WorldWideScience

Sample records for composite film prepared

  1. Preparation and Properties of Polyaniline Composite Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-hua

    2002-01-01

    Polyaniline (PAn) was synthesized by chemical oxidation polymerization. The conductive polymer doped by camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) and a matrix polymer,polyamide- 66, polyamide - 1010 or polyamide- 11, were dissolved in m-cresol and the blend solution was cast in a glass and dried for preparing polyaniline composite films.Conductivity was from 10 -6 to 10 0Ω-1·cm-1 with different weight fraction of PAn-CSA. The crystallizttion of the films was studied by means of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The treatment of the composite films in different pH value solution would result in decrease of conductivity, especially in an alkaline solution.

  2. Preparation of composite electroheat carbon film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jin-tong; TU Chuan-jun; LI Yan; HU Li-min; DENG Jiu-hua

    2005-01-01

    A kind of conductive and heating unit, which can reach a high surface electroheat temperature at a low voltage, was developed in view of the traditional electroheat coating which has a low surface electroheat temperature and an insufficient heat resistance of its binder. The coating molded electroheat carbon film(CMECF) was prepared by carbonizing the coating which was prepared by adding modified resin into flake graphite and carbon fiber, coating molded onto the surface of the heat resisting matrix after dried, while the hot pressing molded electroheat thick carbon film(HPMETCF) was prepared by carbonizing the bodies whose powders were hot pressing molded directly.The surface and inner microstructure of the carbon film was characterized and analyzed by SEM and DSC/TG, while electroheat property was tested by voltage-current volume resistivity tester and electrical parameter tester. The results show that, close-packed carbon network configuration is formed within the composite electroheat carbon film film after anti-oxidizable treatment reaches a higher surface electroheat temperature than that of the existing electroheat coatings at a low voltage, and has excellent electroheat property, high thermal efficiency as well as stable physicochemical property. It is found that, at room temperature(19± 2 ℃) and 22 V for 5 min, the surface electroheat temperature of the self-produced CMECF (mfiller/mresin = 1. 8/1) reaches 112 ℃ while HPMETCF (mfiller/mresin = 3. 6/1) reaches 265 ℃.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan-Agarose Composite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhang; Hong, Pengzhi; Liao, Mingneng; Kong, Songzhi; Huang, Na; Ou, Chunyan; Li, Sidong

    2016-09-30

    Nowadays, there is a growing interest to develop biodegradable functional composite materials for food packaging and biomedicine applications from renewable sources. Some composite films were prepared by the casting method using chitosan (CS) and agarose (AG) in different mass ratios. The composite films were analyzed for physical-chemical-mechanical properties including tensile strength (TS), elongation-at-break (EB), water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), swelling ratio, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and morphology observations. The antibacterial properties of the composite films were also evaluated. The obtained results reveal that an addition of AG in varied proportions to a CS solution leads to an enhancement of the composite film's tensile strength, elongation-at-break, and water vapor transmission rate. The composite film with an agarose mass concentration of 60% was of the highest water uptake capacity. These improvements can be explained by the chemical structures of the new composite films, which contain hydrogen bonding interactions between the chitosan and agarose as shown by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis and the micro-pore structures as observed with optical microscopes and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antibacterial results demonstrated that the films with agarose mass concentrations ranging from 0% to 60% possessed antibacterial properties. These results indicate that these composite films, especially the composite film with an agarose mass concentration of 60%, exhibit excellent potential to be used in food packaging and biomedical materials.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan—Agarose Composite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a growing interest to develop biodegradable functional composite materials for food packaging and biomedicine applications from renewable sources. Some composite films were prepared by the casting method using chitosan (CS and agarose (AG in different mass ratios. The composite films were analyzed for physical-chemical-mechanical properties including tensile strength (TS, elongation-at-break (EB, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR, swelling ratio, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and morphology observations. The antibacterial properties of the composite films were also evaluated. The obtained results reveal that an addition of AG in varied proportions to a CS solution leads to an enhancement of the composite film’s tensile strength, elongation-at-break, and water vapor transmission rate. The composite film with an agarose mass concentration of 60% was of the highest water uptake capacity. These improvements can be explained by the chemical structures of the new composite films, which contain hydrogen bonding interactions between the chitosan and agarose as shown by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis and the micro-pore structures as observed with optical microscopes and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The antibacterial results demonstrated that the films with agarose mass concentrations ranging from 0% to 60% possessed antibacterial properties. These results indicate that these composite films, especially the composite film with an agarose mass concentration of 60%, exhibit excellent potential to be used in food packaging and biomedical materials.

  5. Preparation and properties of cellulose nanocrystals reinforced collagen composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weichang; Guo, Rui; Lan, Yong; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Yuanming

    2014-04-01

    Collagen films have been widely used in the field of biomedical engineering. However, the poor mechanical properties of collagen have limited its application. Here, rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were fabricated and used to reinforce collagen films. A series of collagen/CNCs films were prepared by collagen solution with CNCs suspensions homogeneously dispersed at CNCs: collagen weight ratios of 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10. The morphology of the resulting films was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the enhancement of the thermomechanical properties of the collagen/CNCs composites were demonstrated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and mechanical testing. Among the CNCs contents used, a loading of 7 wt % led to the maximum mechanical properties for the collagen/CNCs composite films. In addition, in vitro cell culture studies revealed that the CNCs have no negative effect on the cell morphology, viability, and proliferation and possess good biocompatibility. We conclude that the incorporation of CNCs is a simple and promising way to reinforce collagen films without impairing biocompatibility. This study demonstrates that the composite films show good potential for use in the field of skin tissue engineering.

  6. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF CHITOSAN/LIGNIN COMPOSITE FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Chen; Chang-yu Tang; Nan-ying Ning; Chao-yu Wang; Qiang Fu; Qin Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable composite films based on chitosan and lignin with various composition were prepared via the solution-casting technique.FT-IR results indicate the existence of hydrogen bonding between chitosan and lignin,and SEM images show that lignin could be well dispersed in chitosan when the content of lignin is below 20 wt% due to the strong interfacial interaction.As a result of strong interaction and good dispersion,the tensile strength,storage modulus,thermal degradation temperature and glass transition temperature of chitosan have been largely improved by adding lignin.Our work provides a simple and cheap way to prepare fully biodegradable chitosan/lignin composites,which could be used as packaging films or wound dressings.

  7. Preparation and characterisation of compositionally graded SmCo films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Andre; Gomez, Gabriel; Givord, Dominique; Bonfim, Marlio; Dempsey, Nora M.

    2017-05-01

    A compositionally graded SmCo film has been prepared by magnetron sputtering using a Co target partially covered by a Sm foil. The film was deposited onto a 100 mm thermally oxidised Si substrate and then annealed ex-situ. The SmCo film has been used as a test sample to validate an in-house developed scanning MOKE (Magneto-Optic Kerr effect) system incorporating a pulsed magnetic field source capable of producing fields as high as 10 T. A 2D array of hysteresis loops was measured across the entire wafer. The evolution in coercivity measured along a selected 1D strip of the sample is correlated with changes in composition and crystallographic structures measured using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The high field Scanning MOKE system holds much potential for optimizing the extrinsic properties of known hard magnetic phases as well as in the search for new hard magnetic phases.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of InAs/Si Composite Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lin; LI Guang-Hai; ZHENG Mao-Jun; ZHANG Li-De

    2000-01-01

    Composite thin films consisting of nanosized InAs particles embedded in amorphous Si matrices were prepared by radio frequency co-sputtering of InAs and Si. X-ray diffraction spectra show that the particle size of InAs increases with the increasing annealing temperature, while the particle sizes of In and As reach their maximum values at the temperature of 200℃, and decrease with the further increase of the annealing temperature. In and As can not exist in the 500℃ sample due to the sublimation of In and As and the reaction In+As→InAs. The composition of the film in different levels was analyzed. We found that only in the deep level, the mole contents of As and In conform to the stoichiometric ratio and the oxidation occurs only a few nanometers from the surface. We believe that the scarcity of In and As near the surface is due to the sublimation of In and the oxide of As.

  9. Preparation and characterization of polyimide/silica/silver composite films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning LUO; Zhanpeng WU; Nanxiang MOU; Lizhong JIANG; Dezhen WU

    2008-01-01

    Polyimide/silica/silver hybrid films were pre-pared by the sol-gel method combined with in situ single-stage self-metallization technique.The structure of polyi-mide films in the thermal curing process and the influence of silica content on the migration and aggregation of silver particles to the surface of hybrid films were investigated.The hybrid films were characterized by transmission elec-tron microscopy,dynamic mechanical thermal analysis,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,ultraviolet visible spectroscopy and mechanical measurements.The results indicated that there was no degradation of the polyimide matrix after the formation of silica and silver particles.Silica acted as the nucleus for the silver particles.With increasing silica content,more and more silver particles were kept in the hybrid films instead of being migrated onto the surface of the hybrid films and the reflections of hybrid films decreased gradually.

  10. Photoactive composite films prepared from mixtures of polystyrene microgel dispersions and poly(3-hexylthiophene) solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu; Cui, Zhengxing; Edmondson, Steve; Hodson, Nigel; Zhou, Mi; Yan, Junfeng; O'Brien, Paul; Saunders, Brian R

    2015-11-14

    Whilst polystyrene microgels belong to the oldest family of microgel particles, their behaviours when deposited onto substrates or prepared as composites have received little attention. Because polystyrene microgels are solvent-swellable, and inherently colloidally stable, they are well suited to form composites with conjugated polymers. Here, we investigate the morphology and light absorption properties of spin coated composite films prepared from mixed dispersions of polystyrene microgels and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) for the first time. We compare the morphologies of the composite films to spin coated microgel films. The films were studied using optical microscopy, SEM, AFM, wide-angle X-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectroscopy. The films contained flattened microgel particles with an aspect ratio of ∼10. Microgel islands containing hexagonally close packed particles were evident for both the pure microgel and microgel/P3HT composite films. The latter were electrically conducting. The composite film morphology was dependent on the microgel and P3HT concentration used for film preparation and a morphology phase diagram was constructed. The P3HT phase acted as an electrically conducting cement and increased the robustness of the films to solvent washing. The composite films were photoactive due to the P3HT component. The absorbance for the films was tuneable and increased linearly with both microgel and P3HT concentration. The results of the study should apply to other organic swellable microgel/conjugated polymer combinations and may lead to new colloidal composites for future optoelectronic applications.

  11. Preparation and Properties of Silver Nanowire-Based Transparent Conductive Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ji-Li; Zhang, Hua-Yu; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanowire-based transparent conductive composite films with different structures were successfully prepared using various methods, including liquid polyol, magnetron sputtering and spin coating. The experimental results revealed that the optical transmittance of all different structural composite films decreased slightly (1-3%) compared to pure films. However, the electrical conductivity of all composite films had a great improvement. Under the condition that the optical transmittance was greater than 78% over the wavelength range of 400-800 nm, the AgNW/PVA/AgNW film became a conductor, while the AZO/AgNW/AZO film and the ITO/AgNW/ITO film showed 88.9% and 94% reductions, respectively, for the sheet resistance compared with pure films. In addition, applying a suitable mechanical pressure can improve the conductivity of AgNW-based composite films.

  12. Composition, XRD and morphology study of laser prepared LiNbO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, M.; Havránek, V.; Remsa, J.; Kocourek, T.; Vincze, A.; Bruncko, J.; Studnička, V.; Rubešová, K.

    2013-03-01

    LiNbO3 films were deposited by PLD from LiNbO3 crystalline or from three different stoichiometric or Li-enriched LiNbO3 targets. Polycrystalline films were prepared on SiO2/Si or sapphire substrates at temperatures T S ˜650-750 °C. Main attention was paid to the influence of targets preparation and the deposition conditions on films composition, morphology and crystallinity. The thin-film morphology was determined by SEM microscopy. The composition was measured by SIMS, RBS, PIXE and PIGE methods. Highly oriented, smooth and stoichiometric LiNbO3 films were synthesized.

  13. Optical properties and residual stress in Nb-Si composite films prepared by magnetron cosputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chien-Jen; Porter, Glen Andrew; Jaing, Cheng-Chung; Tsai, Fang-Ming

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates Nb-Si metal composite films with various proportions of niobium in comparison to pure Nb films. Films were prepared by two-target RF-DC magnetron cosputtering deposition. The optical properties and residual stress were analyzed. A composition of Nb(0.74)Si(0.26) was chosen toward the design and fabrication of solar absorbing coatings having a high absorption in a broad wavelength range, a low residual stress, and suitable optical constants. The layer thicknesses and absorption characteristics of the Nb-Si composite films adhere more closely to the design than other coatings made of dielectric film materials.

  14. Continuous Preparation of Copper/Carbon Nanotube Composite Films and Application in Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao Gang; Le Wu, Min; Wang, Xiao Xia; Zhong, Xin Hua; Zhao, Ke; Wang, Jian Nong

    2016-02-08

    Realizing the continuous and large scale preparation of particle/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites with enhanced functionalities, and broad applications in energy conversion, harvesting, and storage systems, remains as a big challenge. Here, we report a scalable strategy to continuously prepare particle/CNT composite films in which particles are confined by CNT films. This is achieved by the continuous condensation and deposition of a cylindrical assembly of CNTs on a paper strip and the in situ incorporation of particles during the layer-by-layer deposition process. A Cu/CNT composite film is prepared as an example; such a film exhibits very high power conversion efficiency when it is used as a counter electrode in a solar cell, compared with previous materials under otherwise identical conditions. The proposed method can be extended to other CNT-based composite films with excellent functionalities for wide applications.

  15. Facile Preparation and Characterization of Poly (3-hexylthiophene)/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Thermoelectric Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Y.; Shen, S. Z.; Yang, W. D.; Chen, S.; Qin, Z.; Cai, K. F.; Casey, P. S.

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports a novel, cost-effective, scalable, and simple method for preparing poly(3-hexylthiophene)/multiwalled carbon nanotube (P3HT/MWCNT) nanocomposite films. The P3HT/MWCNT films were prepared by oxidative polymerization of 3-hexylthiophene in chloroform solution containing dispersed MWCNT. The phase composition and microstructure of the composite films were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The composite films were smooth, dense, and uniform. The thermoelectric properties of the composite films were measured at room temperature. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the films with MWCNT content of 5 wt.% were ~1.3 × 10-3 S/cm and 131.0 μV/K, respectively.

  16. Preparation of Composite Films of a Conjugated Polymer and C60NWs and Their Photovoltaic Application

    OpenAIRE

    Takatsugu Wakahara; Kun’ichi Miyazawa; Osamu Ito; Nobutaka Tanigaki

    2016-01-01

    Composite films of conjugated polymers, such as poly[2-methoxy-5-(3′,7′-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), with C60 nanowhiskers (C60NWs) were prepared. The photoluminescence originating from the conjugated MDMO-PPV polymers was effectively quenched in the composite film, indicating a strong interaction between the conjugated polymer and C60NWs. The photovoltaic devices were fabricated using C60NW (conjugated polymer) composite films, result...

  17. Preparation of Composite Films of a Conjugated Polymer and C60NWs and Their Photovoltaic Application

    OpenAIRE

    Takatsugu Wakahara; Kun’ichi Miyazawa; Osamu Ito; Nobutaka Tanigaki

    2016-01-01

    Composite films of conjugated polymers, such as poly[2-methoxy-5-(3′,7′-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), with C60 nanowhiskers (C60NWs) were prepared. The photoluminescence originating from the conjugated MDMO-PPV polymers was effectively quenched in the composite film, indicating a strong interaction between the conjugated polymer and C60NWs. The photovoltaic devices were fabricated using C60NW (conjugated polymer) composite films, result...

  18. Preparation and Properties of Functional Graphene/Thermoplastic Polyurethane Composite Film

    OpenAIRE

    ZHENG Hui-dong; OU Zhong-xing; ZHENG Yu-ying; XIAO Dong-sheng; CAO Ning-ning

    2016-01-01

    The modified graphene oxide(DD-GO) was reacted by the Didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) and graphene oxide,and then reduced via L-ascorbic acid to obtain functional graphene(DD-RGO). Functional graphene (DD-RGO)/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composite films were prepared by solution on the coating machine. The morphology and properties of DD-RGO/TPU composite films were investigated by FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM, oxygen transmission rate tester and high resistance meter. The results show tha...

  19. Composition, XRD and morphology study of laser prepared LiNbO{sub 3} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelinek, M.; Remsa, J.; Kocourek, T. [Institute of Physics ASCR v.v.i., Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Sitna, Kladno (Czech Republic); Havranek, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR, Rez near Prague (Czech Republic); Vincze, A.; Bruncko, J. [International Laser Centre, Bratislava 4 (Slovakia); Studnicka, V. [Institute of Physics ASCR v.v.i., Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Rubesova, K. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2013-03-15

    LiNbO{sub 3} films were deposited by PLD from LiNbO{sub 3} crystalline or from three different stoichiometric or Li-enriched LiNbO{sub 3} targets. Polycrystalline films were prepared on SiO{sub 2}/Si or sapphire substrates at temperatures T{sub S} {proportional_to}650-750 C. Main attention was paid to the influence of targets preparation and the deposition conditions on films composition, morphology and crystallinity. The thin-film morphology was determined by SEM microscopy. The composition was measured by SIMS, RBS, PIXE and PIGE methods. Highly oriented, smooth and stoichiometric LiNbO{sub 3} films were synthesized. (orig.)

  20. Preparation and multicolored fluorescent properties of CdTe quantum dots/polymethylmethacrylate composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yanni; Liu, Jianjun, E-mail: jjliu717@aliyun.com; Yu, Yingchun; Zuo, Shengli

    2015-10-25

    A new simple route was presented for the preparation of stable fluorescent CdTe/polymethylmethacrylate (CdTe/PMMA) composite films by using hydrophilic thioglycolic acid capped CdTe quantum dots (TGA-CdTe QDs) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as raw materials. The TGA-CdTe QDs were firstly exchanged with n-dodecanethiol (DDT) to become hydrophobic DDT-CdTe QDs via a ligand exchange strategy, and then incorporated into PMMA matrix to obtain fluorescent CdTe/PMMA composite films. The structure and optical properties of DDT-CdTe QDs and CdTe/PMMA composite films were investigated by XRD, IR, UV and PL techniques. The results indicated that the obtained DDT-CdTe QDs well preserved the intrinsic structure and the maximum emission wavelength of the initial water-soluble QDs and the resulting 6.10 wt% CdTe/PMMA composite film exhibited significantly enhanced PL intensity. Furthermore, the multicolored composite films with green, yellow-green, yellow and orange light emissions were well tuned by incorporating the CdTe QDs of various maximum emission wavelengths. The TEM image demonstrated that the CdTe QDs were well-dispersed in the PMMA matrix without aggregation. Superior photostability of QDs in the composite film was confirmed by fluorescence lifetime measurement. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of CdTe/PMMA composite films showed no obvious enhancement of thermal stability compared with pure PMMA. - Highlights: • Ligand-exchange strategy was used to render CdTe QDs oil-soluble. • CdTe QDs were incorporated into PMMA matrix to fabricate fluorescent films. • The resulting 6.10 wt% CdTe/PMMA film exhibited significantly enhanced PL intensity. • Fluorescent colors of films were tuned by varying the λ{sub em} of incorporated CdTe QDs.

  1. Properties of dry film lubricants prepared by spray application of aqueous starch-oil composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueous dispersions of starch-soybean oil (SBO) and starch-jojoba oil (JO) composites, prepared by excess steam jet cooking, form effective dry film lubricants when applied as thick coatings to metal surfaces by doctor blade. This application method necessitates long drying times, is wasteful, requ...

  2. Surface modification of bioactive glasses and preparation of PDLLA/bioactive glass composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Chang, Jiang

    2009-08-01

    In order to improve the homogeneous dispersion of particles in the polymeric matrix, 45S5, mesoporous 58S, and 58S bioactive glasses were surface modified by esterification reactions with dodecyl alcohol at reflux temperature of 260 degrees C (named as m-45S5, m-mesoporous 58S, and m-58S, respectively). The modified particles showed better hydrophobicity and longer time of suspension in organic matrix. The PDLLA/bioactive glass composite films were fabricated using surface modified bioactive glass particles through solvent casting-evaporation method. Surface morphology, mechanical property, and bioactivity were investigated. The results revealed that the inorganic particle distribution and tensile strength of the composite films with modified bioactive glass particles were significantly improved while great bioactive properties were maintained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation illustrated that the modified bioactive glass particles were homogeneously dispersed in the PDLLA matrix. The maximum tensile strengths of composite films with modified bioactive glass particles were higher than that of composite films with unmodified bioactive glass particles. The bioactivity of the composite films were evaluated by being soaked in the simulated body fluid (SBF) and the SEM observation of the films suggested that the modified composite films were still bioactive in that they could induce the formation of HAp on its surface and the distribution of HAp was even more homogeneous on the film. The results mentioned above indicated that the surface modification of bioactive glasses with dodecyl alcohol was an effective method to prepare PDLLA/bioactive glass composites with enhanced properties. By studying the comparisons of modification effects among the three types of bioactive glasses, we could get the conclusion that the size and morphology of the inorganic particles would greatly affect the modification effects and the properties of composites.

  3. PREPARATION AND CORROSION RESISTANCE OF NiP/TiO2 COMPOSITE FILM ON CARBON STEEL IN SULFURIC ACID SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Z. Song; S.Z. Song; J. Zhao

    2006-01-01

    A NiP/TiO2 composite film on carbon steel was prepared by electroless plating and sol-gel composite process. An artificial neural network was applied to optimize the prepared condition of the composite film. Corrosion behavior of the NiP/TiO2 composite film was investigated by polarization resistance measurement, anode polarization, ESEM (environmental scanning electron microscopy)and EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) measurements. Results showed that the NiP/TiO2 composite film has a good corrosion resistance in 0.5mol/L H2SO4 solution. The element valence of the composite film was characterized by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) spectrum, and an anticorrosion mechanism of the composite film was discussed.

  4. Preparation of Composite Films of a Conjugated Polymer and C60NWs and Their Photovoltaic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takatsugu Wakahara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite films of conjugated polymers, such as poly[2-methoxy-5-(3′,7′-dimethyloctyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV and poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT, with C60 nanowhiskers (C60NWs were prepared. The photoluminescence originating from the conjugated MDMO-PPV polymers was effectively quenched in the composite film, indicating a strong interaction between the conjugated polymer and C60NWs. The photovoltaic devices were fabricated using C60NW (conjugated polymer composite films, resulting in a power conversion efficiency of ~0.01% for P3HT with short length thin C60NWs, which is higher than that previously reported for thick C60 nanorods. The present study gives new guidance on the selection of the type of C60NWs and the appropriate polymer for new photovoltaic devices.

  5. ZnO micro-nano composite hydrophobic film prepared by the three-step method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kai; Li, Hua; Zhang, Han; Xu, Xiao-Liang; Gong, Mao-Gang; Yang, Zhou

    2009-05-01

    The hydrophobicity of the lotus leaf is mainly due to its surface micro-nano composite structure. In order to mimic the lotus structure, ZnO micro-nano composite hydrophobic films were prepared via the three-step method. On thin buffer films of SiO2, which were first fabricated on glass substrates by the sol-gel dip-coating method, a ZnO seed layer was deposited via RF magnetron sputtering. Then two different ZnO films, micro-nano and micro-only flower-like structures, were grown by the hydrothermal method. The prepared films have different hydrophobic properties after surface modification. The structures of the obtained ZnO films were characterized using x-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. A conclusion that a micro-nano composite structure is more beneficial to hydrophobicity than a micro-only structure was obtained through research into the effect of structure on hydrophobic properties.

  6. Composition and microstructure of beryllium carbide films prepared by thermal MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yu-dan; Luo, Jiang-shan; Li, Jia; Meng, Ling-biao; Luo, Bing-chi; Zhang, Ji-qiang; Zeng, Yong; Wu, Wei-dong, E-mail: wuweidongding@163.com

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Non-columnar-crystal Be{sub 2}C films were firstly prepared by thermal MOCVD. • Beryllium carbide was always the dominant phase in the films. • α-Be and carbon existed in films deposited below and beyond 400 °C, respectively. • Morphology evolved with temperatures and no columnar grains were characterized. • The preferred substrate temperature for depositing high quality Be{sub 2}C films was 400 °C. - Abstract: Beryllium carbide films without columnar-crystal microstructures were prepared on the Si (1 0 0) substrate by thermal metal organic chemical vapor deposition using diethylberyllium as precursor. The influence of the substrate temperature on composition and microstructure of beryllium carbide films was systematically studied. Crystalline beryllium carbide is always the dominant phase according to XRD analysis. Meanwhile, a small amount of α-Be phase exists in films when the substrate temperature is below 400 °C, and hydrocarbon or amorphous carbon exists when the temperature is beyond 400 °C. Surfaces morphology shows transition from domes to cylinders, to humps, and to tetraquetrous crystalline needles with the increase of substrate temperature. No columnar grains are characterized throughout the thickness as revealed from the cross-section views. The average densities of these films are determined to be 2.04–2.17 g/cm{sup 3}. The findings indicate the substrate temperature has great influences on the composition and microstructure of the Be{sub 2}C films grown by thermal MOCVD.

  7. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of PANI/TiO2 composite film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jinzhang; LI Shengying; YANG Wu; ZHAO Guohu; BO Lili; SONG Li

    2007-01-01

    A PANI/TiO2 composite film deposited on the glass surface was successfully prepared using sol-gel dip-coating technique and chemical oxidation method.The film was characterized using XRD, AFM,and UV.The result showed that the TiO2 film consists of both cuboid-shaped and anatase-phased TiO2 nanoparticles.The average grain size of TiO2 in the film was approximately 20 nm.After coating with PANI,the particle was changed into irregular spherical-shaped and the size was increased up to approximately 35 nm in diameter.UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis indicated that the coating of TiO2 with PANI would result in an enhancement of photocatalytic efficiency and an extension of the photoresponse of TiO2.The band gap of the PANI/TiO2 film was 3.18 eV.The photocatalytic property of the film was evaluated by the degradation of rhodamine-B.It was found that 67.1% and 83.2% of rhodamine-B could be degraded under sunlight and UV irradiation within 120 min using the PANI/TiO2 composite film as photocatalyst.

  8. Preparation and Properties of Functional Graphene/Thermoplastic Polyurethane Composite Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Hui-dong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The modified graphene oxide(DD-GO was reacted by the Didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB and graphene oxide,and then reduced via L-ascorbic acid to obtain functional graphene(DD-RGO. Functional graphene (DD-RGO/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU composite films were prepared by solution on the coating machine. The morphology and properties of DD-RGO/TPU composite films were investigated by FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM, oxygen transmission rate tester and high resistance meter. The results show that DD-RGO with fold layer structure is evenly dispersed in TPU matrix, and the thermal stability, barrier properties and antistatic properties of TPU composite film have been significantly improved. When the mass fraction of DD-RGO is 2%, compared with the pure TPU film, the oxygen transmission rate has been reduced by 50% and the volume resistivity has been increased by 7 orders of magnitude. The barrier properties and antistatic properties of composite films have been improved significantly.

  9. Preparation of sensitive and recyclable porous Ag/TiO2 composite films for SERS detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyi; Yu, Jiajie; Yang, Jingying; Lv, Xiang; Wang, Tianhe

    2015-12-01

    Porous Ag/TiO2 composite films were prepared by spin coating of titania on normal glass slides and subsequent photochemical deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The films were characterized by XRD and FESEM to reveal micro structural and morphological differences between films obtained under varied conditions. The SERS properties of these films were investigated using aqueous crystal violet (CV) as probe molecules. The results indicate that the content of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and photo-reduction time had significant influences on both the microstructure and SERS performance of Ag/TiO2 films. The highest SERS sensitivity that allowed as low as 10-10 M aqueous CV to be detected, was achieved with the PEG/(C4H9O)4Ti molar ratio being 0.08% and with 30 min of UV irradiation. With this film a linear relationship was established through experiment between SERS intensity and CV concentration from 10-10 to 10-5 M, which could be used as a calibration curve for CV concentration measurement. In addition, the film could be reused as a SERS substrate for up to four times without significantly losing SERS sensitivity if a simple regeneration was followed. It is visualized that the Ag/TiO2 film on glass has potentials for being developed into a practical SERS substrate with high sensitivity and good reusability.

  10. ZnO micro-nano composite hydrophobic film prepared by the three-step method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Kai; Li Hua; Zhang Han; Xu Xiao-Liang; Gong Mao-Gang; Yang Zhou

    2009-01-01

    The hydrophobicity of the lotus leaf is mainly due to its surface micro-nano composite structure. In order to mimic the lotus structure, ZnO micro-nano composite hydrophobic films were prcpared via the three-step method. On thin buffer films of SiO2, which were first fabricated on glass substrates by the sol gel dip-coating method, a ZnO seed layer was deposited via RF magnetron sputtering. Then two different ZnO films, micro-nano and micro-only flower-like structures, were grown by the hydrothermal method. The prepared films have different hydrophobic properties after surface modification. The structures of the obtained ZnO films were characterized using x-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. A conclusion that a micro-nano composite structure is more beneficial to hydrophobicity than a micro-only structure was obtained through research into the effect of structure on hydrophobic properties.

  11. Silica-Copper Oxide Composite Thin Films as Solar Selective Coatings Prepared by Dipping Sol Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Barrera-Calva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica-copper oxide (silica-CuO composite thin films were prepared by a dipping sol-gel route using ethanolic solutions comprised TEOS and a copper-propionate complex. Sols with different TEOS/Cu-propionate (Si/Cu molar ratios were prepared and applied on stainless steel substrates using dipping process. During the annealing process, copper-propionate complexes developed into particulate polycrystalline CuO dispersed in a partially crystallized silica matrix, as indicated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses. The gel thermal analysis revealed that the prepared material might be stable up to 400°C. The silica-CuO/stainless steel system was characterized as a selective absorber surface and its solar selectivity parameters, absorptance (α, and emittance (ε were evaluated from UV-NIR reflectance data. The solar parameters of such a system were mostly affected by the thickness and phase composition of the SiO2-CuO film. Interestingly, the best solar parameters (α = 0.92 and ε = 0.2 were associated to the thinnest films, which comprised a CuO-Cu2O mixture immersed in the silica matrix, as indicated by XPS.

  12. Preparation and optical properties of composite thin films with embedded InP nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    InP nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 thin films were prepared by radio-frequency magnetron co-sputtering. We analyzed the structure and growth behavior of the composite films under different preparation conditions. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy analyses indicate that InP nanoparticles have a polycrystalline structure. The aver-age size of InP nanoparticles is in the range of 3-10 nm. The broadening and red shift of the Raman peaks were observed,which can be interpreted by the phonon confinement model. Optical transmission spectra indicate that the optical absorp-tion edges of the films can be modulated in the visible light range. The marked blue shift of the absorption edge with respect to that of bulk InP is explained by the quantum con-finement effect. The theoretical values of the blue shift pre-dicted by the effective mass approximation model are differ-ent from the experimental results for the InP-SiO2 system. Analyses indicate that the exciton effective mass of the InP nanoparticles is not constant and is inverse relative to the particles radius,which may be the main reason that results in the discrepancy between the theoretical and the experi-mental result. We discussed the possible transition of the direct band gap to the indirect band gap for InP nanoparti-cles embedded in SiO2 thin films.

  13. Preparation and Thermal Analysis of Ferric Doped PVA-PVP-PPy Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ravikumar V.; Ranganath, M. R.; Lobo, Blaise

    2011-12-01

    The preparation and thermal analysis of flexible blend films of pyrrole (Py) polymerized in aqueous solution of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) is described. In-situ polymerization of pyrrole in aqueous solution of PVA and PVP containing ferric chloride (FeCl3) was achieved through vapor sorption, and the films obtained were studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). No melting endotherm is seen in the DSC and DTA scans of the composite films, indicating that the sample is amorphous. Degradation of the sample is found to occur at lower temperatures, with increase in doping level (wt% of FeCl3). DSC study was performed between 40 °C and 400 °C. Below 1.2 wt % DL, degradation of the sample occurs in two stages, the first at 310 °C and the second at 440 °C, as seen from DTA and TGA scans. The broad endotherm between 80 °C and 120 °C is due to volatization of moisture (water) absorbed by the sample. Multiple endotherms are observed in DSC and DTA scans of the composite films, for FeCl3 doping levels above 3.8 wt %, and the sample degrades in many different stages at lower temperature, with increase in doping level, as revealed by weight losses in the TGA curve.

  14. Preparation and photoelectrochemical performance of TiO2/Ag2Se interface composite film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Coupling TiO2 with a narrow band gap semiconductor acting as the photosensitizer has attracted much attention in solar energy exploitation. In this work,the porous TiO2 film was first formed on the conducting glass plate (CGP) substrate by the decomposition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixing in titanium hydroxide sol at 450℃. Then,the TiO2/Ag2Se interface composite film was fabricated by interface reaction of AgNO3 with NaSeSO3 on the activated surface of porous TiO2 film. The results of SEM and XRD analyses indicated that the porous TiO2 layer was made up of the anatase crystal,and the Ag2Se layer was made up of congregative small particles that have low-temperature α-phase structure. Due to its efficient charge separation for the photo-induced electron-hole pairs,the TiO2/Ag2Se interface composite film as-prepared has good photovoltaic property and high photocurrent response for visible light,which have been confirmed by the photoelectrochemical measurements.

  15. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of composite films containing clustered TiO2 particles and mineral tourmaline powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Jin-sheng; MENG Jun-ping; LIANG Guang-chuan; FENG Yan-wen; DING Yan

    2006-01-01

    The novel composite films containing clustered TiO2 particles and fine tourmaline particles on the surface of copper webs were prepared by the sol-gel method. The microstructures of the composite films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),and the photocatalytic activity of the films was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange,respectively. The results indicate that tourmaline particles can obviously influence the microstructures of TiO2 films and enhance the photocatalytic activity due to their spontaneous permanent polarity and high radiotechnology of far infrared. During preparing the composite films,the clustered TiO2 particles with lots of nano-sized ladder layers can grow on the surface of fine tourmaline particles,the thickness of ladder layer is 10 nm,and the average diameter of nano-sized TiO2 particles is 15 nm.

  16. Sheet resistances of composite films prepared from chemically-reduced graphite oxides and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Weontae; Kim, Daehan; Jeong, Euh Duck; Bae, Jong-Seong

    2013-12-01

    Graphite oxides (GOs) were spray-coated on a glass substrate to prepare the GO film, and the film was soaked in a HI aqueous solution to make a chemically-reduced GO (rGO) film. The rGOs were successfully prepared by using a chemical reduction of as-made GOs, but their surfaces were seriously damaged during the chemical treatments. The Sheet resistances of rGO and rGO/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) films were characterized as functions of the film's thickness and the number of MWNTs added to the rGO films.

  17. Composite films based on biorelated agro-industrial waste and poly(vinyl alcohol). Preparation and mechanical properties characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiellini, E; Cinelli, P; Imam, S H; Mao, L

    2001-01-01

    As a part of an ongoing project on the production of composite materials based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polymeric materials from renewable resources, the present paper reports on the incorporation of agricultural waste materials as organic fillers in a film matrix based on PVA as continuous phase. In this study lignocellulosic fibers byproducts, derived from sugar cane (SC) and apple (AP) and orange (OR) fruit juice extraction, were cast from PVA aqueous solutions. The effect of fiber type and composition on the relative properties of cast films was evaluated and compared. OR resulted to be suitable for blending in higher amounts by weight than SC and AP. Glycerol and urea were added as plasticizing agents and were observed to be effective in giving flexible films. Additionally, cornstarch was added to further increase the composition of polymers from renewable resources in cost-effective and ecoefficient composite film formulations. The prepared films resulted sensitive to moisture and water. To reduce water sensitivity, hexamethoxymethylmelamine (HMMM) was tested as a cross-linking agent for the present composite formulations. Cross-linked films exhibited significant improvement in water-resistance that can be taken as a tuneable structural feature for customized applications. The mechanical properties of the prepared composite films (elongation at break, tensile strength, Young modulus) were found to be dependent upon the nature and content of the filler and on environmental conditions.

  18. Preparation and properties of biodegradable films from Sterculia urens short fiber/celluose green composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jayaramudu, J

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available of the composites films is discussed. This paper presents the developments made in the area of biodegradable S. urens short fiber/cellulose (SUSF/cellulose) composite films, buried in the soil and later investigated by the (POM), before and after biodegradation has...

  19. PZT/P(VDF-HFP) 0-3 composites as solvent-cast thin films: preparation, structure and piezoelectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, Michael; Arlt, Kristin [Functional Polymer Systems, Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research (IAP), Geiselbergstrasse 69, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)], E-mail: michael.wegener@iap.fraunhofer.de

    2008-08-21

    Composite films of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) were prepared as 100 {mu}m thin films by solvent casting. Within the 0-3 composites, the ceramic-volume fraction was varied between 0.19 and 0.65, which yielded films with different structural and dielectric properties. These influenced the piezoelectric properties of the composite films found after electric poling, which was performed here at room temperature. The piezoelectric activity, with a maximum piezoelectric coefficient of 11 pC N{sup -1} in the film-thickness direction, originates from the polarization of the embedded ceramic particles as proved by poling experiments in corona discharges as well as in direct contact.

  20. Electrochemical preparation and electrochemical behavior of polypyrrole/carbon nanotube composite films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-tong ZHANG; Wen-hui SONG

    2009-01-01

    Polypyirole/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) composite fihns were electrochemically depos-ited in the presence of an ionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), acting as both supporting electrolyte and dispersant. The effects of the surfactant and the MWNT concentrations on the structure at the resulting composite films were investigated. The electrochemical behavior of the resulting polypyrrole/MWNT composite film was investigated aS well bv cyclic voltammogram. The effect of the additional alternating electric field applied during the constant direct potential electrochemical deposition on the morphology and electrochemical behavior of the resulting composite film was also investigated in this study.

  1. PREPARATION,CHARACTERIZATION AND ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYPYRROLE-POLYSTYRENE SULFONIC ACID COMPOSITE FILM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-ti Qu; Gao-quan Shi; Chen Liu; Jin-ying Yuan; Wen-bin Qian

    2005-01-01

    Polypyrrole-polystyrene sulfonic acid (PPy-PSSA) composite films have been electrosynthesized in an aqueous solution of PSSA. The electro-active films exhibit cation exchange during the redox process. Infrared, Raman and energydispersive spectroscopic results demonstrated that the polyanion of PSS- is co-deposited into the PPy matrix and couldn't be stripped from the film extensively by dedoping. The doping level together with dipolaron content of the PPy-PSSA composite film increases during electrochemical polymerization process. SEM images revealed that the composite film has smooth and compact morphology and AFM pictures suggested that PPy chains are possibly grown perpendicular to the electrode surface. TGA tests indicated that the composite films has much better thermal stability than that of pure PPy.Furthermore, electrochemical studies showed that the relaxation process at certain holding potential has great effect on the shape of the cyclic voltammetric curves of PPy-PSSA composite film. The composite film exhibits cation and anion exchange during the redox process after undergoing the relaxation step. It is more difficult for divalent anion to enter the polymer matrix than a univalent ion, and a large cation such as (CH3CH2CH2CH2)4N+ cannot be involved in the ion exchange process.

  2. Electrically Conducting Polymer-Copper Sulphide Composite Films, Preparation by Treatment of Polymer-Copper (2) Acetate Composites with Hydrogen Sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takakazu; Kamigaki, Takahira; Kubota, Etsuo

    1988-01-01

    Polymer copper sulfide composite films were prepared by treatment of polymer poly(vinyl chloride), poly(acrylonitrile), copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate (90:10), and ABS resin copper (2) acetate composites with hydrogen sulfide. The films showed electrical conductivity higher than 0.015 S/cm when they contained more than 20 wt percent of copper sulfide. A poly(acrylonitrile)-copper sulfide composite film containing 40 to 50 wt percent of copper sulfide showed electrical conductivity of 10 to 150.0 S/cm and had relatively high mechanical strength to be used in practical purposes.

  3. Preparation and characterization of CoFe2O4/TiO2 magnetic composite films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    CoFe2O4/TiO2 magnetic composite films were prepared using the sol-gel method with tetrabutyltitanate and metallic chlorates as starting materials. The effects of heat treatment temperatures on micro- structures and on magnetic properties were studied. The microstructure and properties of the samples at different heat treatment temperatures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, polarized microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results show that crystals of different substances grow up independently. Cobalt ferrite is evenly embedded into the titanium dioxide matrix in the prepared composite films. The magnetism of the composite films is enhanced with an increase of the heat temperature.

  4. Preparation and characterization of keratin and chicken egg white-templated luminescent Au cluster composite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yao; Liu, Hongling; Yu, Weidong

    2016-02-01

    The characterization of keratin-chicken egg white-templated luminescent Au cluster composite films were studied using fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to demonstrate and quantify the secondary transformation of composite films. The results showed that the secondary structure of treated films was transformed from disordered structure to ordered conformation including α-helix conformation and β-pleated-sheet conformation due to the increase of protein-templated luminescent Au cluster. The absorption features of treated films were exhibited by the UV-vis spectra. The bule-shift and decreased intensity indicated the change of microenvironment due to the concentration of protein-templated luminescent Au cluster. The transmission electron microscopy images of composite films supported the aggregation resulting from microenvironment. The effect of protein-templated luminescent Au cluster was characterized by the laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) images which showed the gradually intensive luminescence with increasing Au cluster and the transformation from the whiskers to nanoparticle.

  5. Photoluminescence properties of ZnSe/SiO2 composite thin films prepared by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hai-qing; CHE Jun; YAO Xi

    2006-01-01

    ZnSe/SiO2 composite thin films was prepared by sol-gel method. XRD results indicate the phase structure of ZnSe particles embedded in ZnSe/SiO2 composite thin films is sphalerite (cubic ZnS). Spectroscopic ellipsometers were used to investigated the dependences of ellipsometric angle with wavelength of ZnSe/SiO2 composite thin films. The optical constant,thickness,porosity and the concentration of ZnSe of ZnSe/SiO2 thin composite films were fitted according to Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory. The thickness of ZnSe/SiO2 composite thin thin films was also measured through surface profile. The photoluminescence properties of ZnSe/SiO2 thin composite thin films was investigated through fluorescence spectrometer. The photoluminescence results show that the emission peak at 487 nm (2.5 eV) is excited at 395 nm corresponds to the band-to-band emission of sphalerite ZnSe crystal(2.58 eV). The strength free exciton emission and other emission peaks correlating to ZnSe lattice defect were also observed.

  6. Preparation and properties of biodegradable films from Sterculia urens short fiber/cellulose green composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaramudu, J; Reddy, G Siva Mohan; Varaprasad, K; Sadiku, E R; Sinha Ray, S; Varada Rajulu, A

    2013-04-02

    The development of commercially viable "green products", based on natural resources for the matrices and reinforcements, in a wide range of applications, is on the rise. The present paper focuses on Sterculia urens short fiber reinforced pure cellulose matrix composite films. The morphologies of the untreated and 5% NaOH (alkali) treated S. urens fibers were observed by SEM. The effect of 5% NaOH treated S. urens fiber (5, 10, 15 and 20% loading) on the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the composites films is discussed. This paper presents the developments made in the area of biodegradable S. urens short fiber/cellulose (SUSF/cellulose) composite films, buried in the soil and later investigated by the (POM), before and after biodegradation has taken place. SUSF/cellulose composite films have great potential in food packaging and for medical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The preparation, characterization and evaluation of regenerated cellulose/collagen composite hydrogel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yongmei; Lu, Jinting; Liu, Shilin; Zhao, Peng; Lu, Guozhong; Chen, Jinghua

    2014-07-17

    Porous structured regenerated cellulose films were oxidized by periodate oxidation to obtain 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose (DARC) films, which were then reacted with collagen to obtain DARC/Col composite films. The subsequent FT-IR spectra indicated that collagen was immobilized on the DARC matrix via the Schiff base reaction between NH2 in collagen and CHO in DARC backbone. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that DARC/Col exhibited a refined 3D network structure and its porosity and pore size decreased with increasing of collagen concentration. The composite films demonstrated a good equilibrium-swelling ratio, air permeability and water retention properties. The composite films also showed excellent mechanical properties, which was vital for practical application. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the composite film was evaluated using NIH3T3 mice fibroblast cells, the results revealed that DARC/Col composite films have good biocompatibility for use as scaffold material in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrically conductive properties of Ag/Si composite nanoparticle assembled films prepared with a plasma-gas-condensation cluster source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Yuichiro; Hihara, Takehiko

    2014-11-01

    Ag1-x/Six composite nanoparticle assembled films were prepared using a plasma-gas-condensation cluster beam deposition apparatus. The electrical conductivity σ and Hall coefficient |RH| of Ag1-x/Six nanoparticle assembled films obey a power law of the volume fraction of Ag pAg. The marked change at around pAg = pc indicates that the percolation of Ag nanoparticles takes place at the threshold value pc. Moreover, we found that the |RH| at T = 5 K of the Ag1-x/Six nanoparticle assembled film with the closest pAg to pc is 20 times higher than that of the bulk Ag.

  9. Stretchable conducting gold films prepared with composite MWNT/PDMS substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, M. U.; Lemoine, P.; Dixon, D.; Hamilton, J. W. J.; Maguire, P. D.

    2015-10-01

    Novel stretchable conducting films were prepared by depositing gold layers onto polymer nano-composites substrates formed by in-situ crosslinking of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in the presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT). The MWNT content interferes with the PDMS cure reaction giving variations in thermal degradation, solvent swelling, mechanical and electrical properties. Tensile cycling experiments were carried out on the gold-coated PDMS and nano-composite substrates SEM analysis and electrical measurements demonstrated that the crack widening and increased electrical resistance observed during strain cycling were reversible. The inclusion of 8 % MWNT into PDMS brought more micro-cracking in the gold layer yet reduced the electrical resistance of the gold-coated samples by 172X at 5 % strain, 38X at 10 % strain and 19X at 20 %. Hence, this improvement in conduction is attributed to assisted-conduction through the MWNT loaded substrate. This mechanism results in a more stable and reproducible electrical behaviour, making electrical conduction less critically dependent on defects in the gold layer.

  10. Building up Graphene-Based Conductive Polymer Composite Thin Films Using Reduced Graphene Oxide Prepared by γ-Ray Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyuan Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, reduced graphene oxide (RGO was prepared by means of γ-ray irradiation of graphene oxide (GO in a water/ethanol mix solution, and we investigated the influence of reaction parameters, including ethanol concentration, absorbed dose, and dose rate during the irradiation. Due to the good dispersibility of the RGO in the mix solution, we built up flexible and conductive composite films based on the RGO and polymeric matrix through facile vacuum filtration and polymer coating. The electrical and optical properties of the obtained composite films were tested, showing good electrical conductivity with visible transmittance but strong ultraviolet absorbance.

  11. Facile preparation of ion-imprinted composite film for selective electrochemical removal of nickel(II) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiao; Zhang, Hao; Hao, Xiaogang; Guan, Guoqing; Abudula, Abuliti

    2014-06-25

    A facile unipolar pulse electropolymerization (UPEP) technique is successfully applied for the preparation of ion-imprinted composite film composed of ferricyanide-embedded conductive polypyrrole (FCN/PPy) for the selective electrochemical removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater. The imprinted heavy metal ions are found to be easily removed in situ from the growing film only by tactfully applying potential oscillation due to the unstable coordination of FCN to the imprinted ions. The obtained Ni(2+) ion-imprinted FCN/PPy composite film shows fast uptake/release ability for the removal of Ni(2+) ions from aqueous solution, and the adsorption equilibrium time is less than 50 s. The ion exchange capacity reaches 1.298 mmol g(-1) and retains 93.5% of its initial value even after 1000 uptake/release cycles. Separation factors of 6.3, 5.6, and 6.2 for Ni(2+)/Ca(2+), Ni(2+)/K(+), and Ni(2+)/Na(+), respectively, are obtained. These characteristics are attributed to the high identification capability of the ion-imprinted composite film for the target ions and the dual driving forces resulting from both PPy and FCN during the redox process. It is expected that the present method can be used for simple preparation of other ion-imprinted composite films for the separation and recovery of target heavy metal ions as well.

  12. Preparation of conductive PDDA/(PEDOT:PSS) multilayer thin film: influence of polyelectrolyte solution composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurin, F E; Buron, C C; Martin, N; Filiâtre, C

    2014-10-01

    Self-assembled multilayer films made of PEDOT:PSS poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) and PDDA poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) were prepared using layer-by-layer method. In order to modify the growth regime of the multilayer, to fabricate an electrical conductive film and to control its thickness, the effects of pH, type of electrolyte, ionic strength and polyelectrolyte concentration were investigated. Optical reflectometry measurements show that the pH of the solutions has no effect on the film growth while the adsorbed amount increases more rapidly when BaCl2 is used instead of NaCl as electrolyte. An increase in the ionic strength (with NaCl) induces a change in the growth regime from a linear to an exponential one at low polyelectrolyte concentration. As UV-vis measurements indicate, no decomplexation of PEDOT was recorded after film preparation. With polyelectrolyte concentration below 1 g L(-1), no conductive films were obtained even if 50 bilayers were deposited. A conductive film was prepared with a polyelectrolyte concentration of 1 g L(-1) and the measured conductivity was 0.3 S m(-1). A slight increase in conductivity was recorded when BaCl2 was used probably due to a modification of the film structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Two-step preparation of laser-textured Ni/FTO bilayer composite films with high photoelectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bao-jia, E-mail: li_bjia@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Science and Technology of Photon Manufacturing, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Huang, Li-jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Science and Technology of Photon Manufacturing, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Ren, Nai-fei [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Science and Technology of Photon Manufacturing, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Kong, Xia; Cai, Yun-long; Zhang, Jie-lu [Jiangsu Tailong Reduction Box Co. Ltd, Taixing 225400 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A two-step strategy was proposed to prepare laser-textured Ni/FTO composite films. • Ni/FTO film with a 10-nm-thick Ni layer (Ni{sub 10}/FTO film) had the best performance. • The Ni{sub 10}/FTO film underwent magnetic-field-assisted and -free laser irradiations. • All the magnetic laser-irradiated (MLI-NF) films were textured and annealed. • The MLI-NF film using a fluence of 1.0 J/cm{sup 2} showed the highest figure of merit. - Abstract: A two-step strategy, i.e. sputtering Ni layers on FTO glass combined with magnetic-field-assisted laser irradiation, was proposed to prepare laser-textured Ni/FTO bilayer composite films. By analyzing surface morphology, crystal structure and photoelectric properties of Ni/FTO films with different Ni layer thicknesses, the Ni/FTO film with a 10-nm-thick Ni layer (Ni{sub 10}/FTO film), which had the best overall photoelectric property, was chosen to undergo magnetic-field-assisted laser irradiation with different laser fluences. Magnetic-field-free laser irradiation of the Ni{sub 10}/FTO film was also carried out for comparison purpose. It was found that magnetic-field-assisted laser irradiation using a fluence of 1.0 J/cm{sup 2} was more effective for simultaneously achieving texturing and annealing, resulting in formation of ideal grating textures and significantly increased grain size. The corresponding film (MLI-NF1.0 film) showed the highest figure of merit of 22.8 × 10{sup −3} Ω{sup −1} compared to 13.1 × 10{sup −3} Ω{sup −1} of the FTO glass and 1.4 × 10{sup −3} Ω{sup −1} of the Ni{sub 10}/FTO film, suggesting that the two-step strategy is excellent for preparing textured Ni/FTO films with high photoelectric properties.

  14. Preparation and photochromism of Keggin-type molybdphosphoric acid/silica mesoporous composite thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG XueAo; WU WenJian; MAN YaHui; TIAN Tian; TIAN XiaoZhou; WANG JianFang

    2007-01-01

    Using tetraethoxysilane and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as the silica sources, amino-functionalized organic/inorganic hybrid mesoporous silica thin films with 2-dimensional hexagonal structure have been synthesized by evaporation induced self-assembly process in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide templates under acid conditions. The Keggin-type molybdphosphoric acid (PMo) is incorporated into the mesoporous silica thin films with amino-groups by wetness impregnation, and the PMo/silica mesoporous composite thin films are obtained. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD),high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)spectra indicate the PMo molecules maintain Keggin structure and are homogeneously distributed inside mesopores. The composite thin films possess excellent reversible photochromic properties, and change from colorless to blue under ultraviolet irradiation. The photochromic mechanism of the composite thin films is studied by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), electron spin resonance (ESR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra. It is shown that intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) and ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) are the main reasons of photochromism. PMo anions interact strongly with amino-groups of the mesoporous suface via hydrogen bond and electrostatic force. After ultraviolet irradiation, the charge transfer occurs by reduction of heteropolyanions accompanying the formation of heteropolyblues with multivalence Mo(Ⅵ, Ⅴ), and the bleaching process of composite thin films is closely related to the presence of oxygen.

  15. Preparation and photochromism of Keggin-type molybdphosphoric acid/silica mesoporous composite thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using tetraethoxysilane and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as the silica sources, amino-functionalized organic/inorganic hybrid mesoporous silica thin films with 2-dimensional hexagonal structure have been synthesized by evaporation induced self-assembly process in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide templates under acid conditions. The Keggin-type molybdphosphoric acid (PMo) is incorporated into the mesoporous silica thin films with amino-groups by wetness impregnation, and the PMo/silica mesoporous composite thin films are obtained. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra indicate the PMo molecules maintain Keggin structure and are homogeneously distributed inside mesopores. The composite thin films possess excellent reversible photochromic properties, and change from colorless to blue under ultraviolet irradiation. The photochromic mechanism of the composite thin films is studied by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), electron spin resonance (ESR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra. It is shown that intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) and ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) are the main reasons of photochromism. PMo anions interact strongly with amino-groups of the mesoporous suface via hydrogen bond and electrostatic force. After ultraviolet irradiation, the charge transfer occurs by reduction of heteropolyanions accompanying the formation of heteropolyblues with multivalence Mo(VI, V), and the bleaching process of composite thin films is closely related to the presence of oxygen.

  16. Preparation of the flexible ZrO{sub 2}/C composite nanofibrous film via electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Xin; Song, Lixin; Xie, Xueyao; Zhou, Yangyang; Guan, Yingli; Xiong, Jie [Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, College of Materials and Textiles, Hangzhou (China); Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, Hangzhou (China)

    2016-07-15

    The flexible ZrO{sub 2}/C composite nanofibrous film was fabricated by electrospinning and thermal treatment. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer, and Fourier transform infrared spectra were used to characterize the morphology and microstructure of the ZrO{sub 2}/C composite nanofibrous film. The ZrO{sub 2}/C nanofibers exhibited rough surface and had the average diameter of about 230 ± 35 nm. And the ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles were incorporated in carbon matrix and in tetragonal and monoclinic. The flexural property of the ZrO{sub 2}/C composite nanofibrous film was investigated in detail. The results showed that the flexural property of the nanofibrous film was greatly improved with addition of the ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Besides, with the increase of the contents of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles, the flexural modulus of the nanofibrous film decreased, reached a lowest value, and then increased. The lowest flexural modulus of the ZrO{sub 2}/C composite nanofibrous film in precursor concentration of 7.0 wt% was 8.55 ± 0.06 MPa. (orig.)

  17. Preparation and properties of self-reinforced cellulose composite films from Agave microfibrils using an ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Obi; Zhang, Jinming; Zhang, Jun; Rajulu, A Varada

    2014-12-19

    The applications of natural fibers and their microfibrils are increasing rapidly due to their environment benefits, specific strength properties and renewability. In the present work, we successfully extracted cellulose microfibrils from Agave natural fibers by chemical method. The extracted microfibrils were characterized by chemical analysis. The cellulose microfibrils were found to dissolve in an ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) to larger extent along with little quantity of undissolved microfibrils. Using this solution, the self-reinforced regenerated cellulose composite films were prepared. The raw fiber, extracted cellulose microfibrils and regenerated cellulose composite films were characterized by FTIR, (13)C CP-MAS NMR, XRD, TGA and SEM techniques. The average tensile strength, modulus and elongation at break of the self-reinforced cellulose composite films were found to be 135 MPa, 8150 MPa and 3.2%, respectively. The high values of tensile strength and modulus were attributed to the self-reinforcement of Agave fibers in their generated matrix. These self-reinforced cellulose biodegradable composite films prepared from renewable source can find applications in packaging field.

  18. Electron-Induced Secondary Electron Emission Properties of MgO/Au Composite Thin Film Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Hu, Wenbo; Wei, Qiang; Wu, Shengli; Hua, Xing; Zhang, Jintao

    2016-12-01

    As a type of electron-induced secondary electron emitter, MgO/Au composite thin film was prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering of individual Mg target and Au target, and the effects of key process parameters on its surface morphology and secondary electron emission (SEE) properties were investigated. It is found that to deposit a NiO buffer layer on the substrate is conducive to the subsequent growth of MgO grains owing to the lattice matching. The gold addition can raise the electrical conductivity of MgO film and further suppress the surface charging. However, the gold deposition would interfere with the MgO crystallization and increase the surface roughness of MgO/Au film. Therefore, MgO/Au composite thin film with a NiO buffer layer and proper deposition times of MgO and Au can achieve superior SEE properties due to good MgO crystallization, low surface roughness and reasonable electrical conductivity. The optimized MgO/Au composite thin film has a higher SEE coefficient and a lower 1-h SEE degradation rate under electron beam bombardment in comparison with MgO film.

  19. Organic-inorganic Hybrids Towards the Preparation of Nanoporous Composite Thin Films for Microelectronic Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon containing materials have traditionally been used in microelectronic fabrication. Semiconductor devices often have one or more arrays of patterned interconnect levels that serve to electrically couple the individual circuit elements forming an integrated circuit. These interconnect levels are typically separated by an insulating or dielectric film. Previously, a silicon oxide film was the most commonly used material for such dielectric films having dielectric constants(k) near 4. 0. However, as the feature size is continuously scaling down, the relatively high k of such silicon oxide films became inadequate to provide efficient electrical insulation. As such, there has been an increasing market demand for materials with even lower dielectric constant for Interlayer Dielectric (ILD) applications, yet retaining thermal and mechanical integrity. We wish to report here our investigations on the preparation of ultra-low k ILD materials using a sacrificial approach whereby organic groups are burnt out to generate low k porous ORMOSIL films. We have been able to prepare a variety of organically modified silicone resins leading to highly microporous thin films, exhibiting ultra-low k from 1.80 to 2.87, and good to high modulus, 1.5 to 5.5 Gpa. Structure property influences on porosity, dielectric constant and modulus will be discussed.

  20. The Preparation of Cellulose/Collagen Composite Films using 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Acetate as a Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose/collagen composite films with weight ratios of 30/1 (Blend-1 and 10/1 (Blend-2 were prepared using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate as a common solvent. The morphology of the films observed with a field-emission scanning electron microscope displayed a dependence on the ratio of cellulose/collagen. Collagen was successfully composited with cellulose without degradation and showed a denaturation temperature (Td higher than that of native collagen. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that there were hydrogen-bond interactions between collagen and cellulose in the regenerated composite films. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the maximum decomposition temperature (Tmax of cellulose decreased after regeneration, while the Tmax of Blend-1 increased; however, it was reduced again for Blend-2. Elastic moduli from dynamic mechanical analysis exhibited a trend similar to that of Tmax. As indicated by X-ray diffraction, the distance between cellulose molecular chains was shortened for Blend-1 and elongated for Blend-2. Furthermore, the crystallization indices were calculated to be 75.3%, 68.3%, 66.2%, and 55.4% for native cellulose, regenerated films of cellulose, Blend-1, and Blend-2, respectively. These results confirm the dependence of the structural properties of composite films on cellulose/collagen ratios through the interactions between cellulose and collagen.

  1. Investigation of the preparation and properties of organic dye/metal oxide composite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Steffen; Neumann, F.; Klages, Claus-Peter

    1994-11-01

    In this study the growth, structure and physical, particularly optical properties of composite thin films (copper-phthalocyanine-SiO2) with different dye contents are investigated by means of optical spectroscopy (UV-IR), electron probe micro analysis, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements and compared with the properties of pure dye thin films of different thicknesses and dye/metal oxide multilayer structures, respectively. The composite thin films show spectral shifts and changes in the extension and the intensity of the typical absorption bands in the visible spectral range depending on the dye concentration in the composites. This behavior is accompanied by pronounced color changes, e.g. from blue-green to green in the CuPc-SiO2 system. The results show, that the CuPc- SiO2 composite properties are mainly influenced by the size and kind of dye aggregates in the films (monomer, dimer) and not by interaction of dye molecules with the metal oxide matrix.

  2. ARTICLES: Preparation and Characterization of Nanostructured Ni-TiN Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Cai, Chao; Ma, Shi-liang; Cao, Fa-he; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Jian-qing

    2010-06-01

    Ni-TiN nanocomposite films were produced from a Ni plating bath containing TiN nanoparticles by using dc electroplating method. The structure and surface morphology of Ni-TiN composite coatings were analyzed by atom force microscope, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Meanwhile, the anti-corrosion properties, hardness and thermostability of Ni-TiN nanocomposite films were also investigated and compared with the traditional polycrystalline Ni coatings. The results show that, compared with the traditional polycrystalline Ni film, Ni-TiN nanocomposite coatings display much better corrosion resistance, higher film hardness, and thermal stability. In addition, the hardness of Ni-TiN nanocomposite coatings decreases slightly with the increase of electroplating current density, which may be due to the synergism of hydrogen evolution and faster nucleation/growth rate of nickel crystallites.

  3. Preparation, characterization and electrochromic properties of composite thin films incorporation of polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farasat, Mahshid; Golzan, M. Maqsood; Farhadi, Khalil; Shojaei, S. H. Reza; Gheisvandi, Sorayya

    2016-05-01

    Two different electrochromic composite films consisting of aniline/sodium molybdate (S1) and aniline/ferric nitrate (S2) were obtained by electrochemical polymerization method on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates in oxalic acid (H2C2O4ṡ2H2O) aqueous solution. The electrochromic properties of the resulting thin films were investigated by spectroelectrochemical measurement and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Under a square electrical potential, they show capacitive current characteristic and represent electrochromic performance, with maximum optical attenuations (ΔT%) of 30.8% at 355nm and 28.3% at 400nm for aniline/ferric nitrate and aniline/sodium molybdate thin films, respectively. Optical behavior of thin films was examined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry technique. The doped films indicated multiple color changes (yellow; green; and bluish green). The spectra also showed that produced layers have high absorption of UV radiation with respect to pure polyaniline (PANI) films. The optical band gap energy of PANI film decreased by dopant injection. Due to their decent transparency and electrochromic behavior, they are promising materials for electrochromic devices.

  4. Two kinds of composite films: Graphene oxide/carbon nanotube film and graphene oxide/activated carbon film via a self-assemble preparation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li-feng; Ma, Nan; Sun, Mei; Ji, Tian-hao

    2014-11-01

    Two kinds of free-standing composite films, including graphene oxide and activated carbon film as well as graphene oxide and carbon nanotube film, were fabricated through a simple suspension mixing and then natural deposition process. The films were characterized by various measurement techniques in detail. The results show that the composite films without any treatment almost still remain the original properties of the corresponding precursors, and exhibit loose structure, which can be easily broken in water; whereas after treated at 200 °C in air, the films become relatively more dense, and even if immersed into concentrated strong alkali or acid for five days, they still keep the film-morphologies, but regretfully, they show obvious brittleness and slight hydrophilicity. As soon as the treated films are performed in high concentrated strong alkali for about one day, their brittleness and wettability can be improved and became good flexibility and complete hydrophilicity.

  5. Composition and crystalline properties of TiNi thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition under vacuum and in ambient Ar gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jeong Ok; Nam, Tae Hyun; Alghusun, Mohammad; Ahn, Jeung Sun

    2012-01-05

    TiNi shape memory alloy thin films were deposited using the pulsed laser deposition under vacuum and in an ambient Ar gas. Our main purpose is to investigate the influences of ambient Ar gas on the composition and the crystallization temperature of TiNi thin films. The deposited films were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, a surface profiler, and X-ray diffraction at room temperature. In the case of TiNi thin films deposited in an ambient Ar gas, the compositions of the films were found to be very close to the composition of target when the substrate was placed at the shock front. The in-situ crystallization temperature (ca. 400°C) of the TiNi film prepared at the shock front in an ambient Ar gas was found to be lowered by ca. 100°C in comparison with that of a TiNi film prepared under vacuum.

  6. Compositional Dependence of Structural Properties of Prepared PbS1− Alloys and Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. A. Alias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of a study of PbS1− alloys and films with various Pb content have been reported and discussed. Films of PbS1− of thickness 1.5 μm have been deposited on glass substrates by flash thermal evaporation method at room temperature, under vacuum at constant deposition rate. These films were annealed under vacuum around 10−6 Torr at different temperatures up to 523 K. The composition of the elements in PbS1− alloys was determined by standard surfaces techniques such as atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and X-ray fluorescence (XRF, and the results were found of high accuracy and in very good agreement with the theoretical values. The structure for alloys and films is determined by using X-ray diffraction. This measurement reveals that the structure is polycrystalline with cubic structure and there are strong peaks at the direction (200 and (111. The effect of heat treatment on the crystalline orientation, relative intensity, and grain size of PbS1− films is presented.

  7. Preparation and dielectric properties of compositionally graded (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin film by sol-gel technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tian-jin; WANG Jun; ZHANG Bai-shun; WANG Jin-zhao; WAN Neng; HU Lan

    2006-01-01

    Compositional graded BaxSr1-xTiO3 (x=0.6,0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0) (BST) thin films (less than 400 nm) were fabricated on Si and Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by sol-gel technique. A special heating treatment was employed to form the uniform composition gradients at 700 ℃. The microstructures of the films were studied by means of X-ray diffraction,atomic force microscope and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the films have uniform and crack-free surface morphology with perovskite structure phase. The small signal dielectric constant (εr) and dielectric loss (tanδ) are found to be 335 and 0.045 at room temperature and 200 kHz. The dielectric properties change significantly with applied dc bias,and the graded thin film show high tunability of 42.3% at an applied field of 250 kV/cm. All the results indicate that the graded BST thin films prepared by sol-gel technique have a promising candidate for microelectronic device.

  8. Preparation and tribological properties of Sol-Gel TiO2-ZrO2 composite thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    High oriented TiO2-ZrO2 composite thin films on Si (100) and glass sheet were suc-cessfully prepared by sol-gel process followed by dip-coating the ethanol solution of zirconiumoxychloride and titanium tetrachloride. The sol-gel process, microstructure, morphology and tri-bological properties of TiO2 -ZrO2 films were investigated using TGA, DSC, XPS, XRD, AFM anddynamic-static tribometer. The results show that the TiO2-ZrO2films are dense, homogeneous andat a complete tetragonal phase with an excellent antiwear and friction reduction performance. Un-der 0.5N applied load, the friction coefficient is 0.14-0.20 and the antiwear life is more than 5000sliding cycles for both TiO2-ZrO2/ AISI 52100 steel and TiO2-ZrO2/ Si3N4. SEM observation sug-gests that wear mechanism of TiO2 -ZrO2 composite film under low load was fatigue wear, andunder high load was adhesive wear. The TiO2 -ZrO2 films show potential applications as coatingsfor antiwear and friction reduction under the harsh condition.

  9. Preparation of porous TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite film and its photocathodic protection properties for 304 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongmei; Liu, Wei, E-mail: weiliu@ouc.edu.cn; Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Duan, Ruijing

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Porous TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite films were prepared on the 304 stainless steel. • The preparation parameters of the composite films were optimized. • Porous TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite films provide an effective photogenerated cathodic protection for 304 stainless steel. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite films with porous structure were prepared on the 304 stainless steel (304SS) by the sol-gel method and heating treatment. The crystalline phase and morphology of as-prepared TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite films were characterized systematically by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, respectively. The influences of Ti/Zn molar ratio and the annealing temperature on the photoelectric property of the samples have been investigated and their photocathodic protection performances for 304 stainless steel under dark and UV conditions have also been evaluated in 3.0% NaCl solution by the electrochemical measurements. The results indicate that porous TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite film has a great enhancement of the light absorption and photoelectric property under UV illumination. This can be ascribed to the mutual effect of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO heterojunctions and the porous structures in the composite films, which provide a better photogenerated cathodic protection for 304SS.

  10. Residual stress in Ta2O5-SiO2 composite thin-film rugate filters prepared by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chien-Jen; Jaing, Cheng-Chung; Lee, Kuan-Shiang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2008-05-01

    Ta-Si oxide composite thin-film rugate filters were prepared by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering and their residual stress and substrate deflections were measured. The residual stress and substrate deflection of these composite film rugate filters were less than that of notch filters made from a series of discrete quarter-wave layers with alternate high and low indices because of the smooth modulation of composition and no interface structure of the rugate filter.

  11. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF ETHYL-CYANOETHYL CELLULOSE/POLYACRYLIC ACID COMPOSITE FILMS WITH REFLECTION COLORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Huang

    2001-01-01

    Ethyl-cyanoethyl cellulose [(E-CE)C]/acrylic acid (AA) becomes a cholesteric liquid crystalline solution with vivid colors when the (E-CE)C concentration is 42 wt% ~52 wt%. (E-CE)C/polyacrylic acid (PAA) composites with cholesteric structure were prepared by polymerizing AA in (E-CE)C/AA liquid crystalline solutions. The layers of ordered polymer chains in the cholesteric phase were inclined during polymerization and the degree of the inclination depended on the polymerization temperature and the concentration of the solution before polymerization. The cholesteric structure in the composites could not be changed when temperature was lower than 100C. Cross-linking of the PAA in composites improved their water-resistance. The cholesteric order of the composites without cross-linking was destroyed when they where immersed in water. The color derived from the selective reflection of the cholesteric phase of the cross-linked composites turned from blue to red after the composites absorbed water. The color of the composites could be returned to the original one when the absorbed water was removed from the swollen composites.

  12. Properties of plasticized composite films prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose and birch wood xylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Blomfeldt, Thomas O. J.; Hedenqvist, Mikael S.

    2012-01-01

    Xylans, an important sub-class of hemicelluloses, represent a largely untapped resource for new renewable materials derived from biomass. As with other carbohydrates, nanocellulose reinforcement of xylans is interesting as a route to new bio-materials. With this in mind, birch wood xylan was comb......Xylans, an important sub-class of hemicelluloses, represent a largely untapped resource for new renewable materials derived from biomass. As with other carbohydrates, nanocellulose reinforcement of xylans is interesting as a route to new bio-materials. With this in mind, birch wood xylan...... was combined with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and films were cast with and without glycerol, sorbitol or methoxypolyethylene glycol (MPEG) as plasticizers. Microscopy revealed some NFC agglomeration in the composite films as well as a layered nanocellulose structure. Equilibrium moisture content...

  13. Preparation of polyimide/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite films as improved solid dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alias, Asliza; Ahmad, Z. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Ismail, A.B., E-mail: badri@eng.usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > We prepare and characterize polyimide-alumina composite as solid dielectric. > Prolong the curing time at low temperature reduces the composite s shrinkage problem. > Dielectric constant increases with the increase of alumina content. > Thermal properties is improved with the addition of alumina. - Abstract: Considerable demand for solid thin-film dielectrics with high dielectric constants for use in the fabrication of capacitors has been observed. In this study, polyimide (PI)/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite films were prepared by incorporating different micron-sized {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents into PI derived from pyromellitic dianyhydride and 4,4'-oxydianiline via ultrasonication. Chemical structure, morphology, dielectric and thermal properties were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), LCR meter and Perkin Elmer Pyris 6. FTIR spectra showed complete imidization, and all characteristic peaks of the imide groups are observed in PI and PI/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite films. XRD patterns revealed that the PI/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite exhibits peaks similar to those of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, indicating that the crystal structure of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} remains unchanged and stable after being doped into the PI matrix. SEM micrographs showed uniform distribution of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in the PI matrix. Meanwhile, the dielectric constant, dielectric loss and thermal stability of PI/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} increases with the addition of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content.

  14. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surface with high adhesive forces based carbon/silica composite films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ruanbing Hu; Guohua Jiang; Xiaohong Wang; Xiaoguang Xi; Rijing Wang

    2013-11-01

    Glass substrates modified by carbon/silica composites are fabricated through a two-step process for the preparation of a superhydrophobic surface (water contact angle ≥ 150°). Carbon nanoparticles were first prepared through a deposition process on glass using a hydrothermal synthesis route, then the glass was modified by SiO2 using the hydrolysis reaction of tetraethylorthosilicate at room temperature. It is not only a facile method to create a superhydrophobic surface, but also helps to form a multi-functional surface with high adhesive forces.

  15. Amino acid mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and preparation of antimicrobial agar/silver nanoparticles composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2015-10-05

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using amino acids (tyrosine and tryptophan) as reducing and capping agents, and they were incorporated into the agar to prepare antimicrobial composite films. The AgNPs solutions exhibited characteristic absorption peak at 420 nm that showed a red shift to ∼434 nm after forming composite with agar. XRD data demonstrated the crystalline structure of AgNPs with dominant (111) facet. Apparent surface color and transmittance of agar films were greatly influenced by the AgNPs. The incorporation of AgNPs into agar did not exhibit any change in chemical structure, thermal stability, moisture content, and water vapor permeability. The water contact angle, tensile strength, and modulus decreased slightly, but elongation at break increased after AgNPs incorporation. The agar/AgNPs nanocomposite films possessed strong antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. The agar/AgNPs film could be applied to the active food packaging by controlling the food-borne pathogens.

  16. Rapid mixing chemical oxidative polymerization: an easy route to prepare PANI coated small-diameter CNTs/PANI nanofibres composite thin film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Venkata Ramana; Balaji Padya; Vadali V S S Srikanth; P K Jain

    2014-05-01

    Composite thin film containing polyaniline (PANI) coated small diameter carbon nanotubes (SDCNTs)/PANI nanofibres (NFs) has been prepared using an easy in situ rapid mixing chemical oxidative polymerization method. SDCNTs thin film was obtained using thermal chemical vapour deposition method in a separate experiment, whilst PANI NFs are formed in situ during the synthesis of composite. In the composite, PANI coated SDCNTs are uniformly distributed among PANI NFs. The presence of SDCNTs during the composite synthesis does not influence the nucleation and growth of PANI NFs. Raman analysis shows a good interaction between PANI and SDCNTs. Room temperature d.c. electrical sheet resistance of SDCNTs/PANI NFs composite thin film surface is three orders lesser than that of PANI NFs thin film (PANI NFs have the same morphology as in the composite) synthesized using the same method but without the presence of SDCNTs.

  17. Factors Affecting the Physical Properties of Edible Composite Film Prepared from Zein and Wheat Gluten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Ma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of zein ratio, concentration of glycerol, liquid-solid ratio, ethanol concentration, pH and heat-treatment temperature on the properties of zein/wheat gluten composite films were researched. The results showed that elongation (E increased with an increase in glycerol or ethanol concentrations, but it first increased and then decreased with increasing zein/wheat gluten ratio, heat-treatment temperature, pH and the ratio of liquid to solid; Tensile strength (TS increased with the increase in heat-treatment temperature and pH, and decreased with the increase in glycerol or ethanol concentrations, and it reached a maximum value when the ratio of zein/wheat gluten was 20%, but had a minimum value when the ratio of liquid to solid was 8:1; Water Vapor Permeability (WVP increased with an increase of glycerol concentration and the ratio of liquid to solid and ethanol concentration, but it decreased with increasing zein/wheat gluten ratio, heat treatment temperature, and pH of the film forming solution.

  18. Factors affecting the physical properties of edible composite film prepared from zein and wheat gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xingfeng; Lu, Yanan; Cui, Heping; Jia, Xiangxing; Bai, Hongchao; Ma, Yuxiang

    2012-03-27

    The effects of zein ratio, concentration of glycerol, liquid-solid ratio, ethanol concentration, pH and heat-treatment temperature on the properties of zein/wheat gluten composite films were researched. The results showed that elongation (E) increased with an increase in glycerol or ethanol concentrations, but it first increased and then decreased with increasing zein/wheat gluten ratio, heat-treatment temperature, pH and the ratio of liquid to solid; Tensile strength (TS) increased with the increase in heat-treatment temperature and pH, and decreased with the increase in glycerol or ethanol concentrations, and it reached a maximum value when the ratio of zein/wheat gluten was 20%, but had a minimum value when the ratio of liquid to solid was 8:1; Water Vapor Permeability (WVP) increased with an increase of glycerol concentration and the ratio of liquid to solid and ethanol concentration, but it decreased with increasing zein/wheat gluten ratio, heat treatment temperature, and pH of the film forming solution.

  19. Preparation of ZnO nanoribbon–MWCNT composite film and its application as antimicrobial bandage, antibacterial filter and thermal IR camouflage material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRASAD UPASANI; T V SREEKUMAR; V G GAIKAR; NEETU JHA

    2017-08-01

    A zinc oxide nanoribbon (ZnO NR)–multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite film was prepared byfiltration technique. The film was characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM),Raman spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy and reflectance spectroscopy. The SEM images showed ZnO NRs trappedin the porous MWCNT network. This composite film displayed a strong antimicrobial property and porous structure, whichhas potential application as an antimicrobial bandage material. The composite film successfully removed the Escherichiacoli bacteria from water and destroyed the bacteria retained on its surface due to the antibacterial action of ZnO NRs. The absorption of thermal IR radiation by the composite film was studied by thermography, which can be useful in IR camouflageapplications.

  20. Preparation of thin film nanofibrous composite NF membrane based on EDC/NHS modified PAN-AA nanofibrous substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, X.; Hsiao, B. S.

    2016-07-01

    A novel kind of thin-film nanofibrous composite (TFNC) nanofiltration (NF) membranes consisting of a polyamide (PA) barrier layer were successfully fabricated by interfacial polymerization (IFP) based on electrospun double-layer nanofibrous substrates, which have an ultrathin poly (acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) (PAN-AA) nanofibrous layer as top layer and a thicker polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber layer as bottom porous support layer. Immersing PAN/PAN-AA nanofibrous substrates into 1-ethyl-(3-3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) aqueous solution and piperazine (PIP) aqueous solution (0.20 wt%) sequentially for a period of time, the carboxyl groups on PAN-AA nanofibers were activated by carbodiimide and then reacted with the amide groups. The as prepared composite membrane has an integrated structure with high rejection rate (98.0%); high permeate flux (40.4 L/m2h) for MgSO4 aqueous solution (2 g/L).

  1. Preparation of thick-film electrode-solid electrolyte composites on Li7La3Zr2O12 and their electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takeshia; Iwasaki, Shinya; Ishii, Yosuke; Motoyama, Munekazu; West, William C.; Yamamoto, Yuta; Iriyama, Yasutoshi

    2016-01-01

    We prepared up to 20 μm-thick LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC)-Li+ conductive glass-ceramic solid electrolyte (LATP: σLi+ ˜ 10-3 S cm-2 at 298 K) composite cathode films on Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZ) substrates by aerosol deposition (AD) and investigated their electrochemical properties as all-solid-state batteries. The resultant NMC/LATP interface in the composite film had a thin mutual diffusion layer (˜5 nm) and a film had a porosity of ca. 0.15% in volume. The composite films were well adhered to the LLZ substrates even though the films were prepared at room temperature. All-solid-state batteries, consisting of Li/LLZ/NMC-LATP composite film (20 μm), repeated charge-discharge reactions for 90 cycles at 100 °C at a 1/10 C rate (capacity retention: 99.97%/cycle). Rate capability of this battery was improved by modifying both the LATP and electron conductive source amount in the composite film, and a battery with 16 μm-thick composite electrode delivered 60 mAh g-1 at 1 mA cm-2.

  2. Poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films with high percent elongation prepared from amylose-fatty ammonium salt inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose inclusion complexes prepared from cationic fatty ammonium salts and jet-cooked high amylose starch were combined with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) to form glycerol-plasticized films. Their tensile properties were compared with similar films prepared previously with analogous anionic fatty acid...

  3. Compositionally and structurally modified SrTiO{sub 3} thin films prepared by chemical solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzner, Dirk; Gutmann, Emanuel; Reibold, Marianne; Meyer, Dirk C. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Mahltig, Boris [GMBU e.V., Arbeitsgruppe Funktionelle Schichten, Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    For electronic and architectural design of functional electroceramic devices, materials with a perovskite-type of structure play a major role. For high-k dielectric, sensing and thermal switching applications the introduction of Barium into SrTiO{sub 3}(STO) allows tuning the electrical properties by tuning the paraelectric-to-ferroelectric transition temperature. For thin film preparation a classic sol-gel route was modified by refluxing as well as solvothermal treatment of the as-synthesized sols. For treated sols the decomposition, phase evolution and transition behaviour differed and from X-ray diffraction (XRD) we observed a supression of foreign phases and a higher degree of compositional homogeneity. In this context also the homologous series of perovskite-related Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases promise an engineering of electrical properties by selecting a specific member. Exemplarily we realised the chemical solution deposition of epitaxial thin films of SrO(SrTiO{sub 3}){sub n} RP phases (n=1,2,3) on STO substrates. Structural characteristics of the films were analysed by means of XRD and HRTEM. An application as buffer layers exhibiting tuneable dielectric properties is conceivable.

  4. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  5. Composite films prepared by plasma ion-assisted deposition (IAD) for design and fabrication of antireflection coatings in visible and near-infrared spectral regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Ho, Fang C.

    1994-11-01

    Ion-assisted deposition (IAD) processes configured with a well-controlled plasma source at the center base of a vacuum chamber, which accommodates two independent e-gun sources, is used to deposition TiO2MgF2 and TiO2-SiO2 composite films of selected component ratios. Films prepared by this technology are found durable, uniform, and nonabsorbing in visible and near-IR regions. Single- and multilayer antireflection coatings with refractive index from 1.38 to 2.36 at (lambda) equals 550 nm are presented. Methods of enhancement in optical performance of these coatings are studied. The advantages of AR coatings formed by TiO2-MgF2 composite films over those similar systems consisting of TiO2-SiO2 composite films in both visible and near-IR regions are also presented.

  6. The atomic structure and chemical composition of HfOx (x < 2) films prepared by ion-beam sputtering deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, V. S.; Gerasimova, A. K.; Kruchinin, V. N.; Gritsenko, V. A.; Prosvirin, I. P.; Badmaeva, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    Non-stoichiometric HfOx films of different chemical composition (x partial pressure in a chamber. An effect of chemical composition on the atomic structure of the films was studied by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy methods. The films were found to be amorphous, consisting only of three components: Hf-metal clusters, Hf4O7 suboxide and stoichiometric HfO2. The relative concentration of these components varies with changing x. The surface of the films contains the increased oxygen content compared to the bulk. It was found that the Hf4O7 suboxide concentration is maximal at x = 1.8. The concept of hafnium oxide film growth by the IBSD method is proposed to explain the lack of suboxides variety in the films and the instability of HfO2, when annealed at high temperature.

  7. Preparation and optimization of CdWO4-polymer nano-composite film as an alpha particle counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziluei, Hossein; Azimirad, Rouhollah; Mojtahedzadeh Larijani, Majid; Ziaie, Farhoud

    2017-04-01

    In this research work, CdWO4/polymer composite films with different thicknesses were prepared using Poly-methyl acrylate polymer and synthesized CdWO4 powder. The CdWO4 powder was synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method in the laboratory. X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy proved that the CdWO4 powder was successfully prepared. Moreover, photoluminescence analysis showed that adding polymer does not change the emission peak of CdWO4. Also, the responses of all samples were measured using an 241Am alpha source with 1860 Bq activity. Results showed that the sample having thickness of 177 mg/cm2 has the best counting efficiency (over 2π geometry) among the others. The efficiency measurement was further evaluated using a 230Th source whose activity is 190.7 Bq. It revealed that the counting efficiency of this sample for both 241Am and 230Th was nearly equal.

  8. Changes in chemical composition and nanostructure of SiC thin films prepared by PECVD during thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuenle, Matthias; Janz, Stefan [Fraunhofer Institute of Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Nickel, Klaus Georg [Applied Mineralogy, Institute for Geosciences, Eberhard-Karl-University Tuebingen, Wilhelmstr. 52, 72074 Tuebingen (Germany); Eibl, Oliver [Institute for Applied Physics, Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72074 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Silicon carbide (SiC) thin films were deposited on silicon (Si) using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Annealing was done in a rapid thermal annealing furnace at a temperature of 1300 C. As-deposited and annealed Si-rich and stoichiometric SiC thin films were investigated by analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM). TEM-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to quantify the chemical composition of the SiC thin films with high accuracy. The chemical composition of the near stoichiometric SiC thin film changed during annealing from Si{sub 0.4}C{sub 0.6} to Si{sub 0.5}C{sub 0.5} due to diffusion of Si from the Si substrate into the film. The Si-rich Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x} film had the identical chemical composition of Si{sub 0.8}C{sub 0.2} before and after annealing. As-deposited films show nanoporosity within the bulk film. During annealing, v-shaped defect structures were formed at the interface of the stoichiometric SiC thin film to the Si substrate. Diffraction patterns revealed that as-deposited films were amorphous. During annealing the crystallization of 3C-SiC occurred in near-stoichiometric SiC thin films, whereas in Si-rich Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x} thin films two phases, namely Si and 3C-SiC, crystallized. Low-loss and core-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) verified the diffraction results. In the low-loss spectra of the near stoichiometric SiC thin film, a plasmon peak located at 20.2 eV before and at 22.3 eV after annealing was detected. The low-loss spectra of the Si-rich Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x} thin film showed an asymmetric plasmon peak with two maxima located at 18.5 and 25.0 eV in the as-deposited film and 18.6 and 24.3 eV in the annealed Si-rich Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x} film. The 18.5 eV plasmon peaks is assigned to Si and the 25 eV plasmon peak is attributed to the SiC phase. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Preparation of nanocellulose from micro-crystalline cellulose: The effect on the performance and properties of agar-based composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2016-01-01

    A facile approach has been performed to prepare nanocellulose (NC) from micro-crystalline cellulose (MCC) and test their effect on the performance properties of agar-based composite films. The NC was characterized by STEM, XRD, FTIR, and TGA. The NC was well dispersed in distilled water after sonication and their size was in the range of 100-500nm. The XRD results revealed the crystallinity of NC. The crystallinity index of NC (0.71) was decreased compared to the MCC (0.81). The effect of NC or MCC content (1, 3, 5 and 10wt% based on agar) on the mechanical, water vapor permeability (WVP), and thermal properties of the composites were studied. The NC obtained from MCC can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of biodegradable composites films for their potential use in the development of biodegradable food packaging materials.

  10. Composition and structure of CuInSe2 thin films prepared by vacuum evaporation of the constituent elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, N. G.; Lourenco, M. C.; Dhere, R. G.; Kazmerski, L. L.

    1984-11-01

    The characteristics of CuInSe2 thin film solar cells produced by a three-source deposition method were investigated. The films were deposited at 350 C, followed by 30 min annealing at the same temperature. The compositions of the cells and intracell fractional variations were dependent on the proximity to the film source during formation. A chalcopyrite CuInSe2 structure was observed in X-ray diffraction patterns and high energy electron diffraction studies of the films on NaCl single crystal substrates. Grain sizes ranged from 0.2-0.6 micron, and the films had a band gap in the 1.02-1.04 eV interval.

  11. Effect of applied dc bias voltage on composition, chemical bonding and mechanical properties of carbon nitride films prepared by PECVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-xuan; XU Tao; HAO Jun-ying; CHEN Jian-min; ZHOU Hui-di; XUE Qun-ji; LIU Hui-wen

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nitride films were deposited on Si (100) substrates using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique from CH4 and N2 at different applied dc bias voltage. The microstructure, composition and chemical bonding of the resulting films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties such as hardness and elastic modulus of the films were evaluated using nano-indentation. As the results, the Raman spectra, showing the G and D bands, indicate the amorphous structure of the films. XPS and FTIR measurements demonstrate the existence of various carbon-nitride bonds in the films and the hydrogenation of carbon nitride phase. The composition ratio of N to C, the nano-hardness and the elastic modulus of the carbon nitride films increase with increasing dc bias voltage and reach the maximums at a dc bias voltage of 300 V, then they decrease with further increase of the dc bias voltage. Moreover, the XRD analyses indicate that the carbon nitride film contains some polycrystalline C3N4 phase embedded in the amorphous matrix at optimized deposition condition of dc bias voltage of 300 V.

  12. Preparation of porous TiO2/ZnO composite film and its photocathodic protection properties for 304 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongmei; Liu, Wei; Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Duan, Ruijing

    2014-05-01

    TiO2/ZnO composite films with porous structure were prepared on the 304 stainless steel (304SS) by the sol-gel method and heating treatment. The crystalline phase and morphology of as-prepared TiO2/ZnO composite films were characterized systematically by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, respectively. The influences of Ti/Zn molar ratio and the annealing temperature on the photoelectric property of the samples have been investigated and their photocathodic protection performances for 304 stainless steel under dark and UV conditions have also been evaluated in 3.0% NaCl solution by the electrochemical measurements. The results indicate that porous TiO2/ZnO composite film has a great enhancement of the light absorption and photoelectric property under UV illumination. This can be ascribed to the mutual effect of TiO2/ZnO heterojunctions and the porous structures in the composite films, which provide a better photogenerated cathodic protection for 304SS.

  13. Preparation of conjugated polymer-based composite thin film for application in solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yang-Yen, E-mail: yyyu@mail.mcut.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Battery Research Center of Green Energy, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Center for Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Chien, Wen-Chen [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Battery Research Center of Green Energy, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Ko, Yu-Hsin [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chih-Ping [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Battery Research Center of Green Energy, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gunjuan Road, Taishan, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chao-Ching [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tamkang University, 151, Yingzhuan Rd., Tamsui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on the enhanced cell efficiency of structures and properties of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) hybrid materials. The prepared hybrid materials were characterized using ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Different concentrations of these MWNTs were suspended in polymer solutions and spin-cast onto indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. Solar cells with a device structure of ITO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) /P3HT:MWNTs/aluminum were then produced using evaporated aluminum as the back contact. The results showed that the ratio of P3HT to MWNTs considerably influenced the performance of the fabricated solar cells. The efficiency of the solar cells increased with the ratio of carbon nanotubes. Monochromatic incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency analysis was performed and the results indicated that at the optimal P3HT/MWNTs ratio (= 1/1), the solar cells demonstrated a high-quality conversion of 2.16% with a fill factor of 42.22%, an open circuit voltage of 0.56 V, and a short circuit current of 9.12 mA/cm{sup 2}. - Highlights: • Solar cells ITO/PEDOT:PSS(DMSO)/P3HT:MWNT/Al were fabricated. • Optimal ratio of P3HT to MWNT was investigated. • Solar cell with 2.16% efficiency was obtained.

  14. Polymer film composite transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas E.

    2005-09-20

    A composite piezoelectric transducer, whose piezoeletric element is a "ribbon wound" film of piezolectric material. As the film is excited, it expands and contracts, which results in expansion and contraction of the diameter of the entire ribbon winding. This is accompanied by expansion and contraction of the thickness of the ribbon winding, such that the sound radiating plate may be placed on the side of the winding.

  15. Preparation of conducting polymer/insulating polymer composite films using molecular self-assembly process and its function; Bunshi self assembly ho ni yoru dodensei kobunshi/zetsuensei kobunshi fukugomaku no sakusei to sono kino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoda, M.; Fujita, D.; Isaki, K.; Nakayama, H. [Himeji Institute of Technology, Hyogo (Japan)

    1997-11-20

    By exposing low-density polyethylene to an atmosphere of fuming sulfuric acid, sulfonated low-density polyethylenes (SPE) were prepared and the degree of surface sulfonation for treated film was determined as the weight-increase per unit area. Polypyrrole (PPy) films on the surface of SPE were grew using molecular self-assembly process and the properties of PPy/SPE composite films have been investigated. Then, the functional applications of PPy/SPE composite films have also been proposed and especially the movement properties of actuators using PPy/SPE composite film were mentioned. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  16. Preparation of Composited Graphene/PEDOT:PSS Film for Its Possible Application in Graphene-based Organic Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yue; LI Meicheng; CHU Lihua; YU Hakki; Wodtke A M; ZHAO Yan; ZHANG Zhongmo

    2015-01-01

    The interface between graphene and organic layers is a key factor responsible for the performance of gra-phene-based organic solar cells (OSCs). In this paper, we focus on coating PEDOT:PSS onto the surface of graphene. We demonstrate two approaches, applying UV/Ozone treatment on graphene and modifying PEDOT:PSS with Zonyl, to get a PEDOT:PSS well-coated graphene film . Our results prove that both methods can be effective to solve the interface issue between graphene and PEDOT: PSS. Thereby it shows a positive application of the composited gra-phene/PEDOT:PSS film on graphene-based OSCs.

  17. Preparation of Composited Graphene/PEDOT:PSS Film for Its Possible Application in Graphene-based Organic Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Yue; LI; Meicheng; CHU; Lihua; YU; Hakki; Wodtke; A.M.; ZHAO; Yan; ZHANG; Zhongmo

    2015-01-01

    The interface between graphene and organic layers is a key factor responsible for the performance of graphene-based organic solar cells(OSCs). In this paper, we focus on coating PEDOT:PSS onto the surface of graphene. We demonstrate two approaches, applying UV/Ozone treatment on graphene and modifying PEDOT:PSS with Zonyl, to get a PEDOT:PSS well-coated graphene film. Our results prove that both methods can be effective to solve the interface issue between graphene and PEDOT: PSS. Thereby it shows a positive application of the composited graphene/PEDOT:PSS film on graphene-based OSCs.

  18. Preparation and characterization of graphene-based vanadium oxide composite semiconducting films with horizontally aligned nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hye-Mi; Um, Sukkee, E-mail: sukkeeum@hanyang.ac.kr

    2016-05-01

    Highly oriented crystalline hybrid thin films primarily consisting of Magnéli-phase VO{sub 2} and conductive graphene nanoplatelets are fabricated by a sol–gel process via dipping pyrolysis. A combination of chemical, microstructural, and electrical analyses reveals that graphene oxide (GO)-templated vanadium oxide (VO{sub x}) nanocomposite films exhibit a vertically stacked multi-lamellar nanostructure consisting of horizontally aligned vanadium oxide nanowire (VNW) arrays along the (hk0) set of planes on a GO template, with an average crystallite size of 41.4 Å and a crystallographic tensile strain of 0.83%. In addition, GO-derived VO{sub x} composite semiconducting films, which have an sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} bonding ratio of 0.862, display thermally induced electrical switching properties in the temperature range of − 20 °C to 140 °C, with a transition temperature of approximately 65 °C. We ascribe these results to the use of GO sheets, which serve as a morphological growth template as well as an electrochemically tunable platform for enhancing the charge-carrier mobility. Moreover, the experimental studies demonstrate that graphene-based Magnéli-phase VO{sub x} composite semiconducting films can be used in advanced thermo-sensitive smart sensing/switching applications because of their outstanding thermo-electrodynamic properties and high surface charge density induced by the planar-type VNWs. - Highlights: • VO{sub x}-graphene oxide composite (G/VO{sub x}) films were fabricated by sol–gel process. • The G/VO{sub x} films mainly consisted of Magnéli-phase VO{sub 2} and reduced graphene sheets. • The G/VO{sub x} films exhibited multi-lamellar textures with planar VO{sub x} nanowire arrays. • The G/VO{sub x} films showed the thermo-sensitive electrical switching properties. • Effects of GOs on the electrical characteristics of the G/VO{sub x} films were discussed.

  19. Influence of Applied Bias Voltage on the Composition, Structure, and Properties of Ti:Si-Codoped a-C:H Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The titanium- and silicon-codoped a-C:H films were prepared at different applied bias voltage by magnetron sputtering TiSi target in argon and methane mixture atmosphere. The influence of the applied bias voltage on the composition, surface morphology, structure, and mechanical properties of the films was investigated by XPS, AFM, Raman, FTIR spectroscopy, and nanoindenter. The tribological properties of the films were characterized on an UMT-2MT tribometer. The results demonstrated that the film became smoother and denser with increasing the applied bias voltage up to −200 V, whereas surface roughness increased due to the enhancement of ion bombardment as the applied bias voltage further increased. The sp3 carbon fraction in the films monotonously decreased with increasing the applied bias voltage. The film exhibited moderate hardness and the superior tribological properties at the applied bias voltage of −100 V. The tribological behaviors are correlated to the H/E or H3/E2 ratio of the films.

  20. Preparation and optical properties of GaSb nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 composite films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The composite films of GaSb nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 matrices were fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron co-sputtering. Transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction pattern indicate that the GaSb nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed in SiO2 matrices. Room temperature transmission spectra exhibit a blue shift of about 2.73 eV. The blue shift increases with decreasing size of GaSb nanoparticles, suggesting the existence of quantum size effects. Room temperature Raman spectra show that there is a larger Raman peak red shift and broadening of the composite films than that of bulk GaSb. This phenomenon is explained by photon confinement effect and tensile stress effect.

  1. Preparation and Properties of Highly Filled EVA Functional Composite Film%高填充EVA功能复合胶膜的制备及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙林; 陈光伟; 吴万生; 魏邦龙; 李宾

    2012-01-01

    The EVA/MgO composite film with high content of MgO was prepared by hot pressing molding methods. The effect of MgO content on the thermal conductivity, insulating property, adhesive property and crossliriking degree of the composite film was discussed. And the effect of coupling agent content on adhesive property of film,the temperature on the crosslinlcing degree film was also studied. The thermo-gravimetric curve of film was determined by TGA,and the dispersion of MgO in the Film was observed by SEM. The results showed that the thermal conductivity of composite film got improved and its insulation performance didn' t distinctly drop. The adhesive properties and degree of erosslinking got the peak at 10 % content, and the thermal stability was improved.%运用热压成型法制备高填充含量下的EVA/MgO复合胶膜.探讨MgO含量对复合胶膜导热绝缘性能、黏结性能和交联度的影响,偶联剂量对胶膜粘结性能的影响以及温度对胶膜交联度的影响.用TGA测定胶膜热失重曲线,并采用扫描电镜(SEM)观察了胶膜中MgO的分散情况.结果表明:功能复合后的导热性能得到较大提高,绝缘性能未发生明显下降;胶膜黏结性能与交联度在10%体积含量填充下达到最大,且其热稳定有所提高.

  2. Preparation and characterization of pulsed laser deposited a novel CdS/CdSe composite window layer for CdTe thin film solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Bo; Li, Bing; Zhang, Jingquan; Li, Wei; Wu, Lili; Feng, Lianghuan

    2016-03-01

    A novel CdS/CdSe composite window structure was designed and then the corresponding films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition as an improved window layer for CdTe-based solar cells. Two types of this composite window structure with 5 cycles and 10 cycles CdS/CdSe respectively both combined with CdS layers were prepared at 200 °C compared with pure CdS window layer and finally were applied into CdTe thin film solar cells. The cross section and surface morphology of the two composite window layers were monitored by using scanning electron microscopy and the result shows that the pulsed laser deposited composite window layers with good crystallinity are stacking together as the design. The devices based on CdS/CdSe composite window layers have demonstrated the enhanced photocurrent collection from both short and long wavelength regions compared to CdS/CdTe solar cell. The efficiency of the best reference CdS/CdTe solar cell was 10.72%. And the device with 5 cycles CdS/CdSe composite window showed efficiency of 12.61% with VOC of 772.92 mV, JSC of 25.11 mA/cm2 and FF of 64.95%. In addition, there are some differences which exist within the optical transmittance spectra and QE curves between the two CdS/CdSe composite window samples, indicating that the volume proportion of CdSe may influence the performance of CdTe thin film solar cell.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Zn x Cu(1- x)O Composite Films on Glass Substrates Through SILAR Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayansal, Fatİh; Şahİn, Bünyamİn; Yüksel, Mustafa

    2015-07-01

    CuO composite thin films with and without Zn-doping are deposited onto glass substrates by the SILAR method. All the films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), UV-Vis spectrophotometry, temperature dependent dc conductivity, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. SEM results show that the particle size decreases from 27 to 16 nm with increasing Zn-doping. EDX analysis evidences the amount of Zn in CuO films, which increases with increasing Zn concentration in the growth solutions. Transmittance, optical band gap, and activation energy values of the films are found to be increasing from the UV-Vis and temperature dependent dc conductivity measurements with increasing Zn-doping. It also is found from the XRD patterns that mean crystallite size of the films decreases from 18.94 to 13.70 nm with increasing Zn-doping. Moreover, increase in Zn concentration results peak shifts to lower 2 θ values.

  4. TiO2/palygorskite composite nanocrystalline films prepared by surfactant templating route: synergistic effect to the photocatalytic degradation of an azo-dye in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathatos, E; Papoulis, D; Aggelopoulos, C A; Panagiotaras, D; Nikolopoulou, A

    2012-04-15

    Microfibrous palygorskite clay mineral and nanocrystalline TiO(2) are incorporating in the preparation of nanocomposite films on glass substrates via sol-gel route at 500°C. The synthesis involves a simple chemical method employing nonionic surfactant molecule as pore directing agent along with the acetic acid-based sol-gel route without direct addition of water molecules. Drying and thermal treatment of composite films lead to the elimination of organic material while ensure the formation of TiO(2) nanoparticles homogeneously distributed on the surface of the palygorskite microfibers. TiO(2) nanocomposite films without cracks consisted of small crystallites in size (12-16 nm) and anatase crystal phase was found to cover palygorskite microfibers. The composite films were characterized by microscopy techniques, UV-vis, IR spectroscopy, and porosimetry methods in order to examine their structural properties. Palygorskite/TiO(2) composite films with variable quantities of palygorskite (0-2 w/w ratio) were tested as new photocatalysts in the photo-discoloration of Basic Blue 41 azo-dye in water. These nanocomposite films proved to be very promising photocatalysts and highly effective to dye's discoloration in spite of the small amount of immobilized palygorskite/TiO(2) catalyst onto glass substrates. 3:2 palygorskite/TiO(2) weight ratio was finally the most efficient photocatalyst while reproducible discoloration results of the dye were obtained after three cycles with same catalyst. It was also found that palygorskite showed a positive synergistic effect to the TiO(2) photocatalysis.

  5. ZnO-MWCNTs/Nafion inorganic-organic composite film:Preparation and application in bioelectrochemistry of hemoglobin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Ma; Wei Song; Dan Bi Tian

    2009-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanombes (MWCNTs) were coated with ZnO by a hydrothermal method. The resulting nanocomposites were mixed with the Nation solution to form a composite matrix for the fabrication of hemoglobin (Hb) biosensor. To prevent the leak of Hb molecules of the biosensor, silica sol-gel film was coated on the surface of the Hb/ZnO-MWCNTs/Nafion electrode. The silica sol-gel/Hb/ZnO-MWCNTs/Nation film exhibited a pair of well-defined, quasi-reversible redox peaks. This biosensor showed excellent electrocatalytic activity to H2O2. The sensitivity and apparent Michaelis-Menten constant of this Hb biosensor to H2O2 were 1.31 A/(M cm2) and 82.8 umol/L, respectively, which indicated that Hb had high affinity to H2O2.

  6. Preparation and characterization of poly[Ni(salen)(crown receptor)]/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedim, J.; Hillman, A.R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7 RH (United Kingdom); Goncalves, F.; Pereira, M.F.R.; Figueiredo, J.L. [Laboratorio de Catalise e Materiais, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Moura, C. [CIQ, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Freire, C. [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2008-10-01

    Nanocomposite films comprising multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) embedded within poly[Ni(3-Mesalophen-b15-c5)] were deposited on Pt and ITO electrode surfaces by the potentiodynamic polymerisation of [Ni(3-Mesalophen-b15-c5)] from solutions containing dispersed MWCNTs. Composites incorporating carbon nanotubes subject to a range of oxidising pre-treatments were compared with those incorporating untreated carbon nanotubes and with the pure polymer. In both cases, the use of CH{sub 3}CN and CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} as fabrication and characterization media were explored. Films were characterized by voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The coating of the carbon nanotubes with polymer varied significantly with pre-treatment and solvent medium; this influenced the final composite morphology and electrical properties. Performance enhancement of the polymer component by the presence of the carbon nanotubes was manifested through the ability to store charge and the ease with which this could be accomplished; these were parameterized via increased redox capacitance and decreased charge-transfer resistance, respectively. Correlation of impedance parameters with SEM images provided a morphological rationale for composite electrical properties. (author)

  7. Sol-gel preparation of TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} thin films supported on glass rings: Influence of phase composition on photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Alonso, Maria D. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, c/ Marie Curie, 2. Cantoblanco. 28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: mdhernandez@icp.csic.es; Tejedor-Tejedor, Isabel [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin, 660 North Park Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Coronado, Juan M. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, c/ Marie Curie, 2. Cantoblanco. 28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: juanmanuel.coronado@ciemat.es; Soria, Javier [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, c/ Marie Curie, 2. Cantoblanco. 28049 Madrid (Spain); Anderson, Marc A. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin, 660 North Park Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2006-04-28

    In order to optimize the characteristics of TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} thin films supported on glass for the photocatalytic removal of VOCs, acidic sols of different composition (ZrO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2} and Ti-Zr mixed oxides) have been prepared using metal alkoxides as starting materials. The photoactive oxides were deposited on 'Raschig rings' of borosilicate glass using a dip-coating technique. The phase composition of the thin films was controlled during the sol preparation stage to produce either (1) Ti{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 0.1}O{sub 2} solid solutions, or (2) ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} binary metal oxides (10% and 20% molar content of Zr). The particle size of the different sols was measured by photon correlation spectroscopy, and the xerogels were characterized by XRD, N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms, and TG-DTA, so as to monitor the modifications induced by the thermal treatments. Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the crystalline structure of the supported TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} oxides, which in all cases corresponded to the anatase phase. The band gap of the thin films was estimated from the UV-vis spectra, and none of them differed significantly from that of unmodified TiO{sub 2}. The photoactivity of the coated glass 'Raschig rings' was measured for the oxidation of acetone and methylcyclohexane vapors using, respectively, total recycle and single pass plug flow photoreactors. The results obtained indicate that, for the same Zr content, the photoactivity of the films containing binary metal oxides is slightly higher than that of the solid solution. In contrast, specific surface area seems to have little influence on the performance of the thin films.

  8. Chitosan–silver oxide nanocomposite film: Preparation and antimicrobial activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shipra Tripathi; G K Mehrotra; P K Dutta

    2011-02-01

    The chitosan–silver oxide encapsulated nanocomposite film was prepared by solution casting method. The prepared film was characterized by FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal studies, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The elemental composition of the film was studied by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The antibacterial activity of the composite film against pathogenic bacteria viz. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was measured by agar diffusion method. Our observations suggest that chitosan as biomaterial based nanocomposite film containing silver oxide has an excellent antibacterial ability for food packaging applications.

  9. 多巴胺/银/聚氨酯导电复合薄膜的制备%Preparation of DA/Ag/PU conductive composite film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国玺; 周笑薇

    2016-01-01

    The dopamine/silver/polyurethane(DA/Ag/PU)conductive composite film is prepared by spraying the silver nanowires on the surface of PU film which is pretreated with DA. The micro-structure of the composite film is characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM)and X-ray diffraction(XRD), meanwhile, the electrical properties of the film under bending and stretching are studied as well. The results show that the resistance of the prepared DA/Ag/PU film increases by5% after cyclic tension for1000 times(tensile deformation of20%),and is improved little after1000 times of reciprocating bending(bending deformation of30%-130%). Obviously, the adsorption ability of the PU matrix to the silver particles is enhanced by pretreatment of DA, which can significantly improve the conductive path and properties of the composite film.%采用多巴胺(DA)对聚氨酯(PU)薄膜表面进行预处理改性后,在其上喷涂银纳米线的方法成功制备了DA/Ag/PU导电复合薄膜。通过扫描电子显微镜和X射线衍射仪对DA/Ag/PU导电复合薄膜的微观结构进行了表征,同时还对其在拉伸、弯曲形变条件下的电学性能进行了研究。结果表明:所制DA/Ag/PU导电复合薄膜,经1000次往复拉伸后(拉伸形变20%)电阻仅提高5%,经1000次往复弯曲后(弯曲形变30%~130%)电阻值未明显提高。显然,经DA预处理后,PU基体对银纳米粒子的吸附能力提高,改善了导电复合薄膜的导电通路,使其导电性能显著提高。

  10. Preparation of copper sulphide clusters in organic-inorganic composites of Langmuir-Blodgett films of amphiphilic Schiff bases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Hemakanthi; Aruna Dhathathreyan; T Ramasami; D Möbius

    2001-04-01

    Copper sulphide clusters were prepared in Langmuir-Blodgett films of copper complexes of amphiphilic Schiff bases-3,4-dimethoxy-N-benzylidene hexadeylamine (I) and 3,4-dimethoxy-N-benzylidene-4 -(hexadecylamino) benzylamine (II) The clusters obtained were analysed using UV-Vis spectroscopy and optical microscopy. Brewster angle microscopic studies on monolayers of I and II at air/water interface showed formation of needle-like domains which seem to cluster faster in I than in II. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies also showed fairly uniform sized clusters in II whereas in the case of I they seem to show varying sizes. From the results it is concluded that -elongation in the polar head groups leads to controlled cluster sizes in compound II as compared to those in compound I.

  11. Structural, morphological and optical properties of PEDOT:PSS/QDs nano-composite films prepared by spin-casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Mansoor Ani; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Aziz, Fakhra; Ahmad, Zubair; Rafique, Saqib; Wageh, S.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Sulaiman, Khaulah; Touati, Farid; Shakoor, R. A.; Al-Thani, N. J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the structural, morphological and optical properties of the nano-composite of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and quantum dots (QDs). The ZnSe and CdSe QDs have been synthesized, with the aid of Mercaptoacetic acid (MAA), by a colloidal method with an average size of ~5 to 7 nm. QDs have been embedded in PEDOT:PSS using a simple solution processing approach and has been deposited as thin films by spin coating technique. The QDs embedded PEDOT:PSS enhances the light absorption spectra of samples, prominently in terms of absorption intensity which may consequently improve sensitivity of the optoelectronic devices.

  12. Effect of pH on film structure and electrical property of PMMA–Au composite particles prepared by redox transmetalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hong-Mao; Lin, Kuan-Ju [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Yu, Yi-Hsiuan; Ho, Chan-Yuan; Wei, Ming-Hsiung [Chemical System Research Division, Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Long-Tan, Tao-Yuan 325, Taiwan (China); Lu, Fu-Hsing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Wenjea J., E-mail: wenjea@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Surface-selective deposition of gold (Au) on electroless plated poly(methyl methacrylate)–nickel (PMMA–Ni) beads was prepared chemically by a facile redox-transmetalation route in which the Ni atoms on the PMMA surface were reacted with Au precursors, i.e., chloroauric acid (HAuCl{sub 4}), in water to form predominately core-shell PMMA–Au composite particles without the need of reducing agent. The Ni layer acted as a sacrificial template to facilitate the selective transmetalation deposition of a metallic Au film. When pH of the precursor solution was adjusted from 6 to 9, morphology of the Au film changed from a uniform particulate film consisting of assemblies of Au nanoparticles, to densely packed, continuous film with platelet Au crystals, and finally to isolated Au islands on the PMMA surface with a raspberry-like core–shell morphology. Uniformly dense Au coating with a thickness of about 200 nm was formed on the PMMA beads at pH of 7 to 8, which gave rise to an electrical resistivity as low as 3 × 10{sup −2} Ω cm.

  13. 在LaNiO3-Pt复合电极上Pb(Zr,Ti)O3铁电薄膜及其成分梯度薄膜的制备和研究%Preparation and Study on Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 Ferroelectric Thin Films and Compositionally Graded Thin Films on LaNiO3-Pt Composite Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建康; 姚熹

    2005-01-01

    LaNiO3 (LNO) thin films were prepared on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate by metal-organic decomposition (MOD) method. Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ferroelectric thin films and their compositionally graded thin films were prepared on LNO/Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by Sol-gel method. The composition depth profile of a typical up-graded film was determined by using a combination of Auger Electron Spectroscopy (ASE) and Ar Ion Etching. The results confirm that the processing method produces graded composition changes. XRD analysis showed that the graded thin films possessed composite structure of tetragonal and rhombohedral. The dielectric constants of Up-graded and Down-graded thin films were higher than that of each thin film unit. The dielectric constants were 277 and 269 at 10kHz, respectively. The loss tangents were 0.019 and 0.018 at 10kHz, respectively. The Hysteresis loops showed that the remanent polarizations of graded thin films were higher than that of each thin film unit, but the coercive fields were smaller. The remanent polarizations of Up-graded and Down-graded thin films were 30.06 and 26.96μC·cm-2, respectively. The coercive fields were 54.14, 54.23kV·cm-1, respectively. The pyroelectric coefficients of Up-graded and Down-graded thin films were 4.62, 2.51×10-8 C·cm-2·K-1 at room temperature, respectively. They were higher than that of each thin film unit.

  14. Acid yellow 9 as a dispersing agent for carbon nanotubes: preparation of redox polymer-carbon nanotube composite film and its sensing application towards ascorbic acid and dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Ashok; Wang, Sea-Fue; Yang, Thomas C-K; Yeh, Chun-Ting

    2010-08-15

    In this study, we show that acid yellow 9 (4-amino-1-1'-azobenzene-3,4'-disulfonicacid, AY) is a good stabilizing agent for multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs dispersed in AY solution was remained stable about three months and even remained stable after centrifugation at 10,000 rpm for 30 min. Using MWCNTs/AY dispersion, thin-films were prepared on indium tin oxide coated glass electrode and glassy carbon electrodes. Further, dried films of MWCNTs/AY were subjected to electropolymerization in 0.1M H(2)SO(4) solution. Adsorbed AY molecules on MWCNTs get polymerized and they yield a polymer-MWCNTs nanocomposite film on electrode surface which is found to be electrochemically active in wide pH range (1-11). Characterization studies were performed using cyclic voltammetry and SEM. These studies are supported that hybrid material PAY/MWCNTs was obtained. Moreover, newly synthesized PAY-MWCNTs composite film showed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards oxidation of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) with high sensitivity in physiological pH. Linear sweep voltammetry was employed to the determination of DA in the presence of AA in the range of 2x10(-7) to 1.4x10(-6) M. Amperometry was employed to determination of AA at 0.0 V in the range from 1x10(-6) to 5.6x10(-5) M, and DA, uric acid are not interfered on the steady-state current of AA. In addition, real samples such as dopamine injection and AA spiked into human urine were analyzed using PAY/MWCNTs composite modified electrode and satisfactory results were obtained.

  15. 纳米ZnO/PS薄膜的制备及光降解性能%Preparation and photo degradation of nano-ZnO/polystyrene composite film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅敏; 冉德超; 汤敏; 郝丽萌; 皮俊敏

    2013-01-01

    利用纳米ZnO与聚苯乙烯(PS)高速共混法制备了一种在紫外光下具有自降解性能的复合薄膜.分析表明,经过KH570处理的纳米ZnO与PS通过化学键的方式桥联在一起.TG分析表明,复合薄膜的耐热性较PS有所提高;SEM图像显示0.5 wt% ZnO在PS薄膜表面分布均匀,经过UV照射后薄膜表面出现光腐蚀现象.复合薄膜紫外光自降解实验表明:0.5 wt% ZnO/PS薄膜在15W的紫外灯照射下,15d的自降解率为3.715%.%Composite film which has self-degradation performance under UV light was prepared by blending nano-ZnO and polystyrene at high speed in this study. Analysis indicates that after adding the coupling agent KH57O, nano-ZnO and PS were linked together through chemical bonding. The TG spectra showed that ZnO/PS composite film has higher heat resistant than pure PS. Also, SEM images indicated that 0. 5 wt% nano-ZnO were evenly distributed in the PS membrane, however, light corrosion appeared on the membrane surface after UV irradiation. The UV irradiation experiments showed that for a 0. 5 wt% ZnO/PS composite film, after 15 days at a UV irradiation power of 15 W, the degradation rate reached 3. 715% .

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Thin-Film Composite Membrane with Nanowire-Modified Support for Forward Osmosis Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Xian Low

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Internal concentration polarization (ICP in forward osmosis (FO process is a characteristic problem for asymmetric thin-film composite (TFC FO membrane which leads to lower water flux. To mitigate the ICP effect, modification of the substrates’ properties has been one of the most effective methods. A new polyethersulfone-based ultrafiltration membrane with increased surface porosity and high water flux was recently produced by incorporating Zn2GeO4 nanowires. The composite membrane was used as a substrate for the fabrication of TFC FO membrane, by coating a thin layer of polyamide on top of the substrate. The substrate and the nanowires were characterized by a range of techniques such as SEM, XRD, and contact angle goniometry. The water permeability and molecular weight cut-offs (MWCO of the substrate; and the FO performance of the TFC membrane were also determined. The Zn2GeO4-modified membrane showed ~45% increase in water permeability and NaCl salt rejection of 80% under RO mode. In FO mode, the ratio of water flux to reverse solute flux was also improved. However, lower FO flux was obtained which could be due to ICP. The result shows that Zn2GO4 nanowire may be used as a modifier to the substrate to improve the quality of the polyamide layer on the substrate to improve the flux and selectivity, but not as effective in reducing ICP. This work demonstrates that the incorporation of nanomaterials to the membrane substrate may be an alternative approach to improve the formation of polyamide skin layer to achieve better FO performance.

  17. Electrochemical Formation of Polypyrrole-carboxymethylcellulose Conducting Polymer Composite Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.N.M. Ekramul Mahmud; Anuar Kassim; Zulkarnain Zainal; Wan Mahmood Mat Yunus

    2005-01-01

    The electrochemical preparation of polypyrrole-carboxymethylcellulose (PPY-CMC) conducting polymer composite films on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass electrode from an aqueous solution containing pyrrole monomer, ptoluenesulfonate electrolyte and carboxymethylcellulose insulating polymer is reported. The characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) shows that carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) has been successfully incorporated into polypyrrole structure forming PPY-CMC polymer composite films. The conductivity of the prepared composite films was found to increase with increaseing CMC concentration in pyrrole solution. The optical microscopic results show the influence of CMC concentration in the pyrrole solution over the morphological changes of the prepared films. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) on the prepared PPY-CMC film reveals the higher plastic property of the PPY-CMC composite film.

  18. ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDIES ON CONDUCTING COMPOSITE FILMS FROM POLYURETHANE AND POLYPYRROLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Xiantong; PEI Qibing; LI Yongfang

    1988-01-01

    A study on the electrooxidative polymerization of pyrrole onto polyurethane-coated platinum electrodes and the electrochemical properties of the composite polyurethane/polypyrrole films (PU/PPy) as-prepared is presented. It is found that polypyrrole grows layer by layer from the polyurethane/platinum interface through the polyurethane matrix, and ca. 20 wt.% of polypyrrole will fill up the matrix. Cyclic voltammograms show that the composite films are porous, and the reduction-reoxidation (redox) rate of the composite films is limited by the diffusion ofcounteranions through the films. Larger anion size leads to slower diffusion process.The composite films can also act as modified electrodes.

  19. THE PREPARATION AND STUDY ON THE NANO-TiO2/SILK FIBROIN COMPOSITE FILMS BY THE SOL-GEL METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xinxing; CHEN Jianyong; YU Chunhua

    2006-01-01

    Based on the sol-gel technique using butyl titanate as oxide precursor, the regenerated SF (silk fibroin)/nano-TiO2 composite films were synthesized. Different amounts of butyl titanate to SF were used to verify this effect on the characteristics of the formed materials. Samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry, UV, AFM and FT-IR spectroscopy.The experimental results reveal that, compared to the pure silk fibroin films, the mechanical strength of these regenerated SF/nano-TiO2 composite films were increased and the dissolubility in water of SF/nano-TiO2 composite films in aqueous solution were decreased. The diameter of nano-TiO2 particle films was about 80nm through UV and AFM. The nano-TiO2 particles were well dispersed in the regenerated silk fibroin. It was found that the crystal structures of the composite films were transited from typical Silk Ⅰ to typical Silk Ⅱ by the XRD and FTIR. Furthermore, the crystallinity of the composite films was obviously improved. Through the TGA, it was demonstrated that the heat transition temperature of composite films was also enhanced.

  20. Chemical bonding structural analysis of nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond/hydrogenated amorphous carbon composite films prepared by coaxial arc plasma deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gima, Hiroki; Zkria, Abdelrahman; Katamune, Yūki; Ohtani, Ryota; Koizumi, Satoshi; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped ultra-nanocrystalline diamond/hydrogenated amorphous carbon composite films prepared in hydrogen and nitrogen mixed-gas atmospheres by coaxial arc plasma deposition with graphite targets were studied electrically and chemical-bonding-structurally. The electrical conductivity was increased by nitrogen doping, accompanied by the production of n-type conduction. From X-ray photoemission, near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure, hydrogen forward-scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectral results, it is expected that hydrogen atoms that terminate diamond grain boundaries will be partially replaced by nitrogen atoms and, consequently, π C–N and C=N bonds that easily generate free electrons will be formed at grain boundaries.

  1. 聚乙烯醇基热致导电复合膜的制备%Preparation of poly( vinyl alcohol) conductive composite films by thermal reduction methond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 张军华

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,with polyvinyl alcohol and silver nitrate as raw material,different content of silver nitrate was dissolved in PVA solution,then the AgNO3/PVA composite films were prepared by solution casting. After AgNO3/PVA composite films were heated,under the hydroxyl of PVA, silver nitrate was reduced to silver particles which make the films conductivity. The thermal properties of PVA/AgNO3 film and the morphology and structure of the film after heat treatment were studied by thermogravimetry a-nalysis,differential scanning calorimeter,scanning electrical microscopy,X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that the PVA/Ag-NO3 composite films presented an exothermic peak between 150℃ and 200℃ which showed silver nitrate was reduced silver parti-cles during the temperature. Ag nanoparticles were prepared after heat treatment and the average sizes of silver particles were 100 nm. As the existence of Ag,with increasing heat temperature electric conductivity increase several 5 order of magnitude from 150 to 175 ℃ which indicated that the improvement of heat treatment temperature and time reduced Ag effectively and conductivity in-creased with silver particles closing to each other.%以硝酸银和聚乙烯醇(PVA)为原料,将不同浓度的硝酸银溶解在PVA水溶液中,通过溶液成膜法制备了含有硝酸银的薄膜.对薄膜加热,硝酸银在聚乙烯醇羟基作用下还原成银粒子,从而使薄膜具有导电性.通过热失重分析仪、差示扫描量热仪、扫描电子显微镜、X射线衍射等方法研究了薄膜热性能和热处理后薄膜表面形貌和结构分析.结果表明,AgNO3/PVA复合薄膜在150~200℃之间出现一个放热峰,表明硝酸银在此温度区间被还原成银粒子.通过热处理方式制备出纳米银,平均尺寸在100 nm左右.由于银粒子的存在,使薄膜具有导电性,当热处理温度从150℃升至175℃,薄膜表面电导率从3.16×10-9 S·cm-1增加至1.76×10-4 S·cm-1,增加了5

  2. Preparation and antibacterial activity of Ag–TiO2 composite film by liquid phase deposition (LPD) method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S-Q Sun; B Sun; Wenqin Zhang; D Wang

    2008-02-01

    A liquid phase deposition (LPD) method has been devised for the deposition of Ag–TiO2 thin films on ceramic tiles with glazed surface at a low temperature. The Ag–TiO2 thin films obtained were welladhered, homogenous and coloured by interference of reflected light. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. From these analyses, it was found that silver ions were trapped in TiO2 matrix and their reduction could be achieved at 600°C annealing temperature. The antibacterial activity against S. aureus and . coli has been studied applying the so called antibacterial-drop test. The Ag–TiO2 thin films exhibited a high antibacterial activity. AAS was used for the quantitave determination of silver ion concentration releasing from the Ag–TiO2 thin film. The releasing rate of silver ions from the Ag–TiO2 film was 0.118 g/ml during 192 h. The antibacterial effect of Ag–TiO2 thin film before and after aging in a weathering chamber for 48 h was compared and the results show that the antibacterial activity is not compromised after weathering.

  3. Preparation of high-content hexagonal boron nitride composite film and characterization of atomic oxygen erosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Min; Gu, Yizhuo; Wang, Shaokai; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2017-04-01

    Space aircrafts circling in low earth orbit are suffered from highly reactive atomic oxygen (AO). To shield AO, a flexible thin film with 80 wt.% hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and h-BN/epoxy film were fabricated through vacuum filtration and adding nanofibrillated cellulose fibers. H-BN nanosheets were hydroxylated for enhancing interaction in the films. Mass loss and erosion yield at accumulated AO fluence about 3.04 × 1020 atoms/cm2 were adopted to evaluate the AO resistance properties of the films. A carpet-like rough surface, chemical oxidations and change in crystal structure of h-BN were found after AO treatment, and the degrading mechanism was proposed. The mass loss and erosion yield under AO attack were compared between h-BN film and h-BN/epoxy film, and the comparison was also done for various types of shielding AO materials. Excellent AO resistance property of h-BN film is shown, and the reasons are analyzed.

  4. Preparation and Properties of TiC/PI Composite Films with High Dielectric Constant%碳化钛/聚酰亚胺高介电复合薄膜的制备及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁凌; 闫利文; 景伟; 龚忠良

    2012-01-01

    采用机械共混法将经硅烷偶联剂改性的碳化钛粉体掺杂入聚酰亚胺中,制备了碳化钛/聚酰亚胺复合薄膜.分析了不同碳化钛粒子含量对复合薄膜的显微结构、力学性能及介电性能的影响.实验结果表明,随着纳米TiC含量的不断升高,复合薄膜的拉伸强度呈现先上升后下降的趋势,复合薄膜的耐电击穿场强迅速下降.与此同时,复合材料的介电常数则显著提高.%A series of TiC/PI composite films were prepared by mechanical dispersion method. Modifier silicon coupling agent (DB550) was added during composite preparation to disperse the TiC particles in polyimide matrix. The effects of TiC contents on the micro -morphology, mechanical and electrical properties of PI composite films were investigated. The results indicated that the addition of TiC panicles had a great effect on the properties of PI composite films. With the increase in volume content of TiC, the tensile strength of the composite films increased firstly to as high as 137MPa, when TiC content was 10%, then it decreased with the further increasing of TiC content. However, the resistance field electric breakdown of composite film was falling with the increase of TiC contents. The analysis results of dielectric performance showed that the dielectric properties of the composite films were much better than that of the pure film.

  5. Sustainable Process for the Preparation of High-Performance Thin-Film Composite Membranes using Ionic Liquids as the Reaction Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariën, Hanne; Bellings, Lotte; Hermans, Sanne; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2016-05-23

    A new form of interfacial polymerization to synthesize thin-film composite membranes realizes a more sustainable membrane preparation and improved nanofiltration performance. By introducing an ionic liquid (IL) as the organic reaction phase, the extremely different physicochemical properties to those of commonly used organic solvents influenced the top-layer formation in several beneficial ways. In addition to the elimination of hazardous solvents in the preparation, the m-phenylenediamine (MPD) concentration could be reduced 20-fold, and the use of surfactants and catalysts became redundant. Together with the more complete recycling of the organic phase in the water/IL system, these factors resulted in a 50 % decrease in the mass intensity of the top-layer formation. Moreover, a much thinner top layer with a high ethanol permeance of 0.61 L m(-2)  h(-1)  bar(-1) [99 % Rose Bengal (RB, 1017 Da) retention; 1 bar=0.1 MPa] was formed without the use of any additives. This EtOH permeance is 555 and 161 % higher than that for the conventional interfacial polymerization (without and with additives, respectively). In reverse osmosis, high NaCl retentions of 97 % could be obtained. Finally, the remarkable decrease in the membrane surface roughness indicates the potential for reduced fouling with this new type of membrane.

  6. Preparation of Conductive Polymer Graphite (PG) Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munirah Abdullah, Nur; Saddam Kamarudin, M.; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Abdullah, M. F. L.

    2017-08-01

    The preparation of conductive polymer graphite (PG) composites thin film is described. The thickness of the PG composites due to slip casting method was set approximately ~0.1 mm. The optical microscope (OM) and fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) has been operated to distinguish the structure-property relationships scheme of PG composites. It shows that the graphite is homogenously dispersed in polymer matrix composites. The electrical characteristics of the PG composite were measured at room temperature and the electrical conductivity (σ) was discovered with respect of its resistivity (Ω). By achieving conductivity of 103 S/m, it is proven that at certain graphite weight loading (PG20, PG25 and PG30) attributes to electron pathway in PG composites.

  7. Preparation of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2 composite film and influence of layer number and layer sequence on the visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Ma, C. H.; Wang, J.; Li, S. G.; Li, Y.; Wang, B. X.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, the Er3+:Y3Al5O12 as up-conversion luminescence agent was mixed with TiO2 and the corresponding Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2 composite films were prepared on the one-sided surface of treated sheet glass through sol-gel dip-coating method. The prepared Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2 composite films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Their photocatalytic activities were examined through the degradation of some organic dyes under visible-light irradiation. The degradation process of organic dyes was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Furthermore, some main influence factors on the visible-light photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2 composite film such as heat-treatment temperature and heat-treatment time were studied. The results indicate that three layer Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2 composite films with one Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2 composite film (as first layer close to sheet glass) and two pure TiO2 film (as second and third layers) display a higher visible-light photocatalytic activity during photocatalytic degradation of Azo Fuchsine. In addition, the results showed that the visible-light photocatalytic activity of Er3+:Y3Al5O12/TiO2 composite film related to the layer number and layer sequence on the sheet glass. Perhaps, the research results may offer some meaningful references for developing solar energy continuous flow wastewater treatment reactor.

  8. 复合纳米金膜的制备及其光学性质%Preparation and Optical Properties of Gold nanoparticles Containing Composite Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万淼; 魏刚; 袁红; 洪汉烈

    2011-01-01

    本文利用化学还原法制备了不同尺寸的金纳米颗粒,并利用离子自组装多层技术在玻璃基底上沉积了基于金纳米颗粒的复合纳米金膜,研究了颗粒尺寸和成膜厚度对复合金膜光学性质的影响.不同比例的柠檬酸钠与氯金酸产生的金纳米颗粒溶液的紫外-可见光谱随着金颗粒直径增大而红移展宽.适量比例的柠檬酸钠与氯金酸能够产生平均直径为14±1.2nm且尺寸分布均匀的金纳米球;其溶液在518nm处有一特征吸收峰.不同大小的金纳米颗粒形成的薄膜的紫外-可见光谱形状不同,局域表面等离子体共振峰的位置随着颗粒直径的减小而向短波方向迁移.薄膜的沉积层数越多,薄膜表面的颗粒分布越均匀,局域表面等离子体峰的峰值变化也将减小.本工作证实了利用离子自组装多层技术能够快速、简易、低成本地在玻璃基底上沉积具有局域表面等离子体共振的复合纳米金膜.%Gold-nanoparticles (AuNPs) with different diameters were prepared by chemical reduction method, then composite gold films were deposited on glass slides by ionic self-assembled multilayers (ISAM) technique. Gold colloid with different diameters can be produced by different ratios of sodium citrate to HAuCl4, and the UV-vis peak wavelength of colloid shifts to shorter wavelength with decreasing AuNPs size. Gold-nanospheres with uniform size (14+ 1.2nm average diameter) and good size distribution can be prepared, and the UV-vis adsorption peak of this colloid locates at 518nm. Optical properties of the composite gold films depend on both AuNPs size and ISAM film thickness. The position of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the gold film shifts to shorter wavelength with decreasing AuNPs size. With increasing the number of deposited layers, the film surface gets uniform characteristic and stable LSPR position.

  9. Composites prepared from the waterborne polyurethane cationomers-modified graphene. Part II. Electrical properties of the polyurethane films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Piotr; Król, Bożena; Zenker, Marek; Subocz, Jan

    The research was planned to test electrical properties of polymer films made from polyurethane cationomers with 0-2 wt.% graphene admixture. The cationomers were synthetized in the reaction of 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate), polycaprolactone diol (M = 2000), N-methyldiethanolamine, and formic acid. It was found that addition of approx. 2 wt.% of graphene causes the loss of volume resistivity by three orders of magnitude and percolation threshold is already set at approx. 1 wt.%. The frequency characteristic of a real part of permittivity ε' and imaginary part of permittivity ε″ were measured for the tested films. On the base of Havriliak-Negami equation, parameters of relaxation functions in frequency domain were estimated for samples containing various contents of graphene. The influence of the cationomer phase structure on observed changes of dielectric losses coefficient tgδ in the full-measuring frequency spectrum was discussed.

  10. Single-layer nano-carbon film, diamond film, and diamond/nano-carbon composite film field emission performance comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Jinye; Wang, Lijun

    2016-05-01

    A series of single-layer nano-carbon (SNC) films, diamond films, and diamond/nano-carbon (D/NC) composite films have been prepared on the highly doped silicon substrate by using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques. The films were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission I-V measurements. The experimental results indicated that the field emission maximum current density of D/NC composite films is 11.8-17.8 times that of diamond films. And the field emission current density of D/NC composite films is 2.9-5 times that of SNC films at an electric field of 3.0 V/μm. At the same time, the D/NC composite film exhibits the advantage of improved reproducibility and long term stability (both of the nano-carbon film within the D/NC composite cathode and the SNC cathode were prepared under the same experimental conditions). And for the D/NC composite sample, a high current density of 10 mA/cm2 at an electric field of 3.0 V/μm was obtained. Diamond layer can effectively improve the field emission characteristics of nano-carbon film. The reason may be due to the diamond film acts as the electron acceleration layer.

  11. Composites prepared from the waterborne polyurethane cationomers-modified graphene. Part II. Electrical properties of the polyurethane films

    OpenAIRE

    Król, Piotr; Król, Bożena; Zenker, Marek; Subocz, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The research was planned to test electrical properties of polymer films made from polyurethane cationomers with 0–2 wt.% graphene admixture. The cationomers were synthetized in the reaction of 4,4′-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate), polycaprolactone diol (M = 2000), N-methyldiethanolamine, and formic acid. It was found that addition of approx. 2 wt.% of graphene causes the loss of volume resistivity by three orders of magnitude and percolation threshold is already set at approx. 1 wt.%. The fre...

  12. Platinum-Iridium Alloy Films Prepared by MOCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yan; CHEN Li; CAI Hongzhong; ZHENG Xu; YANG Xiya; HU Changyi

    2012-01-01

    Platinum-Iridium alloy films were prepared by MOCVD on Mo substrate using metal-acetylacetonate precursors.Effects of deposition conditions on composition,microstructure and mechanical properties were determined.In these experimental conditions,the purities of films are high and more than 99.0%.The films are homogeneous and monophase solid solution of Pt and Ir.Weight percentage of platinum are much higher than iridium in the alloy.Lattice constant of the alloy changes with the platinum composition.Iridium composition showing an up-down-up trend at the precursor temperature of 190~230℃ and the deposition temperature at 400~550℃.The hardness of Pt-Ir alloys prepared by MOCVD is three times more than the alloys prepared by casting.

  13. Preparation of flat carbon support films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, RI; Oostergetel, GT; Brisson, A

    2003-01-01

    Wrinkling of carbon support films is known to limit the resolution of electron microscopy images of protein two-dimensional crystals. The origin of carbon wrinkling during preparation of the support films was investigated by reflected light microscopy. We observed that carbon films go through severa

  14. Alginate-magnesium aluminum silicate composite films: effect of film thickness on physical characteristics and permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2008-01-04

    The different film thicknesses of the sodium alginate-magnesium aluminum silicate (SA-MAS) microcomposite films were prepared by varying volumes of the composite dispersion for casting. Effect of film thickness on thermal behavior, solid-state crystallinity, mechanical properties, water uptake and erosion, and water vapor and drug permeability of the microcomposite films were investigated. The film thickness caused a small change in thermal behavior of the films when tested using DSC and TGA. The crystallinity of the thin films seemed to increase when compared with the thick films. The thin films gave higher tensile strength than the thick films, whereas % elongation of the films was on the contrary resulted in the lower Young's modulus of the films when the film thickness was increased. This was due to the weaker of the film bulk, suggesting that the microscopic matrix structure of the thick films was looser than that of the thin films. Consequently, water uptake and erosion, water vapor permeation and drug diffusion coefficient of the thick films were higher than those of the thin films. The different types of drug on permeability of the films also showed that a positive charge and large molecule of drug, propranolol HCl, had higher lag time and lower diffusion coefficient that acetaminophen, a non-electrolyte and small molecule. This was because of a higher affinity of positive charge drug on MAS in the films. The findings suggest that the evaporation rate of solvent in different volumes of the composite dispersion used in the preparation method could affect crystallinity and strength of the film surface and film bulk of the microcomposite films. This led to a change in water vapor and drug permeability of the films.

  15. Structural, compositional and photoluminescence characteristics of CuInSe{sub 2} thin films prepared by close-spaced vapor transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zouaoui, A.; Chaffa, A.; Kesri, N. [U.S.T.H.B., Alger (Algeria). Inst. de Phys.; Lachab, M.; Hidalgo, M.L.; Llinares, C. [Montpellier-2 Univ. 34 (France). Centre d`Electronique et de Micro-Optoelectronique

    1999-02-08

    The present work deals with the investigation of the growth temperature effects on the properties of polycrystalline Cu-In-Se thin films, prepared by the close-spaced vapor technique (CSVT) using iodine as a transport agent. The deposition was performed onto glass substrates heated at temperatures ranging from 300 to 550 C. Characterizations by means of compositional analysis. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, spectrophotometry and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were carried out. Cu-rich, near stoichiometric and In-rich layers with varying morphology and thickness (up to 10 {mu}m) were obtained. They were homogeneous and well-adherent to the substrate. Results also show that the physical properties are strongly dependent on the Cu/In ratio. Following vacuum annealing, the iodine generally present in the as-deposited Cu-rich samples disappeared while only the layers heat treated under a selenium atmosphere exhibit PL signals. These signals were used to locate, then to identify the energy levels associated with various intrinsic defects responsible for the electrical and optical properties. (orig.) 43 refs.

  16. Synthesis of Photochromic AgCl-Urethane Resin Composite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Miyazaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AgCl-resin photochromic composite films were prepared using AgNO3, HCl-EtOH, CuCl2 solution, and a liquid-state urethane resin as starting materials. The obtained composite films showed a photochromic property. The rate of darkening of the composite film increased after mixing with CuCl2. The AgCl particle size in the film without heat treatment was 6–20 nm, and that of the heat-treated film was 25–80 nm; these results were confirmed using TEM observations. The fading rate of the film without heat treatment was higher than that of the heat-treated films.

  17. Structural characteristics of copper/hydrogenated amorphous carbon composite films prepared by microwave plasma-assisted deposition processes from methane-argon and acetylene-argon gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiery, F.; Pauleau, Y.; Grob, J.J.; Babonneau, D

    2004-11-01

    Copper/hydrogenated amorphous carbon (Cu/a-C:H) composite films have been deposited on silicon substrates by a hybrid technique combining microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and sputter-deposition from methane-argon and acetylene-argon gas mixtures. The major objective of this work was to investigate the effect of the carbon gas precursor on the structural characteristics of Cu/a-C:H composite films deposited at ambient temperature. The major characteristics of CH{sub 4}-argon and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}-argon plasmas were analyzed by Langmuir probe measurements. The composition of films was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, energy recoil detection analyses and nuclear reaction analyses. The carbon content in the films was observed to vary in the range 20-77 at.% and 7.5-99 at.% as the CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} concentrations in the gas phase increased from 10 to 100%, respectively. The atom number ratio H/C in the films was scattered approximately 0.4 whatever the carbon gas precursor used. The crystallographic structure and the size of copper crystallites incorporated in the a-C were determined by X-ray diffraction techniques. The copper crystallite size decreased from 20 nm in pure copper films to less than 5 nm in Cu/a-C:H films containing more than 40 at.% of carbon. Grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering measurements were performed to investigate the size distribution and distance of copper crystallites as functions of the deposition parameters. The structural characteristics of copper crystallites were dependent on the hydrocarbon gas precursor used. The crystallite size and the width of the size distribution were homogeneous in films deposited from CH{sub 4}. Copper crystallites with an anisotropic shape were found in films deposited from C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. The major radicals formed in the plasma and condensed on the surface of growing films, namely CH and C{sub 2}H radicals for films produced from CH{sub 4} and C

  18. Functional Ag porous films prepared by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guoping; Xiao, Xiudi; Liu, Xiaofeng; Qian, Bin; Liao, Yang; Wang, Chen; Chen, Danping; Qiu, Jianrong

    2009-06-01

    Face-centered cubic Ag porous films have been prepared directly from the heat treatment of AgNO 3-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) electrospun nanofibers. Using Rhodamine B (RB) as the probing molecule, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect of Ag porous films was demonstrated. The antibacterial activity of Ag porous films was also studied in this work. The propagation and biological activity of yeast cells were effectively inhibited by Ag porous films. These functional Ag porous films were expected to be applied in many fields, such as catalysis, diagnostics, sensors and antibacterial, etc.

  19. Method for preparing ceramic composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kathleen B.; Tiegs, Terry N.; Becher, Paul F.; Waters, Shirley B.

    1996-01-01

    A process for preparing ceramic composite comprising blending TiC particulates, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 particulates and nickle aluminide and consolidating the mixture at a temperature and pressure sufficient to produce a densified ceramic composite having fracture toughness equal to or greater than 7 MPa m.sup.1/2, a hardness equal to or greater than 18 GPa.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Conducting Polybutadiene/ Polythiophene Composites

    OpenAIRE

    KIRALP, Senem; Küçükyavuz, Zuhal

    2003-01-01

    Conductive composite films of cis-1,4-polybutadiene (PBD) with polythiophene (PTh) were prepared electrochemically. Thiophene was polymerized on PBD-coated platinium electrodes. The composites with different PTh percentages showed conductivity in the order of 10-3 (W cm)-1. The characterization of the films was performed using FTIR, scanning electron microscope and differential scanning calorimetry techniques. In order to understand the dominant transport mechanism, the temperature...

  1. Enhanced stability and mechanical strength of sodium alginate composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sijun; Li, Yong; Li, Lin

    2017-03-15

    This work aims to study how three kinds of nanofillers: graphene oxide (GO), ammonia functionalized graphene oxide (AGO), and triethoxylpropylaminosilane functionalized silica, can affect stability and mechanical strength of sodium alginate (SA) composite films. The filler/sodium alginate (SA) solutions were first studied by rheology to reveal effects of various fillers on zero shear viscosity η0. SA composite films were then prepared by a solution mixing-evaporation method. The structure, morphology and properties of SA composite films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), contact angle and mechanical testing. Compared to GO and silica, the presence of AGO significantly improved the interaction between AGO and SA, which led to the increase in stability and mechanical strength of the resulting SA composite films. The tensile strength and elongation at break of AGO/SA composite film at 3wt% AGO loading were increased by 114.9% and 194.4%, respectively, in contrast to pure SA film. Furthermore, the stability of AGO/SA composite films at high temperatures and in a wet environment were better than that of silica/SA and GO/SA composite films. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Super-Hydrophilic TiO2/SiO2 Composite Thin Films%超亲水TiO2/SiO2复合薄膜的制备与表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余家国; 赵修建; 林立; 韩建军; 赵青南

    2001-01-01

    通过sol-gel工艺在普通钠钙玻璃表面制备了均匀透明的TiO2/SiO2复合薄膜。实验结果表明:在TiO2薄膜中添加SiO2,可以抑制薄膜中TiO2晶粒的长大,同时薄膜表面的羟基含量增加,水在复合薄膜表面的润湿角下降,亲水能力增强。当SiO2含量为10~20 mol%时获得了润湿角为0℃的超亲水性薄膜。%The uniform transparent TiO2/SiO2 composite thin films were prepared via sol-gel processing on the soda lime glass substrates. The addition of SiOn. to TiO2 thin films can suppress the grain growth of TiO2 crystal in the TiO2 thin films, increase the hydroxyl content of TiO2 film, low the contact angle for water of TiO2 films and enhance the hydrophilic property of TiO2 films. The super-hydrophilic TiO2/SiO2 composite films with the contact angle of 0° were obtained by the addition of 10mol%~20mol% SiO2.

  3. Preparation of biaxially oriented TlCu-1234 thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, N A; Tateai, F; Kojima, T; Ishida, K; Terada, N; Ihara, H

    1999-01-01

    The single phase of TlCu-1234 superconductor thin films is prepared for the first time by the amorphous phase epitaxy (APE) method, which is thallium treatment of sputtered amorphous phase at 900 degrees C for 1 h. The amorphous $9 phase is prepared by sputtering from the stoichiometric target composition CuBa/sub 2/Ca/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O/sub 12-y/. The films on the SrTiO/sub 3/ substrate are aligned biaxially after the thallium treatment. Highly reproducible $9 TlCu-1234 films are prepared by this method. The XRD reflected a predominant single phase with the c-axis lattice constant of 18.74 AA. This lattice constant value is in between that of Cu-1234 (17.99 AA) and Tl-1234 (19.11 AA) . The $9 pole figure measurements of (103) reflection of the films showed a-axis-oriented crystals with Delta phi =0.8 degrees . The composition of the films after energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements is Tl/sub 0.8/Cu/sub 0.2/Ba/sub $9 2/Ca/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O /sub 12-y/. From the resistivity measurements, the T/sub c/ is 113 K...

  4. Preparation and Characterization of K-Carrageenan/Nanosilica Biocomposite Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh R. Rane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to improve the performance properties of K-carrageenan (K-CRG by utilizing nanosilica (NSI as the reinforcing agent. The composite films were prepared by solution casting method. NSI was added up to 1.5% in the K-CRG matrix. The prepared films were characterized for mechanical (tensile strength, tensile modulus, and elongation at break, thermal (differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, barrier (water vapour transmission rate, morphological (scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, and crystallinity properties. Tensile strength, tensile modulus, and crystallinity were found to have increased by 13.8, 15, and 48% whereas water vapour transmission rate was found to have decreased by 48% for 0.5% NSI loaded K-CRG composite films. NSI was found to have formed aggregates for concentrations above 0.5% as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Melting temperature, enthalpy of melting, and degradation temperature of K-CRG increased with increase in concentration of NSI in K-CRG. Contact angle also increased with increase in concentration of NSI in K-CRG, indicating the decrease in hydrophilicity of the films improving its water resistance properties. This knowledge of the composite film could make beneficial contributions to the food and pharmaceutical packaging applications.

  5. 纳米纤维素晶须/壳聚糖天然可降解复合膜的制备与性能%Preparation and Properties of Nanocellulose Whiskers/Chitosan Natural Biodegradable Composite Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐寅; 王家俊; 刘幸幸; 吴鲜鲜

    2011-01-01

    Natural biodegradable composite films are prepared from nanocellulose whiskers(NCW) as reinforcement and chitosan(CS) as matrix via solution casting technique. The structures of the films are characterized by SEM, FT-IR, and XRD; Dynamic mechanical properties, tensile performance under dry and wet conditions are also tested. The results show that the composite films exhibite good miscibility; NCW significantly increases films' storage modulus, tensile modulus and strength. NCW promises to further widen applications and areas of CS material.%以纳米纤维素晶须(NCW)为增强体、壳聚糖(CS)为基体,通过流延法制得天然可降解复合膜.通过电子显微镜( SEM)、红外光谱(FT-IR)、X射线衍射(XRD)等手段对复合膜进行结构表征,并对复合膜的动态力学性能、干湿态拉伸性能进行了测试.结果表明:NCW与CS具有很好的相容性;NCW的加入显著提高了CS膜的储能模量、拉伸模量和拉伸强度.NCW能够进一步拓宽CS材料的应用领域和价值.

  6. Texture control and growth mechanism of WSe2 film prepared by rapid selenization of W film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongchao; Gao, Di; Li, Kun; Pang, Mengde; Xie, Senlin; Liu, Rutie; Zou, Jianpeng

    2017-02-01

    The tungsten diselenide (WSe2) films with different orientation present unique properties suitable for specific applications, such as WSe2 with a C-axis⊥substrate for optoelectronics and WSe2 with a C-axis // substrate for electrocatalysts. Orientation control of WSe2 is essential for realizing the practical applications. In this letter, a WSe2 film has been prepared via rapid selenization of a magnetron-sputtered tungsten (W) film. The influence of the magnetron-sputtered W film on WSe2 film growth was studied systematically. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the morphology, microstructure and phase composition of the W and WSe2 films. The substrate temperature has a significant effect on the W film phase composition, but little effect on the WSe2 film orientation. The WSe2 orientation can be controlled by changing the W film microstructure. A dense W film that is deposited at low pressure is conducive to the formation of WSe2 with a C-axis⊥substrate, whereas a porous W film deposited at high pressure favors the formation of WSe2 with a C-axis // substrate. A growth model for the WSe2 film with different texture has been proposed based on the experimental results. The direction of selenium (Se) vapor diffusion differs at the top and side surfaces. This is a key factor for the preparation of anisotropic WSe2 films. Highly oriented WSe2 films with a C-axis⊥substrate grow from the dense W film deposited at low pressure because Se vapor can only diffuse into the W film from the top surface where it is converted into selenide. Highly oriented WSe2 with a C-axis // substrate can be achieved for the porous W film that is deposited at high pressure because the nanopores provide a fast transmission tunnel for Se vapor diffusion. These findings will contribute to the controlled fabrication of WSe2 film and provide a theoretical basis for its application.

  7. Preparation and Optimization of Fluorescent Thin Films of Rosamine-SiO2/TiO2 Composites for NO2 Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, María G.; Gámez, Francisco; Suárez, Belén; Queirós, Carla; Silva, Ana M. G.; Barranco, Ángel; Sánchez-Valencia, Juan Ramón; Pedrosa, José María; Lopes-Costa, Tânia

    2017-01-01

    The incorporation of a prototypical rosamine fluorescent dye from organic solutions into transparent and microstructured columnar TiO2 and SiO2 (MO2) thin films, prepared by evaporation at glancing angles (GAPVD), was evaluated. The aggregation of the adsorbed molecules, the infiltration efficiency and the adsorption kinetics were studied by means of UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Specifically, the infiltration equilibrium as well as the kinetic of adsorption of the emitting dye has been described by a Langmuir type adsorption isotherm and a pseudosecond order kinetic model, respectively. The anchoring mechanism of the rosamine to the MO2 matrix has been revealed by specular reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and infiltration from aqueous solutions at different pH values. Finally, the sensing performance towards NO2 gas of optimized films has been assessed by following the changes of its fluorescence intensity revealing that the so-selected device exhibited improved sensing response compared to similar hybrid films reported in the literature. PMID:28772484

  8. Preparation and Optimization of Fluorescent Thin Films of Rosamine-SiO2/TiO2 Composites for NO2 Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G. Guillén

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of a prototypical rosamine fluorescent dye from organic solutions into transparent and microstructured columnar TiO2 and SiO2 (MO2 thin films, prepared by evaporation at glancing angles (GAPVD, was evaluated. The aggregation of the adsorbed molecules, the infiltration efficiency and the adsorption kinetics were studied by means of UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Specifically, the infiltration equilibrium as well as the kinetic of adsorption of the emitting dye has been described by a Langmuir type adsorption isotherm and a pseudosecond order kinetic model, respectively. The anchoring mechanism of the rosamine to the MO2 matrix has been revealed by specular reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and infiltration from aqueous solutions at different pH values. Finally, the sensing performance towards NO2 gas of optimized films has been assessed by following the changes of its fluorescence intensity revealing that the so-selected device exhibited improved sensing response compared to similar hybrid films reported in the literature.

  9. Coassembly of gold nanoparticles and cellulose nanocrystals in composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukach, Ariella; Thérien-Aubin, Héloïse; Querejeta-Fernández, Ana; Pitch, Natalie; Chauve, Grégory; Méthot, Myriam; Bouchard, Jean; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2015-05-12

    Coassembly of nanoparticles with different size-, shape-, and composition-dependent properties is a promising approach to the design and fabrication of functional materials and devices. This paper reports the results of a detailed investigation of the formation and properties of free-stranding composite films formed by the coassembly of cellulose nanocrystals and shape-isotropic plasmonic gold nanoparticles. The effect of gold nanoparticle size, surface charge, and concentration on the structural and optical properties of the composite films has been studied. The composite films retained photonic crystal and chiroptical activity properties. The size and surface charge of gold nanoparticles had a minor effect on the structure and properties of the composite films, while the concentration of gold nanoparticles in the composite material played a more significant role and can be used to fine-tune the optical properties of materials derived from cellulose nanocrystals. These findings significantly broaden the range of nanoparticles that can be used for producing nanocomposite materials based on cellulose nanocrystals. The simplicity of film preparation, the abundance of cellulose nanocrystals, and the robust, free-standing nature of the composite films offer highly advantageous features and pave the way for the generation of functional materials with coupled optical properties.

  10. Drug release kinetics from carboxymethylcellulose-bacterial cellulose composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncu, Gheorghe; Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta; Stroescu, Marta; Isopencu, Gabriela; Jinga, Sorin Ion

    2016-08-30

    Composite films of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and bacterial cellulose (NaCMC-BC) cross-linked with citric acid (CA) were prepared by solution casting method. Ibuprofen sodium salt (IbuNa) has been used to study the mechanism of drug release from composite films. Surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and proved that the BC content influences the aspect of the films. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed specific peaks in IR spectra of composite films which sustain that NaCMC was cross-linked with CA. Starting from swelling observations, the release kinetic of IbuNa was described using a model which neglects the volume expansion due to polymer swelling and which considers non-linear diffusion coefficients for drug and solvent. The IbuNa release is also influenced by BC content, the drug release rate was decreasing with the increase of BC content.

  11. 大豆分离蛋白-水溶性大豆多糖可食性复合膜的制备与性质%Preparation and characterization of soy protein isolates and soluble soybean polysaccharides composite film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵欣; 管骁

    2013-01-01

    Soy protein isolates (SPI) and soluble soybean polysaccharides (SSPS) were used as the main raw material to prepare edible composite film.The properties of the film were studies.The ratio of SPI to SSPS,the a ddition amount of glycerin and sodium alginate and calcium ion concentration were chosen as the effect factors.Single factor experiment and orthogonal tests were conducted to explore the optimal formula of SPI and SSPS composite film.The properties of the composite film were evaluated by water soluble,water vapor permeability,tensile strength,and breaking elongation rate.The results showed that the optimal formula of SPI and SSPS composite film was:SPI to SSPS ratio 1∶ 7,glycerin addition amount 2%,sodium alginate 4%,and calcium ion concentration 1.0mol/L.Under the optimal process conditions,the comprehensive performance of SPI and SSPS compound film had highest score of 67.79.%以大豆分离蛋白(soy protein isolates,SPI)和水溶性大豆多糖(soluble soybean polysaccharides,SSPS)为主要原料进行了可食性复合膜的制备与性质研究.综合考虑SPI与SSPS的比例、甘油、海藻酸钠添加量及钙离子浓度等影响因素,通过单因素与正交实验对成膜配方进行研究,得到了复合膜的最佳配比,并从水溶性、水蒸气透过性、抗拉伸强度、断裂延伸率等方面对膜的性质进行了综合评价.结果显示:在SPI∶ SSPS质量比为1∶7,甘油添加量2%,海藻酸钠添加量4%,Ca2浓度为1.0mol/L的条件下,复合膜的综合性能评分最高,为67.8.

  12. Gelatin-Pectin Composite Films from Polyion Complex Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composite films from gelatin and low-methoxyl pectin were prepared by either ionic complexation or covalent cross-linking. The ionic interactions between positively charged gelatin and negatively charged pectin produced physically reversible hydrogels. The resultant homogeneous gels had improved mec...

  13. Formation of Al-Si Composite Oxide Film by Hydrolysis Precipitation and Anodizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe-Sheng Feng; Ying-Jie Xia; Jia Ding; Jin-Ju Chen

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique in the high dielectric constant composite oxide film preparation.On the basis of nanocompsite high dielectric constant aluminum oxide film growth technology, a new idea of adulterating Si oxide species into the aluminum composite film was proposed. As a result, the specific capacitance and withstanding voltage of the composite oxide film formed at the anodizing voltage of 20V are enhanced, and the leakage current of the aluminum composite oxide film is reduced through incorporation of Si oxide species.

  14. Temperature-controlled transparent-film heater based on silver nanowire-PMMA composite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Liu, A'lei; Hu, Xuyang; Song, Mingxia; Duan, Feng; Lan, Qiuming; Xiao, Jundong; Liu, Junyan; Zhang, Mei; Chen, Yeqing; Zeng, Qingguang

    2016-11-25

    We fabricated a high-performance film heater based on a silver nanowire and polymethyl methacrylate (Ag NW-PMMA) composite film, which was synthesized with the assistance of mechanical lamination and an in situ transfer method. The films exhibit excellent conductivity, high figure of merit, and strong adhesion of percolation network to substrate. By controlling NW density, we prepared the films with a transmittance of 44.9-85.0% at 550 nm and a sheet resistance of 0.13-1.40 Ω sq(-1). A stable temperature ranging from 130 °C-40 °C was generated at 3.0 V within 10-30 s, indicating that the resulting film heaters show a rapid thermal response, low driving voltage and stable temperature recoverability. Furthermore, we demonstrated the applications of the film heater in defrosting and a physical therapeutic instrument. A fast defrosting on the composite film with a transmittance of 88% was observed by applying a 9 V driving voltage for 20 s. Meanwhile, we developed a physical therapeutic instrument with two modes of thermotherapy and electronic-pulse massage by using the composite films as two electrodes, greatly decreasing the weight and power consumption compared to a traditional instrument. Therefore, Ag NW-PMMA film can be a promising candidate for diversified heating applications.

  15. Temperature-controlled transparent-film heater based on silver nanowire-PMMA composite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Liu, A.'lei; Hu, Xuyang; Song, Mingxia; Duan, Feng; Lan, Qiuming; Xiao, Jundong; Liu, Junyan; Zhang, Mei; Chen, Yeqing; Zeng, Qingguang

    2016-11-01

    We fabricated a high-performance film heater based on a silver nanowire and polymethyl methacrylate (Ag NW-PMMA) composite film, which was synthesized with the assistance of mechanical lamination and an in situ transfer method. The films exhibit excellent conductivity, high figure of merit, and strong adhesion of percolation network to substrate. By controlling NW density, we prepared the films with a transmittance of 44.9-85.0% at 550 nm and a sheet resistance of 0.13-1.40 Ω sq-1. A stable temperature ranging from 130 °C-40 °C was generated at 3.0 V within 10-30 s, indicating that the resulting film heaters show a rapid thermal response, low driving voltage and stable temperature recoverability. Furthermore, we demonstrated the applications of the film heater in defrosting and a physical therapeutic instrument. A fast defrosting on the composite film with a transmittance of 88% was observed by applying a 9 V driving voltage for 20 s. Meanwhile, we developed a physical therapeutic instrument with two modes of thermotherapy and electronic-pulse massage by using the composite films as two electrodes, greatly decreasing the weight and power consumption compared to a traditional instrument. Therefore, Ag NW-PMMA film can be a promising candidate for diversified heating applications.

  16. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY-CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN FILM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.F. Hu; H. Shen; Z.Y. Liu; L.S. Wen

    2003-01-01

    Poly-crystalline silicon thin film has big potential of reducing the cost of solar cells.In this paper the preparation of thin film is introduced, and then the morphology of poly-crystalline thin film is discussed. On the film we developed poly-crystalline silicon thin film solar cells with efficiency up to 6. 05% without anti-reflection coating.

  17. An asymmetric electrically conducting self-aligned graphene/polymer composite thin film for efficient electromagnetic interference shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we study the self-aligned asymmetric electrically conductive composite thin film prepared via casting of graphene oxide (GO/poly (vinylidene-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP dispersion, followed by low temperature hydriodic acid reduction. The results showed that composite thin film revealed the high orientation of graphene sheets along the direction of film surface. However, graphene sheets are asymmetrically distributed along the film thickness direction in the composite film. Both sides of as prepared composite film showed different surface characteristics. The asymmetric surface properties of composite film induced distinction of surface resistivity response; top surface resistivity (21 Ohm is ∼ 4 times higher than bottom surface resistivity (5 Ohm. This asymmetric highly electrically conducting composite film revealed efficient electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding effectiveness of ∼ 30 dB. This study could be crucial for achieving aligned asymmetric composite thin film for high-performance EMI shielding radiation.

  18. 功能石墨烯/热塑性聚氨酯复合材料膜的制备及性能%Preparation and Properties of Functional Graphene/T hermoplastic Polyurethane Composite Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑辉东; 欧忠星; 郑玉婴; 肖东升; 曹宁宁

    2016-01-01

    采用双十二烷基二甲基溴化铵(DDAB)插层改性氧化石墨烯(DD‐GO),再用抗坏血酸进行还原制得功能石墨烯(DD‐RGO)。采用溶液成形的方法在涂膜机上制备功能石墨烯(DD‐RGO)/热塑性聚氨酯(TPU)复合材料膜,并利用FTIR、XRD、FE‐SEM、高阻计、氧气透过仪对DD‐RGO/TUP复合材料膜结构和性能进行表征。结果表明:经DDAB改性后的石墨烯能在T PU基体中能以褶皱层状的形式均匀的分散,并提高T PU的热稳定性、阻隔性与抗静电性。当DD‐RGO的添加量为2%时,复合材料膜的阻隔性与导电性相对于纯 T PU分别提高了50%与7个数量级,阻隔性与抗静电性明显提高。%The modified graphene oxide(DD‐GO) was reacted by the Didodecyldimethylammonium bro‐mide ( DDAB) and graphene oxide ,and then reduced via L‐ascorbic acid to obtain functional graphene (DD‐RGO) .Functional graphene (DD‐RGO)/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composite films were prepared by solution on the coating machine .The morphology and properties of DD‐RGO/TPU composite films were investigated by FTIR ,XRD ,FE‐SEM ,oxygen transmission rate tester and high resistance meter .The results show that DD‐RGO with fold layer structure is evenly dispersed in TPU matrix ,and the thermal stability ,barrier properties and antistatic properties of T PU composite film have been significantly improved .When the mass fraction of DD‐RGO is 2% ,compared with the pure T PU film ,the oxygen transmission rate has been reduced by 50% and the volume resistivity has been increased by 7 orders of magnitude .T he barrier properties and antistatic properties of composite films have been improved significantly .

  19. Decreased group velocity in compositionally graded films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei

    2006-03-01

    A theoretical formalism is presented that describes the group velocity of electromagnetic signals in compositionally graded films. The theory is first based on effective medium approximation or the Maxwell-Garnett approximation to obtain the equivalent dielectric function in a z slice. Then the effective dielectric tensor of the graded film is directly determined, and the group velocities for ordinary and extraordinary waves in the film are derived. It is found that the group velocity is sensitively dependent on the graded profile. For a power-law graded profile f(x)=ax(m), increasing m results in the decreased extraordinary group velocity. Such a decreased tendency becomes significant when the incident angle increases. Therefore the group velocity in compositionally graded films can be effectively decreased by our suitable adjustment of the total volume fraction, the graded profile, and the incident angle. As a result, the compositionally graded films may serve as candidate material for realizing small group velocity.

  20. Preparation and Tribological Properties of Self-Assembled Composite Films on Silicon Surface%硅表面复合自组装膜的制备及其摩擦性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘鹤; 滕淑华; 丁翠翠

    2012-01-01

    采用自组装技术在单晶硅表面制备了3-氨基丙基三乙氧基硅烷(APTES)-SiO2-APTES复合膜,并对其表面的组成、结构及摩擦性能进行了表征.结果表明:复合膜表面对水的接触角约为63°,且表面平整、致密,其平均粗糙度(Ra)约为0.963 nm.通过原子力显微镜(AFM)和透射电子显微镜(TEM)观察到夹层中SiO2颗粒的粒径约为20-50 nm,较均匀地分布在第一层APTES膜的表面.与APTES自组装单层膜(SAMs)相比,APTES-SiO2-APTES复合膜由于纳米SiO2颗粒的引入而表现出更低的摩擦系数和更长的耐磨寿命.%Composite films of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTESJ-SiOz-APTES were prepared on single-crystal silicon substrates using a self-assembly technique, and then their composition, structure, and tribological properties were characterized. The results showed that the composite films had a uniform and dense surface with an average roughness (Ra) of 0.963 nm and a contact angle of 63°. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed that, in the middle layer of the composite film, silica particles of 20-50 nm in diameter were uniformly deposited on the APTES layer. Compared to the APTES self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), the APTES-SiO2-APTES composite films exhibited a smaller friction coefficient and a longer wear life due to the introduction of the silica nano-particles.

  1. Preparation of foam nickel/silane film/ZnO composites and their photocatalytic performance%泡沫镍/硅烷膜/ZnO复合材料的制备及其光催化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何德良; 傅莉群; 冯勇; 李菲; 谭兆丹; 张泉

    2013-01-01

    Uniform ZnO microspheres were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal route. Foam nickel/silane film/ZnO composites were prepared by loading ZnO microspheres on the foam nickel with water base silane film as the binder. The morphology of composites was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic performances of composites loaded with ZnO for different cycles and those loaded with TiO2 in the photodegradation of methyl orange are investigated. The results reveal that ZnO microspheres with diameters of 5 μm are assembled by many porous nanosheets which are about 10 nm in thickness. Silane films which have thickness of about 1 urn are well adhered to the nickel foam, and some ZnO microspheres are embedded in silane films. Composites loaded ZnO for 1 cycle show the best photocatalytic performance and composites loaded with ZnO show better photocatalytic performance than those loaded with TiO2.%采用水热法制备氧化锌(ZnO)微球,并以水基硅烷膜为黏结层、以泡沫镍为基底负载ZnO微球,得到泡沫镍/硅烷膜/ZnO复合材料.采用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对泡沫镍/硅烷膜/ZnO复合材料的表面微观形貌进行观察.同时研究经多次负载ZnO微球的复合材料和负载纳米二氧化钛(TiO2)的复合材料对甲基橙的光催化降解效果.研究结果表明:ZnO微球的粒径约为5 μm,表面由厚度约为10nm的多孔鳞片组成,水基硅烷膜厚度约为1 μm,与泡沫镍基体结合紧密,负载的ZnO微球部分嵌入硅烷膜.经一次负载ZnO微球的复合材料降解性能最佳,负载ZnO微球的复合材料对甲基橙的降解效果优于负载纳米TiO2的复合材料.

  2. Novel Microporous Films and Their Composites

    OpenAIRE

    P.C. Wu, Ph.D; Greg Jones, Ph.D; Chris Shelley, Ph.D; Bert Woelfli, Ph.D

    2007-01-01

    Cost-effective microporous films and composites can be made by using polyolefinic material and inorganic fillers. These microporous films and their composites can be designed and manufactured at high speed using commercial equipment for disposable hygiene articles, protective health care garments, building construction and many other industrial applications where air and moisture breathability is needed. The theory, formulations and methods of making these cost-effective polyolefinic-calcium ...

  3. Thick film traps with an irregular film. Preparation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloskowski, Adam; Pettersson, Johan; Roeraade, Johan

    2004-05-07

    A new method for preparation of sorbent-based ultra-thick film traps for concentration of trace volatile components from gaseous matrices is described. The procedure is based on blowing a prepolymer (polydimethylsiloxane) through a capillary tube, forming an irregular film of stationary phase. Subsequently, the prepolymer is immobilized in a few seconds by heating to 200 degrees C. Evaluation of the performance of the new traps showed that the loss of efficiency, compared to regular smooth film traps is only on the order of 20-30%. In terms of breakthrough volume, this loss in performance is rather insignificant. The technology is extremely simple and allows a rapid and cheap production of a large number of ultra-thick film traps, even in non-specialized laboratories. The method can be applied to any type of cross-linkable stationary phase, thereby expanding the scope of sorbent-based trapping and preconcentration concept. Many applications are anticipated in trace and ultra-trace analysis in a wide range of fields, such as environmental chemistry, polymers, food and process analysis.

  4. Characterization of whey protein-carboxymethylated chitosan composite films with and without transglutaminase treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Juan; Zhang, Xuan; Ma, Ying; Tuo, Yanfeng; Qian, Fang; Fu, Wenjia; Mu, Guangqing

    2016-11-20

    Edible composite packaging has the advantage of complementary functional properties over its each bio-components. However, reports on whey protein concentrates (WPC)-carboxymethylated chitosan (CMC) composite films have not yet been released. To investigate the preparation of WPC-CMC composite films and its functional properties, four types of WPC-CMC composite films were prepared with and without Transglutaminase (TGase) treatment by mixing WPC aqueous solutions (10%, w/v) with CMC aqueous solutions (3%, w/v) at WPC to CMC volume ratios of (100:0), (75:25), (50:50), and (25:75). SDS-PAGE confirmed that TGase catalyzed crosslinking of whey protein. Results revealed that CMC incorporation conferred a smooth and even surface microstructure on the films and markedly improved the transparency, water barrier properties, mechanical properties and solubility of the composite film. Furthermore, TGase resulted in an improvement in the water vapor barrier properties and mechanical properties of WPC-CMC (75:25 and 50:50, v/v) composite films, and there was no impairment of thermal stability of composite films. Therefore, TGase successfully facilitated the formation of WPC-CMC composite films with some improved functional properties. This offers potential applications as an alternative approach to the preparation of edible packaging films.

  5. Compositional and physico-optical characterization of 0-5% Al-doped zinc oxide films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, R; Lopez-Ibanez, R; Ramos-Barrado, J R; Martin, F; Leinen, D [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficie (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I and Dpto. IngenierIa Quimica, Universidad de Malaga, E-29071 Malaga (Spain); Dalchiele, E A, E-mail: dietmar@uma.e [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de IngenierIa, Universidad de la Republica, Herrera y Reissig 565, C.C. 30, 11000 Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2010-03-10

    Highly transparent polycrystalline Al-doped ZnO thin films were deposited in open atmosphere by chemical spray pyrolysis on fused silica and glass substrates at 623 K. The influence of Al doping, 0 to 5%, was studied. XPS results revealed a linear relationship between Al content in the precursor solutions and Al content in the films. XPS depth profiling showed that any carbon contamination is restricted to the uppermost surface of the films. Optical transmission measurements revealed an increasing number of dispersion centres as well as a band gap shift to higher values with increasing Al content in the films. At fixed Al concentration, the comparison of the absorption coefficient for increasing film thickness showed that the films are very homogeneous, not changing their materials properties such as absorption coefficient and band gap.

  6. Development and physicochemical characterization of alginate composite film loaded with simvastatin as a potential wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvanian, Masoud; Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd; Ng, Shiow-Fern

    2016-02-10

    Previously, studies have demonstrated that topical application of simvastatin can promote wound healing in diabetic mice via augmentation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. This study aimed to formulate and characterize simvastatin in alginate-based composite film wound dressings. Biopolymers used for composite films were sodium alginate blended with pectin or gelatin. The films were prepared and characterized based on their physical properties, surface morphology, mechanical strength and rheology. Then, in vitro drug releases from the films were investigated and, finally, the cell viability assay was performed to assess the cytotoxicity profile. From the pre-formulation studies, alginate/pectin composite film showed to possess desirable wound dressing properties and superior mechanical properties. The in vitro drug release profile revealed that alginate/pectin film produced a controlled release drug profile, and cell viability assay showed that the film was non-toxic. In summary, alginate/pectin composite film is suitable to be formulated with simvastatin as a potential wound dressing.

  7. Magnetoelectric thin film composites with interdigital electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorra, A.; Jahns, R.; Teliban, I.; Gugat, J. L.; Gerken, M.; Knöchel, R.; Quandt, E.

    2013-07-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) thin film composites on silicon cantilevers are fabricated using Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.45)O3 (PZT) films with interdigital transducer electrodes on the top side and FeCoSiB amorphous magnetostrictive thin films on the backside. These composites without any direct interface between the piezoelectric and magnetostrictive phase are superior to conventional plate capacitor-type thin film ME composites. A limit of detection of 2.6 pT/Hz1/2 at the mechanical resonance is determined which corresponds to an improvement of a factor of approximately 2.8 compared to the best plate type sensor using AlN as the piezoelectric phase and even a factor of approximately 4 for a PZT plate capacitor.

  8. Novel Microporous Films and Their Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Wu, Ph.D

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Cost-effective microporous films and composites can be made by using polyolefinic material and inorganic fillers. These microporous films and their composites can be designed and manufactured at high speed using commercial equipment for disposable hygiene articles, protective health care garments, building construction and many other industrial applications where air and moisture breathability is needed. The theory, formulations and methods of making these cost-effective polyolefinic-calcium carbonate compositions are discussed. Special engineering fibers and their fabrics can be combined with these novel microporous films to achieve a variety of properties for practical applications. However, one should keep intellectual property considerations in mind when contemplating the manufacture of microporous film products, their companies and their applications.

  9. Effects of Excess Cu Addition on Photochromic Properties of AgCl-Urethane Resin Composite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Miyazaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AgCl-resin photochromic composite films were prepared using AgNO3, HCl-EtOH, CuCl2 ethanol solutions, and a urethane resin as starting materials. The AgCl particle size in the composite films, which was confirmed via TEM observations, was 23–43 nm. The AgCl composite films showed photochromic properties: coloring induced by UV-vis irradiation and bleaching induced by cessation of UV-vis irradiation. The coloring and bleaching speed of the composite film increases with increasing CuCl2 mixing ratio.

  10. Methanol electrooxidation on Pt particles dispersed into PANI/SWNT composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Gang; Li, Li; Li, Jing-Hong; Xu, Bo-Qing [Innovative Catalysis Program, Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2006-04-21

    Conducting polymer composite films comprised of polyaniline (PANI) and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) was prepared by electrochemical codeposition during the electropolymerization in an aniline solution with suspending SWNT. The fabricated composite films are assessed with respect to their potential application as support materials in Pt electrocatalyst for electrochemical oxidation of methanol. The PANI/SWNT composite film incorporated with SWNT has a higher polymeric degree and lower defect density in PANI structure than PANI film. Furthermore, the incorporation of SWNT also leads to higher electrochemically accessible surface areas (S{sub a}), electronic conductivity and easier charge-transfer at polymer/electrolyte interfaces, which make higher dispersion and utilization for deposited Pt. Therefore, the Pt particles electrodeposited on PANI/SWNT composite polymer film exhibits excellent catalytic activity and stability for the electrooxidation of methanol in comparison to Pt supported on PANI film, which reveals that the composite film is more promising for application in electrocatalyst as a support material. (author)

  11. Rain Erosion Behavior of Silicon Dioxide Films Prepared on Sapphire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping FENG; Zhengtang LIU; Wenting LIU

    2005-01-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) films were prepared on sapphire (α-Al2O3) by radio frequency magnetron reactive sputtering in order to in crease both transmission and rain erosion resistant performance of infrared domes of sapphire. Composition and structure of SiO2 films were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD),respectively. The transmittance of uncoated and coated sapphire was measured using a Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectrometer. Rain erosion tests of the uncoated and coated sapphire were performed at 211 m/s impact velocity with an exposure time ranging from 1 to 8 min on a whirling arm rig. Results show that the deposited films can greatly increase the transmission of sapphire in mid-wave IR. After rain erosion test, decreases in normalized transmission were less than 1% for designed SiO2 films and the SiO2 coating was strongly bonded to the sapphire substrate. In addition, sapphires coated with SiO2 films had a higher transmittance than uncoated ones after rain erosion.

  12. Preparation and characterization of polyimide/silica hybrid films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-yan; ZENG Shu-jin; DONG Tie-quan; ZHOU Sheng; FAN Yong; ZHANG Xiao-hong; LEI Qing-quan

    2006-01-01

    A kind of hybrid polyimide films was prepared by synthesizing poly( amic acid ) /Silica matrix resin through sol-gel technique and then followed by positing it on a silex glass plate and drying at high temperature.The effect of silica content on the corona-resistant property of the films was studied. The miscibility between the organic and inorganic phases and its effect on the corona-resistant property were investigated with aminopropyltriethoxysilane, which served as a coupling agent, added into the polyimide composite system. The chemical structure and the surface morphology of the films were characterized by FTIR and AFM respectively. The corona-resistant property of the films was tested by a rod-plate electrode. It proved that the corona-resistant property was enhanced with silica content. It also turned ont that the improvement of the miscibility between the two phases due to the presence of covalent force as a result of the addition of the coupling agent had, to some extent,effect on the corona-resistant property of the films. Furthermore, a theory on the corona-resistant property was put forward preliminarily.

  13. Study on Preparation and Properties Study of Nano-SiO2/PP Composite Fresh-keeping Film%纳米SiO2/PP复合保鲜膜的制备与性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张克宏

    2011-01-01

    以PP薄膜为基材、表面涂布纳米SiO2溶液,利用等离子体处理制备出SiO2/PP复合保鲜薄膜.通过红外、扫描电镜对复合保鲜膜的结构进行了分析,发现在等离子体的作用下,涂覆在薄膜表面的SiO2:与PP发生反应生成了Si-O-C结构;SEM表明,涂覆在薄膜表面的SiO2在等离子体的作用下呈现较为规则排列的迷津结构.透湿性能、拉伸强度和摩擦性能测试表明,与纯PP相比,复合保鲜薄膜的透湿率降低,拉伸强度增大,摩擦因数减小.利用该保鲜薄膜对草莓进行包装,考察对保鲜效果的影响,发现草莓在贮藏到第13 d时,失重率为6.9%、腐烂指数为19%、有机酸含量(质量分数,下同)为0.28%、可溶性同形物为6.1%、维生素C(Vc)含量为0.42 mg/g,保鲜效果优良.%Nano-SiO2/PP composite fresh-keeping film was prepared by the method of plasmas using PP as substrate and surface coating Si02 solution. The structure of composite fresh-keeping film was studied by FT-IR, SEM. The Si-O-C bonds were formed with the reaction of SiO2 coated in the surface of the film and PP under the plasma. SEM result indicated that the SiO2coated on the surface of the film showed more ordered maze structure. Various properties of composite fresh-keeping film were examined, such as moisture permeation, tensile strength, friction performance. Composite fresh-keeping film had low moisture permeability, high tensile strength and small friction coefficient compared with pure PP. The film was used to investigate the fresh-keeping effect to strawberry. It was indicated that the weight-loss ratio and rotting rate were 6. 9% and 19%, organic acid content, soluble solids and Vc content were 0. 28%, 6. 1% and 0. 42 mg/g,when strawberry was storaged to 13 days.

  14. Polyaniline/polysulfone composite film electrode for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Xiaojuan, E-mail: fengxiaojuan820@yahoo.cn [Chemistry Department of HeXi University, Zhangye 734000 (China); Shi Yanlong [Chemistry Department of HeXi University, Zhangye 734000 (China); Hu Zhongai [Key Laboratory of Polymer, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared a composite film which has bi-layers with asymmetric microstructure and relatively rich porosity which provides larger surface area for electrochemical reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The outer polysulfone layer is propitious for the organic molecules to enrich on the composite film, which brings great enhancement in electron transfer kinetics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite film electrode can be used to detect qualitatively or quantitatively hydroquinone and catechol in the single solute or mixed systems. - Abstract: Polyaniline (PAN)/polysulfone (PSF) composite film electrodes were successfully prepared by electropolymerization using cyclic votammetry technique. The composite film electrodes show a great enhancement in electron transfer kinetics, and the separation between oxidation and reduction peaks ({Delta}E{sub p}) decreases from 200 to 35 mV for hydroquinone (H{sub 2}Q) and from 275 to 42 mV for catechol (CC) at bare Pt and composite film electrodes respectively. In their mixed systems, the redox peak of H{sub 2}Q and two pairs of redox peaks of CC on this composite film electrode could be obviously distinguished which indicates the composite film electrodes have excellent electrocatalytic activity and reversibility towards the oxidation of two diphenols (hydroquinone and catechol). The linear relationships between the peak current and concentration are observed for single solute and mixed systems within the certain concentration range, implying that the composite film electrodes have potential application in the qualitative or quantitative analysis of diphenol.

  15. Preparation and optical and electrical evaluation of bulk SiO{sub 2} sonogel hybrid composites and vacuum thermal evaporated thin films prepared from molecular materials derived from (Fe, Co) metallic phthalocyanines and 1,8 dihydroxiantraquinone compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Vergara, Maria Elena [Coordinacion de Ingenieria Mecatronica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Anahuac Mexico Norte. Avenida Universidad Anahuac 46, Col. Lomas Anahuac, 52786 Huixquilucan, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Morales-Saavedra, Omar G. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, CCADET-UNAM, A.P. 70-186, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: omar.morales@ccadet.unam.mx; Ontiveros-Barrera, Fernando G.; Torres-Zuniga, Vicente; Ortega-Martinez, Roberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, CCADET-UNAM, A.P. 70-186, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz Rebollo, Armando [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, IIM-UNAM, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-02-25

    Semiconducting molecular material of PcFe(CN)L1 and PcCo(CN)L1 (L1 = 1,8 dihydroxianthraquinone), PcFe(CN)L2 and PcCo(CN)L2 (L2 = double potassium salt of 1,8 dihydroxianthraquinone) have been successfully used to prepare thin film and bulk sol-gel hybrid optical materials. These samples were developed according to the vacuum thermal evaporation technique and the catalyst-free sonogel route, respectively. Thin films samples were deposited on Corning glass substrates and crystalline silicon wafers and were characterized by infrared (FTIR), Raman and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies. IR-spectroscopy and Raman studies unambiguously confirmed that the molecular material thin films exhibit the same intra-molecular bonds, which suggests that the thermal evaporation process does not alter these bonds significantly. These results show that it is possible to deposit molecular materials of PcFe(CN)L2 and PcCo(CN)L2 on Corning glass substrates and silicon wafers. From the UV-vis studies the optical band gap (E{sub g}) was evaluated. The effect of temperature on conductivity was also evaluated in these samples. Finally, the studied molecular systems dissolved at different concentrations in tetrahydrofuran (THF) were successfully embedded into a highly pure SiO{sub 2} sonogel network generated via sonochemical reactions to form several solid state, optically active sol-gel hybrid glasses. By this method, homogeneous and stable hybrid monoliths suitable for optical characterization can be produced. The linear optical properties of these amorphous bulk structures were determined by the Brewster angle method and by absorption-, Raman- and photoluminescent (PL)-spectroscopies, respectively.

  16. PREPARATION OF LEUCITE-BASED COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kloužková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to prepare leucite dental composites from two separately synthesized components - tetragonal leucite and glassy matrix. The newly developed procedure is based on the preparation of crystalline tetragonal leucite powder by relatively low temperature synthesis under hydrothermal conditions. Matrix powder was prepared by a classical melting process and subsequent milling of the quenched glass. The dental composites were prepared by mixing of 10 wt. %, 20 wt. % and 30 wt. % of synthesized tetragonal leucite with glass powder followed by pressing and firing. The sintering process was observed by optical microscope and the optimal firing temperature for each composite was determined. Optical and electron microscopy was used to characterise the microstructure of the composites, especially the distribution of the leucite particles in the matrix. Dilatometric measurements proved that the coefficient of thermal expansion of the composites increased up to 44 % in comparison with the basic matrix.

  17. Preparation and adsorption properties of nano magnetite chitosan films for heavy metal ions from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasheen, M.R., E-mail: ragaei24@link.net [Water Pollution Research Department, Environmental Research Division, National Research Centre, 33-El Buhoth St., Dokki, Cairo, 12311 (Egypt); El-Sherif, Iman Y., E-mail: iman57us@yahoo.com [Water Pollution Research Department, Environmental Research Division, National Research Centre, 33-El Buhoth St., Dokki, Cairo, 12311 (Egypt); Tawfik, Magda E., E-mail: magdaemileta@yahoo.com [Polymers and Pigments Department, National Research Centre, 33-El Buhoth St., Dokki, Cairo, 12311 (Egypt); El-Wakeel, S.T., E-mail: shaimaa_tw@yahoo.com [Water Pollution Research Department, Environmental Research Division, National Research Centre, 33-El Buhoth St., Dokki, Cairo, 12311 (Egypt); El-Shahat, M.F., E-mail: elshahatmf@hotmail.com [Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Khalifa El-Maamon St., Abbasiya Sq., 11566, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Nano magnetite–chitosan films were prepared by casting method. • The efficiency of the prepared films for removing heavy metals was investigated. • The adsorption mechanism was studied using different isotherm and kinetic models. • Films reuse and metals recovery were studied. - Abstract: Nano magnetite chitosan (NMag–CS) film was prepared and characterized with different analytical methods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the formation of a pure magnetite structure and NMag–CS nanocomposite. TEM image of the film, revealed the uniform dispersion of magnetite nanoparticles inside chitosan matrix. The adsorption properties of the prepared film for copper, lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel metal ions were evaluated. Different factors affecting the uptake behavior by the composite films such as time, initial pH and film dose were investigated. The adsorption equilibrium attained using 2 g/L of the film after 120 min of reaction. The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption kinetics followed the mechanism of the pseudo-second-order equation for all metals. The metals regenerated from films with an efficiency greater than 95% using 0.1 M ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) and films were successfully reused for adsorption.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Structured SiO2 Thin Films on Carbon Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Chun XIONG; Dong Zhou YAN; Gang WEI

    2003-01-01

    Nano-structured SiO2 thin films were prepared on the surface of carbon steel for the first time by LPD. The compositions of the films were analyzed by XPS, and the surface morphology of the thin films were observed by AFM. The thin films were constituted by compact particles of SiO2, and there was no Fe in the films. In the process of film forming, the SiO2 colloid particles were deposited or absorbed directly onto the surface of carbon steel substrates that were activated by acid solution containing inhibitor, and corrosion of the substrates was avoided. The nano-structured SiO2 thin films that were prepared had excellent protective efficiency to the carbon steel.

  19. Preparation of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films by hybrid sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tooru; Nagatomo, Takeshi; Kawasaki, Daisuke; Nishio, Mitsuhiro; Guo, Qixin; Wakahara, Akihiro; Yoshida, Akira; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2005-11-01

    In order to fabricate Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films, hybrid sputtering system with two sputter sources and two effusion cells is used. The Cu2ZnSnS4 films are fabricated by the sequential deposition of metal elements and annealing in S flux, varying the substrate temperature. The Cu2ZnSnS4 films with stoichiometric composition are obtained at the substrate temperature up to 400 °C, whereas the film composition becomes quite Zn-pool at the substrate temperature above 450 °C. The Cu2ZnSnS4 film shows p-type conductivity, and the optical absorption coefficient and the band gap of the Cu2ZnSnS4 film prepared in this experiment are suitable for fabricating a thin film solar cell.

  20. Preparation and Thermal Characterization of Diamond-Like Carbon Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Su-Yuan; TANG Zhen-An; HUANG Zheng-Xing; Yu Jun; WANG Jing; LIU Gui-Chang

    2009-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are prepared on silicon substrates by microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the films have an amorphous structure and typical characteristics. The topographies of the films are presented by AFM images. Effective thermal conductivities of the films are measured using a nanosecond pulsed photothermal reflectance method. The results show that thermal conductivity is dominated by the microstructure of the films.

  1. 天然花青素提取物与壳聚糖明胶复合膜的制备和表征%Preparation and characterization of chitosan/gelatin composite films incorporated with four natural pigments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹小波; 王圣; 石吉勇; 翟晓东; 黄晓玮; 赵号

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain antioxidant active packaging materials, chitosan/gelatin (CG) composite films incorporated with 4 kinds of natural pigments were developed. The 4 kinds of natural pigments were extracted from red cabbage, black rice, rose and blueberry, respectively, and the anthocyanins content in each pigment was measured. The films were prepared by casting and solvent-evaporation method. The composite film-forming solutions were prepared by dispersing chitosan (1%) in the aqueous solution of 0.5% glacial acetic acid mixed with 1% gelatin at the volume ratio of 7:3. As for the film, the final concentration of anthocyanins in the film was established as 25% of the total volume of the mixture of hydrogels. The physical, mechanical, antioxidant and structural properties of the composite films were also investigated. Physical and mechanical properties of the films showed that the CG film had a lower water-vapor permeability (10.69×10-11 g/(m·s·Pa)) when not incorporated with natural pigments. The incorporation of rose pigments led to the reduction of the water-vapor permeability while the other extracts did inversely. The lowest water-vapor permeability value was 10.05×10-11 g/(m·s·Pa) and the incorporation of blueberry pigment reached the maximum level of 14.52×10-11 g/(m·s·Pa). Furthermore, the addition of rose pigment led to a reduction of elongation at break but an increase of tensile strength, with the lowest elongation at break of 37.66% and the greatest tensile strength of 27.03 MPa. However, black rice pigment extract led to an increase of elongation at break from 52.59% to 57.67% compared with CG film without incorporating natural pigments. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the incorporation of natural pigments brought about the interactions between its hydroxyl groups and the amino groups of chitosan. Significant structural transformation could be observed from scanning electron microscope (SEM), and each film showed

  2. Effect of cross linking of PVA/starch and reinforcement of modified barley husk on the properties of composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Aanchal; Garg, Sangeeta; Kohli, Deepak; Maiti, Mithu; Jana, Asim Kumar; Bajpai, Shailendra

    2016-10-20

    Barley husk (BH) was graft copolymerized by palmitic acid. The crystalline behavior of BH decreased after grafting. Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA)/starch (St) blend film, urea formaldehyde cross linked PVA/St films and composite films containing natural BH, grafted BH were prepared separately. The effect of urea/starch ratio, content of BH and grafted BH on the mechanical properties, water uptake (%), and biodegradability of the composite films was observed. With increase in urea: starch ratio from 0 to 0.5 in the blend, tensile strength of cross linked film increased by 40.23% compared to the PVA/St film. However, in grafted BH composite film, the tensile strength increased by 72.4% than PVA/St film. The degradation rate of natural BH composite film was faster than PVA/St film. Various films were characterized by SEM, FT-IR and thermal analysis.

  3. 氧化石墨烯纳米带/TP U复合材料薄膜制备及性能表征∗%Preparation and characterizations of graphene oxide nanoribbons/TPU composite films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊志敏; 郑玉婴; 曹宁宁; 张延兵

    2015-01-01

    The graphene oxide nanoribbons were prepared by oxidation longitudinal cutting carbon nanotubes, and the graphene oxide nanoribbons/thermoplastic polyurethane composite films were fabricated by solution on the coating machine.FT-IR,Raman,XRD,FE-SEM,TEM results showed that the carbon nanotubes had been successfully cut into graphene oxide nanoribbons of banded structure.Mechanical properties showed that when the content of graphene oxide nanoribbons was 2wt%,the elastic modulus and tensile strength of composite film increased by 160% and 123%,compared with the pure TPU film.The oxygen transmission rate of TPU film declined by about 77% at low graphene oxide nanoribbons loading of 2.0wt%,and the barrier properties has improved significantly.%采用氧化法将碳纳米管纵向切割成氧化石墨烯纳米带,利用溶液成形在涂膜机上制备氧化石墨烯纳米带/TPU 复合材料薄膜。 FT-IR、拉曼光谱、XRD、FE-SEM、TEM等测试表明,碳纳米管成功地被纵向切割成带状结构的氧化石墨烯纳米带。力学测试表明,当氧化石墨烯纳米带用量为2%(质量分数)时,复合材料薄膜弹性模量与拉伸强度相比 TPU 薄膜提高了160%与123%。氧气透过率测试表明当氧化石墨烯纳米带用量为2%(质量分数)时,复合材料薄膜氧气透过率降低77%,阻隔性能明显提高。

  4. Potentiality of the composite fulleren based carbon films as the stripper foils for tandem accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Vasin, A V; Rusavsky, A V; Totsky, Y I; Vishnevski, I N

    2001-01-01

    The problem of the radiation resistance of the carbon stripper foils is considered. The short review of the experimental data available in literature and original experimental results of the are presented. In the paper discussed is the possibility of composite fulleren based carbon films to be used for preparation of the stripper foils. Some technological methods for preparation of composite fulleren based carbon films are proposed. Raman scattering and atom force microscopy were used for investigation of the fulleren and composite films deposited by evaporation of the C sub 6 sub 0 fulleren powder.

  5. Preparation and Properties of WO3-TiO2 Composite Film Photocatalyst%WO3-TiO2薄膜型复合光催化剂的制备和性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成英之; 张渊明; 唐渝

    2001-01-01

    WO3-TiO2 composite film phot ocatalyst was prepared on poroustitanium plate by sol-gel method. The photo catalytic activity of the catalyst was investigated for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. It was found that the photocatalytic activity of WO3-TiO2 film photocatalyst with x(WO3)=0.5% and 3 coating layers, calcined at 500 ℃ for 1h, is higher than that of pure TiO2 film. Under the experimental conditio ns, TiO2 on porous titanium plate is composed of anatase phase and rutile phase, indicating that the appropriate tungsten doping can effectively decrease the temperature of phase transform from anatase to rutile.%采用溶胶-凝胶法在多孔钛片上制备了WO3-TiO2薄膜型复合光催化剂,并用甲基橙的光催化降解反应对所得薄膜型催化剂的活性进行了评价.实验结果表:x(W)=0.5%,涂覆层数为3层,在500℃焙烧1h的WO3-TiO2薄膜型光催化剂的活性最高,比纯TiO2薄膜高出96.7%.此时多孔钛片上负载的TiO2以锐钛矿和金红石两种晶形存在,表明适量W的掺入可使TiO2的相转变温度显著降低.

  6. Preparation and Evaluation of Stomatitis Film Using Xyloglucan Containing Loperamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Yayoi; Sasatsu, Masanaho; Mizutani, Ayako; Hirose, Kaoru; Hanawa, Takehisa; Onishi, Hiraku

    2016-06-01

    Stomatitis induced by radiation therapy or cancer chemotherapy is a factor in sleep disorders and/or eating disorders, markedly decreasing patient quality of life. In recent years, disintegrating oral films that are easy to handle have been developed; therefore, we focused on the formulation of these films. We prepared an adhesive film for the oral cavity using xyloglucan (Xylo), which is a water-soluble macromolecule. We used loperamide, which has been reported to relieve pain caused by stomatitis effectively, as a model drug in this study. Films were prepared from Xylo solutions (3% (w/w)) and hypromellose (HPMC) solutions (1% (w/w)). Xylo and HPMC solutions were mixed at ratios of 1 : 1, 2 : 1, or 3 : 1 for each film, and films 2×2 cm weighing 3 g were prepared and dried at 37°C for 24 h. Physicochemical properties such as strength, adhesiveness, disintegration behavior, and dissolution of loperamide from films were evaluated. Films prepared from Xylo solution alone had sufficient strength and mucosal adhesion. On the other hand, films prepared from a mixture of Xylo and HPMC were inferior to those made from Xylo, but showed sufficient strength and mucosal adhesion and were flexible and easy to handle. The films prepared in this study are useful as adhesion films in the oral cavity.

  7. Layered TiO2: PVK nano-composite thin films for photovoltaic applications. TiO2: PVK nano-composite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaune, G; Wang, W; Metwalli, E; Ruderer, M; Rossner, R; Roth, S V; Müller-Buschbaum, P

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the solvent used for spin-coating on the homogeneity of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) films is investigated. Homogenous films are obtained only by the use of toluene, solution in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and chloroform results in radially oriented inhomogeneities and films prepared by use of N-methylpyrrolidone and dimethylacetamide show particle formation during spin-coating. Layered nano-composite thin films are prepared by spin-coating a PVK film on top of a nano-structured titanium dioxide ( TiO2) layer. The TiO2 thin films are prepared by a sol-gel process using an amphiphilic copolymer as structure-directing agent. Structural characterisation of the TiO2 :PVK nano-composite films is done by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and grazing-incidence small-angle scattering (GISAXS). Bare TiO2 films are probed for comparison. Light is basically only absorbed in the ultraviolet regime and absorption slightly increases upon addition of PVK, which makes the layered TiO2 :PVK nano-composite thin films good candidates for UV photovoltaic devices. Furthermore, absorption remains stable over a period of several days.

  8. Preparation and Grafting Functionalization of Self-Assembled Chitin Nanofiber Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Kadokawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chitin is a representative biomass resource comparable to cellulose. Although considerable efforts have been devoted to extend novel applications to chitin, lack of solubility in water and common organic solvents causes difficulties in improving its processability and functionality. Ionic liquids have paid much attention as solvents for polysaccharides. However, little has been reported regarding the dissolution of chitin with ionic liquids. The author found that an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (AMIMBr, dissolved chitin in concentrations up to ~4.8 wt % and the higher contents of chitin with AMIMBr gave ion gels. When the ion gel was soaked in methanol for the regeneration of chitin, followed by sonication, a chitin nanofiber dispersion was obtained. Filtration of the dispersion was subsequently carried out to give a chitin nanofiber film. A chitin nanofiber/poly(vinyl alcohol composite film was also obtained by co-regeneration approach. Chitin nanofiber-graft-synthetic polymer composite films were successfully prepared by surface-initiated graft polymerization technique. For example, the preparation of chitin nanofiber-graft-biodegradable polyester composite film was achieved by surface-initiated graft polymerization from the chitin nanofiber film. The similar procedure also gave chitin nanofiber-graft-polypeptide composite film. The surface-initiated graft atom transfer radical polymerization was conducted from a chitin macroinitiator film derived from the chitin nanofiber film.

  9. Preparation of N-Doped TiO2-ZrO2 Composite Films under Electric Field and Heat Treatment and Assessment of Their Removal of Methylene Blue from Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefu Mei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2-ZrO2 composite film with the grain size of 50 nm was synthesized by electric field and heat (EF&H treatments. Portions of O atoms in the TiO2 network structure were replaced by N atoms as revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses, suggesting formation of a nonstoichiometric compound TiO2-xNx on the composite film. The UV-Vis spectra of the film suggested that the visible light with wavelength of 550 nm could be absorbed for the N-doped composite film after EF&H treatment in comparison to a cutoff wavelength of 400 nm for the composite film without EF treatment. Photocatalytic experiments showed that the degradation rate of methylene blue by N-doped composite films increased significantly under visible light irradiation. The partial replacement of O by doped N played a very important role in narrowing the band gap and improving the visible light photocatalytic reactivity.

  10. Shape-alterable and -recoverable graphene/polyurethane bi-layered composite film for supercapacitor electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Zhixin; Yan, Xingbin; Xue, Qunji

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, a graphene/shape-memory polyurethane (PU) composite film, used for a supercapacitor electrode, is fabricated by a simple bonding method. In the composite, formerly prepared graphene paper is closely bonded on the surface of the PU slice, forming a bi-layered composite film. Based on the good flexibility of graphene paper and the outstanding shape holding capacity of PU phase, the resulting composite film can be changed into various shapes. Also, the composite film shows excellent shape recovery ability. The graphene/PU composite film used as the electrode maintains a satisfactory electrochemical capacitance of graphene material and there is no decay in the specific capacitance after long-cycle testing, making it attractive for novel supercapacitors with special shapes and shape-memory ability.

  11. ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE COMPOSITE PREPARED BY ELECTROCHEMICAL POLYMERIZATION OF PYRROLE IN POLY- (p- PHENYLENE TEREPHTHALAMIDE ) MATRIX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Xiantong; PEI Qibing; HAN Baozhen; BAO Jingshen

    1991-01-01

    The preparation of PPy/PPTA conductive composite films by electrochemical method is presented.The first step is to cast a thin layer of poly (p-phenylene-terephthalamide)(PPTA)on a slice of Pt working electrode. The second step is to electrochemically polymerize pyrrole on the PPTA/Pt working electrode. Both of the electrical conductivity and the mechanical properties of the PPy/PPTA composite film are better than those of the pure PPy film, and the film has excellent flexibility at low temperature, even in liquid nitrogen.The SEM picture of the cross-section of PPy/PPTA composite film showed that the two components were well mixed.Cyclic voltammograms of PPy/PPTA film in aqueous solution showed that the conductive films could be reduced and reoxidized.

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Polyvinylidene Fluoride/Graphene Superhydrophobic Fibrous Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Moradi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new strategy to induce superhydrophobicity via introducing hierarchical structure into the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF film was explored in this study. For this purpose nanofibrous composite films were prepared by electrospinning of PVDF and PVDF/graphene blend solution as the main precursors to produce a net-like structure. Various spectroscopy and microscopy methods in combination with crystallographic and wettability tests were used to evaluate the characteristics of the synthesized films. Mechanical properties have been studied using a universal stress-strain test. The results show that the properties of the PVDF nanofibrous film are improved by compositing with graphene. The incorporation of graphene flakes into the fibrous polymer matrix changes the morphology, enhances the surface roughness, and improves the hydrophobicity by inducing a morphological hierarchy. Superhydrophobicity with the water contact angle of about 160° can be achieved for the PVDF/graphene electrospun nanocomposite film in comparison to PVDF pristine film.

  13. Preparation of self-sustained film by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹冰; 朱从善

    1999-01-01

    Large size self-sustained film with considerable thickness ranging from 30 to 500 μm was prepared with sol-gel method by using dimethyldiethoxysilane/tetraethoxysilane composite alkoxide as precursor. The film exhibits good plasticity as well. Various factors that may influence the film properties were investigated. IR and AFM techniques were adopted to study the film structure and surface morphology. Gas chromatogram/mass spectrum technique was also adopted to characterize the network structure of the material through identification of different polymers formed during hydrolysis and condensation course.

  14. Preparation and characterization of ZnTe thin films by SILAR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, S.S. [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sungdong-Ku, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Mane, R.S. [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sungdong-Ku, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Pathan, H.M. [Eco-Nano Research Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 131, Chongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Shaikh, A.V. [AKI' s Poona College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Pune (India); Joo, Oh-Shim [Eco-Nano Research Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 131, Chongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sung-Hwan [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sungdong-Ku, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: shhan@hanyang.ac.kr

    2007-02-28

    Nanocrystalline zinc telluride (ZnTe) thin films were prepared by using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method from aqueous solutions of zinc sulfate and sodium telluride. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and optical absorption measurement techniques. The synthesized ZnTe thin films were nanocrystalline with densely aggregated particles in nanometer scale and were free from the voids or cracks. The optical band gap energy of the film was found to be thickness dependent. The elemental chemical compositional stoichiometric analysis revealed good Zn:Te elemental ratio of 53:47.

  15. Preparation and characterization of ZnTe thin films by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, S. S.; Mane, R. S.; Pathan, H. M.; Shaikh, A. V.; Joo, Oh-Shim; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2007-02-01

    Nanocrystalline zinc telluride (ZnTe) thin films were prepared by using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method from aqueous solutions of zinc sulfate and sodium telluride. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and optical absorption measurement techniques. The synthesized ZnTe thin films were nanocrystalline with densely aggregated particles in nanometer scale and were free from the voids or cracks. The optical band gap energy of the film was found to be thickness dependent. The elemental chemical compositional stoichiometric analysis revealed good Zn:Te elemental ratio of 53:47.

  16. In situ preparation and property of nano-Ag/PMMA composite film%纳米Ag/PMMA复合薄膜的原位法制备及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓光; 罗国强; 熊远禄; 李美娟; 沈强; 张联盟

    2011-01-01

    采用原位法,以二甲基甲酰胺(DMF)为还原剂和溶剂,制备纳米Ag/PMMA复合薄膜.采用XRD、TEM、FT-IR、UV-Vis表征了纳米Ag/PMMA复合薄膜物相,纳米银的颗粒形貌,分析了纳米银与基体PMMA之间的相互作用机理,并对溶胶和薄膜的光学特性进行表征.结果表明,反应生成的为面心立方银单质,并且随着反应时间的增加,纳米银颗粒粒径增大,并且颗粒由球形颗粒逐渐生长为三角板型颗粒;纳米银颗粒在基体PMMA中分布均匀,纳米银颗粒与基体PMMA之间的作用为弱化学作用,这种作用导致纳米银颗粒的均匀、稳定分布;薄膜的光学性能测试表明了,纳米Ag/PMMA复合薄膜由于纳米银颗粒的表面等立体共振在紫外一可见光区有明显的吸收带.%In situ preparation of silver nano-particles in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as a medium has been performed successfully. Nano-Ag/PMMA composite film was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),transmission electron microscopy (TEM),Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR),UV-Vis absorption spectrum (UV-Vis). The results showed that:the sample exhibits a typical face-centered cubic(fcc) silver phase,and with the reaction time increasing,the nano-silver particles sizes increased gradually,by the shaps changed spherical into nanoprisms. In the composition film, there was a certain mutual chemical reaction between the nano-silver particles and the PMMA martix,which lead to the nano-silver particles existenced in PMMA matrix stably and distributedly, and the film obviously had optical absorption in UV-Vis for SPR(surface plasma resonance) of nano-sliver.

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange over ITO/Cds/ZnO interface composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shouqiang; Shao, Zhongcai; Lu, Xudong; Liu, Ying; Cao, Linlin; He, Yan

    2009-01-01

    ITO/CdS/ZnO interface composite films were successfully prepared by subsequent electrodeposition of CdS and ZnO onto indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates. The obtained ITO/CdS/ZnO composite films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of ITO/CdS/ZnO composite films were investigated using methyl orange (MO) as a model organic compound under UV light irradiation. The influence of operating parameters on MO degradation including initial concentration of MO, pH value of solution, and inorganic anion species over the composite films were examined. A blue shift of absorption threshold was observed for the ITO/CdS/ZnO film in comparison with ITO/ZnO film. ITO/CdS/ZnO composite films prepared under specific conditions showed a higher photocatalytic activity than that of ITO/ZnO films. It was also found that the photocatalytic degradation of MO on the composite films followed pseudo-first order kinetics.

  18. Super-hydrophobic film prepared on zinc as corrosion barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Peng [Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Shandong Province, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Naihai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zhang Dun, E-mail: Zhangdun@qdio.ac.c [Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Shandong Province, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Naihai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Qiu Ri [Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Shandong Province, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Naihai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 (Jia) Yuquan Road, Beijing 100039 (China); Hou Baorong [Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Shandong Province, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Naihai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Super-hydrophobic film was prepared on zinc surface. {yields} The air trapped in film can dramatically improve the anti-corrosion property. {yields} The air trapped behaves as dielectric for a pure parallel plate capacitor. {yields} The air enhances the contribution of film to the anti-corrosion property. {yields} Without the help of air, the film itself can only present feeble inhibition effect. - Abstract: Potentiostatic electrolysis was carried out to prepare super-hydrophobic film on the surface of metallic zinc. The resultant film was examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electrochemical measurements, and contact angle test. The super-hydrophobic property of the film results from the air trapped among the sheets of zinc tetradecanoate. This air behaves as a dielectric for a pure parallel plate capacitor, thereby inhibiting electron transfer between the electrolyte and the substrate. The air can also enhance the contribution of the film itself to protection performance.

  19. Enhanced piezoelectric performance of composite sol-gel thick films evaluated using piezoresponse force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanming; Lam, Kwok Ho; Kirk Shung, K; Li, Jiangyu; Zhou, Qifa

    2013-05-14

    Conventional composite sol-gel method has been modified to enhance the piezoelectric performance of ceramic thick films. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) thick films were fabricated using the modified sol-gel method for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this work, piezoresponse force microscopy was employed to evaluate the piezoelectric characteristics of PZT and PMN-PT composite sol-gel thick films. The images of the piezoelectric response and the strain-electric field hysteresis loop behavior were measured. The effective piezoelectric coefficient (d33,eff) of the films was determined from the measured loop data. It was found that the effective local piezoelectric coefficient of both PZT and PMN-PT composite films is comparable to that of their bulk ceramics. The promising results suggest that the modified composite sol-gel method is a promising way to prepare the high-quality, crack-free ceramic thick films.

  20. Garnet composite films with Au particles fabricated by repetitive formation for enhancement of Faraday effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, H; Nakai, Y [Department of Electronics and Intelligent Systems, Tohoku Institute of Technology, 35-1 Yagiyama-Kasumi, Taihaku, Sendai, Miyagi 982-8577 (Japan); Mizutani, Y; Inoue, M [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tempaku, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Fedyanin, A A, E-mail: uchida_hn@tohtech.ac.jp [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-16

    To prepare garnet (Bi : YIG) composite films with Au particles, we used a repetitive formation method to increase the number density of particles. On increasing the number of repetitions, the diameter distribution of the particles changed. After five repetitions using 5 nm Au films, the diameter distribution separated into two size groups. Shift of wavelength-excited localized surface plasmon resonance is discussed relative to the diameter distribution. In the composite films, enhancement of Faraday rotation associated with surface plasmons was observed. With six repetitions, a maximum enhanced rotation of -1.2{sup 0} was obtained, which is 20 times larger than that of a single Bi : YIG film. The figures of merit for the composite films are discussed. The thickness of a Bi : YIG composite film working for enhanced Faraday rotation was examined using an ion milling method.

  1. Preparation and Mechanical and Tribological Properties of W-C-S-Mo Composite Films%W-C-S-Mo复合薄膜的制备及力学和摩擦学性能∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旭红; 周晖; 杨拉毛草; 郑军; 万志华; 张延帅

    2015-01-01

    The composite films including four⁃component W⁃C⁃S⁃Mo different bias substrate voltage were deposited on Si substrate by a hybrid of magnetron sputtering and DC filtered cathodic vacuum arc (MS/FCVA) technology.Impacts of bi⁃as substrate voltage on mechanical properties as hardness,elastic modulus and adhesion force of these different nano⁃films were analyzed by nano⁃hardness tester and nano⁃scratch tester,and impacts of bias substrate voltage on tribological proper⁃ties in different environments ranging from humid air to vacuum of space were studied by CSM ball⁃on⁃disk tester.The re⁃sults show that hardness,elastic modulus and adhesion force of the film is tend to increase first and then decrease along with increasing of the bias substrate voltage,and the films under substrate bias voltage of -100 V have the best mechanical properties.The W⁃C⁃S⁃Mo films prepared under-100 V bias voltage have excellent tribological properties in both humid air and vacuum environment.Raman test results show that the lubrication of W⁃C⁃S⁃Mo films is significantly supported by DLC in humid air environment,furthermore,the MoS2 crystal particles in soft phases of the film have lubrication function in vac⁃uum environment.%利用磁控溅射与磁过滤阴极真空电弧( MS/FCVA)复合沉积法,在不同偏压下在单晶Si基体上制备W⁃C⁃S⁃Mo四元复合薄膜;分析沉积偏压对薄膜纳米硬度、弹性模量和膜基结合力等力学性能的影响;在潮湿大气、真空环境下研究偏压对薄膜摩擦学性能的影响。结果表明,薄膜硬度、弹性模量和附着力随着沉积负偏压的增大呈现先增大后减小的趋势,在偏压-100 V时薄膜力学性能最好;负偏压-100 V下制备的W⁃C⁃S⁃Mo四元复合薄膜样品在潮湿大气和真空环境下均具有较好的摩擦学性能,拉曼测试发现, W⁃C⁃S⁃Mo复合薄膜在潮湿大气环境中的润滑作用主要

  2. [Study on the Properties of the Pc-Si Films Prepared by Magnetron Co-Sputtering at Low Temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Liang-fei; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Li-yuan; Li, Xue-ming; Chen, Xiao-bo; Yang, Pei-zhi

    2016-03-01

    The polycrystalline silicon thin films play an important role in the field of electronics. In the paper, α-SiAl composite membranes on glass substrates was prepared by magnetron co-sputtering. The contents of Al radicals encapsulated-in the α-Si film can be adjusted by changing the Al to Si sputtering power ratios. The as-prepared α-Si films were converted into polycrystalline films by using a rapid thermal annealing (RTP) at low temperature of 350 degrees C for 10 minutes in N2 atmosphere. An X-ray diffractometer, and Raman scattering and UV-Visible-NIR Spectrometers were used to characterize the properties of the Pc-Si films. The influences of Al content on the properties of the Pc-Si films were studied. The results showed that the polycrystalline silicon films were obtained from α-SiAl composite films which were prepared by magnetron co-sputtering at a low temperature following by a rapid thermal annealing. The grain size and the degree of crystallization of the Pc-Si films increased with the increase of Al content, while the optical band gap was reduced. The nc-Si films were prepared when the Al to Si sputtering power ratio was 0.1. And a higher Crystallization rate (≥ 85%) of polycrystalline silicon films were obtained when the ratio was 0.3. The band gaps of the polycrystalline silicon films can be controlled by changing the aluminum content in the films.

  3. 玉米秸秆微晶纤维素/聚乳酸复合膜的制备与性能%Preparation and properties of corn stalks cellulose microcrystal reinforced poly(lactic acid) composite film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春光; 徐鹏飞; 李云霞; 王彦秋; 林鹏; 张锐

    2011-01-01

    The biodegradable composite films were prepared from corn stalks cellulose microcrystal(CSCMC) as the filler and poly(lactic acid)(PLA) as the polymeric matrix.The crystallinity,the tensile properties and the thermal properties of the composite flim were tested.The results show that the tensile properties and the thermal properties of the CSCMC/PLA composite were improved by the addition of corn stalks cellulose microcrystal.When the mass fraction of CSCMC is 10%,the initial decomposition temperature increases by 34.38℃,the tensile strength increases by 58.3% and the elongation at break increases by 31.1% compared to that of the pure PLA.%采用玉米秸秆微晶纤维素(CSCMC)作为增强材料,生物可降解材料聚乳酸(PLA)作为基体,制备了CSCMC/PLA复合膜材料,并对复合膜的结晶度、热稳定性能、力学性能进行了测试。结果表明,复合膜材料的热稳定性能和力学性能优于纯聚乳酸膜。当CSCMC的质量分数为10%时,复合膜的热稳定性能和力学性能达到最佳,与纯PLA膜相比,起始分解温度提高了34.38℃,拉伸强度提高了58.3%,断裂伸长率提高了31.1%。

  4. Properties of TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With rapid progressive application of TiO2 thin films, magnetron sputtering becomes a very interesting method to prepare such multi-functional thin films. This paper focuses on influences of various deposition processes and deposition rate on the structures and properties of TiO2 thin films. Anatase, rutile or amorphous TiO2 films with various crystalline structures and different photocatalytic, optical and electrical properties can be produced by varying sputtering gases, substrate temperature, annealing process, deposition rate and the characteristics of magnetron sputtering. This may in turn affect the functions of TiO2 films in many applications. Furthermore, TiO2-based composites films can overcome many limitations and improve the properties of TiO2 films.

  5. Study of bagasse/tapioca starch film preparation and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyang; Wei, Xiaoyi; Chang, Gang; Fu, Tiaokun; Cui, Lihong; Li, Jihua

    2017-06-01

    Bagasse/tapioca starch films (BT) were prepared with various contents of bagasse (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt% based on tapioca starch), and the effect of bagasse concentration was studied by the performance of the BT films. Then, the BT films characteristics were analyzed using the instruments about ultraviolet spectrophotometer (US), SEM, TGA and XRD. The dispersion of the bagasse became better with bagasse concentration increasing, the intermolecular hydrogen bonding became stronger while the transparency values of the films decreased.

  6. Silk fibroin/pullulan blend films: Preparation and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivananda, C. S.; Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Madhukumar, R.; Sarojini, B. K.; Somashekhar, R.; Asha, S.; Sangappa, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In this work silk fibroin/pullulan blend films have been prepared by solution casting method. The blend films were examined for structural, and thermal properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimatric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The XRD results indicate that with the introduction of pullulan, the interaction between SF and pullulan in the blend films induced the conformation transition of SF films and amorphous phase increases with increasing pullulan ratio. The thermal properties of the blend films were improved significantly in the blend films.

  7. Silk fibroin/pullulan blend films: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivananda, C. S.; Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Madhukumar, R.; Asha, S. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri – 574 199 (India); Sarojini, B. K. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore –574 199 (India); Somashekhar, R. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore – 570 006 (India); Sangappa, Y., E-mail: syhalabhavi@yahoo.co.in [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri – 574 199 (India); School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2016-05-23

    In this work silk fibroin/pullulan blend films have been prepared by solution casting method. The blend films were examined for structural, and thermal properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimatric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The XRD results indicate that with the introduction of pullulan, the interaction between SF and pullulan in the blend films induced the conformation transition of SF films and amorphous phase increases with increasing pullulan ratio. The thermal properties of the blend films were improved significantly in the blend films.

  8. Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Nanotube Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Quoc; Cruden, Brett A.; Cassell, Alan M.; Walker, Megan D.; Koehne, Jessica E.; Meyyappan, M.; Li, Jun; Yang, Cary Y.

    2004-01-01

    State-of-the-art ICs for microprocessors routinely dissipate power densities on the order of 50 W/sq cm. This large power is due to the localized heating of ICs operating at high frequencies, and must be managed for future high-frequency microelectronic applications. Our approach involves finding new and efficient thermally conductive materials. Exploiting carbon nanotube (CNT) films and composites for their superior axial thermal conductance properties has the potential for such an application requiring efficient heat transfer. In this work, we present thermal contact resistance measurement results for CNT and CNT-Cu composite films. It is shown that Cu-filled CNT arrays enhance thermal conductance when compared to as-grown CNT arrays. Furthermore, the CNT-Cu composite material provides a mechanically robust alternative to current IC packaging technology.

  9. Studies of thin films of Ti- Zr -V as non-evaporable getter films prepared by RF sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Jagannath,; Sharma, R. K.; Gadkari, S. C.; Muthe, K. P.; Mukundhan, R.; Gupta, S. K. [Technical Physics Division, BARC Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2013-02-05

    Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) films of the Ti-Zr-V prepared on stainless steel substrates by Radio Frequency sputtering. To observe its getter behavior at the lowest activation temperature, the sample is heated continuously at different temperatures (100 Degree-Sign C, 150 Degree-Sign C, 200 Degree-Sign C and 250 Degree-Sign C) for 2 hours. The changes of the surface chemical composition at different temperaturesare analyzed by using XPS and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) techniques. The volume elemental composition of the film has been measured by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The in-situ XPS measurements of the activated getter films show the disappearance of the superficial oxide layer through the variation in the oxygen stoichiometry during thermal activation. Results of these studies show that the deposited films of Ti-Zr-V could be used as NEG to produce extreme high vacuum.

  10. Transparent Conductive Films Fabricated from Polythiophene Nanofibers Composited with Conventional Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borjigin Aronggaowa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Transparent, conductive films were prepared by compositing poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT nanofibers with poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA. The transparency, conductivity, atmospheric stability, and mechanical strength of the resulting nanofiber composite films when doped with AuCl3 were evaluated and compared with those of P3HT nanofiber mats. The conductivity of the nanofiber composite films was 4.1 S∙cm−1, which is about seven times less than that which was previously reported for a nanofiber mat with the same optical transmittance (~80% reported by Aronggaowa et al. The time dependence of the transmittance, however, showed that the doping state of the nanofiber composite films in air was more stable than that of the nanofiber mats. The fracture stress of the nanofiber composite film was determined to be 12.3 MPa at 3.8% strain.

  11. Effect of Continuous Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Flexible Composite Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ji Eun; Kim, Seong Yun; Lee, Seung Hee

    2016-10-12

    To investigate the effect of continuous multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the thermal and mechanical properties of composites, we propose a fabrication method for a buckypaper-filled flexible composite film prepared by a two-step process involving buckypaper fabrication using vacuum filtration of MWCNTs, and composite film fabrication using the dipping method. The thermal conductivity and tensile strength of the composite film filled with the buckypaper exhibited improved results, respectively 76% and 275% greater than those of the individual MWCNT-filled composite film. It was confirmed that forming continuous MWCNT fillers is an important factor which determines the physical characteristics of the composite film. In light of the study findings, composite films using buckypaper as a filler and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as a flexible matrix have sufficient potential to be applied as a heat-dissipating material, and as a flexible film with high thermal conductivity and excellent mechanical properties.

  12. Effect of Continuous Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Flexible Composite Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Cha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of continuous multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs on the thermal and mechanical properties of composites, we propose a fabrication method for a buckypaper-filled flexible composite film prepared by a two-step process involving buckypaper fabrication using vacuum filtration of MWCNTs, and composite film fabrication using the dipping method. The thermal conductivity and tensile strength of the composite film filled with the buckypaper exhibited improved results, respectively 76% and 275% greater than those of the individual MWCNT-filled composite film. It was confirmed that forming continuous MWCNT fillers is an important factor which determines the physical characteristics of the composite film. In light of the study findings, composite films using buckypaper as a filler and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS as a flexible matrix have sufficient potential to be applied as a heat-dissipating material, and as a flexible film with high thermal conductivity and excellent mechanical properties.

  13. 复合处理技术在硫化物自润滑薄膜制备中的应用%Applications of the Composite Processing Technology in the Preparation of Sulfide Self-lubricating Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蒙科; 韩彬

    2014-01-01

    Sulfurizing layer can effectively decrease the coefficient of friction, improve the anti-scratch properties and wear re-sistance of the parts, but solely low-temperature ion sulphurization cannot guarantee to meet the production requirements of specific conditions, the composite processing method of other technologies and low-temperature ion sulfurization result in ideal solid self-lu-bricating coating with soft surface and hard subsurface, which meets the needs of the production environment. This paper reviewed the characteristics and part of the research instances for the ion multiple composite infiltration method ( S-N, S-C-N, S-O, S-Mo) , two-step method ( shot peening processing, supersonic nanocrystallization processing and low temperature ion sulphurization;preset film coating and low temperature ion sulphurization;laser processing technology and low temperature ion sulphurization) , combined method involving a variety of composite processing technologies. Each process of composite processing technology was introduced in detail. The direction of development of composite processing technology was suggested based on the current problems of complex processing techniques in self-lubricating solid preparation.%渗硫层能有效降低零件的摩擦系数,提高零件的抗擦伤性能和耐磨性能,但是单纯的低温离子渗硫不能保证特定工况的生产要求,选用其它处理技术与低温离子渗硫相结合的复合处理方法可以制得表层软、亚表层硬的理想固体自润滑涂层。综述了离子多元复合渗法( S-N, S-C-N, S-O, S-Mo),两步法(喷丸和超音速纳米化处理与低温离子渗硫、预置薄膜涂层与低温离子渗硫、激光处理技术与低温离子渗硫),以及多种复合处理技术相结合法的特点和部分应用实例,着重介绍了每种复合处理技术的工艺。针对目前复合处理技术在固体自润滑薄膜制备中存在的问题,提出复合处理技术的发展方向。

  14. Preparation and the properties of the composite films from cassava starch and guar gum%木薯淀粉-瓜尔胶复合膜的制备及性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾英

    2012-01-01

    The raw guar gum,anionic guar gum with cassava starch were blended to make composite basic edible film in the certain proportion.The films with different contents of starch and guar gum were respectively prepared and characterized.Their properties were measured.The film containing cassave starch and guar gum with the ratio of 80∶20 exhibited the good elongation(E).Compared with the pure starch film,tensile strength(TE)increased by 50%,E decreased by 30%,and the water vapor permeability decreased to 15.8%,water absorption changed a little.The film containing cassave starch and anionic guar gum with the ratio of 80∶20 had the good E.Compared with cassava starch film,the E increased by 142%,but the TE decreased by 22%.The water vapor permeability decreased by 5.4%,while the water absorption decreased by 5.5%.%研究木薯淀粉与瓜尔胶、木薯淀粉与阴离子瓜尔胶的复合膜,淀粉含量为复合基质量的100%、80%、60%、40%和20%制成复合膜,对膜的性质用红外、热重以及扫描电镜分别表征,对膜的力学性能、水蒸气透过率和吸水性能测试。分别以强度和伸长率为指标得出最优的复合膜配比。以强度为指标的最优复合膜成分:淀粉为80%,瓜尔胶为20%,得到样本1-2与原淀粉膜相比强度提高50%,伸长率下降30%,水蒸气透过率下降15.8%,吸水率几乎没有变化。以伸长率为指标的最优膜成分:淀粉80%,阴离子瓜尔胶20%,得到样本2-1与原木薯淀粉膜相比伸长率提高了142%,但强度降低了22%,水蒸气透过率下降了5.4%,吸水性降低了5.5%。成膜条件为:淀粉糊化温度为95℃,反应时间0.5 h,烘干温度为50℃。

  15. One-step electrochemical preparation of the ternary (Bi{sub x}Sb{sub 1-x}){sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films on Au(1 1 1): Composition-dependent growth and characterization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdogan, Ibrahim Y. [Bingoel University, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 12000, Bingoel (Turkey); Demir, Umit, E-mail: udemir@atauni.edu.t [Atatuerk University, Sciences Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2010-09-01

    This study reports on the synthesis of ternary semiconductor (Bi{sub x}Sb{sub 1-x}){sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films on Au(1 1 1) using a practical electrochemical method, based on the simultaneous underpotential deposition (UPD) of Bi, Sb and Te from the same solution containing Bi{sup 3+}, SbO{sup +}, and HTeO{sub 2}{sup +} at a constant potential. The thin films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and reflection absorption-FTIR (RA-FTIR) to determine structural, morphological, compositional and optic properties. The ternary thin films of (Bi{sub x}Sb{sub 1-x}){sub 2}Te{sub 3} with various compositions (0.0 {<=} x {<=} 1.0) are highly crystalline and have a kinetically preferred orientation at (0 1 5) for hexagonal crystal structure. AFM images show uniform morphology with hexagonal-shaped crystals deposited over the entire gold substrate. The structure and composition analyses reveal that the thin films are pure phase with corresponding atomic ratios. The optical studies show that the band gap of (Bi{sub x}Sb{sub 1-x}){sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films could be tuned from 0.17 eV to 0.29 eV as a function of composition.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Composite Drug Membranes of Gelatin/Chitosan to Ocular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Composite drug membranes of gelatin/chitosan for therapy of glaucoma by trabeculectomy were prepared through solvent volatilization, using triamcinolone acetonide as a model drug. The membranes were characterized by FT- IR, X-RD and SEM. Their degradability and swelling ability and biocompatibility were studied. The results showed that biocompatibility , flexibility, swelling ability and degradability of the composite films were better than pure film of chitosan . The composite membrane containing 25% (w/w) of gelatin was best. The drug was loaded in film in crystallite. The rabbit eyes experiment after 8 weeks showed that the form of follicle was all right, and ophthalmototus maintain in the perfect level.

  17. 掺硼金刚石膜/碳膜平面式复合电极的制备及电化学性能%Electrochemical performance and preparation of composite planar electrode based on boron doped diamond film/carbon film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练发东; 芶立

    2014-01-01

    采用微波等离子体化学气相沉积法在本征硅上制备掺硼金刚石膜/碳膜平面式复合电极,其中硅片的一面为掺硼金刚石膜,另一面为碳膜。通过SEM和拉曼光谱分析了薄膜的表面形貌和成分,掺硼金刚石膜为纳米级金刚石,碳膜表面有均匀分布的凹坑;利用四探针、循环伏安法和交流阻抗法表征电极导电性和电化学性能,随着沉积时间增加,电极方阻减小;在铁氰化钾溶液中电极发生准可逆氧化还原反应,电势差为119mV,在103 Hz附近阻抗为113Ω;多巴胺的检测限为5μmol·L-1。%Boron doped diamond/carbon composite film electrode of planar configuration was prepared on the intrinsic silicon by mi-crowave plasma chemical vapor deposition. Boron doped diamond ( BDD ) film was deposited on the silicon substrate while carbon film was on the backside of the substrates. The surface morphology and composition of these films was studied by SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The SEM and Raman results show that the BDD films is nanocrystalline and there are many pits on the surface of car-bon films. The conductivity and electrochemical properties of these films were characterized by four-probe? measurement,cyclic vol-tammetry and impedance spectroscopy. The results reveal that the surface square resistance of the samples decreases with the in-crease of the depositing time. Electrochemical reaction is a quasi-reversible reaction in potassium ferricyanide solution with the po-tential difference of 119mv. The impedance of the samples at the frequency about 1000 Hz is 113Ω. The minimum detection limit of dopamine is 5μmol·L-1 .

  18. Cell proliferation on modified DLC thin films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian; Manakhov, Anton; Polčák, Josef; Ondračka, Pavel; Buršíková, Vilma; Zajíčková, Renata; Medalová, Jiřina; Zajíčková, Lenka

    2015-06-12

    Recently, diamondlike carbon (DLC) thin films have gained interest for biological applications, such as hip and dental prostheses or heart valves and coronary stents, thanks to their high strength and stability. However, the biocompatibility of the DLC is still questionable due to its low wettability and possible mechanical failure (delamination). In this work, DLC:N:O and DLC: SiOx thin films were comparatively investigated with respect to cell proliferation. Thin DLC films with an addition of N, O, and Si were prepared by plasma enhanced CVD from mixtures of methane, hydrogen, and hexamethyldisiloxane. The films were optically characterized by infrared spectroscopy and ellipsometry in UV-visible spectrum. The thickness and the optical properties were obtained from the ellipsometric measurements. Atomic composition of the films was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy combined with elastic recoil detection analysis and by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of the films were studied by depth sensing indentation technique. The number of cells that proliferate on the surface of the prepared DLC films and on control culture dishes were compared and correlated with the properties of as-deposited and aged films. The authors found that the level of cell proliferation on the coated dishes was high, comparable to the untreated (control) samples. The prepared DLC films were stable and no decrease of the biocompatibility was observed for the samples aged at ambient conditions.

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange over ITO/CdS/ZnO interface composite films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Shouqiang; SHAO Zhongcai; LU Xudong; LIU Ying; CAO Linlin; HE Yan

    2009-01-01

    ITO/CdS/ZnO interface composite films were successfully prepared by subsequent electrodeposition of CdS and ZnO onto indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates. The obtained ITO/CdS/ZnO composite films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of ITO/CdS/ZnO composite films were investigated using methyl orange (MO) as a model organic compound under UV light irradiation. The influence of operating parameters on MO degradation including initial concentration of MO, pH value of solution, and inorganic anion species over the composite films were examined. A blue shift of absorption threshold was observed for the ITO/CdS/ZnO film in comparison with ITO/ZnO film. ITO/CdS/ZnO composite films prepared under specific conditions showed a higher photocatalytic activity than that of ITO/ZnO films. It was also found that the photocatalytic degradation of MO on the composite filing followed pseudo-first order kinetics.

  20. Preparation of polysilsesquioxane-urethaneacrylate copolymer film reinforced with chitin nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifuku, Shinsuke; Ikuta, Akiko; Hosomi, Tetsuya; Kanaya, Shingo; Shervani, Zameer; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

    2012-07-01

    Chitin nanofibers (CNFs) reinforced silsesquioxane-urethaneacrylate (SSQ-UA) copolymer films were prepared. CNFs-SSQ-UA nanocomposite films were highly transparent due to the filling of nanometer sized (10-20 nm) CNFs inside the hybrid organic-inorganic SSQ-UA copolymer. CNFs due to their crystalline structure drastically increased Young's moduli and the tensile strengths of the composite and decreased the thermal expansion. High thermal stability of polysilsesquioxane improved heat resistance of CNFs.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Polyvinylidene Fluoride/Graphene Superhydrophobic Fibrous Films

    OpenAIRE

    Rasoul Moradi; Javad Karimi-Sabet; Mojtaba Shariaty-Niassar; Mohammad A. Koochaki

    2015-01-01

    A new strategy to induce superhydrophobicity via introducing hierarchical structure into the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film was explored in this study. For this purpose nanofibrous composite films were prepared by electrospinning of PVDF and PVDF/graphene blend solution as the main precursors to produce a net-like structure. Various spectroscopy and microscopy methods in combination with crystallographic and wettability tests were used to evaluate the characteristics of the synthesized f...

  2. PLD prepared nanostructured Pt-CeO2 thin films containing ionic platinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorokhta, M.; Khalakhan, I.; Matolínová, I.; Nováková, J.; Haviar, S.; Lančok, J.; Novotný, M.; Yoshikawa, H.; Matolín, V.

    2017-02-01

    The composition of nanostructured Pt-CeO2 films on graphite substrates prepared by pulsed laser deposition has been investigated by means of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The influence of morphology of the graphite substrates was investigated with respect to the relative concentrations of ionic and metallic Pt species in the films. It was found that the degree of Pt2+ enrichment is directly related to the surface morphology of graphite substrates. In particular, the deposition of Pt-CeO2 films on rough graphite substrate etched in oxygen plasma yielded nanostructured Pt-CeO2 catalyst films with high surface area and high Pt2+/Pt0 ratio. The presented results demonstrate that PLD is a suitable method for the preparation of thin Pt-CeO2 catalyst films for fuel cell applications.

  3. Amorphous Indium Selenide Thin Films Prepared by RF Sputtering: Thickness-Induced Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Myoung Yoo; Park, Yong Seob; Kim, Nam-Hoon

    2016-05-01

    The influence of indium composition, controlled by changing the film thickness, on the optical and electrical properties of amorphous indium selenide thin films was studied for the application of these materials as Cd-free buffer layers in CI(G)S solar cells. Indium selenide thin films were prepared using RF magnetron sputtering method. The indium composition of the amorphous indium selenide thin films was varied from 94.56 to 49.72 at% by increasing the film thickness from 30 to 70 nm. With a decrease in film thickness, the optical transmittance increased from 87.63% to 96.03% and Eg decreased from 3.048 to 2.875 eV. Carrier concentration and resistivity showed excellent values of ≥1015 cm(-3) and ≤ 10(4) Ω x cm, respectively. The conductivity type of the amorphous indium selenide thin films could be controlled by changing the film-thickness-induced amount of In. These results indicate the possibility of tuning the properties of amorphous indium selenide thin films by changing their composition for use as an alternate buffer layer material in CI(G)S solar cells.

  4. Electrical properties of chemically prepared nonstoichiometric CuIn(S,Se)2 thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R H Bari; L A Patil; A Soni; G S Okram

    2007-04-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of copper indium sulphoselenide [CuIn(S,Se)2] were deposited on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition technique. The deposition parameters such as pH, temperature and time were optimized. A set of films having different elemental compositions was prepared by varying Cu/In ratio from 1.87–12.15. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The chemical composition of the CuIn(S,Se)2 was found to be nonstoichiometric. The d.c. conductivities of the films were studied below and near room temperature. The thermo-electric power of the films was also measured and type of semiconductivity was ascertained.

  5. Electroplated Fe-Co-Ni films prepared from deep-eutectic-solvent-based plating baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Yanai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated soft magnetic films from DES-based plating baths, and investigated magnetic properties of the plated films. The plating baths were obtained by stirring the mixture of choline chloride, ethylene glycol, FeCl2 ⋅ 4H2O, NiCl2 ⋅ 6H2O and CoCl2 ⋅ 6H2O. The composition of the electroplated film depended on the amount of the reagent in the plating bath, and we consequently obtained the films with various composition. The current efficiency of the plating process shows high values (> 88 % in the wide composition range. The soft magnetic films with low coercivity were obtained at the Fe compositions of ≈ 30 at.% and > 80 at.%, and we found that low coercivity could be realized by the control of the film composition. We also found that the Fe-rich films prepared from DES-based plating bath have some advantages as a soft magnetic phase for a nanocomposite magnet due to their high saturation magnetization and very fine crystal structure.

  6. 溶胶-凝胶法制备Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2/TiO2复合涂层及其在模拟生理体液中的行为%HAP/TiO2 Composite Films: Preparation, Characterisation and Their Behaviors in Simulated Body Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏冰; 于旭东; 郭连峰; 王成焘

    2005-01-01

    The composite films consisting of hydroxyapatite (HAP) submicron particles embedded in the gel composed of the titania nanoparticles were prepared on commercial Ti6A14V plates with titania buffer layer obtained by a spin-coating technique. The films were calcined in air at various temperatures, and the bioactivities of the films were investigated by immersing them in acellular simulated body fliud (SBF). X-ray diffraction(XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Field emission-scanning electron microscopy(FESEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis were employed to investigate the phase formation and structure of the films before and after immersion, and the variations of Ca and P contents in SBF were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy(ICP). The results show that the as-prepared films were dense, homogeneous, all well-crystallized, and there was a close interracial bond between the film and the substrate. The characterisatics of the grown layer on the surfaces of the HAP/TiO2 films after immersion in SBF for different periods of time are specially discussed.

  7. Nonlinear optical properties of Au/PVP composite thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Hong; Cheng Bo-Lin; Lu Guo-Wei; Wang Wei-Tian; Guan Dong-Yi; Chen Zheng-Hao; Yang Guo-Zhen

    2005-01-01

    Colloidal Au and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) composite thin films are fabricated by spin-coating method. Linear optical absorption measurements of the Au/PVP composite films indicate an absorption peak around 530 nm due to the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles. Nonlinear optical properties are studied using standard Z-scan technique, and experimental results show large optical nonlinearities of the Au/PVP composite films. A large value of films.

  8. One-step synthesis of PbSe-ZnSe composite thin film

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study investigates the preparation of PbSe-ZnSe composite thin films by simultaneous hot-wall deposition (HWD) from multiple resources. The XRD result reveals that the solubility limit of Pb in ZnSe is quite narrow, less than 1 mol%, with obvious phase-separation in the composite thin films. A nanoscale elemental mapping of the film containing 5 mol% PbSe indicates that isolated PbSe nanocrystals are dispersed in the ZnSe matrix. The optical absorption edge of the composite thin...

  9. Preparation and properties of antimony thin film anode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shufa; CAO Gaoshao; ZHAO Xinbing

    2004-01-01

    Metallic antimony thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition. Electrochemical properties of the thin film as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared with those of antimony powder. It was found that both magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition are easily controllable processes to deposit antimony films with fiat charge/discharge potential plateaus. The electrochemical performances of antimony thin films, especially those prepared with magnetron sputtering, are better than those of antimony powder. The reversible capacities of the magnetron sputtered antimony thin film are above 400 mA h g-1 in the first 15 cycles.

  10. Atmospheric Environment Fabrication of Composite Films by Ethanol Catalytic Combustion and Its Use as Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Soar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The composite films which consist of amorphous carbon, carbon nanotube, and iron nanoparticles were prepared by ethanol catalytic combustion in atmospheric environment. The as-prepared composite films have good electrocatalytic activity and high conductivity which is due to their particular structure. The efficiency of the composite films based dye-sensitized soar cells (DSSCs is closed to that of the Pt based one. Most importantly, the DSSC employing the composite films presents a higher FF than those of Pt based solar cell. In addition, it is a simple method for mass production of composite films counter electrode (CE which is expected to reduce the cost of fabricating DSSCs.

  11. Model Lung Surfactant Films: Why Composition Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selladurai, Sahana L.; Miclette Lamarche, Renaud; Schmidt, Rolf; DeWolf, Christine E.

    2016-10-18

    Lung surfactant replacement therapies, Survanta and Infasurf, and two lipid-only systems both containing saturated and unsaturated phospholipids and one containing additional palmitic acid were used to study the impact of buffered saline on the surface activity, morphology, rheology, and structure of Langmuir monolayer model membranes. Isotherms and Brewster angle microscopy show that buffered saline subphases induce a film expansion, except when the cationic protein, SP-B, is present in sufficient quantities to already screen electrostatic repulsion, thus limiting the effect of changing pH and adding counterions. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction results indicate an expansion not only of the liquid expanded phase but also an expansion of the lattice of the condensed phase. The film expansion corresponded in all cases with a significant reduction in the viscosity and elasticity of the films. The viscoelastic parameters are dominated by liquid expanded phase properties and do not appear to be dependent on the structure of the condensed phase domains in a phase separated film. The results highlight that the choice of subphase and film composition is important for meaningful interpretations of measurements using model systems.

  12. A dense and strong bonding collagen film for carbon/carbon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Sheng; Li, Hejun, E-mail: lihejun@nwpu.edu.cn; Li, Kezhi; Lu, Jinhua; Zhang, Leilei

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Significantly enhancement of biocompatibility on C/C composites by preparing a collagen film. • The dense and continuous collagen film had a strong bonding strength with C/C composites after dehydrathermal treatment (DHT) crosslink. • Numerous oxygen-containing functional groups formed on the surface of C/C composites without matrix damage. - Abstract: A strong bonding collagen film was successfully prepared on carbon/carbon (C/C) composites. The surface conditions of the modified C/C composites were detected by contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectra. The roughness, optical morphology, bonding strength and biocompatibility of collagen films at different pH values were detected by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), universal test machine and cytology tests in vitro. After a 4-h modification in 30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution at 100 °C, the contact angle on the surface of C/C composites was decreased from 92.3° to 65.3°. Large quantities of hydroxyl, carboxyl and carbonyl functional groups were formed on the surface of the modified C/C composites. Then a dense and continuous collagen film was prepared on the modified C/C substrate. Bonding strength between collagen film and C/C substrate was reached to 8 MPa level when the pH value of this collagen film was 2.5 after the preparing process. With 2-day dehydrathermal treatment (DHT) crosslinking at 105 °C, the bonding strength was increased to 12 MPa level. At last, the results of in vitro cytological test showed that this collagen film made a great improvement on the biocompatibility on C/C composites.

  13. Preparation and characterization of biodegradable active PLA film for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, L.; Scarfato, P.; Avallone, E.; Galdi, M. R.; Incarnato, L.

    2014-05-01

    In this work we report on the preparation and characterization of a biodegradable active PLA film (aPLA), intended for food packaging applications. The film was obtained by cast extrusion blending a commercial PLA matrix with an active system, developed in our laboratory and based on PLA microparticles containing a-tocopherol (aTCP) as natural antioxidant agent. In order to optimize the film composition and processing, the active microparticles were preliminarily characterized with the aim to evaluate their morphology (size and shape), thermal resistance and a-tocopherol content. The aPLA film, produced with a 5wt% of aTCP, was characterized in terms of performance and activity. The experimental results demonstrated that the aPLA film has mechanical, thermal, barrier and optical properties adequate for packaging applications and shows oxygen scavenging activity and prolonged exhaustion lag time, compared to pure PLA films.

  14. Preparation and characterization of GaN films grown on Ga-diffused Si(111) substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhencui; CAO Wentian; WEI Qinqin; WANG Shuyun; XUE Chengshan; SUN Haibo

    2005-01-01

    Hexagonal GaN films were prepared by nitriding Ga2O3 films with flowing ammonia. Ga2O3 films were deposited on Ga-diffused Si (111) substrates by radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering. This paper have investigated the change of structural properties of GaN films nitrided in NH3 atmosphere at the temperatures of 850, 900, and 950℃ for 15min and nitrided at the temperature of 900℃ for 10, 15, and 20 min, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to analyze the structure, surface morphology and composition of synthesized samples. The results reveal that the as-grown films are polycrystalline GaN with hexagonal wurtzite structure and GaN films with the highest crystal quality can be obtained when nitrided at 900℃ for 15 min.

  15. Separation of Hydrogen Using an Electroless Deposited Thin-Film Palladium-Ceramic Composite Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilias, S.; King, F.G.; Fan, Ting-Fang; Roy, S. [North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to prepare and characterize a hydrogen permselective palladium-ceramic composite membrane for high temperature gas separations and catalytic membrane reactors. Electroless plating method was used to deposit a thin palladium film on microporous ceramic substrate. The objective of this paper is to discuss the preparation and characterization of a thin-film palladium-ceramic composite membrane for selective separation of hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures. In this paper, we also present a model to describe the hydrogen transport through the palladium-ceramic composite membrane in a cocurrent flow configuration.

  16. Preparation of Modified Films with Protein from Grouper Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Valdivia-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A protein concentrate (PC was obtained from Grouper fish skin and it was used to prepare films with different amounts of sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizers. The best performing films regarding resistance were then modified with various concentrations of CaCl2, CaSO4 (calcium salts, and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL with the purpose of improving their mechanical and barrier properties. These films were characterized by determining their mechanical properties and permeability to water vapor and oxygen. Formulations with 5% (w/v protein and 75% sorbitol and 4% (w/v protein with a mixture of 15% glycerol and 15% sorbitol produced adequate films. Calcium salts and GDL increased the tensile fracture stress but reduced the fracture strain and decreased water vapor permeability compared with control films. The films prepared represent an attractive alternative for being used as food packaging materials.

  17. Preparation of Modified Films with Protein from Grouper Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecante, A.; Granados-Navarrete, S.; Martínez-García, C.

    2016-01-01

    A protein concentrate (PC) was obtained from Grouper fish skin and it was used to prepare films with different amounts of sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizers. The best performing films regarding resistance were then modified with various concentrations of CaCl2, CaSO4 (calcium salts), and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) with the purpose of improving their mechanical and barrier properties. These films were characterized by determining their mechanical properties and permeability to water vapor and oxygen. Formulations with 5% (w/v) protein and 75% sorbitol and 4% (w/v) protein with a mixture of 15% glycerol and 15% sorbitol produced adequate films. Calcium salts and GDL increased the tensile fracture stress but reduced the fracture strain and decreased water vapor permeability compared with control films. The films prepared represent an attractive alternative for being used as food packaging materials. PMID:27597950

  18. Structure and photochromic properties of molybdenumphosphoric acid/TiO2 composite films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI He; LIU Yan; FENG Wei; ZHU YiMin

    2009-01-01

    TiO2 sol-gel composite films with dropping molybdenumphosphoric acid (PMoA) have been prepared by sol-gel method. The structure and constitute of composite thin films were studied with Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, respectively. The photochromic behavior and mechanism of composite thin films were inves-tigated with ultraviolet-visible spectra (UV-vis) and electron spin resonance (ESR). FT-IR results showed that the Keggin geometry of PMoA was still preserved inside PMoA/TiO2 composite thin films, and a charge transfer bridge was built at the interface of PMoA and TiO2 through the Mo-O-Ti bond. Surface topography of the composite film showed obvious changes before/after adding PMoA, and the surface topography of composite films showed obvious changes before/after irradiating as well. Composite thin film had reversible photochromic properties. Irradiated with UV light, transparent films changed from colorless to blue and they can bleach completely with ambient air in the dark. ESR re-sults showed that TiO2 were excitated by UV light to produce electrons, which deoxidized PMoA to produce heteropolyblues. The photochromic process of PMoA/TiO2 system was carried through elec-tron transfer mechanism.

  19. Structure and photochromic properties of molybdenumphosphoric acid/TiO2 composite films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    TiO2 sol-gel composite films with dropping molybdenumphosphoric acid(PMoA) have been prepared by sol-gel method.The structure and constitute of composite thin films were studied with Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR),atomic force microscopy(AFM),and X-ray diffraction(XRD) patterns,respectively.The photochromic behavior and mechanism of composite thin films were inves-tigated with ultraviolet-visible spectra(UV-vis) and electron spin resonance(ESR).FT-IR results showed that the Keggin geometry of PMoA was still preserved inside PMoA/TiO2 composite thin films,and a charge transfer bridge was built at the interface of PMoA and TiO2 through the Mo-O-Ti bond.Surface topography of the composite film showed obvious changes before/after adding PMoA,and the surface topography of composite films showed obvious changes before/after irradiating as well.Composite thin film had reversible photochromic properties.Irradiated with UV light,transparent films changed from colorless to blue and they can bleach completely with ambient air in the dark.ESR re-sults showed that TiO2 were excitated by UV light to produce electrons,which deoxidized PMoA to produce heteropolyblues.The photochromic process of PMoA/TiO2 system was carried through elec-tron transfer mechanism.

  20. Pharmaceutical films made from the waste material from the preparation of propolis extracts: development and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Alcântara Sica de Toledo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract This study investigated the development and characterized the physicochemical properties of films obtained from by-products (BP from the preparation of propolis extracts. Films were produced in the presence and absence of a polymeric adjuvant (gelatin or ethylcellulose and propylene glycol by a solvent casting method. Density, surface topography by scanning electron microscopy, mechanical properties (folding endurance, tensile strength and percentage elongation, water vapour permeability (WVP, moisture uptake capacity, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were determined. The films were a transparent, light greenish-yellow colour, with a uniform surface, and were flexible and easy to handle. The thickness and density of the preparations indicated that the compounds were homogeneously dispersed throughout the film. Mechanical properties were influenced by the film composition; films containing gelatin were more resistant to stress, while those containing ethylcellulose were more flexible. Increasing the adjuvant concentration decreased the elasticity and the rupture resistance, but increased the moisture uptake capacity and WVP of the formulations. BP was thermally stable as were the films. FTIR tests suggested interactions between BP and the adjuvants. This work could contribute to the utilization of BP to prepare films for food and pharmaceutical uses

  1. Preparation and characterization of gelatin/cerium(Ⅲ) film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄崇军; 黄雅钦; 田娜; 童元建; 殷瑞贤

    2010-01-01

    A novel gelatin film with antibacterial activity was prepared by electrostatic crosslinking using cerium (Ⅲ) nitrate hexahydrate as the crosslinking agent. The structure and properties of the films were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectra, tensile tests, thermogravimetric analysis, static drop contact angle and disc diffusion method. The results showed that cross-linking could not only improve the thermal and mechanical properties and lower the hydrophilic property of the films, but also make...

  2. Preparation of Electrically Conductive Polystyrene/Carbon Nanofiber Nanocomposite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Luyi; O'Reilly, Jonathan Y.; Tien, Chi-Wei; Sue, Hung-Jue

    2008-01-01

    A simple and effective approach to prepare conductive polystyrene/carbon nanofiber (PS/CNF) nanocomposite films via a solution dispersion method is presented. Inexpensive CNF, which has a structure similar to multi-walled carbon nanotubes, is chosen as a nanofiller in this experiment to achieve conductivity in PS films. A good dispersion is…

  3. Preparation and evaluation of buccal bioadhesive films containing clotrimazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Jain, S; Muthu, M S; Tiwari, S; Tilak, R

    2008-01-01

    Buccal bioadhesive films, releasing topical drugs in the oral cavity at a slow and predetermined rate, provide distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms. The aim of present study was to prepare and evaluate buccal bioadhesive films of clotrimazole for oral candidiasis. The film was designed to release the drug at a concentration above the minimum inhibitory concentration for a prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration of the available conventional dosage forms. The different proportions of sodium carboxymethylcellulose and carbopol 974P (CP 974P) were used for the preparation of films. Carbopol was used to incorporate the desired bioadhesiveness in the films. The films were prepared by solvent casting method and evaluated for bioadhesion, in vitro drug release and effectiveness against Candida albicans. In vitro drug release from the film was determined using a modified Franz diffusion cell while bioadhesiveness was evaluated with a modified two-arm balance using rabbit intestinal mucosa as a model tissue. Films containing 5% CP 974P of the total polymer were found to be the best with moderate swelling along with favorable bioadhesion force, residence time and in vitro drug release. The microbiological studies revealed that drug released from the film could inhibit the growth of C. albicans for 6 h. The drug release mechanism was found to follow non-Fickian diffusion.

  4. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-ZnFe2O4/TiO2 Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The nano-ZnFe2O4/TiO2 films possess the functions of desulfurization and degradation for organic pollutants. The sols of ZnFe2O4/TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel method and coated on glass and porous ceramic by vertical coating and dipping-lift processes, respectively, and the samples were obtained after drying and sintering. The composition, appearance, absorption spectrum of the films,and the influence of the film on porous ceramic performances were analyzed using SEM, AFM, UVVis spectrometer, and mercury porosimeter, respectively, to determine the operation parameters of the multifunction porous ceramic elements for gas-purification.

  6. Photoelectric Characteristics of Nano TiO2 Film Prepared By Spraying Pyrolysis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Cuong Tran Kim

    2015-01-01

    The nanocrystalline TiO2 (nc TiO2) film was prepared by spraying pyrolysis method. Starting material for the synthesis was TiCl4. Phase compositions and crystalline sizes were examined by pattern of XRD, and surface morphology of the thin film was analyzed by SEM and AFM. Optical characteristics were examined by UV – Vis and luminescent spectra (PL). Electric characteristics were examined by measuring resistance changing of films versus temperature. The experimental data ...

  7. Ultrasonically assisted intercalation of Ni in Al2O3 thin film prepared by SILAR technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanayat, Swapnali; Digraskar, Renuka; Gattu, Ketan; Upadhye, Deepak; Mahajan, Sandeep; Sharma, Ramphal; Ghule, Anil

    2013-06-01

    The Al2O3 thin film were prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique and annealed at 250 °C. Thereafter, Ni was ultrasonically intercalated in Al2O3 thin films for different sonication time period of 5 and 10s, and subsequently annealed at 250 °C to form NiO-Al2O3. The films were further characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and I-V system, to study morphological, compositional, optical and electrical properties.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Polymeric PVDF/PDDA Ultrathin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Ye; Yadong Jiang; Yong Wang; Zhiming Wu; Guangzhong Xie

    2006-01-01

    A new method for the production of nanoscaled polymeric multilayer films of ferroelectric PVDF is presented. The ultrathin multilayer films of poly diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) have been prepared on fuzed quartz substrate by the layer-by-layer self-assembly (LbL-SA) method. The PDDA/PVDF multilayer films with the thickness of 30 nm to 150 nm have been characterized by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and infrared spectra (IR).The QCM reveals that the alternant ultrathin films of PVDF and PDDA are well order assembled. The electric property of the ultrathin PDDA/PVDF multilayer films at room temperature is investigated. Experimental results show that property of ultrathin films differed from that of the thick films.

  9. [Preparation and spectral characterization of CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Feng, Liang-Huan; Wu, Li-Li; Zhang, Jing-Quan; Li, Bing; Lei, Zhi; Cai, Ya-Ping; Zheng, Jia-Gui; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Dong-Min

    2008-03-01

    CdS(y)Te(1-y) (0 thin films were prepared on glass substrates by co-evaporation of powders of CdTe and CdS. For the characterization of the structure and composition of the CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used. The results indicate that the values of sulfur content y detected and controlled by the quartz wafer detector show good agreement with the EDS results. The films were found to be cubic for x or = 0.3. The 20-50 nm of grain sizes for CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films were calculated using a method of XRD analysis. Finally, the optical properties of CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films were characterized by UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy alone. According to a method from Swanepoel, together with the first-order Sellmeier model, the thickness, of d-535 nm, energy gap of E(g)-1.41 eV, absorption coefficient, alpha(lambda) and refractive index, n(lambda) of CdS(0.22) Te(0.78) thin films were determined from the transmittance at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range 300-2 500 nm. The results also indicate that the CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films with any composition (0 thin films can be implemented for other semiconductor thin films.

  10. Preparation and Properties of Doped Lanthanum Gallate Film on a Ni/SDC Porous Anode Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A 65.8-μm dense doped lanthanum gallate La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.85Mg0.15O2.825 (LSGM)film was prepared on a porous Ni/SDC(samarium doped ceria, Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9) anode support by colloid suspension deposition with incomplete crystallization LSGM powder as a starting material. The phase composition and micromorphology of the LSGM film were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties of the LSGM film and the performances of the LSGM film solid oxide fuel cell were also analyzed. The results show that both the dense LSGM film on the porous anode support, and the required phase composition of the LSGM film were obtained simultaneously by sintering at 1400℃ for 6 h. The adhesion between the LSGM film and the porous anode support is very strong. The electrical conductivities of the LSGM film on the porous anode support are 0. 113 and 0. 173 S/cm at 800and 850 ℃, respectively. The maximum output power density of the LSGM film cell is 177 mW/cm2 at 700 ℃.

  11. Electrophoretic deposition of composite halloysite nanotube–hydroxyapatite–hyaluronic acid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deen, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Zhitomirsky, I., E-mail: zhitom@mcmaster.ca [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► Composite halloysite nanotubes–hydroxyapatite–hyaluronic acid films were prepared. ► Electrophoretic deposition method was used for deposition. ► Natural hyaluronic acid was used as a dispersing, charging and film forming agent. ► Film composition and deposition yield can be varied. ► The films can be used for biomedical implants with controlled release of drugs. -- Abstract: Electrophoretic deposition method has been developed for the deposition of biocomposite films containing halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), hydroxyapatite (HA) and hyaluronic acid. The method is based on the use of natural hyaluronate biopolymer as a dispersing and charging agent for HNT and HA and film forming agent for the fabrication of the composite films. The deposition kinetics was studied by the quartz crystal microbalance method. The composite films were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis and electron microscopy. The composite films are promising materials for the fabrication of biomedical implants with advanced functional properties.

  12. Novel transparent and flexible nanocomposite film prepared from chrysotile nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kun, E-mail: kliu@csu.edu.cn [School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhu, Binnan; Feng, Qiming [School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Duan, Tao [Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, chrysotile nanofibres, obtained from physicochemical dispersion of natural chrysotile, were used to prepare nanofibre sheets by vacuum filtration. As-prepared sheets were then impregnated by UV-curable resin and cured by ultraviolet light to fabricate the flexible and transparent nanocomposite films. Observed from SEM, the transparent films showed a smooth surface and a typical sandwich structure in cross section, viz. nanofibre sheet filled with resin was sandwiched by two layers of resin. XRD patterns indicated the amorphous nature of cured resin and characteristic crystallographic structure of chrysotile in nanocomposite films. Though the nanofibre sheets were white in colour, and nanofibre contents in nanocomposites were as much as 43.4 wt%, the nanocomposite films displayed an excellent optical transparency with about 85% light transmittance in the visible light range. Tensile tests showed that the addition of nanofibres resulted in a great improvement in mechanical strength of the nanocomposite films; with the increase of nanofibre contents, the modulus and tensile strength of nanocomposite films increased gradually. - Graphical abstract: Photos show the experimental phenomenon. The white nanofibre sheets can be written or printed like paper, and it's very interested that the handwriting is clearly visible from the front and back of the transparent films prepared from nanofibre sheets by vacuum impregnation and UV curing. This phenomenon can be attributed to the increase of transparency of film, which results from the replacement of air interstices in nanofibre sheet by resin with higher refractive index. Visible light can pass easily through the transparent film without obvious loss, but can be apparently adsorbed and scattered by ink particles that adhered to nanofibres and embedded in resin. - Highlights: • A flexible and transparent film is prepared from chrysotile nanofibres. • The nanofibre sheet is sandwiched by two

  13. Hybrid organic/inorganic reverse osmosis (RO) membrane for bactericidal anti-fouling. 1. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 nanoparticle self-assembled aromatic polyamide thin-film-composite (TFC) membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, S Y; Kim, S H; Kim, S S

    2001-06-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic reverse osmosis (RO) membranes composed of aromatic polyamide thin films underneath titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanosized particles have been fabricated by a self-assembly process, aiming at breakthrough of biofouling problems. First, positively charged particles of the colloidal TiO2 were synthesized by a sol-gel process, and the diameter of the resulting particles in acidic aqueous solution was estimated to be approximately 2 nm by analyzing the UV-visible absorption characteristics with a quantum mechanical model developed by Brus. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further confirmed the formation of the quantum-sized TiO2 particles (approximately 10 nm or less). The TiO2 particles appeared to exist in the crystallographic form of anatase as observed with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern in comparison with those of commercial 100% rutile and commercial 70:30% anatase-to-rutile mixture. The hybrid thin-film-composite (TFC) aromatic polyamide membranes were prepared by self-assembly of the TiO2 nanoparticles on the polymer chains with COOH groups along the surface. They showed improved RO performance in which the water flux even increased, though slightly. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) exhibited the TiO2 nanoparticles well adsorbed onto the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrated quantitatively that a considerable amount of the adsorbed particles were tightly self-assembled at the expense of the initial loss of those that were loosely bound, and became stabilized even after exposure to the various washing and harsh RO operating conditions. The antibacterial fouling potential of the TiO2 hybrid membrane was examined and verified by measuring the viable numbers and determining the survival ratios of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a model bacterium, both with and without UV light illumination. The photocatalytic bactericidal efficiency was remarkably higher for the TiO2 hybrid membrane under UV

  14. Preparation and characterization of bio-nanocomposite films of agar and silver nanoparticles: laser ablation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jong-Whan; Wang, Long-Feng; Lee, Yonghoon; Hong, Seok-In

    2014-03-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by a laser ablation method and composite films with the AgNPs and agar were prepared by solvent casting method. UV-vis absorbance test and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis results revealed that non-agglomerated spherical AgNPs were formed by the laser ablation method. The surface color of the resulting agar/AgNPs films exhibited the characteristic plasmonic effect of the AgNPs with the maximum absorption peaks of 400-407 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) test results also exhibited characteristic AgNPs crystals with diffraction peaks observed at 2θ values of 38.39°, 44.49°, and 64.45°, which were corresponding to (111), (200), and (220) crystallographic planes of face-centered cubic (fcc) silver crystals, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results showed that thermal stability of the agar/AgNPs composite films was increased by the inclusion of metallic silver. Water vapor barrier properties and surface hydrophobicity of the agar/AgNPs films increased slightly with the increase in AgNPs content but they were not statistically significant (p>0.05), while mechanical strength and stiffness of the composite films decreased slightly (p<0.05). The agar/AgNPs films exhibited distinctive antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli O157:H7) bacterial pathogens.

  15. Reactively sputtered titanium carbide thin films: Preparation and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizenberg, M.; Murarka, S. P.

    1983-06-01

    The low resistivity and refractory nature of titanium carbide makes it potentially useful as a diffusion barrier in thin film metallization schemes. In the present investigation, deposition and properties of thin titanium carbide films have been investigated. The films were deposited by reactive radio frequency sputtering in methane-argon mixtures on a variety of substrates. The effects of methane to argon ratio, total sputtering pressure, and power on the film deposition rate, composition and properties were determined. There were interactive effects of these parameters on the composition and properties of these films. Resistivity increased with carbon content; for Ti/C≥1 it was ˜200 μΩ cm. Stress that was compressive was maximum in the nearly stoichiometric TiC film. Grain size was small in all films, especially so in carbon rich films. All stoichiometric titanium carbide films were resistant to HF solutions. Films with TiC/≥1 dissolved easily in ethylene dinitrilo tetra acetric acid (EDTA) solution.

  16. Preparation and characterization of nanostructured copper bismuth diselenide thin films from a chemical route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R H Bari; L A Patil

    2010-12-01

    Thin films of copper bismuth diselenide were prepared by chemical bath deposition technique onto glass substrate below 60°C. The deposition parameters such as time, temperature of deposition and pH of the solution, were optimized. The set of films having different elemental compositions was prepared by varying Cu/Bi ratio from 0.13–1.74. Studies on structure, composition, morphology, optical absorption and electrical conductivity of the films were carried out and discussed. Characterization includes X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), absorption spectroscopy, and electrical conductivity. The results are discussed and interpreted.

  17. Studies on Preparation of Co-Bi Alloy Films by Electrodeposition From Nonaqueous Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gao-ren; TONG Ye-xiang; LIU Guan-kun

    2003-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic electrolysis were used to investigate the preparation of Co-Bi alloy films in a LiClO4-DMSO system. The experimental results indicate that the Co-Bi alloy films containing 14.35%-29.77% Co can be prepared via potentionstatic electrolysis on Cu substrates, at deposition potential -1.10--1.65 V(vs. SCE) and by controlling the system composition and deposition condition. They are uniform gray films with a metallic luster and they are adhered firmly to the Cu substrate. The films were analyzed by EDS, SEM and XRD. After heat treatment of crystallization at 275 ℃ for 1 h, the alloy phase of Co-Bi can be confirmed via the XRD pattern.

  18. Barium titanate thick films prepared by screen printing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana M. Vijatović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 thick films were prepared by screen printing technique using powders obtained by soft chemical route, modified Pechini process. Three different barium titanate powders were prepared: i pure, ii doped with lanthanum and iii doped with antimony. Pastes for screen printing were prepared using previously obtained powders. The thick films were deposited onto Al2O3 substrates and fired at 850°C together with electrode material (silver/palladium in the moving belt furnace in the air atmosphere. Measurements of thickness and roughness of barium titanate thick films were performed. The electrical properties of thick films such as dielectric constant, dielectric losses, Curie temperature, hysteresis loop were reported. The influence of different factors on electrical properties values was analyzed.

  19. Composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol)-chitosan-bacterial cellulose for drug controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavaloiu, Ramona-Daniela; Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta; Stroescu, Marta; Jinga, Sorin Ion; Dobre, Tanase

    2014-07-01

    Mono and multilayer composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol)-chitosan-bacterial cellulose (PVA/chitosan/BC) have been prepared to achieve controlled release of ibuprofen sodium salt (IbuNa) as model drug. The composite films have been characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Equilibrium swelling was measured in water at two different pH values and in vitro release of IbuNa in pH 1.2 and pH 7.4 media was studied. The release experiments revealed that drug release is pH sensitive. The release kinetics of IbuNa could be described by the Fickian model of diffusion with a good agreement. The IbuNa release rate was decreasing for all the films as the BC concentration was increased in the films composition, the decrease being higher for the multilayer films.

  20. Characterization of sol-gel-prepared Ti02 thin film for O2 sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashbar, Massood Z.; Ghantasala, Muralihar K.; Wlodarski, Wojtek

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents the results of our investigation on deposition and characterization of sol-gel prepared TiO2 thin films for oxygen sensing applications. The properties of pure TiO2 thin films are compared with those doped with niobium oxide and 1%pt. These films are characterized using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study their chemical composition, structure and surface morphology respectively. Both kinds of the films are stoichiometric. Pure TiO2 as well as doped films were amorphous as deposited. Pure TiO2 films after annealing to 450 degrees Celsius and above showed the formation of anatase phase, while the doped films still predominantly amorphous, barely showing the onset of crystallinity. Pure films after annealing to 600 degrees Celsius appear to have become granular and porous. Doping with niobium oxide and Pt resulted in modification of film microstructure also. As a result of doping, the gas sensitivity of the films is increased from 8 to 24 and operating temperature decreased from 320 degrees Celsius to 190 degrees Celsius.

  1. Preparation and Photochromic Properties of Hybrid Thin Films Based on Heteropolyoxometallate and Polyacrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    series of photochromic hybrid films were prepared through entrapping Dawson type tungsten heteropolyoxometallates (P2W18O626-) and molybdenum heteropolyoxometallate (P2Mo18O626-) into polyacrylamide matrix. FTIR results showed that the Dawson geometry of heteropolyoxometallates is still preserved inside the composites and strong coulombic interaction is built between heteropolyoxometallates and polyacrylamide via hydrogen bonding. Irradiated with ultraviolet light, the transparent films change from colorless to blue and show reversible photochromism.The bleaching process occurs when the films are in contact with air or O2 in the dark. The molybdenum heteropolyoxometallate hybrid film has higher photochromic efficiency and slower bleaching reaction than tungsten heteropolyoxometallate hybrid film. ESR results indicated that polyacrylamide is a hydrogen donor and the photoreduced process is in accordance with the radical mechanism.

  2. Preparation of γ-Al2O3 films by laser chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Ito, Akihiko; Goto, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    γ- and α-Al2O3 films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition using CO2, Nd:YAG, and InGaAs lasers to investigate the effects of varying the laser wavelength and deposition conditions on the phase composition and microstructure. The CO2 laser was found to mostly produce α-Al2O3 films, whereas the Nd:YAG and InGaAs lasers produced γ-Al2O3 films when used at a high total pressure. γ-Al2O3 films had a cauliflower-like structure, while the α-Al2O3 films had a dense and columnar structure. Of the three lasers, it was the Nd:YAG laser that interacted most with intermediate gas species. This promoted γ-Al2O3 nucleation in the gas phase at high total pressure, which explains the cauliflower-like structure of nanoparticles observed.

  3. ZnO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoutsouva, M.G. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780 Athens (Greece); Panagopoulos, C.N., E-mail: chpanag@metal.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780 Athens (Greece); Papadimitriou, D. [National Technical University of Athens, Department of Physics, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Fasaki, I.; Kompitsas, M. [Theor. and Phys./Chem. Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 48 Vas. Konstantinou Ave., 11635 Athens (Greece)

    2011-04-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on soda lime glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in an oxygen-reactive atmosphere. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of the as-prepared thin films were studied in dependence of substrate temperature and oxygen pressure. High quality polycrystalline ZnO films with hexagonal wurtzite structure were deposited at substrate temperatures of 100 and 300 deg. C. The RMS roughness of the deposited oxide films was found to be in the range 2-9 nm and was only slightly dependent on substrate temperature and oxygen pressure. Electrical measurements indicated a decrease of film resistivity with the increase of substrate temperature and the decrease of oxygen pressure. The ZnO films exhibited high transmittance of 90% and their energy band gap and thickness were in the range 3.26-3.30 eV and 256-627 nm, respectively.

  4. Optical Properties of Semiconductor-Metal Composite Thin Films in the Infrared Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, C. L.; Lamb, James L.

    1993-01-01

    Germanium:Silver (Ge:Ag) composite thin films having different concentrations of Ag, ranging from 7% to 40% have been prepared by dc co-sputtering of Ge an Ag and the films' surface morphology and optical properties have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and infrared spectrophotometry. It is seen that while the films containing lower concentrations of Ag have island-like morphology (i.e. Ag particles distributed in a Ge matrix), the higher metallic concentration films tend to have symmetric distribution of Ag and Ge.

  5. Preparations and photoelectrochemical property research of layer-stacked TiO2/SnO2 nanosized composite films%叠层式TiO2/SnO2复合纳米薄膜制备及其光电性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱萍; 贺明辉; 尹衍升

    2011-01-01

    The layer-stacked TiO2/SnO2 nanosized composite thin films were successfully prepared by sol-gel method and deposited on different subtrates. The synthesized and the surface micrograph of the composite thin films were characterized physically by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photo absorbance activity and photoelectrochemical activities of the layer-stacked TiO2/SnO2 nanosized composite thin film were examined by absorbance plots and OCP-t plots under ultraviolet (UV) illumination. The result of phase construction showed that composite thin films have rutile phase of TiO2 and anatase phase of SnO2 at 450 ℃ heat treatment. The results of the characterization indicate that layer-stacked TiO2/SnO2 composite films are compact and homogeneous than single TiO2 thin films. The layer-stacked TiO2/SnO2 composite thin films prepared exhibits higher absorb activity and wide absorb spectrum at visible light spectrum in contrast to single TiO2 films. The photoelectrochemical effect of SnO2 lay number of the composites films was also investigated by OCP-t plots. The results showed that the layer-stacked TiO2/SnO2 composite thin films can charge storage upon UV illumination and this stored charge could be released slowly on cessation of illumination thereby maintain sufficiently photoelectrochemical capability of TiO2 when UV light shut off. By the contrast, the composite films with three layer SnO2 loading had the highest charge storage capacitance and maintain efficiency.%采用溶胶-凝胶法在不同基体表面制备了叠层式TiO2/SnO2复合纳米薄膜.用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、X射线衍射(XRD)对复合薄膜表面形貌和晶体结构进行表征.采用紫外-可见吸收光谱法和电化学方法来研究复合薄膜光学与光电化学性能特征.结果表明,所制备的叠层式TiO2/SnO2复合纳米薄膜表面连续、均匀、致密;XRD分析表明纳米TiO2为锐钛矿型结构,SnO2为金红石型结构

  6. One-step synthesis of PbSe-ZnSe composite thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the preparation of PbSe-ZnSe composite thin films by simultaneous hot-wall deposition (HWD) from multiple resources. The XRD result reveals that the solubility limit of Pb in ZnSe is quite narrow, less than 1 mol%, with obvious phase-separation in the composite thin films. A nanoscale elemental mapping of the film containing 5 mol% PbSe indicates that isolated PbSe nanocrystals are dispersed in the ZnSe matrix. The optical absorption edge of the composite thin films shifts toward the low-photon-energy region as the PbSe content increases. The use of a phase-separating PbSe-ZnSe system and HWD techniques enables simple production of the composite package. PMID:21711822

  7. One-step synthesis of PbSe-ZnSe composite thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Seishi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigates the preparation of PbSe-ZnSe composite thin films by simultaneous hot-wall deposition (HWD from multiple resources. The XRD result reveals that the solubility limit of Pb in ZnSe is quite narrow, less than 1 mol%, with obvious phase-separation in the composite thin films. A nanoscale elemental mapping of the film containing 5 mol% PbSe indicates that isolated PbSe nanocrystals are dispersed in the ZnSe matrix. The optical absorption edge of the composite thin films shifts toward the low-photon-energy region as the PbSe content increases. The use of a phase-separating PbSe-ZnSe system and HWD techniques enables simple production of the composite package.

  8. Preparation of carbon-nitride bulk samples in the presence of seed carbon-nitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. I. [Korea University of Technology and Education, Chonan (Korea, Republic of); Zorov, N. B. [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-05-15

    A procedure was developed for preparing bulk carbon-nitride crystals from polymeric alpha-C{sub 3}N{sub 4.2} at high pressure and high temperature in the presence of seeds of crystalline carbon-nitride films prepared by using a high-voltage discharge plasma combined with pulsed laser ablation of a graphite target. The samples were evaluated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Notably, XPS studies of the film composition before and after thermobaric treatments demonstrated that the nitrogen composition in the alpha-C{sub 3}N{sub 4.2} material, which initially contained more than 58 % nitrogen, decreased during the annealing process and reached a common, stable composition of approx 45 %. The thermobaric experiments were performed at 10 - 77 kbar and 350 - 1200 .deg. C.

  9. Preparation and properties of films cast from mixtures of poly(vinyl alcohol) and submicron particles prepared from amylose-palmitic acid inclusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanta, George F; Selling, Gordon W; Felker, Frederick C; Kenar, James A

    2015-05-05

    The use of starch in polymer composites for film production has been studied for increasing biodegradability, improving film properties and reducing cost. In this study, submicron particles were prepared from amylose-sodium palmitate complexes both by rapidly cooling jet-cooked starch-palmitic acid mixtures and by acidifying solutions of starch-sodium palmitate complexes. Films were cast containing poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) with up to 50% starch particles. Tensile strength decreased and Young's modulus increased with starch concentration, but percent elongations remained similar to controls regardless of preparation method or starch content. Microscopy showed particulate starch distribution in films made with rapidly cooled starch-palmitic acid particles but smooth, diffuse starch staining with acidified sodium palmitate complexes. The mild effects on tensile properties suggest that submicron starch particles prepared from amylose-palmitic acid complexes provide a useful, commercially viable approach for PVOH film modification.

  10. Electrical domain morphologies in compositionally graded ferroelectric films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okatan, M B; Roytburd, A L; Nagarajan, V; Alpay, S P

    2012-01-18

    We present a nonlinear thermodynamic formalism coupled with an electrostatic analysis of uniaxial n-layered compositionally graded heteroepitaxial ferroelectric films and extend this formalism to continuously graded ferroelectric films. We show that the domain morphology and its subsequent evolution in the presence of an electric field are determined by the spontaneous polarisation of the film induced through the compositional grading. The results for compositionally graded epitaxial (001) (Ba,Sr)TiO(3) and (001) Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) films on (001)SrTiO(3) demonstrate that, while the domain morphologies in these two films are different in appearance, the dielectric displacement and the dielectric permittivity of such graded ferroelectric films exhibit a strong nonlinear behaviour which results in a high dielectric tunability. These findings indicate that it is possible to design specific domain structures that will yield desirable dielectric properties by controlling the strength of the compositional grading in the films.

  11. 纳米微晶纤维/聚乙烯醇复合薄膜的制备及性能%Preparation and Property of Composite Films of Nano-Crystalline Cellulose/Polymer-Poly Vinyl Alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田景阳; 朱琦; 张璠; 黄崇杏; 杨崎峰

    2012-01-01

    Films of Nano-Crystalline Cellulose/Polymer-Polyv inyl Alcohol(NCC/PVA) with different NCC content were obtained through the sol/gel process ,and NCC with 20 - 50nm particle size was obtained from bagasse. The influnce of NCC content on composite films was fucosed 'on. The results show that these composite films have improved thermal stability with the adding of NCC. The composite films' tensile strength increased 115% and water absorption reduced 12.0% and elongation ruduced 68% when the content of NCC was 0.5%.%采用蔗渣为原料制备出粒径大小为20~50nm的纳米微晶纤维素(NCC),并用溶胶/凝胶方法制备出不同NCC含量的纳米微晶纤维素/聚乙烯醇(NCC/PVA)复合薄膜,重点研究了NCC加入量对复合薄膜综合性能的影响。结果表明,NCC的加入能使薄膜的热稳定性有所提高,当NCC的添加量在0.5%时,聚乙烯醇薄膜的拉伸强度提高了115%,吸水性降低了12.0%,断裂伸长率减少了68%。

  12. Effects of the composite nanovesicles on the physical properties and cellular adhesion of chitosan films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionzo, Maria I Z; Lorenzini, Giulia C; Tomedi, Joelson; Pranke, Patricia; Silveira, Nádya P

    2012-04-01

    Chitosan films were prepared by the casting of a chitosan gel in absence and presence of composite nanovesicles. The microscopy images showed the occurrence of agglomerates on the surface and internal pores when the nanovesicles were added to the films, differently from the smooth surface of the pure chitosan films. Despite the hydrophobic character that composite nanovesicles gave to the chitosan films, as showed by the reduction of the water permeation at prolonged times, there was a reduction on the contact angle values for these samples related to the roughness of the surface. The peak of water desorption observed on calorimetric analysis of chitosan was shifted to higher values when the nanovesicles were added to the films. Furthermore, the desappearance of Tg on the films containing nanovesicles denoted their plastifier effect in the chitosan film. The swelling results showed higher water diffusion at the first times for the films containing nanovesicles because of the pores observed by microscopy. However, at prolonged times, there was a reduction on the swelling because of the lipofilic composition of the nanovesicles. Furthermore, the presence of nanovesicles led to a reduction on the water content in the chitosan films. Due to the effect on the physical properties of the chitosan films, the addition of nanovesicles on discrete concentrations contributed to the cell adhesion.

  13. In Situ Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Reinforced Silicone-Acrylate Resin Composite Films Applied in Erosion Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduced graphene oxide reinforced silicone-acrylate resin composite films (rGO/SAR composite films were prepared by in situ synthesis method. The structure of rGO/SAR composite films was characterized by Raman spectrum, atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analyzer. The results showed that the rGO were uniformly dispersed in silicone-acrylate resin matrix. Furthermore, the effect of rGO loading on mechanical properties of composite films was investigated by bulge test. A significant enhancement (ca. 290% and 320% in Young’s modulus and yield stress was obtained by adding the rGO to silicone-acrylate resin. At the same time, the adhesive energy between the composite films and metal substrate was also improved to be about 200%. Moreover, the erosion resistance of the composite films was also investigated as function of rGO loading. The rGO had great effect on the erosion resistance of the composite films, in which the Rcorr (ca. 0.8 mm/year of composite film was far lower than that (28.7 mm/year of pure silicone-acrylate resin film. Thus, this approach provides a novel route to investigate mechanical stability of polymer composite films and improve erosion resistance of polymer coating, which are very important to be used in mechanical-corrosion coupling environments.

  14. Development and characterization of an edible composite film based on chitosan and virgin coconut oil with improved moisture sorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsi, P K; Ravishankar, C N; Srinivasa Gopal, T K

    2013-04-01

    An edible composite film was prepared from an emulsion system based on chitosan and virgin coconut oil (VCO). The effect of incorporation of VCO was evaluated at various concentrations and the optimum concentration was chosen based on resultant changes in the properties of the film. Addition of VCO in film forming solution resulted in increase in film thickness and marginal reduction in film transparency. Compatibility of VCO with chitosan was better at lower concentration of VCO as indicated by the microstructure of composite film in scanning electron micrographs. Phase separation was evident at higher level of oil incorporation and the optimal oil/chitosan ratio was determined to be at 0.5 to 1 mL/g chitosan. Furthermore, chemical interaction took place between VCO and chitosan as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy data. Even though control chitosan films exhibited superior gas barrier properties, composite film with optimum VCO concentration revealed better mechanical and moisture sorption properties.

  15. Investigation of polypyrrole/polyvinyl alcohol-titanium dioxide composite films for photo-catalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaoqiang; Zhang, Hongyang; Song, Yuanqing; Zhang, Jianling; Yang, Haigang; Jiang, Long; Dan, Yi

    2015-07-01

    Polypyrrole/polyvinyl alcohol-titanium dioxide (PPy/PVA-TiO2) composite films used as photo-catalysts were fabricated by combining TiO2 sol with PPy/PVA solution in which PPy was synthesized by in situ polymerization of pyrrole (Py) in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix and loaded on glass. The prepared photo-catalysts were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and photoluminescence (PL). The results indicate that the composites have same crystal structure as the TiO2 and extend the optic absorption from UV region to visible light region. By detecting the variation ratio, detected by ultraviolet-vis spectroscopy, of model pollutant rhodamine B (RhB) solution in the presence of the composite films under both UV and visible light irradiation, the photo-catalytic performance of the composite films was investigated. The results show that the PPy/PVA-TiO2 composite films show better photo-catalytic properties than TiO2 film both under UV and visible light irradiation, and the photo-catalytic degradation of RhB follows the first-order kinetics. The effects of the composition of composite films and the concentration of RhB on the photo-catalytic performance, as well as the possible photo-catalytic mechanism, were also discussed. By photo-catalytic recycle experiments, the structure stability of the PPy/PVA-TiO2 composite film was investigated and the results show that the photo-catalytic activity under both UV and visible light irradiation have no significant decrease after four times of recycle experiments, suggesting that the photo-catalyst film is stable during the photo-catalytic process, which was also confirmed by the XRD pattern and FT-IR spectra of the composite film before and after photo-catalytic.

  16. Actuation Behavior of Polylactic Acid Fiber Films Prepared by Electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobeshima, Taiki; Ishii, Yuya; Sakai, Heisuke; Uemura, Sei; Yoshida, Manabu

    2016-04-01

    A poly-DL-lactide (PLA) fiber film was prepared using the electrospinning method. This film consisted of randomly oriented PLA nanofibers. Consequently, it had sponge-like structure and was quite soft compared to PLA films prepared by spin coating. The average diameter of the fibers and the density of the film were 730 nm and 20%, respectively. By applying a voltage, the PLA film was subjected to electric-field-induced strain: expansion and compression in the thickness direction. When a voltage of -200 V was applied to the film, its thickness shrank from 13.5 µm to 10.0 µm (a 26% reduction). Electric-field-induced strain can occur via two different mechanisms: The first is electrostrictive behavior. That. is, in a highly electric field region, a change of film thickness occurs (compression only) from the electrostatic force between electrodes. The second mechanism is piezoelectric-like behavior that occurs in racemic PLA, wherein a PLA nanofiber is expanded and compressed by applying positive and negative voltage. Such piezoelectric-like behavior was not observed in spin-coated PLA films.

  17. Preparation and Bioactivity Study of TiO2 Nanotubes/Mesoporous SiO2 Composite Films%TiO2纳米管/介孔SiO2复合膜的制备及生物活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖文; 万隆; 张珍容; 胡伟达; 王志起; 翟浩冲

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 nanotubes/mesoporous S1O2 composite films were prepared by sol-gel and dip-coating methods. The surface composition, microstructure and surface morphology of the films were characterized by SAXRD, FTIR. HRTEM and FESEM, respectively. On the Ti substrates with highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays, the composite film, using sol-gel and dip-coating technology to coat hexagonal phase mesoporous SiO2 thin film, exhibits a very good bioactivity.%以表面构筑了TiO2纳米管阵列的金属钛为基底,采用溶胶-凝胶工艺和浸渍-提拉技术涂覆介孔SiO2 薄膜,构建了TiO2纳米管/介孔SiO2复合膜.利用SAXRD、FTIR、HRTEM和FESEM等表征样品的结构和微观形貌.研究表明,在高度有序、规整排列的TiO2纳米管阵列基底上,利用溶胶-凝胶工艺和浸渍-提拉技术涂覆有六方相介孔SiO2薄膜的复合膜具有良好的生物活性.

  18. Super water repellent finishing technology by simulating bio-structures. Improvement of chemical durability by super water repellent finishing of hydroxy- apatite/titan composite films prepared by high-frequency plasma arc spraying; Seibutsu no kozo wo mohoshita chohassuika gijutsu. Koshuha plasma yoshaho ni yori sakuseishita suisan apataito/chitan fukugo himaku no chohassuika ni yoru kagakuteki taikyusei no kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozumi, A.; Inagaki, M.; Okuderaa, H.; Nishizawa, K.; Nagata, F.; Teraoka, H.; Yokogawa, Y.; Kameyama, T. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan)

    2000-08-25

    Artificial joint and tooth root produced by coating hydroxy- apatite (HA) onto Ti alloy base surface by DC plasma torch arc spraying in commercially available in Europe, and have been used for persons not less than 100,000 since 1985. However, peeling and dissolution of coats after implant have been reported as a serious problem. The long-term stability of coats is dependent on the chemical durability of coats. Paying attention to physical structure of HA/Ti composite film surface. this study attempted super water repellent finishing of the surface through reduction of surface energy by chemical modification of the surface in a molecular level. Self-organization single-molecule film of organic silane compound with perfluoroalkyl group was formed by CVD on the HA/Ti composite film surface prepared on Ti alloy by high- frequency plasma arc spraying. The extremely hydrophobic HA/Ti composite film with a contact angle ranging 130-160 degrees was thus obtained from the highly hydrophilic coat. This sample showed a very high chemical durability as compared with conventional ones. (NEDO)

  19. Structure of silicon oxide films prepared by vacuum deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshio; Kaito, Chihiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Naiki, Toshio

    1985-05-01

    The structure of thin silicon oxide films 5 nm in thickness, which were prepared by electron beam evaporation of SiO 2 glass onto a NaCl substrate, has been examined by high resolution electron microscopy and diffraction. Although the films which were prepared with substrate temperatures ranging from room up to 400°C gave rise to amorphous haloes, lattice fringes in areas 1-2 nm in extent were, however, seen in the micrographs. It is shown that the film is composed of α-quartz micro-crystallites. Crystals of α-cristobalite with sizes of several tens of nanometers appeared at a substrate temperature of 500°C. At a substrate temperature of 600°C, β-cristobalite crystals with sizes of several tens of nanometers appeared. The structural changes due to the substrate temperature were attributed to incorporation of sodium atoms from the substrate into the SiO 2 film.

  20. Preparation of selenium/graphene oxide/titanium dioxide composite film and its photoelectric transformation performance%硒/氧化石墨烯/二氧化钛复合薄膜的制备及光电转换性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相金; 任真; 韦莹; 杨俊柱; 张胜义

    2013-01-01

    将氧化石墨烯(GO)掺入钛酸溶胶中,以导电玻璃(ITO)为基底,经浸渍-涂覆-煅烧得到GO/TiO2复合薄膜;采用电沉积技术在GO/TiO2薄膜表面沉积Se纳米微粒,得到Se/GO/TiO2复合薄膜;利用扫描电子显微镜和X射线衍射仪分析了复合薄膜的形貌和晶体结构,采用紫外可见光谱仪测定了其光谱学性质,利用光电转换实验测定了其光电转换性质.结果表明,所制备的Se/GO/TiO2复合薄膜各组分分布均匀,具有锐钛矿相结构的TiO2颗粒粒径为20 nm,与TiO2结合的GO具有分散片层结构,薄膜中的Se颗粒粒径为60~80 nm.与此同时,在Se和GO的共同作用下,Se/GO/TiO2复合薄膜对可见光有很好的光电转换效应.%Graphene oxide (GO) was introduced into Ti(OH)4 sol to generate a mixed dispersion. Resultant mixed dispersion was coated onto the surface of indium tin oxide (a conductive glass) to afford GO/TiO2 composite film by way of immersion, coating, and calcination. Then Se nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of GO/TiO2 composite film by electrodeposition yielding Se/GO/TiO2 composite film. The morphology and crystal structure of as-prepared Se/ GO/TiO2 composite film were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and an ultraviolet-visible light spectrometer was performed to examine its spectro-metric properties. Moreover, the photoelectric transformation performance of as-prepared Se/ GO/TiO2 composite film was also evaluated. Results show that as-prepared Se/GO/TiO2 composite film consists of evenly distributed ingredients. Namely, anatase phase TiO2 particulates in Se/GO/TiO2 composite film have a size of 20 nm, GO attached to TiO2 nanoparticles has sheet-like dispersive structure, and deposited Se particulates have a size of 60 -80 nm. Besides, as-prepared Se/GO/TiO2 composite film has satisfactory photoelectric conversion performance, due to the co-function of Se and GO.

  1. Conductive ceramic composition and method of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.L.; Kucera, E.H.

    1991-04-16

    A ceramic anode composition is formed of a multivalent metal oxide or oxygenate such as an alkali metal, transition metal oxygenate. The anode is prepared as a non-stoichiometric crystalline structure by reaction and conditioning in a hydrogen gas cover containing minor proportions of carbon dioxide and water vapor. The structure exhibits a single phase and substantially enhanced electrical conductivity over that of the corresponding stoichiometric structure. Unexpectedly, such oxides and oxygenates are found to be stable in the reducing anode fuel gas of a molten carbonate fuel cell. 4 figures.

  2. Preparation of novel functional Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials and their corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Zhongxian; Tan, Cui; Xu, Lan; Yang, Na; Li, Qing, E-mail: liqingdswu@163.com

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Novel functional Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials were prepared. • The biomaterials were prepared by anodization treatment and dip-coating technique. • The composite biomaterials were smooth and with low porosity. • The prepared biomaterials have good corrosion resistance in SBF. • The composite biomaterials can release zinc ion to promote bone formation. - Abstract: In this study, novel and functional Mg/O/PCL/ZnO (magnesium/anodic film/poly(ε-caprolactone)/zinc oxide) composite biomaterials for enhancing the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the implant was prepared by using anodization treatment and dip-coating technique. The surface morphology, microstructure, adhesion strength and corrosion resistance of the composite biomaterials were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), adhesion measurements, electrochemical tests and immersion tests respectively. In addition, the biocompatible properties of Mg (magnesium), Mg/PCL (magnesium/poly(ε-caprolactone)) and Mg/O/PCL (magnesium/anodic film/poly(ε-caprolactone)) samples were also investigated. The results show that the Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials were with low porosity and with the ZnO powders dispersed in PCL uniformly. The adhesion tests suggested that Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials had better adhesion strength than that of Mg/PCL composite biomaterials obviously. Besides, an in vitro test for corrosion demonstrated that the Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials had good corrosion resistance and zinc ion was released obviously in SBF.

  3. Preparation and gaseous photocatalytic activity of smooth potassium dititanate film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinghua QIAN; Yuyan HU; Gaofei WEN; Xin FENG; Xiaohua LU

    2008-01-01

    A new smooth potassium dititanate film was prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by thermo-gravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),X-ray diffraction (XRD),atomic force microscopy (AFM),UV-Visible diffuse reflectance and Raman spectro-scopy.The gaseous photocatalytic activity of smooth K2Ti2O5 films was studied using contact angle analysis from the photocatalytic decomposition of octadecyltri-chlo-rosilane (OTS) based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed on K2Ti2O5 films.The photocurrent res-ponse of the film was determined by an electrochemical method.It was shown that the films were smooth,compact,and transparent when formed on glass.Compared with TiO2 film,the K2Ti2O5 film showed wide absorption in the ultraviolet and visible region.It was found that the monolayers on K2Ti2O5 decomposed much faster than those on TiO2 under UV irradiation of 254 nm in air.The film also exhibited a stronger photoresponse and a more stable anodic photocurrent.The K2Ti2O5 film effi-ciently decomposes the alkylsiloxane monolayers under UV irradiation in air and it was found to be a good photo-catalyst for gaseous organic pollutant treatment.

  4. Quick pH-responsive Films Prepared from Urethane Acrylate Anionomers Under UV Radiation and Their Responsive Performances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Li-ming; DAI Yu; Fang Yu

    2004-01-01

    Urethane acrylate anionomers(UAA) were prepared in various compositions by three steps. Under UV radiation, UAA formed pH-sensitive films with drying film thicknesses of 60, 200 and 330μm. The equilibrium swelling ratios(SR) of the films in various pH buffer solutions increased with the increase of the molecule weight of UAA. The influence of the film thicknesses on the swelling performances of the films was investigated. The film with a thickness of 60 μm could reach the equilibrium state in 2.5-3.5 min. A high SR was obtained for a thick film due to its low average network density. The cured film could swell reversibly and rapidly with the change of pH, which is important for a controlled release system.

  5. Composite Films Based on Hydroxyapatite and Polyvinyl Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Musskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite films based on hydroxyapatite (HA gel and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA were obtained. Light scattering of composite films in the PVA film is increased with growth of HA content from 0.5 to 33.0 %. The introduction of HA in PVA film leads to the inhibition of thermal degradation of the polymer without changing the position of the main spectral bands in UV-Vis absorption spectra. The introduction of HA into the PVA film promotes their hydrophobicity, while UV light leads to the significant increase in the hydrophilicity, especially after its heating at 180 °C.

  6. Preparation and characterization of nanostructured Pt/TiO2 thin films treated using electron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joong-Hyeok; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Kim, Bo-Hye; Lee, Byung Cheol; Jun, Jin

    2010-05-01

    Pt nanoparticle-doped titanium dioxide (Pt/TiO2) thin films were prepared on a silicon wafer substrate by sol-gel spin coating process. The prepared thin films were treated with electron beam (EB at 1.1 MeV, 100, 200, 300 kGy) at air atmosphere. The effect of EB-irradiation on the composition of the treated thin films, optical properties and morphology of thin films were investigated by various analytical techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystal structure of the TiO2 layer was found to be an anatase phase and the size of TiO2 particles was determined to be about 13 nm. Pt nanoparticles with diameter of 5 nm were observed on surface of the films. A new layer (presumed to be Pt-Ti complex and/or PtO2 compound) was created in the Pt/TiO2 thin film treated with EB (300 kGy). The transmittance of thin film decreased with EB treatment whereas the refractive index increased.

  7. Electrochemical preparation of polypyrrole conducting films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Filkusová*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammetry has been used to investigate the electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole on the surface of a paraffin impregnated graphite electrode (PIGE. Effect of pH and concentration of the electrolyte solution on the electrochemical deposition of polypyrrole (PPy was studied. The structure of the deposited layers was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Well–adhering black PPy films were obtained.

  8. Preparation, properties and applications of wheat gluten edible films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. TANADA-PALMU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible films from wheat gluten were prepared with various amounts of glycerol as a plasticizer. Water vapor permeability, oxygen permeability, tensile strength and percentage elongation at break at different water activities ( aw were measured. Films with low amounts of glycerol had lower water vapor and oxygen permeabilities, higher tensile strength and lower elongation at break. Wheat gluten coatings reduced weight loss during two weeks of storage for cherry tomatoes and sharon fruits compared to uncoated controls. A bilayer film of wheat gluten and beeswax significantly lowered weight loss from coated cheese cubes compared to single layer coating of wheat gluten.;

  9. Preparation and characterization of Zn Se thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Ganchev, M; Stratieva, N; Gremenok, V; Zaretskaya, E; Goncharova, O

    2003-01-01

    Chemical bath deposition technique for preparation of ZnSe thin films is presented. The influence of bath temperature and duration of deposition on film growth and quality has been studied. The effect of post-deposition annealing in different ambient is also discussed. It has been determined that heat treatment removes the oxygen-containing phase from the as-deposited films and improves crystallinity. The optical and electric properties of the deposits show their potential for an alternative buffer layer in chalcopyrite-based solar cells.

  10. Surface plasmon effect in nanocrystalline copper/DLC composite films by electrodeposition technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Hussain; A K Pal

    2006-11-01

    Composite films of nanocrystalline copper embedded in DLC matrix prepared by electrodeposition technique were studied for their optical properties. Particle size and metal volume fractions were tailored by varying the amount of copper containing salt in the electrolyte. Blue-shift of the surface plasmon resonance peak in the absorbance spectra of the films was observed with the reduction in size and volume fraction of metal particles. Mie theory was found to describe the experimental spectra quite well.

  11. Preparation of electromechanically active silicone composites and some evaluations of their suitability for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacob, Mihail; Bele, Adrian [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Gr. Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania); Patras, Xenia [“Apollonia” University, 2 Muzicii Street, 700511 Iasi (Romania); Pasca, Sorin [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iaşi, Aleea Mihail Sadoveanu nr. 3, Iasi 700490 (Romania); Butnaru, Maria [“Gr. T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical Bioengineering, 16 University Street, 700115 Iasi (Romania); Alexandru, Mihaela [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Gr. Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania); Ovezea, Dragos [National Institute for Research and Development in Electrical Engineering ICPE-CA, 313 Splaiul Unirii, Bucharest 030138 (Romania); Cazacu, Maria, E-mail: mcazacu@icmpp.ro [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Gr. Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania)

    2014-10-01

    Some films based on electromechanically active polymer composites have been prepared. Polydimethylsiloxane-α,ω-diols (PDMSs) having different molecular masses (Mv = 60 700 and Mv = 44 200) were used as matrix in which two different active fillers were incorporated: titanium dioxide in situ generated from its titanium isopropoxide precursor and silica particles functionalized with polar aminopropyl groups on surface. A reference sample based on simple crosslinked PDMS was also prepared. The composites processed as films were investigated to evaluate their ability to act as efficient electromechanical actuators for potential biomedical application. Thus, the surface morphology of interest for electrodes compliance was analysed by atomic force microscopy. Mechanical and dielectric characteristics were evaluated by tensile tests and dielectric spectroscopy, respectively. Electromechanical actuation responses were measured by interferometry. The biocompatibility of the obtained materials has been verified through tests in vitro and, for valuable films, in vivo. The experimental, clinical and anatomopathological evaluation of the in vivo tested samples did not reveal significant pathological modifications. - Highlights: • Silicone composites differing by the filler and matrix characteristics were prepared. • Stress–strain curves were registered in normal and cyclic modes for composite films. • The dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss, and conductivity were determined. • Electromechanical response of the films was measured at an applied voltage. • Some biocompatibility tests, both in vitro and in vivo, were performed.

  12. Low-temperature preparation of anatase thin films on tantalum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott E; Burgoon, Matthew W P; Wang, Qi; White, J M

    2006-07-18

    Titanium dioxide thin films were grown on oxidized Ta surfaces using a cyclic layer-by-layer wet chemistry method: successive-ionic-layer-adsorption-and-reaction (SILAR). Film thicknesses varied monotonically and approximately linearly with the number of cycles. As-grown (AG) films were amorphous and rougher (16.2 nm root-mean-square (rms)) than the Ta substrate (10.2 nm rms). After hydrothermal annealing (AN) at a remarkably low temperature of 393 K, the films exhibited anatase crystallites (10 nm dimensions) and reduced roughness (11.8 nm rms). The atomic composition of both AG and AN films was consistent with that of TiO2 containing no more than 4 atom % carbon. A small Si impurity (<1 atom %) was eliminated by using polypropylene beakers and sample holders in the SILAR steps.

  13. Luminescent, freestanding composite films of Au15 for specific metal ion sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Anu; Shibu, E S; Maliyekkal, Shihabudheen M; Bootharaju, M S; Pradeep, T

    2012-02-01

    A highly luminescent freestanding film composed of the quantum cluster, Au(15), was prepared. We studied the utility of the material for specific metal ion detection. The sensitivity of the red emission of the cluster in the composite to Cu(2+) has been used to make a freestanding metal ion sensor, similar to pH paper. The luminescence of the film was stable when exposed to several other metal ions such as Hg(2+), As(3+), and As(5+). The composite film exhibited visual sensitivity to Cu(2+) up to 1 ppm, which is below the permissible limit (1.3 ppm) in drinking water set by the U.S. environmental protection agency (EPA). The specificity of the film for Cu(2+) sensing may be due to the reduction of Cu(2+) to Cu(1+)/Cu(0) by the glutathione ligand or the Au(15) core. Extended stability of the luminescence of the film makes it useful for practical applications.

  14. Tuning the optical bandgap of TiO2-TiN composite films as photocatalyst in the visible light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available TiO2-TiN composite catalysts were prepared by oxidizing the TiN films in air at 350 °C. By adjusting the oxidation time to control the oxidation stage of TiN films, the optical band gap of the TiO2-TiN composites can be varied in a wide range from 1.68 eV to 3.23 eV. These composite films all showed red shift in photo-response towards the visible region, and depending on the optical band gap, some composite films exhibited good catalytic activity in the visible light region. This study provides a simple but effective method to prepare film photocatalyst working in visible light.

  15. Investigation of polypyrrole/polyvinyl alcohol–titanium dioxide composite films for photo-catalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Shaoqiang; Zhang, Hongyang; Song, Yuanqing; Zhang, Jianling; Yang, Haigang; Jiang, Long, E-mail: jianglong@scu.edu.cn; Dan, Yi, E-mail: danyichenweiwei@163.com

    2015-07-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The study provides an easy and convenient method to fabricate films, which will give guidance for the preparation of three-dimensional materials. • The PPy/PVA–TiO{sub 2} films can keep better photo-catalytic activities both under UV and visible light irradiation when compared with TiO{sub 2} film. • There exist electron transfers between PPy/PVA and TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Polypyrrole/polyvinyl alcohol–titanium dioxide (PPy/PVA–TiO{sub 2}) composite films used as photo-catalysts were fabricated by combining TiO{sub 2} sol with PPy/PVA solution in which PPy was synthesized by in situ polymerization of pyrrole (Py) in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix and loaded on glass. The prepared photo-catalysts were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and photoluminescence (PL). The results indicate that the composites have same crystal structure as the TiO{sub 2} and extend the optic absorption from UV region to visible light region. By detecting the variation ratio, detected by ultraviolet–vis spectroscopy, of model pollutant rhodamine B (RhB) solution in the presence of the composite films under both UV and visible light irradiation, the photo-catalytic performance of the composite films was investigated. The results show that the PPy/PVA–TiO{sub 2} composite films show better photo-catalytic properties than TiO{sub 2} film both under UV and visible light irradiation, and the photo-catalytic degradation of RhB follows the first-order kinetics. The effects of the composition of composite films and the concentration of RhB on the photo-catalytic performance, as well as the possible photo-catalytic mechanism, were also discussed. By photo-catalytic recycle experiments, the structure stability of the PPy/PVA–TiO{sub 2} composite film was investigated and the results show that

  16. Preparation of Dy-Bi alloy films by electrodeposition in organic bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gaoren; TONG Yexiang; LIU Guankun

    2004-01-01

    The cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic electrolysis were used to investigate the preparing of Dy-Bi alloy films in LiCl-DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) system. The effects of several factors including the potential of deposition, concentrations of main salts, and the concentration ratio of DyCl3 to Bi(NO3)3 were studied. Dy-Bi alloy films containing 4.82%-80.62% (mass fraction) dysprosium were prepared in DyCl3-Bi(NO3)3-LiCl-DMSO system by controlling the system composition and deposition conditions. The films are gray, uniform, metallic luster and adhere firmly to the copper substrates analyzed by SEM (scanning electron microscope), EDS (X-ray energy dispersive analysis), and XRD (X-ray diffraction). After heat treatment at 718 K for l h, the alloy phase of Dy-Bi was found in XRD patterns.

  17. 离子交联法制备壳聚糖/结冷胶可降解复合膜的研究%Study on preparation of chitosan and gellan gum biodegradable composite film by ionic cross-linking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔; 刘炳杰; 李梦琦; 汪东风; 徐莹

    2012-01-01

    A biodegradable composite film without water solubility was made from chitosan and gellan, glycerin as plasticizers,cross-linked by 4% sodium citrate and 2% calcium chloride.Effect of cross-linking time and pH on the mechanical properties and water resistance of composite film were investigated. Besides, infrared spectrum (FT-IR) ,X- ray diffraction ( X- RD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize and analyze the structure and thermal stability of the film.The results showed that sodium citrate and calcium chloride cross-linked composite film,and the cross-linking decreased the crystallinity of chitosan and gellan, and then improved thermal stability of composite film.The composite film had the best properties under a cross-linking time of 5min and pH6.0,tensile strength 91.45MPa,water solubility 7.28% ,swelling ratio 416.63% ,water vapor permeability 0.68×10-10g/( Pa·s·m2) ,compounding and ion crossiinking improved mechanical properties and water resistance of single film.%以壳聚糖和结冷胶为成膜材料,甘油为增塑剂,4%柠檬酸钠和2%氯化钙溶液为交联剂,制备水不溶性可降解复合膜。研究交联时间和交联pH对复合膜机械性能和阻水性的影响,并通过扫描电镜、差示扫描量热法、红外光谱和X-射线衍射对其结构和热稳定性进行表征。结果表明,柠檬酸钠和氯化钙对复合膜的交联降低了壳聚糖和结冷胶的结晶度,提高了复合膜的热稳定性;当交联时间为5min、交联溶液pH为6时,复合膜的机械性能最好,抗拉强度达91.45MPa,水溶性为7.28%,溶胀度为416.63%,水蒸气透过率为0.68×10-10g/(Pa·s·m2);复合与离子交联改善了单一膜机械性能不足及阻水性差的缺点。

  18. Effect of Structure, Composition, and Micromorphology on the Hydrophobic Property of F-DLC Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorinated diamond-like carbon (F-DLC films were prepared by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique with CF4 and CH4 as source gases under different deposition conditions. The chemical bonding structure and composition of the films were detected by Raman, Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrometry (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS characterization. The micromorphology and surface roughness of the film were observed and analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM. The results indicated that all the prepared films presented a diamond-like carbon structure. The relative content of fluorine in the films increased, containing more CF2 groups. The ratio of hybrid structure sp3/sp2 decreased. The surface roughness of the films increased when the gas flow ratio R (R = CF4/[CH4 + CF4] or the deposition power increased. The contact angle of water with the surface of the F-DLC film was measured with a static drop-contact angle/surface tension measuring instrument. The hydrophobic property of the F-DLC films was found to be dependent on the sp2 structure, fluorine content, and surface roughness of the films. The contact angle increased when the relative content of fluorine in the films and sp2 content increased, whereas the contact angle first increased and then decreased with the surface roughness.

  19. Nanodiamond-polymer nanoparticle composites and their thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, N. F.; Rao, J. P.; Geckeler, K. E.

    2014-04-01

    Nanodiamonds obtained from detonation processes have received a great deal of attention during the past decades because of their unique properties and applications. The dispersion of nanodiamond particles can be achieved by different methods including the use of polymer nanoparticles. Here, we describe the dispersion of nanodiamonds in conjunction with sonication using poly(vinylpyrrolidone) nanoparticles with a particle size range of 23.3-61.3 nm, providing a good, economic, and efficient method for the dispersion. The average particle size was found to be 37.5 nm, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The interaction between the nanodiamonds and polymer nanoparticles was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and the effect of the polymer nanoparticle concentration, sonication time, and frequency on the dispersion process of nanodiamonds is highlighted. In addition, we prepared thin films of nanodiamond-polymer composites with different nanodiamond contents that showed good nanodiamond dispersion. The thin film can act as a UV filter and is transparent in the visible region. The thin films of nanodiamond-poly(vinylpyrrolidone) nanoparticles were characterized by SEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

  20. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaji, S.; Garcia, L. V.; Loredo, S. L.; Krishnan, B.; Aguilar Martinez, J. A.; Das Roy, T. K.; Avellaneda, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    Antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb2S3 thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb2S3 thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  1. /dopamine films prepared by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde-Aguilar, G.; Prado-Prone, G.; Vergara-Aragón, P.; Garcia-Macedo, J.; Santiago, Patricia; Rendón, Luis

    2014-09-01

    Dopamine was encapsulated into nanoporous amorphous TiO2 matrix by sol-gel method under atmospheric conditions. A second sample was obtained by the addition of the crown-ether 15C5 in this previous sample. Thin films were spin-coated on glass wafers. No heat treatment was employed in both films. All films were characterized using infrared spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical absorption and scanning electronic microscopy. Despite the films prepared with 15C5 were no calcined, a partial crystallization was identified. Anatase and rutile nanoparticles with sizes of 4-5 nm were obtained. Photoconductivity technique was used to determine the charge transport mechanism on these films. Experimental data were fitted with straight lines at darkness and under illumination wavelengths at 320, 400, and 515 nm. It indicates an ohmic behavior. Photovoltaic and photoconductivity parameters were determined from the current density vs. the applied-electrical-field results. Amorphous film has bigger photovoltaic and photoconductive parameters than the partially crystalline film. Results observed in the present investigation prove that the nanoporous TiO2 matrix can protect the dopamine inhibiting its chemical instability. This fact modifies the optical, physical and electrical properties of the film, and is intensified when 15C5 is added.

  2. Preparation and magnetic properties of Co-P thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haicheng Wang; Zhongmei Du; Lijin Wang; Guanghua Yu; Fengwu Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic Co-P thin films were prepared by eleetroless deposition. The experiment results show that the film thickness has a significant influence on the coercivity. While the film thickness varied from 300 nm to 5 μm, the coercivity dropped sharply from 45.36 to 22.28 kA/m. As the film thickness increased further, the coercivity varied slowly. When the thickness of the film was 300 nm, the deposited film could realize the coercivity as high as 45.36 kA/m, and the remanent magnetization as high as 800 kA/m .The Co-P films were deposited on the surface of magnetic drums of encoders, whose diameter was 40 mm, and then 512 magnetic poles were recorded, meaning that the magnetizing pitch was 0.245 mm. The testing results indicate that the output signals are perfect, the output waveforms are steady and the pulses account is integral. Compared with the γ-Fe2O3 coating, the Co-P thin film is suitable to be the magnetic recording media for the high resolution magnetic rotary encoder.

  3. Surface modification of silicon-containing fluorocarbon films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yoonyoung; Desta, Yohannes; Goettert, Jost; Lee, G. S.; Ajmera, P. K.

    2005-07-01

    Surface modification of silicon-containing fluorocarbon (SiCF) films achieved by wet chemical treatments and through x-ray irradiation is examined. The SiCF films were prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, using gas precursors of tetrafluoromethane and disilane. As-deposited SiCF film composition was analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Surface modification of SiCF films utilizing n-lithiodiaminoethane wet chemical treatment is discussed. Sessile water-drop contact angle changed from 95°+/-2° before treatment to 32°+/-2° after treatment, indicating a change in the film surface characteristics from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. For x-ray irradiation on the SiCF film with a dose of 27.4 kJ/cm3, the contact angle of the sessile water drop changed from 95°+/-2° before radiation to 39°+/-3° after x-ray exposure. The effect of x-ray exposure on chemical bond structure of SiCF films is studied using Fourier transform infrared measurements. Electroless Cu deposition was performed to test the applicability of the surface modified films. The x-ray irradiation method offers a unique advantage in making possible surface modification in a localized area of high-aspect-ratio microstructures. Fabrication of a Ti-membrane x-ray mask is introduced here for selective surface modification using x-ray irradiation.

  4. Study on AlSb Polycrystalline Thin Films Prepared by Vacuum Co-Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huijin; Wu, Lili; Zheng, Jiagui; Feng, Lianghuan; Lei, Zhi; Zhang, Jingquan

    In this paper, the AlSb polycrystalline thin films were prepared by vacuum co-evaporation technology and their structural, optical and electrical properties have been studied. XRD results showed that the as-deposited AlSb amorphous thin films transformed to polycrystalline state after annealed in vacuum at temperatures higher than 540°C. The process of phase change was observed to depend on the annealing temperature and the film composition. Some irreversible changes took place in the annealed films during the measurement of the temperature dependence of the film conductance. The conductance activation energy of the film was 0.132 and 0.32 eV during the heating and cooling process, respectively, which suggests the decrease of Sb vacancies in the AlSb film after the heating. Hall effect and optical absorption measurement showed that the AlSb polycrystalline thin films were p-type, indirect bandgap semiconductors with absorption coefficient higher than 8 × 104 cm-1. TCO/CdS/AlSb photovoltaic devices with the local open circuit voltage of over 200 mV have been fabricated.

  5. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of drug-delivery systems: Pectin and mefenamic acid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, R.B. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Rodovia MT-100, Km 3,5, Barra do Garças, MT CEP 78600-000 (Brazil); Teixeira, J.A. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, MT CEP 78060-900 (Brazil); Furuyama-Lima, A.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, IBILCE, São José do Rio Preto, SP CEP 15054-000 (Brazil); Souza, N.C. de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Rodovia MT-100, Km 3,5, Barra do Garças, MT CEP 78600-000 (Brazil); Siqueira, A.B., E-mail: buzutti@cpd.ufmt.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Rodovia MT-100, Km 3,5, Barra do Garças, MT CEP 78600-000 (Brazil)

    2014-08-20

    Highlights: • The films were prepared and characterized by FTIR, TG–DSC/FTIR and AFM microscopy. • The results provided information on the composition, dehydration, thermal stability, thermal decomposition. • DSC results of CaHCl shows two overlapping endothermic peaks. • The AFM image shows great similarity for A5 and A6 films. • A5 and A6 films functioned well as a topical delivery system. - Abstract: Mefenamic acid (H-Mef) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Various adhesive dosage forms of NSAIDs have been developed, which include adhesive tablets, gels, ointments, patches and more recently, polymeric films. The objective of this study was the development of H-Mef adhesive films to be used as a drug-delivery system with different ratios of pectin and calcium chloride dihydrate by the casting technique. The materials were characterized by TG–DSC coupled FTIR, AFM (atomic force microscopy) and spectroscopic techniques. The results provided information about the dehydration, film roughness, surface morphology, thermal decomposition, as well as identification of gaseous products evolved during thermal decomposition. The characterizations indicated the A5 and A6 films functioned well, with 99% H-Mef released within 15 min at pH 5, suggesting these degradable films could be used as a topical delivery system.

  6. Sol-gel preparation of silica and titania thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoř, Tomáš; Václavík, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Thin films of silicon dioxide (SiO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) for application in precision optics prepared via the solgel route are being investigated in this paper. The sol-gel process presents a low cost approach, which is capable of tailoring thin films of various materials in optical grade quality. Both SiO2 and TiO2 are materials well known for their application in the field of anti-reflective and also highly reflective optical coatings. For precision optics purposes, thickness control and high quality of such coatings are of utmost importance. In this work, thin films were deposited on microscope glass slides substrates using the dip-coating technique from a solution based on alkoxide precursors of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and titanium isopropoxide (TIP) for SiO2 and TiO2, respectively. As-deposited films were studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry to determine their thickness and refractive index. Using a semi-empirical equation, a relationship between the coating speed and the heat-treated film thickness was described for both SiO2 and TiO2 thin films. This allows us to control the final heat-treated thin film thickness by simply adjusting the coating speed. Furthermore, films' surface was studied using the white-light interferometry. As-prepared films exhibited low surface roughness with the area roughness parameter Sq being on average of 0.799 nm and 0.33 nm for SiO2 and TiO2, respectively.

  7. America on Film: A Humanities Composition Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Edward

    This paper argues that film courses are useful because they sensitize students both to the artistic qualities of film expression and to equivalent qualities in other forms of expression. The objectives of a film course at Michigan State University are: to develop the students' knowledge of the film medium and through that knowledge develop a…

  8. Preparation and Characterization of PZT films Fabricated on Si Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ying

    2006-01-01

    Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) films (Zr/Ti=45:55)with a high dielectric constant are prepared successfully on the low-resistance Si substrate in sol-gel dip-coating process with PT film used as the buffer layer.The dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the films as well as the relationship between crystallization and preparing condition are studied.It is shown that the PZT ferroelectric thin films with a (110) preferred orientation and a well-crystallized perovskite structure could be obtained after annealing at 800℃ for 15 min.The particle size of the sample is about 14-25 nm.The P-E hysteresis loops are measured by means of the Sawyer-Tower test system with a compensation resistor at room temperature.The remanent polarization (Pr) and coercive electric field (Ec) of the measured PZT thin films are 47.7 μC/cm2 and 18 kV/cm,respectively.The relative dielectric constant εr and the dissipation factor tgδ of the PZT thin films were measured with an LCR meter and were found to be 158 and 0.04-0.005,respectively.

  9. Electrochemical preparation of hematite nanostructured films for solar hydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebadzadeh T.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical water splitting is a clean and promising technique for using a renewable source of energy, i.e., solar energy, to produce hydrogen. In this work electrochemical formation of iron oxyhydroxide and its conversion to hematite (α- Fe2O3 through thermal treatment have been studied. Oxyhydroxide iron compounds have been prepared onto SnO2/F covered glass substrate by potential cycling with two different potential sweep rate values; then calcined at 520 °C in air to obtain α-Fe2O3 nanostrutured films for their implementation as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell. X-ray diffraction analysis allowed finding that iron oxides films have nanocrystalline character. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that films have nanostructured morphology. The obtained results are discussed considering the influence of potential sweep rate employed during the preparation of iron oxyhydroxide film on optical, structural and morphological properties of hematite nanostructured films. Results show that films have acceptable characteristics as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell for hydrogen generation from water.

  10. Preparation of titanium dioxide films on etched aluminum foil by vacuum infiltration and anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lian; Park, Sang-Shik

    2016-12-01

    Al2O3-TiO2 (Al-Ti) composite oxide films are a promising dielectric material for future use in capacitors. In this study, TiO2 films were prepared on etched Al foils by vacuum infiltration. TiO2 films prepared using a sol-gel process were annealed at various temperatures (450, 500, and 550 °C) for different time durations (10, 30, and 60 min) for 4 cycles, and then anodized at 100 V. The specimens were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and field emission transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the tunnels of the specimens feature a multi-layer structure consisting of an Al2O3 outer layer, an Al-Ti composite oxide middle layer, and an aluminum hydrate inner layer. The electrical properties of the specimens, such as the withstanding voltage and specific capacitance, were also measured. Compared to specimens without TiO2 coating, the specific capacitances of the TiO2-coated specimens are increased. The specific capacitance of the anode Al foil with TiO2 coating increased by 42% compared to that of a specimen without TiO2 coating when annealed at 550 °C for 10 min. These composite oxide films could enhance the specific capacitance of anode Al foils used in dielectric materials.

  11. Preparation and characterization of polymer-clay nanocomposite films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Polymer/clay nanocomposite films were prepared by means of electrodeposition of aqueous suspension including cathodic electrophoretic acrylic resin (CEAR) and Na+-montmorillonite (NMMT). Studies of XRD,SEM and TEM indicated well-dispersed NMMT platelets in the films prepared. The ideal dispersity achieved was thought to be the result of aqueous compatibility between CEAR molecules and NMMT platelets and the result of the water-involved process as well. The modulus and strength of the polymer/clay nanocomposite coatings tested by tensile testing and nano-indentation were effectively improved compared to those of the virgin CEAR film. In addition,the adhesion strength,flexibility and water-resistance represented by Chinese national standard (GB) kept the best grades.

  12. Preparation and magnetization reversal of exchange bias structured thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, Christine; McCord, Jeffrey; Moench, Ingolf; Kaltofen, Rainer; Gemming, Thomas; Schaefer, Rudolf; Schultz, Ludwig [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Magnetically patterned thin films of NiFe/IrMn/Ta-NiFe/IrMnO{sub x} with laterally modulated unidirectional anisotropy were prepared by local oxidation of the antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Varying the lateral dimensions and orientation with respect to the anisotropy modulation, the films exhibit different magnetization reversal behaviors. While stripes aligned parallel to the unidirectional anisotropy direction display a spin valve-like two step hysteresis loop, perpendicular orientation lead to a single step shifted hysteresis loop. Magnetic domain observation reveals separate switching of the stripes for the parallel alignment and simultaneous reversal for the perpendicular orientation. By decreasing the lateral dimensions, quasi-domain states have been observed. The presented magnetic data of the exchange biased-patterned films show that we did succeed in creating an alternative method for the preparation of materials with new hybrid properties.

  13. Preparation of DNA films for studies under vacuum conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smialek, M. A.; Balog, Richard; Jones, N. C.;

    2010-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the optimum conditions required for the preparation of uniform films of supercoiled plasmid DNA to be used in irradiation experiments under high vacuum conditions. Investigations reveal that significant damage to the DNA molecules occurs due to the evacua...

  14. 电触点用Ag/Cr2O3复合膜的制备及性能研究%Preparation and Properties of Ag/Cr2O3 Composite Film for Application As Electric Contact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪亮; 彭晓

    2012-01-01

    A Ag/4.0 mass%Cr203 composite film was fabricated on Cu substrate for application as electric contact through a two-step process: prior fabrication of a Ag/2.4Cr composite coating through co-electrodeposition of Ag with Cr nanoparticles (mean size: 30 nm) and then oxidation at 500℃ in air. The results showed that the Cr particles in the Ag/2.4Cr composite coating were locally and diffusionlessly oxidized. Compared to the conventional Ag/MexOy type electric contacts (such as Ag/12CdO) fabricated by internal oxidation of the corresponding Ag-Me alloys (e.g., Ag-10.5Cd) reported, the Ag/4.0Cr2O3 composite film has similar density and electrical resistivity, but a higher hardness.%采用Ag与纳米Cr颗粒(平均粒径为30nm)共电沉积制备Ag/2.4mass%Cr复合镀层后经500℃空气中氧化两步法工艺,在cu基体上制备出电触点用Ag/4.0Cr20,复合膜.结果表明,Ag/2.4Cr复合镀层发生了Cr颗粒原位内氧化.与文献报道的采用合金内氧化法制备的常用Ag/MexO,型电触点材料(如Ag/12CdO)相比,所制备Ag/4.0Cr2O3复合膜的密度和电阻率相当,硬度更高.

  15. Composite perfluorohydrocarbon membranes, their preparation and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin

    2017-04-04

    Composite porous hydrophobic membranes are prepared by forming a perfluorohydrocarbon layer on the surface of a preformed porous polymeric substrate. The substrate can be formed from poly (aryl ether ketone) and a perfluorohydrocarbon layer can be chemically grafted to the surface of the substrate. The membranes can be utilized for a broad range of fluid separations, such as microfiltration, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration as membrane contactors for membrane distillation and for degassing and dewatering of fluids. The membranes can further contain a dense ultra-thin perfluorohydrocarbon layer superimposed on the porous poly (aryl ether ketone) substrate and can be utilized as membrane contactors or as gas separation. membranes for natural gas treatment and gas dehydration.

  16. Preparation of Nanocellulose Reinforced Chitosan Films, Cross-Linked by Adipic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falamarzpour, Pouria; Behzad, Tayebeh; Zamani, Akram

    2017-02-13

    Adipic acid, an abundant and nontoxic compound, was used to dissolve and cross-link chitosan. After the preparation of chitosan films through casting technique, the in situ amidation reaction was performed at 80-100 °C as verified by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The reaction was accompanied by the release of water which was employed to investigate the reaction kinetics. Accordingly, the reaction rate followed the first-order model and Arrhenius equation, and the activation energy was calculated to be 18 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the chitosan films were comprehensively studied. First, optimal curing conditions (84 °C, 93 min) were introduced through a central composite design. In order to evaluate the effects of adipic acid, the mechanical properties of physically cross-linked (uncured), chemically cross-linked (cured), and uncross-linked (prepared by acetic acid) films were compared. The use of adipic acid improved the tensile strength of uncured and chemically cross-linked films more than 60% and 113%, respectively. Finally, the effect of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) on the mechanical performance of cured films, in the presence of glycerol as a plasticizer, was investigated. The plasticized chitosan films reinforced by 5 wt % CNFs showed superior properties as a promising material for the development of chitosan-based biomaterials.

  17. Preparation of Nanocellulose Reinforced Chitosan Films, Cross-Linked by Adipic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Falamarzpour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adipic acid, an abundant and nontoxic compound, was used to dissolve and cross-link chitosan. After the preparation of chitosan films through casting technique, the in situ amidation reaction was performed at 80–100 °C as verified by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR. The reaction was accompanied by the release of water which was employed to investigate the reaction kinetics. Accordingly, the reaction rate followed the first-order model and Arrhenius equation, and the activation energy was calculated to be 18 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the chitosan films were comprehensively studied. First, optimal curing conditions (84 °C, 93 min were introduced through a central composite design. In order to evaluate the effects of adipic acid, the mechanical properties of physically cross-linked (uncured, chemically cross-linked (cured, and uncross-linked (prepared by acetic acid films were compared. The use of adipic acid improved the tensile strength of uncured and chemically cross-linked films more than 60% and 113%, respectively. Finally, the effect of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs on the mechanical performance of cured films, in the presence of glycerol as a plasticizer, was investigated. The plasticized chitosan films reinforced by 5 wt % CNFs showed superior properties as a promising material for the development of chitosan-based biomaterials.

  18. Characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with agar and paper-mulberry pulp nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-09-22

    Crystallized nanocellulose (CNC) was separated from paper-mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold) bast pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis method and they were blended with agar to prepare bionanocomposite films. The effect of CNC content (1, 3, 5 and 10 wt% based on agar) on the mechanical, water vapor permeability (WVP), and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied. Changes of the cellulose fibers in structure, morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the films were evaluated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA analysis methods. The CNC was composed of fibrous and spherical or elliptic granules of nano-cellulose with sizes of 50-60 nm. Properties of agar film such as mechanical and water vapor barrier properties were improved significantly (p<0.05) by blending with the CNC. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of agar film increased by 40% and 25%, respectively, in the composite film with 5 wt% of CNC, and the WVP of agar film decreased by 25% after formation of nanocomposite with 3 wt% of CNC. The CNC obtained from the paper-mulberry bast pulp can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of bio-nanocomposites, and they have a high potential for the development of completely biodegradable food packaging materials.

  19. 3,5-二氧基苯甲酰哌嗪和均苯三甲酰氯界面聚合法制备复合纳滤膜%Preparation of Thin Film Composite Nanofiltration Membrane by Interfacial Polymerization with 3,5-Diaminobenzoylpiperazine and Trimesoyl Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽红; 李德玲; 程丽华; 张林; 陈欢林

    2011-01-01

    A new aromatic diamine, 3,5-diaminobenzoylpiperazine (3,5-DABP), was synthesized from 3,5-diaminobenzoic acid and l-formyl piperazine. The structure of 3,5-DABP was identified by FT-IR spectra and 1H NMR spectra.With 3,5-DABP as aqueous monomer and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) as organic monomer, thin film composite (TFC) nanofiltration membranes were prepared by interfacial polymerization technology. The salt rejection order of these TFC membranes is Na2SO4>MgSO4>MgCl2>NaCl. This sequence indicates that the membranes are negatively charged.

  20. Preparation and characterization of porous carbon–titania nanocomposite films as solar selective absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, B.; Wang, K.K.; Wang, K.P.; Li, M.; Jiang, W.; Cong, B.J. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Song, C.L. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Applications for Batteries of Zhejiang Province (China); Jia, S.H. [Weihai Blue Star Glass Holding Co., Ltd., Weihai 264205 (China); Han, G.R. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Applications for Batteries of Zhejiang Province (China); Liu, Y., E-mail: liuyong.mse@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Applications for Batteries of Zhejiang Province (China)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • The nanocomposites porous C/TiO{sub 2} film were fabricated via PIPS method. • The HRTEM reveals the size of carbon nanoparticles is about 1.1 nm. • The PVP advantages residual carbon content but suppresses its crystallization. • The film exhibits high α (0.928–0.959) with low ε (0.074–0.105) for single layer. - Abstract: Newly proposed selective solar absorbers of porous carbon–titania nanocomposite films with a well-defined interconnected macropores structure were prepared via a polymer-assisted photopolymerization-induced phase-separation method. The microstructure and optical properties of as-deposited nanocomposite films were characterized and discussed in detail. The results show that non-ionic water-soluble polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone works as a sol modifier advantaging the mean size of the interconnected macropores, residual carbon content, and films thickness, but suppresses the order degree of the carbon remained in the films. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that a small amount of graphite particles with size of around 1.1 nm embedded in the cavity of the porous while the wall of the porous consists of amorphous carbon and titania composites. The single layer of as-prepared porous C/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films exhibits high solar absorptance (α = 0.928–0.959) with low thermal emittance (ε = 0.074–0.105), yielding an optimized photothermal conversion efficiency η = α − ε of 0.864 corresponding to a film thickness of around 338 nm, indication of such film is fair enough to serve as an excellent solar absorber.

  1. AlCu alloy films prepared by the thermal diffusion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, A.I., E-mail: oliva@mda.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Km. 6 Antigua Carretera a Progreso, CP 97310, Merida Yucatan (Mexico); Corona, J.E.; Sosa, V. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Km. 6 Antigua Carretera a Progreso, CP 97310, Merida Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    100-nm thick films of Al{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x} alloys were prepared on glass substrates by thermal diffusion technique. The Cu atomic concentration was varied from 10% to 90%. Alloys were prepared at different temperatures into a vacuum oven with Argon atmosphere. Two thermal processes were used: i) heating the film at 400 deg. C in a single step, and ii) heating the films in sequential steps at 100, 200, 300 and 400 deg. C. Morphology, electrical resistivity, and crystalline orientation of the alloys were studied. The electrical resistivity and surface roughness of the alloys were found to depend strongly on the atomic composition and the diffusion temperature. However, we did not find differences between samples prepared under the two thermal processes. Alloys prepared with x = 0.6 and x = 0.1-0.3 as Cu at concentration exhibited values on electrical resistivity and surface roughness lower than pure Al. Different phases of the Al{sub 1} {sub -} {sub x}Cu{sub x} films were observed as a function of Cu concentration showing a good agreement with the AlCu phase diagram.

  2. Chitosan-based films composites for wound healing purposes; Filmes compositos de quitosana para aplicacao no revestimento de ferimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Natali de O.; Silva, Gabriela T. da; Schulz, Gracelie A.S.; Fajardo, Andre R., E-mail: natalioliveiraalves@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (LaCoPol/UFPel), Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Quimicas, Farmaceuticas e de Alimentos. Lab. de Tecnologia e Desenvolvimento de Compositos e Materiais Polimericos

    2015-07-01

    Chitosan has been extensively applied in the developing of biomaterials due to its desirable good physico-chemical and biological properties. According to this, here films composite of chitosan, poly(vinyl alcohol) and bovine bone powder were prepared by casting willing to be applied in wound healing purposes. Moreover, the first step was the developing of a suitable method to obtain bovine bone powder, which was utilized here as filler. All the materials and films were fully characterized by FTIR, DRX and thermal analysis. Water uptake capacity was measured by swelling assays. (author)

  3. 电沉积坡莫合金薄膜的组成、结构及磁性研究%Composition, microstructure and magnetic properties of permalloy films prepared by electrodeposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗木; 徐法强

    2015-01-01

    Permalloy films with bright, dense and smooth surface were deposited on semiconductor GaAs (100) single-crystal surface using electrodeposition technology. The composition of permalloy thin films was identified as Fe21Ni79 by X-ray fluorescence and linearly polarized X-ray absorption spectroscopy(XAS). The Magneto-optical Kerr effect(MOKE) results suggest that Fe21Ni79 thin films are typical soft-magnetic material. Circular dichroism spectra of each element were obtained by element-specific X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) technology. The spin and orbit moment of Fe and Ni element was calculated by the sum rule and the results reveal that the magnetism of the thin films come from the spin moment of Fe and Ni.%采用电沉积技术与半导体材料相结合,在 GaAs(100)单晶表面制备了表面光亮、致密、平整的坡莫合金薄膜。用 X 射线荧光技术与线偏振 X 射线吸收谱(XAS)确定了薄膜的组成为 Fe21Ni79。磁光克尔效应(MOKE)测量结果表明样品薄膜具有典型的软磁性能。采用元素分辨的X射线磁性圆二色(XMCD)技术得到了合金薄膜中各元素的圆二色谱,利用加和定则计算了Fe和Ni的自旋磁矩和轨道磁矩,结果表明薄膜的磁性主要来源于Fe和Ni的自旋磁矩。

  4. Raman spectroscopy of chalcogenide thin films prepared by PLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erazu, M.; Rocca, J. [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires - CONICET, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fontana, M., E-mail: merazu@fi.uba.a [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires - CONICET, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Urena, A.; Arcondo, B. [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires - CONICET, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pradel, A. [ICG, UMR 5253 CNRS UM 2 ENSCM UM1 equipe PMDP CC3, Universite Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2010-04-16

    Chalcogenide glasses have many technological applications as a result of their particular optical and electrical properties. Ge-Se and Ag-Ge-Se systems were recently studied and tested as new materials for building non-volatile memories. Following these ideas, thin films of Ge-Se and Ag-Ge-Se were deposited using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Ag was sputtered over binary films (for a composition between 0.05 and 0.25 Ag atomic fraction) and photo-diffused afterwards. Thus, three kinds of samples were analyzed by means of Raman spectroscopy, in order to provide information on the short- and medium-range order: PLD binary films before Ag doping, after Ag doping and PLD ternary films. Before Ag doping, binary films exhibited Ge-Se corner-sharing tetrahedra modes at 190 cm{sup -1}, low scattering from edge-sharing tetrahedra at 210 cm{sup -1}, and Se chains at 260 cm{sup -1} (stretching mode). However, after the diffusion process was complete, we observed an intensity reduction of bands centered at 210 cm{sup -1} and 260 cm{sup -1}. The spectra of the photo-diffused films were similar to those of films deposited using a ternary target. Relaxation effects in binary glasses were also analyzed. Results were compared with those of other authors.

  5. Improved piezoelectricity of PVDF-HFP/carbon black composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liangke; Yuan, Weifeng; Hu, Ning; Wang, Zhongchang; Chen, Chunlin; Qiu, Jianhui; Ying, Ji; Li, Yuan

    2014-04-01

    We report a substantial improvement of piezoelectricity for poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) copolymer films by introducing carbon black (CB) into the PVDF-HFP to form PVDF-HFP/CB composite films. The optimized output voltage of the composite film at an optimal CB content of 0.5 wt% is found to be 204% of the pristine PVDF-HFP film. Its harvested electrical power density is 464% and 561% of the pristine PVDF-HFP film by using ac and dc circuits, respectively. Through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, differential scanning calorimetry analysis, and polarized optical microscopy observations, we clarify the enhancement mechanism of piezoelectricity for the PVDF-HFP/CB composite films. We find that the added CB acts as nucleating agent during the initial formation of crystals, but imposes an insignificant effect on the α-β phase transformation during stretching. We also demonstrate that the addition of optimal CB reduces crystal size yet increases the number of crystals in the composite films. This is beneficial for the formation of elongated, oriented and fibrillar crystalline morphology during stretching and consequently results in a highly efficient poling process. The addition of overdosed CB leads to the formation of undersized crystals, lowered crystallinity, and hence reduced piezoelectric performance of the PVDF-HFP/CB composite films.

  6. Heavy-ion beam induced effects in enriched gadolinium target films prepared by molecular plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorov, D. A.; Tereshatov, E. E.; Werke, T. A.; Frey, M. M.; Folden, C. M.

    2017-09-01

    A series of enriched gadolinium (Gd, Z = 64) targets was prepared using the molecular plating process for nuclear physics experiments at the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University. After irradiation with 48Ca and 45Sc projectiles at center-of-target energies of Ecot = 3.8-4.7 MeV/u, the molecular films displayed visible discoloration. The morphology of the films was examined and compared to the intact target surface. The thin films underwent a heavy-ion beam-induced density change as identified by scanning electron microscopy and α-particle energy loss measurements. The films became thinner and more homogenous, with the transformation occurring early on in the irradiation. This transformation is best described as a crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition induced by atomic displacement and destruction of structural order of the original film. The chemical composition of the thin films was surveyed using energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, with the results confirming the complex chemistry of the molecular films previously noted in other publications.

  7. Luminescence properties of Eu3+/CDs/PVA composite applied in light conversion film

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangling; He, Youling; Zhuang, Jianle; Zhang, Haoran; Lei, Bingfu; Liu, Yingliang

    2016-12-01

    In this work, blue-light-emitting carbon dots (CDs) were composited with red-light-emitting europium ions (Eu3+) solutions under the synergistic reaction of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to prepare the light conversion film. The formation mechanism of Eu3+/CDs/PVA film was detailedly discussed. It is the first report that this composite was synthesized through direct recombination of CDs and Eu3+ solutions instead of traditional methods based on Eu3+ coordination compound. Furthermore, tunable photoluminescence property can be successfully achieved by controlling the ratio of CDs to doped Eu3+, this property can meet the variable light component requirements for different species of plants.

  8. Preparation and Characteristics of Biodegradable Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposite Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Woo [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Biodegradable polyurethane (PU)/clay nanocomposite films were prepared via extrusion compounding process followed by casting film process. Organically modified montmorillonite (denoted as C30B) with a large amount of hydroxyl groups on its surface was used for the formation of strong bonding with PU resin. From both XRD analysis and TEM observations, the intercalated and exfoliated structure, and dispersion state of silicate platelets in the compounded nanocomposite films were confirmed. In addition, the rheological and tensile properties, optical transparency, oxygen permeability of the prepared nanocomposites were investigated as a function of added nanoclay content, and moreover based on these results, the correlation between the morphology and the resulting properties of the nanocomposites could be presented. The inclusion of nanoclays at appropriate content resulted in remarkable improvement in the nanocomposite performance including tensile modulus, elongation, transparency, and oxygen barrier property, however at excess amount of nanoclays, reduction or very slight increase was observed due to poor dispersion. The biodegradability of the prepared nanocomposite film was evaluated by examining the deterioration in the barrier and tensile properties during degradation period under compost.

  9. Characterization of multilayered and composite edible films from chitosan and beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velickova, Elena; Winkelhausen, Eleonora; Kuzmanova, Slobodanka; Moldão-Martins, Margarida; Alves, Vitor D

    2015-03-01

    Chitosan-based edible films were prepared and subjected to cross-linking reactions using sodium tripolyphosphate and/or to beeswax coating on both films interfaces. In addition, chitosan-beeswax emulsion-based films were produced. The goal of these modifications of the chitosan films was the improvement of their barrier to water vapor and to decrease their affinity to liquid water maintaining or improving the mechanical and optical properties of the original chitosan films. The cross-linking with tripolyphosphate decreased both the water vapor permeability and the water absorption capacity to about 55% and 50% of that of the original chitosan films, respectively. However, there was an increase in the films stiffness, revealed by the increased Young modulus from 42 kPa up to 336 kPa. The multilayered wax-chitosan-wax films exhibited a similar improvement of the barrier properties to water vapor, with the advantage of maintaining the mechanical properties of the original chitosan films. However, these wax-coated films showed a higher water absorption capacity, which is believed to be a consequence of water entry into small pores between the film and the wax layers. Regarding the film samples subjected to cross-linking and further coating with beeswax, a similar behavior as the uncoated cross-linked films was observed. The emulsion-based composite films were characterized by a substantial decrease of the water vapor permeability (40%), along with a decrease in their stiffness. Regarding the optical properties, all films presented a yellowish color with similar values of lightness, chroma, and hue. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Optical absorption properties of Ag/SiO sub 2 composite films induced by gamma irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, A L; Yang, Z P; Liu, F X; Ding, Z J; Qian, Y T

    2003-01-01

    Mesoporous SiO sub 2 composite films with small Ag particles or clusters dispersed in them were prepared by a new method: first the matrix SiO sub 2 films were prepared by the sol-gel process combined with the dip-coating technique; then they were soaked in AgNO sub 3 solutions; this was followed by irradiation with gamma-rays at room temperature and ambient pressure. The structure of these films was examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and their optical absorption spectra were examined. It has been shown that the Ag particles grown within the porous SiO sub 2 films are very small and are highly dispersed. On increasing the soaking concentration and subjecting the samples to an additional annealing, a different peak-shift effect for the surface plasmon resonance was observed in the optical absorption measurement. Possible mechanisms of this behaviour are discussed in this paper.

  11. Fracture Resistance of Composite Veneers with Different Preparation Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatanovska, Katerina; Guguvcevski, Ljuben; Popovski, Risto; Dimova, Cena; Minovska, Ana; Mijoska, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the fracture load of composite veneers using three different preparation designs. Material and methods: Fifteen extracted, intact, human maxillary central incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three groups with different preparation design: 1) feather preparation, 2) bevel preparation, and 3) incisal overlap- palatal chamfer. Teeth were restored with composite veneers, and the specimens were loaded to failure. The localizatio...

  12. Characterization of LiFePO4/C Composite Thin Films Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajars, G.; Kucinskis, G.; Smits, J.; Kleperis, J.; Lusis, A.

    2012-08-01

    The composite LiFePO4/C thin films were prepared on steel substrate by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Electrochemical properties of the obtained thin films were investigated by cyclic voltammetry charge-discharge measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The films annealed at 550 °C exhibited a couple of redox peaks at 3.45 V vs. Li/Li+ characteristic for the electrochemical lithium insertion/extraction in LiFePO4. At low current rate such composite thin film showed a discharge capacity of over 110 mAh g-1. The dependence of charge transfer resistance, double layer capacitance and lithium diffusion coefficients on applied electrode potential were calculated from EIS data. Determined values of lithium diffusion coefficient were in the range from 8.3-10-13 cm2 s1 to 1.2-10-13 cm2 s-1 at 3.4 V and 3.7 V, respectively.

  13. Study on Preparation of High-k Organic-Inorganic Thin Film for Organic-Inorganic Thin Film Transistor Gate Dielectric Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Hsi; Liu, Chao-Te; Lee, Ying-Chieh

    2012-06-01

    A simple solution-based deposition technique combined with spin-coating is a plausible way to prepare ultra-thin organic-inorganic nanocomposite films. In this study, we describe the spin-coating deposition of a colloidal nanoparticle suspension to obtain an ultra-thin organic-inorganic composite film as a gate insulator for organic thin film transistor (O-TFT) application. To obtain a homogenous organic-inorganic composite film, well-dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles in γ-butyrolactone and polyimide are important; therefore, several dispersants were assessed on the basis of the measurement of the rheological behavior of slurries. The thickness of the organic-inorganic composite film is mainly determined by the speed of spin-coating and viscosity of slurries. An approximately 4000-Å-thick nanocomposite film with homogeneous distribution of TiO2 nanoparticles in polyimide and low roughness was obtained after curing at 200 °C, resulting in a low leakage current density of the nano-composite film, when less than 2 vol % TiO2 nanoparticles were well dispersed in polyimide slurry. The dielectric constant of the organic-inorganic nanocomposite increases with increasing TiO2 content in polyimide, being situated in the range between 4 and 5.

  14. PREPARATION OF Sn-DOPED TiO2 COMPOSITE THIN FILMS BY SOL-GEL PROCESSING AND THEIR PHOTO-CATALYTIC PROPERTIES%掺锡TiO2复合薄膜的制备和光催化性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余家国; 赵修建; 赵青南

    2001-01-01

    The uniform, transparent anatase Sn-doped TiO2 composite thin films deposited on glass substrates were prepared by sol-gel processing. Sn-doped TiO2 films were composed of TiO2 sphere particles in size of 50~100 nm. The thickness of TiO2 films prepared by 1 cycle (from dipping to teat-treatment at 500℃,1 h) is 0.09 μm or so. Anatase TiO2 films show some orientation effect in (101) peak. XPS results have showed that besides Ti, O and Sn elements in films there are a certain amount of residual carbon from the starting organometallic components and a small amount of Na and Ca elements diffused from the glass substrates. Photo-catalytic degradation of Methyl orange aqueous solution has indicated that the sol-gel derived Sn-doped TiO2 films show good photo-catalytic activity, and its apparent degradation rate constant k is larger than that of un-doped TiO2 films. These results are explained on the basis of the principle of charge separation in an SnO2/TiO2 composite semiconductor system.%通过溶胶-凝胶工艺在玻璃表面制备了均匀透明的掺锡锐钛矿型TiO2光催化复合薄膜,用SEM、XRD、XPS等对薄膜进行了表征。薄膜中除含有Ti,O, Sn等元素外,还存在一定量的来自有机前驱物未完全燃烧的C元素和从玻璃表面扩散到薄膜中的Na和Ca元素。甲基橙水溶液的光催化降解实验表明:掺锡TiO2复合薄膜的表观降解速率常数明显高于未掺锡TiO2薄膜的表观降解速率常数,这为进一步提高TiO2薄膜的光催化活性开辟了新的途径。

  15. Preparation and characterization of DNA films induced by UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masanori; Kato, Kozue; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Sakairi, Nobuo; Ohkawa, Kousaku; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Norio

    2002-03-15

    Large amounts of DNA-enriched materials, such as salmon milts and shellfish gonads, are discarded as industrial waste. We have been able to convert the discarded DNA to a useful material by preparing novel DNA films by UV irradiation. When DNA films were irradiated with UV light, the molecular weight of DNA was greatly increased. The reaction was inhibited by addition of the radical scavenger galvinoxyl suggesting that the DNA polymerization with UV irradiation proceeded by a radical reaction. Although this UV-irradiated DNA film was water-insoluble and resistant to hydrolysis by nuclease, the structure of the DNA film in water was similar to non-irradiated DNA and maintained B-form structure. In addition, the UV-irradiated DNA film could effectively accumulate and condense harmful DNA-intercalating compounds, such as ethidium bromide and acridine orange, from diluted aqueous solutions. The binding constant and exclusion number of ethidium bromide for UV-irradiated DNA were determined to be 6.8 +/- 0.3 x 10(4) M(-1) and 1.6 +/- 0.2, respectively; these values are consisted with reported results for non-irradiated DNA. The UV-irradiated DNA films have potential uses as a biomaterial filter for the removal of harmful DNA intercalating compounds.

  16. Multilayer systems of alternating chalcogenide As Se and polymer thin films prepared using thermal evaporation and spin-coating techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutek, T.; Wagner, T.; Orava, J.; Krbal, M.; Ilavsky, J.; Vesely, D.; Frumar, M.

    2007-05-01

    We describe preparation and characterization of multilayer planar systems based on alternating chalcogenide As Se and polymer polyamide-imide (PAI) or polyvinyl-butyral (PVB) thin films. We deposited films of thermally evaporated As33Se67 chalcogenide glass periodically alternating with PAI or PVB films. Fifteen layers of As Se+PAI system and 17 layers of As Se+PVB system were deposited. The film thicknesses were approximately 100 nm for all of the film types. Polymer film thicknesses were calculated from profilometric measurements performed by an atomic force microscopy. Optical properties of prepared multilayers and also As Se, PAI and PVB single layers were established using UV vis NIR and ellipsometric spectroscopies. Both, As Se+PAI and As Se+PVB multilayer systems, exhibited the reflection (stop) bands centered near 830 nm. The bandwidth of reflection band of As Se+PAI multilayer was 90 nm while bandwidth of As Se+PVB system increased to 150 nm because PVB films had about 0.2 lower refractive index. A new possibility for the application of chalcogenide thin films appeared as high refractive index materials suitable for fabrication of optical elements (reflectors) for near-infrared region. Changing the films composition and thickness, multilayer systems with tailored position of stop band could be designed and prepared.

  17. Tribological performances of diamond film and graphite/diamond composite film with paraffin oil lubrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the tribological performances of diamond film and graphite/diamond com-posite film were compared on an SRV wear testing machine with paraffin oil lubrication. The sur-face morphologies of specimens and wear tracks were observed by SEM. The wear volumes ofwear tracks were measured by profilometer. The influence of load on the tribological performancesof different specimens was studied. The wear mechanism under paraffin oil lubrication was ana-lyzed. The results showed that with paraffin oil lubrication, the friction coefficient and wear volumeof graphite/diamond composite film specimen are lower than diamond film. Under paraffin oil lu-brication, the wear mechanisms of both diamond film and graphite/diamond composite film weremainly sub-micro-fracture.

  18. TiN films fabricated by reactive gas pulse sputtering: A hybrid design of multilayered and compositionally graded structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jijun; Zhang, Feifei; Wan, Qiang; Lu, Chenyang; Peng, Mingjing; Liao, Jiali; Yang, Yuanyou; Wang, Lumin; Liu, Ning

    2016-12-01

    Reactive gas pulse (RGP) sputtering approach was used to prepare TiN thin films through periodically changing the N2/Ar gas flow ratio. The obtained RGPsbnd TiN film possessed a hybrid architecture containing compositionally graded and multilayered structures, composed of hcp Ti-phase and fcc TiN-phase sublayers. Meanwhile, the RGP-TiN film exhibited a composition-oscillation along the film thickness direction, where the Ti-phase sublayer had a compositional gradient and the TiN-phase retained a constant stoichiometric ratio of Ti:N ≈ 1. The film modulation ratio λ (the thicknesses ratio of the Ti and TiN-phase sublayer) can be effectively tuned by controlling the undulation behavior of the N2 partial flow rate. Detailed analysis showed that this hybrid structure originated from a periodic transition of the film growth mode during the reactive sputtering process.

  19. The influence of precursor films on CIGS films prepared by ion beam sputtering deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Fan, Ping; Liang, Guangxing; Zheng, Zhuanghao; Zhang, Dongping; Chen, Chaoming

    2013-12-01

    The CuInGa(CIG) precursor films were grown by ion beam sputtering continuously CuGa/CuIn and CuIn/CuGa, and then selenized CIG to fabricate CIGS absorber films on molybdenum substrates . They were annealed in the same vacuum chamber and under the same temperature (500°C). The CIGS thin films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to study the microstructures, composition, surface morphology, electrical properties, respectively. The results showed that the CIGS thin films appeared smooth and compact with a sequence of Mo/CuGa/CuIn/Se, which were mainly of chalcopyrite structure. The CIGS thin films got the strongest diffraction peak intensity and were with good crystalline quality.

  20. Preparation and evaluation of thin-film sodium tungsten bronzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, H. E.; Fielder, W. L.; Singer, J.; Fordyce, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Thin films of sodium tungsten bronze (NaxWO3) were investigated as reversible sodium ion electrodes for solid electrolytes. The films were made by electron beam evaporation of the three phases, W metal, Na2WO4, and WO3, followed by sintering. The substrates were sodium beta alumina disks and glass slides. X-ray diffraction analyses of the films showed that sintering in dry nitrogen with prior exposure to air lead to mixed phases. Sintering in vacuum with no air exposure produced tetragonal I bronze with a nominal composition of Na0.31WO3, single phase within the limits of X-ray diffraction detectability. The films were uniform and adherent on sodium beta alumina substrates. The ac and dc conductivities of the beta alumina were measured with the sodium tungsten bronze films as electrodes. These experiments indicated that the tetragonal I bronze electrodes were not completely reversible. This may have resulted from sodium ion blocking within the bronze film or at the bronze beta alumina interface. Methods for attempting to make more completely reversible electrodes are suggested.

  1. Significant improvement in the thermoelectric properties of zwitterionic polysquaraine composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Mei-Chan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsin-Chu 30010, Taiwan R.O.C (China); Chao, Ching-Hsun [Dow Chemicals, Advanced Materials, Electronic Materials, No. 6, Kesi 2nd Road, Jhunan, Miaoli, Science-Based Industrial Park 35053, Taiwan R.O.C (China); Lo, An-Ya, E-mail: a.y.lo1125@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Green Energy Development Center, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan R.O.C (China); Chen, Chun-Hua [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsin-Chu 30010, Taiwan R.O.C (China); Wu, Ren-Jye [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Rm 104, Bldg 67, 195, Sec. 4, Chung Hsing Road, Chutung, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan R.O.C (China); Tsai, Mei-Hui [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, No. 57, Sec. 2, Zhongshan Road, Taiping, Taichung 41170, Taiwan R.O.C (China); Huang, Yi-Chia [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsin-Chu 30010, Taiwan R.O.C (China); Whang, Wha-Tzong, E-mail: wtwhang@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsin-Chu 30010, Taiwan R.O.C (China)

    2013-09-16

    In this study, the polysquaraine SQI{sub 0.1}, a zwitterionic π-conjugated polymer, was adopted as the matrix for the preparation of flexible and freestanding films; the low band gap of this semiconducting polymer made it a natural choice for use as a thermoelectric (TE) polymer. To enhance their TE applications, both single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and mesoporous carbon (i.e., CMK-3) were integrated into the SQI{sub 0.1}-based films and the effects of doping with iodine were also investigated. Using scanning electron microscopy, the variations in morphology of these SQI{sub 0.1}-based films were examined. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the π–π interactions between iodine and the carbon materials (i.e., SWNT, CMK-3); X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy to investigate the intercalation of the doped iodine in the composite films; and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the valence state of the doped iodine. The TE properties of these materials were characterized in terms of the electrical conductivity (σ), thermal conductivity (κ), and Seebeck coefficient (S). The TE properties of the iodine-doped composite film prepared from SWNTs, CMK-3, and SQI{sub 0.1} included a notable value of ZT (Figure of Merit) of 4.563 × 10{sup −3}, which was 143% of that of the corresponding iodine-doped SQI{sub 0.1} film. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Polysquaraine SQI{sub 0.1} blended with SWNTs and CMK-3 can develop freestanding film. • SWNTs well-dispersed in the SQI{sub 0.1} matrix and endowed the composite with flexibility. • The iodine-doped SQI{sub 0.1}-based films have potential for thermoelectric application. • Thermoelectric efficiency of composite can be promoted by SWNTs and CMK-3.

  2. Preparation and characterization of superconductor thin films for application in printed circuit boards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, G.A.; Carvalho, C.L.; Torsoni, G.B.; Rodrigues, V.D.; Souza, E.J.; Zadorosny, R. [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Grupo de Desenvolvimento e Aplicacoes de Materiais (GDAM)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Since the discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS) many studies have been performed, in terms to discover new materials with higher critical temperature and its potential applications. Technological advances have induced to use superconductor materials in the development of new devices that have higher processing speed, storage capacity and are miniaturized, what may imply in great evolution in the electronic area. Thinking about that advances and looking to supply some requirements, this work proposed to prepare a printed circuit board (PCB) with a superconductor thin film using an inexpensive and conventional photographic method. This work was divided in two steps: synthesis of the precursor solution and film preparation for superconductor printed circuit. In the preparation of superconductor thin film was considered to use the 2223 phase of the BSCCO system, which has been doped with Pb (BPSCCO) for stabilizing the same, and it presents a critical temperature around 110 K. This film was prepared from a precursor solution based on similar method developed by M. P. Pechini. The printed circuit was created by the photographic method of heat transfer which consisted of creation a circuit layout, with different dimensions and printed on photo paper (Epson S041140). The layout was transferred to the FR4 printed copper clad laminate was made with the household clothes iron. The precursor solution was deposited on Si substrate by spin-coating. The control of film thickness was performed by the deposition number that in this case was done five subsequent depositions to obtain an ideal thickness. Between each deposition the film was submitted to calcinations in order to eliminate organic matter. After that the film was submitted a heat treatment around 820 deg C / 5 minutes to obtain the expected superconducting phase and coupling and the grain growth. Film characterizations were made using optical microscopy, XRD and EDX, to check the dimensions and

  3. A novel composite coating mesh film for oil-water separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Futao QIN; Zhijia YU; Xinhui FANG; Xinghua LIU; Xiangyu SUN

    2009-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene-polyphenylene sulfide composite coating mesh film was successfully prepared by a simple layered transitional spray-plasticizing method on a stainless steel mesh. It shows super-hydrophobic and super-oleophilic properties. The contact angle of this mesh film is 156.3° for water, and close to 0° for diesel oil and kerosene. The contact angle hysteresis of water on the mesh film is 4.3°. The adhesive force between the film and substrate is grade 0, the flexibility is 1 mm and the pencil hardness is 4H. An oil-water separation test was car-fled out for oil-contaminated water in a six-stage super-hydrophobic film separator. The oil removal rate can reach about 99%.

  4. Optical constants and their dispersion of Ag-MgF2 nanoparticle composite films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoqi Sun(孙兆奇); Daming Sun(孙大明)

    2004-01-01

    Ag-MgF2 composite films with different Ag fractions were prepared through a co-evaporation method.Microstructure analysis shows that the films are composed of amorphous MgF2 matrix and embedded fcc-Ag nanoparticles. The optical constants and their dispersion of the films, within the wavelength range of 250 - 650 nm, were measured by reflecting spectroscopic ellipsometry. The maximum of the imaginary part ε" of the complex dielectric permittivity attributing to the surface plasmon resonance polarization of the Ag nanoparticles in an Ag-MgF2 film, and the tangent of the phase-shift angle δ resulting from the dielectric loss of the film, occur at λ = 435 nm and λ = 420 nm, respectively. Based on Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory, the experimentally observed dispersion spectra were reasonably described.

  5. A study on photocatalytic activity of micro-arc oxidation TiO{sub 2} films and Ag{sup +}/MAO-TiO{sub 2} composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, N. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, Jiangsu (China); Song, R.G., E-mail: songrg@hotmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, Jiangsu (China); Xiang, B.; Li, H.; Wang, Z.X.; Wang, C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • The optimum voltage and concentration of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) for photocatalytic activity have been studied. • The most superior treatment time and concentration for Ag{sup +} impregnation have been discussed under the optimum MAO condition above. • Mechanism of influence on impregnation time for Ag+MAO-TiO{sub 2} composite films have been well investigated. • MAO-TiO{sub 2} films and Ag+MAO-TiO{sub 2} composite films were compared each other on photocatalytic efficiency. - Abstract: First, micro-arc oxidation (MAO) TiO{sub 2} films have been prepared on pure titanium in a phosphate-based electrolyte, and then the Ag{sup +}/MAO-TiO{sub 2} composite films have been fabricated by Ag{sup +} impregnation in this paper. The microstructure and composition of MAO-TiO{sub 2} films and Ag{sup +}/MAO-TiO{sub 2} composite films have been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The photocatalytic activity of both films was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution as a model pollutant under sunlight irradiation simulation with homemade ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis). The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of MAO-TiO{sub 2} films increased with increasing the applied voltage and concentration in a certain scope. The morphology of Ag{sup +}/MAO-TiO{sub 2} composite films were of significantly difference and superior photocatalytic activity compared to the MAO-TiO{sub 2} film. Also, Ag{sup +} impregnation was able to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of MAO-TiO{sub 2} film.

  6. Preparation of GdBCO Thin Film by Ex-situ Process using Nitrate Precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byeong Joo; Le, Chul Sun; Lee, Jong Beom; Lee, Hee Gyoun; Hong, Gye Won [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hun; Moon, Sung Hyun [SuNAM Co., Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Many research groups have been manufacturing coated conductor by various processes such as PLD, MOD, and MOCVD, but the methods with production cost suitable for wide and massive application of coated conductor did not develop yet. Spray pyrolysis method adopting ultrasonic atomization was tried as one of the possible option. GdBCO precursor films have been deposited on IBAD substrate by spray pyrolysis method at low temperature and converted to GdBCO by post heat treatment. Ultrasonic atomization was used to generate fine droplets from precursor solution of Gd, Ba, and Cu nitrate dissolved in water. Primary GdBCO films were deposited at 500 degree C and oxygen partial pressure of 1 torr. After that, the films were converted at various temperatures and low oxygen partial pressures. C-Axis oriented films were obtained IBAD substrates at conversion temperature of around 870 degree C and oxygen partial pressures of 500 mtorr - 1 torr in a vacuum. Thick c-axis epitaxial film with the thickness of 0.4 - 0.5 {mu}m was obtained on IBAD substrate. C-axis epitaxial GdBCO films were successfully prepared by ex-situ methods using nitrate precursors on IBAD metal substrate. Converted GdBCO films have very dense microstructures with good grain connectivity. EDS composition analysis of the film showed a number of Cu-rich phase in surface. The precursor solution having high copper concent with the composition of Gd : Ba : Cu = 1 : 2 : 4 showed the better grain connectivity and electrical conductivity.

  7. Synthesis of TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and its applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaojun Zhang; Huagui Zheng

    2008-10-01

    The TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films were prepared by two-step sol–gel method and then it was applied in the degradation of methylene red (MR) as photocatalysts. In XRD, FT–IR, and TEM investigations of these TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films, the titanium oxide species are highly dispersed in the SiO2 matrixes and exist in a tetrahedral form. And special attention has been focused on the relationship between the local structure of the titanium oxide species in the TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and the photocatalytic reactivity in order to provide vital information for the design and application of such highly efficient photocatalytic systems in the degradation of toxic compounds diluted in a liquid phase.

  8. Multiwalled carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane composite films as high performance flexible electric heating elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jing; Jeong, Young Gyu, E-mail: ygjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Organic Materials and Textile System Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-04

    High performance elastomeric electric heating elements were prepared by incorporating various contents of pristine multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix by using an efficient solution-casting and curing technique. The pristine MWCNTs were identified to be uniformly dispersed in the PDMS matrix and the electrical percolation of MWCNTs was evaluated to be at ∼0.27 wt. %, where the electrical resistivity of the MWCNT/PDMS composite films dropped remarkably. Accordingly, the composite films with higher MWCNT contents above 0.3 wt. % exhibit excellent electric heating performance in terms of temperature response rapidity and electric energy efficiency at constant applied voltages. In addition, the composite films, which were thermally stable up to 250 °C, showed excellent heating-cooling cyclic performance, which was associated with operational stability in actual electric heating applications.

  9. Microstructural and Mechanical Studies of PVA Doped with ZnO and WO3 Composites Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Rithin Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer composites of ZnO and WO3 nanoparticles doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA matrix have been prepared using solvent casting method. The microstructural properties of prepared films were studied using FTIR, XRD, SEM, and EDAX techniques. In the doped PVA, many irregular shifts in the FTIR spectra have been observed and these shifts in bands can be understood on the basis of intra/intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the adjacent OH group of PVA. The chemical composition, phase homogeneity, and morphology of the polymer composites of the polymer film were studied using EDAX and SEM. These data indicate that the distribution of nanosized ZnO and WO3 dopants is uniform and confirm the presence of ZnO and WO3 in the film. The crystal structure and crystallinity of polymer composites were studied by XRD. It was found that the change in structural repositioning and crystallinity of the composites takes place due to the interaction of dopants and also due to complex formation. The mechanical studies of doped polymer films were carried out using universal testing machine (UTM at room temperature, indicating that the addition of the ZnO and WO3 with weight percentage concentration equal to 14% increases the tensile strength and Young’s modulus.

  10. Direct Electrochemistry of Myoglobin in DDAB-Clay Composite Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Ordered films were made by casting a mixture of aqueous dispersions of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB)-clay composite and myoglobin (Mb) solution on pyrolytic graphite (PG) electrodes.The Mb-DDAB-clay film electrodes showed stable and reversible cyclic voltammetric responses in buffers and can catalyze the reduction of trichloroacetic acid (TCA).

  11. Dye-polyoxometalate composite films: self-assembly, thermal and photochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuiying; Cao, Rong; Yang, Chunpeng

    2008-08-01

    A series of dye-polyoxometalate composite films were prepared by alternately depositing cationic dye molecules and anionic polyoxometalates such as Keggin-type [BW(12)O(40)](5-) and the sandwich complex [Co(4)(H(2)O)(2)(PW(9)O(34))(2)](10-)via layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method. These cationic dye molecules (MB, AA, TH, BB3, BCB and NB) are heterocyclic planar and rigid phenothiazine and phenoxazine dye molecules with different substituting groups in the side chains. The self-assembly of the films was studied by UV-vis and IR spectra. The results show that the substituting groups of dye molecules such as NH(2) and CH(2)CH(3) have influence on the self-assembly properties. The continuous and regular growth of the films was also dependent upon hydrogen bonding (NHO) formed between the amino groups of dye molecules and oxygen atoms of POMs as well as electrostatic interactions. The investigation of thermal and photochemical treatments of the composite films is also presented. The thermal stability experiments indicate that the composite films of TH with two NH(2) substitute groups and NB with more pi-conjugated system exhibit high thermal stability, whereas the sunlight irradiation results indicate that the composite films of TH have good photochemical stability.

  12. A facile method for preparing highly conductive and reflective surface-silvered polyimide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuan; Cao, Bing; Wang, Wen-Cai; Zhang, Liqun; Wu, Dezhen; Jin, Riguang

    2009-07-01

    A novel method was developed for the preparation of reflective and electrically conductive surface-silvered polyimide (PI) films. The polyimide films were functionalized with poly(dopamine), simply by dipping the PI films into aqueous dopamine solution and mildly stirring at room temperature. Electroless plating of silver was readily carried out on the poly(dopamine) deposited PI (PI-DOPA) surface. The surface compositions of the modified PI films were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results show that the PI-DOPA surfaces were successfully deposited with ploy(dopamine) and were ready for electroless deposition of silver. The poly(dopamine) layer was used not only as the chemi-sorption sites for silver particles during the electroless plating of silver, but also as an adhesion promotion layer for the electrolessly deposited silver. The as-prepared silvered PI films show high conductivity and reflectivity, with a surface resistance of 1.5 Ω and a reflectivity of 95%, respectively.

  13. A facile method for preparing highly conductive and reflective surface-silvered polyimide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Yuan; Cao Bing [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, and the Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 Beisanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang Wencai, E-mail: wangw@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, and Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 Beisanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang Liqun; Wu Dezhen; Jin Riguang [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, and Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 Beisanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2009-07-15

    A novel method was developed for the preparation of reflective and electrically conductive surface-silvered polyimide (PI) films. The polyimide films were functionalized with poly(dopamine), simply by dipping the PI films into aqueous dopamine solution and mildly stirring at room temperature. Electroless plating of silver was readily carried out on the poly(dopamine) deposited PI (PI-DOPA) surface. The surface compositions of the modified PI films were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results show that the PI-DOPA surfaces were successfully deposited with ploy(dopamine) and were ready for electroless deposition of silver. The poly(dopamine) layer was used not only as the chemi-sorption sites for silver particles during the electroless plating of silver, but also as an adhesion promotion layer for the electrolessly deposited silver. The as-prepared silvered PI films show high conductivity and reflectivity, with a surface resistance of 1.5 {Omega} and a reflectivity of 95%, respectively.

  14. Preparation of nanostructured PbS thin films as sensing element for NO2 gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaci, S.; Keffous, A.; Hakoum, S.; Trari, M.; Mansri, O.; Menari, H.

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that semiconducting films of AIVBVI compounds, in particular, of nanostructured lead sulfide (PbS) which prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD), can be used as a sensing element for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas. The CBD method is versatile, simple in implementation and gives homogeneous semiconductor structures. We have prepared PbS nanocrystalline thin film at different reaction baths and temperatures. In the course of deposition, variable amounts of additives, such as organic substances among them, were introduced into the baths. The energy dispersive analysis (EDX) confirms the chemical composition of PbS films. A current-voltage (I-V) characterization of Pd/nc-PbS/a-SiC:H pSi(100)/Al Schottky diode structures were studied in the presence of NO2 gas. The gas sensing behavior showed that the synthesized PbS nanocrystalline thin films were influenced by NO2 gas at room temperature. The results can be used for developing an experimental sensing element based on chemically deposited nanostructured PbS films which can be applicable in gas sensors.

  15. Preparation and physical properties of tara gum film reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianyun; Hu, Dongying; Wang, Lijuan

    2016-05-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) prepared from microcrystalline cellulose were blended in tara gum solution to prepare nanocomposite films. The morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the CNC and films were evaluated by using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The resultant CNC was rod-shaped with diameters of around 8.6 nm. The effect of CNC content on physical and thermal properties of films was studied. The composite film tensile strength increased from 27.86 to 65.73 MPa, elastic modulus increased from 160.98 MPa to 882.49 MPa and the contact angle increased from 55.8° to 98.7° with increasing CNC content from 0 to 6 wt%. However, CNC addition increased the thermal stability slightly and CNC content above 6 wt% decreased the tensile strength by CNC aggregation in the matrix. The nanocomposite film containing 6 wt% CNC possessed the highest light transmittance, mechanical properties, and lowest oxygen permeability. CNC addition is a suitable method to modify tara gum matrix polymer properties.

  16. MALDI MS sample preparation by using paraffin wax film: systematic study and application for peptide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junhua; Chen, Ruibing; Ma, Mingming; Li, Lingjun

    2008-01-15

    Recently developed sample preparation techniques employing hydrophobic sample support have improved the detection sensitivity and mass spectral quality of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). These methods concentrate the samples on target by minimizing the sample area via the solvent repellent effect of the target surface. In the current study, we employed the use of paraffin wax film (Parafilm M) for improved MALDI MS analysis of low-abundance peptide mixtures, including neuronal tissue releasate and protein tryptic digests. This thin film was found to strongly repel polar solvents including water, methanol, and acetonitrile, which enabled the application of a wide range of sample preparation protocols that involved the use of various organic solvents. A "nanoliter-volume deposition" technique employing a capillary column has been used to produce tiny ( approximately 400 microm) matrix spots of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid on the film. By systematically optimizing the sample volume, solvent composition, and film treatment, the Parafilm M substrate in combination with the nanoliter-volume matrix deposition method allowed dilute sample to be concentrated on the film for MALDI MS analysis. Peptide mixtures with nanomolar concentrations have been detected by MALDI time-of-flight and MALDI Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometers. Overall, the use of Parafilm M enabled improved sensitivity and spectral quality for the analysis of complex peptide mixtures.

  17. Kinetics of Photocatalytic Degradation of Formic Acid over Silica Composite Films Based on Polyoxometalates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The composite films, XW11O39n-/SiO2, (X refers to Si, Ge or P, respectively) were prepared by tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) hydrolysis sol-gel method via spin-coating technique. Formation of the composite films is due to strong chemical reaction of organic silanol group with the surface oxygen atoms of XW11O39n-, resulted in the saturation of the surface of the lacunary polyoxometalates (POMs). Therefore, the coordination structural model of the films was proposed. As for the films, retention of the primary Keggin structure was confirmed by UV-vis, FT-IR spectra and MAS NMR. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by SEM, indicating that the film surface is relatively uniform, and the layer thickness is in the range of 250~350 nm. Aqueous formic acid (FA) (0-20 mmol/L) was degraded into CO2 and H2O by irradiating the films in the near-UV area. The results show that all the films have photocatalytic activities and the degradation reaction follows Langmuir-Hinshelwood first order kinetics.

  18. Anisotropic Magnetoresistance of Cobalt Films Prepared by Thermal Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuttanun PANSONG

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt films on silicon substrates were prepared by thermal evaporation. By evaporating 0.05 g of cobalt for 80-240 s, a thickness from 21.1 to 67.7 nm was obtained with a deposition rate about 0.26-0.32 nm per second. The 29 nm-thick cobalt film exhibited magnetoresistance (MR ranging from -0.0793% (field perpendicular to the current to +0.0134% (field parallel to the current with saturation in a 220 mT magnetic field. This MR was attributed to anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR since changing the angle between the field and the current (θ gave rise to a change in the electrical resistance (Rθ. The results agreed with the theory since the plot between Rθ and cos2θ could be linearly fitted. AMR was not observed in non-ferromagnetic gold films whose resistance was insensitive to the angle between the current and magnetic field.

  19. Surface morphology influence on deuterium retention in beryllium films prepared by thermionic vacuum arc method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, A.; Porosnicu, C.; Badulescu, M.; Mustata, I.; Lungu, C. P.; Sugiyama, K.; Lindig, S.; Krieger, K.; Roth, J.; Nastuta, A.; Rusu, G.; Popa, G.

    2009-01-01

    In a plasma-confinement device, material eroded from plasma facing components will be transported and re-deposited at other locations inside the reaction chamber. Since beryllium from the first wall of the ITER fusion reactor will be eroded, ionized in the scrape-off layer plasma and finally re-deposited on divertor surfaces flowing along the magnetic field, it is important to study the properties of divertor armour materials (C, W) coated with beryllium. By applying different bias voltages (-200 V to +700 V) to the substrates during deposition, the morphology of the obtained films was modified. The films' morphology was characterized by means of AFM and SEM, and it was found that the coatings prepared using negative bias voltage at the substrate during deposition are more compact and have a smoother surface compared to the samples prepared with positive bias voltage. The thickness and composition of each film were measured using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). A study of deuterium implantation and retention into the prepared films was performed at IPP Garching in the high current ion source.

  20. Fabrication of graphene/polyaniline composite multilayer films by electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Jiaojiao; Chen, Yuze; Luo, Jing, E-mail: jingluo19801007@126.com; Liu, Xiaoya

    2014-10-15

    A novel graphene/polyaniline composite multilayer film was fabricated by electrostatic interactions induced layer-by-layer self-assembly technique, using water dispersible and negatively charged chemically converted graphene (CCG) and positively charged polyaniline (PANI) as building blocks. CCG was achieved through partly reduced graphene oxide, which remained carboxyl group on its surface. The remaining carboxyl groups not only retain the dispersibility of CCG, but also allow the growth of the multilayer films via electrostatic interactions between graphene and PANI. The structure and morphology of the obtained CCG/PANI multilayer film are characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, Ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrum (UV–vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical properties of the resulting film are studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), which showed that the resulting CCG/PANI multilayer film kept electroactivity in neutral solution and showed outstanding cyclic stability up to 100 cycles. Furthermore, the composite film exhibited good electrocatalytic ability toward ascorbic acid (AA) with a linear response from 1×10{sup −4} to 1.2×10{sup −3} M with the detect limit of 5×10{sup −6} M. This study provides a facile and effective strategy to fabricate graphene/PANI nanocomposite film with good electrochemical property, which may find potential applications in electronic devices such as electrochemical sensor. - Graphical abstract: A novel graphene/polyaniline (CCG/PANI) film was prepared by layer-by-layer assembly. - Highlights: • A novel graphene/polyaniline (CCG/PANI) film was prepared by layer-by-layer assembly. • The water dispersible and negatively charged graphene (CCG) was used as building block. • CCG was achieved through partly reduced graphene oxide with carboxyl group on its surface. • CCG/PANI film kept

  1. Preparation and Characterization of a Novel PDLLA/Chondroitin Sulfate/Chitosan Asymmetry Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel bioactive and bioresorbabie asymmetry film was prepared. The PDLLA membrane was activated by 1, 6-hexanediamine to obtain a stable positive charge surface. Chondroitin sulfate and chitosan were then deposited on activated PDLLA membrane via layer-by-layer (LBL) electro-static assembly(ESA) technique. The deposition process was monitored by UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy. The composite membrane was frozen lyophilized to form the asymmetry film and characterized by attenuated total reflecti( )(ATR)-FT-IR, XPS and SEM. The experimental results show that a stable 1, 6-hexanediamine layer on PDLLA substrate based on the aminolysis of the polyester and the layer thickness increase linearly first with the increase of the deposited layers, and then increases slowly due to the layer interpenetration. The test results of ATR-FT-IR and SEM show the asymmetry film is modified uniformly with a dense inner layer and a porous sponge outer layer.

  2. Preparation and tribological properties of DLC/Ti film by pulsed laser arc deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhen-Yu; Lu Xin-Chun; Luo Jian-Bin; Shao Tian-Min; Qing Tao; Zhang Chen-Hui

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports that DLC (diamond like carbon)/Ti and DLC films were prepared by using pulsed laser arc deposition. R-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, nanoindenter, spectroscopic ellipsometer, surface profiler and micro-tribometer were employed to study the structure and tribological properties of DLC/Ti and DLC films. The results show that DLC/Ti film, with I(D)/I(G) 0.28 and corresponding to 76% sp3 content calculated by Raman spectroscopy, uniform chemical composition along depth direction, 98 at% content of carbon, hardness 8.2 GPa and Young's modulus 110.5 GPa, compressive stress 6.579 GPa, thickness 46 nm,coefficient of friction 0.08, and critical load 95mN, exhibits excellent mechanical and tribological properties.

  3. Magnetic properties of FeCoC thin films prepared by various sputtering methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edon, V; Dubourg, S [CEA, DAM, LE RIPAULT, F-37260 Monts (France); Vernieres, J; Bobo, J-F, E-mail: sebastien.dubourg@cea.fr [LNMH-CEMES-CNRS-ONERA, F-31055 Toulouse (France)

    2011-07-06

    In order to grow nanocrystallized soft magnetic thin films, FeCoC alloys were first deposited by reactive sputtering in Ar/C{sub 2}H{sub 2} plasma. This deposition process rendered it possible to incorporate a carbon content between 0 and 30 at.% into the FeCo samples. The films were then compared to FeCoC samples obtained from a Fe{sub 65}Co{sub 35}/C composite target, with an adjustable amount of C slots. Layers with soft magnetic properties were achieved when increasing the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} rate during the reactive deposition, whereas films deposited by sputtering of FeCo and C on the same target demonstrated a very high coercivity. Permeability spectra measurements (and published elsewhere) demonstrated that FeCoC prepared with acetylene is a very promising material for high-frequency magnetic devices.

  4. High quality thin films of thermoelectric misfit cobalt oxides prepared by a chemical solution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Murias, Beatriz; Manuel Vila-Fungueiriño, José; Rivadulla, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Misfit cobaltates ([Bi/Ba/Sr/Ca/CoO]nRS[CoO2]q) constitute the most promising family of thermoelectric oxides for high temperature energy harvesting. However, their complex structure and chemical composition makes extremely challenging their deposition by high-vacuum physical techniques. Therefore, many of them have not been prepared as thin films until now. Here we report the synthesis of high-quality epitaxial thin films of the most representative members of this family of compounds by a water-based chemical solution deposition method. The films show an exceptional crystalline quality, with an electrical conductivity and thermopower comparable to single crystals. These properties are linked to the epitaxial matching of the rock-salt layers of the structure to the substrate, producing clean interfaces free of amorphous phases. This is an important step forward for the integration of these materials with complementary n-type thermoelectric oxides in multilayer nanostructures. PMID:26153533

  5. High quality thin films of thermoelectric misfit cobalt oxides prepared by a chemical solution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Murias, Beatriz; Manuel Vila-Fungueiriño, José; Rivadulla, Francisco

    2015-07-08

    Misfit cobaltates ([Bi/Ba/Sr/Ca/CoO]n(RS)[CoO2]q) constitute the most promising family of thermoelectric oxides for high temperature energy harvesting. However, their complex structure and chemical composition makes extremely challenging their deposition by high-vacuum physical techniques. Therefore, many of them have not been prepared as thin films until now. Here we report the synthesis of high-quality epitaxial thin films of the most representative members of this family of compounds by a water-based chemical solution deposition method. The films show an exceptional crystalline quality, with an electrical conductivity and thermopower comparable to single crystals. These properties are linked to the epitaxial matching of the rock-salt layers of the structure to the substrate, producing clean interfaces free of amorphous phases. This is an important step forward for the integration of these materials with complementary n-type thermoelectric oxides in multilayer nanostructures.

  6. TiO2-MoO3复合纳米管阵列薄膜的制备及其可见光活性%Preparation and Visible Light Photoelectrochemical Response of TiO2-MoO3 Composite Nanotube Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗英; 崔晓莉; 解晶莹

    2011-01-01

    通过阳极氧化的方法制备TiO2纳米管薄膜,在MoO3存在的条件下对该薄膜进行热处理得到TiO2-MoO3复合纳米管阵列薄膜.利用X射线衍射(XRD),扫描电子显微镜(SEM),X射线光电子能谱(XPS),电化学阻抗谱(EIS),Mott-Schottky及光电化学方法对得到的薄膜进行了表征.XRD结果表明,TiO2-MoO3复合纳米管薄膜中的TiO2主要为锐钛矿晶型.SEM实验证实了薄膜纳米管结构的存在,样品中的MoO3均匀地分散在TiO2纳米管表面.利用XPS方法分析了TiO2-MoO3复合纳米管薄膜元素的组成,结果表明,MoO3在TiO2表面形成TiO2-MoO3复合纳米管薄膜.研究了热处理温度以及热处理时间对样品的光电化学性能的影响,相对于单纯TiO2纳米管薄膜,适量引入MoO3提高了样品在可见光区的光电响应能力,样品的平带电位负移.在450℃热处理60 min制得的TiO2-MoO3复合半导体纳米管阵列薄膜光电响应活性最高.%TiO2-MoO3 composite nanotube thin films were obtained by the thermal treatment of titanium dioxide nanotube thin films in the presence of MoO3.Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO2 NTs) thin films were prepared by the anodic oxidation of titanium foil.The resultant thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Mott-Schottky analysis, and photoelectrochemical methods.The XRD patterns showed that an anatase type TiO2was present in the thin films.Nanotube structures for the thin films were observed by SEM.MoO3 was dispersed on the TiO2 NT top surface.Elemental analysis by XPS showed that MoO3 recombined with the TiO2 NTs to form TiO2-MoO3 composite nanotube thin films.The influence of time and temperature of thermal treatment on the photoelectrochemical response for the TiO2-MoO3 composite nanotube thin film electrodes were investigated.The photoelectrochemical response of the TiO2-MoO3 composite

  7. First Orange Fluorescence Composite Film Based on Sm-Substituted Tungstophosphate and Its Electrofluorochromic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenmei; Yu, Tian; Du, Yu; Wang, Ruiqiang; Wu, Lixin; Bi, Lihua

    2016-05-11

    We chose a Sm-containing sandwich-type tungstophosphate K3Cs8[Sm(PW11O39)2]·10H2O (SmPW11) as a molecular dyad, which contains photoluminescence and electrochromism components in a skeletal structure, and investigated its electrofluorochromic performance both in solution and in composite films. First, the electrochemical activity and luminescence property of SmPW11 were studied in different pH solutions to determine the optimal pH solution medium; and then, the electrofluorochromic performance of SmPW11 was investigated under the optimized pH solution medium. Subsequently, the composite films containing SmPW11 were prepared on quartz substrates and conductive ITO substrates through a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly method, using PDDA and PEI as molecular linkers. Characterization methods of the composite films include UV-vis spectra, fluorescence spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), bulk electrolysis with coulometry, chronoamperometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Finally, in situ UV-vis and fluorescence spectroelectrochemical systems were used to research electrofluorochromic properties for the composite films under electrochemical modulation. The results indicate that the composite films display not only orange luminescence emission but also reversible orange luminescence switching behaviors manipulated by the redox process of tungstophosphate species PW11 via the energy transfer between the orange luminescence component Sm and electroreduced species of tungstophosphate PW11.

  8. Vanadium oxide-carbon nanotube composite films characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiong; Xu, Xiangdong; Gu, Yu; Wang, Meng; Yao, Jie; Jiang, Yadong; Sun, Minghui; Ao, Tianhong; Lian, Yuxiang; Wang, Fu; Li, Xinrong

    2016-10-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) is utilized to characterize the vanadium oxide (VO x )-single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) composite films prepared by sol-gel. Five Tauc-Lorentz oscillators model is employed to describe the dispersions in the optical responses of VO x and VO x -SWCNT thin films. Results reveal that if the SWCNT concentration in the composite film is increased, the refractive index is decreased, while the extinction coefficient is increased. Moreover, higher SWCNT content leads to lower optical band gap (E g) but larger localized state (E e). Interestingly, both E g and E e values reach saturated at a SWCNT content of ~8 wt%. Particularly, the peak transition energies of the 5 Tauc-Lorentz oscillators have been assigned to the specific transitions according to the band structures of VO x . This work reveals the feasibility of investigating the optical properties and microstructures of VO x -SWCNT composite films by SE. These experimental results will be helpful for better understanding the VO x -SWCNT composite films, and promoting future characterizations of other SWCNT-based composites by SE.

  9. Preparation and Properties of Cereal-Metal Complex Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Various kinds of biodegradable polymer materials have been researched[1]. In our previous papers,cereals such as wheat,buckwheat,glutinous rice and nonglutinous rice were polycondenced with citric acid and polysilicic acid to prepare copolymer films respectively[2,3].These copolymer fims have relatively good mechanical properties but the water proofness is not so good.Recently,some cereals such as wheat,glutinous rice,nonglutinous rice,kaoliang,millet and maize were reacted with copper chlorid...

  10. Preparation of donor doped ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1-x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberger, Achim; Schurig, Philipp; Laufer, Andreas; Metelmann, Hauke; Stehr, Jan E.; Philipps, Jan; Kramm, Benedikt; Polity, Angelika; Hofmann, Detlev M.; Meyer, Bruno K. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    It is well known that ZnO can easily be doped n-type which is commonly realized by incorporating group-III elements on a Zn lattice place. In contrast to that there are rather few publications reporting successful n-type doping of ZnS. The ternary material system ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1-x} can be prepared without any miscibility gap by radio frequency sputtering. This offers the possibility to study the electrical activity of the shallow donor dopants over the complete composition range. In our work ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1-x} thin films were deposited from a ceramic ZnS target by radio frequency sputtering on glass, sapphire and semiconductor substrates. Through reactive sputtering with oxygen gas the film composition can be adjusted to the wanted oxygen/sulphur ratio. As dopants Al, F and H were incorporated by using additional target material or reactive gas, respectively.

  11. Preparation and characteristics of CNT-metal composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, SL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The success in keeping carbon nanotubes (CNT) bonded to stainless steel provides a possible method for the preparation of CNT-metal composites. Alternative methods for the preparation of CNT-metal composites include hot pressing, sintering, etc...

  12. Doped Titanium Dioxide Films Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juguang Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 was intensively researched especially for photocatalystic applications. The nitrogen-doped TiO2 films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD method were reviewed, and some recent new experimental results were also presented in this paper. A new optical transmission method for evaluating the photocatalystic activity was presented. The main results are (1 PLD method is versatile for preparing oxide material or complex component films with excellent controllability and high reproducibility. (2 Anatase nitrogen-doped TiO2 films were prepared at room temperature, 200°C, and 400°C by PLD method using novel ceramic target of mixture of TiN and TiO2. UV/Vis spectra, AFM, Raman spectra, and photocatalystic activity for decomposition of methyl orange (MO tests showed that visible light response was improved at higher temperature. (3 The automatic, continuous optical transmission autorecorder method is suitable for detecting the photodecomposition dynamic process of organic compound.

  13. Electrical transport properties of MoO{sub 3} thin films prepared by laser assisted evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Carreno, L.D.; Pardo, A.; Zuluaga, M.; Torres, J.; Alfonso, J.E. [Group of Materials with Technological Applications, GMAT, Physics Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Cortes-Bracho, O.L. [Group of Materials with Technological Applications, GMAT, Physics Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Electronic Engineering Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2007-07-01

    In the present paper the growth of MoO{sub 3} thin films on common glass substrates are described. The films were prepared by evaporation of a MoO{sub 3} target with a CO{sub 2} laser (10.6 {mu}m), operating in the continuous wave mode. The effect of substrate temperature on the crystallographic structure and electrical properties of MoO{sub 3} thin films was studied. The chemical composition of the different species formed on the films surface was obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the crystalline structure was studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrical conductivity of the films was determined using the standard four-points method. Conductivity of the films varied from de 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -5} ({omega}cm){sup -1} in the 300-600 K temperature range. Arrhenius-type plots for the electrical conductivity indicate the presence of at least two different conduction mechanisms. The I-V characteristic curve shows an ohmic behavior only in the 4.5-60 V range. Outside this interval the I-V curve has a behavior described by a power law. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Preparation and photochromic behavior of crosslinked polymer thin films containing polyoxometalates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jie; Liu Yan; Xiong Deqi [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China); Feng Wei [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China)], E-mail: weifeng@newmail.dlmu.edu.cn; Cai Weimin [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China)

    2008-03-31

    A series of reversible photochromic nanocomposite films were prepared by entrapping phosphotungstic acid (PWA) and molybdenumphsophoric acid (PMoA) into P(VP-BVA), which was a crosslinked polymer based on N-vinylpyrrolidone (VP) and bisvinyl-A (BVA). The microstructure, photochromic behavior and mechanism of the films were studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectra (UV-vis) and electron resonance spectra (ESR). The TEM image showed that the polyoxometalates particles had regular microstructure with narrow size distribution (average diameter of 30 nm) in hybrid films. FT-IR results showed that the Keggin geometry of polyoxometalates (POM) was still preserved inside the composites and strong coulombic interaction between POM and crosslinked polymer matrix was built. Irradiated with ultraviolet light, the transparent films changed from colorless to blue and showed reversible photochromism. Oxygen plays an important role during the bleaching process. PMoA/P(VP-BVA) film had higher photochromic efficiency and slower bleaching reaction than PWA/P(VP-BVA) film. The characteristic signals of W (V) or Mo (V) in ESR spectra indicated that electron transfer occurred between the organic substrates and heteropolyanions under UV irradiation, which induced heteropolyanions to heteropolybules with simultaneous oxidation of the organic substrates.

  15. Preparation of insoluble fibroin films and its tensile property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Qiang; CAO Chuanbao; ZHAI Huazhang; ZHU Hesun

    2004-01-01

    Silk fibroin is becoming a promising biomaterial because of its excellent biocompatibility. However, the regenerated fibroin is usually soluble in water and its mechanical properties should be improved. Although many methods, such as adding other polymers or treating with methanol, can ameliorate the mechanical properties and insolubility, the biocompatibility of fibroin is usually damaged in these processes. In this article, it is first reported that the insoluble fibroin films are directly prepared without methanol treatment. According to the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD), the amount of β-sheet conformation increased with the increasing of concentration. When fibroin films are dried from 15 wt% at 60℃, the films become insoluble in water. More importantly, The tensile strength and elongation of the insoluble fibroin films dried from 15% solution at 60℃ reached 15.9 MPa and 49.4% respectively in the wet state, which is distinctly superior to the fibroin films treated with methanol.

  16. Effect of Perovskite Film Preparation on Performance of Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxian Pei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the perovskite solar cells (PSCs, the performance of the PSCs has become the focus of the research by improving the crystallization and morphology of the perovskite absorption layer. In this thesis, based on the structure of mesoporous perovskite solar cells (MPSCs, we designed the experiments to improve the photovoltaic performance of the PSCs by improved processing technique, which mainly includes the following two aspects. Before spin-coating PbI2 solution, we control the substrate temperature to modify the crystal quality and morphology of perovskite films. On the other hand, before annealing, we keep PbI2 films for the different drying time at room temperature to optimize films morphology. In our trials, it was found that the substrate temperature is more important in determining the photovoltaic performance than drying time. These results indicate that the crystallization and morphology of perovskite films affect the absorption intensity and obviously influence the short circuit current density of MPSCs. Utilizing films prepared by mentioning two methods, MPSCs with maximum power conversion efficiency of over 4% were fabricated for the active area of 0.5 × 0.5 cm2.

  17. Preparation and properties of evaporated CdTe films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bube, R. H.; Fahrenbruch, A. L.; Chien, K. F.

    1987-07-01

    Previous work on evaporated CdTe films for photovoltaics showed no clear path to successful p-type doping of CdTe during deposition. Post-deposition annealing of the films in various ambients thus was examined as a means of doping. Anneals were done in Te, Cd, P, and As vapors and in vacuum, air and Ar, all of which showed large effects on series resistance and diode parameters. With As, series resistance values of In/p-CdTe/graphite structures decreased markedly. This decrease was due to a decrease in grain boundary and/or back contact barrier height, and thus was due to large increases in mobility; the carrier density was not altered substantially. Although the series-resistance decreases were substantial, the diode characteristics became worse. The decreases were not observed when CdS/CdTe cells were fabricated on Te vapor-annealed films. Preparation of ZnO films by reactive evaporation yielded promising results. Deposition of p-ZnTe films by hot-wall vapor evaporation, using conventional techniques, yielded acceptable specimens.

  18. Sol-gel derived bioactive hydroxyapatite/titania composite films on Ti6Al4V

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Su; Guoqing Zhang; Xudong Yu; Chengtao Wang

    2006-01-01

    The composite films consisting of the titania gel impregnated with hydroxyapatite (HAP) submicron particles were prepared on commercial Ti6Al4V plates processed by a sol-gel route. HAP powders were synthesized based on wet chemical precipitation method with Ca(NO3)2.4H2O and (NH4)2HPO4 as starting reagents. After being calcined at 900℃, HAP powders were ultrasonically scattered in ethanol to produce HAP sol. The titania sol was prepared using titanium (Ⅳ) isopropoxide {Ti[OCH(CH3)2]4} as precursor. Both the titania sol and the HAP/titania mixture were sequentially spin-coated on the substrates and calcined at various temperatures.The characteristics and mechanical adhesion of the composite films were investigated. The results show that the as-prepared films are dense, homogeneous, well-crystallized, and there is a good interfacial adhesion between the film and the substrate. The in vitro bioactivities of these films were discussed based on the analysis of the variations of Ca and P concentrations in the simulated body fluid and their surface morphologies against immersion time.

  19. Synthesis and optical properties of complex nanometal composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrock, Marie Louise

    We have successfully prepared gold pair particles of various size, shape, and inter-particle spacing using a template synthesis method involving anodic aluminum oxide films as host templates. Both transmission electron microscopy and polarized linear spectroscopy were used to evaluate the sample quality. The nature of the synthesis is such that the rotational axes of the rod-like structures are oriented normal to the host film surface. This characteristic leads to plasmon resonance spectra with dichroic behavior. In general, we found that both the plasmon resonance maxima and intensity are dependent on the size, shape, orientation, and inter-particle spacing of the pair particle nanostructures. We have successfully prepared more complex pair particle structures, including both rod and rod-sphere pairs. Linear polarization spectroscopy indicates that the plasmon resonance maxima are sensitive to both pair-particle geometry and inter-particle spacing. Possible evidence for interaction between the two members of the rod-sphere structure is seen in the experimental spectra. Quasi-static limit models also only qualitatively describe the polarization spectra of the rod-containing systems. We have succeeded in discerning the processes that cause the second harmonic generation of light (SHG) in nanoparticle composite systems. Second harmonic generation (SHG) studies using an incident wavelength of 780 nm indicate that SHG intensities under s-polarization are low and independent of incidence angle (theta) for composites containing centrosymmetric and non-centrosymmetric gold nanostructures. However, in p-polarization, both composites show an increase in SHG counts with theta, with the non-centrosymmetric structures showing a higher SHG signal than their centrosymmetric counterparts. These results are consistent with local-field enhancements arising from long particle axis dipolar plasmon resonances. Thus, we determined that symmetry does indeed play a large role in small

  20. Study of NiCuZn ferrite powders and films prepared by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Liang-Qiu; Yu Guo-Jian; Wang Ying; Wei Fu-Lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports that a series of NiCuZn ferrite powders and films are prepared by using sol-gel method. The effects of raw material composition and the calcinate temperature on magnetic properties of them are investigated. The NiCuZn ferrite powders are prepared by the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method and subsequently heated at 700 ℃~1000 ℃. The results show that NiCuZn ferrite powders with single spinel phase can be formed after heat-treating at 750 ℃. Powders obtained from Nio.4Cuo.2Zno.4Fe1.9O4 gel have better magnetic properties than those from gels with other composition. After heat-treating at 900 ℃ for 3 h, coercivity Hc and saturation magnetization Ms are 9.7 Oe (1 Oe = 80 A/m) and 72.4 emu/g, respectively. Different from the powders, NiCuZn films produced on Si (100) from the Ni0.4Cu0.2Zn0.4Fe2O4 gel formed at room temperature possess high properties. When heat-treating condition is around 600 ℃ for 6 min, samples with low Hc and high Ms will be obtained. The minimal Hc is 16.7 Oe and Ms is about 300 emu/cm3. In comparison with the films prepared through long-time heat treating, the films prepared through short heat-treating time exhibits better soft magnetic properties.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Palm Leaf Incorporated Polyvinyl Alcohol Bio Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Arunendra Kumar; Bajpai, Rakesh; Keller, J. M.; Saha, Abhijit

    2011-12-01

    The Bio Composites of palm leaf (PL) incorporated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) has been prepared using solution cast technique. Structural and microhardness properties of pure PVA and PL filled PVA Bio Composites has been determined by using FTIR and Vicker's indentation techniquque respectively. The FTIR analysis reveals the presence of PL moieties in PVA, which indicates the good compatibility between PL and PVA. The values of microhardness increases in all composition of PL incorporated PVA films as compared to the pure PVA. This increment in the microhardness is attributed to the excellent binding of PL into PVA.

  2. Film-Making and Teaching Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycette, Ronald L.

    1970-01-01

    To stimulate students to learn through creative participation and to make literature a live experience, an experimental film making project was conducted with freshmen at Bimidji State College during the 1969-70 term. The first step was to introduce film-making to the students. This was accomplished through viewing and analyzing brief…

  3. Preparation of Mordenite Composite Membranes with Seeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Xiaohui; Li Gang; Lin Ruisen; Kikuchi Eiichi; Matsukata Masahiko

    2006-01-01

    Mordenite composite membranes were prepared by means of coating a porous α-alumina support with nanosized mordenite seeds followed by hydrothermal crystallization.A systematic investigation was performed on the influence of several factors such as ageing of the reaction mixture,alkalinity,salt addition and temperature on the formation of a mordenite membrane on the seeded support.The ageing of the reaction mixture reduces the growth rate of mordenite crystal along a-axis and b-axis but hardly influences the growth rate along c-axis.As a result,the boundaries between the surface crystals become a little larger with prolonging the period of ageing time.The growth rate of the mordenite crystal along individual axes increases first and then decreases with increasing concentration of sodium hydroxide.A higher alkalinity is unfavorable for the formation of a continuous mordenite membrane.The addition of salt in the reaction mixture has different effect on the growth rate of the mordenite crystal along each axis.With increasing the amount of salt,there was hardly influence on the growth rate along c-axis,whereas an obvious decline was observed in the growth rate along either a-axis or b-axis,which enlarges the boundaries between the surface crystals.The growth rate of the mordenite crystal increases more along c-axis than that along a-axis or b-axis with increasing temperature for hydrothermal crystallization.The use of a temperature as high as 473 K produces a membrane composed of bar-like crystals with larger boundaries.

  4. Review on preparation techniques of particle reinforced metal matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAO Bin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the investigation status of the techniques for preparation of metal matrix composites and the research outcomes achieved recently. The mechanisms, characteristics, application ranges and levels of development of these preparation techniques are analyzed. The advantages and the disadvantages of each technique are synthetically evaluated. Lastly, the future directions of research and the prospects for the preparation techniques of metal matrix composites are forecasted.

  5. Preparation and Properties of Graphene Straw Retardant Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li-guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was prepared by spin-coating the evaporation process graphene oxide having a shell core structure GO/straw flame retardant composite materials, through the oxygen index apparatus and SEM measured the relationship between the flame retardant properties and the morphological structure of the flame retardant composite material, the experiment preparation process is simple, environmentally friendly non-toxic, and the resulting GO/straw flame retardant composite material having a high fire retardant properties.

  6. A convenient electrolytic assembly of graphene-MOF composite thin film and its photoanodic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajnish; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Deep, Akash

    2017-02-01

    In the recent past, the metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have been recognized as attractive photosensitizer materials due to their hierarchically ordered structures and attractive light-harvesting characteristics. In this work, we report the application of a graphene-MOF composite as a potential photosensitizer material in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A thin film of graphene-MOF hybrid composite was electrochemically assembled on a TiO2/FTO substrate and the different characteristics of the prepared film were investigated. This novel photoanode material hybrid structure demonstrated the potency of an alternative solid-state DSSC configuration. The 2.2% observed power conversion efficiency of the above graphene-MOF composite is a good basis for the further development of graphene-MOF composite-based photoanodes.

  7. Preparation and characterization of micro-grid modified In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:W films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Dongmei; Wang, Wenwen, E-mail: 08569@buaa.edu.cn; Zhang, Fan; Fu, Qiang; Pan, Jiaojiao

    2016-08-01

    Tungsten doped indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:W, IWO) thin films with IWO micro-grid covered surface were prepared at room temperature using techniques of radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and polystyrene (PS) microsphere template. The composition, crystallization structures, surface morphologies, and optical and electrical properties of the films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, spectrophotometer from visible to near infrared (NIR) range and Hall effect measurement, respectively. Periodic micro-grid modified surface was obtained to improve light trapping properties. The effects of the PS micro-spheres diameters and the sputtering time on the surface morphology, transmittance in NIR range, diffuse reflection and conductive properties of the IWO films are investigated. Experiments show that surface modification of the IWO film with micro-grid under the optimized condition can improve the conductivity of the films by 15%, and the diffuse reflectance by 150%, with less than 8% decrease of the transmittance in the visible region. The study would be beneficial to the light trapping effect of solar cells using IWO films as transparent electrodes. - Highlights: • In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:W (IWO) films were obtained by reactive frequency magnetron sputtering. • IWO micro-grids were prepared on the surface of IWO films. • Influences of micro-grid size and sputtering time on IWO films were analyzed. • Both high conductivity and transparency are acquired in near-infrared region.

  8. Composite film polarizer based on the oriented assembly of electrospun nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongliang; Ma, Zhijun; Peng, Mingying; He, Xin; Zhang, Hang; Li, Yang; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-04-01

    Polarizers are widely applied in antiglare glasses, planner displays, photography filters and optical communications, etc. In this investigation, we propose a new strategy for the preparation of a flexible film polarizer based on the electrospinning technique. An aligned assembly of polyvinyl acetate (PVA) nanofibers was electrospun and collected by a fast-rotating drum, then soaked in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) solution and dried thoroughly to obtain a transparent PVA-PMMA composite film polarizer. The morphology, structure and optical performance of the PVA nanofibers and the film polarizers were characterized with a scanning electron microscope, UV-vis-IR spectrometer and polarized Raman spectra, etc. The PVA-PMMA film polarizer demonstrated efficient polarizing activity toward visible and near-infrared light, while keeping fair transparency in the range of 400-1400 nm. Due to the protection from the hydrophobic PMMA matrix, the PVA-PMMA film polarizers show high moisture resistance, making it applicable in a humid environment. Considering the scalability and versatility of the strategy employed here, the PVA-PMMA film polarizer prepared could replace the conventional film polarizers in a wide range of applications.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of biodegradable starch/PVA composite films reinforced with cellulosic fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Bhanu; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Pathania, Deepak; Singha, Amar Singh

    2014-08-30

    Cellulosic fibres reinforced composite blend films of starch/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were prepared by using citric acid as plasticizer and glutaraldehyde as the cross-linker. The mechanical properties of cellulosic fibres reinforced composite blend were compared with starch/PVA crossed linked blend films. The increase in the tensile strength, elongation percentage, degree of swelling and biodegradability of blend films was evaluated as compared to starch/PVA crosslinked blend films. The value of different evaluated parameters such as citric acid, glutaraldehyde and reinforced fibre to starch/PVA (5:5) was found to be 25 wt.%, 0.100 wt.% and 20 wt.%, respectively. The blend films were characterized using Fourier transform-infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA/DTG). Scanning electron microscopy illustrated a good adhesion between starch/PVA blend and fibres. The blend films were also explored for antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results confirmed that the blended films may be used as exceptional material for food packaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation of organic thin-film field effect transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The organic thin-film field effect transistor was prepared through vacuum deposition by using teflon as di-electric material. Indium-tin-oxide acted as the source and drain electrodes. Copper phthalocyanine and teflon were used as the semiconductor layer and dielectric layer, respectively. The gate electrode was made of Ag. The channel length between the source and drain was 50 μm. After preparing the source and drain electrodes by lithography, the copper phthalocyanine layer, teflon layer and Ag layerwere prepared by vacuum deposition sequentially. The field effect electron mobility of the device reached 1.1×10ˉ6 cm2/(V@s), and the on/off current ratio reached 500.

  11. Thin Film Polymer Composite Scintillators for Thermal Neutron Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew N. Mabe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin film polystyrene composite scintillators containing LiF6 and organic fluors have been fabricated and tested as thermal neutron detectors. Varying fluorescence emission intensities for different compositions are interpreted in terms of the Beer-Lambert law and indicate that the sensitivity of fluorescent sensors can be improved by incorporating transparent particles with refractive index different than that of the polymer matrix. Compositions and thicknesses were varied to optimize the fluorescence and thermal neutron response and to reduce gamma-ray sensitivity. Neutron detection efficiency and neutron/gamma-ray discrimination are reported herein as functions of composition and thickness. Gamma-ray sensitivity is affected largely by changing thickness and unaffected by the amount of LiF6 in the film. The best neutron/gamma-ray discrimination characteristics are obtained for film thicknesses in the range 25–150 μm.

  12. Grain Size and Wettability of TiO2/SiO2 Photocatalytic Composite Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The uniform transparent TiO2/SiO2 photocatalytic composite thin films are prepared by sol-gel method on the soda lime glass substrates, and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), BET surface area, FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the addition of SiO2 to TiO2 thin films can suppress the grain growth of TiO2 crystal, increase the hydroxyl content on the surface of TiO2 films, lower the contact angle for water on TiO2 films and enhance the hydrophilic property of TiO2 films. The super-hydrophilic TiO2/SiO2 photocatalytic composite thin films with the contact angle of 0-° are obtained by the addition of 10%-20% SiO2 in mole fraction.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Multiferroic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/PMN-PT Composite Thin Films%多铁性La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/PMN-PT复合薄膜的制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟喜成; 冯明; 刘鑫鑫; 李海波

    2012-01-01

    Multiferroic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/PMN-PT(LSMO/PMN-PT) Composite films were prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate via sol-gel spin-coating method.The structure,surface topography,ferroelectric and magnetic properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD),atomic force microscope(AFM),ferroelectric tester and vibrating sample magnetometer(VSM).The results show that all the XRD peaks corresponding to LSMO and PMN-PT compositional phases,and there exists no chemical reaction or phase diffusion between the LSMO and PMN-PT phases after annealing at 750 ℃.AFM investigation shows that the films have a smooth surface with densely packed uniform grains.The composite thin films exhibit evident ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties.%采用溶胶-凝胶法在Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si基片上制备了La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/PMN-PT(LSMO/PMN-PT)复合薄膜,利用X射线衍射(XRD)、原子力显微镜(AFM)、铁电性能综合测试仪、振动样品磁强计(VSM)对样品的结构、表面形貌以及铁电性能、磁性进行了分析.结果表明,LSMO/PMN–PT复合薄膜750℃退火处理后,所有X射线衍射峰均为样品特征峰,无扩散现象,没有新相生成;薄膜表面平整、致密、颗粒分布均匀;复合薄膜表现出了明显的铁电和铁磁性能.

  14. Preparation and properties of thin films treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, K N

    1982-01-01

    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 24: Preparation and Properties of Thin Films covers the progress made in the preparation of thin films and the corresponding study of their properties. The book discusses the preparation and property correlations in thin film; the variation of microstructure of thin films; and the molecular beam epitaxy of superlattices in thin film. The text also describes the epitaxial growth of silicon structures (thermal-, laser-, and electron-beam-induced); the characterization of grain boundaries in bicrystalline thin films; and the mechanical properti

  15. Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films prepared by sulfurizing different multilayer metal precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; SHAO LeXi

    2009-01-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (OZTS) thin films were successfully fabricated on glass substrates by sulfurizing Ou-Sn-Zn multilayer precursors, which were deposited by ion beam sputtering and RF magnetron sputtering, respectively. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the prepared films under various proc-essing conditions were investigated in detail. Results showed that the as-deposited OZTS thin films with the precursors by both ion beam sputtering and RF magnetron sputtering have a composition near stoichiometric. The crystallization of the samples, however, has a strong dependence on the atomic percent of constituents of the prepared CZTS films. A single phase stannite-type structure OZTS with a large absorption coefficient of 104/cm in the visible range could be obtained after sulfurization at 520℃for 2 h. The samples relative to the RF magnetron sputtering showed a low resistivity of 0.073 Ωcm and band gap energy of about 1.53 eV. The samples relative to the ion beam sputtering exhibited a resistiv-ity of 0.36 Ωcm and the band gap energy is about 1.51 eV.

  16. Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films prepared by sulfurizing different multilayer metal precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were successfully fabricated on glass substrates by sulfurizing Cu-Sn-Zn multilayer precursors, which were deposited by ion beam sputtering and RF magnetron sputtering, respectively. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the prepared films under various processing conditions were investigated in detail. Results showed that the as-deposited CZTS thin films with the precursors by both ion beam sputtering and RF magnetron sputtering have a composition near stoichiometric. The crystallization of the samples, however, has a strong dependence on the atomic percent of constituents of the prepared CZTS films. A single phase stannite-type structure CZTS with a large absorption coefficient of 104/cm in the visible range could be obtained after sulfurization at 520℃ for 2 h. The samples relative to the RF magnetron sputtering showed a low resistivity of 0.073 ?cm and band gap energy of about 1.53 eV. The samples relative to the ion beam sputtering exhibited a resistivity of 0.36 Ωcm and the band gap energy is about 1.51 eV.

  17. Electrical and Optical Properties of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Y. Banyamin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO coatings have been prepared using the mid-frequency pulsed DC closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering technique in an Ar/O2 atmosphere using blends of tin oxide and tin fluoride powder formed into targets. FTO coatings were deposited with a thickness of 400 nm on glass substrates. No post-deposition annealing treatments were carried out. The effects of the chemical composition on the structural (phase, grain size, optical (transmission, optical band-gap and electrical (resistivity, charge carrier, mobility properties of the thin films were investigated. Depositing FTO by magnetron sputtering is an environmentally friendly technique and the use of loosely packed blended powder targets gives an efficient means of screening candidate compositions, which also provides a low cost operation. The best film characteristics were achieved using a mass ratio of 12% SnF2 to 88% SnO2 in the target. The thin film produced was polycrystalline with a tetragonal crystal structure. The optimized conditions resulted in a thin film with average visible transmittance of 83% and optical band-gap of 3.80 eV, resistivity of 6.71 × 10−3 Ω·cm, a carrier concentration (Nd of 1.46 × 1020 cm−3 and a mobility of 15 cm2/Vs.

  18. Preparation and characterization of BiFeO3 thin films by the LPD on OH-functionalized organic SAMs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films were grown on OH-functionalized organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via liquid-phase deposition (LPD) method at a temperature below 100°C. The BiFeO3 thin films were induced to synthesize on the OH-functionalized organic OTS monolayers prepared on hydroxylated glass substrate by self-assembling technique. The hydrophilic characteristic of the as-prepared OTS-SAMs was measured by contact angle tester. The crystal phase composition, microstructure and topography of the as-synthesized BFO thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. Results show that compact and homogeneous BFO thin films can be formed on the OH-functionalized SAMs at low temperature.

  19. An effective combination of electrodeposition and layer-by-layer assembly to construct composite films with luminescence switching behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenmei; Ma, Hongwei; Zheng, Daming; Dong, Zhaojun; Wu, Lixin; Bi, Lihua

    2015-09-07

    This article presents a combination strategy of electrodeposition and a layer-by-layer assembly to fabricate functional composite films with luminescence switching behavior. Firstly, a novel green luminescence film consisting of 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HOPTS) was first obtained on ITO by a facile electrodeposition method. Then, the multilayer films containing different layers of tungstophosphate K12.5Na1.5[NaP5W30O110]·15H2O (P5W30) were further fabricated on the green luminescence film to form the composite films [(HOPTS)50/(PDDA/P5W30)n] (n = 10, film 1; n = 27, film 2; n = 57, film 3). Cyclic voltammetry and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to characterize the electrochemical activity of P5W30 and the luminescence property of HOPTS in the composite films, respectively. Lastly, in situ UV-Vis spectroelectrochemical and fluorescence spectroelectrochemical measurements were applied to investigate the luminescence switching behaviors of the composite films controlled by the electrochromism component of P5W30 upon electrochemical modulation. In summary, the investigation results revealed that the electrodeposition method is convenient and rapid, and thus-prepared composite films showed improved luminescence switching performance in terms of switching process, activation cycles, coloration efficiency, and bleached-state transparency as well as good stability, wide voltage range and good reversibility. Therefore, the present study offers a new fabrication route for the multifunctional composite films through an effective combination of electrodeposition and layer-by-layer assembly technique.

  20. [Preparation and spectroscopic properties of terbium polypropenic acid film].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-gui; Wu, Hong-ying; Weng, Shi-fu; Wu, Jin-guang

    2002-12-01

    The bonding-type rare earth polymers-polypropenic-acid terbium film was prepared through the bonding way. Three-dimension fluorescence spectra showed that the optimum excitation wavelength was 306 nm, the strongest emission wavelength was 544 nm. The terbium polypropenic-acid film showed the characteristic Tb3+ emission when excited at 306 nm due to 5D4-7FJ transition (J = 6, 5, 4 and 3). The emission maximum at 544 nm was ascribed to 5D4-7F5 transition of Tb3+ and presented strong green emission. The luminescent properties of Tb3+ were not affected by polymerism of propenic-acid and the transparency of polypropenic-acid in visible light region was not affected by the dopping Tb3+. The fluorescence properties and spectroscopic properties of the terbium polypropenic-acid were investigated by excitation spectrum, emission spectrum, IR, far-IR, and Raman spectrum.

  1. Nanocrystalline silicon films prepared by laser-induced crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅广生; 于威; 李社强; 侯海虹; 彭英才; 韩理

    2003-01-01

    The excimer laser-induced crystallization technique has been used to investigate the preparation of nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) from amorphous silicon (α-Si) thin films on silicon or glass substrates. The α-Si films without hydrogen grown by pulsed-laser deposition are chosen as precursor to avoid the problem of hydrogen effluence during annealing.Analyses have been performed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission-electron microscopy. Experimental results show that silicon nanocrystals can be formed through laser annealing. The growth characters of nc-Si are strongly dependent on the laser energy density. It is shown that the volume of the molten silicon predominates essentially the grain size of nc-Si, and the surface tension of the crystallized silicon is responsible for the mechanism of nc-Si growth.

  2. Structure and composition effects on electrical and optical properties of sputtered PbSe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xigui; Gao, Kewei [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Pang, Xiaolu, E-mail: pangxl@mater.ustb.edu.cn [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Huisheng [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Volinsky, Alex A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Lead selenide (PbSe) thin films were grown on Si (111) substrates using magnetron sputtering, and the structure and composition effects on the photoelectric and optical properties of the sputtered PbSe thin films were studied using field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray detector, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, physical property measurement system and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The optical band gaps of all the sputtered PbSe thin films ranged from 0.264 eV to 0.278 eV. The PbSe thin film prepared with oxygen flux 1.0 sccm, deposition time 240 min, sputtering power 150 W and substrate temperature 150 °C showed the highest resistance change rate under illumination, about 84.47%. The variation trends of the photoelectric and optical properties with the average crystal size, lattice constant, oxygen content and lattice oxygen percentage were similar, respectively. The sputtered PbSe thin films showed poor photoelectric sensitivity, when the average crystal size was similar to the Bohr radius (46 nm), while the photoelectric sensitivity increased almost linearly with the oxygen content in the thin films, indicating that both deviating the average crystal size from the Bohr radius and increasing the oxygen content are two direct and effective ways to obtain high photoelectric sensitivity in PbSe thin films. - Highlights: • Lead selenide thin films were grown on Si (111) using magnetron sputtering. • Lead selenide thin films show superior photoelectric sensitivity. • The effects of structure and composition to the film properties were studied. • The photoelectric property was mainly affected by grain size and oxygen content.

  3. Reversed preparation of low-density poly(divinylbenzene/styrene) foam columns coated with gold films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yinhai; Wang, Ni; Li, Yaling; Yao, Mengqi; Gan, Haibo; Hu, Wencheng, E-mail: huwc@uestc.edu.cn

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • A reversed fabrication of low density foam columns coated with gold films was proposed. • The uniformity in thickness and purity of gold film are easy to be controlled. • A compact layer is prepared through an electrophoretic deposition method. • A low density (12 mg/cc) foam column coated with gold film is obtained. - Abstract: This work aims to fabricate low-density, porous, non-conductive, structural poly(divinylbenzene/styrene) foam columns by high-internal-phase emulsion templating. We prepare these non-conductive foam columns coated with a thin gold layer by electrochemical deposition and the reversed preparation technique. As expected, the density of the foam obtained through this novel method was about 12 mg cm{sup −3}, and the thickness of the gold coating was about 3 μm. We performed field emission scanning electron microscopy to morphologically and microstructurally characterize the products and X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy to determine the composition of the gold coating.

  4. Silver Doped TiO2 Nanostructure Composite Photocatalyst Film Synthesized by Sol-Gel Spin and Dip Coating Technique on Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtaba Nasr-Esfahani; Mohammad Hossein Habibi

    2008-01-01

    New composite films (P25SGF-MC-Ag, MPC500SGF-MC-Ag, and ANPSGF-MC-Ag) have been synthesized by a modified sol-gel method using different particle sizes of TiO2 powder and silver addition. Nanostructure TiO2/Ag composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin and dip coating technique. while, by introducing methyl cellulose (MC) porous, TiO2/Ag films were obtained after calcining at a temperature of 500°C. The as-prepared TiO2 and TiO2/Ag films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, a...

  5. Preparation and characterization of bionanocomposite films based on potato starch/halloysite nanoclay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegh-Hassani, Fatemeh; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza

    2014-06-01

    In this research casting method was used to prepare potato starch based bio-nanocomposite films with halloysite nanoclay as the reinforcing materials. The composition included potato starch with 40% (w/w) of a mixture of sorbitol/glycerol (weight ratio of 3 to 1as plasticizer) with nanoclay (0-5% w/w). The films were dried under controlled conditions. Physicochemical properties such as solubility in water, water absorption capacity (WAC), water vapour permeability (WVP), oxygen permeability, and mechanical properties of the films were measured. Results showed that by increasing the concentration of nanoclay, mechanical properties of films were improved. Tensile strength was increased from 7.33 to 9.82MPa, and elongation at break decreased from 68.0 to 44.0%. Solubility in water decreased from 35 to 23%, and heat seal strength increased from 375 to 580N/m. Also incorporation of clay nanoparticles in the structure of biopolymer decreased permeability of the gaseous molecules. In summary, addition of halloysite nanoclay, improve the barrier and mechanical properties of potato starch films and this bionanocomposites have high potential to be used for food packaging purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Properties Study of ZnS Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Djelloul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zinc sulfide (ZnS is important II-VI semiconductors material for the development of various modern technologies and photovoltaic applications. ZnS thin film was prepared by using chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The starting solution is a mixture of 0.1 M zinc chloride as source of Zn and 0.05 M thiourea as source of S. The glass substrate temperature was varied in the range of 300 °C-400 °C to investigate the influence of substrate temperature on the structure, chemical composition, morphological and optical properties of ZnS films. The DRX analyses indicated that ZnS films have polycrystalline cubic structure with (111 preferential orientation and grain size varied from 25 to 60 nm, increasing with substrate temperature. The optical properties of these films have been studied in the wavelength range 300-2500 nm using UV-VIS spectro-photometer. The ZnS films has a band gap of 3.89 eV-3.96 eV.

  7. Nanostructure Study of TiO2 Films Prepared by Dip Coating Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The microstructure properties of the sol-gel derived TiO2 films were studied by the atomic force microscopy (AFM).The films were prepared by dip coating process. The optical properties of the films were explained on the basis ofthe microstructure of the films.

  8. Epitaxial ternary nitride thin films prepared by a chemical solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hongmei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feldmann, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Haiyan [TEXAS A& M; Bi, Zhenxing [TEXAS A& M

    2008-01-01

    It is indispensable to use thin films for many technological applications. This is the first report of epitaxial growth of ternary nitride AMN2 films. Epitaxial tetragonal SrTiN2 films have been successfully prepared by a chemical solution approach, polymer-assisted deposition. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the films are also investigated.

  9. Bioelectrochemical Response and Kinetics of Choline Oxidase Entrapped in Polyaniline-Polyacrylonitrile Composite Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE,Huai-Guo(薛怀国); SHEN,Zhi-Quan(沈之荃)

    2002-01-01

    A novel choline oxidase electrode was constructed by entrapping choline oxidase into polyaniline-polyacrylonitrile composite film. The enzyme film was prepared by in situ electropolymerization of aniline into porous polyacrylonitrile-coated platinum electrode in the presence of choline oxidase. The enzyme electrode exhibited sensitive and stable electrochemical response to choline. The kinetics analysis showed that the mass transport is partially rate-limiting. The influences of pH, applied potential and temperature on the response of the enzyme electrode were also described.

  10. Preparation of Thin Melanin-Type Films by Surface-Controlled Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomäki, Mikko; Tupala, Matti; Parviainen, Timo; Leiro, Jarkko; Karonen, Maarit; Lukkari, Jukka

    2016-04-26

    The preparation of thin melanin films suitable for applications is challenging. In this work, we present a new alternative approach to thin melanin-type films using oxidative multilayers prepared by the sequential layer-by-layer deposition of cerium(IV) and inorganic polyphosphate. The interfacial reaction between cerium(IV) in the multilayer and 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) in the adjacent aqueous solution leads to the formation of a thin uniform film. The oxidation of DHI by cerium(IV) proceeds via known melanin intermediates. We have characterized the formed DHI-melanin films using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis spectroscopy, and spectroelectrochemistry. When a five-bilayer oxidative multilayer is used, the film is uniform with a thickness of ca. 10 nm. Its chemical composition, as determined using XPS, is typical for melanin. It is also redox active, and its oxidation occurs in two steps, which can be assigned to semiquinone and quinone formation within the indole structural motif. Oxidative multilayers can also oxidize dopamine, but the reaction stops at the dopamine quinone stage because of the limited amount of the multilayer-based oxidizing agent. However, dopamine oxidation by Ce(IV) was studied also in solution by UV-vis spectroscopy and mass spectrometry in order to verify the reaction mechanism and the final product. In solution, the oxidation of dopamine by cerium shows that the indole ring formation takes place already at low pH and that the mass spectrum of the final product is practically identical with that of commercial melanin. Therefore, layer-by-layer formed oxidative multilayers can be used to deposit functional melanin-type thin films on arbitrary substrates by a surface-controlled reaction.

  11. Green synthesis of high conductivity silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, D.A. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Hui, K.S., E-mail: kshui@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hui, K.N., E-mail: bizhui@pusan.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Y.R. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Wei [Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Hong, Xiaoting [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chun, Ho-Hwan [Global Core Research Center for Ships and Offshore Plants (GCRC-SOP), Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A green facile chemical approach to control the dimensions of Ag nanoparticles–graphene oxide (AgNPs/GO) composites was performed at room temperature. • With decreasing ultrasonication time, the size of the Ag nanoparticles decreased and became uniformly distributed over the surface of the GO nanosheets. • The as-prepared AgNPs/rGO composite films were then formed using a spin coating method and reduced at 500 °C under N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} gas flow for 1 h. • The lowest sheet resistance of 270 Ω/sq was obtained in the film corresponding to 1 min of ultrasonication, which showed a 40 times lower resistivity than the rGO film (10.93 kΩ/sq). - Abstract: A green facile chemical approach to control the dimensions of Ag nanoparticles–graphene oxide (AgNPs/GO) composites was performed by the in situ ultrasonication of a mixture of AgNO{sub 3} and graphene oxide solutions with the assistance of vitamin C acting as an environmentally friendly reducing agent at room temperature. With decreasing ultrasonication time, the size of the Ag nanoparticles decreased and became uniformly distributed over the surface of the GO nanosheets. The as-prepared AgNPs/rGO composite films were then formed using a spin coating method and reduced at 500 °C under N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} gas flow for 1 h. Four-point probe measurements showed that the sheet resistance of the AgNPs/rGO films decreased with decreasing AgNPs size. The lowest sheet resistance of 270 Ω/sq was obtained in the film corresponding to 1 min of ultrasonication, which showed a 40 times lower resistivity than the rGO film (10.93 kΩ/sq). The formation mechanisms of the as-prepared AgNPs/rGO films are proposed. This study provides a guide to controlling the dimensions of AgNPs/rGO films, which might hold promise as advanced materials for a range of analytical applications, such as catalysis, sensors and microchips.

  12. Rheological and structural characterization of HA/PVA-SbQ composites film-forming solutions and resulting films as affected by UV irradiation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Huiyu; Sun, Yunlong; Xu, Jing; Dong, Weifu; Liu, Xiaoya

    2015-01-22

    Hyaluronan (HA)/poly (vinyl alcohol) bearing styrylpyridinium groups (PVA-SbQ) composites film-forming solutions were prepared by a negatively charged HA and an oppositely charged PVA-SbQ. The rheological properties and structural characterization of HA/PVA-SbQ composites in aqueous solution were investigated. Zeta potential measurements and TEM were utilized to explore the formation of HA/PVA-SbQ complex micelles in aqueous solution. UV spectra and DLS experiments confirmed that the micelles are photo-crosslinkable. HA/PVA-SbQ composites films were prepared by a casting method. The microstructure and properties of the film were analyzed by SEM, optical transmittance, DSC, XRD and tensile testing. The crosslinked HA/PVA-SbQ composites films exhibited higher UV light shielding and visible light transparency and better mechanical and water vapor barrier properties as well as thermal stability than the uncrosslinked HA/PVA-SbQ composites films, indicating the formation of three-dimensional network structure. This work provided a good way for increasing the mechanical, thermal, water vapor barrier, and optical properties of HA materials for the packaging material.

  13. Preparation and properties of CuInS{sub 2} thin film prepared from electroplated precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onuma, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Kenji; Ichikawa, Sumihiro; Suzuki, Yasunari; Fukasawa, Ryo; Matono, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kenji; Nakazawa, Masao; Takei, Koji [Core Technology Research Laboratory, Shinko Electric Industries Co., Ltd., 80 Oshimada, Nagano 381-2287 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    Thin CuInS{sub 2} films were prepared by sulfurization of Cu/In bi-layers. First, the precursor layer was electroplated onto the treated surface of Mo-coated glass. Observation of the cross-section prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) etching revealed that the void-free film was initially formed on the top surface of the precursor layer and continued to grow until the advancing front of the film reached the Mo layer. The nucleation of voids near the bottom of the CuInS{sub 2} film followed. To determine whether the condition of the Cu/In alloy influences the CuInS{sub 2} quality we investigated the Cu/In alloy state using FIB. We found that the annealed precursor of low Cu/In ratio (1.2) has several voids in the mid position in the layer compared with Cu-rich precursor (1.6). The cross-sectional view of the Cu-rich absorber layer is uniform compared with the low copper absorber layer. Thin film solar cells were fabricated using the CuInS{sub 2} film (Cu/In ratio: 1.2) as an optical absorber layer. It was found that the optimization of a sulfurization period is important in order to improve the cell efficiency. We have not yet obtained good results with high Cu-rich absorber because of a blister problem. This blister was found before sulfurization. So, we are going to solve this blister problem before sulfurization.

  14. Characterization and DC Conductivity of Novel CuO doped Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Nano-composite Films

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    DC conductivity of PVA-CuO nano-composite films have been studied in the present work. The composites were prepared by solution-casting technique. The prepared PVA-CuO composites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS); which confirmed the presence of CuO in polyvinyl alcohol and the formation of the composite. DC conductivity studies show th...

  15. Preparation and Photochromic Behavior of Novel Hybrid Inorganic-Organic Thin Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A novel photochromic complex comprising of Keggin type tungstophosphate acid (PW12) and polyacrylamide (PAM) was prepared. FT-IR results showed that the Keggin geometry of PW12 was still preserved inside the composite, and a charge-transfer bridge was built between PW12 and PAM via hydrogen bond. AFM images indicated that surface topography of polymer matrix changed after adding PW12. Under UV irradiation, the film was reduced photochemically to yield a blue species, which was reversible in the present of oxygen in polymeric network.

  16. Biocompatible Nb2O5 thin films prepared by means of the sol-gel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, D; Eisenbarth, E; Schanne, N; Breme, J

    2004-04-01

    Thin biocompatible oxide films with an optimised composition and structure on the surface of titanium and its alloys can improve the implant integration. The preparation of these thin oxide layers with the intended improvement of the surface properties can be realised by means of the sol-gel process. Nb2O5 is a promising coating material for this application because of its extremely high corrosion resistance and thermodynamic stability. In this study, thin Nb2O5 layers ( TiO2 sol-gel coated cp-titanium concerning the spreading of cells, collagen I synthesis and wettability.

  17. Crystallographic dependence of photocatalytic activity of WO3 thin films prepared by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Varga, Tamas; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Zhiguo; Wang, Chongmin; Chambers, Scott A; Du, Yingge

    2015-06-21

    We investigated the impact of crystallographic orientation on the photocatalytic activity of single crystalline WO3 thin films prepared by molecular beam epitaxy on the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB). A clear effect is observed, with (111) being the most reactive surface, followed by (110) and (001). Photoreactivity is directly correlated with the surface free energy determined by density functional theory calculations. The RhB photodegradation mechanism is found to involve hydroxyl radicals in solution formed from photo-generated holes and differs from previous studies performed on nanoparticles and composites.

  18. Digital Compositing Dalam Film Animasi 3 Dimensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cito Yasuki Yasuki Rahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animation is a technique mostly used in the film world. Nowadays it is growing intechnical animation creation. Animation has evolved from 2D animation to the nextstage in the new form, more realistic and interesting, that is the 3D animation. With thedevelopment of existing technology, the 3D animation is more amazing for the audience,especially 3D animation combined with real action (live action. With the digitalcompositing, the result of a combination of 3D and real action to make the film seemmore alive, because the animation is really close to the original in real life.

  19. Preparation and Optical Absorption of Fe Implanted Composite Titania Thin Films%Fe离子注入二氧化钛复合薄膜制备及光吸收性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳军; 何芳; 王玉林; 黄远; 万怡灶

    2011-01-01

    By uainS the sol-Sel method, TiO2 thin films were fabricated onto quartz aubatrates, and then modified by Fe introduced with ion implantation method to promote the ahsorption shift to visible region and enhance optical absorption of TiO2 thin films.XRD,XPS and UV-via were used to characterize the phase structure, the atomic chemical states and optical absorption of these composite TiO2 thin films in different implantation dose.The XRD results indicated that TiO2 films obtained by sol-gel method were anatase.Fe implantation reaulted in the disappearance of anatase and the occurrence of rutile.Since Fe3+ substituted Ti4+ in unit cell, so there was a solid solution of iron in TiO2 matrix.As a result, oxygen vacancies facilitated the transformation of TiO2 from anatase to rutile.XPS results revealed that Fe existed as elemental Fe and Fe3O4 in the films, indicating that the Ti in the lattice of TiO2 was aubatituted by Fe ion.However, No diffraction peaka of Fe and its oxidea were observed, ahowing their non-crystalline structures.The UV-VIS reaults of Fe-implanted TiO2 films with various Fe doae exhibited that the absorption edge shifted to a longer wavelengh due to the exiatence of Fe3O4.Furthermore , this red ahift increased with a higher implanted Fe doae and the optimal Fe implantation dose 1 × 1017 cm -2 was detennined accordingly.%采用溶胶凝胶法在石英基体上制备了纯TiO2薄膜,并通过离子注入方法对TiO2薄膜进行Fe掺杂改性以促进TiO2薄膜光吸收边红移,提高其光吸收性能.利用XRD,XPS及UV-vis对不同注入剂量的Fe掺杂TiO2复合薄膜的晶相结构、原子化学态以及光吸收性能进行了表征.XRD侧试结果表明,溶胶凝胶法制得的TiO2薄膜为锐钛矿相,经Fe离子注入后,复合TiO2薄膜经退火后锐钛矿相消失,金红石相出现,因为Fe3+离子进入晶胞代替Ti4+,在TiO2基体形成铁的固溶体,结果氧空缺形成促进了TiO2从锐钛矿向金红石的转变;XPS测试结果

  20. 一维纳米SnO2/TiO2复合薄膜电极的制备及光电性能%Preparation of one-dimensional SnO2/TiO2 composite film electrodes and their photoelectrocatalytic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    化一宁; 王东亭; 张晗; 陶霞

    2011-01-01

    采用静电纺丝的方法,通过调节前驱体液中SnCl2.2H2O的质量分数,制备了直径为90 ~ 180 nm的SnO2纳米线,经TiCl4溶液水解处理制备得到了SnO2/TiO2薄膜电极.使用SEM和EDS对薄膜电极进行表征,通过线性扫描伏安法和光电催化测试,分析研究了SnO2/TiO2纳米复合薄膜电极的光电化学性质.结果表明,当SnCl2·2H2O质量分数为3%时,SnO2/TiO2复合薄膜电极的光电流密度达到最大;随后将其与TiO2、SnO2薄膜电极相比,SnO2/TiO2复合薄膜电极产生的光电流明显增大;复合薄膜电极对罗丹明B(RhB)的光电催化降解率在90 min后可达到95%,而TiO2仅为56%、SnO2为58%.%Tin dioxide (SnO2) nanowires with diameters of 90 -180nm have been obtained using an electrostatic spinning technique by controlling the concentration of SnCl2·2H2O in the precursor solution. SnO2/TiO2 composite film electrodes were prepared after hydrolysis of TiCl4 solution. The resulting film electrodes were characterized by SEM and EDS. The photoelectrochemical properties of the SnO2/TiO2 composite film electrodes were studied using electrochemical techniques including linear sweep voltammetry and photoelectrocatalysis. The photoelectric properties of the SnO2/TiO2 composite film electrodes were optimized when using a SnCl2·2H2O concentration of 3% in the precursor solution. The photocurrent of the SnO2/TiO2 composite film electrode was significantly higher than those of pure TiO2 or SnO2 film electrodes. The photocatalytic degradation ratio of rhodamine B ( RhB) with the composite film electrode was 95% after 90 min of irradiation, higher than the corresponding values for pure TiO2 (56%) and SnO2(58%).

  1. Preparation and applications of a variety of fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomer/hydroxyapatite composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Hiroki; Iwaki, Ken-Ichi; Furukuwa, Rika; Takishita, Katsuhisa; Sawada, Hideo

    2008-04-15

    A variety of fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomers were applied to the preparation of fluorinated oligomer/hydroxyapatite (HAp) composites (particle size: 38-356 nm), which exhibit a good dispersibility in water and traditional organic solvents. These fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomer/HAp composites were easily prepared by the reactions of disodium hydrogen phosphate and calcium chloride in the presence of self-assembled molecular aggregates formed by fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomers in aqueous solutions. In these fluorinated HAp composites thus obtained, fluoroalkyl end-capped acrylic acid oligomers and 2-methacryloyloxyethanesulfonic acid oligomer/HAp nanocomposites afforded transparent colorless solutions toward water; however, fluoroalkyl end-capped N,N-dimethylacrylamide oligomer and acryloylmorpholine oligomer were found to afford transparent colorless solutions with trace amounts of white-colored HAp precipitants under similar conditions. HAp could be encapsulated more effectively into fluorinated 2-methacryloyloxyethanesulfonic acid oligomeric aggregate cores to afford colloidal stable fluorinated oligomer/HAp composites, compared to that of fluorinated acrylic acid oligomers. These fluorinated oligomer/HAp composites were applied to the surface modification of glass and PVA to exhibit a good oleophobicity imparted by fluorine. HAp formation was newly observed on the modified polyethylene terephthalate film surface treated with fluorinated 2-methacryloyloxyethanesulfonic acid oligomers and acrylic acid oligomer/HAp composites by soaking these films into the simulated body fluid.

  2. The effective flux through a thin-film composite membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, M.; Chapman, S. J.; Ramon, G. Z.

    2015-05-01

    Composite membrane structures, used extensively in separation processes, comprise an ultra-thin selective polymer film cast over a porous support, whose pores partially obstruct transport out of the top film. Here, we model the composite as a finite thickness slab with a periodic array of circular absorbing patches in an otherwise reflective surface and study the effective transport properties of the composite. We obtain an analytical approximation for the effective diffusive flux as a function of the geometrical parameters, namely the film thickness, the support porosity and the pore size. We find a good agreement with full numerical solutions, and that a good effective rate is achievable with a relatively small number of pores.

  3. Preparation and optical properties of ZnSe films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Sofronova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Microwave method was used for the synthesis and purification of the initial zinc selenide salt. The obtaining powder was used for deposition of the ZnSe thin films on the ultrasonically cleaned glass substrates using the quasi-closed space evaporation under the following conditions: the constant evaporation temperature Te = 800 °C, the temperature of the substrate Ts = 100-600 °C. The investigation of optical characteristics allow to calculate the band gap of condensates and specify their phase composition.

  4. Wearable near-field communication antennas with magnetic composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Bihong; Su, Dan; Liu, Sheng; Liu, Feng

    2017-06-01

    The flexible near-field communication (NFC) antennas integrated with Fe3O4/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) magnetic films were presented, and the influence of the magnetic composite films on the performance and miniaturization capability of the NFC antennas was investigated. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the integration of the magnetic composite films is conducive to the miniaturization of the NFC antennas. However, the pattern design of the integrated magnetic film is very important to improve the communication performance of NFC antenna. When magnetic film covers whole antenna, the inductance (L) and quality factor (Q) of the NFC antenna at 13MHz are increased by 60% and 5% respectively, but the communication distance of NFC system is decreased by 70%. When the magnetic film is located at the center of the antenna, the L value, Q value and communication distance of the NFC antenna are increased by 16.5%, 15.5% and 20% respectively. It can be seen that the application of the integrated magnetic film with optimized pattern to the NFC antenna can not only reduce the size of the antenna, but also improve the overall performance of the antenna.

  5. Photocatalytic ability of TiO2 porous film prepared by modified spray pyrolysis deposition technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SUGIYAMA, Osamu; OKUYA, Masayuki; KANEKO, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    In a spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) technique, deposition of film material and formation of surface structure are simultaneously occur, therefore, it is suitable for the preparation of microstructure-controlled thin films...

  6. Preparation of Lead-free Thick-film Resistor Pastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Hui; LI Shihong; LIU Jisong; CHEN Liqiao; YING Xingang; WANG Ke

    2012-01-01

    The preparation of lead-free thick-film resistors are reported:using RuO2 and ruthenates as conductive particles,glass powders composed of B2O3,SiO2,CaO and Al2O3 as insulating phase,adding organic matter which mainly consists of ethyl cellulose and terpineol to form printable pastes.Resistors were fabricated and sintered by conventional screen-printing on 96%Al2O3 substrates,and then sintering in a belt furnace.X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron scanning microscopy (SEM) have been used to characterize the conductive particles.The resistors exhibit good retiring stability and low temperature coefficient of resistance.Sheet resistance spans from about 80 Ω/□ to 600 Ω/□.The resistors prepared are qualified for common use.

  7. Effect of substrate temperature on microstructures and dielectric properties of compositionally graded BST thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bai-shun; GUO Tao; ZHANG Tian-jin; WANG Jin-zhao; QUAN Zu-ci

    2006-01-01

    Compositionally graded Ba1-xSrxTiO3 (BST) (x = 0-0.3) thin films were prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate at different substrate temperatures ranging from 550 ℃ to 650 ℃ by radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering. The effect of substrate temperature on the preferential orientation,microstructures and dielectric properties of compositionally graded BST thin films was investigated by X-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy and dielectric frequency spectra,respectively. As the temperature increases,the preferential orientation evolves in the order: randomly orientation→ (111) → highly oriented (111) (α(111) = 60.2%). The surface roughness of the graded BST thin films varies with the substrate temperatures. No visible internal interface in the compositionally graded thin films can be observed in the cross-sectional SEM images. The graded BST thin films deposited at 650 ℃ possess the highest dielectric constant and dielectric loss,which are 408 and 0.013,respectively.

  8. Mechanical and barrier properties of guar gum based nano-composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurabh, Chaturbhuj K; Gupta, Sumit; Bahadur, Jitendra; Mazumder, S; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-25

    Guar gum based nano-composite films were prepared using organically modified (cloisite 20A) and unmodified (nanofil 116) nanoclays. Effect of nanoclay incorporation on mechanical strength, water vapor barrier property, chromatic characteristics and opacity of films was evaluated. Nano-composites were characterized using X-ray scattering, FTIR and scanning electron microscopy. A nanoclay concentration dependent increase in mechanical strength and reduction in water vapor transmission rate was observed. Films containing nanofil 116 (2.5% w/w guar gum) and closite 20A (10% w/w guar gum) demonstrated a 102% and 41% higher tensile strength, respectively, as compared to the control. Lower tensile strength of cloisite 20A films as compared to nanofil 116 films was due to its incompatibility with guar gum. X-ray scattering analysis revealed that interstitial spacing between nanofil 116 and cloisite 20A sheets increased due to intercalation by guar gum polymer. This resulted in improved mechanical and barrier properties of nano-composites compared to control.

  9. Composition and growth procedure-dependent properties of electrodeposited CuInSe 2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, S. Moorthy; Ennaoui, A.; Lux-Steiner, M. Ch.

    2005-02-01

    CuInSe 2 thin films were deposited on molybdenum-coated glass substrates by electrodeposition. Deposition was carried out with a variety of electrochemical bath compositions. The quality of the deposits depends very much on the source materials as well as the concentration of the same in the electrolyte. The deposition potential was varied from -0.4 to -0.75 V vs. SCE. The pH of the solution was adjusted to 1.5-2 using diluted sulphuric acid. Chloride salts containing bath yield good surface morphology, but there is always excess of the metallic content in the deposited films. Different growth procedures, like initial metallic layers of copper or indium, layers of copper selenide or indium selenide before the actual deposition of ternary chalcopyrite layers were attempted. Fabrication pathway, morphological and compositional changes due to the different precursor route has been analysed. The quality of the deposits prepared by one-step electrodeposition is better than the deposits with a two-stage process. The deposited films were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDAX, UV-visible spectroscopy and I- V characteristics. The deposited films were annealed in air as well as in nitrogen atmosphere. The influence of annealing temperature, environment and annealing time on the properties of the films are evaluated. Attempts were made to fabricate solar cell structure from the deposited absorber films. The structure of Mo/CuInSe 2/CdS/ZnO/Ni was characterized with surface, optical and electrical studies.

  10. Conducting Graphite/Cellulose Composite Film as a Candidate for Chemical Vapor-Sensing Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihua Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A type of conductive graphite/cellulose composite film used for chemical vapor-sensing material was prepared at room temperature in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIm]Cl. Graphite was pretreated with both oxidation and reduction processes. Due to the use of N,N-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI, as a covalent cross-linking agent in [BMIm]Cl, there were limited chemical bonds between the graphite and cellulose. The composite film was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XRD. When these conducting films were exposed to certain organic vapors, their electrical resistances quickly changed, showing gas sensitivity. The percolation threshold of the conducting film was about 5 wt%. The gas-sensing behavior of these films in solvent were the opposite of those gas-sensing materials based on a non-polar polymer matrix. A typical negative vapor coefficient (NVC was observed when the film was placed in polar organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, and acetone.

  11. Review on preparation techniques of particle reinforced metal matrix composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the investigation status of the techniques for preparation of metal matrix composites and the research outcomes achieved recently. The mechanisms, characteristics, application ranges and levels of development of these preparatior techniques are analyzed. The advantages and the disadvantages of each technique are synthetically evaluated. Lastly, the future directions of research and the prospects for the preparation techniques of metal matrix composites are forecasted.

  12. Preparation and Photoelectrochemical Performance for ZnO Nanorod Arrays/Nanoparticles Aggregate Composite Films%ZnO纳米棒阵列/纳米颗粒团聚复合膜的制备及其光电性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾伟; 刘海瑞; 党随虎; 张竹霞; 刘旭光; 许并社

    2013-01-01

    采用恒温水浴法在FTO导电玻璃上制备出了ZnO纳米棒阵列,然后对其进行二次生长后得到了ZnO纳米棒阵列/纳米颗粒团聚复合膜,最后它们分别与Pt形成对电极并与电解质溶液组装成染料敏化太阳能电池(DSSC).结果表明:当在模拟太阳光照射(AM 1.5,100 mW/cm2)下时,ZnO纳米棒阵列/纳米颗粒团聚复合膜太阳能电池的短路电流密度Jsc为11.7 mA/cm2,开路电压Voc为0.661 V,填充因子FF为0.384,光电转换效率为3.17%,均明显的高于ZnO纳米棒阵列太阳能电池和ZnO纳米颗粒团聚球太阳能电池.其主要原因是由于ZnO纳米棒阵列/纳米颗粒团聚复合膜染料敏化太阳能电池在具有较高的光生电子传输效率的同时,增加了比表面积和提高了光子的收集效率.%ZnO nanorod arrays were firstly grown on FTO conducting glass via a simple chemical bath deposition method, then ZnO nanorod arrays/nanoparticles aggregate composite films were obtained by sequential growth of ZnO nanorod arrays. The dye-covered ZnO electrodes, Pt counter electrode and electrolyte solution were assembled into dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Due to their relatively high surface area, fast electron transport, and enhanced light-scattering capability, a short current density(Jsc) of 11.7 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.661 V, a fill factor( FF) of 0.384, and overall solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of 3.17% were achieved for the ZnO nanorod arrays/nanoparticles aggregate composite films DSSCs under sunlight illumination with AM1. 5 (100 mW/cm2), which were much higher than those obtained for the monodisperse aggregate DSSCs and ZnO nanorod array DSSCs.

  13. Superior environment resistance of quartz crystal microbalance with anatase TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Wei, E-mail: weiqiang.tju@163.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Tianjin (China); Wei, Li; Shaodan, Wang [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Tianjin (China); Yu, Bai [Beijing Institute of Spacecrafts Environment Engineering, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: ZnO nanorod array being prepared by an in situ method on the QCM coated with Au film via hydrothermal process and surface modification with coated TiO{sub 2} by sol–gel methods to form a superhydrophobic TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite film the anatase TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod composite film with a sharp, pencil-like structure exhibiting excellent superhydrophobicity (water contact angle of 155°), non-sticking water properties, and an autonomous cleaning property under UV irradiation. The anatase TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod composite film facilitates the precise measurement and extended lifetime of the QCM for the detection of organic gas molecules. - Highlights: • This work combines, for the first time, the advantage of the TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite film on photocatalysis and reversible super-hydrophobic and super-hydrophilic transition, and puts forward a solution to satisfy weatherability of quartz crystal microbalance in long-term application. • The anatase TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod composite film with pencil structure exhibit excellent super-hydrophobicity (water contact angle can reach 155°), no-sticking water properties and self-cleaning property under UV irradiation. • The photocatalysis and reversible super-hydrophobic and super-hydrophilic transition of the TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod composite film is stable in long-term application. - Abstract: The precise measurement of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in the detection and weighing of organic gas molecules is achieved due to excellent superhydrophobicity of a deposited film composite. Photocatalysis is utilized as a method for the self-cleaning of organic molecules on the QCM for extended long-term stability in the precision of the instrument. In this paper, ZnO nanorod array is prepared via in situ methods on the QCM coated with Au film via hydrothermal process. Subsequently, a TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite film is synthesized by surface modification with TiO{sub 2} via sol–gel methods. Results

  14. Characterization and Wettability of ZnO Film Prepared by Chemical Etching Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hua-xi; JIA Hui-ying; ZENG Jian-bo; CONG Qian; REN Lu-quan

    2013-01-01

    ZnO thin films were prepared by a chemical etching method and their wettability was investigated.The structure and surface composition structure were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy,X-ray photoelectronic spectrometry(XPS),X-ray diffraction(XRD) and Raman spectrometry.These analyses reveal that the etched films were large-scale micro-nanohierarchical structures composed of a Zn core and a ZnO coating.Superhydrophobic surfaces with water contact angles of over 150° were obtained by n-octadecanethiol(ODT) modification.The XPS and Raman results indicate that ODT molecules were bound to the ZnO surface with the S head group by forming Zn—S bond.

  15. The preparation of the nonlinear optical quantum dots in organic polymer composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guochang; Yu, Dabin; Zhang, Jinhua; Zhao, Minghui; Zhao, Dapeng; Pan, Maosen

    2016-11-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) is some material which particle size is between 1 to 10 nanometers. Because of the unique nonlinear optical properties, QDs has been widely applied in optical, electrical, magnetic, biological fields etc. Though the size of the nanoscale is bringing the QDs a series of characteristic advantages, it has also brought some problems for further application, such as QDs are easily degenerative according to their small size. However, The preparation of quantum dots with special polymer composite film can avoid this phenomenon, This means that the composite is usually with inert matrix can be realized for further application.

  16. Preparation of conductive polypyrrole (PPy) composites under supercritical carbon dioxide conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; LIAO Xia; SUN Xinghua; YU Jian; HE Jiasong

    2007-01-01

    Electrically conductive composites were prepared via the chemical oxidative polymerization of the pyrrole monomer in polystyrene (PS) and zinc neutralized sulfonated polystyrene (Zn-SPS) films under supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) conditions.The strong swelling effect of SCCO2 made polypyrrole (PPy) particles not only form on the surface,but also become incorporated into the film,resulting in a homogeneous structure with a relatively higher conductivity.By comparison,the composite prepared in aqueous solutions shows a skin-core structure and a conductivity of 3 to 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of the former due to the diffusion-controlled process of the pyrrole monomer.The percolation thresholds of PS/PPy and Zn-SPS/PPy composites were 6.2% and 2.7% of the volume fraction of PPy,respectively,much lower than the theoretically predicted value of 16%.Moreover,the conductive composites prepared under SC-CO2 conditions showed higher thermal stability,especially in the high-temperature region.

  17. [Preparation of Ti-O Film Deposited on the Surface of a New Type of Artificial Mechanical Heart Valve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Cui, Yuanyuan; Wu, Liangliang; Sun, Hong; Huang, Nan

    2015-04-01

    The rutile structure titanium oxide (Ti-O) film was prepared on the pure titanium material TA2 (99.999%) surface by the magnetic filter high vacuum arc deposition sputtering source. The method can not only maintain the material mechanical properties, but also improve the surface properties for better biocompatibility to accommodate the physiological environment. The preparation process of the Ti-O film was as follows. Firstly, argon ions sputtered to the TA2 substrate surface to remove the excess impurities. Secondly, a metal ion source generated Ti ions and oxygen ions by the RF discharge. Meanwhile a certain negative bias was imposed on the sample. There a certain composition of Ti-O film was obtained under a certain pressure of oxygen in the vacuum chamber. Finally, X-ray diffraction was used to research the structure and composition of the film. The results showed that the Ti-O film of the rutile crystal structure was formed under the 0.18 Pa oxygen partial pressure. A Nano scratch experiment was used to test the coating adhesion property, which demonstrated that the film was stable and durable. The contact angle experiment and the platelet clotting experiment proved that the modified surface method had improved platelet adhesion performance, and, therefore, the material possessed better biocompatibility. On the whole, the evaluations proved the modified material had excellent performance.

  18. Electrochemical formation of a composite polymer-aluminum oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge-Marchese, Jude Mary

    1997-10-01

    The formation of polymer films through electrochemical techniques utilizing electrolytes which include conductive polymer is of great interest to the coatings and electronics industries as a means for creating electrically conductive and corrosion resistant finishes. One of these polymers, polyamino-benzene (polyaniline), has been studied for this purpose for over ten years. This material undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition upon doping with protonic acids in an acid/base type reaction. Review of prior studies dealing with polyaniline and working knowledge of aluminum anodization has led to the development of a unique process whereby composite polymer-aluminum oxide films are formed. The basis for the process is a modification of the anodizing electrolyte which results in the codeposition of polyaniline during aluminum anodization. A second process, which incorporates electrochemical sealing of the anodic layer with polyaniline was also developed. The formation of these composite films is documented through experimental processing, and characterized by way of scientific analysis and engineering tests. Analysis results revealed the formation of unique dual phase anodic films with fine microstructures which exhibited full intrusion of the columnar aluminum oxide structure with polyaniline, indicating the polymer was deposited as the metal oxidation proceeded. An aromatic amine derivative of polyaniline with aluminum sulfate was determined to be the reaction product within the aluminum oxide phase of the codeposited films. Scientific characterization determined the codeposition process yields completely chemically and metallurgically bound composite films. Engineering studies determined the films, obtained through a single step, exhibited superior wear and corrosion resistance to conventionally anodized and sealed films processed through two steps, demonstrating the increased manufacturing process efficiency that can be realized with the modification of the

  19. Ionic liquid-facilitated preparation of lignocellulosic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignocellulosic composites (LCs) were prepared by partially dissolving cotton along with steam exploded Aspen wood and burlap fabric reinforcements utilizing an ionic liquid (IL) solvent. Two methods of preparation were employed. In the first method, a controlled amount of IL was added to preassembl...

  20. Development of Biopolymer Composite Films Using a Microfluidization Technique for Carboxymethylcellulose and Apple Skin Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inyoung Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymer films based on apple skin powder (ASP and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC were developed with the addition of apple skin extract (ASE and tartaric acid (TA. ASP/CMC composite films were prepared by mixing CMC with ASP solution using a microfluidization technique to reduce particle size. Then, various concentrations of ASE and TA were incorporated into the film solution as an antioxidant and an antimicrobial agent, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, optical, mechanical, water barrier, and solubility properties of the developed films were then evaluated to determine the effects of ASE and TA on physicochemical properties. The films were also analyzed for antioxidant effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and antimicrobial activities against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, and Shigella flexneri. From the results, the ASP/CMC film containing ASE and TA was revealed to enhance the mechanical, water barrier, and solubility properties. Moreover, it showed the additional antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for application as an active packaging film.

  1. Fabrication and Surface Properties of Composite Films of SAM/Pt/ZnO/SiO 2

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Ke Xin

    2008-12-16

    Through synthetic architecture and functionalization with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), complex nanocomposite films of SAM/Pt/ZnO/SiO2 have been facilely prepared in this work. The nanostructured films are highly uniform and porous, showing a wide range of tunable wettabilities from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity (water contact angles: 0° to 170°). Our approach offers synthetic flexibility in controlling film architecture, surface topography, coating texture, crystallite size, and chemical composition of modifiers (e.g., SAMs derived from alkanethiols). For example, wettability properties of the nanocomposite films can be finely tuned with both inorganic phase (i.e., ZnO/SiO2 and Pt/ZnO/SiO2) and organic phase (i.e., SAMs on Pt/ZnO/SiO2). Due to the presence of catalytic components Pt/ZnO within the nanocomposites, surface reactions of the organic modifiers can further take place at room temperature and elevated temperatures, which provides a means for SAM formation and elimination. Because the Pt/ZnO forms an excellent pair of metal-semiconductors for photocatalysis, the anchored SAMs can also be modified or depleted by UV irradiation (i.e., the films possess self-cleaning ability). Potential applications of these nanocomposite films have been addressed. Our durability tests also confirm that the films are thermally stable and structurally robust in modification- regeneration cycles. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  2. Flexible composite film for printed circuit board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, K.; Asakura, M.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, A.

    1982-01-01

    A flexible printed circuit for a printed circuit board in which layers of reaction product composed of a combination of phenoxy resin - polyisocyanate - brominated epoxy resin, and in which the equivalent ratio of those functional groups is hydroxyl group: isocyanate group: epoxy group - 1 : 0.2 to 2 : 0.5 to 3 are laminated on at least one side of saturated polyester film is discussed.

  3. Effect of lignin on water vapor barrier, mechanical, and structural properties of agar/lignin composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2015-11-01

    Biodegradable composite films were prepared using two renewable resources based biopolymers, agar and lignin alkali. The lignin was used as a reinforcing material and agar as a biopolymer matrix. The effect of lignin concentration (1, 3, 5, and 10wt%) on the performance of the composite films was studied. In addition, the mechanical, water vapor barrier, UV light barrier properties, FE-SEM, and TGA of the films were analyzed. The agar/lignin films exhibited higher mechanical and UV barrier properties along with lower water vapor permeability compared to the neat agar film. The FTIR and SEM results showed the compatibility of lignin with agar polymer. The swelling ratio and moisture content of agar/lignin composite films were decreased with increase in lignin content. The thermostability and char content of agar/lignin composite films increased with increased lignin content. The results suggested that agar/lignin films have a potential to be used as a UV barrier food packaging material for maintaining food safety and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food.

  4. Structural characteristics and enhanced mechanical and thermal properties of full biodegradable tea polyphenol/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate composite films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Zhu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Full biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV composite films were prepared with 5~40 wt% green tea polyphenol (TP as toughener. The effects of mixing TP on mechanical properties, thermal properties and hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of composite films were investigated. Tension test results show that the incorporation of TP in the PHBV matrix can enhance the toughness of the composite films. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC studies show that there is a single glass transition temperature and the lower melting point temperature. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR results confirm that the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions in composite films. Contact angle measurements show that the hydrophilicity of TP/PHBV composite films can be controlled through adjusting the composition of TP.

  5. SnO{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide composite films for electrochemical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, E.A. [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Mazanik, A.V., E-mail: mazanikalexander@gmail.com [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Streltsov, E.A. [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Kulak, A.I., E-mail: kulak@igic.bas-net.by [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Surganova str., 9/1, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Korolik, O.V. [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • SnO{sub 2}/GO composites with mass fraction of carbon phase 0.01% ≤ w{sub C} ≤ 80% have been formed. • 400 °C annealing was applied for GO reduction in the composites. • SnO{sub 2}/rGO composites demonstrate a high electrocatalytic activity in anodic processes. • Exchange current density grows linearly with carbon phase concentration at w{sub C} ≤ 10%. - Abstract: SnO{sub 2}/GO (GO is graphene oxide) composite films with GO mass fraction w{sub C} ranging from 0.01 to 80% have been prepared using colloidal solutions. Heat treatment of SnO{sub 2}/GO films in Ar atmosphere at 400 °C leads to GO reduction accompanied by partial exfoliation and decreasing of the particle thickness. SnO{sub 2}/rGO (rGO is reduced GO) film electrodes demonstrate a high electrocatalytic activity in the anodic oxidation of inorganic (iodide-, chloride-, sulfite-anions) and organic (ascorbic acid) substances. The increase of the anodic current in these reactions is characterized by overpotential inherent to the individual rGO films and exchange current density grows linearly with rGO concentration at w{sub C} ≤ 10% indicating that the rGO particles in composites act as sites of electrochemical process. The SnO{sub 2}/rGO composite films, in which the chemically stable oxide matrix encapsulates the rGO inclusions, can be considered as a promising material for applied electrochemistry.

  6. Eco-nano composite films containing copper as potential antimicrobial active packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruna, Julio E.; Gonzalez, Valeska; Rodriguez, Francisco; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria Jose, E-mail: julio.bruna@usach.cl [Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Packaging Laboratory, University of Santiago de Chile. Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-01

    The antimicrobial efficiency of Cellulose Acetate/MMTCu and Chitosan/MMTCu nano composites against Escherichia Coli 0157:H7 n/t has been studied in the present work. The MMT modified with copper were obtained using cation interchange in solution and the nano composites films were prepared using casting solution technique, being the biodegradable polymer (Cellulose Acetate or Chitosan) the main component and the montmorillonite modified with copper, the minority component. Characterization of MMTCu and the nano composites (CA/MMTCu and Ch/MMTCu), were carried out using XRD, AA, TGA, DSC and microbiological analysis. The nano composites showed to be more stable at higher temperature, resulting from the incorporation of MMTCu into the polymer. On the other hand, the results indicated that the antibacterial effect of nano composite increased with the proportion of MMTCu added. (author)

  7. Electro-optical properties of poly(vinyl acetate)/polyindole composite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, D. J.; Bajaj, N. S.; Dhokane, G. R.

    2016-05-01

    In present work, electrical and optical properties of poly(vinyl acetate)/polyindole (PVAc/PIN) composite film are reported. The prepared composite was characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectroscopy and DC conductivity measurements. The polymer chain separation was determined using XRD analysis. An attempt has been made to study the temperature dependence of DC conductivity of PVAc/PIN composite in temperature range 308-373 K. The DC conductivity initially increases and reaches to 2.45×10-7 S/cm. The optical band gap value of composite is determined as 4.77 eV. The semiconducting nature of composite observed from electronic as well as optical band gap and Arrhenius behavior of DC plot.

  8. Photoanode of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on a ZnO/TiO2 Composite Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Ting Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells based on a ZnO/TiO2 composite film was fabricated on a transparent conductive glass substrate using different techniques including electrophoretic deposition, screen printing, and colloidal spray coating. The ZnOs used in the composite film were ZnO tetrapods prepared via thermal evaporation and ZnO nanorods obtained via hydrothermal growth. The structural and morphological characterizations of the thin composite films were carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The best power conversion was 1.87%, which corresponds to the laminated TiO2/ZnO/TiO2 structure prepared via screen printing.

  9. Fluoropolymer/SiO2 composite films with switchable superoleophilicity and high oleophobicity for “on-off” oil permeation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Hu, Xiaojing; Chen, Rong; Liu, Shantang; Pi, Pihui; Yang, Zhuo-ru

    2013-09-01

    In this work, fluoropolymer/SiO2 composite films with switchable superoleophilicity and high oleophobicity have been successfully prepared on stainless steel mesh. Tunable wettability could be easily realized by merely reversing the feeding order of the perfluorinated monomer in the polymerization. The effects of surface roughness and chemical composition on the wettability of the films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that the distribution of low surface energy groups plays a crucial role in determining the surface oleophobicity or oleophilicity. The porous stainless steel mesh with fluoropolymer/SiO2 composite could construct dual-scale roughness, leading to less wetting of the solid. The stainless steel mesh coated with the proposed as-prepared polymer films may lead to an oil-water separation membrane. This work provides an interesting insight into the design of novel functional devices that are relevant to oil/water separation.

  10. Nano-structured polymer composites and process for preparing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmyer, Marc; Chen, Liang

    2013-04-16

    A process for preparing a polymer composite that includes reacting (a) a multi-functional monomer and (b) a block copolymer comprising (i) a first block and (ii) a second block that includes a functional group capable of reacting with the multi-functional monomer, to form a crosslinked, nano-structured, bi-continuous composite. The composite includes a continuous matrix phase and a second continuous phase comprising the first block of the block copolymer.

  11. Study on the Preparation and Characteristics of Cellulose/Silver Iodide Nanocomposite Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang Hun; Han, Sung Soo; Kang, Young Ah; Shin, Eun Joo

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the structure and properties of an organic-inorganic composite material prepared from cellulose doped with fine particles of silver iodide (AgI) were examined. The preparation of the composite involved the complexation of cellulose with polyiodide ions, such as I- and 13-, by immersion in iodine/potassium iodide (I2/KI: 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 M) or potassium iodide (KI: 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, 2.4, 3.0 M) aqueous solutions followed by reaction in a silver nitrate (AgNO3:1.0 M) aqueous solution. These procedures resulted in the in situ formation of fine β-AgI particles within the cellulose matrix. The characteristics and conductivities of prepared cellulose/silver iodide (AgI) nanocomposite films with different I2/KI and KI concentrations were investigated. AgI particle formation and aggregation increased on increasing I2/KI and KI concentrations as determined by SEM. X-ray results showed that KI could penetrate the cellulose crystal region and form AgI particles. The electrical conductivities of nanocomposite films treated with KI were higher than that of I2/KI at < 1.0 M of I2/KI and 3 M of KI, although the weight gain by AgI formation was lower than that of I2/KI. This was also attributed to the formation of smaller AgI particles and crystal defects. Highest electrical conductivity (3.8 x 10(-7) Ω(-1) cm(-1)) was obtained from the cellulose films (1.25 x 10(-11) Ω(-1) cm(-1)) treated with the aqueous solutions of 1.0 M I2/KI and 1.0 M AgNO3.

  12. Preparation of Porous Mullite Composite by Microwave Sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Bingbing; ZHANG Rui; SUN Bing; LI Xuqin; LI Chunguang

    2012-01-01

    Microwave sintering method was carried out to prepare porous mullite composite.An insulation structure based on hybrid heating mode was well designed with the wall of mullite and the aided heaters of SiC.The obtained samples were characterized by XRD analysis,apparent porosity detection,and bending strength measurement.SEM was used to observe the microstructure of the sample.It is found that the porous mullite composite could be prepared through the microwave sintering within 2 h at relatively low temperatures around 1000 ℃.The lasted samples show comparatively superior properties to the products prepared by conventional processing.

  13. Physical and mechanical properties of modified bacterial cellulose composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrarti, Lucia; Indriyati, Syampurwadi, Anung; Pujiastuti, Sri

    2016-02-01

    To open wide range application opportunities of Bacterial Cellulose (BC) such as for agricultural purposes and edible film, BC slurries were blended with Glycerol (Gly), Sorbitol (Sor) and Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC). The physical and mechanical properties of BC composites were investigated to gain a better understanding of the relationship between BC and the additive types. Addition of glycerol, sorbitol and CMC influenced the water solubility of BC composite films. FTIR analysis showed the characteristic bands of cellulose. Addition of CMC, glycerol, and sorbitol slightly changed the FTIR spectrum of the composites. Tensile test showed that CMC not only acted as cross-linking agent where the tensile strength doubled up to 180 MPa, but also acted as plasticizer with the elongation at break increased more than 100% compared to that of BC film. On the other hand, glycerol and sorbitol acted as plasticizers that decreased the tensile strength and increased the elongation. Addition of CMC can improve film transparency, which is quite important in consumer acceptance of edible films in food industry.

  14. Nanocellulose-Zeolite Composite Films for Odor Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Neda; Mashayekhy Rad, Farshid; Mace, Amber; Ansari, Farhan; Akhtar, Farid; Nilsson, Ulrika; Berglund, Lars; Bergström, Lennart

    2015-07-08

    Free standing and strong odor-removing composite films of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) with a high content of nanoporous zeolite adsorbents have been colloidally processed. Thermogravimetric desorption analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy combined with computational simulations showed that commercially available silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 have a high affinity and uptake of volatile odors like ethanethiol and propanethiol, also in the presence of water. The simulations showed that propanethiol has a higher affinity, up to 16%, to the two zeolites compared with ethanethiol. Highly flexible and strong free-standing zeolite-CNF films with an adsorbent loading of 89 w/w% have been produced by Ca-induced gelation and vacuum filtration. The CNF-network controls the strength of the composite films and 100 μm thick zeolite-CNF films with a CNF content of less than 10 vol % displayed a tensile strength approaching 10 MPa. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis showed that the CNF-zeolite films can eliminate the volatile thiol-based odors to concentrations below the detection ability of the human olfactory system. Odor removing zeolite-cellulose nanofibril films could enable improved transport and storage of fruits and vegetables rich in odors, for example, onion and the tasty but foul-smelling South-East Asian Durian fruit.

  15. Bioinspired Transparent Laminated Composite Film for Flexible Green Optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daewon; Lim, Young-Woo; Im, Hyeon-Gyun; Jeong, Seonju; Ji, Sangyoon; Kim, Yong Ho; Choi, Gwang-Mun; Park, Jang-Ung; Lee, Jung-Yong; Jin, Jungho; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2017-07-19

    Herein, we report a new version of a bioinspired chitin nanofiber (ChNF) transparent laminated composite film (HCLaminate) made of siloxane hybrid materials (hybrimers) reinforced with ChNFs, which mimics the nanofiber-matrix structure of hierarchical biocomposites. Our HCLaminate is produced via vacuum bag compressing and subsequent UV-curing of the matrix resin-impregnated ChNF transparent paper (ChNF paper). It is worthwhile to note that this new type of ChNF-based transparent substrate film retains the strengths of the original ChNF paper and compensates for ChNF paper's drawbacks as a flexible transparent substrate. As a result, compared with high-performance synthetic plastic films, such as poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(ether sulfone), poly(ethylene naphthalate), and polyimide, our HCLaminate is characterized to exhibit extremely smooth surface topography, outstanding optical clarity, high elastic modulus, high dimensional stability, etc. To prove our HCLaminate as a substrate film, we use it to fabricate flexible perovskite solar cells and a touch-screen panel. As far as we know, this work is the first to demonstrate flexible optoelectronics, such as flexible perovskite solar cells and a touch-screen panel, actually fabricated on a composite film made of ChNF. Given its desirable macroscopic properties, we envision our HCLaminate being utilized as a transparent substrate film for flexible green optoelectronics.

  16. Wettability of Nafion and Nafion/Vulcan carbon composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoan; Feng, Fangxia; Zhang, Ke; Ye, Siyu; Kwok, Daniel Y; Birss, Viola

    2012-04-24

    The wettability of the Pt/carbon/Nafion catalyst layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells is critical to their performance and durability, especially the cathode, as water is needed for the transport of protons to the active sites and is also involved in deleterious Pt nanoparticle dissolution and carbon corrosion. Therefore, the focus of this work has been on the first-time use of the water droplet impacting method to determine the wettability of 100% Nafion films, as a benchmark, and then of Vulcan carbon (VC)/Nafion composite films, both deposited by spin-coating in the Pt-free state. Pure Nafion films, shown by SEM analysis to have a nanochanneled structure, are initially hydrophobic but become hydrophilic as the water droplet spreads, likely due to reorientation of the sulfonic acid groups toward water. The wettability of VC/Nafion composite films depends significantly on the VC/Nafion mass ratios, even though Nafion is believed to be preferentially oriented (sulfonate groups toward VC) in all cases. At low VC contents, a significant water droplet contact angle hysteresis is seen, similar to pure Nafion films, while at higher VC contents (>30%), the films become hydrophobic, also exhibiting superhydrophobicity, with surface roughness playing a significant role. At >80% VC, the surfaces become wettable again as there is insufficient Nafion loading present to fully cover the carbon surface, allowing the calculation of the Nafion:carbon ratio required for a full coverage of carbon by Nafion.

  17. Structural and optical properties of anatase TiO2 heteroepitaxial films prepared by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Feng, Xianjin; Xiao, Hongdi; Luan, Caina; Ma, Jin

    2016-11-01

    High-quality single-crystal anatase TiO2(a-TiO2) thin films have been obtained on SrTiO3 (STO) substrates using the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. The optimal preparation process was explored. The lattice structure and epitaxial relationship were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, both θ-2θ and Φ scans) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that the film prepared at 550 °C with the Ti precursor molar flow rate of 4×10-7 mol/min had the best single crystalline quality, for which a clear epitaxial relationship of a-TiO2 (001)||STO (100) with a-TiO2 [100]||STO [001bar] could be inferred. The elemental composition and proportion were studied by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) method, which proved the deposited film approximated stoichiometric TiO2. The samples showed high transparency of 70-80% in the visible range.

  18. Structural and electrical properties of amorphous carbon–sulfur composite films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Latha Kumari; S V Subramanyam

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss the synthesis of carbon–sulfur composite (-C:S) films by vapour phase pyrolysis of maleic anhydride and sulfur. Structural changes in the system are analysed by scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. Microhardness test depicts an increase in the value of hardness with an increase in sulfur concentration. Electrical conductivity of composite samples varies with sulfur concentration. Magnetoresistance (MR) measurements show a drastic increase in the value of MR for the samples prepared at < 900°C. Thermal stability of these samples is analysed by thermogravimetric analysis, which depends on the host structure and the amount of intercalated species.

  19. Novel synthesis and DC electrical studies of polyindole/poly(vinyl acetate) composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, D. J.; Dhokane, G. R.

    2015-01-01

    Novel one pot synthesis of polyindole/poly(vinyl acetate) composite films was prepared chemically. The monomer indole was polymerized using oxidant cupric chloride. As-synthesized composites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The DC conductivity measurements were done through two probe technique. The DC conductivity value was found to be 8.648 × 10-6 S/cm at 383 K. The transference number measurement shows that ionic conductivity was dominant over electronic conductivity.

  20. Preparation and characterization of rice husk/ferrite composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A novel ferrite composite using rice husk as substrate has been prepared via high temperature treatment under nitrogen atmosphere.The rice husk substrate consists of porous activated carbon and silica,where spinel ferrite particles with average diameter of 59 nm are distributed.The surface area of the composite is greater than 170 m~2 g~(-1) and the bulk density is less than 0.6 g cm~(-3).Inert atmosphere is indispensable for the synthesis of pure ferrite composites,while different preparation temperatur...

  1. SiO2表面包覆改性钛酸钡/聚酰亚胺复合薄膜的制备与性能∗%Preparation and dielectric property of SiO2 surface coating modified BaTiO3/polyimide composite film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚军; 武晓娟; 冯长根; 曾庆轩

    2015-01-01

    以聚酰亚胺(PI)为基体,将聚酰亚胺与钛酸钡(BaTiO3)纳米粒子进行复合,采用原位聚合法制备BaTiO3/PI复合薄膜.为提高 BaTiO3纳米粒子的分散性和表面性能,采用 SiO2对 BaTiO3纳米粒子进行表面包覆改性,并制备改性 BaTiO3/PI 复合薄膜.采用红外光谱、X射线衍射、扫描电镜等对制备得到的改性BaTiO3进行了表征,测试了复合薄膜的介电性能.结果发现,SiO2与BaTiO3粒子间仅是物理包覆,没有新物质形成.测试频率为103 Hz 时,质量分数为5%的SiO2包覆改性使复合薄膜的介电常数增大到21.8,介电损耗为0.00521,击穿强度为76 MV/m,储能密度为0.56 J/cm3.研究表明,采用 SiO2对 BaTiO3改性使得复合薄膜的介电性能有所提高.%Polyimide (PI)was chosen as the matrix of the composite,barium titanate/polyimide (BaTiO3/PI) nanocomposite films were prepared with in situ polymerization.In order to improve the dispersion and the phys-ical-chemical properties of BT surface,barium titanate was modified by SiO2 coating and modified barium titan-ate/polyimide (BaTiO3/PI)nanocomposite films were prepared.The prepared modified BaTiO3 was character-ized by X-ray diffraction (XRD)analysis,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR)and scanning elec-tron microscopy (SEM),and the dielectric properties of the composites were characterized in detail.It was shown that surface modification with SiO2 was the physical effect and there were no new substances forming. When BaTiO3 was modified by 5% SiO2 ,the dielectric constant of the composite film was 21.8 (103 Hz),the loss tangent 0.00521,breakdown strength 76 MV/m,energy storage density 0.56 J/cm3 .The BaTiO3 surface coating modification by SiO2 was beneficial to the dielectric properties of the BaTiO3/PI composite film.

  2. Controllable preparation of nanosized TiO2 thin film and relationship between structure of film and its photocatalytic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; Gang; (魏刚); ZHANG; Yuanjing; (张元晶); XIONG; Rongchun; (熊蓉春)

    2003-01-01

    TiO2 nano-crystalline film and fixed bed photocatalytic reactor were prepared by the sol-gel process using tetrabutylorthotitanate as a precursor and glass tube as the substrate. XRD, AFM, SEM and thickness analysis results indicate that the preparation of nano-crystalline film can be controlled by optimizing experiment process. Under the optimized process, the phase of TiO2 in film is anatase, and the grain size is 3-4 nm. The size of particles, which is about 20-80 nm, can be controlled. The thickness of monolayer film is in nanometer grade. The thickness and particles size in films growing on nanometer film can also be controlled in nanometer grade. As a result, the crack of film can be effectively avoided. Rhodamine B degradation results using UV-Vis spectrophotometer show that the activity of nano-crystalline film in the photocatalytic reactor has a good relation with the diameter of TiO2 particles, that is, the film shows high activity when the size is 20-30 nm and greatly reduced when the size is above 60 nm. The activity of film does not decrease with the increase of film thickness, and this result indicates that nano-crystalline film has no ill influence on the transmissivity of ultraviolet light.

  3. Superhydrophilic porous TiO 2 film prepared by phase separation through two stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weixin; Deng, Wei; Lei, Ming; Huang, Hong

    2011-03-01

    A novel method was developed to produce a TiO 2 film with circular pores on its surface. The pores aroused from the precursor solution using both acetylacetone (AcAc) and diethanolamine (DEA) as stabilizers. The appearance of interconnected or isolated pores for the films was discussed in relation to the phase separation in the sol-gel process with the presence of Acac and DEA. Macropore size, together with connectivity of pores and gel skeleton, can be controlled by selecting an appropriate composition for preparation at DEA amount or regulating a time scale of the sol-gel transition. Finally, wetting behavior of the resulting films was characterized by using contact angle measurements. The TiO 2 films with interconnected or relatively isolated pores exhibit superhydrophilic characteristic, although it is not exposed to ultraviolet irradiation. Deducing from the Wenzel-Cassie regimes' transition criterion, the existence of Cassie impregnating wetting regime rather than Wenzel one upon these porosity-driven superhydrophilic surfaces can be obtained.

  4. Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposited Thin Films of Cobalt Oxide Prepared via Cobalt Acetylacetonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.U. Mordi; M.A. Eleruja; B.A. Taleatu; G.O. Egharevba; A.V. Adedeji; 0.0. Akinwunmi; B. Olofinjana; C. Jeynes; E.O.B. Ajayi

    2009-01-01

    The single solid source precursor, cobalt (Ⅱ) acetylacetonate was prepared and characterized by infrared spec-troscopy. Thin films of cobalt oxide were deposited on soda lime glass substrates through the pyrolysis (metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD)) of single solid source precursor, cobalt acetylaceto-nate, Co[C5H7O2]2 at a temperature of 420℃. The compositional characterization carried out by rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), showed that the films have a stoichiometry of Co2O3 and an average thickness of 227±0.2 nm. A direct energy gap of 2.15±0.01 eV was calculated by the data obtained by optical absorption spectroscopy. The morphology of the films obtained by scanning electron mi-croscopy, showed that the grains were continuous and uniformly distributed at various magnifications, while the average grain size was less than 1 micron for the deposited thin films of cobalt oxide.

  5. Preparation of Superhydrophobic Film on Ti Substrate and Its Anticorrosion Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Tang, Wenchuan; Huang, Luyao; Zhang, Dawei; Du, Cuiwei; Yu, Gaohong; Chen, Ming; Chowwanonthapunya, Thee

    2017-06-08

    Superhydrophobic films were fabricated on a titanium substrate with or without anodizing by using a self-assembling method. Firstly, the pretreatments of mechanical polishing/anodizing or mechanical polishing only were conducted, respectively. Subsequently, the preparation of polydopamine film layer, deposition of nano-silver particles, and post modification of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol were performed on the surface of the pretreated substrate. The surface morphologies, compositions, wettability, and corrosion resistance of the films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), water contact angle measurements, and electrochemical tests, respectively. Meanwhile, the effect of the deposition time in the silver nitrate solution on the hydrophobicity of the specimen surface was investigated. The result showed that with the increase of deposition time, the hydrophobic property enhanced gradually. The surface deposited for 7 h exhibited an optimum hydrophobic effect, which was characterized with a large water contact angle (WCA) of 154°, and the surface was rather rough and covered by a relatively uniform layer of micro-nano silver particles. The excellent hydrophobicity was attributed to a rough stratified microstructure along with the low surface energy. The electrochemical measurements showed that the existence of the superhydrophobic film can effectively enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti samples.

  6. Preparation of Superhydrophobic Film on Ti Substrate and Its Anticorrosion Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic films were fabricated on a titanium substrate with or without anodizing by using a self-assembling method. Firstly, the pretreatments of mechanical polishing/anodizing or mechanical polishing only were conducted, respectively. Subsequently, the preparation of polydopamine film layer, deposition of nano-silver particles, and post modification of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol were performed on the surface of the pretreated substrate. The surface morphologies, compositions, wettability, and corrosion resistance of the films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS, water contact angle measurements, and electrochemical tests, respectively. Meanwhile, the effect of the deposition time in the silver nitrate solution on the hydrophobicity of the specimen surface was investigated. The result showed that with the increase of deposition time, the hydrophobic property enhanced gradually. The surface deposited for 7 h exhibited an optimum hydrophobic effect, which was characterized with a large water contact angle (WCA of 154°, and the surface was rather rough and covered by a relatively uniform layer of micro-nano silver particles. The excellent hydrophobicity was attributed to a rough stratified microstructure along with the low surface energy. The electrochemical measurements showed that the existence of the superhydrophobic film can effectively enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti samples.

  7. Preparation of Polyimide/Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite Films via an Ion-Exchange Technique and Their Photoluminescence Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxiang Mu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyimide (PI composite films with ZnO nanoparticles embedded in the surface layer were prepared by alkali hydrolyzation following ion exchange in Zn(NO32 solution and thermal treatment of the zinc ion-doped PI films in air atmosphere. The effect of alkali treatment, ion exchange, and thermal treatment conditions was investigated in relation to the amount of zinc atomic loading, morphology, photoluminescence (PL, and thermal properties of the PI/ZnO composite films using ICP, XPS, FE-SEM, TEM, Raman microscope, TGA, and DSC. ZnO nanoparticles were formed slowly and dispersed uniformly in the surface-modified layers of PI films with an average diameter of 20 nm. The PL spectra of all the PI/ZnO nanocomposite films obtained at 350°C/7 h possessed a weak ultraviolet emission peak and a broad and strong visible emission band. The PI/ZnO nanocomposite films maintained the excellent thermal property of the host PI films.

  8. Optical parameters of In Se and In Se Te thin amorphous films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdlicka, M.; Prikryl, J.; Pavlista, M.; Benes, L.; Vlcek, M.; Frumar, M.

    2007-05-01

    The thin films of materials based on In Se are under study for their applicability in photovoltaic devices, solid-state batteries and phase-change memories. The amorphous thin films of In2Se3-xTex (x=0 1.5) and InSe were prepared by pulsed laser deposition method (PLD) using a KrF excimer laser beam (λ=248 nm, 0.5 J cm-2) from polycrystalline bulk targets. The compositions of films verified by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were close to the compositions of targets. The surfaces of PLD films containing small amount of droplets were viewed by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optical properties (transmittance and reflectance spectra, spectral dependence of index of refraction, optical gap, single-oscillator energy, dispersion energy, dielectric constant) of the films were determined. The values of index of refraction increased with increasing substitution of Te for Se in In2Se3 films, the values of the optical gap decreased with increasing substitution of Te for Se in In2Se3 films.

  9. A laser ultrasound transducer using carbon nanofibers–polydimethylsiloxane composite thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Kim, Jinwook; Li, Sibo; Jiang, Xiaoning, E-mail: xjiang5@ncsu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Zhu, Jiadeng; Zhang, Xiangwu [Fiber and Polymer Science Program, Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The photoacoustic effect has been broadly applied to generate high frequency and broadband acoustic waves using lasers. However, the efficient conversion from laser energy to acoustic power is required to generate acoustic waves with high intensity acoustic pressure (>10 MPa). In this study, we demonstrated laser generated high intensity acoustic waves using carbon nanofibers–polydimethylsiloxane (CNFs-PDMS) thin films. The average diameter of the CNFs is 132.7 ± 11.2 nm. The thickness of the CNFs film and the CNFs-PDMS composite film is 24.4 ± 1.43 μm and 57.9 ± 2.80 μm, respectively. The maximum acoustic pressure is 12.15 ± 1.35 MPa using a 4.2 mJ, 532 nm Nd:YAG pulsed laser. The maximum acoustic pressure using the CNFs-PDMS composite was found to be 7.6-fold (17.62 dB) higher than using carbon black PDMS films. Furthermore, the calculated optoacoustic energy conversion efficiency K of the prepared CNFs-PDMS composite thin films is 15.6 × 10{sup −3 }Pa/(W/m{sup 2}), which is significantly higher than carbon black-PDMS thin films and other reported carbon nanomaterials, carbon nanostructures, and metal thin films. The demonstrated laser generated high intensity ultrasound source can be useful in ultrasound imaging and therapy.

  10. Thin film composite nanofiltration membranes for extreme conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalwani, Mayur Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis focuses on development and performance evaluation of thin film composite (TFC) nanofiltration (NF) membranes, with special attention to extreme pH applications. In Chapter 2 a new method that allows molecular weight cut off (MWCO) characterization of NF membran

  11. Preparation of active 3D film patches via aligned fiber electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Chuan; Zheng, Hongxia; Chang, Ming-Wei; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Li, Jing-Song

    2017-03-01

    The design, preparation and application of three-dimensional (3D) printed structures have gained appreciable interest in recent times, particularly for drug dosage development. In this study, the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing technique was developed to fabricate aligned-fiber antibiotic (tetracycline hydrochloride, TE-HCL) patches using polycaprolactone (PCL), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and their composite system (PVP-PCL). Drug loaded 3D patches possessed perfectly aligned fibers giving rise to fibrous strut orientation, variable inter-strut pore size and controlled film width (via layering). The effect of operating parameters on fiber deposition and alignment were explored, and the impact of the film structure, composition and drug loading was evaluated. FTIR demonstrated successful TE-HCL encapsulation in aligned fibers. Patches prepared using PVP and TE-HCL displayed enhanced hydrophobicity. Tensile tests exhibited changes to mechanical properties arising from additive effects. Release of antibiotic from PCL-PVP dosage forms was shown over 5 days and was slower compared to pure PCL or PVP. The printed patch void size also influenced antibiotic release behavior. The EHDA printing technique provides an exciting opportunity to tailor dosage forms in a single-step with minimal excipients and operations. These developments are crucial to meet demands where dosage forms cannot be manufactured rapidly or when a personalized approach is required.

  12. Thin-film preparation by back-surface irradiation pulsed laser deposition using metal powder targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Yagyu, Yoshihito; Ihara, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Makiko; Suda, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Several kinds of functional thin films were deposited using a new thin-film preparation method named the back-surface irradiation pulsed laser deposition (BIPLD) method. In this BIPLD method, powder targets were used as the film source placed on a transparent target holder, and then a visible-wavelength pulsed laser was irradiated from the holder side to the substrate. Using this new method, titanium oxide and boron nitride thin films were deposited on the silicon substrate. Surface scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images suggest that all of the thin films were deposited on the substrate with some large droplets irrespective of the kind of target used. The deposition rate of the films prepared by using this method was calculated from film thickness and deposition time to be much lower than that of the films prepared by conventional PLD. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement results suggest that rutile and anatase TiO2 crystal peaks were formed for the films prepared using the TiO2 rutile powder target. Crystal peaks of hexagonal boron nitride were observed for the films prepared using the boron nitride powder target. The crystallinity of the prepared films was changed by annealing after deposition.

  13. Action of colloidal silica films on different nano-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, S.; Al-Marzouki, F.; Obaid, A.; Gamal, S.

    Nano-composite films have been the subject of extensive work to develop the energy-storage efficiency of electrostatic capacitors. Factors such as polymer purity, nano-particles size, and film morphology drastically affect the electrostatic efficiency of the dielectric material that form an insulating film between conductive electrodes of a capacitor. This in turn affects the energy storage performance of the capacitor. In the present work, we have studied the dielectric properties of 4 high pure amorphous polymer films: polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polystyrene, polyimide and poly-4-vinylpyridine. Comparison between the dielectric properties of these polymers has revealed that the higher break down performance is a character of polyimide PI and PMMA. Also, our experimental data shows that adding colloidal silica to PMMA and PI leads to a net decrease in the dielectric properties compared to the pure polymer.

  14. Preparation, Characterization and Thermo-Chromic Properties of EVA/VO2 Laminate Films for Smart Window Applications and Energy Efficiency in Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onruthai Srirodpai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermochromic films based on vanadium dioxide (VO2/ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA composite were developed. The monoclinic VO2 particles was firstly prepared via hydrothermal and calcination processes. The effects of hydrothermal time and tungsten doping agent on crystal structure and morphology of the calcined metal oxides were reported. After that, 1 wt % of the prepared VO2 powder was mixed with EVA compound, using two different mixing processes. It was found that mechanical properties of the EVA/VO2 films prepared by the melt process were superior to those of which prepared by the solution process. On the other hand, percentage visible light transmittance of the solution casted EVA/VO2 film was greater than that of the melt processed composite film. This was related to the different gel content of EVA rubber and state of dispersion and distribution of VO2 within the polymer matrix phase. Thermochromic behaviors and heat reflectance of the EVA/VO2 film were also verified. In overall, this study demonstrated that it was possible to develop a thermochromic film using the polymer composite approach. In this regard, the mixing condition was found to be one of the most important factors affecting morphology and thermo-mechanical properties of the films.

  15. Compositional analysis of electrodeposited bismuth telluride thermoelectric thin films using combined electrochemical quartz crystal microgravimetry--stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Sunyoung; Jeon, Soyeon; Lee, Ungki; Park, Minsoon; Paeng, Ki-Jung; Myung, Noseung; Rajeshwar, Krishnan

    2008-09-01

    Bismuth telluride (Bi 2Te 3 ) is a benchmark material for thermoelectric power generation and cooling applications. Electrodeposition is a versatile technique for preparing thin films of this material; however, it affords films of variable composition depending on the preparation history. A simple and rapid assay of electrodeposited films, therefore, has both fundamental and practical importance. In this study, a new protocol for the electroanalysis of Bi 2Te 3 thin films is presented by combining the two powerful and complementary techniques of electrochemical quartz crystal microgravimetry (EQCM) and stripping voltammetry. First, any free (and excess) tellurium in the electrodeposited film was reduced to soluble Te ( 2- ) species by scanning to negative potentials in a 0.1 M Na 2SO 4 electrolyte, and the accompanying frequency increase (mass loss) was used to determine the content of free tellurium. The film was again subjected to cathodic stripping in the same medium (to generate Bi (0) and soluble Te (2-) from the Bi 2 Te 3 film component of interest), and the EQCM frequency change was used to determine the content of chemically bound Te in the Bi 2Te 3 thin film and thereby the compound stoichiometry. Finally, the EQCM frequency change during Bi oxidation to Bi (3+) and the difference between total Bi and Bi in Bi 2Te 3 resulted in the assay of free (excess) Bi in the electrodeposited film. Problems associated with the chemical/electrochemical stability of the free Bi species were circumvented by a flow electroanalysis approach. Data are also presented on the sensitivity of electrodeposited Bi 2Te 3 film composition to the electrodeposition potential. This newly developed method can be used for the compositional analysis of other thermoelectric thin-film material candidates in general.

  16. Effect of Initial Bulk Material Composition on Thermoelectric Properties of Bi2Te3 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, A. V.; Rogacheva, E. I.; Pinegin, V. I.; Sipatov, A. Yu.; Fedorov, A. G.

    2013-07-01

    V2VI3 compounds and solid solutions based on them are known to be the best low-temperature thermoelectric (TE) materials. The predicted possibility of enhancement of the TE figure of merit in two-dimensional (2D) structures has stimulated studies of the properties of these materials in the thin-film state. The goal of the present work is to study the dependences of the Seebeck coefficient S, electrical conductivity σ, Hall coefficient R H, charge carrier mobility μ H, and TE power factor P = S 2 σ of Bi2Te3 thin films on the composition of the initial bulk material used for preparing them. Thin films with thickness d = 200 nm to 250 nm were grown by thermal evaporation in vacuum of stoichiometric Bi2Te3 crystals (60.0 at.% Te) and of crystals with 62.8 at.% Te onto glass substrates at temperatures T S of 320 K to 500 K. It was established that the conductivity type of the initial material is reproduced in films fairly well. For both materials, an increase in T S leads to an increase in the thin-film structural perfection, better correspondence between the film composition and that of the initial material, and increase in S, R H, μ H, σ, and P. The room-temperature maximum values of P for the films grown from crystals with 60.0 at.% and 62.8 at.% Te are P = 7.5 × 10-4 W/K2 m and 35 × 10-4 W/K2 m, respectively. Thus, by using Bi2Te3 crystals with different stoichiometry as initial materials, one can control the conductivity type and TE parameters of the films, applying a simple and low-cost method of thermal evaporation from a single source.

  17. Incorporation of ovalbumin into ISCOMs and related colloidal particles prepared by the lipid film hydration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demana, Patrick H; Davies, Nigel M; Berger, Bianca; Rades, Thomas

    2004-07-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incorporation of a model antigen, fluorescently labelled ovalbumin (FITC-OVA), into various colloidal particles including immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs), liposomes, ring and worm-like micelles, lamellae and lipidic/layered structures that are formed from various combinations of the triterpene saponin Quil A, cholesterol and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) following hydration of PE/cholesterol lipid films with aqueous solutions of Quil A. Colloidal dispersions of these three components were also prepared by the dialysis method for comparison. FITC-OVA was conjugated with palmitic acid (P) and PE to produce P-FITC-OVA and PE-FITC-OVA, respectively. Both P-FITC-OVA and PE-FITC-OVA could be incorporated in all colloidal structures whereas FITC-OVA was incorporated only into liposomes. The incorporation of PE-FITC-OVA into all colloidal structures was significantly higher than P-FITC-OVA (P < 0.05). The degree of incorporation of protein was in the order: ring and worm-like micelles < liposomes and lipidic/layered structures < ISCOMs and lamellae. The incorporation of protein into the various particles prepared by the lipid film hydration method was similar to those for colloidal particles prepared by the dialysis method (provided both methods lead to the formation of the same colloidal structures). In the case of different colloidal structures arising due to the preparation method, differences in encapsulation efficiency were found (P < 0.05) for formulations with the same polar lipid composition. This study demonstrates that the various colloidal particles formed as a result of hydrating PE/cholesterol lipid films with different amounts of Quil A are capable of incorporating antigen, provided it is amphipathic. Some of these colloidal particles may be used as effective vaccine delivery systems.

  18. Design and characterization of chitosan/zeolite composite films — Effect of zeolite type and zeolite dose on the film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Gustavo P.; Debone, Henrique S. [Instituto de Ciências Ambientais, Químicas e Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema (Brazil); Severino, Patrícia [Universidade Tiradentes, Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa, Aracaju (Brazil); Souto, Eliana B. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra (FFUC), Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548, Coimbra (Portugal); Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology & Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life Sciences (CNC-IBILI), University of Coimbra, Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548, Coimbra (Portugal); Silva, Classius F. da, E-mail: cfsilva@unifesp.br [Instituto de Ciências Ambientais, Químicas e Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema (Brazil)

    2016-03-01

    Chitosan films can be used as wound dressings for the treatment of chronic wounds and severe burns. The antimicrobial properties of these films may be enhanced by the addition of silver. Despite the antimicrobial activity of silver, several studies have reported the cytotoxicity as a factor limiting its biomedical applications. This problem may, however, be circumvented by the provision of sustained release of silver. Silver zeolites can be used as drug delivery platforms to extend the release of silver. The objective of this study was to evaluate the addition of clinoptilolite and A-type zeolites in chitosan films. Sodium zeolites were initially subjected to ion-exchange in a batch reactor. Films were prepared by casting technique using a 2% w/w chitosan solution and two zeolite doses (0.1 or 0.2% w/w). Films were characterized by thermal analysis, color analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and water vapor permeation. The results showed that films present potential for application as dressing. The water vapor permeability is one of the main properties in wound dressings, the best results were obtained for A-type zeolite/chitosan films, which presented a brief reduction of this property in relation to zeolite-free chitosan film. On the other hand, the films containing clinoptilolite showed lower water vapor permeation, which may be also explained by the best distribution of the particles into the polymer which also promoted greater thermal resistance. - Highlights: • Zeolite/chitosan composite films were prepared by casting technique. • Micrographs showed slight difference according to the content and A-type zeolite. • The barrier properties of the films were suitable to the dressing application. • Film characterization suggested that zeolites interacted with the chitosan chain.

  19. Preparation and characterization of boron nitride/carbon fiber composite with high specific surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yan; Fan, Mingwen [Wuhan Univ. (China). Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering; Yuan, Songdong; Xiong, Kun; Hu, Kunpeng; Luo, Yi [Hubei Univ. of Technology, Wuhan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Li, Dong [Hubei Univ. of Technology, Wuhan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Chemistry Research Lab.

    2014-06-15

    Boron nitride can be used as a good catalyst carrier because of its high thermal conductivity and chemical stability. However, a high specific surface area of boron nitride is still desirable. In this work, a carbon fiber composite coated with boron nitride villous nano-film was prepared, and was also characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. The results indicated that the carbon fibers were covered by uniform villous boron nitride films whose thickness was about 150 - 200 nm. The specific surface area of the boron nitride/carbon fiber composite material was 96 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, which was markedly improved compared with conventional boron nitride materials. (orig.)

  20. Ternary carbon composite films for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Minh-Hai; Jeong, Hae Kyung

    2017-09-01

    A simple, binder-free, method of making supercapacitor electrodes is introduced, based on modification of activated carbon with graphite oxide and carbon nanotubes. The three carbon precursors of different morphologies support each other to provide outstanding electrochemical performance, such as high capacitance and high energy density. The ternary carbon composite shows six times higher specific capacitance compared to that of activated carbon itself with high retention. The excellent electrochemical properties of the ternary composite attribute to the high surface area of 1933 m2 g-1 and low equivalent series resistance of 2 Ω, demonstrating that it improve the electrochemical performance for supercapacitor applications.

  1. Preparation and characterisation of novel thick sol-gel titania film photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Andrew; Elliott, Nicholas; Hill, George; Fallis, David; Durrant, James R; Willis, Richard L

    2003-05-01

    The preparation and characterization of thick (9 microns), clear, mechanically robust and photocatalytically active films of nanocrystalline anatase titania are described. XRD and SEM analysis show the films comprise 13 nm particles of anatase TiO2. Thin (54 nm) films of the 'paste' TiO2, along with sol-gel titania films made by a more traditional route are also prepared and characterised. All titania films mediate the photocatalytic destruction of stearic acid with a quantum yield of 0.0016 +/- 0.0003, using either 365 nm (i.e. BLB) or 254 nm (germicidal) light. P25 TiO2 films also appear to mediate the same process with a similar formal quantum efficiency. Of all the films tested, the thick paste TiO2 films are the most ideally suited for use with near UV light, for reasons which are discussed. All the titania films tested exhibit photoinduced superhydrophilicity.

  2. Self-assembly of monolayer-thick alumina particle-epoxy composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bryan R; Liu, Xiangyuan; McCandlish, Elizabeth F; Riman, Richard E

    2007-11-06

    Monolayer-thick composite films composed of alpha-alumina and Spurr's epoxy were prepared via a self-assembly process known as fluid forming. The process makes use of a high-spreading-tension fluid composed of volatile and nonvolatile components to propel particles across the air-water interface within a water bath. Continuous addition of the particle suspension builds a 2D particle film at the air-water interface. The spreading fluid compresses the film into a densely packed array against a submerged substrate. The assembled monolayer is deposited onto the substrate by removing the substrate from the bath. A dispersion containing a narrow size distribution, 10 microm alpha-alumina particles, light mineral oil, and 2-propanol was spread at the air-water interface and the alumina particles were assembled into densely packed arrays with an aerial packing fraction (APF) of 0.88. However, when mineral oil was replaced by Spurr's epoxy nonuniform films with low packing density resulted. It was found that replacing 2-propanol with a mixture of 2-propanol and 1-butanol with a volume ratio of 4:1 produced uniform, densely packed alumina/epoxy composite films. The role of the solvent mixture will be discussed.

  3. Optical Characteristics of La-Doped ZnS Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hai-Qing; CHEN Yuan; HUANG Wei-Qing; HUANG Gui-Fang; PENG Ping; PENG Li; WANG Tai-Hang; ZENG Yun

    2011-01-01

    Undoped and La-doped ZnS thin films are prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) process through the co-pre