated with a combination of temperature at the surface and 200 m, and 0-100 m integrated chlorophyll a concentration.

  2. Lycophytes and ferns composition of Atlantic Forest conservation units in western Paraná with comparisons to other areas in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Lautert


    Full Text Available This study surveyed lycophyte and fern species in four forest fragments in western Paraná, Brazil, and compared them to 15 other fragments with different plant formations from the Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil. In total, five lycophyte species (in two families and two genera and 98 species and two varieties of ferns (in 16 families and 38 genera were registered in the four fragments. The most represented families were Pteridaceae (23 spp., Polypodiaceae (18 spp., Aspleniaceae (13 spp., and Thelypteridaceae (11 spp.. Asplenium (12 spp., Thelypteris (10 spp., and Blechnum (seven spp. were among the most represented genera. The occurrence of Dicksonia sellowiana was noteworthy because it was associated with seasonal semideciduous forest and is threatened in Brazil. Similarity among areas was determined by a cluster analysis (UPGMA and Sørensen’s index and the relation between similarity and geographic distance was determined through Matel’s analysis. The analyses revealed greater similarity among the four study areas and, for these areas as a whole, greater similarity to fragments in Rio Grande do Sul, which is evidence that these areas have similar environmental conditions.

  3. The Blaník Gneiss in the southern Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic): a rare rock composition among the early palaeozoic granites of Variscan Central Europe (United States)

    René, Miloš; Finger, Fritz


    Metamorphosed and deformed tourmaline-bearing leucogranites with a Cambro-Ordovician formation age are widespread in the Monotonous Group of the Variscan southern Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic. The rocks, known locally as Blaník gneiss, are strongly peraluminous and classify as phosphorus-rich low-T, S-type granite. The magma formed from a metapelitic source, most likely through muscovite dehydration melting. With respect to its low-T origin and the abundance of tourmaline, the Blaník gneiss is exotic within the spectrum of Early Palaeozoic granites of the Variscan fold belt of Central Europe. Coeval granitic gneisses in the neighbouring Gföhl unit of the Bohemian Massif can be classified as higher T S-type granites and were probably generated through biotite dehydration melting. The geochemical differences between the Early Palaeozoic granitic magmatism in the Gföhl unit and the Monotonous Group support models claiming that these two geological units belonged to independent peri-Gondwana terranes before the Variscan collision. It is suggested here, that the Gföhl unit and the Monotonous Group represent zones of higher and lower heat flow within the Early Palaeozoic northern Gondwana margin, respectively. The geochemical data presented in this study could be helpful for terrane correlations and palaeogeographic reconstructions.

  4. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Early Carboniferous to the Late Permian Barleik plutons in the West Junggar (NW China) (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Han, Bao-Fu; Ren, Rong; Chen, Jia-Fu; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Zheng, Bo


    The Paleozoic accretionary orogenesis and continental crustal growth in Central Asia are thought to have close relationship with the evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO). The well-exposed plutons in the northern Barleik Mountains of the West Junggar region, NW China, may provide essential insights into the evolution of the Junggar Ocean, a branch of the PAO, and mechanism of continental crustal growth. Our work on the Barleik plutons indicates an early suite of 324-320 Ma diorite and a late suite of 314-259 Ma quartz syenite and granitic porphyry. All the plutons are characterized by high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic signatures, varying depletion in Nb, Ta, Sr, P, Eu, and Ti, low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70241-0.70585), strongly positive εNd(t) values (+ 5.7-+7.7), and young one-stage Nd model ages (390-761 Ma), suggesting that they resulted from different batches of magma that were produced by fractional crystallization of a metasomatized mantle source with minor crustal contamination. The diorite is coeval with the youngest arc magmatic rocks, indicating a subduction-related origin. By contrast, the quartz syenite and granitic porphyry are geochemically similar to A2-type granites, with high Zr, Ga, and FeOT/[FeOT + MgO], and are coeval with the widespread plutons in the West Junggar. This, together with the occurrence of Late Carboniferous fluvial deposits and the lack of < 320 Ma ophiolitic and subduction-related metamorphic lithologies, definitively indicates a post-collisional setting after the closure of the Junggar Ocean. Slab breakoff accompanied by asthenospheric upwelling and basaltic underplating is a possible geodynamic process that is responsible for the post-collisional magmatism and vertical crustal growth in the region. Thus a tectonic switch from subduction to post-collision started at the end of the Early Carboniferous ( 320 Ma), probably as a result of the final closure of the Junggar Ocean.

  5. High-K calc-alkaline magmatism at the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary: implications for mantle metasomatism and continental crust petrogenesis. Example of the Bulai pluton (Central Limpopo Belt, South Africa) (United States)

    Laurent, Oscar; Martin, Hervé; Doucelance, Régis; Moyen, Jean-François; Paquette, Jean-Louis


    The Neoarchaean Bulai pluton, intrusive within the supracrustal granulites of the Central Limpopo Belt (Limpopo Province, South Africa) is made up of large volumes of porphyritic granodiorites with subordinate enclaves and dykes which have monzodioritic and charno-enderbitic compositions. New U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating on separated zircons yielded pluton emplacement ages ranging between 2.60 and 2.63 Ga, which are slightly older than previous proposed ages (~ 2.57-2.61 Ga). The whole-rock major- and trace-element composition of the Bulai pluton evidences unequivocal affinities with "high-Ti" late-Archaean sanukitoids. It belongs to a high-K calc-alkaline differentiation suite, with metaluminous affinities (0.7 affinities, such as eNd ranging between -0.5 and 0.5, and in addition, are very rich in all incompatible trace elements, which is particularly obvious in monzodioritic enclaves and enderbites where primitive mantle-normalized LILE and LREE contents are up to 300. These characteristics point to an enriched mantle source for the Bulai batholith. Chondrite normalized, REE patterns are strongly fractionated ([La/Yb]N ~ 25-80), mainly due to high LREE contents (LaN ~ 250-630), and chiefly high HFSE contents (Nb ~ 15-45 ppm ; up to 770 ppm Zr) indicate that the metasomatic agent is a silicic melt rather than a hydrous fluid. Moreover, based on high Nb/Ta, Th/Rb, La/Rb and low Sr/Nd and Ba/La, we suggest that the metasomatic agent is a granitic melt generated by melting of terrigenous sediments. Interactions of this melt with mantle peridotites implies that sediments are located under a mantle slice; geometry which is easily achieved in subduction zone settings. This conclusion is supported by the fact that Bulai trace element patterns are very similar to those of sub-actual potassic magmas generated in magmatic arc environments by interactions between mantle and terrigenous sediments (e.g. Sunda arc). Geochemical modeling indicates that the mafic facies of the Bulai

  6. Simulating the detailed chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol formed on a regional scale during the TORCH 2003 campaign in the southern UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Johnson


    Full Text Available Following on from the companion study (Johnson et al., 2006, a photochemical trajectory model (PTM has been used to simulate the chemical composition of organic aerosol for selected events during the 2003 TORCH (Tropospheric Organic Chemistry Experiment field campaign. The PTM incorporates the speciated emissions of 124 non-methane anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC and three representative biogenic VOC, a highly-detailed representation of the atmospheric degradation of these VOC, the emission of primary organic aerosol (POA material and the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA material. SOA formation was represented by the transfer of semi- and non-volatile oxidation products from the gas-phase to a condensed organic aerosol-phase, according to estimated thermodynamic equilibrium phase-partitioning characteristics for around 2000 reaction products. After significantly scaling all phase-partitioning coefficients, and assuming a persistent background organic aerosol (both required in order to match the observed organic aerosol loadings, the detailed chemical composition of the simulated SOA has been investigated in terms of intermediate oxygenated species in the Master Chemical Mechanism, version 3.1 (MCM v3.1. For the various case studies considered, 90% of the simulated SOA mass comprises between ca. 70 and 100 multifunctional oxygenated species derived, in varying amounts, from the photooxidation of VOC of anthropogenic and biogenic origin. The anthropogenic contribution is dominated by aromatic hydrocarbons and the biogenic contribution by α- and β-pinene (which also constitute surrogates for other emitted monoterpene species. Sensitivity in the simulated mass of SOA to changes in the emission rates of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC has also been investigated for 11 case study events, and the results have been compared to the detailed chemical composition data. The role of accretion chemistry in SOA formation, and its

  7. Petrographical and geochemical characterization and deformation conditions of the San Cristobal pluton, Sierra de Velasco, La Rioja, Argentina; Caracterizacion petrografica y geoquimica y condiciones de deformacion del pluton San Cristobal, Sierra de Velasco, La Rioja, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellos, L.I.; Toselli, A.J.; Rossi, J.N.; Grosse, P.; Rosa, J.D. de la; Castro, A.


    The San Cristobal pluton is a 35 km2 granitic body that outcrops at the southestern tip of the Sierra de Velasco, located west of La Rioja city, Argentina. It is formed by monzogranites and syenogranites, together with scarce granodiorites, with medium to fine-grained, equigranular to slightly porphyritic textures. Their mineral assemblage consists of quartz + microcline + plagioclase + biotite {+-} muscovite + zircon + apatite + magnetite. The granite contains dioritic to tonalitic mafic enclaves. The central and eastern parts of the granite have been deformed by the NNW-SSE trending South Mylonitic shear zone formed by mylonitic rocks. The metamorphic host-rock is represented by scarce greenschist facies xenoliths and hornfels with the high T/P assemblage K-feldspar - cordierite - biotite {+-} sillimanite. The granites are calc-alkaline, weak- to moderately peraluminous, and formed as part of a continental magmatic arc developed along the active margin of western Gondwana during the Early Paleozoic. The depth of emplacement of the San Cristobal pluton is estimated at {approx}12 km. (Author).

  8. A Geochemical Comparison of the Northern Peninsular Ranges Batholith in Southern California and the Coastal Batholith in Southern Peru (United States)

    Clausen, B. L.; Martínez Ardila, A. M.; Morton, D. M.


    An extensive geochemical data set from the northern Peninsular Ranges Batholith (PRB) in southern California is compared and contrasted with the Arequipa segment of the Peruvian Coastal Batholith, including new granitoid samples recently collected near Ica (14°S, 76°W). The data include major and trace elements and Sr isotope ratios. This is part of an on-going study of subduction-related magmatism to refine a petrogenetic model of crust formation at plate boundaries, with a particular interest in the role of magma mixing. Research in the northern PRB suggests that continental crust is formed in several cycles: (1) mantle melting to give mafic volcanics and gabbroic intrusives, (2) basalt/gabbro melting to give felsic granitoids uncontaminated by continental crust and having low initial 87Sr/86Sr (Sri) values less than 0.704, and (3) crustal melting to give high Sri values greater than 0.704. Geochemical evidence was used to determine the extent of mixing between mafic and felsic magma that produced rocks of intermediate SiO2 composition. These differentiation cycles formed a west to east chronologic sequence and yielded granitoids of gabbro, tonalite, and granodiorite composition. Using principal component analysis on the northern PRB granitoids, the four factors affecting geochemical composition were categorized as differentiation, crustal contamination, depth of magma source, and conditions that yield a range from calcic to more alkaline granitoids. A similar major and trace element analysis is being done for a classic result of subduction in the Peruvian Coastal Batholith. The Peruvian samples recently collected include granitoids of the upper Cretaceous Coastal Batholith, as well as the associated volcanics of Cretaceous and Jurassic age. The Coastal Batholith samples include a range of granitoids from the early gabbros and from the four batholithic super-units (from west to east: Linga, Pampahuasi, Tiabaya, and Incahuasi) containing a combination of diorite

  9. Chronological and geochemical studies of granite and enclave in Baimashan pluton, Hunan, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating reveals that the Baimashan Pluton is composed mainly of late Indosinian (204.5±2.8 Ma-209.2±3.8 Ma) biotite granodiorites/monzonitic granites (LIGs) and early Yanshanian (176.7±1.7 Ma) two-micas monzonitic granites (EYGs),and the coeval (203.2±4.5 Ma-205.1±3.9 Ma) mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) are generally found in the former.In addition,the ages of cores within zircons from LIGs and MMEs ranging from 221.4±4.0 Ma to 226.5±4.1Ma provide evidence of multistage magma intrusion during Indosinian in the study area.Measured 3010±20.6 Ma of inherited zircon age suggests that there may be recycling Archaean curstal material in existence in this area.LIGs and EYGs share some similar geochemical features: subalkaline and peraluminous granites,enrichment of Th,U,K,Ta,Zr,Hf and LREE but depletion of Ba,Nb,P,Ti and Eu,low εNd(t) values but high (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios,and old T2DM (ca.1.9-2.0 Ga).The behaviors of incompatible elements and REE are mainly dominated by fractional crystallization of plagioclase,K-feldspar,ilmenite and apatite,but that of Sr isotope mainly controlled by EC-AFC.They are crust-sourced and derived from partial melting of paleo-Proterozoic metagreywackes and related to biotite dehydration melting.LIGs are formed in post-collisional tectonic setting as crustal local extension and thinning during late Indosinian.But EYGs may be evolved products of congeneric granitic magma with LIGs formed in late Indoinian,which were emplaced again when crust underwent extensive thinning and extension in post-orogenic tectonic setting during Yanshanian in SC after undergoing EC-AFC.MMEs should be cognate enclaves and derived from liquid immiscibility of host magma.

  10. Long-term changes in species composition of demersal fish and epibenthic species in the Jade area (German Wadden Sea/Southern North Sea) since 1972 (United States)

    Meyer, Julia; Kröncke, Ingrid; Bartholomä, Alexander; Dippner, Joachim W.; Schückel, Ulrike


    Within this long-term study, the short- and long-term variability of demersal fish and epibenthic species in relation to temperature and climate-driven environmental changes in the inshore tidal bay system of the Jade area was investigated. Semiquantitative sampling took place once per spring and summer period from 1972 to 2014 by using a 2 m beam trawl at one station in the Jade area (German Wadden Sea/southern North Sea). Min/max autocorrelation analysis (MAFA) and Mann-Kendall analysis revealed significant increasing trends in total abundance and species number. Homogeneity analysis revealed shifts for abundance in spring and summer in the late 1980s and for species number in the late 1980s in spring and early 2000s in summer. Abundances of the estuarine crustacean species Carcinus maenas and Liocarcinus holsatus and of the estuarine fish species Pomatoschistus spp. showed significant increasing abundances since the late 1980s. The marine juvenile species Pleuronectes platessa and Limanda limanda showed significant decreasing abundances, while abundances of Solea solea showed significant increasing abundances since the early 2000s. Abundances of L.holsatus and C. maenas showed mass occurrences since the early 2000s. Spearman correlation analysis revealed significant correlations of temperature and abundance data of some characteristic species. Statistical downscaling analysis revealed significant correlations between observations and climate indicators such as the North Sea Environmental (NSE) Index for spring. Thus, it appears that climate effects influenced the long-term variability of species number and abundance of epibenthic and demersal fish species in the Jade area, resulting in community shifts in the late 1980s and early 2000s.

  11. Current levels and composition profiles of PBDEs and alternative flame retardants in surface sediments from the Pearl River Delta, southern China: Comparison with historical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, She-Jun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Feng, An-Hong; He, Ming-Jing; Chen, Man-Ying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo, Xiao-Jun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Mai, Bi-Xian, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)


    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative flame retardants were measured in surface sediments collected during 2009–2010 from the Pearl River Delta, southern China (a large manufacturing base for electronics/electrical products), to evaluate the influence of China's RoHS directive (adopted in 2006) on their environmental occurrence. The concentrations in sediments from different water systems ranged from 3.67 to 2520 ng/g (average of 17.1–588 ng/g) for PBDEs and from 0.22 to 5270 ng/g (average of 11.3–454 ng/g) for the alternative retardants. Although the PBDE levels have decreased significantly compared with those in sediments collected in 2002 in this region, the levels of alternative decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) have exceeded those of BDE209 (two predominant halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in China) in the majority of sediments. This finding suggests a different contaminant pattern of HFRs in current sediments due to the replacement of the deca-BDE mixture with DBDPE in this region. In addition, sediment concentrations of discontinued PBDEs in the rural area are clearly elevated due to e-waste dismantling. The congener profiles of PBDEs in the current sediments (with more abundant lower-brominated congeners) differed substantially from those in 2002 and from the technical products, suggesting that biological or photolytic debromination of PBDEs may have occurred in the environment. - Highlights: ► PBDE levels in sediments have decreased substantially since China's RoHS directive. ► Contamination of novel DBDPE has exceeded that of deca-BDE in the PRD sediments. ► The congener profiles of PBDEs in the sediments have changed significantly. ► Significant biological or photolytic degradation of PBDEs may occur in the environment.

  12. Seasonal and inter-annual variability in 13C composition of ecosystem carbon fluxes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torn, M.S.; Biraud, S.; Still, C.J.; Riley, W.J.; Berry, J.A.


    The {delta}{sup 13}C signature of terrestrial carbon fluxes ({delta}{sub bio}) provides an important constraint for inverse models of CO{sub 2} sources and sinks, insight into vegetation physiology, C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} vegetation productivity, and ecosystem carbon residence times. From 2002-2009, we measured atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and {delta}{sup 13}C-CO{sub 2} at four heights (2 to 60 m) in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) and computed {delta}{sub bio} weekly. This region has a fine-scale mix of crops (primarily C{sub 3} winter wheat) and C{sub 4} pasture grasses. {delta}{sub bio} had a large and consistent seasonal cycle of 6-8{per_thousand}. Ensemble monthly mean {delta}{sub bio} ranged from -25.8 {+-} 0.4{per_thousand} ({+-}SE) in March to -20.1 {+-} 0.4{per_thousand} in July. Thus, C{sub 3} vegetation contributed about 80% of ecosystem fluxes in winter-spring and 50% in summer-fall. In contrast, prairie-soil {delta}{sub 13}C values were about -15{per_thousand}, indicating that historically the region was dominated by C{sub 4} vegetation and had more positive {delta}{sub bio} values. Based on a land-surface model, isofluxes ({delta}{sub bio} x NEE) in this region have large seasonal amplitude because {delta}{sub bio} and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) covary. Interannual variability in isoflux was driven by variability in NEE. The large seasonal amplitude in {delta}{sub bio} and isoflux imply that carbon inverse analyses require accurate estimates of land cover and temporally resolved {sup 13}CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} fluxes.

  13. Pluton emplacement in a releasing bend in a transpressive regime: the arrozal granite in the Paraíba do Sul shear belt, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis R. Nummer


    Full Text Available The Arrozal Granite, situated in the southwestern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, has a granitic to granodioritic composition. It contains a strong mylonitic foliation along its border, passing gradually to a well-developed magmatic foliation towards its center. Structural analysis indicates that the Arrozal Granite was emplaced along the Além-Paraíba Shear Zone in a dextral transpressive tectonic regime. A regional shift of the trend along this shear zone from NE-SW to E-W, observed in the area, is interpreted to be casually related to the creation of space for the emplacement of the granite. Our data indicate that releasing bends may have played an important role for space generation during the emplacement of the Arrozal Granite and other plutons.O Granito Arrozal ocorre na porção sudoeste do Estado do Rio de Janeiro e associa-se à Zona de Cisalhamento de Além-Paraíba. Possui composição granítica a granodiorítica eexibe predomínio de estruturas magmáticas na parte central, e estruturas de alto strain (miloníticas nas bordas. Os dados estruturais sugerem colocação em segmentos extensionais(releasing bends associados a uma tectônica transcorrentedestral, sob regime transpressivo. A forte mudança do trend estrutural desta zona de cisalhamento na região, passando de NE-SW para próximo de E-W, criou condições para geração de espaços que favoreceram a colocação do Granito Arrozal, além de outros granitos associados à referida zona.

  14. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Extracts of Twelve Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Endemic Ecotypes of Southern Italy before and after Cooking

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    Maria Neve Ombra


    Full Text Available Beans are important dietary components with versatile health benefits. We analysed the extracts of twelve ecotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris in order to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and the in vitro antiproliferative activity. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD admitted us to detect and quantify some known polyphenols, such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, myricetin, formononetin, caffeic acid, and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity (AA ranged from 1.568 ± 0.041 to 66.572 ± 3.197 mg necessary to inhibit the activity of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical by 50% (EC50. The extracts, except those obtained from the nonpigmented samples, were capable of inhibiting the proliferation of the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells, human breast cancer cells MCF-7, and A549 NSCLC cell line. Cultivars differed in composition and concentration of polyphenols including anthocyanins; cooking affected the antioxidant activity only marginally. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition between the groups of beans influenced the biological activities; on the other hand, we did not find significant differences on the biological activities within the same variety, before and after cooking.

  15. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Extracts of Twelve Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Endemic Ecotypes of Southern Italy before and after Cooking. (United States)

    Ombra, Maria Neve; d'Acierno, Antonio; Nazzaro, Filomena; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Pane, Catello; Maione, Mena; Fratianni, Florinda


    Beans are important dietary components with versatile health benefits. We analysed the extracts of twelve ecotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris in order to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and the in vitro antiproliferative activity. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) admitted us to detect and quantify some known polyphenols, such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, myricetin, formononetin, caffeic acid, and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity (AA) ranged from 1.568 ± 0.041 to 66.572 ± 3.197 mg necessary to inhibit the activity of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by 50% (EC50). The extracts, except those obtained from the nonpigmented samples, were capable of inhibiting the proliferation of the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells, human breast cancer cells MCF-7, and A549 NSCLC cell line. Cultivars differed in composition and concentration of polyphenols including anthocyanins; cooking affected the antioxidant activity only marginally. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition between the groups of beans influenced the biological activities; on the other hand, we did not find significant differences on the biological activities within the same variety, before and after cooking.

  16. Metamorphic evolution of the contact aureole of the Jhirgadandi pluton, Sonbhadra district,Mahakoshal mobile belt, central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S P Singh; Anand K Srivastava; Gopendra Kumar; S B Dwivedi


    The metamorphic evolution of the contact aureole around the Late Paleoproterozoic Jhirgadandi pluton in the eastern part of Parsoi Formation of Mahakoshal terrain, central India represents three distinct metamorphic zones, characterized by definite mineral assemblages. The contact-metamorphic event produced the peak-metamorphic mineral assemblages Bt + Qtz + Alb + Sil ± Cd ± Grt ± Mus ± Kfs in the metapelites of inner aureole, Bt + Qtz + And + Mus + Kfs + Plag ± Cd ± Chl in middle aureole and Chl + Mus + Bt ± And + Alb + Qtz ± Ep + Mt ± tourmaline in the outer aureole. The estimated P–T conditions based on detailed geothermobarometric calculations in the thermal metamorphosed rocks are 690°C/3.4 kbar, 580 ± 15°C and 487 ± 30°C in inner aureole, middle aureole and outer aureole, respectively. The variation in metamorphic condition suggests that the shallow crustal level emplacement of Jhirgadandi pluton is responsible for the overprinting of contact metamorphic assemblages (M2) in the low grade metapelites (regional metamorphism M1) of Mahakoshal Group.

  17. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of anorogenic basic volcanic-plutonic rocks of the Kundal area, Malani Igneous Suite, western Rajasthan, India (United States)

    Krishnakanta Singh, A.; Vallinayagam, G.


    The Kundal area of Malani Igneous Suite consists of volcano-plutonic rocks. Basalt flows and gabbro intrusives are associated with rhyolite. Both the basic rocks consist of similar mineralogy of plagioclase, clinopyroxene as essential and Fe-Ti oxides as accessories. Basalt displays sub-ophitic and glomeroporphyritic textures whereas gabbro exhibits sub-ophitic, porphyritic and intergrannular textures. They show comparable chemistry and are enriched in Fe, Ti and incompatible elements as compared to MORB/CFB. Samples are enriched in LREE and slightly depleted HREE patterns with least significant positive Eu anomalies. Petrographical study and petrogenetic modeling of [Mg]-[Fe], trace and REE suggest cogenetic origin of these basic rocks and they probably derived from Fe-enriched source with higher Fe/Mg ratio than primitive mantle source. Thus, it is concluded that the basic volcano-plutonic rocks of Kundal area are the result of a low to moderate degree (conformity with the similar setting for Malani Igneous Suite.

  18. Paleozoic subduction complex and Paleozoic-Mesozoic island-arc volcano-plutonic assemblages in the northern Sierra terrane (United States)

    Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Harwood, David S.; Schweickert, Richard A.


    This field trip provides an overview of the stratigraphic and structural evolution of the northern Sierra terrane, which forms a significant part of the wall rocks on the western side of the later Mesozoic Sierra Nevada batholith in California. The terrane consists of a pre-Late Devonian subduction complex (Shoo Fly Complex) overlain by submarine arc-related deposits that record the evolution of three separate island-arc systems in the Late Sevonian-Early Mississippian, Permian, and Late Triassic-Jurassic. The two Paleozoic are packages and the underlying Shoo Fly Complex have an important bearing on plate-tectonic processes affecting the convergent margin outboard of the Paleozoic Cordilleran miogeocline, although their original paleogeographic relations to North America are controversial. The third arc package represents an overlap assemblage that ties the terrane to North America by the Late Triassic and helps constrain the nature and timing of Mesozoic orogenesis. Several of the field-trip stops examine the record of pre-Late Devonian subduction contained in the Shoo Fly Complex, as well as the paleovolcanology of the overlying Devonian to Jurassic arc rocks. Excellent glaciated exposures provide the opportunity to study a cross section through a tilted Devonian volcano-plutonic association. Additional stops focus on plutonic rocks emplaced during the Middle Jurassic arc magmatism in the terrane, and during the main pulse of Cretaceous magmatism in the Sierra Nevada batholith to the east.

  19. The link between volcanism and plutonism in epizonal magma systems; high-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology from the Organ Mountains caldera and batholith, New Mexico (United States)

    Rioux, Matthew; Farmer, G. Lang; Bowring, Samuel A.; Wooton, Kathleen M.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Coleman, Drew S.; Verplanck, Philip L.


    The Organ Mountains caldera and batholith expose the volcanic and epizonal plutonic record of an Eocene caldera complex. The caldera and batholith are well exposed, and extensive previous mapping and geochemical analyses have suggested a clear link between the volcanic and plutonic sections, making this an ideal location to study magmatic processes associated with caldera volcanism. Here we present high-precision thermal ionization mass spectrometry U-Pb zircon dates from throughout the caldera and batholith, and use these dates to test and improve existing petrogenetic models. The new dates indicate that Eocene volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Organ Mountains formed from ~44 to 34 Ma. The three largest caldera-related tuff units yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates of 36.441 ± 0.020 Ma (Cueva Tuff), 36.259 ± 0.016 Ma (Achenback Park tuff), and 36.215 ± 0.016 Ma (Squaw Mountain tuff). An alkali feldspar granite, which is chemically similar to the erupted tuffs, yielded a synchronous weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 36.259 ± 0.021 Ma. Weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates from the larger volume syenitic phase of the underlying Organ Needle pluton range from 36.130 ± 0.031 to 36.071 ± 0.012 Ma, and the youngest sample is 144 ± 20 to 188 ± 20 ka younger than the Squaw Mountain and Achenback Park tuffs, respectively. Younger plutonism in the batholith continued through at least 34.051 ± 0.029 Ma. We propose that the Achenback Park tuff, Squaw Mountain tuff, alkali feldspar granite and Organ Needle pluton formed from a single, long-lived magma chamber/mush zone. Early silicic magmas generated by partial melting of the lower crust rose to form an epizonal magma chamber. Underplating of the resulting mush zone led to partial melting and generation of a high-silica alkali feldspar granite cap, which erupted to form the tuffs. The deeper parts of the chamber underwent continued recharge and crystallization for 144 ± 20 ka after the final eruption. Calculated magmatic

  20. Isotopic composition of river waters and early stage carbonates crusts along an elevation transect at 33 degrees south latitude, southern central Andes (United States)

    Hoke, G. D.; Williams, K.; Garzione, C. N.; Araneo, D.; Strecker, M. R.


    We assess the quality of the transfer of elevation specific isotopic information into the rock record by comparing the stable isotopic composition of Quaternary to recent authigenic carbonates and river waters along a 3000 m elevation transect across the Andes at 33°S. Carbonate and water samples are from the Río Aconcagua (Chile) and Río Mendoza (Argentina) watersheds. Isotopic data from small tributaries of these rivers show similar elevation gradients on both sides of the range despite different initial moisture sources. The δ18O of authigenic carbonates correlate well with elevation and yield an elevation gradient which is shallower than that of the rivers. These data confirm that carbonate material is indeed an accurate recorder of information about elevation, and show that in some instances, different moisture sources do not result in drastically different isotope-elevation gradients.

  1. Biogeochemical plant–soil interaction: Variable element composition in leaves of four plant species collected along a south–north transect at the southern tip of Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, C., E-mail: [Geological Survey of Norway (NGU), PO Box 6315 Sluppen, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Englmaier, P. [Department of Freshwater Ecology, Faculty of Life Science, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Fabian, K. [Geological Survey of Norway (NGU), PO Box 6315 Sluppen, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Gough, L. [US Geological Survey National Centre, MS 954, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Lamothe, P. [US Geological Survey, Denver Federal Centre, Box 25046, MS-964, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Smith, D. [US Geological Survey, Denver Federal Centre, Box 25046, MS-973, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)


    Leaves from four different plant species (birch, willow, juniper, and heather) together with samples of the soil O and C horizons were collected at 44–46 sites along a south-to-north transect extending inland for 200 km from the southern tip of Norway. The transect covers one of the steepest vegetation gradients on Earth, crossing six vegetation zones. Juniper and heather are evergreen, and preferably exclude potentially toxic elements to avoid their accumulation in assimilating tissues, birch and willow shed their leaves in autumn together with the load of potentially toxic elements, and thus can tolerate the uptake of such elements. The plant leaves show the highest concentrations for B, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, P, Rb and S. In the soil O-horizon Ag, Au, As, Bi, Cu, Ge, Hg, In, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Te and W are enriched with respect to the C-horizon, whilst Mn and Rb are depleted. Cadmium, Sr and Zn are enriched in willow and Cs, Na and Tl in heather. In terms of concentration gradients from the coast inland, two different patterns are detected: 1) short range with an almost exponential decrease of concentrations from the coast, which appears to be typical for seaspray-related element input, and 2) long range with an almost linear decrease of concentrations with distance from the coast. These patterns differ among the four species, even for one and the same element. Inter-element correlation is different from material to material. Along the transect each of the different plants at the same site individually adapts to the available element combination. High linear correlations in the plants occur between the lanthanides (La, Ce, Y), and interestingly, between P and Ti. The plant/soil system appears highly non-linear and self-regulated. - Highlights: • Plant–soil element uptake and interactions were studied along a 200 km transect. • 53 elements were analysed in leaves of 4 plants and 2 soil horizons. • Element relations within and between the materials revealed

  2. Geochemistry and geochronology of granitoids in the Kibi-Asamankese area of the Kibi-Winneba volcanic belt, southern Ghana (United States)

    Anum, Solomon; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Su, Ben-Xun; Nude, Prosper M.; Nyame, Frank; Asiedu, Daniel; Kwayisi, Daniel


    In Ghana the West African Craton is represented by Birimian and Tarkwaian rocks with extensive granitoid bodies. Granitoids from Asamankese area of the Kibi-Winneba volcanic belt, southern Ghana were analysed for major and trace element contents and found to be characterised by highly-fractionated REE, enrichments, in LILE, and depletion in Nb, Ta and Sr. The LILE enrichment relative to strong Nb-Ta depression, indicates that these granitoids were emplaced in an active margin. Based on field relations, geochemical composition and geochronological data, the granitoids from the Kibi-Asamankese area can be divided into three types, namely; the Eburnean biotite granodiorite (2133-2127 Ma) and hornblende granodiorite (2147 Ma), and the Pre-Eburnean gneissic biotite granite (2193 Ma). The geochemical data of the studied rocks plot in the tholeiitic field, whereas on the A/CNK-A/NK diagram, they generally fall within the metaluminous field, with A/CNK values between 0.69 and 0.88. U-Pb dating of zircons in the granitoids yielded ages ranging from 2193 to 2127 Ma, which are among the oldest ages obtained from the granitoid plutons in Ghana. Such high-precision geochronological data indicate that magmatism occurred over a time-span of about 70 Ma. This provides further evidence that the period 2.1-2.2 Ga was one of the important stages of Birimian magmatism that led to the generation of the granitoids. From the above-mentioned ages, it is possible to link the geological activities to crustal processes and establish the cyclic geotectonic evolution in the West African Craton over time as part of an arc-back-arc basin system.

  3. Construction of the Vinalhaven Intrusive Complex, Maine, USA: the Plutonic Record of Evolving Magma Chambers Affected by Multiple Episodes of Replenishment, Rejuvenation, Crystal Accumulation and Eruption (United States)

    Wiebe, R. A.; Hawkins, D. P.


    Increasingly, the plutonic roots of volcanic systems can be shown to contain temporal records of events inferred from the study of volcanic rocks. The Vinalhaven intrusive complex preserves evidence for multiple episodes of silicic and mafic replenishments, rejuvenation of granite, and probable eruptive events over a nominal time-span of 1.7 Ma (Hawkins and Wiebe, this volume). The complex is about 12 km in diameter and consists mainly of cg granite, a thick section of arcuate, inward-dipping gabbro-diorite sheets in the southeastern half of the complex, and a circular core of fg granite. Field relations demonstrate that the base of the intrusion is along the southeastern margin of the complex, and the top is along the northwestern margin where it intrudes coeval volcanic rocks. Aphyric basaltic and granitic dikes fed this essentially bimodal intrusion. When basaltic dikes intersected a silicic chamber, basalt spread across a floor of silicic crystal mush to form gabbro-diorite sheets in granite. Several extensive layers of angular blocks of country rock occur within the mafic rocks. Granitic dikes and the fg granitic core of the complex have sharp to gradational contacts with cg granite, and, locally, both granites are intimately mixed and commingled. These relations indicate that new silicic injections mixed into partly crystallized resident magma. Several irregular bodies of porphyry (0.2 to 0.5 km in average dimension) intrude cg granite with sharp, gradational, or commingled contacts. The porphyry has 5 to 40% corroded phenocrysts, identical in composition to crystals in the granite, and a variably quenched matrix. Some of these bodies formed when late injections of basalt remelted largely solid portions of cg granite. New silicic input may have contributed to other porphyry bodies. The matrix probably quenched because of a sudden decrease in pressure, possibly due to eruption of magma from the chamber. The cg granite and inter-layered mafic rocks preserve a

  4. Zircon Trace Element Contents and Refined U-Pb Crystallization Ages for the Tatoosh Pluton, Mount Rainier National Park, Washington Cascades (United States)

    Bacon, C. R.; Du Bray, E. A.; John, D. A.; Mazdab, F. K.; Wooden, J. L.


    The 7x12 km Tatoosh pluton south of Mount Rainier consists of 4 petrographic/compositional phases, here termed Nisqually, Reflection, Pyramid, and Stevens, that intrude Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary wall and roof rocks; contacts between the 4 intrusive units are rarely exposed. We used the USGS-Stanford SHRIMP- RG to analyze, in a continuous session, zircons from each of 6 quartz monzodiorite (qmd), quartz monzonite (qm), or granodiorite (grd) samples for 206Pb/238U ages and, concurrently, U, Th, Hf, and REE concentrations. A round-robin procedure yielded statistically robust geochronological results. Ages that we reported previously (FM07) were compromised by instrument instability and by calibration differences between analytical sessions. Between 11 and 31 new analyses of zircons from each sample were evaluated using the TuffZirc and Umix Ages routines of Isoplot 3.41 (Ludwig, 2003). TuffZirc solidification ages for the intrusions are: Nisqually grd (Paradise Valley; 65.4% SiO2) 17.29 +0.37/-0.24 Ma, Nisqually grd (Christine Falls; 66.4%) 17.70 +0.30/-0.16 Ma, Reflection qm (Pinnacle Peak trail; 66.6%) 18.38 +0.45/-0.28 Ma, Pyramid qmd (58.5%) 18.58 +0.20/-0.15 Ma, Stevens grd (Stevens Canyon; 67.8%) 19.15 +0.15/-0.12 Ma, and Stevens grd (south of Louise Lake; 69.3%) 19.20 +0.31/-0.26 Ma (U-Th initial-disequilibrium corrected, ±2σ). Precision of the U-Pb data limits rigorous identification of antecrysts to those with ages ~1 Myr > solidification ages. Antecryst ages that produce subsidiary modes in relative probability diagrams for the two Stevens samples give weighted mean values of 20.18 ±0.26 Ma and 20.07 ±0.18 Ma. Wide ranges in trace element concentrations and ratios indicate that many analyzed zircons grew in highly fractionated residual liquids in high-crystallinity environments. Concentrations of Th and U in Tatoosh zircons vary by two orders of magnitude, cores tend to have higher Th, U, and Th/U than rims, and overgrowths that fill reentrants

  5. Chemical composition, olfactory analysis and antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris chemotypes geraniol, 4-thujanol/terpinen-4-ol, thymol and linalool cultivated in southern France. (United States)

    Schmidt, Erich; Wanner, Jürgen; Hiiferl, Martina; Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tania; Stoyanova, Albena; Geissler, Margit


    The essential oils of four chemotypes of Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) were analyzed for their composition and antibacterial activity to assess their different properties. GC-MS and GC-FID analyses revealed that the essentials oils can be classified into the chemotypes thymol (41.0% thymol), geraniol (26.4% geraniol), linalool (72.5% linalool) and 4-thujanol/terpinen-4-ol (42.2% cis- and 7.3% trans-sabinene hydrate, 6.5 % terpinen-4-ol). The olfactory examination confirmed the explicit differences between these chemotypes. Furthermore, antibacterial activity was investigated against several strains of two Gram-positive (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Staphylococcus aureus) and four Gram-negative food-borne bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. fragi). All essential oil samples were demonstrated to be highly effective against Gram-positive strains, whereas the impact on Gram-negative microorganisms was significantly smaller, but still considerable. The results obtained indicate that, despite their different properties, the essential oils of selected T. vulgaris chemotypes are potent antimicrobials to be employed as useful additives in food products as well as for therapeutic applications.

  6. A Comparison of the Composition and Diversity of Tree Populations along a Hydrological Gradient in Floodplains (Southern Québec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Berthelot


    Full Text Available With the current climate changes, it is essential to understand the mechanisms that govern floods and flow regimes and their effects on the dynamics of riparian forests. The aim is to assess the effects of new hydrological conditions (increase in flood frequency on forest stands subject to frequent floods. The sampling sites (total of 94 quadrats are located in riverine woodlands, and the choice of location corresponds to the boundaries of the flood-risk zones established by official government maps. Our study shows that there are significant differences in the composition and diversity of forest communities following differences in the flood recurrence zones. In the active floodplains (i.e., recurrence interval of 0–20 years, the tree population stands are clearly distinguished from other intermediate flood zones (interval of 20–100 years. Differences are also noted in the structure of the communities, in particular in the frequent flood zones, which are characterized by a low renewal rate, low density and less-diversified forest stands. The frequent floods risk forest stand rejuvenation and creating decline as a result of increased tree mortality and the low renewal rate. With the expected increases in the number of flood events in the coming decades, there may be greater tree mortality and a gradual disappearance of the forest communities.

  7. Elemental and carbon isotope composition of total particulate matter in the urban atmosphere of Krakow, southern Poland: summer-winter contrast (United States)

    Zimnoch, Miroslaw; Samek, Lucyna; Morawski, Filip; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Bartyzel, Jakub


    Deterioration of air quality in urban agglomerations is a growing problem of global significance [1]. This spurs research towards better understanding of parameters controlling air quality in urban environment (sources of particulate matter and gaseous contaminants, spatial and temporal variability of air quality, impact of atmospheric dynamics on the air quality, and several others). Krakow belongs to four largest cities in Poland. With nearly one million inhabitants, rapidly growing car traffic and significant industrial activities, Krakow agglomeration represents a typical urban environment in the eastern Europe. Characteristic features of the local climate are generally weak winds (annual average around 2.7 m s-1) and frequent inversions, extending sometimes over several days, particularly during winter seasons, favor accumulation of pollutants originating from surface emissions in the atmosphere over the city. Krakow ranks among the most polluted cities in Europe. There is an ongoing discussion on the role of different sources of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) in the city's atmosphere, such as traffic, low- and high-level emissions related to burning of coal for heating purposes, resuspension of street dust, and some others. The presented work was aimed at exploring possibilities of using carbon isotope composition of total particulate matter collected in Krakow atmosphere, for better characterization of TSPM sources in the city, with the focus on seasonal changes of the character and intensity of those sources. Archived samples of TSPM deposited on filters (sampling interval between 5 and 20 days) and spanning the period 2005 - 2010 [3] were used for this purpose. For each year one pair of filters representing summer and winter conditions was selected. The work comprised also multi-elemental analysis of available TSPM samples using EDXRF technique. The measurements of 13C and 14C content in the total elemental carbon collected on filters revealed

  8. Three-decade changes in chemical composition of precipitation in Guangzhou city, southern China: has precipitation recovered from acidification following sulphur dioxide emission control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunting Fang


    Full Text Available We examined if precipitation had recovered from acidification in Guangzhou, the third biggest city in China, and if sulphur deposition in precipitation had decreased, and to what extent if yes, following abatement strategies in sulphur dioxide (SO2 emission and energy use implemented since 2001. SO2 emissions were decreasing steadily since 2001, but a marked recovery of precipitation acidity occurred only since 2005; precipitation pH values decreased from 4.65 in 2001 to 4.34 in 2005 and then increased to 5.08 in 2010, while in the same period acid rain (pH<5.6 frequency increased from 70% to 81% and then decreased to 48%. During this period, the change in pH value and sulphate concentration more reflected the patterns of SO2 emission at provincial and national scales than at the local scale, suggesting that precipitation chemical composition was largely controlled by the emissions of pollutants from surrounding areas of the study city. Since 2001, sulphate deposition in precipitation decreased significantly (by 40% but nitrogen deposition remained unaltered. More importantly, the current sulphur (43 kg S ha−1 yr−1 as sulphate and nitrogen depositions (35 kg N ha−1 yr−1 as ammonium plus nitrate in 2010 were still among the highest in China. These results highlight the fact that ambient sulphur and nitrogen deposition still pose a threat to the health of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Precipitation may become more acidified in the future because the deposition of alkaline dusts containing calcium is also likely to decrease with stricter SO2 emission control policy and reduced construction activities. Additionally, we recommend that a reduction of emissions of nitrogen and chlorine bearing pollutants is urgently required for complete control on acid deposition.

  9. Variable responses by southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, to the pheromone component endo-brevicomin: influence of enantiomeric composition, release rate, and proximity to infestations. (United States)

    Sullivan, Brian T; Dalusky, Mark J; Mori, Kenji; Brownie, Cavell


    The male-produced bicyclic acetal endo-brevicomin is a component of the pheromone blend that mediates colonization of host pines by the bark beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann. Efforts to identify its behavioral function have been complicated by contrasting reports that it either enhances or reduces attraction of flying beetles. Our studies failed to support the hypothesis that this published variability is due to differences in release rate and/or the enantiomeric composition [i.e., the beetle-produced (+)-enantiomer vs. the racemate] of the endo-brevicomin used in the experiments. In trapping trials within active D. frontalis infestations, racemic and (+)-endo-brevicomin did not differ from each other in behavioral effects when tested at seven different release rates ranging from 0.005 to 3 mg/d. At the highest release rates, racemic and (+)-endo-brevicomin similarly reduced catches in traps baited with an attractant (frontalin and turpentine), but neither enhanced catches at any release rate. Furthermore, the activity of racemic endo-brevicomin baits depended on trap proximity to D. frontalis infestations. Addition of these baits to attractant-baited traps located inside active infestations reduced catches, but they enhanced catches at traps located either 100 or 200 m outside these infestations. The contrasting responses may reflect differences in host-seeking strategies by either aggregated or dispersing D. frontalis, and may be elicited by differing abundance of natural sources of semiochemicals or differing responsiveness of beetles inside vs. outside of infestations. We suspect that much of the published variability in D. frontalis responses to endo-brevicomin is attributable to differing proximity of experimental field sites to infestations.

  10. Geological Geophysical and structural studies in Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala); Estudios geologico-estructurales y geofisicos en Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Estaun, A.; Carbonell, R.; Marti, D.; Flecha, I. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra Jaume Almera. Barcelona (Spain); Escuder Viruete, J. [Universidad complutense de Madrid. Madrid (Spain)


    Mina Ratones environmental restoration project included petrological, structural,geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies. The main objective of the geologic-structural and geophysical studies was the Albala granite structural characterization around the Mina Ratones uranium mine. The location of facies, fault zones (faults and dykes) as well as the distribution of some physical properties inside the rock massif was obtained for a granitic black of 900, 500, and 500 m. The geologic-structural and geophysical techniques applied to Mina Ratones provided a multidisciplinary approach for high resolution characterization of rock massif, and the structures potentially containing fluids,able to be applied to the hydrogeological modelling to a particular area. Geological studies included a detailed structural mapping of the area surrounding the mine (1:5,000 scale), the geometric, kinematics, and dynamics analysis of fractures of all scales, the petrology and geochemistry of fault rocks and altered areas surrounding fractures, and the microstructural studies of samples from surface and core lags. The construction of geostatistical models in two and three dimensions had helped to characterize the Mina Ratones rock massif showing the spatial distribution of fault zones, fracture intensity, granite composition heterogeneities, fluid-rock interaction zones, and physical properties. (Author)

  11. Evaluation of pharmacological activities, cytotoxicity and phenolic composition of four Maytenus species used in southern African traditional medicine to treat intestinal infections and diarrhoeal diseases. (United States)

    Ahmed, Aroke Shahid; McGaw, Lyndy J; Eloff, Jacobus N


    Microbial infections and resulting inflammation and oxidative stress are common pathogenesis of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders. In South Africa, several species of the genus Maytenus are used in traditional medicine to treat various infectious diseases. Most of the previous work on this genus was focused on nonpolar extracts from the root and bark. In this study, leaf extracts of polar extracts of Maytenus peduncularis, Maytenus procumbens, Maytenus senegalensis and Maytenus undata were evaluated for antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities to determine their efficacy as therapeutic agents in GIT disorders. Phenolic-enriched leaf extracts and fractions were prepared by extracting with acidified 70% methanol and solvent-solvent fractionation. The activities of the fractions against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis as well as clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans were determined using a serial microplate dilution method. Antioxidant activities were determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging and linoleic acid peroxidation inhibitory assays. The phenolic composition as well as the cytotoxicity against Vero cell lines of the crude extracts was evaluated using various standard protocols. The antimicrobial activities were concentrated in the non-polar fractions of hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate (MICs 19-312 μg/ml). The crude extracts and polar fractions (butanol and water) had moderate to poor antimicrobial activity (MICs 312 to above 2500 μg/ml). The crude extracts and polar fractions had good antioxidant activity (EC50 values varied from 1.22 to 607 μg/ml, 1.71 to 312 μg/ml and 23 to 284 μg/ml for DPPH, ABTS and OH respectively. Linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition EC50 values of the crude extracts ranged between 27

  12. Long-term tree growth rate, water use efficiency, and tree ring nitrogen isotope composition of Pinus massoniana L. in response to global climate change and local nitrogen deposition in Southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fangfang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). South China Botanical Garden; Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Griffith Univ., Nathan, QLD (Australia). Environmental Future Centre; Kuang, Yuanwen; Wen, Dazhi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). South China Botanical Garden; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Pearl River Delta Research Centre of Environmental Pollution and Control; Xu, Zhihong [Griffith Univ., Nathan, QLD (Australia). Environmental Future Centre; Li, Jianli; Zuo, Weidong [Agriculture and Forestry Technology Extension Centre, Nanhai District, Guangdong (China); Hou, Enqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). South China Botanical Garden; Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)


    We aimed to investigate long-term tree growth rates, water use efficiencies (WUE), and tree ring nitrogen (N) isotope compositions ({delta}{sup 15}N) of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) in response to global climate change and local N deposition in Southern China. Tree annual growth rings of Masson pine were collected from four forest sites, viz. South China Botanical Garden (SBG), Xi Qiao Shan (XQS) Forest Park, Ding Hu Shan (DHS) Natural Reserve, and Nan Kun Shan (NKS) Natural Reserve in Southern China. The mean annual basal area increment (BAI), WUE, and {delta}{sup 15}N at every 5-year intervals of Masson pine during the last 50 years were determined. Regression analyses were used to quantify the relationships of BAI and WUE with atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO{sub 2}]), temperature, rainfall, and tree ring elemental concentrations at the four study sites. Tree BAI showed a quadratic relationship with rising [CO{sub 2}]. The tipping points of [CO{sub 2}] for BAI, the peaks of BAI when the critical [CO{sub 2}] was reached, occurred earlier at the sites of SBG, XQS, and DHS which were exposed to higher temperature, N deposition, and lower mineral nutrient availability, as compared with the tipping points of [CO{sub 2}] for BAI at the site of NKS which had higher rainfall, lower temperature, and better nutritional status. The average tipping point of [CO{sub 2}] at the four sites for the BAI response curves was 356 ppm, after which, the BAI would be expected to decrease quadratically with rising [CO{sub 2}]. The multiple regressions of BAI confirmed the relationships of long-term tree growth rate with rainfall, tree WUE, and nutrients and {delta}{sup 15}N in tree rings. Nonlinear relationships between BAI and tree ring {delta}{sup 15}N at DHS and negatively linear one at NKS reflected the fertilization effect of N deposition on tree growth rate initially, but this effect peaked or became negative once the forest approached or passed the N saturation

  13. Crustal structure and composition of the Oslo Graben, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Thybo, Hans


    across the southern Scandinavian Peninsula, with a focus on the Oslo Graben. Plutonic rocks are now exposed at the surface in the graben due to post rifting erosion and the corresponding low (5.5 km/s) P-wave velocities extend to depths of ~3 km. The Pwave velocity and Poisson's ratio between depths of 6...... lower crust is 1.5 times wider than the surface expression of the rift and extends to both the east and west of the main rift axis. Depth dependant extension may have occurred within the rift and may account for the significant volumes of volcanic output despite the small surface extension observed...

  14. Sex-associated variations in coral skeletal oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of Porites panamensis in the southern Gulf of California (United States)

    Cabral-Tena, Rafael A.; Sánchez, Alberto; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor; Ruvalcaba-Díaz, Angel H.; Balart, Eduardo F.


    Coral δ18O variations are used as a proxy for changes in sea surface temperature (SST) and seawater isotope composition. Skeletal δ13C of coral is frequently used as a proxy for solar radiation because most of its variability is controlled by an interrelationship between three processes: photosynthesis, respiration, and feeding. Coral growth rate is known to influence the δ18O and δ13C isotope record to a lesser extent than environmental variables. Recent published data show differences in growth parameters between female and male coral in the gonochoric brooding coral Porites panamensis; thus, skeletal δ18O and δ13C are hypothesized to be different in each sex. To test this, this study describes changes in the skeletal δ18O and δ13C record of four female and six male Porites panamensis coral collected in Bahía de La Paz, Mexico, whose growth bands spanned 12 years. The isotopic data were compared to SST, precipitation, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), chlorophyll a, and skeletal growth parameters. Porites panamensis is a known gonochoric brooder whose growth parameters are different in females and males. Splitting the data by sexes explained 81 and 93 % of the differences of δ18O, and of δ13C, respectively, in the isotope record between colonies. Both isotope records were different between sexes. δ18O was higher in female colonies than in male colonies, with a 0.31 ‰ difference; δ13C was lower in female colonies, with a 0.28 ‰ difference. A difference in the skeletal δ18O could introduce an error in SST estimates of ≈ 1.0 to ≈ 2.6 °C. The δ18O records showed a seasonal pattern that corresponded to SST, with low correlation coefficients (-0.45, -0.32), and gentle slopes (0.09, 0.10 ‰ °C-1) of the δ18O-SST relation. Seasonal variation in coral δ18O represents only 52.37 and 35.66 % of the SST cycle; 29.72 and 38.53 % can be attributed to δ18O variability in seawater. δ13C data did not correlate with any of the environmental

  15. Tyramine functions as a toxin in honey bee larvae during Varroa-transmitted infection by Melissococcus pluton. (United States)

    Kanbar, G; Engels, W; Nicholson, G J; Hertle, R; Winkelmann, G


    From wounds of honey bee pupae, caused by the mite Varroa destructor, coccoid bacteria were isolated and identified as Melissococcus pluton. The bacterial isolate was grown anaerobically in sorbitol medium to produce a toxic compound that was purified on XAD columns, gelfiltration and preparative HPLC. The toxic agent was identified by GC-MS and FTICR-MS as tyramine. The toxicity of the isolated tyramine was tested by a novel mobility test using the protozoon Stylonychia lemnae. A concentration of 0.2 mg/ml led to immediate inhibition of mobility. In addition the toxicity was studied on honey bee larvae by feeding tyramine/water mixtures added to the larval jelly. The lethal dosis of tyramine on 4-5 days old bee larvae was determined as 0.3 mg/larvae when added as a volume of 20 microl to the larval food in brood cells. Several other biogenic amines, such as phenylethylamine, histamine, spermine, cadaverine, putrescine and trimethylamine, were tested as their hydrochloric salts for comparison and were found to be inhibitory in the Stylonychia mobility test at similar concentrations. A quantitative hemolysis test with human red blood cells revealed that tyramine and histamine showed the highest membranolytic activity, followed by the phenylethylamine, trimethylamine and spermine, while the linear diamines, cadaverine and putrescine, showed a significantly lower hemolysis when calculated on a molar amine basis. The results indicate that tyramine which is a characteristic amine produced by M. pluton in culture, is the causative agent of the observed toxic symptoms in bee larvae. Thus this disease, known as European foulbrood, is possibly an infection transmitted by the Varroa destructor mite.

  16. Sr and Pb isotopic geochemistry of feldspars and implications for the growth of megacrysts in plutonic settings. (United States)

    Munnikhuis, J.; Glazner, A. F.; Coleman, D. S.; Mills, R. D.


    Why megacrystic textures develop in silicic igneous rocks is still unknown. One hypothesis is that these crystals nucleate early in a magma chamber with a high liquid content. A supportive observation of this hypothesis is areas in plutons with high concentrations of megacrysts suggesting flow sorting. Another group of hypotheses suggest megacrystic textures form during protracted late-stage coarsening in a low-melt, interlocked matrix due to either thermal oscillations from incremental pluton emplacement, or Ostwald ripening. Isotopic analyses of large, euhedral K-feldspar megacrysts from the Cretaceous intrusive suites of the Sierra Nevada batholith (SNB) provide new insight into their origin. Megacrysts from the SNB reach the decimeter scale, are Or rich (85-90%), are perthitic, and host mineral inclusions of nearly all phases in the host rock. In-situ micro-drilling of transects, from core to rim, of the alkali feldspars provides material for Sr and Pb isotopic analyses by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Preliminary 87Sr/86Sr(i) isotopic data from samples from the Cathedral Peak Granodiorite, of the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite range from 0.706337 to 0.706452 (~1.6ɛSr) near the cores, whereas a sawtooth pattern with larger variability, 0.706179 to 0.706533 (~5ɛSr), occurs nears the rims. We interpret these preliminary data to indicate that the late portion of growth (i.e. crystal rim) was dominated by either cannibalism of small K-feldspar crystals with isotopic variability, or by addition of isotopically diverse late components to the magma. By comparing the Sr and Pb isotopic stratigraphy of megacrysts from a variety of rock matrices and different granitoids in the SNB isotopic trends can be evaluated to determine if crystals sizes are dependent on disequilibrium processes or grow at a steady state.

  17. Genetic composition of Mytilus species in mussel populations from southern Chile Composición genética de especies de Mytilus en poblaciones de mejillón del sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Larraín


    Full Text Available Mussels are one of the most cultivated and commercialized bivalves worldwide and in southern Chile its culture represent an important economic activity. The species identification within the Mytilus genera, by morphological features, is unreliable, so we used a polymorphism RFLP in the gene encoding the polyphenolic adhesive protein as a species-specific genetic marker to describe Mytilus species diversity in southern Chile, and evaluate possible applications in traceability, food quality and safety. Using Me 15-16 marker most mussels were M. chilensis, finding no other pure individuals; however, putative hybrids of M. chilensis x M. trossulus and M. chilensis x M. galloprovincialis were detected. There was no evidence of M. edulis. The presence of the M. trossulus allele, faraway from its distribution area, demands further analysis with different genetic markers to allow a better understanding of its origin. In addition, the correspondence between markers that distinguishes northern from southern hemisphere M. galloprovincialis, with those who discriminates between M. chilensis and M. galloprovincialis would contribute to the taxonomic status of Chilean blue mussels. In Chile, the genetic composition of Mytilus indicates that geographical origin of mussels and its traceability cannot be established merely from the identification of the species. The use of other markers would be required.Los mejillones son una de las especies de bivalvos más cultivadas y comercializadas, en el sur de Chile donde su cultivo representa una actividad económica importante. La identificación de la especie dentro del género Mytilus, basada en las características morfológicas no es confiable por lo que se utilizó un polimorfismo RFLP en el gen que codifica la proteína adhesiva polifenólica como marcador genético específico de la especie para describir la diversidad de especies Mytilus en el sur de Chile, y evaluar posibles aplicaciones en trazabilidad

  18. Compositional variability in mafic arc magmas over short spatial and temporal scales: Evidence for the signature of mantle reactive melt channels (United States)

    Rawson, Harriet; Keller, Tobias; Fontijn, Karen; Pyle, David M.; Mather, Tamsin A.; Smith, Victoria C.; Naranjo, José A.


    Understanding arc magma genesis is critical to deciphering the construction of continental crust, understanding the relationship between plutonic and volcanic rocks, and for assessing volcanic hazards. Arc magma genesis is complex. Interpreting the underlying causes of major and trace element diversity in erupted magmas is challenging and often non-unique. To navigate this complexity mafic magma diversity is investigated using sample suites that span short temporal and spatial scales. These constraints allow us to evaluate models of arc magma genesis and their geochemical implications based on physical arguments and recent model results. Young volcanic deposits (≲18 kyr) are analysed from the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ), Chile, in particular suites of scoria cones on the flanks of arc stratovolcanoes that have erupted relatively primitive magmas of diverse compositions. Our study is centred on the high-resolution post-glacial tephrochronological record for Mocho-Choshuenco volcano where tight age constraints and a high density of scoria cones provide a spatially well-resolved mafic magma dataset. Two compositional trends emerge from the data. Firstly, magmas from cones on the flanks of the main edifice become more mafic with distance from the central vent. This is attributed to fractional crystallisation processes within the crust, with distal cones sampling less differentiated magmas. Secondly, there is a set of cones with distinct major and trace element compositions that are more primitive but enriched in incompatible elements relative to the central system and other 'normal SVZ' magmas. This distinct signature - termed the 'Kangechi' signature - is observed at three further clusters of cones within the SVZ. This is attributed to greater preservation of the enriched melt signature arising from reactive melt transport within the mantle wedge. Our model has important implications for arc magma genesis in general, and in particular for the spatial and temporal

  19. Source of magma for Elet-Ozero pluton (NE Baltic Shield) - subduction or plume-related material? (United States)

    Ryabchikov, Igor; Kogarko, Liya


    Eletozero pluton is located in the northeastern part of the Karelian Craton, it covers an area of about 100 km2 and cuts through Archaean granite-gneisses. The complex has a concentric zoned structure, the peripheral part being composed of a layered gabbro series; the central area is occupied by nepheline syenites. Mafic and ultramafic rocks in this intrusion often contain potassium feldspar (olivine monzonites and monzonites). Gabbroids are characterized by rhythmic layering expressed in the alternation of leucocratic layers predominantly composed of plagioclase and melanocratic layers with pyroxenes, olivine, titanomagnetite and ilmenite. The rocks of the pluton are enriched in highly incompatible elements by comparison with moderately incompatible elements: average primitive mantle normalized La/Lu ratio is 18.3. At the same time, all the rocks from Elet-Ozero massif including the most primitive ones (high Mg-numbers and high Ni contents) exhibit distinct positive Ba anomaly: mean chondrite normalized Ba/Th ratio is 15.3 (both elements have similar incompatibility-[1]). Enrichment of parent magma in Ba is also confirmed by the presence of high-Ba feldspars and micas in some samples of gabbroids. The most Ba-rich feldspar contains 75% of celsian component: K0.09Na0.04Ca0.008Sr0.04Ba0.75Al1.73Fe0.14Si2.20O8. Ba is a fluid mobile incompatible lithophile element that is probably the most sensitive indicator of subduction fluid addition to the mantle wedge. Thus, positive Ba anomaly suggests input of subduction related component into the source of Elet-Ozero magma. The presence of subduction related material in the lithosphere of Karelian craton has been proposed on the basis of Os isotope studies of mantle xenoliths from Finnish kimberlites [2]. The age of this subduction event is similar to the age of Elet-Ozero pluton. On the other hand, there are certain arguments in favor of connection of Elet-Ozero intrusive complex with mantle plume activity. In particular it

  20. Imprint of Southern Red Sea Major Tectonic Zone In A New Bouguer Anomaly Map of Southern Yemen Margin (United States)

    Blecha, V.

    A new Bouguer anomaly map of western part of southern Yemen margin has been compiled. Densities of rock samples from main geological units (Precambrian base- ment, Mesozoic sediments, Tertiary volcanites) have been measured and used for grav- ity modeling. Regional gravity map indicates decrease of thickness of continental crust from volcanites of the Yemen Trap Series towards the coast of the Gulf of Aden. Most remarkable feature in the map of residual anomalies is a positive anomaly over the Dhala graben. The Dhala graben is a prominent geological structure in the area of study trending parallel to the Red Sea axis. Gravity modeling on a profile across the Dhala graben presumes intrusive plutonic rocks beneath the graben. There are two other areas in the southwestern tip of Arabia, which have essentially the same struc- tural position as the Dhala graben: the Jabal Tirf volcanic rift zone in the southern Saudi Arabia and Jabal Hufash extensional zone in northern Yemen. All three areas extend along the line trending parallel to the Red Sea axis with length of about 500 km. The line coincides with the axis of Afar (Danakil) depression after Arabia is shifted and rotated back to Africa. These facts imply conclusion that the Oligocene - Early Miocene magmatic activity on the Jabal Tirf - Dhala lineament is related to the same original deep tectonic zone, forming present-day Afar depression and still active.

  1. Naturally acidic surface and ground waters draining porphyry-related mineralized areas of the Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico (United States)

    Verplanck, P.L.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Bove, D.J.; Plumlee, G.S.; Runkel, R.L.


    Acidic, metal-rich waters produced by the oxidative weathering and resulting leaching of major and trace elements from pyritic rocks can adversely affect water quality in receiving streams and riparian ecosystems. Five study areas in the southern Rocky Mountains with naturally acidic waters associated with porphyry mineralization were studied to document variations in water chemistry and processes that control the chemical variations. Study areas include the Upper Animas River watershed, East Alpine Gulch, Mount Emmons, a