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Sample records for composite cut-off walls

  1. Flow rates through earthen, geomembrane ampersand composite cut-off walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachavises, C.; Benson, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    Flow rates through soil-bentonite (SIB), geomembrane (GM), and composite geomembrane-soil (CGS) cut-off walls were determined using a numerical model of ground water flow. Various geological and wall conditions were simulated. Results of the simulations show that flow rates past all wall types are affected by hydraulic conductivities of the aquifer and underlying confining layer. Flow rates past GM walls with perfect joints are very low, provided the confining layer has low hydraulic conductivity. However, if a small fraction of the joints are defective, GM walls can be ineffective in blocking flow. CGS walls with a low hydraulic conductivity shell are less sensitive to joint defects. CGS walls with good shells typically have lower flow rates than SB and GM walls, even if the CGS wall contains defective joints

  2. Development of a high-quality cut-off wall using electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawachi, T.; Murahashi, H.

    1991-01-01

    Techniques to build a high-quality cut-off wall have been developed for storage facilities of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) as an emergency measures to prevent leakages. The cut-off wall is highly impermeable, nucleid-adsorptive and have long-term durability. Electrophoresis is used to form impermeable membrane of bentonite as main features of the cut-off wall. First of all, laboratory tests have been conducted to study ways of building barriers on site and to collect data on the barriers properties. Afterwards, on-site construction tests of a high-quality cut-off wall have been carried out. In this paper, we describe the process and results on the studies of the high-quality cut-off wall using electrophoresis

  3. Vertical cut-off walls for the containment of contaminated ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessberger, H.L.; Krubasik, K.; Beine, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Vertical cut-off walls are widely used for the containment of contaminated sites, where a capping system is not sufficient for the protection of groundwater. Various types of cut-off walls are introduced and new developments are prescribed. Design and testing principles are outlined. Containment techniques are the appropriate measure for old landfills and abandoned industrial sites with contaminated ground and groundwater, too, since the shortage of financial resources in many countries classifies clean-up techniques as too cost intensive in most cases

  4. European quality assurance and quality control for cut-off walls and caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferis, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Cut-off walls and caps both may be seriously compromised by small areas of substandard materials or work. Quality assurance/quality control is therefore of crucial importance and the paper sets out the issues that need to be addressed when designing a quality plan for a containment. Consideration is given to the purpose of the containment, the parameters to be controlled, specifications and standards and tests on raw and manufactured materials and on the in-situ containment. It is not the purpose of the paper to give detailed test procedures but rather to identify the questions that must be answered to develop a quality plan

  5. The first cut-off wall in the Indian Himalayas for the dam of the Dhauliganga hydroelectric project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, W.G. [Bauer Maschinen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    This paper provided details a Bauer cutter used to build a cut-off wall for the Dhaulinganga power plant project in the Himalayan mountains. The dam for the project was built as a 56 m high concrete-faced rockfill dam with a length of 270 m at the crown. A cut-off wall was constructed on the upstream side of the dam extending down from the dam's plinth to the bedrock level. A Bauer cutter was used to key the cut-off wall straight into the bedrock, which omitted the need for a grout curtain. The cut-off wall is 1 m thick and 70 m deep, with a total area of 8000 m{sup 2}. The wall was constructed as a series of primary and secondary panels. Excavation of the panels was carried out in single bites by the Bauer DHG hydraulic diaphragm wall grabs, supported a box chisel, cross chisel and a Bauer BC 40 rock cutter. Trench stability was provided by bentonite slurry. The closing forces were activated by a cylinder which was installed vertically inside the base body. The Bauer cutter continuously removed soil and rock from the bottom of the trench for mixing with the bentonite slurry. The slurry was then pumped through a ring main of hose pipes to a desanding plant where it was cleaned and returned to the trench. Advantages offered by using the cutter included a consistently high output, an extremely high degree of verticality, watertight joints, and the ability to cut through hard boulders. Use of the cutter at the Dhaulinganga site showed that the project could not be carried out successfully without the use of the cutter, which was used whenever grab and chisel methods were unable to achieve satisfactory rates of penetration. Deployment of the cutter was essential to key the cut-off wall into the underlying bedrock. It was concluded that the Dhualinganga project will provide a model for future power generation projects in the Indian Himalayas. 11 figs.

  6. Mineralogical and chemical-physical effects of hydrocarbon permeation in composite liners and cut-off walls. Final report; Mineralogische und chemisch-physikalische Auswirkungen der Permeation von Kohlenwasserstoffen in Kombinationsdichtungen und -dichtwaenden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbe, U; Berger, W; Mueller, W; Brune, M; Eckardt, J; Tatzky-Gerth, R; Ache, W; Goebbels, J [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Breu, J; Kerzdoerfer, H [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    2000-05-31

    Composite liner systems (HDPE geomembrane and compacted mineral liner) are used in Germany in landfills and for the lining of contaminated sites according to the technical regulations. It is expected that these lining systems provide a highly efficient and reliable technical barrier for the long-term groundwater protection. To support these expectations and assess the performance of the liner system even under extreme conditions, various composite liner systems were exposed to a mixture of 9 liquid hydrocarbons and their permeation behaviour was studied in permeation cells over 12 years. The cells were now dismantled and changes in the liner materials were carefully measured and controlled. The following issues were pursued in the research project: - effect of long-term hydrocarbon permeation and immersion on the properties of the geomembrane, - determination of the vertical distribution of organic contaminants in the mineral liner, - changes in the mineralogical, micromorphological and soil mechanical properties of the mineral liner brought about by the contaminant mixture, - investigation of the influence of microbial activity on the mineral layer, - modelling of the pollutant transport in the composite liner system. Neither geomembrane nor most of the tested mineral liners exhibited significant changes. Hydrocarbon permeation was proved to have been substantially suppressed by the composite liner. (orig.) [German] Zur Sicherung von Deponien und Altlasten mit dem Ziel eines langfristig wirksamen Grundwasserschutzes werden seit Mitte der 80er Jahre Kombinationsdichtungen (Verbund aus Kunststoffdichtungsbahn und mineralischer Dichtschichten) eingesetzt. Um deren Langzeitbestaendigkeit auch unter extremen Bedingungen bewerten zu koennen, wurden Permeationsmesszellen, welche die Verhaeltnisse in der Deponie nachstellen und ueber einen Zeitraum von 12 Jahren mit einem Mehrkomponentengemisch konzentrierter organischer Verbindungen beaufschlagt worden waren, zerlegt und

  7. Investigation of the performance of cement-bentonite cut-off walls in aggressive ground at a disused gasworks site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedd, P.; Holton, I.R.; Butcher, A.P.; Wallace, S.

    1997-01-01

    There has been an increased use of cement-bentonite slurry trench cut-off walls to control the lateral migration of pollution in the UK. Concerns inevitably exist about their performance in chemically aggressive ground particularly in the long term. To address some of the uncertainties a programme of field and laboratory research is being undertaken at a disused gasworks in the UK. Elevated levels of sulphate and other contaminants are present on the site and could potentially change the properties of the cement-bentonite. Two boxes, 10m square in plan, by 5m deep have been constructed, one with and one without an HDPE membrane, to isolate parts of the site. Local hydraulic gradients across the walls have been created by pumping from within the boxes. Isolated lengths of wall have been constructed which are being used to assess and develop in-situ testing techniques such as the piezocone for measuring permeability, strength and overall integrity of the wall

  8. The origins of the slurry trench cut-off and a review of cement-bentonite cut-off walls in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferis, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    On the occasion of the first International Containment Technology Conference it is appropriate to look back to the origins of containment walls as well as forward to the new technologies that we may need for the complex chemical and physical environments in which containment may be employed in the future. This paper looks at the development of slurry trench technology from the first concepts in 1938, the first field trials in 1945 and on to the cement-bentonite walls used in the UK today and the issues associated with defining appropriate materials performance

  9. Definition of new cut-offs of BMI and waist circumference based on body composition and insulin resistance: differences between children, adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübers, M; Pourhassan, M; Braun, W; Geisler, C; Müller, M J

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to determine associations between anthropometric traits, regional fat depots and insulin resistance in children, adolescents and adults to define new cut-offs of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). Cross-sectional data were assessed in 433 children, adolescents and adults (aged: 6-60 years, BMI: 23.6 [21.0-27.7] kg m -2 ). Total adipose tissue (TAT), regional subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT total , SAT trunk ) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were determined by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, fat mass by air-displacement plethysmography. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Bivariate as well as partial correlations and regression analyses were used. Cut-off values of BMI and WC related to regional fat depots and HOMA-IR were analysed by receiver operating characteristics curve. In adults, TAT, SAT total and SAT trunk increased linearly with increasing BMI and WC, whereas they followed a cubic function in children and adolescents with a steep increase at BMI and WC ≥1 standard deviation score and VAT at WC ≥2 standard deviation score. Sex differences were apparent in adults with women having higher masses of TAT and SAT and men having higher VAT. Using established BMI or WC cut-offs, correspondent masses of TAT, SAT total , SAT trunk and VAT increased from childhood to adulthood. In all age groups, there were positive associations between BMI, WC, SAT trunk , VAT and HOMA-IR. When compared with normative cut-offs of BMI or WC, HOMA-IR-derived cut-offs of regional fat depots were lower in all age groups. Associations between BMI, WC and regional fat depots varied between children, adolescents, young and older adults. When compared with BMI-derived and WC-derived values, an insulin resistance-derived cut-off corresponded to lower masses of regional fat depots. Thus, established BMI and WC cut-offs are not appropriate to assess metabolic disturbances associated

  10. Determination of the stresses and displacements in the cut off curtain body executed by the << Wall-in-the ground >> method.; Opredelenie napryazhenij i peremeshchenij v tele protivofil`tratsionnoj zavesy, vypolnennoj metodom << stena v grunte >>.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snisarenko, V I; Mel` nikov, A I [Myinyisterstvo Budyivel` noyi Arkhyitekturi, Kyiv (Ukraine); [Myizhgaluzevij Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr ` ` Ukrittya ` ` , Natsyional` na Akademyiya Nauk Ukrayini, Chornobil` (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Construction of the cut-off-curtain (COC) is analyzed as a possible variant to reduce the rate of radioactive horizontal migration. Such constructions can be executed by the << wall-in-the ground >> method. The theoretical analysis of the stress-strained state of the carried out using the methods of the theory of elasticity and of the limit equilibrium of the strewing medium. Theoretical dependences are obtained and formulas for practical calculations of the COC-body stress-strained state in the depth intervals which are of practical interest are suggested. The dependences obtained may be used to calculate the consolidation parameters and filtration coefficients, to choose materials for the COC body, geometrical size and film elements included.

  11. On Computations of Duct Acoustics with Near Cut-Off Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Thomas Z.; Povinelli, Louis A.

    1997-01-01

    The cut-off is a unique feature associated with duct acoustics due to the presence of duct walls. A study of this cut-off effect on the computations of duct acoustics is performed in the present work. The results show that the computation of duct acoustic modes near cut-off requires higher numerical resolutions than others to avoid being numerically cut off. Duct acoustic problems in Category 2 are solved by the DRP finite difference scheme with the selective artificial damping method and results are presented and compared to reference solutions.

  12. Cut-off frequency of magnetostrictive materials based on permeability spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Hao; Zhang Tianli; Jiang Chengbao

    2012-01-01

    The loss behavior and cut-off frequency of TbDyFe alloy and TbDyFe/epoxy composite have been investigated by measuring their permeability spectra. The loss factor of TbDyFe alloy increases exponentially as the frequency goes up, while it is almost unchanged for the TbDyFe/epoxy composite. The loss factor value for the TbDyFe composite is only 4.3% of that for the monolithic TbDyFe alloy at high frequency of 10 kHz under the peak magnetic induction of 10 mT. The cut-off frequency of TbDyFe/epoxy composite is 6800 kHz, 3 orders of magnitude larger than that of TbDyFe alloy. The cut-off frequency is found to be the ferromagnetic resonance frequency and can be calculated from Snoek's law. - Highlights: ► The cut-off frequency of TbDyFe alloy and TbDyFe/epoxy composite has been investigated. ► Permeability spectra are used to study loss behavior and cut-off frequency. ► A mathematic formula is deduced to predict the cut-off frequency. ► TbDyFe/epoxy composite presents high cut-off frequency of 6800 kHz.

  13. Cut-off Grade Optimization for Maximizing the Output Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khodayari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the open-pit mining, one of the first decisions that must be made in production planning stage, after completing the design of final pit limits, is determining of the processing plant cut-off grade. Since this grade has an essential effect on operations, choosing the optimum cut-off grade is of considerable importance. Different goals may be used for determining optimum cut-off grade. One of these goals may be maximizing the output rate (amount of product per year, which is very important, especially from marketing and market share points of view. Objective of this research is determining the optimum cut-off grade of processing plant in order to maximize output rate. For performing this optimization, an Operations Research (OR model has been developed. The object function of this model is output rate that must be maximized. This model has two operational constraints namely mining and processing restrictions. For solving the model a heuristic method has been developed. Results of research show that the optimum cut-off grade for satisfying pre-stated goal is the balancing grade of mining and processing operations, and maximum production rate is a function of the maximum capacity of processing plant and average grade of ore that according to the above optimum cut-off grade must be sent to the plant.

  14. Fatigue life analysis of cracked gas receiver of emergency cut-off system in gas gathering station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junzhi; Zhou, Jiyong; Li, Siyuan

    2017-06-01

    Small-scale air compressor and gas receiver are used as the driving gas of the emergency cut-off system in gas gathering station. Operation of block valve is ensured by starting and stopping compressor automatically. The frequent start-stop of compressor and the pressure fluctuation pose a threat to the service life of gas receiver, and then affect normal operation of the emergency cut-off system and security of gas gathering station. In this paper, the fatigue life of a pressure vessel with axial semi-elliptical surface crack in the inner wall is analyzed under the varying pressure by means of the theory of fracture mechanics. The influences of the amplitude of pressure fluctuation and the initial crack size on the residual life of gas receiver are discussed. It provides a basis for setting the working parameters of gas receiver of emergency cut-off system and determining the maintenance cycle.

  15. Enhanced CT perfusion cut-off sign in midgut volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henesch, Stephen M.; Jaramillo, Diego M.; Nance, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of malrotation with midgut volvulus in an infant in which we discovered a unique CT sign called the perfusion cut-off sign. We hope this case will help establish this crucial diagnosis in other cases. (orig.)

  16. Enhanced CT perfusion cut-off sign in midgut volvulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henesch, Stephen M.; Jaramillo, Diego M. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nance, Michael L. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We present a case of malrotation with midgut volvulus in an infant in which we discovered a unique CT sign called the perfusion cut-off sign. We hope this case will help establish this crucial diagnosis in other cases. (orig.)

  17. Defining obesity cut-off points for migrant South Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Gray

    Full Text Available Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC are used to define cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk. We aimed to derive appropriate BMI and WC obesity cut-off points in a migrant South Asian population.4688 White Europeans and 1333 South Asians resident in the UK aged 40-75 years inclusive were screened for type 2 diabetes. Principal components analysis was used to derive a glycaemia, lipid, and a blood pressure factor. Regression models for each factor, adjusted for age and stratified by sex, were used to identify BMI and WC cut-off points in South Asians that correspond to those defined for White Europeans.For South Asian males, derived BMI obesity cut-off points equivalent to 30.0 kg/m(2 in White Europeans were 22.6 kg/m(2 (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI 20.7 kg/m(2 to 24.5 kg/m(2 for the glycaemia factor, 26.0 kg/m(2 (95% CI 24.7 kg/m(2 to 27.3 kg/m(2 for the lipid factor, and 28.4 kg/m(2 (95% CI 26.5 kg/m(2 to 30.4 kg/m(2 for the blood pressure factor. For WC, derived cut-off points for South Asian males equivalent to 102 cm in White Europeans were 83.8 cm (95% CI 79.3 cm to 88.2 cm for the glycaemia factor, 91.4 cm (95% CI 86.9 cm to 95.8 cm for the lipid factor, and 99.3 cm (95% CI 93.3 cm to 105.2 cm for the blood pressure factor. Lower ethnicity cut-off points were seen for females for both BMI and WC.Substantially lower obesity cut-off points are needed in South Asians to detect an equivalent level of dysglycemia and dyslipidemia as observed in White Europeans. South Asian ethnicity could be considered as a similar level of risk as obesity (in White Europeans for the development of type 2 diabetes.

  18. A PROBLEM OF CUTTING OFF THE LAMINATED SEMIS TYPE PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Ciofu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A problem often coped on many domains such as wood manufacturing, glass, plastics and metallic platework industry, is the shaping or cutting off a big plate in many pieces. With this purpose there are algorithms of optimizing for positioning the parts following to be cut off from a row plate. From mathematical point of view, in positioning the parts on a raw plate the number of solutions increase four times evrey time a new part is added, and in case of finding the best solution for about few hundreds of pieces or parts would require years of processing on the most performant computers nowadays – for an analogy remember the famous story with the rice beads which the King had to pay to the master teaching him the chess: twice more for each square of the chessboard; for the total quantity assessment, King ascertained that the crops in his whole life wouldn’t have been enough.

  19. Hemoglobin cut-off values in healthy Turkish infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet Arvas; Emel Gür; DurmuşDoğan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a widespread public health problem associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to determine the cut-off value of hemoglobin for infant anemia. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out at well-baby clinics of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 1484 healthy infants aged between 4 to 24 months were included in the study. The relationship of hemoglobin (Hb) levels with mother age, birth weight, weight gain rate, feeding, and gender was evaluated. Results: The Hb levels were assessed in four age groups (4 months, 6 months, 9-12 months, and 15-24 months) and the cut-off values of Hb were determined. Hb cut-off values (5th percentile for age) were detected as 97 g/L and 93 g/L at 4 months and 6 months, respectively. In older infants, the 5th percentile was 90.5 g/L and 93.4 g/L at 9-12 months and 15-24 months, respectively. The two values were lower than the World Health Organization criteria for anemia, which could partly due to the lack of information on iron status in our population. However, this difference highlights the need for further studies on normal Hb levels in healthy infants in developing countries. Hb levels of females were higher in all age groups; however, a statistically significant difference was found in gender in only 6 month-old infants. No statistically significant difference was found among Hb levels, mother's age, birth weight, weight gain rate, and nutritional status. Conclusion: Hb cut-off values in infants should be re-evaluated and be compatible with growth and development of children in that community.

  20. Environmental sampling: Issues for the cut-off regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearey, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    The fissile material cut-off treaty (FMCT) initiative under the Conference on Disarmament mandate is envisioned to include certain aspects of environmental sampling and monitoring. One of the intents of this treaty is to bring certain non-NPT signatories (e.g., threshold states) under this treaty agreement along with the nuclear weapon states (NWSs). This paper provides a brief overview of some of the relevant issues that may be involved in the implementation and use of environmental monitoring for (1) verification of the cut-off regime declarations, (2) the detection of undeclared activities, and, (3) application in non-routine inspections. The intent is to provide backstopping information important for treaty negotiators. Specific issues addressed within this paper include signature sampling, differences in the proposed detection regime, potential signature integrators, specific examples and spoofing concerns. Many of these issues must be carefully considered and weighed in order to create a credibly verifiable inspection regime. Importantly, the cut-off treaty must enable nondiscriminatory implementation, while carefully assuring that nonproliferation treaty requirements are maintained (i.e., preventing unintentional release of critical weapons design information--potentially through environmental sampling and analysis)

  1. On the Cut-off Point for Combinatorial Group Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Paul; Klasner, N.; Wegener, I.

    1999-01-01

    is answered by 1 if Q contains at least one essential object and by 0 otherwise. In the statistical setting the objects are essential, independently of each other, with a given probability p combinatorial setting the number k ... group testing is equal to p* = 12(3 - 5), i.e., the strategy of testing each object individually minimizes the average number of queries iff p >= p* or n = 1. In the combinatorial setting the worst case number of queries is of interest. It has been conjectured that the cut-off point of combinatorial...

  2. Tentative Colistin Epidemiological Cut-Off Value for Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Torpdahl, Mia; Zachariasen, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    . Interestingly, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis belong to the same O-group (O:1, 9,12), suggesting that surface lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the cell (O-antigen) play a role in colistin susceptibility. The epidemiological cut-off value of >2 mg/L for colistin suggested by European Committee...... on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) is placed inside the distribution for both Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis. All tested Salmonella Dublin isolates, regardless of MIC colistin value, had identical pmrA and pmrB sequences. Missense mutations were found only in pmrA in one Salmonella...

  3. Physical and cut-off effects of heavy sea quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Knechtli, Francesco; Bruno, Mattia; Finkenrath, Jacob; Leder, Björn; Marinkovic, Marina; Sommer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We simulate a theory with two dynamical O($a$) improved Wilson quarks whose mass $M$ ranges from a factor eight up to a factor two below the charm quark mass and at three values of the lattice spacing ranging from 0.066 to 0.034 fm. This theory is a prototype to study the decoupling of heavy quarks. We measure the mass and cut-off dependence of ratios of gluonic observables defined from the Wilson flow or the static potential. The size of the 1/$M$ corrections can be determined and disentangled from the lattice artifacts. The difference with the pure gauge theory is at the percent level when two quarks with a mass of the charm quark are present.

  4. Finite GUE Distribution with Cut-Off at a Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, P. L.

    2018-03-01

    We consider the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with initial conditions generating a shock. The fluctuations of particle positions are asymptotically governed by the randomness around the two characteristic lines joining at the shock. Unlike in previous papers, we describe the correlation in space-time without employing the mapping to the last passage percolation, which fails to exists already for the partially asymmetric model. We then consider a special case, where the asymptotic distribution is a cut-off of the distribution of the largest eigenvalue of a finite GUE matrix. Finally we discuss the strength of the probabilistic and physically motivated approach and compare it with the mathematical difficulties of a direct computation.

  5. Relationship between the optimum cut off frequency for Butter worth filter and lung-heart ratio in 99mTc myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salihin Yusoff, M. N.; Zakaria, A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether the lung-heart ratio parameter can be used to identify the optimum cut off frequency for Butter worth filter in 99m Tc myocardial SPECT imaging. Materials and Methods: This study involved a cardiac phantom system consisting of cardiac insert in which 1.10 cm cold defect was inserted into its myocardium wall and filled with 4.0 μCi/ml (0.148 MBq/ml) 99m Tc concentration. The cardiac insert was then put into a cylindrical tank which filled with six different 99m Tc concentrations as background. Thus, six target background concentrations ratios (T/B) were carried out. The lung-heart ratio was determined for every SPECT raw image obtained corresponding to each T/B. Then, 130 different combinations of filter parameters from Butter worth filter were utilized to reconstruct each SPECT raw image. The determination of count in myocardium, background, and defect regions of interest were performed for every reconstructed image. All the count values were then used to calculate contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, and defect size. Each criterion was graded (1 to 100) and then summed together to obtain total grade. The optimum cut off frequency for each lung-heart ratio was determined from the total grade. The relation between optimum cut off frequency for Butter worth filter and lung-heart ratio was established using linear regression. Results: There were good relationship between the optimum Butter worth cut off frequency and lung-heart ratio (R 2 = 0.864, p<0.01). The optimal cut off frequency correspond to the change in lung-heart ratio can be expressed by the equation: Optimum cut off frequency=0.715*lung-heart ratio + 0.227. Conclusion: This study suggests that the optimum cut off frequency for Butter worth filter should be determined by referring to lung-heart ratio in each patient study.

  6. Explaining the use of attribute cut-off values in decision making by means of involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne O.; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    evidence on consumers’ heterogeneous use of attribute cut-offs with a unique focus on the relationship with consumer involvement, a key component in consumer choice theory. Behavioral data from an online choice experiment on beef steak employing shelf simulations are combined with questions defining...... a latent class model identifies several key consumer segments (e.g., a price sensitive group) based on their choice behavior and reveals that the relationship between involvement, cut-off use and cut-off violations is not uniform across consumer segments....... respondents’ attribute cut-off values and their validated Personal Involvement Inventory (PII). Evidence from the analysis indicates that consumers who are highly involved are more likely to exhibit attribute cut-off values and are less likely to violate their cut-off values. Further investigation using...

  7. Cut-off value of body fat in association with metabolic syndrome in Thai peri- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintvihok, W; Chaikittisilpa, S; Panyakamlerd, K; Jaisamrarn, U; Taechakraichana, N

    2013-06-01

    Pathophysiologic changes during the menopause transition may contribute to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Body fat composition, particularly visceral fat, is highly associated with increased insulin resistance, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism and high blood pressure. We purposefully wished to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat composition, including visceral fat, in order to predict MetS and to assess the prevalence of MetS in peri- and postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a population-based, prospective cohort at the Menopause and Gynecology clinics, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Body fat percentage and visceral fat rating were measured by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer (Tanita SC 330). MetS was diagnosed using the Harmonizing criteria of A Joint Interim Statement of IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO 2009. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat, visceral fat, waist circumference and body mass index to identify peri- and postmenopausal women at risk of MetS. Ninety-two perimenopausal and 446 postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years were recruited for the analyses. The optimal cut-off values for body fat percentage, visceral fat rating, waist circumference and body mass index for identifying women at risk of MetS were 34%, 7, 88 cm and 24 kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of MetS in this study was 27.9%. The optimal cut-off values to predict MetS of body fat percentage, visceral fat and waist circumference were established. Using the Harmonizing 2009 criteria, we found that approximately one out of four peri- and postmenopausal women in this study had MetS.

  8. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Eryukova, T. A.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Ponomareva, E. G.; Soboleva, N. P.; Sterlikov, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5-80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  9. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, D V; Eryukova, T A; Kolesnikov, V A; Rudnev, S G; Starunova, O A; Ponomareva, E G; Soboleva, N P; Sterlikov, S A

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5–80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  10. Critical test of isotropic periodic sum techniques with group-based cut-off schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Takuma; Yasuoka, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuaki Z

    2018-03-08

    Truncation is still chosen for many long-range intermolecular interaction calculations to efficiently compute free-boundary systems, macromolecular systems and net-charge molecular systems, for example. Advanced truncation methods have been developed for long-range intermolecular interactions. Every truncation method can be implemented as one of two basic cut-off schemes, namely either an atom-based or a group-based cut-off scheme. The former computes interactions of "atoms" inside the cut-off radius, whereas the latter computes interactions of "molecules" inside the cut-off radius. In this work, the effect of group-based cut-off is investigated for isotropic periodic sum (IPS) techniques, which are promising cut-off treatments to attain advanced accuracy for many types of molecular system. The effect of group-based cut-off is clearly different from that of atom-based cut-off, and severe artefacts are observed in some cases. However, no severe discrepancy from the Ewald sum is observed with the extended IPS techniques.

  11. Can semiquantitative measurements of SUVmax and cut-off values differentiate colorectal malignant from benign lessions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tram; Hess, Søren; Petersen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    , which also precludes a clinically significant cut-off value. The same applies to SUVpeak and SUVmean while TLG measures may be more indicative. CONCLUSION: Semi-quantitative measurements of SUVmax and cut-off values proved inadequate for differentiating colorectal malignancies from benign findings...

  12. Normal Limits of Electrocardiogram and Cut-Off Values for Left ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender difference exists in some cut-off values for LVH. This study defined the normal limits for electrocardiographic variables for young adult Nigerians. Racial factor should be taken into consideration in interpretation of ECG. Keywords: Normal limits, Electrocardiogram, Cut-off values, Left ventricular hypertrophy, Young ...

  13. 76 FR 33161 - Installation and Use of Engine Cut-off Switches on Recreational Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... ``Proposed Rule'' and insert ``USCG-2009-0206'' in the ``Keyword'' box. Click ``Search,'' then click on the... ``read comments'' box, which will then become highlighted in blue. In the ``Keyword'' box, insert ``USCG... add definitions that describe the terms ``engine cut-off switch link,'' ``engine cut- off switch...

  14. Cut-off frequencies of circumferential horizontal shear waves in various functionally graded cylinder shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoqin; Ren, Dawei; Cao, Xiaoshan; Wang, Ji

    2018-03-01

    In this study, cut-off frequencies of the circumferential SH waves in functionally graded piezoelectric-piezomagnetic material (FGPPM) cylinder shells with traction free, electrical and magnetic open boundary conditions are investigated analytically. The Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) method is employed for solving differential equations with variable coefficients for general cases. For comparison, Bessel functions and Kummer functions are used for solving cut-off frequency problems in homogenous and ideal FGPPM cylinder shells. It is shown that the WKB solution for the cut-off frequencies has good precise. The set of cut-off frequencies is a series of approximate arithmetic progressions, for which the difference is a function of the density and the effective elastic parameter. The relationship between the difference and the gradient coefficient is described. These results provide theoretical guidance for the non-destructive evaluation of curved shells based on the cut-off frequencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Phase- and size-adjusted CT cut-off for differentiating neoplastic lesions from normal colon in contrast-enhanced CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luboldt, W.; Kroll, M.; Wetter, A.; Vogl, T.J.; Toussaint, T.L.; Hoepffner, N.; Holzer, K.; Kluge, A.

    2004-01-01

    A computed tomography (CT) cut-off for differentiating neoplastic lesions (polyps/carcinoma) from normal colon in contrast-enhanced CT colonography (CTC) relating to the contrast phase and lesion size is determined. CT values of 64 colonic lesions (27 polyps 0 . The slope m was determined by linear regression in the correlation (lesion ∝[xA + (1 - x)V]//H) and the Y-intercept y 0 by the minimal shift of the line needed to maximize the accuracy of separating the colonic wall from the lesions. The CT value of the lesions correlated best with the intermediate phase: 0.4A+ 0.6V(r=0.8 for polyps ≥10 mm, r=0.6 for carcinomas, r=0.4 for polyps <10 mm). The accuracy in the differentiation between lesions and normal colonic wall increased with the height implemented as divisor, reached 91% and was obtained by the dynamic cut-off described by the formula: cut-off(A,V,H) = 1.1[0.4A + 0.6V]/H + 69.8. The CT value of colonic polyps or carcinomas can be increased extrinsically by scanning in the phase in which 0.4A + 0.6V reaches its maximum. Differentiating lesions from normal colon based on CT values is possible in contrast-enhanced CTC and improves when the cut-off is adjusted (normalized) to the contrast phase and lesion size. (orig.)

  16. Using Logistic Regression for Validating or Invalidating Initial Statewide Cut-Off Scores on Basic Skills Placement Tests at the Community College Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secolsky, Charles; Krishnan, Sathasivam; Judd, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    The community colleges in the state of New Jersey went through a process of establishing statewide cut-off scores for English and mathematics placement tests. The colleges wanted to communicate to secondary schools a consistent preparation that would be necessary for enrolling in Freshman Composition and College Algebra at the community college…

  17. Human papillomavirus testing in primary cervical screening and the cut-off level for hybrid capture 2 tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Njor, Sisse Helle

    2011-01-01

    To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co).......To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co)....

  18. The continuous cut-off method and the relativistic scattering of spin-1/2 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinszky, T.

    1979-07-01

    A high energy formula, obtained in the framework of the continuous cut-off approach, is shown to improve the correctness of the standard phase shift expression for Dirac scattering by two orders of magnitude in energy. (author)

  19. Surface effect theory in binary alloys: surfaces with cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Silva, C.E.T.G. da; Moran-Lopez, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    A surface effect theory in binary alloys which ore ordered with surfaces with cut-off is presented. This theory is based in a model of pair interaction between first neighbours and includes long and short range effects. The (120) surface with sup(-) (110) monoatomic cut-off and terrace in the (110) planes of an alloy with body centered cubic structure is presented as example. Results for the concentrations in all the different surface sites are given. (L.C.) [pt

  20. Experimental research on the durability cutting tools for cutting-off steel profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production lines used for manufacturing U-shaped profiles are very complex and they must have high productivity. One of the most important stages of the fabrication process is the cutting-off. This paper presents the experimental research and analysis of the durability of the cutting tools used for cutting-off U-shaped metal steel profiles. The results of this work can be used to predict the durability of the cutting tools.

  1. Localization of fluctuation measurement by wave scattering close to a cut off layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, X.L.; Laurent, L.; Rax, J.M.; Lehner, T.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnostic of plasma fluctuations in tokamaks based on the scattering of an electromagnetic wave close to a cut off layer is investigated. A linear density profile is considered. An one-dimensional exact analysis is performed. Spatial and spectral localization of scattering process close to the cut off layer is studied and a modified Bragg rule is derived. The structure of pump and of scattered waves is analyzed. The diagnostic seems to be local and sensitive for low R fluctuations

  2. Correlation between Body Mass Index, Gender, and Skeletal Muscle Mass Cut off Point in Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Richi Hendrik Wattimena; Vitriana; Irma Ruslina Defi

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the average skeletal muscle mass (SMM) value in young adults as a reference population; to analyze the correlation of gender, and body mass index to the cut off point; and to determine skeletal muscle mass cut off points of population in Bandung, Indonesia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 199 participants, 122 females and 77 males. The sampling technique used was the multistage random sampling. The participants were those who lived in four ma...

  3. Cut-off of electric consumption in France. Assessment of the cut-off potential by process modulation in industrial and tertiary sectors in metropolitan France. Final report + Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertholon, Marion; Streiff, Frederic; Marchal, David; Bouchet, Alexandre; Foucher, Julie-Anne; Hoffer, Alexandre; Millet, Bruno; Sorlier, Pierre; Peron, Nicolas; Creon, Nicolas; Lenet, Sylvain; Guillet, Frederic; Mounier, Cyril; Charton, Franck; Duclos, Herve; Lenain, Yves; MADEC, Marc; Lepretre, Pascale; Vasseur, Olivier; Rigard-Cerison, Aude; Guedou, Benjamin; Houvenagel, Olivier; Epelbaum, David; Briant, Marie-Helene; Osmont, Robin; Elasri, Sofia; Barreyre, Gildas; Adam, Julien

    2017-09-01

    This study mainly aims at characterising and assessing the cut-off potential in the French industrial and tertiary sectors by providing qualitative as well as quantitative elements, and by highlighting the different mechanisms of valorisation of existing and currently developed cut-off. It also proposes a comparison of the French context with that of some foreign countries (notably United Kingdom, Japan, and some regions of the USA). Thus, it comprises an identification and analysis of cut-off mechanisms and practices, an assessment of technical and technical-economic cut-off sources in France, and a discussion of economic and organisational brakes and obstacles to cut-off developments

  4. Classifying post-stroke fatigue: Optimal cut-off on the Fatigue Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Toby B; Mead, Gillian

    2017-12-01

    Post-stroke fatigue is common and has debilitating effects on independence and quality of life. The Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) is a valid screening tool for fatigue after stroke, but there is no established cut-off. We sought to identify the optimal cut-off for classifying post-stroke fatigue on the FAS. In retrospective analysis of two independent datasets (the '2015' and '2007' studies), we evaluated the predictive validity of FAS score against a case definition of fatigue (the criterion standard). Area under the curve (AUC) and sensitivity and specificity at the optimal cut-off were established in the larger 2015 dataset (n=126), and then independently validated in the 2007 dataset (n=52). In the 2015 dataset, AUC was 0.78 (95% CI 0.70-0.86), with the optimal ≥24 cut-off giving a sensitivity of 0.82 and specificity of 0.66. The 2007 dataset had an AUC of 0.83 (95% CI 0.71-0.94), and applying the ≥24 cut-off gave a sensitivity of 0.84 and specificity of 0.67. Post-hoc analysis of the 2015 dataset revealed that using only the 3 most predictive FAS items together ('FAS-3') also yielded good validity: AUC 0.81 (95% CI 0.73-0.89), with sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.75 at the optimal ≥8 cut-off. We propose ≥24 as a cut-off for classifying post-stroke fatigue on the FAS. While further validation work is needed, this is a positive step towards a coherent approach to reporting fatigue prevalence using the FAS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiological cut-off values for Flavobacterium psychrophilum MIC data generated by a standard test protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P; Endris, R; Kronvall, G; Thomas, V; Verner-Jeffreys, D; Wilhelm, C; Dalsgaard, I

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological cut-off values were developed for application to antibiotic susceptibility data for Flavobacterium psychrophilum generated by standard CLSI test protocols. The MIC values for ten antibiotic agents against Flavobacterium psychrophilum were determined in two laboratories. For five antibiotics, the data sets were of sufficient quality and quantity to allow the setting of valid epidemiological cut-off values. For these agents, the cut-off values, calculated by the application of the statistically based normalized resistance interpretation method, were ≤16 mg L(-1) for erythromycin, ≤2 mg L(-1) for florfenicol, ≤0.025 mg L(-1) for oxolinic acid (OXO), ≤0.125 mg L(-1) for oxytetracycline and ≤20 (1/19) mg L(-1) for trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. For ampicillin and amoxicillin, the majority of putative wild-type observations were 'off scale', and therefore, statistically valid cut-off values could not be calculated. For ormetoprim/sulphadimethoxine, the data were excessively diverse and a valid cut-off could not be determined. For flumequine, the putative wild-type data were extremely skewed, and for enrofloxacin, there was inadequate separation in the MIC values for putative wild-type and non-wild-type strains. It is argued that the adoption of OXO as a class representative for the quinolone group would be a valid method of determining susceptibilities to these agents. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stig; Fleischer Rex, Karsten; Noahsen, Paneeraq; Sørensen, Hans Christian Florian; Mulvad, Gert; Laurberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI), a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m(2) in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  7. Lactate clearance cut off for early mortality prediction in adult sepsis and septic shock patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinto, R.; Widodo, D.; Pohan, H. T.

    2018-03-01

    Previous lactate clearance cut off for early mortality prediction in sepsis and septic shock patient was determined by consensus from small sample size-study. We investigated the best lactate clearance cut off and its ability to predict early mortality in sepsis and septic shock patients. This cohort study was conducted in Intensive Care Unit of CiptoMangunkusumo Hospital in 2013. Patients’ lactate clearance and eight other resuscitationendpoints were recorded, and theoutcome was observed during the first 120 hours. The clearance cut off was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and its ability was investigated with Cox’s proportional hazard regression analysis using other resuscitation endpoints as confounders. Total of 268 subjects was included, of whom 70 (26.11%) subjects died within the first 120 hours. The area under ROC of lactate clearance to predict early mortality was 0.78 (95% % confidence interval [CI] 0.71-0.84) with best cut off was <7.5% (sensitivity and specificity 88.99% and 81.4% respectively). Compared with group achieving lactate clearance target, group not achieving lactate clearance target had to increase early mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio 13.42; 95%CI 7.19-25.07). In conclusion, the best lactate clearance cut off as anearly mortality predictor in sepsis and septic shock patients is 7.5%.

  8. Composite asymptotic expansions and scaling wall turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panton, Ronald L

    2007-03-15

    In this article, the assumptions and reasoning that yield composite asymptotic expansions for wall turbulence are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the scaling quantities that are used to render the variables non-dimensional and of order one. An asymptotic expansion is proposed for the streamwise Reynolds stress that accounts for the active and inactive turbulence by using different scalings. The idea is tested with the data from the channel flows and appears to have merit.

  9. BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION MODEL WITH ZETAc OPTIMAL CUT-OFF SCORE TO CORRECT TYPE I ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Iwan

    2005-06-01

    This research has successfully attained the following results: (1 type I error is in fact 59,83 times more costly compared to type II error, (2 22 ratios distinguish between bankrupt and non-bankrupt groups, (3 2 financial ratios proved to be effective in predicting bankruptcy, (4 prediction using ZETAc optimal cut-off score predicts more companies filing for bankruptcy within one year compared to prediction using Hair et al. optimum cutting score, (5 Although prediction using Hair et al. optimum cutting score is more accurate, prediction using ZETAc optimal cut-off score proved to be able to minimize cost incurred from classification errors.

  10. Secondary proton production at small atmospheric depths as a function of the geomagnetic cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papini, P. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements)

    1995-09-01

    A detailed calculation of the energy spectrum of secondary protons in the atmosphere is being carried out in the energy range 20 MeV - 40 GeV. In this calculation, it is taken into account all processes leading to the production of secondary protons as a function of the atmospheric depth has been calculated using all relevant energy loss processes. In this paper, it is examine the effect of the geomagnetic cut-off on the spectral shape of secondary protons specially at energies below the geomagnetic cut-off for small atmospheric depths.

  11. Cut-off parameters in the one-dimensional two-fermion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, M.

    1982-07-01

    It is shown that the usual cut-off procedure (α cut-off parameter) employed in the boson representation of the fermion field opepators of the one-djmensional two-fermion model (TFM) is an incorrect one as the computator of the hermitean-conjugate field operators at the same space-point fails to fulfil a certain relationship which was pointed out long ago by Jordan. The complete form of the boson representation (including the zero-mode) of a single fermion field and the correct values of the cut-off parameter α is reviewed following Jordan and generalized to the TFM. The cut-off parameter α corresponds to a bandwidth cut-off and Jordan's boson representation is exact only in the limit α → 0. The additional zero-mode terms make the exact solution of the backscattering and umklapp scattering problem to be valid only if a supplementary condition is imposed on the coupling constants. Using the present bosonization technique all the inconsistencies of the TFM are removed. The one-particle Green's function and response functions of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model (TLM) are calculated and found to be identical with those obtained by direct diagram summation. The energy gap appearing in the spectrum of the TFM with backscattering and umklapp scattering for certain values of the coupling constants is shown to be proportional to the momentum transfer cut-off γ -1 which has to be kept finite while α goes to zero. Under such conditions the anticommunication relations and Jordan's commutator are invariant under the canonical transformation on the boson operators that diagonalizes the Hamiltonian of the TLM. The charge-density response function of the TFM with backscattering is perturbationally calculated up to the first order. The cut-off α -1 applies in the same way to terms which differ only by their spin indices in the expression of this response function. The charge-density response function is also evaluated at low frequencies for the exactly soluble TFM with

  12. Establishing pathological cut-offs for lateral ventricular volume expansion rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Dwyer

    Full Text Available Background: A percent brain volume change (PBVC cut-off of −0.4% per year has been proposed to distinguish between pathological and physiological changes in multiple sclerosis (MS. Unfortunately, standardized PBVC measurement is not always feasible on scans acquired outside research studies or academic centers. Percent lateral ventricular volume change (PLVVC is a strong surrogate measure of PBVC, and may be more feasible for atrophy assessment on real-world scans. However, the PLVVC rate corresponding to the established PBVC cut-off of −0.4% is unknown. Objective: To establish a pathological PLVVC expansion rate cut-off analogous to −0.4% PBVC. Methods: We used three complementary approaches. First, the original follow-up-length-weighted receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis method establishing whole brain atrophy rates was adapted to a longitudinal ventricular atrophy dataset of 177 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS patients and 48 healthy controls. Second, in the same dataset, SIENA PBVCs were used with non-linear regression to directly predict the PLVVC value corresponding to −0.4% PBVC. Third, in an unstandardized, real world dataset of 590 RRMS patients from 33 centers, the cut-off maximizing correspondence to PBVC was found. Finally, correspondences to clinical outcomes were evaluated in both datasets. Results: ROC analysis suggested a cut-off of 3.09% (AUC = 0.83, p < 0.001. Non-linear regression R2 was 0.71 (p < 0.001 and a − 0.4% PBVC corresponded to a PLVVC of 3.51%. A peak in accuracy in the real-world dataset was found at a 3.51% PLVVC cut-off. Accuracy of a 3.5% cut-off in predicting clinical progression was 0.62 (compared to 0.68 for PBVC. Conclusions: Ventricular expansion of between 3.09% and 3.51% on T2-FLAIR corresponds to the pathological whole brain atrophy rate of 0.4% for RRMS. A conservative cut-off of 3.5% performs comparably to PBVC for clinical outcomes. Keywords: Brain atrophy

  13. Using Cut-off grade isograms to delineate ore body and calculate parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongfeng; Zhu Xiaobing; Deng Yonghui

    2014-01-01

    Taking a uranium mine for an example, using cut-off grade isograms to achieve automatic delineation of ore body and calculation of parameters are explored. With center line of catalog sampling as baseline, the number of sampling and length of sampling constructing rectangular grid and grade as elevation value, isograms of cut-off grade were drawn, thus achieving the delineation of the ore body. Then, the other parameters of the ore body can be calculated. Compared with the traditional hand drawing method, the work efficiency was greatly improved, and the material inquiry was more convenient. (authors)

  14. Secondary proton production at small atmospheric depths as a function of the geomagnetic cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papini, P.; Grimani, C.; Stephens, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed calculation of the energy spectrum of secondary protons in the atmosphere is being carried out in the energy range 20 MeV - 40 GeV. In this calculation, it is taken into account all processes leading to the production of secondary protons as a function of the atmospheric depth has been calculated using all relevant energy loss processes. In this paper, it is examine the effect of the geomagnetic cut-off on the spectral shape of secondary protons specially at energies below the geomagnetic cut-off for small atmospheric depths

  15. Chronic kidney disease : Defining clinical cut-offs for albumin:creatinine ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Stephan J L

    2013-01-01

    Albuminuria is rapidly gaining recognition as a marker of the presence and of the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In a new study, Naresh et al. attempt to define cut-off values for percentage change in urinary albumin:creatinine ratio that reflect changes in CKD status rather than

  16. Prevalensi Sarkopenia pada Lansia di Komunitas (Community Dwelling berdasarkan Dua Nilai Cut-off Parameter Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitriana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, aging muscle mass loss, and function syndromes can lead to decreased quality of life and increased elderly mortality. The availability of various screening methods and operational definitions in different studies has produced different findings of sarcopenia prevalence. The purpose of this study was to discover the prevalence of sarcopenia in Indonesian community-dwelling elderly based on muscle mass measured by bioimpedance analysis, handgrip strength using hand dynamometer, and physical performance based on six minutes walking test with two different cut-off point parameters of sarcopenia, i.e. the cut-off point recommended by Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS and the cut-off point based on the reference used in Taiwan elderly population reference due to the lack of references for Indonesian elderly population. A cross-sectional study was conducted to 229 participants (71 men and 158 women from the community-dwelling elderly population between August and December 2014 in Bandung and Jatinangor. The results of the study showed that the sarcopenia prevalence in this study based on AWGS was 9.1% (7.4% in men and 1.7% in women while the prevalence based on the Taiwan reference revealed a prevalence of 40.6% (20.1% in men and 20.5% in women. This highly different prevalences shows the importance of defining a specific cut-off point for elderly population in community-dwelling Indonesia to get a more accurate sarcopenia prevalence.

  17. Poverty and cutting off the power: Evaluation of the social contract of the Electricite de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodon, Q. T.

    2003-01-01

    Measures put in place by the French Electric Utility, Electricite de France (EDF) to assist those in default of payment of their electricity bills are evaluated. When introduced in 1996, it was expected that the new measures would reduce the necessity of cutting off power to the poor by one third. Notwithstanding these expectations and some progress in reducing the rate of power cut-off, the number of instances where service was denied, has risen. The evaluation is based on the annual survey of poor clients of the EDF undertaken by the Polling Institute Lavialle. The annual survey concerns itself chiefly with the attitude towards the service and the quality of dialogue between the Utility and its clients. The analysis resulted in three conclusions: (1) EDF appears to make progress in dealing with the problem based on evidence of higher client satisfaction and lower rate of cutting off power; (2) there is evidence of important beneficial changes in the policies of local EDF centres; and (3) there is noticeable evidence of improved coordination with social services agencies and higher quality of information made available; both these factors should contribute to higher client satisfaction. In general, EDF is to be congratulated for their efforts to date, for commissioning the survey and for participating in the evaluation. Nevertheless, in France the instances of cutting off electricity to poor households is still a fact of life, despite the commitment and the new measures put in place by EDF. 21 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  18. Establishing Streptomycin Epidemiological Cut-Off Values for Salmonella and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Sunde, Marianne; Karlsmose, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the accuracy of the current streptomycin epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. A total of 236 Salmonella enterica and 208 E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs between 4 and 32 mg/L were selected from 12 countries. Isolates...

  19. Epidemiological cut-off values for Flavobacterium psychrophilum MIC data generated by a standard test protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, P.; Endris, R.; Kronvall, G.

    2016-01-01

    -1 for florfenicol, ≤0.025 mg L-1 for oxolinic acid (OXO), ≤0.125 mg L-1 for oxytetracycline and ≤20 (1/19) mg L-1 for trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. For ampicillin and amoxicillin, the majority of putative wild-type observations were 'off scale', and therefore, statistically valid cut-off values...

  20. Cut-off values of distal forearm bone density for the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objective of this study was to establish a triage cut-off point or threshold for peripheral bone mineral density (BMD), applicable to black postmenopausal women, and that could be used as a screening method to differentiate between women with normal BMD, and those with possible central osteoporosis.

  1. Normal Limits of Electrocardiogram and Cut-Off Values for Left ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    The cut-off values for Sokolow-Lyon, Cornell and Araoye criteria for assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy. (LVH) were higher than those previously in ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. This was a cross-sectional descriptive ..... criteria, Araoye code system and Ogunlade criterion were derived from the addition of two or ...

  2. Effect of the cut off frequency on rough point and flat surface contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fan Ming

    2012-01-01

    In the past years, contact between two bodies has been studied from various ways that do not consider the cut off frequency effect on the contact mechanism. This paper reports the correlation between rough point contact and flat surface contact at different cut off frequencies of filter. The similarity and difference between the two types of contact mechanisms are presented for materials with linear or elastic perfectly plastic deformation. The conjugate gradient method (CGM) is used for analysing the rough point contact, while the rough flat surface contact is studied with an improved CGM in which the influence coefficient for the elastic deformation of the rough flat surface is obtained with finite element method. Numerical results show that for the above two types of contacts, their von Mises stress and maximum shear stress are greatly affected by the cut-off frequency of a high pass filter. Moreover, a decrease in the cut-off frequency leads to an increase in the contact area and a decrease in the approach for the rough flat surface contact, while the opposite variations is for the point contact between rough bodies with the small radii

  3. The normative score and the cut-off value of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonosu, Juichi; Takeshita, Katsushi; Hara, Nobuhiro; Matsudaira, Ko; Kato, So; Masuda, Kazuhiro; Chikuda, Hirotaka

    2012-08-01

    The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of the most common scoring systems used for patients with low back pain (LBP). Although the normative score of the ODI was reported to be 10.19 in a review article, no study has calculated the normative score after adjusting the value based on the age distribution. In addition, none of the previous studies has estimated the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. The purpose of this study was to estimate the normative score by adjusting the data for age distribution in Japan, and to determine the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. We conducted an internet survey on LBP using the Japanese version of the ODQ. A total of 1,200 respondents, composed of 100 males and 100 females in each age group (from the 20s to 70s), participated in this study. We also asked them to provide information about their backgrounds. We estimated the normative score after correcting for the age distribution of Japan. We also estimated the ODI of those with or without disability, the factors associated with the ODI, and the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. The participants' backgrounds were similar to the national survey. The normative score of the ODI was estimated at 8.73. The ODI of the LBP with disability group was 22.07. Those with sciatica and obese subjects showed higher ODI than those without. The optimal cut-off value was estimated to be 12. We defined the normative score and the cut-off value of the ODI.

  4. A geometric classification of traveling front propagation in the Nagumo equation with cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, N

    2011-01-01

    An important category of solutions to reaction-diffusion systems of partial differential equations is given by traveling fronts, which provide a monotonic connection between rest states and maintain a fixed profile when considered in a co-moving frame. Reaction-diffusion equations are frequently employed in the mean-field (continuum) approximation of discrete (many-particle) models; however, the quality of this approximation deteriorates when the number of particles is not sufficiently large. The (stochastic) effects of this discreteness have been modeled via the introduction of (deterministic) 'cut-offs' that effectively deactivate the reaction terms at points where the particle concentration is below a certain threshold. In this article, we present an overview of the effects of such a cut-off on the front propagation dynamics in a prototypical reaction-diffusion system, the classical Nagumo equation. Our analysis is based on the method of geometric desingularization ('blow-up'), in combination with dynamical systems techniques such as invariant manifolds and normal forms. Using these techniques, we categorize front propagation in the cut-off Nagumo equation in dependence of a control parameter, and we classify the corresponding propagation regimes ('pulled,' 'pushed,' and 'bistable') in terms of the bifurcation structure of a projectivized system of equations that is obtained from the original traveling front problem, after blow-up. In particular, our approach allows us to determine rigorously the asymptotics (in the cut-off parameter) of the correction to the front propagation speed in the Nagumo equation that is due to a cut-off. Moreover, it explains the structure of that asymptotics (logarithmic, superlinear, or sublinear) in dependence of the front propagation regime. Finally, it enables us to calculate the corresponding leading-order coefficients in the resulting expansions in closed form.

  5. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stig; Fleischer Rex, Karsten; Noahsen, Paneeraq; Sørensen, Hans Christian Florian; Mulvad, Gert; Laurberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI), a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI. PMID:23986904

  6. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI, a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  7. Alfalfa stem tissues: Cell wall deposition, composition, and degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, H.G.; Engels, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Declining cell wall degradability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems with maturation limits the nutritional value of alfalfa for ruminants. This study characterized changes in cell wall concentration, composition, and degradability by rumen microbes resulting from alfalfa stem tissue

  8. Composite steel panels for tornado missile barrier walls. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    A composite steel panel wall system is defined as a wall system with concrete fill sandwiched between two steel layers such that no concrete surface is exposed on the interior or the exterior wall surface. Three full scale missile tests were conducted on two specific composite wall systems. The results of the full scale tests were in good agreement with the finalized theory. The theory is presented, and the acceptance of the theory for design calculations is discussed

  9. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti...

  10. Waist circumference cut-off points for identification of abdominal obesity among the tunisian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguerra, R; Alberti, H; Smida, H; Salem, L B; Rayana, C B; El Atti, J; Achour, A; Gaigi, S; Slama, C B; Zouari, B; Alberti, K G M M

    2007-11-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is a convenient measure of abdominal adipose tissue. It itself is a cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes-risk factor and is strongly linked to other CVD risk factors. There are, however, ethnic differences in the relationship of WC to the other risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal cut-off points of WC and body mass index (BMI) at which cardiovascular risk factors can be identified with maximum sensitivity and specificity in a representative sample of the Tunisian adult population and to investigate any correlation between WC and BMI. We used a sample of the Tunisian National Nutrition Survey, a cross-sectional population-based survey, conducted in 1996 on a large nationally representative sample, which included 3435 adults (1244 men and 2191 women) of 20 years or older. WC, BMI, blood pressure and fasting blood measurements (plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides) were recorded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify optimal cut-off values of WC and BMI to identify with maximum sensitivity and specificity the detection of high blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, high blood cholesterol and hypertriglyceridaemia. ROC curve analysis suggested WC cut-off points of 85 cm in men and 85 cm in women for the optimum detection of high blood pressure, diabetes and dyslipidaemia. The optimum BMI cut-off points for predicting cardiovascular risk factors were 24 kg/m(2) in men and 27 kg/m(2) in women. The cut-off points recommended for the Caucasian population differ from those appropriate for the Tunisian population. The data show a continuous increase in odds ratios of each cardiovascular risk factor, with increasing level of WC and BMI. WC exceeding 85 cm in men and 79 cm in women correctly identified subjects with a BMI of >/=25 kg/m(2), sensitivity of >90% and specificity of >83%. Based on the ROC analysis, we suggest a WC of 85 cm for both men and women as appropriate cut-off

  11. Fast beam cut-off method in RF-knockout extraction for spot-scanning

    CERN Document Server

    Furukawa, T

    2002-01-01

    An irradiation method with magnetic scanning has been developed in order to provide accurate irradiation even for an irregular target shape. The scanning method has strongly required a lower ripple of the beam spill and a faster response to beam-on/off in slow extraction from a synchrotron ring. At HIMAC, RF-knockout extraction has utilized a bunched beam to reduce the beam-spill ripple. Therefore, particles near the resonance can be spilled out from the separatrices by synchrotron oscillation as well as by a transverse RF field. From this point of view, a fast beam cut-off method has been proposed and verified by both simulations and experiments. The maximum delay from the beam cut-off signal to beam-off has been improved to around 60 mu s from 700 mu s by a usual method. Unwanted dose has been considerably reduced by around a factor of 10 compared with that by the usual method.

  12. Casimir effect in a d-dimensional flat spacetime and the cut-off method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svaiter, N.F.; Svaiter, B.F.

    1989-01-01

    The CasiMir efeect in a D-dimensional spacetime produced by a Hermitian massless scalar field in the presence of a pair of perfectly reflecting parallel flat plates is discussed. The exponential cut-off regularization method is employed. The regularized vacuum energy and the Casimir energy of this field are evaluated and a detailed analysis of the divergent terms in the regularized vacuum energy is carried out. The two-dimensional version of the Casimir effect is discussed by means of the same cut-off method. A comparison between the above method and the zeta function regularization procedure is presented in a way which gives the unification between these two methods in the present case. (author) [pt

  13. Flocking of the Motsch-Tadmor Model with a Cut-Off Interaction Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chunyin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study the flocking behavior of the Motsch-Tadmor model with a cut-off interaction function. Our analysis shows that connectedness is important for flocking of this kind of model. Fortunately, we get a sufficient condition imposed only on the model parameters and initial data to guarantee the connectedness of the neighbor graph associated with the system. Then we present a theoretical analysis for flocking, and show that the system achieves consensus at an exponential rate.

  14. The Cut-off Value of Blood Mercury Concentration in Relation to Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hoon Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Increased blood mercury concentration is associated with inflammation, and chronic inflammation can cause insulin resistance. We examined the cut-off value of blood mercury in relation to an increased score on the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Methods : We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2010. Relevant data from 5,184 subjects (2,523 men and 2,661 women were analyzed cross-sectionally. General linear analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between HOMA-IR score and blood mercury concentration. In addition, we determined the cut-off value of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased HOMA-IR score (> 2.34 using an ROC curve. Results : The mean value of blood mercury concentration in men and women was 5.88 μg/L and 4.11 μg/L, respectively. In men, comparing to the first quartile, HOMA-IR score increased significantly in the third and fourth blood mercury quartiles. In women, however, the increase in HOMA-IR score was not significant. The cut-off value that best represented the association between increased HOMA-IR score and blood mercury concentration in men was found to be 4.71 μg/L. Conclusion : Blood mercury concentration was associated with increased HOMA-IR score in men, and the cut-off value of blood mercury concentration that was correlated with increased HOMA-IR score was around 4.71 μg/L.

  15. The analytic regularization ζ function method and the cut-off method in Casimir effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svaiter, N.F.; Svaiter, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    The zero point energy associated to a hermitian massless scalar field in the presence of perfectly reflecting plates in a three dimensional flat space-time is discussed. A new technique to unify two different methods - the ζ function and a variant of the cut-off method - used to obtain the so called Casimir energy is presented, and the proof of the analytic equivalence between both methods is given. (author)

  16. Rise time of proton cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, J.; Gizzi, L. A.; Londrillo, P.; Mirzanejad, S.; Rovelli, T.; Sinigardi, S.; Turchetti, G.

    2017-04-01

    The Target Normal Sheath Acceleration regime for proton acceleration by laser pulses is experimentally consolidated and fairly well understood. However, uncertainties remain in the analysis of particle-in-cell simulation results. The energy spectrum is exponential with a cut-off, but the maximum energy depends on the simulation time, following different laws in two and three dimensional (2D, 3D) PIC simulations so that the determination of an asymptotic value has some arbitrariness. We propose two empirical laws for the rise time of the cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations, suggested by a model in which the proton acceleration is due to a surface charge distribution on the target rear side. The kinetic energy of the protons that we obtain follows two distinct laws, which appear to be nicely satisfied by PIC simulations, for a model target given by a uniform foil plus a contaminant layer that is hydrogen-rich. The laws depend on two parameters: the scaling time, at which the energy starts to rise, and the asymptotic cut-off energy. The values of the cut-off energy, obtained by fitting 2D and 3D simulations for the same target and laser pulse configuration, are comparable. This suggests that parametric scans can be performed with 2D simulations since 3D ones are computationally very expensive, delegating their role only to a correspondence check. In this paper, the simulations are carried out with the PIC code ALaDyn by changing the target thickness L and the incidence angle α, with a fixed a0 = 3. A monotonic dependence, on L for normal incidence and on α for fixed L, is found, as in the experimental results for high temporal contrast pulses.

  17. Clinically Relevant Cut-off Points for the Diagnosis of Sarcopenia in Older Korean People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Yu-Ri; Joh, Ju-Youn; Kim, Yeon-Pyo

    2017-11-09

    The optimal criteria applied to older Korean people have not been defined. We aimed to define clinically relevant cut-off points for older Korean people and to compare the predictive validity with other definitions of sarcopenia. Nine hundred and sixteen older Koreans (≥65 years) were included in this cross-sectional observational study. We used conditional inference tree analysis to determine cut-off points for height-adjusted grip strength (GS) and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), for use in the diagnosis of sarcopenia. We then compared the Korean sarcopenia criteria with the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health and Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria, using frailty, assessed with the Korean Frailty Index, as an outcome variable. For men, a residual GS (GSre) of ≤ 0.25 was defined as weak, and a residual ASM (ASMre) of ≤ 1.29 was defined as low. Corresponding cut-off points for women were a GSre of ≤ 0.17 and an ASMre of ≤ 0.69. GSre and ASMre values were adjusted for height. In logistic regression analysis with new cut-off points, the adjusted odds ratios for pre-frail or frail status in the sarcopenia group were 3.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-7.83) for the men and 1.74 (95% CI 0.91-3.35) for the women. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the unadjusted area under the curve for Korean sarcopenia criteria in men and women were 0.653 and 0.608, respectively (p sarcopenia in older Korean people. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Correlation between Body Mass Index, Gender, and Skeletal Muscle Mass Cut off Point in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richi Hendrik Wattimena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the average skeletal muscle mass (SMM value in young adults as a reference population; to analyze the correlation of gender, and body mass index to the cut off point; and to determine skeletal muscle mass cut off points of population in Bandung, Indonesia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 199 participants, 122 females and 77 males. The sampling technique used was the multistage random sampling. The participants were those who lived in four major regions in Bandung, Indonesia: Sukajadi, Cicadas, Buah Batu, and Cibaduyut. Results: The average appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI in females and males based on body mass index (BMI were identified. The average ASMI values for normal BMI in females was 5.982±0.462 kg/m2 while the average ASMI values normal BMI for males was 7.581±0.744 kg/m2 Conclusions: A correlation between BMI and ASMI that was considered statistically significant was found in females (0.7712; p<0.05 and a very significant correlation was seen in males (0.870; p<0.05. The cut off points were defined by the normal BMI, which were 5.059 for females and 6.093 for males.

  19. Equilibrium properties of blackbody radiation with an ultraviolet energy cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dheeraj Kumar; Chandra, Nitin; Vaibhav, Vinay

    2017-10-01

    We study various equilibrium thermodynamic properties of blackbody radiation (i.e. a photon gas) with an ultraviolet energy cut-off. We find that the energy density, specific heat etc. follow usual acoustic phonon dynamics as have been well studied by Debye. Other thermodynamic quantities like pressure, entropy etc. have also been calculated. The usual Stefan-Boltzmann law gets modified. We observe that the values of the thermodynamic quantities with the energy cut-off is lower than the corresponding values in the theory without any such scale. The phase-space measure is also expected to get modified for an exotic spacetime appearing at Planck scale, which in turn leads to the modification of Planck energy density distribution and the Wien's displacement law. We found that the non-perturbative nature of the thermodynamic quantities in the SR limit (for both unmodified and modified cases), due to nonanalyticity of the leading term, is a general feature of the theory accompanied with an ultraviolet energy cut-off. We have also discussed the possible modification in the case of Big Bang and the Stellar objects and have suggested a table top experiment for verification in effective low energy case.

  20. A study of full width at half maximum (FWHM) according to the filter's cut off level in SPECT camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soung Ock; Kwon, Soo Il

    2003-01-01

    Filtering is necessary to reduce statistical noise and to increase image quality in SPECT images. Noises controlled by low-pass filter designed to suppress high spatial frequency in SPECT image. Most SPECT filter function control the degree of high frequency suppression by choosing a cut off frequency. The location of cut off frequency determines the affect image noise and spatial resolution. If select the low cut off frequency, its provide good noise suppression but insufficient image quantity and high cut off frequencies increase the image resolution but insufficient noise suppression. The purpose of this study was to determines the optimum cut off level with comparison of FWHM according to cut off level in each filters-Band-limited, Sheep-logan, Sheep-logan Hanning, Generalized Hamming, Low pass cosine, Parazen and Butterworth filter in SPECT camera. We recorded image along the X, Y, Z-axis with 99m TcO 4 point source and measured FWHM by use profile curve. We find averaged length is 9.16 mm ∼ 18.14 mm of FWHM in X, Y, and Z-axis, and Band-limited and Generalized Hamming filters measures 9.16 mm at 0.7 cycle/pixel cut off frequency

  1. Systematic review of the evidence for Trails B cut-off scores in assessing fitness-to-drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mononita; Molnar, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Fitness-to-drive guidelines recommend employing the Trail Making B Test (a.k.a. Trails B), but do not provide guidance regarding cut-off scores. There is ongoing debate regarding the optimal cut-off score on the Trails B test. The objective of this study was to address this controversy by systematically reviewing the evidence for specific Trails B cut-off scores (e.g., cut-offs in both time to completion and number of errors) with respect to fitness-to-drive. Systematic review of all prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, correlation, and cross-sectional studies reporting the ability of the Trails B to predict driving safety that were published in English-language, peer-reviewed journals. Forty-seven articles were reviewed. None of the articles justified sample sizes via formal calculations. Cut-off scores reported based on research include: 90 seconds, 133 seconds, 147 seconds, 180 seconds, and Trails B cut-offs of 3 minutes or 3 errors (the '3 or 3 rule'). Major methodological limitations of this body of research were uncovered including (1) lack of justification of sample size leaving studies open to Type II error (i.e., false negative findings), and (2) excessive focus on associations rather than clinically useful cut-off scores.

  2. Defining a BMI Cut-Off Point for the Iranian Population: The Shiraz Heart Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Babai

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated and redefined the optimum body mass index (BMI cut-off point for the Iranian population based on metabolic syndrome (MeS risk factors. We further evaluated BMI cut-off points with and without waist circumference (WC as a cofactor of risk and compared the differences. This study is part of the largest surveillance programs conducted in Shiraz, Iran, termed the Shiraz Heart study. Our study sample included subjects between the ages of 20 to 65 years old. After excluding pregnant women, those with missing data and those with comorbid disease, a total of 12283 made up the study population. The participants underwent a series of tests and evaluations by trained professionals in accordance with WHO recommendations. Hypertension, abnormal fasting blood sugar (FBS, triglyceride (TG and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL (in the context of the definition of metabolic syndrome were prevalent among 32.4%, 27.6%, 42.1 and 44.2% of our participants, respectively. Women displayed higher rates of overall obesity compared to men (based on the definition by the WHO as higher than 30 kg/m2. Regarding MeS, 38.9% of our population had the all symptoms of MeS which was more prevalent among women (41.5% vs. 36%. When excluding WC in the definition of MeS, results showed that males tend to show a higher rate of metabolic risk factors (19.2% vs. 15.6%. Results of multivariate analysis showed that parallel to an increase in BMI, the odds ratio (OR for acquiring each component of the metabolic syndrome increased (OR = 1.178; CI: 1.166-1.190. By excluding WC, the previous OR decreased (OR = 1.105; CI: 1.093-1.118. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that the optimum BMI cut-off point for predicting metabolic syndrome was 26.1 kg/m2 and 26.2 kg/m2 [Accuracy (Acc = 69% and 61%, respectively] for males and females, respectively. The overall BMI cut-off for both sexes was 26.2 kg/m2 (Acc = 65% with sensitivity and

  3. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women....... This constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers....

  4. Strengthening masonry walls made of brick blocks with FRCM composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Željka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of testing more types of masonry walls made of brick blocks with the aim to define their mechanical characteristics and possibilities of external strengthening of walls with FRCM composites are presented in this paper. The characteristic compressive strengths, elasticity modulus and shear strengths of the various types of the walls were obtained on the basis of these testing results. Comparison between experimental results and values obtained by analytical approach in accordance with the current standard, European standards EN 1996 and the American standard ACI 530 is presented in this paper. After testing walls with application of compressive forces on the walls diagonal the cracked walls samples have been strengthened with selected types of FRCM composites. It was determined that the shear resistance of the walls after strengthening has increased significantly.

  5. Defining Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy from a Continuous Measure of Optic Nerve Damage - The Optimal Cut-off Point for Risk-factor Analysis in Population-based Epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdas, Wishal D.; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Diseases characterized by a continuous trait can be defined by setting a cut-off point for the disease measure in question, accepting some misclassification. The 97.5th percentile is commonly used as a cut-off point. However, it is unclear whether this percentile is the optimal cut-off

  6. Efficient Closed Form Cut-Off Planes and Propagation Planes Characteristics for Dielectric Slab Loaded Boundary Value Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar, Junaid

    2012-01-01

    The geometrical relationship between the cut-off and propagating planes of any waveguide system is a prerequisite for any design process. The characterization of cut-off planes and optimisation are challenging for numerical methods, closed-form solutions are always preferred. In this paper Maxwells coupled field equations are used to characterise twin E-plane and H-plane slab loaded boundary value problems. The single mode bandwidths and dispersion characteristics of these structures are pres...

  7. Cut-off effect of radical TEMPO derivatives in olive oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez de Arbina, Amaia; Rezende, Marcos Caroli; Aliaga, Carolina

    2017-06-01

    Three oil-in-water emulsions were prepared from mixtures of olive oil and Tween 20 in water. The effectiveness of a series of radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinoxyl (TEMPO) derivatives of variable lipophilicity in reactions with antioxidant Trolox, and as pyrene-fluorescence quenchers, was compared in the three emulsions. A "cut-off" effect was observed for the pyrene quenching by the probes, but not for their reaction with Trolox. The results were rationalized in terms of the amphiphobic nature of the probes, and the different locations of probe, pyrene and Trolox in the three-phase microheterogeneous systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Refining Game Addiction Questionnairs: Evidence for a natural cut-off point?

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents data from a pilot study, which was designed to illuminate critical flaws in the currently used instruments used to measure the prevalence of ‘computer game addiction’. The study found that the prevalence rate could be set anywhere between 23% and 0,6% depending on how the data set is scored. Thus demonstrating how an arbitrarily set of cut-off point in prevalence studies can yield wildly varying prevalence rates. The data further show that making implicit assumptions about...

  9. Attenuation bands and cut-off frequencies for ELF electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, J.L.; Lefeuvre, F.; Cerisier, J.C.; Berthelier, J.J.; Boud'ko, N.; Michailova, G.; Kapustina, O.

    1985-01-01

    The propagation characteristic of ELF (10 Hz - 1500 Hz) electromagnetic waves observed on ARCAD 3, in three different zones: low L value (L 6). Unambiguous determinations of the wave normal directions are obtained from the interpretations of the measurements of four (3 magnetic, 1 electric) wave field components. The technique that is used, is based on the Means method in the cases of highly polarized waves and on the Storey and Lefeuvre WDF method in the other cases. A particular emphasis is put on the propagation characteristics of the waves, in a multiple ion plasma, and on the cut-off frequencies which appear at and below the local proton gyrofrequency

  10. Effective moments of inertia and spin cut off parameters in Hf isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, R.; Sharifzadeh, N.; Farahmand, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    In all statistical theories the nuclear level density is the most characteristic quantity and plays a major role in the study of nuclear structure. Most experimental data on nuclear level density have been analyzed with analytical functions of the level density. On the basis of statistical models, the effective moments of inertia and spin cut off parameters have been determined for 176 Hf, 178 Hf and 180 Hf nuclei from extensive and complete level schemes and neutron resonance densities in low excitation energy levels. Then, moments of inertia of these nuclei have been determined by nuclear rotational model. The results have been compared with their corresponding rigid body value

  11. Prospects for a fissile material cut-off: Achieving a successful NPT review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, M.

    1999-01-01

    Finding new and creative ways to overcome the current deadlock in progress in nuclear arms control became the most important question in the past year. For a long time it had been expected that after the conclusion of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the next step would be to ban production of fissile materials for weapon purposes. Three strategies are proposed for reaching relevant cut-off agreements. First suggests possible fore for achievement of relevant agreements, second is the proposal to begin with international register of inventories and production capabilities for all relevant nuclear materials, and the third one is ti identify equivalent steps obligatory for all the parties involved

  12. Azimuth cut-off model for significant wave height investigation along coastal water of Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghany, Maged; Ibrahim, Zelina; Van Genderen, Johan

    2002-11-01

    The present work is used to operationalize the azimuth cut-off concept in the study of significant wave height. Three ERS-1 images have been used along the coastal waters of Terengganu, Malaysia. The quasi-linear transform was applied to map the SAR wave spectra into real ocean wave spectra. The azimuth cut-off was then used to model the significant wave height. The results show that azimuth cut-off varied with the different period of the ERS-1 images. This is because of the fact that the azimuth cut-off is a function of wind speed and significant wave height. It is of interest to find that the significant wave height modeled from azimuth cut-off is in good relation with ground wave conditions. It can be concluded that ERS-1 can be used as a monitoring tool in detecting the significant wave height variation. The azimuth cut-off can be used to model the significant wave height. This means that the quasi-linear transform could be a good application to significant wave height variation during different seasons.

  13. Age-adjusted high-sensitivity troponin T cut-off value for risk stratification of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeberich, Anja; Seeber, Valerie; Jiménez, David; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Dellas, Claudia; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Konstantinides, Stavros; Lankeit, Mareike

    2015-05-01

    High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) helps in identifying pulmonary embolism patients at low risk of an adverse outcome. In 682 normotensive pulmonary embolism patients we investigate whether an optimised hsTnT cut-off value and adjustment for age improve the identification of patients at elevated risk. Overall, 25 (3.7%) patients had an adverse 30-day outcome. The established hsTnT cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) retained its high prognostic value (OR (95% CI) 16.64 (2.24-123.74); p=0.006) compared with the cut-off value of 33 pg·mL(-1) calculated by receiver operating characteristic analysis (7.14 (2.64-19.26); pvalue of 45 pg·mL(-1) but not the established cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) predicted an adverse outcome. An age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value (≥14 pg·mL(-1) for patients aged risk (12.4% adverse outcome). Risk assessment of normotensive pulmonary embolism patients was improved by the introduction of an age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value. A three-step approach helped identify patients at higher risk of an adverse outcome who might benefit from advanced therapy. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  14. Optimised cut-off function for Tersoff-like potentials for a BN nanosheet: a molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Rajasekaran, G; Parashar, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    In this article, molecular dynamics based simulations were carried out to study the tensile behaviour of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs). Four different sets of Tersoff potential parameters were used in the simulations for estimating the interatomic interactions between boron and nitrogen atoms. Modifications were incorporated in the Tersoff cut-off function to improve the accuracy of results with respect to fracture stress, fracture strain and Young’s modulus. In this study, the original cut-off function was optimised in such a way that small and large cut-off distances were made equal, and hence a single cut-off distance was used with all sets of Tersoff potential parameters. The single value of cut-off distance for the Tersoff potential was chosen after analysing the potential energy and bond forces experienced by boron and nitrogen atoms subjected to bond stretching. The simulations performed with the optimised cut-off function help in identifying the Tersoff potential parameters that reproduce the experimentally evaluated mechanical behaviour of BNNSs. (paper)

  15. Scanning tunnelling microscope light emission: Finite temperature current noise and over cut-off emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathingal, Vijith; Dawson, Paul; Mitra, J

    2017-06-14

    The spectral distribution of light emitted from a scanning tunnelling microscope junction not only bears its intrinsic plasmonic signature but is also imprinted with the characteristics of optical frequency fluc- tuations of the tunnel current. Experimental spectra from gold-gold tunnel junctions are presented that show a strong bias (V b ) dependence, curiously with emission at energies higher than the quantum cut-off (eV b ); a component that decays monotonically with increasing bias. The spectral evolution is explained by developing a theoretical model for the power spectral density of tunnel current fluctuations, incorporating finite temperature contribution through consideration of the quantum transport in the system. Notably, the observed decay of the over cut-off emission is found to be critically associated with, and well explained in terms of the variation in junction conductance with V b . The investigation highlights the scope of plasmon-mediated light emission as a unique probe of high frequency fluctuations in electronic systems that are fundamental to the electrical generation and control of plasmons.

  16. A specially designed cut-off gamma camera for high resolution SPECT of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, S.A.; Bergstrand, G.; Bergstedt, H.; Berg, J.; Flygare, O.; Schnell, P.O.; Anderson, N.; Lagergren, C.

    1984-01-01

    A modern gamma camera system for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has been modified in order to optimize examinations of the head. By cutting off a part of the detector housing at one edge, it has been possible to rotate the camera close to the skull, still covering the entire brain and the skull base. The minimum radius of rotation used was thereby reduced, in the mean, from 21.2 cm to 13.0 cm in examination of 18 patients. In combination with an adjustment of the 64 x 64 acquisition matrix to a field of view of 26x26 cm/sup 2/, the spatial resolution improved from 18.6 mm (FWHM) to 12.6 +- 0.3 mm (FWHM) using the conventional LEGP-collimator and to 10.4 +- 0.3 mm (FWHM) using the LEHR-collimator. No other modification than a slight cut of the light guide was made in the internal construction of the camera. Thus, the physical properties of the detector head are not essentially changed from those of a non-modified unit. The improved spatial resolution of the cut-off camera SPECT-system implies certain clinical advantages in studies of the brain, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-space and the skull base

  17. Defining the optimal cut-off values for liver enzymes in diagnosing blunt liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tomohide; Hamada, Hirohisa; Nishida, Masamichi; Naess, Paal A; Gaarder, Christine; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-01-25

    Patients with blunt trauma to the liver have elevated levels of liver enzymes within a short time post injury, potentially useful in screening patients for computed tomography (CT). This study was performed to define the optimal cut-off values for serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in patients with blunt liver injury diagnosed with contrast enhanced multi detector-row CT (CE-MDCT). All patients admitted from May 2006 to July 2013 to Teikyo University Hospital Trauma and Critical Care Center, and who underwent abdominal CE-MDCT within 3 h after blunt trauma, were retrospectively enrolled. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the optimal cut-off values for AST and ALT were defined, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Of a total of 676 blunt trauma patients 64 patients were diagnosed with liver injury (Group LI+) and 612 patients without liver injury (Group LI-). Group LI+ and LI- were comparable for age, Revised Trauma Score, and Probability of survival. The groups differed in Injury Severity Score [median 21 (interquartile range 9-33) vs. 17 (9-26) (p tool for CT scan in patients otherwise eligible for observation only or as a transfer criterion to a facility with CT scan capability.

  18. Proceedings from the Fissile Material Cut-off seminar in Stockholm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbman, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Swedish Defence Research Establishment hosted an international expert seminar on the subject of verifying a prohibition of the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons purpose (cut-off) in Stockholm, June 3-5 1998. The objective of the seminar was to provide an opportunity for informal discussions among scientific and technical experts on various technical matters relating to the verification of a future Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). A stated aim of the seminar was to keep issues of scope to a minimum. Invited speakers and commentators were given an opportunity to present their views as written contributions. The present seminar proceedings are essentially the result of these views. In addition, short summaries of the discussions following each session are included. Although an attempt was made to be as complete and accurate as possible in reproducing these discussions, the editors apologise if some important points or statements have been omitted. If so, the main reason is that the documentation of the discussions were based on written notes, not taped recordings. Eight longer contributions have been separately indexed

  19. Physical Activity Questionnaire for children and adolescents: English norms and cut-off points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Christine; Ogunleye, Ayodele A; Sandercock, Gavin R H

    2013-08-01

    The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (PAQ-C/-A) provides general estimates of physical activity levels. Following recent expert recommendations for using the PAQ for population surveillance, the aim of this paper was twofold: first, to describe normative PAQ data for English youth; and second, to determine a criterion-referenced PAQ-score cut-off point. Participants (n = 7226, 53% boys, 10-15 years) completed an anglicized version of the PAQ. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ) was predicted from PACER lap count according to latest FITNESSGRAM standards and categorized into "at-risk" and "no-risk" for metabolic syndrome. ROC curves were drawn for each age-sex group to identify PAQ scores, which categorized youth into "sufficiently active" versus "low-active" groups, using cardiorespiratory fitness as the criterion-referenced standard. PAQ scores were higher in boys than in girls and declined with age. Mean PAQ score was a significant, albeit relatively weak (area under the curve PAQ scores of ≥2.9 for boys and ≥2.7 for girls were identified as cut-off points, although it may be more appropriate to use lower, age-specific PAQ scores for girls of 13, 14 and 15 years (2.6, 2.4, 2.3, respectively). The normative and criterion-referenced PAQ values may be used to standardize and categorize PAQ scores in future youth population studies. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. Open Skies and monitoring a fissile materials cut-off treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allentuck, J.; Lemley, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Treaty on Open Skies (Open Skies) is intended among other things to provide, in the words of its preamble, means ''to facilitate the monitoring of compliance with existing or future arms control agreements.'' Open Skies permits overflights of the territory of member states by aircraft equipped with an array of sensors of various types. Their types and capabilities are treaty-limited. To find useful application in monitoring a cut-off treaty Open Skies would need to be amended. The number of signatories would need to be expanded so as to provide greater geographical coverage, and restrictions on sensor-array capabilities would need to be relaxed. To facilitate the detection of impending violations of a cut-off convention by Open Skies overflights, the data base provided by parties to the former should include among other things an enumeration of existing and former fuel cycle and research facilities including those converted to other uses, their precise geographic location, and a site plan

  1. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC to Determine Cut-Off Points of Biomarkers in Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Weiss

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of biomarkers in disease prognosis continues to be an important investigation in many cancer studies. In order for these biomarkers to have practical application in clinical decision making regarding patient treatment and follow-up, it is common to dichotomize patients into those with low vs. high expression levels. In this study, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, area under the curve (AUC of the ROC, sensitivity, specificity, as well as likelihood ratios were calculated to determine levels of growth factor biomarkers that best differentiate lung cancer cases versus control subjects. Selected cut-off points for p185erbB-2 and EGFR membrane appear to have good discriminating power to differentiate control tissues versus uninvolved tissues from patients with lung cancer (AUC = 89% and 90%, respectively; while AUC increased to at least 90% for selected cut-off points for p185erbB-2 membrane, EGFR membrane, and FASE when comparing between control versus carcinoma tissues from lung cancer cases. Using data from control subjects compared to patients with lung cancer, we presented a simple and intuitive approach to determine dichotomized levels of biomarkers and validated the value of these biomarkers as surrogate endpoints for cancer outcome.

  2. Proceedings from the Fissile Material Cut-off seminar in Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbman, G. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    The Swedish Defence Research Establishment hosted an international expert seminar on the subject of verifying a prohibition of the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons purpose (cut-off) in Stockholm, June 3-5 1998. The objective of the seminar was to provide an opportunity for informal discussions among scientific and technical experts on various technical matters relating to the verification of a future Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). A stated aim of the seminar was to keep issues of scope to a minimum. Invited speakers and commentators were given an opportunity to present their views as written contributions. The present seminar proceedings are essentially the result of these views. In addition, short summaries of the discussions following each session are included. Although an attempt was made to be as complete and accurate as possible in reproducing these discussions, the editors apologise if some important points or statements have been omitted. If so, the main reason is that the documentation of the discussions were based on written notes, not taped recordings. Eight longer contributions have been separately indexed.

  3. Projection systems with a cut-off line for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, G.; Eichhorn, K.

    2005-08-01

    The lighting systems of a car provide a variety of challenges from the point of view of illumination science and technology. Engineering work in this field has to deal both with reflector and lens design as well as with opto-mechanical design and sensor technology. It has direct implications on traffic safety and the efficiency in which energy is used. Therefore, these systems are continuously improved and optimized. In this context, adaptive systems that we investigate for automotive applications gain increasing importance. The properties of the light distribution in the vicinity of the cut-off line are of key importance for the safe and efficient operation of automotive headlamps. An alternative approach is proposed to refine the description of these properties in an attempt to make it more quantitative. This description is intended to facilitate intercomparison between different systems and/or to study environmental influences on the cut-off line of a system under investigation. Designing projection systems it is necessary to take a delicate trade-off between efficiency, light-distribution characteristics, mechanical boundary conditions, and legal requirements into account. Considerations and results on optical properties of three-axial reflectors in dependence of layout parameters will be given. They can serve as a guideline for the optical workshop and for free-form optimization.

  4. The warm dark matter halo mass function below the cut-off scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Raul E.; Hahn, Oliver; Abel, Tom

    2013-10-01

    Warm dark matter (WDM) cosmologies are a viable alternative to the cold dark matter (CDM) scenario. Unfortunately, an accurate scrutiny of the WDM predictions with N-body simulations has proven difficult due to numerical artefacts. Here, we report on cosmological simulations that, for the first time, are devoid of those problems, and thus are able to accurately resolve the WDM halo mass function well below the cut-off. We discover a complex picture, with perturbations at different evolutionary stages populating different ranges in the halo mass function. On the smallest mass scales we can resolve, identified objects are typically centres of filaments that are starting to collapse. On intermediate mass scales, objects typically correspond to fluctuations that have collapsed and are in the process of relaxation, whereas the high-mass end is dominated by objects similar to haloes identified in CDM simulations. We then explicitly show how the formation of low-mass haloes is suppressed, which translates into a strong cut-off in the halo mass function. This disfavours some analytic formulations that predict a halo mass function that would extend well below the free streaming mass. We argue for a more detailed exploration of the formation of the smallest structures expected to form in a given cosmology, which, we foresee, will advance our overall understanding of structure formation.

  5. Titanium dioxide, single-walled carbon nanotube composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Li, Gonghu; Gray, Kimberly; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2015-07-14

    The present invention provides titanium dioxide/single-walled carbon nanotube composites (TiO.sub.2/SWCNTs), articles of manufacture, and methods of making and using such composites. In certain embodiments, the present invention provides membrane filters and ceramic articles that are coated with TiO.sub.2/SWCNT composite material. In other embodiments, the present invention provides methods of using TiO.sub.2/SWCNT composite material to purify a sample, such as a water or air sample.

  6. Revisiting AdS/CFT at a finite radial cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Gautam; Nayak, Pranjal [Department of Theoretical Physics,Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2016-12-22

    We revisit AdS/CFT at a finite radial cut-off, specifically in the context of double trace perturbations, O{sub n}= O(x)(∂{sup 2}){sup n}O(x), with arbitrary powers n. As well-known, the standard GKPW prescription, applied to a finite radial cut-off, leads to contact terms in correlators. de Haro et al. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002200100381 introduced bulk counterterms to remove these. This prescription, however, yields additional terms in the correlator corresponding to spurious double trace deformations. Further, if we view the GKPW prescription coupled with the prescription in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002200100381, in terms of a boundary wavefunction, we find that it is incompatible with radial Schrödinger evolution (in the spirit of holographic Wilsonian RG). We consider a more general wavefunction satisfying the Schrödinger equation, and find that generically such wavefunctions generate both (a) double trace deformations and (b) contact terms. However, we find that there exist special choices of these wavefunctions, amounting to a new AdS/CFT prescription at a finite cut-off, so that both (a) and (b) are removed and we obtain a pure power law behaviour for the correlator. We compare these special wavefunctions with a specific RG scheme in field theory. We give a geometric interpretation of these wavefunctions; these correspond to some specific smearing of boundary points in the Witten diagrams. We present a comprehensive calculation of exact double-trace beta-functions for all couplings O{sub n} and match with a holographic computation using the method described above. The matching works with a mapping between the field theory and bulk couplings; such a map is highly constrained because the beta-functions are quadratic and exact on both sides. Our discussions include a generalization of the standard double-trace Wilson-Fisher flow to the space of the infinite number of couplings.

  7. Third molar cut-off value in assessing the legal age of 18 in Saudi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQahtani, Sakher; Kawthar, Alemad; AlAraik, Ayman; AlShalan, Ahmad

    2017-03-01

    Teeth plays a major role in forensic sciences especially in age assessment of an individual, which can be used to aid in criminal or civil matters. The importance of teeth comes from their ability to survive inhumation well and because they are hardly affected by exogenous and endogenous factors. Third molars are the only teeth still developing after the age of 14 years and during the legal age of adulthood, which is 18 years. The consequences of criminal violation can strongly affect the individual's life, it is important to set different parameters to decide whether an individual is a minor or an adult in the absence of documents. Depending on the different legal requirement, such parameters can set above 90% probability for criminal matters and from 51% to civil matters. The aim of this research was to find the cut-off value of third molar development for the legal age of 18 amongst Saudi individuals using the third molar maturity index method by Cameriere et al. (2008) [17]. This was a cross sectional study on 300 archived orthopantomogram (OPG) of healthy Saudi patients between the ages 14 and 22 years attending the Dental Hospital at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All OPGs were taken by PLANMECA - ProMax machine and evaluated by the Romaxis software. The inclusion criteria were good quality OPGs taken during the course of treatment. All patients were healthy with no systemic diseases or disorders with the presence of third molars and clear root apex. The lower left mandibular third molar (LL3rdM) was assessed using third molar maturity index (I3m) to determine if the individual is younger or older than 18 years old. The cut-off value of I3m for the Saudi population was (I3mage of adulthood in Saudi population and the cut-off value of I3m is similar to other populations. Although dental age assessment by means of third molar development is useful, it still has its limitation because of its variation in position, morphology and development

  8. Influence of Different Cut-Off Values on the Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Liepelt-Scarfone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparable to Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI is associated with an increased risk for dementia. However different definitions of PD-MCI may have varying predictive accuracy for dementia. In a cohort of 101 nondemented Parkinson patients who underwent neuropsychological testing, the frequency of PD-MCI subjects and PD-MCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic/nonamnestic was determined by use of varying healthy population-based cut-off values. We also investigated the association between defined PD-MCI groups and ADL scales. Varying cut-off values for the definition of PD-MCI were found to affect frequency of PD-MCI subjects (9.9%–92.1% and, maybe more important, lead to a “shift” of proportion of detected PD-MCI subtypes especially within the amnestic single-domain subtype. Models using a strict cut-off value were significantly associated with lower ADL scores. Thus, the use of defined cut-off values for the definition of PD-MCI is highly relevant for comparison purposes. Strict cut-off values may have a higher predictive value for dementia.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors with overweight and obesity among Vietnamese adults: Caucasian and Asian cut-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Oanh T H; Nguyen, Nguyen D; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Dibley, Michael J; Bauman, Adrian E

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and factors associated with overweight/obesity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) using Caucasian and Asian cut-offs. A cross-sectional survey. In 2005, 1,971 adults aged 25-64 years in HCMC were randomly selected using a proportional to population size sampling method to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, measured by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Multivariable logistic models were used to examine associations between overweight/obesity and socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, and biochemical indices of chronic disease risk. The prevalence of overweight and obesity using the Caucasian BMI cut-offs were 13.9% and 1.8% respectively, and those with the Asian BMI cut-offs were 27.5% and 5.7%, respectively. The abdominal adiposity rates were higher than the BMI overweight and obesity rates in women, but not in men. Increasing age, low education, high household wealth index, high levels of sitting and reclining time, cholesterol and high blood pressure were significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Current smoking and sedentary leisure time was significantly negatively associated with this status in men. Associations between overweight/obesity and metabolic disorders were evident using both cut-offs. Asian cut-offs identified more risk factors and therefore could be considered for defining at-risk groups. The results highlight the importance of intervention programs to prevent overweight/obesity in young adults.

  10. The Cut-off Values of Triglycerides and Glucose Index for Metabolic Syndrome in American and Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Shinje; Park, Joon Sung; Ahn, Youhern

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish ethnic- and gender-specific cut-off values of triglycerides and glucose index (TyG index) for clinical usefulness in a representative sample of Mexican American, Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, and Korean adolescents. The data were collected from datasets of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999 and 2012, and the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2005 and 2013. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to find valid cut-off values of the TyG index for metabolic syndrome. The total number of eligible participants was 3,164 in the US and 4,873 in Korea. The optimal cut-off value with the Cook et al. definition revealed 8.55 in Mexican American, 8.55 in Non-Hispanic White, 8.35 in Non-Hispanic Black, and 8.45 in Korean, respectively. The cut-off value with the de Ferranti et al. definition was 8.45, 8.45, 8.15, and 8.35, and the cut-off value with the International Diabetes Federation definition was 8.65, 8.65, 8.15, and 8.55, respectively. These findings may be clinically useful for evaluating insulin resistance for determining metabolic abnormalities in adolescents.

  11. Derivation of the cut-off length from the quantum quadratic enhancement of a mass in vacuum energy constant Lambda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kimichika; Sato, Hikaru

    2018-04-01

    Ultraviolet self-interaction energies in field theory sometimes contain meaningful physical quantities. The self-energies in such as classical electrodynamics are usually subtracted from the rest mass. For the consistent treatment of energies as sources of curvature in the Einstein field equations, this study includes these subtracted self-energies into vacuum energy expressed by the constant Lambda (used in such as Lambda-CDM). In this study, the self-energies in electrodynamics and macroscopic classical Einstein field equations are examined, using the formalisms with the ultraviolet cut-off scheme. One of the cut-off formalisms is the field theory in terms of the step-function-type basis functions, developed by the present authors. The other is a continuum theory of a fundamental particle with the same cut-off length. Based on the effectiveness of the continuum theory with the cut-off length shown in the examination, the dominant self-energy is the quadratic term of the Higgs field at a quantum level (classical self-energies are reduced to logarithmic forms by quantum corrections). The cut-off length is then determined to reproduce today's tiny value of Lambda for vacuum energy. Additionally, a field with nonperiodic vanishing boundary conditions is treated, showing that the field has no zero-point energy.

  12. From Newton's Law to the Linear Boltzmann Equation Without Cut-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayi, Nathalie

    2017-03-01

    We provide a rigorous derivation of the linear Boltzmann equation without cut-off starting from a system of particles interacting via a potential with infinite range as the number of particles N goes to infinity under the Boltzmann-Grad scaling. More particularly, we will describe the motion of a tagged particle in a gas close to global equilibrium. The main difficulty in our context is that, due to the infinite range of the potential, a non-integrable singularity appears in the angular collision kernel, making no longer valid the single-use of Lanford's strategy. Our proof relies then on a combination of Lanford's strategy, of tools developed recently by Bodineau, Gallagher and Saint-Raymond to study the collision process, and of new duality arguments to study the additional terms associated with the long-range interaction, leading to some explicit weak estimates.

  13. The influence of cut off lows on sulfate burdens over the North Atlantic during April, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkovitz, C.M.; Miller, M.A.; Schwartz, S.E.; Kwon, O.U.

    2001-01-14

    The authors have presented examples from a modeling study of the development of sulfur burdens over North America, the North Atlantic Ocean and Europe during April, 1987 using observation-derived meteorological data to represent the actual conditions for this period, focusing on the influence of cut-off lows on SO{sub 2} and sulfate column burdens over the North Atlantic Ocean. The analysis demonstrates that these systems can serve either as sources or sinks of sulfate, and that the major factor governing their resulting effect is the position during its formative stages relative to (a) sources of moisture, and (b) sulfur emissions, which regulates the availability of sulfur, cloud liquid water for sulfur oxidation, and the amount of precipitation for sulfate removal produced in the later stages of the life cycle.

  14. Determination of the stresses and displacements in the cut off curtain body executed by the > method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snisarenko, V.I.; Mel'nikov, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    Construction of the cut-off-curtain (COC) is analyzed as a possible variant to reduce the rate of radioactive horizontal migration. Such constructions can be executed by the > method. The theoretical analysis of the stress-strained state of the carried out using the methods of the theory of elasticity and of the limit equilibrium of the strewing medium. Theoretical dependences are obtained and formulas for practical calculations of the COC-body stress-strained state in the depth intervals which are of practical interest are suggested. The dependences obtained may be used to calculate the consolidation parameters and filtration coefficients, to choose materials for the COC body, geometrical size and film elements included

  15. Refining Game Addiction Questionnairs: Evidence for a natural cut-off point?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents data from a pilot study, which was designed to illuminate critical flaws in the currently used instruments used to measure the prevalence of ‘computer game addiction’. The study found that the prevalence rate could be set anywhere between 23% and 0,6% depending on how the data...... is unique in the field of prevalence studies of computer game addiction both in its design and its findings. The findings and conclusions need to be addressed by future research in the area.......’ from ‘addicted gamers’ by making implicit assumptions about negative effects explicit will cause prevalence rates to drop even further. Unexpectedly, the data from this modified questionnaire provides preliminary evidence for a natural cut-off point that clearly separates addicted play from normal play...

  16. India and the fissile material cut-off treaty: policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayan, Rajiv

    2011-01-01

    The international community inside and outside the Conference of Disarmament is underscoring the need for concluding a fissile material cut-off treaty (FMCT). The Indian government, for a long period, has been sponsoring the idea. Notwithstanding the international stagnation, the issue has been instigating periodic debate in India on the Indian approach. The periodic revival of the issue requires that India revisit its policy on fissile material production as well as its approach towards a possible EVICT. This article examines the question: should India's approach to conclude an FMCT be within the UN institutional framework? The new international reality is pushing for a new context, new realignments and a fresh outlook for an FMCT. India should take its own time to support conclusion of an FMCT so that its national interests and security are not adversely affected. (author)

  17. ELISA validation and determination of cut-off level for chloramphenicol residues in honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernacki Bogumił

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An analytical validation of a screening ELISA for detection of chloramphenicol (CAP in honey was conducted according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and Guidelines for the Validation of Screening Methods for Residues of Veterinary Medicines. The analyte was extracted from honey with a water and ethyl acetate mixture, and CAP concentrations were measured photometrically at 450 nm. The recovery rate of the analyte from spiked samples was 79%. The cut-off level of CAP in honey as the minimum recovery (0.17 units was established. Detection capability (CCβ was fixed at 0.25 μg kg−1. No relevant interferences between matrix effects and structurally related substances including florfenicol and thiamphenicol were observed. The ELISA method should be useful for determination of CAP residues in honey monitoring.

  18. Verification arrangements for the proposed fissile material cut-off treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragin, V.

    2001-01-01

    Since the mid-1950's, an agreement to terminate the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons has been on the agenda. On December 16, 1993, the UNGA adopted Resolution A/RES/48/75/L which recommends ''the negotiation in the most appropriate international forum of a non-discriminatory, multilateral and internationally and effectively verifiable treaty banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons and other nuclear explosive devices''. The proposed Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT) is still one of the most important items on the multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation agenda. Successful achievement of the FMCT would be an important step towards the goal of eliminating nuclear weapons. (author)

  19. High cut-off membranes in acute kidney injury and continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2017-11-24

    Innovation in continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) utilized to treat acute kidney injury (AKI) and sepsis, has brought new machines and techniques. Part of these new advances are due to the availability of innovative biomaterials and the construction of membranes with larger pores and wide distribution of pore sizes. This includes the creation of a new generation of high cut-off membranes whose utilization in clinical practice is promising for the wide spectrum of solutes that are removed during extracorporeal therapies.However, the enlargement of pore diameters brings some loss of albumin during treatment and this effect is still under evaluation, since there is a possibility that this is detrimental for the patient. A thorough review of the available clinical literature is reported in this paper with a reappraisal of the potential application of these new technologies.

  20. Evaluation of composite shear walls behavior (parametric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nikkhoo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Composite shear walls which are made of a layer of steel plate with a concrete cover in one or both sides of the steel plate, are counted as the third generation of the shear walls. Nowadays, composite shear walls are widely utilized in building new resisting structures as well as rehabilitating of the existing structures in earthquake-prone countries. Despite of its advantages, use of the composite shear walls is not yet prevalent as it demands more detailed appropriate investigation. Serving higher strength, flexibility and better energy absorption, while being more economical are the main advantages of this system which has paved its path to be used in high-rise buildings, structural retrofit and reservoir tanks. In this research, channel shear connectors are utilized to connect the concrete cover to the steel plate. As a key parameter, variation in the distance of shear connectors and their arrangement on the behavior of composite shear walls has been scrutinized. In addition, the shear stiffness, flexibility, out of plane displacement and the energy absorption of the structural system has been explored. For this purpose, several structural models with different shear distances and arrangements have been investigated. The obtained results reveal that with increase in shear connectors’ distance, the wall stiffness would reduce while its lateral displacement increases up to eighty percent While the out of plane displacement of the steel plate will reduce up to three times.

  1. Measurement of current drive profile using electron cyclotron wave attenuation near the O-mode cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.

    1991-01-01

    A method for determining the radial profile of the lower-hybrid current drive in tokamaks uing electron-cyclotron attenuation of the O-mode for frequencies ω near the cut-off frequency is discussed. The basic idea is that for a given wave frequency, the cut-off plays the role of a spatial filter selecting a variable portion of the non-inductive current. It is shown that the incremental attenuation resulting from a small increase of ω displays specific features related to the current density near the cut-off point. Using the relation between the wave damping and the current density it is possible to determine the radial profile of the current drive from the wave attenuation measurements. A numerical application is also presented for plasma parameters in the reactor regime

  2. Age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off in the diagnostic strategy for deep vein thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated that use of an age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off value for patients above 50 years increases utility of the diagnostic strategy for pulmonary embolism. Evidence for the same approach regarding diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is, however, unclear. MATERIALS...... AND METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted following the PRISMA Statement guideline to gather the existing knowledge on the use of an age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off in the diagnostic strategy for DVT. Studies were extracted from Medline and the Cochrane Library. The search period ended...

  3. [Research progress on the clinical value of Ki-67 in breast cancer and its cut-off definition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Wu, Kejin

    2015-08-01

    Ki-67 has an important application value in clinical practice. However, it is still a little tough in clinical application because of the debate on the cut-off definition of Ki-67 index. This review summarizes most studies on the prognostic and predictive value of Ki-67, analyzes the reasons for the discrepancies among the studies cited, and presents the necessity and clinical significance of scientifically defining the cut-off of Ki-67 index, providing a theoretical basis for Ki-67 in clinical application.

  4. Creep behaviour of thin walled composite tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiebaud, F.; Muzic, B.; Perreux, D.; Varchon, D.; Oytana, C.; Lebras, J.

    1993-01-01

    Fiber reinforced composites are more and more employed in high performance structure for nuclear power plant, mainly as water piping tubes. The increase of the use of composites is due to the advantages that they give : high stiffness, large ultimate strength, corrosion resistance. This last advantage is sought for the pieces in contact with water, and it's one of the reason why the composite can be preferred to metal. However the mechanical behaviour of composite is actually poorly known. The high anisotropy is the main difficulty to obtain a realistic model of behaviour. This problem implies that the safety factor used in the design of structure is often too large. In this article a general overview of the mechanical behaviour of tube made in glass epoxy material is proposed. We discuss especially the creep behaviour under biaxial loadings. The form of the proposed model presently allows predicting a nonlinearity of the behaviour and provides a good correlation with the experimental data of several tests not described in this paper. It accounts for the change of the Poisson ratio during creep and cyclic tests. However the complete identification requires long time testings and consequently the model must be corrected to take into account the damage which occurs in these cases

  5. Airborne sound insulation of new composite wall structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Yonka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection against noise is one of the essential requirements of the European Construction Product directive. In buildings, airborne sound insulation is used to define the acoustical quality between rooms. In order to develop wall structures with optimal sound insulation, an understanding of the physical origins of sound transmission is necessary. To develop a kind of knowledge that is applicable to the improvement of real walls and room barriers is the motive behind this study. The purpose of the work is to study the sound insulation of new composite wall structure.

  6. Appropriate body mass index cut-offs to determine thinness, overweight and obesity in South Asian children in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, J.A. de; Dommelen, P. van; Middelkoop, B.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asian populations have an increased risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders at a lower body mass index (BMI) than other ethnic groups. Therefore, lower adult BMI cut-offs to determine overweight and obesity are recommended to assess the associated health risks for Asian (23 and 27.5

  7. Sinus cut-off sign: A helpful sign in the CT diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture associated with pleural effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Seyda Ors; Karabulut, Nevzat; Yuncu, Gokhan; Sevinc, Serpil; Kiroglu, Yilmaz

    2006-01-01

    The objective of our study was to describe the 'sinus cut-off' sign at CT in the diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture in patients with blunt abdominal trauma complicated with pleural effusion, and evaluate its utility in an experimental model. Between January 2004 and March 2005, we observed an unusual interruption of costophrenic sinus at CT in three patients with blunt abdominal trauma accompanied with pleural effusion. This observation prompted us to evaluate the utility of this sign in an experimental model. Laparotomically, we created 2 cm diapragmatic lacerations at each hemidiaphragm in two rabbits and pushed up the abdominal viscera with omentum through the defect. To simulate hemothorax, we also injected 5-10 mL of diluted contrast material into the pleural space. Using a dual-slice helical CT scanner, limited thoracoabdominal CT examination was performed before and after injection of intrapleural contrast material. The images were analyzed for the presence of CT signs for diaphragmatic injury. The left posterior costophrenic sulcus was interrupted in all of the three patients with left pleural effusion. While it was associated with other findings of diaphragmatic injury, the 'sinus cut-off sign' was the sole finding in one patient. The sinus cut-off sign was observed on the CT scans of 100% of the rabbits with a left and right sided diaphragmatic rupture. The 'sinus cut-off sign' is useful and can increase the CT detection of acute diaphragmatic injury associated with pleural effusion

  8. Quantum fields and Poisson processes: Interaction of a cut-off boson field with a quantum particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, J.; Rideau, G.; Gaveau, B.

    1985-01-01

    The solution of the Schroedinger equation for a boson field interacting with a quantum particle is written as an expectation on a Poisson process counting the variations of the boson-occupation numbers for each momentum. An energy cut-off is needed for the expectation to be meaningful. (orig.)

  9. Spectrally selective solar absorber with sharp and temperature dependent cut-off based on semiconductor nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Qinghui; Lu, Hong; Gan, Qiaoqiang; Yu, Zongfu; Zhu, Jia

    2017-05-01

    Spectrally selective absorbers (SSA) with high selectivity of absorption and sharp cut-off between high absorptivity and low emissivity are critical for efficient solar energy conversion. Here, we report the semiconductor nanowire enabled SSA with not only high absorption selectivity but also temperature dependent sharp absorption cut-off. By taking advantage of the temperature dependent bandgap of semiconductors, we systematically demonstrate that the absorption cut-off profile of the semiconductor-nanowire-based SSA can be flexibly tuned, which is quite different from most of the other SSA reported so far. As an example, silicon nanowire based selective absorbers are fabricated, with the measured absorption efficiency above (below) bandgap ˜97% (15%) combined with an extremely sharp absorption cut-off (transition region ˜200 nm), the sharpest SSA demonstrated so far. The demonstrated semiconductor-nanowire-based SSA can enable a high solar thermal efficiency of ≳86% under a wide range of operating conditions, which would be competitive candidates for the concentrated solar energy utilizations.

  10. A general equation to obtain multiple cut-off scores on a test from multinomial logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersabé, Rosa; Rivas, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    The authors derive a general equation to compute multiple cut-offs on a total test score in order to classify individuals into more than two ordinal categories. The equation is derived from the multinomial logistic regression (MLR) model, which is an extension of the binary logistic regression (BLR) model to accommodate polytomous outcome variables. From this analytical procedure, cut-off scores are established at the test score (the predictor variable) at which an individual is as likely to be in category j as in category j+1 of an ordinal outcome variable. The application of the complete procedure is illustrated by an example with data from an actual study on eating disorders. In this example, two cut-off scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) scores are obtained in order to classify individuals into three ordinal categories: asymptomatic, symptomatic and eating disorder. Diagnoses were made from the responses to a self-report (Q-EDD) that operationalises DSM-IV criteria for eating disorders. Alternatives to the MLR model to set multiple cut-off scores are discussed.

  11. Screening for Internet Addiction: An Empirical Study on Cut-off Points for the Chen Internet Addiction Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Ko

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the optimal cut-off points of the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS, to screen for and diagnose Internet addiction among adolescents in the community by using the well- established diagnostic criteria of Internet addiction. This survey of 454 adolescents used screening (57/58 and diagnostic (63/64 cut-off points of the CIAS, a self-reported instrument, based on the results of systematic diagnostic interviews by psychiatrists. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve revealed that CIAS has good diagnostic accuracy (89.6%. The screening cut-off point had high sensitivity (85.6% and the diagnostic cut-off point had the highest diagnostic accuracy, classifying 87.6% of participants correctly. Accordingly, the screening point of the CIAS could provide a screening function in two-stage diagnosis, and the diagnostic point could serve as a diagnostic criterion in one-stage massive epidemiologic research.

  12. Anthropometric parameters’ cut-off points and predictive value for metabolic syndrome in women from Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo José Mora-García

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate anthropometric parameters’ (APs cut-off points and association for metabolic syndrome (MetS. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a total of 434 adult women from Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, in 2012. APs measured were waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, body adiposity index (BAI, waist-hip ratio (WHR and waist-height ratio (WHtR. Cut-off points were estimated by a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC. Logistic regression was applied to estimate possible associations. Results. Cut-off points for WC, BMI, BAI, WHR and WHtR were 85 cm, 28 kg/m2, 39%, 0.80 and 56, respectively. Only WHtR was associated to MetS (OR=1.11, CI95% [1.07-1.15]. Conclusion. WC cut-off point was higher than those proposed for Latin-American women by the Joint Interim Statement (JIS. WHtR had a low predictive value for MetS.

  13. High harmonic generation at the tunneling ionization of atoms by intense laser radiation near the classical cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gets, A. V.; Krainov, V. P.

    2018-01-01

    The yield of spontaneous photons at the tunneling ionization of atoms by intense low-frequency laser radiation near the classical cut-off is estimated analytically by using the three-step model. The Bell-shaped dependence in the universal photon spectrum is explained qualitatively.

  14. The Potential of Established Fitness Cut-off Points for Monitoring Women with Fibromyalgia : The al-Ándalus Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Piñero, José; Aparicio, Virginia A; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Borges-Cosic, Milkana; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determinate whether fitness cut-off points discriminate the severity of major fibromyalgia symptoms and health-related quality of life. Additionally, we investigated which American Colleague of Rheumatology (ACR) fibromyalgia criteria (1990 vs. modified 2010)

  15. Interannual rainfall variability over the Cape south coast of South Africa linked to cut-off low associated rainfall

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, CJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cut-off low (COL) associated rainfall on interannual rainfall variability over the Cape south coast region of South Africa for the period 1979-2011 is investigated. COLs are objectively identified and tracked on daily average 500 h...

  16. The mysterious age invariance of the planetary nebula luminosity function bright cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesicki, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    Planetary nebulae mark the end of the active life of 90% of all stars. They trace the transition from a red giant to a degenerate white dwarf. Stellar models1,2 predicted that only stars above approximately twice the solar mass could form a bright nebula. But the ubiquitous presence of bright planetary nebulae in old stellar populations, such as elliptical galaxies, contradicts this: such high-mass stars are not present in old systems. The planetary nebula luminosity function, and especially its bright cut-off, is almost invariant between young spiral galaxies, with high-mass stars, and old elliptical galaxies, with only low-mass stars. Here, we show that new evolutionary tracks of low-mass stars are capable of explaining in a simple manner this decades-old mystery. The agreement between the observed luminosity function and computed stellar evolution validates the latest theoretical modelling. With these models, the planetary nebula luminosity function provides a powerful diagnostic to derive star formation histories of intermediate-age stars. The new models predict that the Sun at the end of its life will also form a planetary nebula, but it will be faint.

  17. Detection of cut-off point for rapid automized naming test in good readers and dyslexics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rapid automized naming test is an appropriate tool to diagnose learning disability even before teaching reading. This study aimed to detect the cut-off point of this test for good readers and dyslexics.Methods: The test has 4 parts including: objects, colors, numbers and letters. 5 items are repeated on cards randomly for 10 times. Children were asked to name items rapidly. We studied 18 dyslexic students and 18 age-matched good readers between 7 and 8 years of age at second and third grades of elementary school; they were recruited by non-randomize sampling into 2 groups: children with developmental dyslexia from learning disabilities centers with mean age of 100 months, and normal children with mean age of 107 months from general schools in Tehran. Good readers selected from the same class of dyslexics.Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849 for letter naming, 0.892 for color naming, 0.971 for number naming, 0.887 for picture naming, and 0.965 totally. The overall sensitivity and specificity was 1 and was 0.79, respectively. The highest sensitivity and specificity were related to number naming (1 and 0.90, respectively.Conclusion: Findings showed that the rapid automized naming test could diagnose good readers from dyslexics appropriately.

  18. Spinal sagittal contour affecting falls: cut-off value of the lumbar spine for falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Kasukawa, Yuji; Hongo, Michio; Shimada, Yoichi

    2013-06-01

    Spinal deformities reportedly affect postural instability or falls. To prevent falls in clinical settings, the determination of a cut-off angle of spinal sagittal contour associated with increase risk for falls would be useful for screening for high-risk fallers. The purpose of this study was to calculate the spinal sagittal contour angle associated with increased risk for falls during medical checkups in community dwelling elders. The subjects comprised 213 patients (57 men, 156 women) with a mean age of 70.1 years (range, 55-85 years). The upright and flexion/extension thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angles, and the spinal inclination were evaluated with SpinalMouse(®). Postural instability was evaluated by stabilometry, using the total track length (LNG), enveloped areas (ENV), and track lengths in the lateral and anteroposterior directions (X LNG and Y LNG, respectively). The back extensor strength (BES) was measured using a strain-gauge dynamometer. The relationships among the parameters were analyzed statistically. Age, lumbar lordosis, spinal inclination, LNG, X LNG, Y LNG, and BES were significantly associated with falls (Pfalls about lumbar lordosis angles revealed that angles of 3° and less were significant for falls. The present findings suggest that increased age, spinal inclination, LNG, X LNG, Y LNG, and decreased BES and lumbar lordosis, are associated with falls. An angle of lumbar lordosis of 3° or less was associated with falls in these community-dwelling elders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cut-off scaling and multiplicative reformalization in the theory of critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forgacs, G.; Solyom, J.; Zawadowski, A.

    1976-03-01

    In the paper a new method to study the critical fluctuations in systems of 4-epsilon dimensions around the phase transition point is developed. This method unifies the Kadanoff scaling hypothesis as formulated by Wilson by help of his renormalization group technique and the simple mathematical structure of the Lie equations of the Gell-Mann-Low multiplicative renormalization. The basic idea of the new method is that a change in the physical cut-off can be compensated by an effective coupling in such a way that the Green's function and vertex in the original and transformed system differ only by a multiplicative factor. The critical indices, the anomalous dimensions and the critical exponent describing the correction to scaling are determined to second order in epsilon. The specific heat exponent is also calculated, in four dimensions the effect of fluctuations appears in the form of logarithmic corrections. In the last sections the new method is compared to other ones and the differences are discussed. (Sz.N.Z.)

  20. Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3Mage or older was 95.6%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Verification of a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT): The Potential Role of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    The objective of a future verification of a FMCT(Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty) is to deter and detect non-compliance with treaty obligations in a timely and non-discriminatory manner with regard to banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear devices. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has already established the IAEA safeguards as a verification system mainly for Non -Nuclear Weapon States (NNWSs), it is expected that the IAEA's experience and expertise in this field will make a significant contribution to setting up a future treaty's verification regime. This paper is designed to explore the potential role of the IAEA in verifying the future treaty by analyzing verification abilities of the Agency in terms of treaty verification and expected challenges. Furthermore, the concept of multilateral verification that could be facilitated by the IAEA will be examined as a measure of providing a credible assurance of compliance with a future treaty. In this circumstance, it is necessary for the IAEA to be prepared for playing a leading role in FMCT verifications as a form of multilateral verification by taking advantage of its existing verification concepts, methods, and tools. Also, several challenges that the Agency faces today need to be overcome, including dealing with sensitive and proliferative information, attribution of fissile materials, lack of verification experience in military fuel cycle facilities, and different attitude and culture towards verification between NWSs and NNWSs

  2. Solute removal capacity of high cut-off membrane plasma separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Atsushi; Kurashima, Naoki; Nakamura, Ayako; Miyamoto, Satoko; Iimori, Soichiro; Rai, Tatemitsu

    2013-10-01

    In vitro blood filtration was performed by a closed circuit using high cut-off membrane plasma separators, EVACURE EC-2A10 (EC-2A) and EVACURE EC-4A10 (EC-4A). Samples were obtained from sampling sites before the plasma separator, after each plasma separator, and from the ultrafiltrate of each separator. The sieving coefficient (S.C.) of total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), IgG, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), fibrinogen (Fib), antithrombin III (AT-III), and coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) were calculated. The S.C. of each solute using EC-2A and EC-A4 were as follows; TP: 0.25 and 0.56, Alb: 0.32 and 0.73, IgG: 0.16 and 0.50, IL-6:0.73 and 0.95, IL-8:0.85 and 0.82, TNF-α: 1.07 and 0.99, Fib: 0 and 0, FXIII: 0.07 and 0.17, respectively. When compared with the conventional type of membrane plasma separators, EVACURE could efficiently remove cytokines while retaining coagulation factors such as fibrinogen. Moreover, EC-2A prevented protein loss, whereas EC-4A could remove approximately 50% of IgG. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  3. Verification of a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT): The Potential Role of the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jin Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of a future verification of a FMCT(Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty) is to deter and detect non-compliance with treaty obligations in a timely and non-discriminatory manner with regard to banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear devices. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has already established the IAEA safeguards as a verification system mainly for Non -Nuclear Weapon States (NNWSs), it is expected that the IAEA's experience and expertise in this field will make a significant contribution to setting up a future treaty's verification regime. This paper is designed to explore the potential role of the IAEA in verifying the future treaty by analyzing verification abilities of the Agency in terms of treaty verification and expected challenges. Furthermore, the concept of multilateral verification that could be facilitated by the IAEA will be examined as a measure of providing a credible assurance of compliance with a future treaty. In this circumstance, it is necessary for the IAEA to be prepared for playing a leading role in FMCT verifications as a form of multilateral verification by taking advantage of its existing verification concepts, methods, and tools. Also, several challenges that the Agency faces today need to be overcome, including dealing with sensitive and proliferative information, attribution of fissile materials, lack of verification experience in military fuel cycle facilities, and different attitude and culture towards verification between NWSs and NNWSs.

  4. Diurnal thermal analysis of microencapsulated PCM-concrete composite walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, Alexander M.; Sant, Gaurav; Pilon, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Transient heat conduction across microencapsulated PCM-concrete walls was simulated. • Equivalent homogeneous wall with effective thermal properties was rigorously derived. • Adding PCM to the wall increases daily energy savings and delays peak thermal load. • Energy savings is maximum when PCM melting temperature equals indoor temperature. • Energy savings are limited in extreme climates but time delay can be large. - Abstract: This paper examines the benefits of adding microencapsulated phase change material (PCM) to concrete used in building envelopes to reduce energy consumption and costs. First, it establishes that the time-dependent thermal behavior of microencapsulated PCM-concrete composite walls can be accurately predicted by an equivalent homogeneous wall with appropriate effective thermal properties. The results demonstrate that adding microencapsulated PCM to concrete resulted in a reduction and a time-shift in the maximum heat flux through the composite wall subjected to diurnal sinusoidal outdoor temperature and solar radiation heat flux. The effects of the PCM volume fraction, latent heat of fusion, phase change temperature and temperature window, and outdoor temperature were evaluated. Several design rules were established including (i) increasing the PCM volume fraction and/or enthalpy of phase change increased the energy flux reduction and the time delay, (ii) the energy flux reduction was maximized when the PCM phase change temperature was close to the desired indoor temperature, (iii) the optimum phase change temperature to maximize the time delay increased with increasing average outdoor temperature, (iv) in extremely hot or cold climates, the thermal load could be delayed even though the reduction in daily energy flux was small, and (v) the choice of phase change temperature window had little effect on the energy flux reduction and on the time delay. This analysis can serve as a framework to design PCM composite walls

  5. Gap size and wall lesion development next to composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, N.K.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Ruben, J.L.; de Soet, J.J.; Cenci, M.S.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This in situ study investigated whether there is a relationship between gap size and wall lesion development in dentin next to 2 composite materials, and whether a clinically relevant threshold for the gap size could be established. For 21 days, 14 volunteers wore a modified occlusal splint

  6. Body mass index and waist-to-height ratio cut-offs as predictors of high blood pressure in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Febriana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is associated with increased risk for high blood pressure (BP. Although a routine BP measurement is indicated for all children visiting pediatric practice, recognition of children particularly at risk may save times. The aim of this study was to assess the cut-off point for body mass index (BMI and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR to predict high BP in adolescents. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 928 children aged 11 to 16 years in Yogyakarta. BP were measured using standard technique described by The Fourth Report on The Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. BMI was adjusted for age and sex using the WHO 2007 growth reference. WHtR was ratio of waist circumference related to height in centimeters. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were used to estimate the best cut-offs. Results: The best cut-off point for BMI-for-age Z-score (BMIZ to predict high BP was 0.51 with sensitivity and specificity of 82% (95% CI = 78-86 and 76% (95% CI = 67-78 for systolic BP and sensitivity and specificity of 82% (95% CI = 78-86 and 72% (95% CI = 68-76 for diastolic BP. The best cut-off point for WHtR was 0.45, with sensitivity of 76% (95% CI = 67-78 and specificity of 74% (95% CI = 71-79 for systolic BP and sensitivity of 76% (95% CI = 72-80 and specificity of 70% (95% CI = 61-75 for diastolic BP.Conclusion: BMIZ of 0.51 and WHtR of 0.45 are the best cut-off point to predict high BP in adolescents.

  7. The Portuguese version of the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45): Normative data, reliability, and clinical significance cut-offs scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Paulo P P; Fassnacht, Daniel B

    2015-12-01

    The Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45) is one of the most extensively used standardized self-report instruments to monitor psychotherapy outcomes. The questionnaire is designed specifically for the assessment of change during psychotherapy treatments. Therefore, it is crucial to provide norms and clinical cut-off values for clinicians and researchers. The current study aims at providing study provides norms, reliability indices, and clinical cut-off values for the Portuguese version of the scale. Data from two large non-clinical samples (high school/university, N = 1,669; community, N = 879) and one clinical sample (n = 201) were used to investigate psychometric properties and derive normative data for all OQ-45 subscales and the total score. Significant and substantial differences were found for all subscales between the clinical and non-clinical sample. The Portuguese version also showed adequate reliabilities (internal consistency, test-retest), which were comparable to the original version. To assess individual clinical change, clinical cut-off values and reliable change indices were calculated allowing clinicians and researchers to monitor and evaluate clients' individual change. The Portuguese version of the OQ-45 is a reliable instrument with comparable Portuguese norms and cut-off scores to those from the original version. This allows clinicians and researchers to use this instrument for evaluating change and outcome in psychotherapy. This study provides norms for non-clinical and clinical Portuguese samples and investigates the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) of the OQ-45. Cut-off values and reliable change index are provided allowing clinicians to evaluate clinical change and clients' response to treatment, monitoring the quality of mental health care services. These can be used, in routine clinical practice, as benchmarks for treatment progress and to empirically base clinical decisions such as continuation of treatment or considering

  8. ELISA Cut-off Point for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis; a Comparison with Serum Agglutination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a world-wide disease, which has a diverse clinical manifestation, and its diagnosis has to be proven by laboratory data. Serum agglutination test (SAT is the most-widely used test for diagnosing brucellosis. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA can also determine specific antibody classes against brucella. It is a sensitive, simple and rapid test, which could be an acceptable alternative to SAT with fewer limitations, however, like any other new test it should be further evaluated and standardized for various populations. This study was planned to determine an optimal cut-off point, for ELISA which would offer maximum sensitivity and specificity for the test when compared to SAT.Methods: Four hundred and seven patients with fever and other compatible symptoms of brucellosis were enrolled in the study. Serum agglutination test, 2-Mercaptoethanol test, and ELISA were performed on their sera. Results: The cut-off point of 53 IU/ml of ELISA-IgG yielded the maximal sensitivity and specificity comparing to the other levels of ELISA-IgG, and was considered the best cut off-point of ELISA-IgG to diagnose acute brucellosis. At this cut-off, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 84.09%, 85.38%, 62.20, 94.90, 5.75, 0.18, respectively.Conclusion: The best cut-off point of ELISA-IgG is 53 IU/ml, which yields the maximal sensitivity and specificity to diagnose acute brucellosis.

  9. Seismic Behaviour of Composite Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boita, Ioana-Emanuela; Dan, Daniel; Stoian, Valeriu

    2017-10-01

    In this paper is presented an experimental study conducted at the “Politehnica” University of Timisoara, Romania. This study provides results from a comprehensive experimental investigation on the behaviour of composite steel fibre reinforced concrete shear walls (CSFRCW) with partially or totally encased profiles. Two experimental composite steel fibre reinforced concrete walls (CSFRCW) and, as a reference specimen, a typical reinforced concrete shear wall (RCW), (without structural reinforcement), were fabricated and tested under constant vertical load and quasi-static reversed cyclic lateral loads, in displacement control. The tests were performed until failure. The tested specimens were designed as 1:3 scale steel-concrete composite elements, representing a three storeys and one bay element from the base of a lateral resisting system made by shear walls. Configuration/arrangement of steel profiles in cross section were varied within the specimens. The main objective of this research consisted in identifying innovative solutions for composite steel-concrete shear walls with enhanced performance, as steel fibre reinforced concrete which was used in order to replace traditional reinforced concrete. A first conclusion was that replacing traditional reinforcement with steel fibre changes the failure mode of the elements, as from a flexural mode, in case of element RCW, to a shear failure mode for CSFRCW. The maximum lateral force had almost similar values but test results indicated an improvement in cracking response, and a decrease in ductility. The addition of steel fibres in the concrete mixture can lead to an increase of the initial cracking force, and can change the sudden opening of a crack in a more stable process.

  10. Linezolid extracorporeal removal during haemodialysis with high cut-off membrane in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Gianluca; Cassetta, Maria Iris; Tofani, Lorenzo; Valente, Serafina; Chelazzi, Cosimo; Falsini, Silvia; De Gaudio, Angelo Raffaele; Novelli, Andrea; Ronco, Claudio; Adembri, Chiara

    2015-10-01

    Continuous venovenous haemodialysis with high cut-off membrane (HCO-CVVHD) is often used in critically ill septic patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) to sustain renal function and to remove circulating inflammatory mediators. The aim of this study was to analyse the extracorporeal removal of linezolid and related alterations in pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters during HCO-CVVHD. Three critically ill septic patients with AKI, treated with linezolid and HCO-CVVHD, were prospectively observed. To calculate the extracorporeal clearance of linezolid and the PK parameters, effluent, pre-filter and post-filter samples were contemporaneously collected before linezolid infusion, just after 1-h infusion (maximum serum concentration; C(max)), at 3 h and 6 h after dosing, and before the next dose (trough serum concentration; C(min)). Linezolid C(max) and C(min) (pre-filter) ranged from 10.4-23.5 mg/L and from 2.9-10.3 mg/L. The dialysate saturation coefficient was 0.66-0.85 and the extracorporeal clearance with a diffusive dose of 35 m L/kg/h ranged from 2.1-2.5 L/h. Total linezolid clearance was between 1.7 L/h and 6.3 L/h. The total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) ranged from 95.1 mgh/L to 352.9 mgh/L, in accordance with the different clinical conditions. AUCfree/MIC ratios were always linezolid total clearance, the clinical features of critically ill septic patients appear to be mainly responsible for the high variability of linezolid serum concentrations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Thirteen treated of acute renal failure secondary to multiple myeloma with high cut off filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Wennekers, Ana; Martín Azara, María Pilar; Dourdil Sahun, Victoria; Bergasa Liberal, Beatriz; Ruiz Laiglesia, José Esteban; Vernet Perna, Patricia; Alvarez Lipe, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a haematological tumour that is characterised by uncontrolled proliferation of plasma cells and a significant volume of serum free light chains (sFLCs), which can cause acute renal failure due to intratubular precipitation, resulting in cast nephropathy. Acute renal failure is a complication that can arise in more than 20% of patients with multiple myeloma, half of which will require dialysis. We report our experience with 13 patients who were treated with dialysis using high cut off filters (HCO) between July 2011 and February 2015. A total of 6 consecutive 6-hour sessions were performed using a 2.1 m(2) HCO filter (Theralite® by Gambro®). Afterwards, further 6-hour sessions were continued on alternate days. A total of 151 sessions were conducted, with an average of 11.6 sessions per patient (range 6-27). The treatment proved to be effective in removing both kappa and lambda sFLCs, resulting in a 93.7% fall in sFLCs by the end of treatment. The average reduction was 57.7% per dialysis session. 10 out of the 13 cases recovered sufficient renal function to become independent of dialysis. There were no major changes in albumin levels using an infusion protocol of 2 50-mL vials of 20% albumin at the end of the dialysis session. Combination treatment with chemotherapy and long dialysis with HCO filters was effective in reducing the sFLC levels and recovering sufficient renal function in 77% of cases. With HCO filters, significant cost savings are achieved, contrary to what was previously believed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifying clinically meaningful symptom response cut-off values on the SANS in predominant negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Leucht, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The treatment and measurement of negative symptoms are currently at issue in schizophrenia, but the clinical meaning of symptom severity and change is unclear. To offer a clinically meaningful interpretation of severity and change scores on the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Patients were intention-to-treat participants (n=383) in two double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials that compared amisulpride with placebo for the treatment of predominant negative symptoms. Equipercentile linking was used to examine extrapolation from (a) CGI-S to SANS severity ratings, and (b) CGI-I to SANS percentage change (n=383). Linking was conducted at baseline, 8-14 days, 28-30 days, and 56-60 days of the trials. Across visits, CGI-S ratings of 'not ill' linked to SANS scores of 0-13, and ranged to 'extreme' ratings that linked to SANS scores of 102-105. The relationship between the CGI-S and the SANS severity scores assumed a linear trend (1=0-13, 2=15-56, 3=37-61, 4=49-66, 5=63-75, 6=79-89, 7=102-105). Similarly the relationship between CGI-I ratings and SANS percentage change followed a linear trend. For instance, CGI-I ratings of 'very much improved' were linked to SANS percent changes of -90 to -67, 'much improved' to -50 to -42, and 'minimally improved' to -21 to -13. The current results uniquely contribute to the debate surrounding negative symptoms by providing clinical meaning to SANS severity and change scores and so offer direction regarding clinically meaningful response cut-off scores to guide treatment targets of predominant negative symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determining the optimal system-specific cut-off frequencies for filtering in-vitro upper extremity impact force and acceleration data by residual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Timothy A; Dunning, Cynthia E; Andrews, David M

    2011-10-13

    The fundamental nature of impact testing requires a cautious approach to signal processing, to minimize noise while preserving important signal information. However, few recommendations exist regarding the most suitable filter frequency cut-offs to achieve these goals. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation is twofold: to illustrate how residual analysis can be utilized to quantify optimal system-specific filter cut-off frequencies for force, moment, and acceleration data resulting from in-vitro upper extremity impacts, and to show how optimal cut-off frequencies can vary based on impact condition intensity. Eight human cadaver radii specimens were impacted with a pneumatic impact testing device at impact energies that increased from 20J, in 10J increments, until fracture occurred. The optimal filter cut-off frequency for pre-fracture and fracture trials was determined with a residual analysis performed on all force and acceleration waveforms. Force and acceleration data were filtered with a dual pass, 4th order Butterworth filter at each of 14 different cut-off values ranging from 60Hz to 1500Hz. Mean (SD) pre-fracture and fracture optimal cut-off frequencies for the force variables were 605.8 (82.7)Hz and 513.9 (79.5)Hz, respectively. Differences in the optimal cut-off frequency were also found between signals (e.g. Fx (medial-lateral), Fy (superior-inferior), Fz (anterior-posterior)) within the same test. These optimal cut-off frequencies do not universally agree with the recommendations of filtering all upper extremity impact data using a cut-off frequency of 600Hz. This highlights the importance of quantifying the filter frequency cut-offs specific to the instrumentation and experimental set-up. Improper digital filtering may lead to erroneous results and a lack of standardized approaches makes it difficult to compare findings of in-vitro dynamic testing between laboratories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Seismic analysis of the frame structure reformed by cutting off column and jacking based on stiffness ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J. K.; Xu, X. S.

    2017-11-01

    The cutting off column and jacking technology is a method for increasing story height, which has been widely used and paid much attention in engineering. The stiffness will be changed after the process of cutting off column and jacking, which directly affects the overall seismic performance. It is usually necessary to take seismic strengthening measures to enhance the stiffness. A five story frame structure jacking project in Jinan High-tech Zone was taken as an example, and three finite element models were established which contains the frame model before lifting, after lifting and after strengthening. Based on the stiffness, the dynamic time-history analysis was carried out to research its seismic performance under the EL-Centro seismic wave, the Taft seismic wave and the Tianjin artificial seismic wave. The research can provide some guidance for the design and construction of the entire jack lifting structure.

  15. Establishing the cut-off score for remission and severity-ranges on the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren D; Rothschild, Anthony J; Flint, Alastair J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS) is a rating scale dedicated to the measurement of severity in psychotic depression (PD). The aim of this study was to establish the PDAS cut-off for remission of PD as well as PDAS score-ranges for mild, moderate, and severe PD...... on the PDAS and the severity-ranges for mild, moderate, and severe PD were defined using the Clinical Global Impression - Severity scale (CGI-S) as reference by means of pair-wise receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Subsequently, it was tested whether remission on the PDAS could separate...... the effects of Olanzapine+Sertraline vs. Olanzapine+Placebo through an intention-to-treat, mixed-effects logistic regression of the data from STOP-PD. RESULTS: According to the ROC analyses, the ideal cut-off for remission of PD was a PDAS total score moderate...

  16. Factors in selecting serum samples for use in determining the positive/negative threshold (cut-off) in ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    The threshold (cut-off) that defines whether a test result is seropositive or seronegative is calculated by testing serum samples from a subpopulation of animals that is assumed to represent the target population in all aspects. For this proposition to be true, it is essential to consider the variables in the target population that must be represented in the subpopulation. Without representation of the variables in the subpopulation, it is likely that the cut-off selected for the test will be errant and will misclassify animals as to their infection status. The purpose of this paper is to identify a few of the principal variables that need to be taken into account when selecting a subpopulation of animals for test validation. (author)

  17. Ordinary mode reflectometry. Modification of the scattering and cut-off responses due to the shape of localized density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanack, C.; Boucher, I.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G.; Clairet, F.; Zou, X.L.

    1996-01-01

    Ordinary wave reflectometry in a plasma containing a localized density perturbation is studied with a 1-D model. The phase response is studied as a function of the wavenumber and position of the perturbation. It is shown that it strongly depends upon the perturbation shape and size. For a small perturbation wavenumber, the response is due to the oscillation of the cut-off layer. For larger wavenumbers, two regimes are found: for a broad perturbation, the phase response is an image of the perturbation itself; for a narrow perturbation, it is rather an image of the Fourier transform. For tokamak plasmas it turns out that, for the fluctuation spectra usually observed, the phase response comes primarily from those fluctuations that are localized at the cut-off. Results of a 2-D numerical model show that geometry effects are negligible for the scattering by radial fluctuations. (author)

  18. Inplane shear capacity of reinforced composite masonry block walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.H.; Tseng, W.S.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe a test program performed to determine the inplane shear capacity, stiffness and ductility of composite masonry walls subjected to earthquake type loadings. Specimens were simultaneously subjected to a range of compressive loads to simulate dead load; and inplane shear loads with full load reversal to simulate the earthquake cycling load. The influence of horizontal and vertical reinforcing steel percentages on the inplane shear capacity, stiffness and ductility was also investigated. (orig./HP)

  19. Elastic torsional buckling of thin-walled composite cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, D. E.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Dexter, H. B.

    1974-01-01

    The elastic torsional buckling strength has been determined experimentally for thin-walled cylinders fabricated with glass/epoxy, boron/epoxy, and graphite/epoxy composite materials and composite-reinforced aluminum and titanium. Cylinders have been tested with several unidirectional-ply orientations and several cross-ply layups. Specimens were designed with diameter-to-thickness ratios of approximately 150 and 300 and in two lengths of 10 in. and 20 in. The results of these tests were compared with the buckling strengths predicted by the torsional buckling analysis of Chao.

  20. Current Observational Constraints to Holographic Dark Energy Model with New Infrared cut-off via Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuting; Xu, Lixin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the holographic dark energy model with new infrared (IR) cut-off for both the flat case and the non-flat case are confronted with the combined constraints of current cosmological observations: type Ia Supernovae, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, current Cosmic Microwave Background, and the observational hubble data. By utilizing the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, we obtain the best fit values of the parameters with $1\\sigma, 2\\sigma$ errors in the flat model: $\\Omega_{b}h...

  1. Cut-Off Value for Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire in Predicting Surgical Success in Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Azimi

    Full Text Available Various factors related to predict surgical success were studied; however, a standard cut-off point for the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ measure has not yet been established for a favorable surgical outcome for lumbar disc herniation (LDH. This study was to find the optimal cut-off point on the PSQ to distinguish surgical success in patients with LDH. A total of 154 patients with LDH consecutively referred to our clinic were enrolled into this prospective study between February 2011 and January 2014. All participants completed the PSQ. Patients completed the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI score before surgery, and at 2 years after surgery. Surgical success was defined as a 13-point improvement from the baseline ODI scores. The cut-off value for PSQ was determined by the receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC. The mean age of patients was 49.3±9.6 years, and there were 80 women. The mean time for follow-up assessment was 31±5 months (range 24-35. Post-surgical success was 79.9% (n = 123 at 2 years follow up. The mean score for the total PSQ, PSQ-minor, and PSQ-moderate were 6.0 (SD = 1.6, 5.4 (SD = 1.9 and 6.5 (SD = 1.7, respectively. Total PSQ score was also significantly correlated with the total scores of the ODI. The optimal total PSQ cut-off point was determined as > 5.2 to predict surgical success in LDH patients, with 80.0% sensitivity and 75.6% specificity (AUC-0.814, 95% CI 0.703-0.926. This study showed that the PSQ could be considered a parameter for predicting surgical success in patients with LDH, and can be useful in clinical practice.

  2. Successful use of combined high cut-off haemodialysis and bortezomib for acute kidney injury associated with myeloma cast nephropathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, F

    2012-05-01

    We present the case of a 58-year old female with de novo dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to myeloma cast nephropathy. The patient underwent extended high cut-off haemodialysis (HCO-HD), in conjunction with bortezomib-based chemotherapy, and soon became dialysis independent with normal renal function. To our knowledge, this is the first time this treatment strategy has been employed successfully in an Irish centre.

  3. Adiposity cut-off points for cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk in the Portuguese population: The PORMETS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severo, Milton; Santos, Ana Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The contribution of adiposity to cardiovascular and diabetes risk justifies the inclusion of an adiposity measure, usually waist circumference, in the definition of metabolic syndrome. However, waist circumference thresholds differ across populations. Our aim was to assess which adiposity measure performs the best in identifying the metabolic syndrome in a sample of Portuguese participants and to estimate cut-off values for these measures. Methods Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study (PORMETS study) conducted in Portugal between 2007 and 2009. A representative sample of non-institutionalized adults, comprising 3,956 participants, aged 18 years and older, was evaluated. A structured questionnaire was administered, collecting information on personal medical history, socio-demographics and behavioral characteristics. Anthropometrics, blood pressure and venous blood samples were also obtained. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology recommended criteria. Elevated cardiometabolic risk was considered when two or more of the four criteria of metabolic syndrome were present, excluding the waist circumference component. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to estimate cut-off points. Results This study found that waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body adiposity index performed better than other adiposity measures, such as body mass index. The estimated cut-off points for waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body adiposity index in women and men were 0.564 / 89 cm / 27.4 and 0.571 / 93.5 cm / 25.5, respectively. Conclusion As waist circumference is currently used as the adiposity measure in the definition of metabolic syndrome and as no relevant differences were observed between this measure and waist-to-height ratio, it is likely that no modification to the metabolic syndrome definition needs to be proposed. Moreover

  4. Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination and Individual Domain Cut-Off Scores for Discriminating between Different Cognitive Subtypes of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berankova, Dagmar; Janousova, Eva; Mrackova, Martina; Eliasova, Ilona; Kostalova, Milena; Skutilova, Svetlana; Rektorova, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The main aim of this study was to verify the sensitivity and specificity of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) in discriminating between Parkinson's disease (PD) with normal cognition (PD-NC) and PD with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and between PD-MCI and PD with dementia (PD-D). We also evaluated how ACE-R correlates with neuropsychological cognitive tests in PD. Methods. We examined three age-matched groups of PD patients diagnosed according to the Movement Disorder Society Task Force criteria: PD-NC, PD-MCI, and PD-D. ROC analysis was used to establish specific cut-off scores of ACE-R and its domains. Correlation analyses were performed between ACE-R and its subtests with relevant neuropsychological tests. Results. Statistically significant differences between groups were demonstrated in global ACE-R scores and subscores, except in the language domain. ACE-R cut-off score of 88.5 points discriminated best between PD-MCI and PD-NC (sensitivity 0.68, specificity 0.91); ACE-R of 82.5 points distinguished best between PD-MCI and PD-D (sensitivity 0.70, specificity 0.73). The verbal fluency domain of ACE-R demonstrated the best discrimination between PD-NC and PD-MCI (cut-off score 11.5; sensitivity 0.70, specificity 0.73) while the orientation/attention subscore was best between PD-MCI and PD-D (cut-off score 15.5; sensitivity 0.90, specificity 0.97). ACE-R scores except for ACE-R language correlated with specific cognitive tests of interest.

  5. Insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents: HOMA-IR cut-off levels in the prepubertal and pubertal periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoğlu, Selim; Hatipoğlu, Nihal; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz; Kendirici, Mustafa; Keskin, Mehmet; Kondolot, Meda

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk for insulin resistance. The underlying mechanism for the physiological increase in insulin levels in puberty is not clearly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the cut-off values for homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in obese children and adolescents according to gender and pubertal status. Two hundred and eight obese children and adolescents (141 girls, 127 boys) aged between 5 and 18 years were included in the study. The children were divided into prepubertal and pubertal groups. A standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was carried out in all children. A total insulin level exceeding 300 μU/mL in the blood samples, collected during the test period, was taken as the insulin resistance criterion. Cut-off values for HOMA-IR were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In the prepubertal period, the rate of insulin resistance was found to be 37% in boys and 27.8% in girls,while in the pubertal period, this rate was 61.7% in boys and 66.7% in girls. HOMA-IR cut-off values for insulin resistance in the prepubertal period were calculated to be 2.67 (sensitivity 88.2%, specificity 65.5%) in boys and 2.22 (sensitivity 100%, specificity 42.3%) in girls, and in the pubertal period, they were 5.22 (sensitivity 56%, specificity 93.3%) in boys and 3.82 (sensitivity 77.1%, specificity 71.4%) in girls. Since gender, obesity and pubertal status are factors affecting insulin resistance, cut-off values which depend on gender and pubertal status, should be used in evaluation of insulin resistance.

  6. Appraisal and standardization of curvilinear velocity (VCL) cut-off values for CASA analysis of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, U; Malecki, I A; Mahmood, M; Martin, G B

    2017-06-01

    One of the basic steps in objective analysis of sperm motility is the subdivision of a motile sperm population into slow, medium and rapid categories based on their velocity. However, for CASA analysis of quail sperm, the velocity values for categorization of slow, medium and rapid sperm have not yet been standardized. To identify the cut-off values of "velocity curvilinear" (VCL) for quail sperm categorization, we captured and analysed 22,300 tracks of quail sperm using SCA ® -CASA. The median and mean VCL values were 85 and 97 μm/s. To define the VCL cut-off values, we used two methods. In the first, we identified the upper (rapid sperm) and lower (slow sperm) cut-off values using: (i) median VCL ± 25% or ± 50% or ± 75% of median VCL value; (ii) first and third quartile values of VCL data (i.e. 25% cut-off setting); and (iii) 33% and 66% of VCL data. Among these settings, sperm categories and their corresponding motility characteristics recorded using the "25%" setting (i.e. slow ≤36 ≤ medium ≤154 ≤ rapid) were found the most realistic and coherent with male ranking by fertility. In the second method, we calculated heteroscedasticity in the total VCL data using PCA and the two-step clustering method. With this approach, the mean of the high and low clusters was 165 and 51 μm/s, respectively. Together, the mean from two methods suggested that, for SCA ® -CASA categorization of quail sperm, sperm should be classed as "rapid" at VCL ≥160 μm/s and "slow" at VCL ≤45 μm/s. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Performance tests of an abrasive cut-off systems for the finishing of high-precision casts

    OpenAIRE

    A. Fedoryszyn; W. T. Meksa; G. Woźnicki

    2008-01-01

    The paper summarizes the performance data of a newly designed and engineered grinding and cut-off system. The machine is used for separation of models manufactured by the investment casting method. The machine comprises the following units:- base supporting other assemblies and elements: abrasive disc holder and drives; this solution enables an easy replacement and access to holding elements while a belt transmission allows the disc rpm to be varied,- mechanism moving the spindle in the horiz...

  8. Fourier phase analysis on equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography: range of phase spread and cut-off limits in normal individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaiah, Vijayaraghavan L.; Harish, B.; Sunil, H.V.; Selvakumar, Job; Ravi Kishore, A.G.; Nair, Gopinathan

    2011-01-01

    To define the range of phase spread on equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography (ERNV) in normal individuals and derive the cut-off limit for the parameters to detect cardiac dyssynchrony. ERNV was carried out in 30 individuals (age 53±23 years, 25 males and 5 females) who had no history of cardiovascular disease. They all had normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF 55-70%) as determined by echocardiography, were in sinus rhythm, with normal QRS duration (≤120 msec) and normal coronary angiography. First harmonic phase analysis was performed on scintigraphic data acquired in best septal view. Left and right ventricular standard deviation (LVSD and RVSD, respectively) and interventricular mechanical delay (IVMD), the absolute difference of mean phase angles of right and left ventricle, were computed and expressed in milliseconds. Mean + 3 standard deviation (SD) was used to derive the cut-off limits. Average LVEF and duration of cardiac cycle in the study group were 62.5%±5.44% and 868.9±114.5 msec, respectively. The observations of LVSD, RVSD and right and left ventricular mean phase angles were shown to be normally distributed by Shapiro-Wilk test. Cut-off limits for LVSD, RVSD and IVMD were calculated to be 80 msec, 85 msec and 75 msec, respectively. Fourier phase analysis on ERNV is an effective tool for the evaluation of synchronicity of cardiac contraction. The cut-off limits of parameters of dyssynchrony can be used to separate heart failure patients with cardiac dyssynchrony from those without. ERNV can be used to select patients for cardiac resynchronization therapy. (author)

  9. The Potential of Established Fitness Cut-off Points for Monitoring Women with Fibromyalgia: The al-Ándalus Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Piñero, José; Aparicio, Virginia A; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Borges-Cosic, Milkana; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determinate whether fitness cut-off points discriminate the severity of major fibromyalgia symptoms and health-related quality of life. Additionally, we investigated which American Colleague of Rheumatology (ACR) fibromyalgia criteria (1990 vs. modified 2010) better discriminate fibromyalgia symptomatology. A total of 488 women with fibromyalgia and 200 non-fibromyalgia (control) women participated. All participants underwent both the 1990 and the modified 2010 ACR preliminary criteria (hereinafter 1990c and m-2010c, respectively). We used fitness cut-off points (Senior Fitness Tests Battery plus handgrip strength test) to discriminate between presence and absence of fibromyalgia. Additionally, we employed several instruments to assess fibromyalgia symptoms. Fitness cut-off points discriminated between high and low levels of the main symptoms the disease in all age groups (P from fibromyalgia diagnosis and monitoring. Moreover, the effect size of the differences in symptoms between women with fibromyalgia and controls were overall larger using the m-2010c compared with the 1990c, except for the tender points count, reflecting better the polysymptomatic distress condition of fibromyalgia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Establishing the cut off values of androgen markers in the assessment of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadaraja, R N D; Sthaneshwar, P; Razali, N

    2018-04-01

    Hyperandrogenism remains as one of the key features in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and can be assessed clinically or determined by biochemical assays. Hirsutism is the most common clinical manifestation of hyperandrogenism. The clinical assessment is subjected to wide variability due to poor interobserver agreement and multiple population factors such as ethnic variation, cosmetic procedures and genetic trait. The difficulty in resolving the androgen excess biochemically is due to a lack of consensus as to which serum androgen should be measured for the diagnosis of PCOS. The aim of the study was to compare and establish the diagnostic cut off value for different androgen biomarker for the diagnosis of PCOS. A total of 312 patients classified to PCOS (n = 164) and non PCOS (n = 148) cohorts were selected from the Laboratory Information System (LIS) based on serum total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) from the period of 1st April 2015 to 31st March 2016. PCOS was diagnosed based on Rotterdam criteria. Clinical hyperandrogenism and ultrasound polycystic ovarian morphology were obtained from the clinical records. The other relevant biochemical results such as serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and albumin were also obtained from LIS. Free androgen index (FAI), calculated free testosterone (cFT) and calculated bioavailable testosterone (cBT) were calculated for these patients. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed for serum TT, SHBG, FAI, cFT, cBT and LH: FSH ratio to determine the best marker to diagnose PCOS. All the androgen parameters (except SHBG) were significantly higher in PCOS patients than in control (pandrogen indices (FAI, cFT and cBT) showed good correlation with each other. Furthermore, cFT, FAI and calculated BT were shown to be more specific with higher positive likelihood ratio than measured androgen markers. Based on our study, the calculated testosterone

  11. Accuracy of unfolded map method for determining the left ventricular border. Evaluation of the cut-off value from autopsy finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugibayashi, Keiichi; Abe, Yoshiteru; Suga, Yutaka

    1996-01-01

    To improve the quantification of the left ventricular surface area (LVSA) by unfolded map method, we evaluated the cut-off value for determining the left ventricular border. The LVSA measured by unfolded map was compared with those measured using myocardial phantom and autopsy findings. The relative error (RE) was calculated as difference between LVSA in phantom and area of unfolded map. In phantom study, the cut-off value was calculated as 73.3±0.5% when the RE was zero. In autopsy study, the cut-off value was 74.0±7.2%. The area of unfolded map had good correlation with LVSA at autopsy when the cut-off value was 74% (r=0.83, p<0.003). The diameter of left ventricle at autopsy was compared with that of beating heart obtained by two-dimensional echocardiography, because the area of unfolded map was greater than LVSA at autopsy. The ratio of LVSA at autopsy to beating heart was calculated as 1.37. The suitable cut-off value was evaluated as 55.6% when the unfolded map area obtained by autopsy was increased 1.37 magnifications. There was a good correlation between LVSA of unfolded map (cut-off=56%) and the LVSA at autopsy (r=0.90, p<0.001). These results suggest that the cut-off value for determining the left ventricular border in vivo is 56%. (author)

  12. A study of full width at half maximum (FWHM) according to the filter's cut off level in SPECT camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soung Ock [Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soo Il [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    Filtering is necessary to reduce statistical noise and to increase image quality in SPECT images. Noises controlled by low-pass filter designed to suppress high spatial frequency in SPECT image. Most SPECT filter function control the degree of high frequency suppression by choosing a cut off frequency. The location of cut off frequency determines the affect image noise and spatial resolution. If select the low cut off frequency, its provide good noise suppression but insufficient image quantity and high cut off frequencies increase the image resolution but insufficient noise suppression. The purpose of this study was to determines the optimum cut off level with comparison of FWHM according to cut off level in each filters-Band-limited, Sheep-logan, Sheep-logan Hanning, Generalized Hamming, Low pass cosine, Parazen and Butterworth filter in SPECT camera. We recorded image along the X, Y, Z-axis with {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} point source and measured FWHM by use profile curve. We find averaged length is 9.16 mm {approx} 18.14 mm of FWHM in X, Y, and Z-axis, and Band-limited and Generalized Hamming filters measures 9.16 mm at 0.7 cycle/pixel cut off frequency.

  13. X-ray Spectral Survey of WGACAT Quasars, II: Optical and Radio Properties of Quasars with Low Energy X-ray Cut-offs

    OpenAIRE

    Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Giommi, Paolo; Padovani, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    We have selected quasars with X-ray colors suggestive of a low energy cut-off, from the ROSAT PSPC pointed archive. We examine the radio and optical properties of these 13 quasars. Five out of the seven quasars with good optical spectra show associated optical absorption lines, with two having high delta-v candidate systems. Two other cut-off quasars show reddening associated with the quasar. We conclude that absorption is highly likely to be the cause of the X-ray cut-offs, and that the abso...

  14. Single walled carbon nanotube composites for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashim; Woods, Mia D; Illingworth, Kenneth David; Niemeier, Ryan; Schafer, Isaac; Cady, Craig; Filip, Peter; El-Amin, Saadiq F

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLAGA) composites for orthopedic applications and to evaluate the interaction of human stem cells (hBMSCs) and osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 cells) via cell growth, proliferation, gene expression, extracellular matrix production and mineralization. PLAGA and SWCNT/PLAGA composites were fabricated with various amounts of SWCNT (5, 10, 20, 40, and 100 mg), characterized and degradation studies were performed. Cells were seeded and cell adhesion/morphology, growth/survival, proliferation and gene expression analysis were performed to evaluate biocompatibility. Imaging studies demonstrated uniform incorporation of SWCNT into the PLAGA matrix and addition of SWCNT did not affect the degradation rate. Imaging studies revealed that MC3T3-E1 and hBMSCs cells exhibited normal, non-stressed morphology on the composites and all were biocompatible. Composites with 10 mg SWCNT resulted in highest rate of cell proliferation (p PLAGA composites imparted beneficial cellular growth capabilities and gene expression, and mineralization abilities were well established. These results demonstrate the potential of SWCNT/PLAGA composites for musculoskeletal regeneration and bone tissue engineering (BTE) and are promising for orthopedic applications. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  15. Nonlinear analysis of composite thin-walled helicopter blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfon, J. P.; Rand, O.

    Nonlinear theoretical modeling of laminated thin-walled composite helicopter rotor blades is presented. The derivation is based on nonlinear geometry with a detailed treatment of the body loads in the axial direction which are induced by the rotation. While the in-plane warping is neglected, a three-dimensional generic out-of-plane warping distribution is included. The formulation may also handle varying thicknesses and mass distribution along the cross-sectional walls. The problem is solved by successive iterations in which a system of equations is constructed and solved for each cross-section. In this method, the differential equations in the spanwise directions are formulated and solved using a finite-differences scheme which allows simple adaptation of the spanwise discretization mesh during iterations.

  16. Effect of shear connectors on local buckling and composite action in steel concrete composite walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kai; Varma, Amit H.; Malushte, Sanjeev R.; Gallocher, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Steel concrete composite (SC) walls are being used for the third generation nuclear power plants, and also being considered for small modular reactors. SC walls consist of thick concrete walls with exterior steel faceplates serving as reinforcement. These steel faceplates are anchored to the concrete infill using shear connectors, for example, headed steel studs. The steel faceplate thickness (t p ) and yield stress (F y ), and the shear connector spacing (s), stiffness (k s ), and strength (Q n ) determine: (a) the level of composite action between the steel plates and the concrete infill, (b) the development length of steel faceplates, and (c) the local buckling of the steel faceplates. Thus, the shear connectors have a significant influence on the behavior of composite SC walls, and should be designed accordingly. This paper presents the effects of shear connector design on the level of composite action and development length of steel faceplates in SC walls. The maximum steel plate slenderness, i.e., ratio of shear connector spacing-to-plate thickness (s/t p ) ratio to prevent local buckling before yielding is also developed based on the existing experimental database and additional numerical analysis

  17. Effect of shear connectors on local buckling and composite action in steel concrete composite walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai, E-mail: kai-zh@purdue.edu [School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Varma, Amit H., E-mail: ahvarma@purdue.edu [School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Malushte, Sanjeev R., E-mail: smalusht@bechtel.com [Bechtel Power Corporation, Frederick, MD (United States); Gallocher, Stewart, E-mail: stewart.gallocher@steelbricks.com [Modular Walling Systems Ltd., Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    Steel concrete composite (SC) walls are being used for the third generation nuclear power plants, and also being considered for small modular reactors. SC walls consist of thick concrete walls with exterior steel faceplates serving as reinforcement. These steel faceplates are anchored to the concrete infill using shear connectors, for example, headed steel studs. The steel faceplate thickness (t{sub p}) and yield stress (F{sub y}), and the shear connector spacing (s), stiffness (k{sub s}), and strength (Q{sub n}) determine: (a) the level of composite action between the steel plates and the concrete infill, (b) the development length of steel faceplates, and (c) the local buckling of the steel faceplates. Thus, the shear connectors have a significant influence on the behavior of composite SC walls, and should be designed accordingly. This paper presents the effects of shear connector design on the level of composite action and development length of steel faceplates in SC walls. The maximum steel plate slenderness, i.e., ratio of shear connector spacing-to-plate thickness (s/t{sub p}) ratio to prevent local buckling before yielding is also developed based on the existing experimental database and additional numerical analysis.

  18. Supercapacitance of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes-Polypyrrole Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Raicopol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The composites based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs and conducting polymers (CPs are promising materials for supercapacitor devices due to their unique nanostructure that combines the large pseudocapacitance of the CPs with the fast charging/discharging double-layer capacitance and excellent mechanical properties of the CNTs. Here, we report a new electrochemical method to obtain polypyrrole (PPY/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT composites. In the first step, the SWCNTs are covalently functionalized with monomeric units of pyrrole by esterification of acyl chloride functionalized SWCNTs and N-(6-hydroxyhexylpyrrole. In the second step, the PPY/SWCNTs composites are obtained by copolymerizing the pyrrole monomer with the pyrrole units grafted on SWCNTs surface using controlled potential electrolysis. The composites were further characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed good electrochemical charge storage properties for the synthesized composites based on PPY and SWCNTs covalently functionalized with pyrrole units making them promising electrode materials for high power supercapacitors.

  19. Fluorescent single walled nanotube/silica composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M.; Gupta, Gautam; Duque, Juan G.; Doorn, Stephen K.; Hamilton, Christopher E.; DeFriend Obrey, Kimberly A.

    2013-03-12

    Fluorescent composites of surfactant-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared by exposing suspensions of surfactant-wrapped carbon nanotubes to tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) vapor. Sodium deoxycholate (DOC) and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) were the surfactants. No loss in emission intensity was observed when the suspension of DOC-wrapped SWNTs were exposed to the TMOS vapors, but about a 50% decrease in the emission signal was observed from the SDS-wrapped SWNTs nanotubes. The decrease in emission was minimal by buffering the SDS/SWNT suspension prior to forming the composite. Fluorescent xerogels were prepared by adding glycerol to the SWNT suspensions prior to TMOS vapor exposure, followed by drying the gels. Fluorescent aerogels were prepared by replacing water in the gels with methanol and then exposing them to supercritical fluid drying conditions. The aerogels can be used for gas sensing.

  20. Towards improved modeling of steel-concrete composite wall elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchio, Frank J.; McQuade, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Improved analysis of double skinned steel concrete composite containment walls. → Smeared rotating crack concept applied in formulation of new analytical model. → Model implemented into finite element program; numerically stable and robust. → Models behavior of shear-critical elements with greater ease and improved accuracy. → Accurate assessments of strength, deformation and failure mode of test specimens. - Abstract: The Disturbed Stress Field Model, a smeared rotating crack model for reinforced concrete based on the Modified Compression Field Theory, is adapted to the analysis of double-skin steel-concrete wall elements. The computational model is then incorporated into a two-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis algorithm. Verification studies are undertaken by modeling various test specimens, including panel elements subject to uniaxial compression, panel elements subjected to in-plane shear, and wall specimens subjected to reversed cyclic lateral displacements. In all cases, the analysis model is found to provide accurate calculations of structural load capacities, pre- and post-peak displacement responses, post-peak ductility, chronology of damage, and ultimate failure mode. Minor deficiencies are found in regards to the accurate portrayal of faceplate buckling and the effects of interfacial slip between the faceplates and the concrete. Other aspects of the modeling procedure that are in need of further research and development are also identified and discussed.

  1. Diagnostic Cut-Off Levels of Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide to Distinguish Left Ventricular Failure in Emergency Setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Afridi, F. I.; Lutfi, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic cut-off values of brain natriuretic (BNP) peptide to establish left ventricular failure in patients presenting with dyspnoea in emergency department. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, from July to December 2011. Methodology: BNP estimation was done on Axysm analyzer with kit provided by Abbott diagnostics, while the Doppler echocardiography was done on Toshiba style (UICW-660A) using 2.5 MHz and 5.0 MHz probes. Log transformation was done to normalize the original BNP values. A receiver operating curve was plotted to determine the diagnostic cut-off value of BNP which can be used to distinguish CHF from other causes of dyspnoea. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version 17. Results: A total of 92 patients presenting with dyspnoea in the emergency department were studied. There were 38/92 (41.3%) males and 54/92 (58.7%) females, and the average age of the study population was 64 A +- 14.1 years. These patients had BNP levels and Doppler echocardiography done. The average BNP was found to be 1117.78 A +- 1445.74 pg/ml. In log transformation, the average was found to be 2.72 A +- 0.58. BNP value of 531 pg/ml was found to be the cut off to distinguish between cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic causes of dyspnoea. Conclusion: BNP value of 531 pg/ml can distinguish CHF from other conditions as a cause of dyspnoea in emergency. (author)

  2. ARFI cut-off values and significance of standard deviation for liver fibrosis staging in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Ruediger S; Sturm, Joerg; Pfeifer, Lukas; Wildner, Dane; Wachter, David L; Neurath, Markus F; Strobel, Deike

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastometry quantifies hepatic stiffness, and thus degree of fibrosis, non-invasively. Our aim was to analyse the diagnostic accuracy of ARFI cut-off values, and the significance of a defined limit of standard deviation (SD) as a potential quality parameter for liver fibrosis staging in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). 153 patients with CLD (various aetiologies) undergoing liver biopsy, and an additional 25 patients with known liver cirrhosis, were investigated. ARFI measurements were performed in the right hepatic lobe, and correlated with the histopathological Ludwig fibrosis score (inclusion criteria: at least 6 portal tracts). The diagnostic accuracy of cut-off values was analysed with respect to an SD limit of 30% of the mean ARFI value. The mean ARFI elastometry showed 1.95 ± 0.87 m/s (range 0.79-4.40) in 178 patients (80 female, 98 male, mean age: 52 years). The cut-offs were 1.25 m/s for F ≥ 2, 1.72 m/s for F ≥ 3 and 1.75 m/s for F = 4, and the corresponding AUROC 80.7%, 86.2% and 88.7%, respectively. Exclusion of 31 patients (17.4%) with an SD higher than 30% of the mean ARFI improved the diagnostic accuracy: The AUROC for F ≥ 2, F ≥ 3 and F = 4 were 86.1%, 91.2% and 91.5%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of ARFI can be improved by applying a maximum SD of 30% of the mean ARFI as a quality parameter--which however leads to an exclusion of a relevant number of patients. ARFI results with a high SD should be interpreted with caution.

  3. Cut-off scores of a brief neuropsychological battery (NBACE for Spanish individual adults older than 44 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Alegret

    Full Text Available The neuropsychological battery used in Fundació ACE (NBACE is a relatively brief, and easy to administer, test battery that was designed to detect cognitive impairment in the adulthood. The NBACE includes measures of cognitive information processing speed, orientation, attention, verbal learning and memory, language, visuoperception, praxis and executive functions. The aim of the present study was to establish the cut-off scores for impairment for different levels of age and education that could be useful in the cognitive assessment of Spanish subjects who are at risk for cognitive impairment, especially dementia. Data from 1018 patients with a mild dementia syndrome, and 512 cognitively healthy subjects, older than 44 years, from the Memory Clinic of Fundació ACE (Barcelona, Spain were analyzed. In the whole sample, cut-off scores and sensitivity/specificity values were calculated for six conditions after combining 3 age ranges (44 to 64; 65 to 74; and older than 74 years old by 2 educational levels (until Elementary school; and more than Elementary school. Moreover, general cut-offs are reported for Catalan and Spanish speakers. The results showed that most of NBACE tests reached good sensitivity and specificity values, except for Ideomotor praxis, Repetition and Verbal Comprehension tests, which had a ceiling effect. Word List Learning from the Wechsler Memory Scale-III and Semantic Verbal Fluency were the most useful tests to discriminate between cognitively healthy and demented subjects. The NBACE has been shown to be a useful tool able to detect cognitive impairment, especially dementia, in older than 44 years Spanish persons.

  4. Accurate cut-offs for predicting endoscopic activity and mucosal healing in Crohn's disease with fecal calprotectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan María Vázquez-Morón

    Full Text Available Background: Fecal biomarkers, especially fecal calprotectin, are useful for predicting endoscopic activity in Crohn's disease; however, the cut-off point remains unclear. The aim of this paper was to analyze whether faecal calprotectin and M2 pyruvate kinase are good tools for generating highly accurate scores for the prediction of the state of endoscopic activity and mucosal healing. Methods: The simple endoscopic score for Crohn's disease and the Crohn's disease activity index was calculated for 71 patients diagnosed with Crohn's. Fecal calprotectin and M2-PK were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. Results: A fecal calprotectin cut-off concentration of ≥ 170 µg/g (sensitivity 77.6%, specificity 95.5% and likelihood ratio +17.06 predicts a high probability of endoscopic activity, and a fecal calprotectin cut-off of ≤ 71 µg/g (sensitivity 95.9%, specificity 52.3% and likelihood ratio -0.08 predicts a high probability of mucosal healing. Three clinical groups were identified according to the data obtained: endoscopic activity (calprotectin ≥ 170, mucosal healing (calprotectin ≤ 71 and uncertainty (71 > calprotectin < 170, with significant differences in endoscopic values (F = 26.407, p < 0.01. Clinical activity or remission modified the probabilities of presenting endoscopic activity (100% vs 89% or mucosal healing (75% vs 87% in the diagnostic scores generated. M2-PK was insufficiently accurate to determine scores. Conclusions: The highly accurate scores for fecal calprotectin provide a useful tool for interpreting the probabilities of presenting endoscopic activity or mucosal healing, and are valuable in the specific clinical context.

  5. Putative Dementia Cases Fluctuate as a Function of Mini-Mental State Examination Cut-Off Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ilka M; Henriques, Ana G; Wiltfang, Jens; da Cruz E Silva, Odete A B

    2018-01-01

    As the population ages, there is a growing need to quickly and accurately identify putative dementia cases. Many cognitive tests are available; among those commonly used are the Cognitive Dementia Rating (CDR) and the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE). The aim of this work was to compare the validity and reliability of these cognitive tests in a primary care based cohort (pcb-Cohort). The MMSE and the CDR were applied to 568 volunteers in the pcb-Cohort. Distinct cut-off points for the MMSE were considered, namely MMSE 27, MMSE 24, and MMSE PT (adapted for the Portuguese population). The MMSE 27 identified the greatest number of putative dementia cases, and, as determined by the ROC curve, it was the most sensitive and specific of the MMSE cut-offs considered. Putative predictive or risk factors identified included age, literacy, depression, and diabetes mellitus (DM). DM has previously been indicated as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Comparatively, the MMSE 27 cut-off has the greatest sensibility (94.9%) and specificity (66.3%) when compared to MMSE PT and MMSE 24. Upon comparing MMSE and CDR scores, the latter identified a further 146 putative dementia cases, thus permitting one to propose that in an ideal situation, both tests should be employed. This increases the likelihood of identifying putative dementia cases for subsequent follow up work, thus these cognitive tests represent important tools in patient care. Further, this is a significant study for Portuguese populations, where few of these studies have been carried out.

  6. An optimal cut-off point for the calving interval may be used as an indicator of bovine abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier

    2015-10-01

    The bovine abortion surveillance system in France aims to detect as early as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification and testing of each aborting cow, but under-reporting is high. This research uses a new and simple approach which considers the calving interval (CI) as a "diagnostic test" to determine optimal cut-off point c and estimate diagnostic performance of the CI to identify aborting cows, and herds with multiple abortions (i.e. three or more aborting cows per calving season). The period between two artificial inseminations (AI) was considered as a "gold standard". During the 2006-2010 calving seasons, the mean optimal CI cut-off point for identifying aborting cows was 691 days for dairy cows and 703 days for beef cows. Depending on the calving season, production type and scale at which c was computed (individual or herd), the average sensitivity of the CI varied from 42.6% to 64.4%; its average specificity from 96.7% to 99.7%; its average positive predictive value from 27.6% to 65.4%; and its average negative predictive value from 98.7% to 99.8%. When applied to the French bovine population as a whole, this indicator identified 2-3% of cows suspected to have aborted, and 10-15% of herds suspected of multiple abortions. The optimal cut-off point and CI performance were consistent over calving seasons. By applying an optimal CI cut-off point to the cattle demographics database, it becomes possible to identify herds with multiple abortions, carry out retrospective investigations to find the cause of these abortions and monitor a posteriori compliance of farmers with their obligation to report abortions for brucellosis surveillance needs. Therefore, the CI could be used as an indicator of abortions to help improve the current mandatory notification surveillance system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Establishing a sample-to cut-off ratio for lab-diagnosis of hepatitis C virus in Indian context

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Aseem K.; Pandey, Prashant K.; Negi, Avinash; Bagga, Ruchika; Shanker, Ajay; Baveja, Usha; Vimarsh, Raina; Bhargava, Richa; Dara, Ravi C.; Rawat, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lab-diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is based on detecting specific antibodies by enzyme immuno-assay (EIA) or chemiluminescence immuno-assay (CIA). Center for Disease Control reported that signal-to-cut-off (s/co) ratios in anti-HCV antibody tests like EIA/CIA can be used to predict the probable result of supplemental test; above a certain s/co value it is most likely to be true-HCV positive result and below that certain s/co it is most likely to be false-positive result. A...

  8. The cut-off point of dual energy X-ray and laser of calcaneus osteoporosis diagnosis in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimzadeh, A.; Forough, B.; Olia, B.; Alishiri, G. H.; Ghasemzadeh, A.

    2005-01-01

    Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry is a method which can extensively be used for bone mineral densitometry . Another more recent method is dual energy X-ray and laser, which associate with dual X ray absorptiometry, assisted by laser measure heel thickness. In this study the cut off points for dual energy X-ray and laser of calcaneus in the diagnosis of osteoporosis in different bone regions in postmenopausal women had been determined. Materials and Methods: In 268 postmenopausal women, BMD of the spinal and femoral regions was measured by DM, and the value for the calcaneous was measured by dual energy X-ray and laser. The agreement of the two methods in the diagnosis of osteoporosis and optimal cut-off point for dual energy X-ray and laser in defining osteoporosis was obtained. What obtained was the agreement of the two methods in the diagnosis of osteoporosis, as well as the optimal cut-off point for dual energy X-ray and laser in defining osteoporosis. Results: Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry showed osteoporosis in 40.7% of cases with 35.2% in L2-L4, 16.2% in the femoral neck, and 11.7% for the femoral total region. The dual energy X-ray and laser found osteoporosis, considering -2.5 SD as a threshold, in 26.1% of cases. Agreement of the two methods in the diagnosis of osteoporosis (Kappa score) was 0.443 for the lumbar region, 0.464 for the neck, and, 0.421 for total femur regions (all P values were significant). Using Receiver Operating Characteristic curves, it was found that a T-score of -2.1, -2.6 and -2.4 as the optimal cut-off point of dual energy X-ray and laser in the diagnosis of osteoporosis in the lumbar spine, the neck and total region of femur, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed a moderate agreement between the two methods in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. It seems that the dual energy X-ray and laser cannot be used as a substitute for the DM method, but it can be used as a screening method to find (to diagnose) osteoporosis

  9. Detecting outliers and/or leverage points: a robust two-stage procedure with bootstrap cut-off points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Marubini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust two-stage procedure for identification of outlying observations in regression analysis. The exploratory stage identifies leverage points and vertical outliers through a robust distance estimator based on Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD. After deletion of these points, the confirmatory stage carries out an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS analysis on the remaining subset of data and investigates the effect of adding back in the previously deleted observations. Cut-off points pertinent to different diagnostics are generated by bootstrapping and the cases are definitely labelled as good-leverage, bad-leverage, vertical outliers and typical cases. The procedure is applied to four examples.

  10. Exploration of the optimal diameter cut-off value in patients with nonfunctional adrenal tumor suitable for surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-dan LIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To analyze the pathology of the patients with nonfunctional adrenal tumor (NFA, and explore the optimal diameter cut-off value. Methods  The clinical data of 243 patients with NFA, evaluated in the Department of Endocrinology and operated in the Department of Urology of General Hospital of Chinese PLA from Feb. 1996 to Jan. 2016, were collected. The patients were divided into two groups according to pathology: those in real demand of surgery were classified to the surgery-need group (n=57, while the others were categorized as the surgery-unwanted group (n=186. The general situation, pathological type and tumor diameter of the two groups and the factors affecting the surgery were analyzed, and the ROC curve was used to explore the optimal surgery cut-off value, which represents the maximum value of the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Results  Of the 57 patients in surgery-need group (27 males and 30 females, the lesions were on the right in 31 cases, on the left in 25 cases, and on bilateral sides in 1 case; the median of lesion diameter was 4.5cm, and the average age was 41.5±12.1 years old. Of the 186 patients in surgery-unwanted group (87 males and 99 females, the lesions were on the right in 99 cases, on the left in 86 cases, and on bilateral sides in 1 case; the median of lesion diameter was 3.0cm, and the average age was 50.6±10.9 years old. Logistic regression revealed that lesion diameter might be a risk factor (OR=1.340, 95%CI 1.266-1.418, P=0.000 and age be a protective factor (OR=0.942, 95%CI 0.929-0.955, P=0.000 for real demand of surgery. The area under the ROC curve (AUC of lesion diameter was 0.757(95%CI 0.681-0.833. The optimal cut-off value was 4.1cm (sensitivity 60.7% and specificity 83.0%. Conclusions  Younger patients with bigger lesion diameter may have greater possibility for surgery. The optimal surgery cut-off value of the lesion diameter is 4.1cm. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.11.11

  11. Current MUAC Cut-Offs to Screen for Acute Malnutrition Need to Be Adapted to Gender and Age: The Example of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Marion; Sophonneary, Prak; Laillou, Arnaud; Whitney, Sophie; de Groot, Richard; Perignon, Marlène; Kuong, Khov; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early identification of children malnutrition is a priority. Acute malnutrition is defined by the World Health Organization as a mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) malnutrition in communities, but MUAC cut-offs currently recommended by WHO do not identify the majority of children with weight-for-height Z-score (5 yrs. Therefore, this study aimed at defining gender and age-specific cut-offs to improve sensitivity of MUAC as an indicator of acute malnutrition. Methods To establish new age and gender-specific MUAC cut-offs, pooled data was obtained for 14,173 children from 5 surveys in Cambodia (2011–2013). Sensitivity, false positive rates, and areas under receiver-operator characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated using wasting for children 80% with the new cut-offs in comparison with the current WHO cut-offs. Conclusion Gender and age specific MUAC cut-offs drastically increased sensitivity to identify children with WHZ-score malnutrition at the community level. PMID:26840899

  12. Problems in future negotiations for a treaty on the cut-off of fissile material for nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaper, A.

    1999-01-01

    A treaty to end the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons, the so-called cutoff, is one of the most important next steps on the disarmament agenda.' But meanwhile, the Conference on Disarmament (CD) is deadlocked, and confidence in negotiations taking place in the near future is replaced by bewilderment at the inaction. The underlying conflict of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) negotiations can be summarized as nuclear disarmament versus nuclear nonproliferation. The same conflict is now blocking progress with negotiations in the CD on the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). Nevertheless, the cut-off would be the major policy driver to insert transparency and irreversibility into the disarmament process,' and we need to harness all our efforts to overcome the current difficulties. The CTBT can be regarded as a tool to cap the qualitative nuclear arms race, for example to hinder the future development of qualitatively new nuclear explosives, and an FMCT can be seen as its quantitative counterpart, capping the amount of material available for new nuclear weapons. The complex questions involve political, technical, legal, and economic aspects and constitute a challenge for diplomats and decision makers

  13. Preoperative diagnosis of breast diseases by dynamic MR mammography. Cut off point establishment for signal intensity ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Juji; Nagata, Takayasu; Kawagoe, Hajime; Tachibana, Susumu; Kajima, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Mutsuo; Uno, Takashi; Shimokawa, Kuniyasu.

    1997-01-01

    We have revealed that a dynamic study of the breast using MR imaging technique can estimate objectively benign-malignant differentiative diagnosis. Subjects were 41 cases of breast lesion, including 13 cases of breast cancer, 21 cases of mastopathy, six cases of fibroadenoma and one case of intraductal papillomatosis and the results of them were investigated in comparison with histopathological diagnosis. As so the method, we drew up time-signal intensity ratio curve plotting signal intensity ratio at each 30 second of dynamic MR mammography after Gd-DTPA administration. We found a especially high significant difference between cancer and mastopathy, within 90 second after Gd-DTPA administration (p=0.0000). Still more, we established cut off point concerning with establishment of 95% confidence interval, that is, at 30 second after Gd-DTPA administration of point equivalent 1.53 at 60 second equivalent 2.00, at 90 second equivalent 2.47, and about this estimating maneuver using the cut off point we named Dynamic ratio method. We can estimate preoperatively not only benign-malignant differentiative diagnosis with breast tumor, but also neighboring infiltration and lymph node metastasis of breast cancer using this Dynamic ratio method. Over again, Dynamic ratio method provides fine information to preoperative decision of resecting region for breast conserving surgery. The efficiency of this method is sensitivity=92.3%, specificity=89.3% and positive predictive value=80.0%. (author)

  14. Preoperative diagnosis of breast diseases by dynamic MR mammography. Cut off point establishment for signal intensity ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Juji; Nagata, Takayasu; Kawagoe, Hajime; Tachibana, Susumu; Kajima, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Mutsuo [Ibi General Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Uno, Takashi; Shimokawa, Kuniyasu

    1997-12-01

    We have revealed that a dynamic study of the breast using MR imaging technique can estimate objectively benign-malignant differentiative diagnosis. Subjects were 41 cases of breast lesion, including 13 cases of breast cancer, 21 cases of mastopathy, six cases of fibroadenoma and one case of intraductal papillomatosis and the results of them were investigated in comparison with histopathological diagnosis. As so the method, we drew up time-signal intensity ratio curve plotting signal intensity ratio at each 30 second of dynamic MR mammography after Gd-DTPA administration. We found a especially high significant difference between cancer and mastopathy, within 90 second after Gd-DTPA administration (p=0.0000). Still more, we established cut off point concerning with establishment of 95% confidence interval, that is, at 30 second after Gd-DTPA administration of point equivalent 1.53 at 60 second equivalent 2.00, at 90 second equivalent 2.47, and about this estimating maneuver using the cut off point we named Dynamic ratio method. We can estimate preoperatively not only benign-malignant differentiative diagnosis with breast tumor, but also neighboring infiltration and lymph node metastasis of breast cancer using this Dynamic ratio method. Over again, Dynamic ratio method provides fine information to preoperative decision of resecting region for breast conserving surgery. The efficiency of this method is sensitivity=92.3%, specificity=89.3% and positive predictive value=80.0%. (author)

  15. Evaluation of model for end-stage liver disease score cut off values in patients with hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurram, M.; Qayyum, W.; Umar, M.; Abedin, Z.U.; Bushra, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) is scoring system used for prioritization of patients waiting liver transplantation. Patients with decompensated chronic liver disease (DCLD) with higher MELD score and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) have poor outcome. We planned to note association between short term mortality and various cut-off values of at admission MELD score in HCV related DCLD patients presenting with HE. Methods: In this descriptive case series, 208 Hepatitis C (HCV) related chronic liver disease (CLD) patients with HE were included. At admission serum bilirubin, creatinine and INR were sought to calculate MELD score. Patients who improved were discharged and kept under regular follow up. Outcome was categorized into alive or expired in 3 months after admission. Based on MELD score cut off values of >15, >20, >25 and >30, association with outcome was determined using Chi-square test. Results: One hundred and six (51%) patients were female. Mean patient age was 55.3±10.6 years. Outcome wise, 128 (61.5%) were alive and 80 (38.5%) expired. Mean MELD score of expired was 22.17±9.14. 55 (51%) patients with MELD score >15, 44 (65.7%) patients with >20, 30 (73.2%) patients with >25, and 21 (72.5%) patients with >30 expired. MELD score >20 had strongest association with outcome, p value less than o.01. Conclusion: At admission MELD score >20 are most significantly associated with poor outcome in DCLD patients with HE. (author)

  16. Cut-off scaling of high-harmonic generation driven by a femtosecond visible optical parametric amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirmi, Giovanni; Lai, Chien-Jen; Granados, Eduardo; Huang, Shu-Wei; Sell, Alexander; Hong, Kyung-Han; Moses, Jeffrey; Keathley, Phillip; Kärtner, Franz X

    2012-01-01

    We studied high-harmonic generation (HHG) in Ar, Ne and He gas jets using a broadly tunable, high-energy optical parametric amplifier (OPA) in the visible wavelength range. We optimized the noncollinear OPA to deliver tunable, femtosecond pulses with 200-500 µJ energy at the 1 kHz repetition rate with excellent spatiotemporal properties, suitable for HHG experiments. By tuning the central wavelength of the OPA while keeping other parameters (energy, duration and beam size) constant, we experimentally studied the scaling law of cut-off energy with the driver wavelength in helium. Our measurements show a λ 1.7+0.2 dependence of the HHG cut-off photon energy over the full visible range in agreement with previous experiments of near- and mid-IR wavelengths. By tuning the central wavelength of the driver source, the high-order harmonic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet cover the full range of photon energy between ∼25 and ∼100 eV. Due to the high coherence intrinsic in HHG, as well as the broad and continuous tunability in the extreme UV range, a high energy, high repetition rate version of this source might be an ideal seed for free electron lasers.

  17. In Vitro Dialysis of Cytokine-Rich Plasma With High and Medium Cut-Off Membranes Reduces Its Procalcific Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, Kevin; Hulko, Michael; Storr, Markus; Speidel, Rose; Gauss, Julia; Schindler, Ralf; Zickler, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Recently developed high-flux (HF) dialysis membranes with extended permeability provide better clearance of middle-sized molecules such as interleukins (ILs). Whether this modulation of inflammation influences the procalcific effects of septic plasma on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is not known. To assess the effects of high cut-off (HCO) and medium cut-off (MCO) membranes on microinflammation and in vitro vascular calcification we developed a miniature dialysis model. Plasma samples from lipopolysaccharide-spiked blood were dialyzed with HF, HCO, and MCO membranes in an in vitro miniature dialysis model. Afterwards, IL-6 concentrations were determined in dialysate and plasma. Calcifying VSMCs were incubated with dialyzed plasma samples and vascular calcification was assessed. Osteopontin (OPN) and matrix Gla protein (MGP) were measured in VSMC supernatants. IL-6 plasma concentrations were markedly lower with HCO and MCO dialysis. VSMC calcification was significantly lower after incubation with MCO- and HCO-serum compared to HF plasma. MGP and OPN levels in supernatants were significantly lower in the MCO but not in the HCO group compared to HF. In vitro dialysis of cytokine-enriched plasma samples with MCO and HCO membranes reduces IL-6 levels. The induction of vascular calcification by cytokine-enriched plasma is reduced after HCO and MCO dialysis. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Objective assessment of subjective tinnitus through contralateral suppression of otoacoustic emissions by white noise; suggested cut-off points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, M; Komis, A; Maragkoudakis, P; Korres, G; Danielides, V

    2016-12-01

    Normative otoacoustic emission (OAE) suppression values are currently lacking and the role of cochlear efferent innervation in tinnitus is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between tinnitus and medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) malfunction. Potential suppression amplitude cut-off criteria that could differentiate participants with tinnitus from those without were sought. Mean suppression amplitudes of transient evoked OAEs and distortion product OAEs by contralateral white noise (50 dBSL) were recorded. Six mean suppression amplitudes criteria were validated as possible cut-off points. The population consisted of normal hearing (n = 78) or presbycusic adults (n = 19) with tinnitus or without (n = 28 and 13, respectively) chronic tinnitus (in total, n = 138 78 females/60males, aged 49 ± 14 years). Participants with mean suppression values lower than 0.5-1 dBSPL seem to present a high probability to report tinnitus (specificity 88-97%). On the other hand, participants with mean suppression values larger than 2-2.5dBSPL seem to present a high probability of the absence of tinnitus (sensitivity 87-99%). Correlations were stronger among participants with bilateral presence or absence of tinnitus. This study seem to confirm an association between tinnitus and low suppression amplitudes (<1 dBSPL), which might evolve into an objective examination tool, supplementary to conventional audiological testing.

  19. Revisiting the Phadia/EliA cut-off values for anticardiolipin and anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies: a systematic evaluation according to the guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, M V; Jacobsen, I-L Søtang; Gram, J B; Sidelmann, J J

    2018-01-01

    Background Phadia/EliA fluorescence enzyme immunoassays are widely used automated assays for anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-β2-glycoprotein I (aβ2GPI) antibodies. To date, cut-off values for these assays have not been evaluated systematically and the evidence behind manufacturer's recommended cut-off values is not clear. Objective To determine Phadia/EliA cut-off values for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) according to the procedures suggested by guidelines. Methods A total of 266 blood donors (135 females and 131 males) were included. The pre-handling and analysis of the samples were performed according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) guideline for solid phase aPL assays. Cut-off values and corresponding 90% confidence intervals (CI) for each antibody were established and outliers were handled according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline for reference intervals. Samples from 377 consecutive patients, referred to our thrombophilia center with evidence of thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity were included for aPL testing. Results The in-house 99th (97.5th) percentile cut-off values were 11 (8.7), 12 (6.9) 8.5 (5.0) AU/mL for aβ2GPI IgG, IgM and IgA, and 21 (13) GPL-U/mL and 41 (25) MPL-U/mL for aCL IgG and IgM, respectively. The prevalence of positive results (%) defined by these cut-off values in patients with evidence of thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity was 9.5 (12.2), 1.6 (2.9), and 7.0 (9.9), and 0.8 (3.8) for aβ2GPI IgG, IgM, and aCL IgG and IgM respectively. The use of in-house 99th percentile cut-off values compared to the manufacturer suggested cut-off values resulted in 1 and 39 fewer samples for aβ2GPI and aCL to be classified as positive for aPL, respectively. Conclusions We present Phadia/EliA cut-off values with 90% CI for aPL determined systematically according to the ISTH and CLSI guidelines. These values are different from values previously determined, suggesting variation of a

  20. [Segmental cut-off bridge and local floating technology for the treatment of ossification of ligamentum flavum in thoracic spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-dong; Zhang, Jian; Sheng, Wei-bin

    2013-10-08

    To explore the efficacy and safety of segmental cut-off bridge and local floating technology for the treatment of ossification of ligamentum flavum (OLF) in thoracic spine. Retrospective study was performed in 98 patients with thoracic OLF who under went operation. There was 56 males and 42 females with an average age of 45.8 (35-73) years. The average duration of onset was 17 (3-51) months. The main clinical symptoms were numbness and paraesthesia (n = 90), lower limb weakness and walking trouble (n = 46), positive pyramidal tract signs (n = 33) and sphincter function obstacle (n = 9). OLF was screened and diagnosed by radiology, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) or CT myelography (CTM). A total of 142 OLF nidus were spotted. The lesions involved single segment (n = 32), double segments (n = 56), three segments (n = 6) and ≥ four segments (n = 4). And the locations were at upper thoracic segment (T1-4) (n = 34), middle thoracic segment (T5-8) (n = 23) and lower thoracic segment (T9-12) (n = 42). The OLF nidus were removed by local floating technology oft windowing at cephalic and caudal ends and a cut-off bridge at both sides of involved segments. Pre- and post-operative Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores and Epstein grades were recorded to evaluate the outcomes. The mean loss volume of blood was 320 ml and operative duration 155 min. All cases recovered independent activities. The mean follow-up period was 28 (13-48) months. The mean preoperative JOA score was 4.3 (1-8) points and the mean postoperative JOA score 9.7 (5-11) points. The recovery rate was 78.8%. According to Epstein grade, the excellent and good rate was 86.7%. As a common cause of thoracic spinal cord compression, OLF should be operated as early as possible. Based upon clinical and imaging findings, the application of segmental cut-off bridge and local floating technology is both safe and efficacious in the treatment of OLF in thoracic spine.

  1. Bacterial cell wall composition and the influence of antibiotics by cell-wall and whole-cell NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Joseph A. H.; Cegelski, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    The ability to characterize bacterial cell-wall composition and structure is crucial to understanding the function of the bacterial cell wall, determining drug modes of action and developing new-generation therapeutics. Solid-state NMR has emerged as a powerful tool to quantify chemical composition and to map cell-wall architecture in bacteria and plants, even in the context of unperturbed intact whole cells. In this review, we discuss solid-state NMR approaches to define peptidoglycan composition and to characterize the modes of action of old and new antibiotics, focusing on examples in Staphylococcus aureus. We provide perspectives regarding the selected NMR strategies as we describe the exciting and still-developing cell-wall and whole-cell NMR toolkit. We also discuss specific discoveries regarding the modes of action of vancomycin analogues, including oritavancin, and briefly address the reconsideration of the killing action of β-lactam antibiotics. In such chemical genetics approaches, there is still much to be learned from perturbations enacted by cell-wall assembly inhibitors, and solid-state NMR approaches are poised to address questions of cell-wall composition and assembly in S. aureus and other organisms. PMID:26370936

  2. Practical use of visual medial temporal lobe atrophy cut-off scores in Alzheimer's disease: Validation in a large memory clinic population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, Jules J.; Holl, Dana C.; Roorda, Jelmen J.; Staekenborg, Salka S.; Schuur, Jacqueline; Koster, Pieter; Tielkes, Caroline E.M.; Scheltens, Philip

    2017-01-01

    To provide age-specific medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) cut-off scores for routine clinical practice as marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with AD (n = 832, mean age 81.8 years) were compared with patients with subjective cognitive impairment (n = 333, mean age 71.8 years) in a large single-centre memory clinic. Mean of right and left MTA scores was determined with visual rating (Scheltens scale) using CT (0, no atrophy to 4, severe atrophy). Relationships between age and MTA scores were analysed with regression analysis. For various MTA cut-off scores, decade-specific sensitivity and specificity and area under the curve (AUC) values, computed with receiver operator characteristic curves, were determined. MTA strongly increased with age in both groups to a similar degree. Optimal MTA cut-off values for the age ranges <65, 65-74, 75-84 and ≥85 were: ≥1.0, ≥1.5, ≥ 2.0 and ≥2.0. Corresponding values of sensitivity and specificity were 83.3% and 86.4%; 73.7% and 84.6%; 73.7% and 76.2%; and 84.0% and 62.5%. From this large unique memory clinic cohort we suggest decade-specific MTA cut-off scores for clinical use. After age 85 years, however, the practical usefulness of the MTA cut-off is limited. (orig.)

  3. The dischargeable cut-off score of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) in the inpatient care for low back pain with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Won; Shin, Ye-Sle; Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Jin-Ho; Shin, Joon-Shik; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2014-10-01

    The admission due to low back pain (LBP) became prevalent cause of international economic losses. Since LBP patients with disability are often subject to inpatient care, it is important to determine the appropriate time of discharge. The purpose of this study is to set the cut-off value of appropriate Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) at the time of discharge. Of 1,394 LBP patients admitted in hospital specialized in spinal disease, 774 eligible patients with disability were included in this study. And several clinical variables including numerical rating score, ODI, satisfaction level were observed during the hospital stay. We considered satisfaction level as an important factor for discharge, categorized patients into satisfied group and dissatisfied group. Through the statistical analysis, appropriate factor for determining dischargeable patients satisfied with their current condition and its cut-off value of ODI were found. And proper predictors for the cut-off value were extracted statistically and logically from a pool of several clinical indexes. The ODI at the time of discharge was most accurate in determining dischargeable patients. The cut-off value of ODI was 30. Predictors were ODI questions 4 and 6. We set the cut-off value of dischargeable ODI for LBP inpatient with disability and found its predictor.

  4. Suggested cut-off values for vitamin D as a risk marker for total and cardiac death in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Anna Naesgaard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have demonstrated an association between low vitamin D levels and cardiovascular risk. Vitamin D cut off levels are still under debate. Objectives: To assess two cut-off levels, 40 nmol/L and 70 nmol/L, respectively, for vitamin D measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] in chest pain patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome.Methods: We investigated 1853 patients from coastal-Norway and inland Northern-Argentina. A similar database was used for pooling of data. 2-year follow-up data including all-cause mortality, cardiac death and sudden cardiac death in the total patient population were analyzed, applying univariate and multivariable analysis. Results: 255 patients with known vitamin D concentrations died. In the multivariable analysis, there was a decrease in total mortality above a cut-off level of 40 nmol/L and a decrease in cardiac death above a cut-off level of 70 nmol/L, [HRs of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.50 – 0.88, p = 0.004 and 0.46 (95% CI, 0.22 – 0.94, p = 0.034, respectively].Conclusion: Vitamin D cut-off levels of 40 nmol/L and 70 nmol/L, were related to total mortality and cardiac death, respectively.

  5. Practical use of visual medial temporal lobe atrophy cut-off scores in Alzheimer's disease: Validation in a large memory clinic population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, Jules J.; Holl, Dana C.; Roorda, Jelmen J. [Tergooi Hospital, Department of Neurology, Blaricum (Netherlands); Staekenborg, Salka S. [Tergooi Hospital, Department of Neurology, Blaricum (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schuur, Jacqueline [Tergooi Hospital, Department of Geriatrics, Blaricum (Netherlands); Koster, Pieter [Tergooi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Blaricum (Netherlands); Tielkes, Caroline E.M. [Tergooi Hospital, Department of Medical Psychology, Blaricum (Netherlands); Scheltens, Philip [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    To provide age-specific medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) cut-off scores for routine clinical practice as marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with AD (n = 832, mean age 81.8 years) were compared with patients with subjective cognitive impairment (n = 333, mean age 71.8 years) in a large single-centre memory clinic. Mean of right and left MTA scores was determined with visual rating (Scheltens scale) using CT (0, no atrophy to 4, severe atrophy). Relationships between age and MTA scores were analysed with regression analysis. For various MTA cut-off scores, decade-specific sensitivity and specificity and area under the curve (AUC) values, computed with receiver operator characteristic curves, were determined. MTA strongly increased with age in both groups to a similar degree. Optimal MTA cut-off values for the age ranges <65, 65-74, 75-84 and ≥85 were: ≥1.0, ≥1.5, ≥ 2.0 and ≥2.0. Corresponding values of sensitivity and specificity were 83.3% and 86.4%; 73.7% and 84.6%; 73.7% and 76.2%; and 84.0% and 62.5%. From this large unique memory clinic cohort we suggest decade-specific MTA cut-off scores for clinical use. After age 85 years, however, the practical usefulness of the MTA cut-off is limited. (orig.)

  6. Fish hook injury: removal by ''push through and cut off'' technique: a case report and brief literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Khan, Hayat; Kamal, Younis; Lone, Ansar Ul Haq

    2014-04-01

    Fishing is a leisure activity for some people around the world. Accidently the fish hook can get hooked in the hand. If the hook is barbed, removal becomes difficult. We report a case of such a injury in the hand and discuss the technique for its removal with a brief review of the literature. A thirty-two year old male accidently suffered a fishhook injury to his hand. He came to the orthopaedic ward two hours after the incident with pain; the fish hook was hanging from the hand. Unsuccessful attempts to remove it were made by his relatives. A push-through and cut-off technique was used for removal of barbed hook. Barbed hooks are to be removed atraumatically with controlled incision over properly anaesthetised skin. Proper wound management and prophylactic antibiotics suitable for treatment of Aeromonas species should be initiated to prevent complications.

  7. Re-evaluation of the fludrocortisone test: duration, NaCl supplementation and cut-off limits for aldosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Christina; Bergenfelz, Anders; Larsson, Johanna; Nerbrand, Christina; Valdemarsson, Stig; Wihl, Anders; Isaksson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common form of secondary hypertension. Thus, the aims of this study were: (1) to clarify whether the fludrocortisone suppression test (FST), which confirms autonomous aldosterone secretion, is reliable when carried out during a shorter period of time and (2) to confirm the importance of NaCl supplementation. The cut-off limits already obtained for aldosterone in healthy subjects during the FST were applied in hypertensive patients with a high aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR). The healthy subjects were allocated to three groups. Fludrocortisone was administered 4 times daily over 4 days and sodium chloride was supplemented in 3 different doses. The result was applied in 24 hypertensive patients, in 24 healthy subjects (10 women (23-38 years old) and 14 men (23-58 years old)) and in 24 patients with hypertension and high ARR (16 women (45-74 years old) and 8 men (56-73 years old)). Blood pressure, aldosterone, renin, potassium and sodium were measured. After three days of FST, there was a significant decrease in the serum level of aldosterone in the healthy subjects, regardless of high or low sodium chloride supplementation (p<0.001). The decrease in serum aldosterone was significantly less pronounced in patients with PA than in healthy subjects and hypertensive patients without PA (p<0.001). The 95th percentile of plasma aldosterone at the end of the test was 225 pmol/L. The FST can be shortened to 3 days and a daily 500 mg NaCl supplementation is sufficient. A cut-off value for aldosterone of 225 pmol/L after 4 days with FST is appropriate.

  8. A cut-off in the TeV gamma-ray spectrum of the SNR Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Arcaro, C.; Babić, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Bhattacharyya, W.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Carosi, R.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Colak, M.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Cumani, P.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hassan, T.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Inada, T.; Ishio, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; Kuveždić, D.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Maggio, C.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Minev, M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moreno, V.; Moretti, E.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Ninci, D.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Righi, C.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sitarek, J.; Šnidarić, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres-Albà, N.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Zarić, D.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely believed that the bulk of the Galactic cosmic rays is accelerated in supernova remnants (SNRs). However, no observational evidence of the presence of particles of PeV energies in SNRs has yet been found. The young historical SNR Cassiopeia A (Cas A) appears as one of the best candidates to study acceleration processes. Between 2014 December and 2016 October, we observed Cas A with the MAGIC telescopes, accumulating 158 h of good quality data. We derived the spectrum of the source from 100 GeV to 10 TeV. We also analysed ∼8 yr of Fermi-LAT to obtain the spectral shape between 60 MeV and 500 GeV. The spectra measured by the LAT and MAGIC telescopes are compatible within the errors and show a clear turn-off (4.6σ) at the highest energies, which can be described with an exponential cut-off at E_c = 3.5(^{+1.6}_{-1.0})_{stat} (^{+0.8}_{-0.9})_{sys} TeV. The gamma-ray emission from 60 MeV to 10 TeV can be attributed to a population of high-energy protons with a spectral index of ∼2.2 and an energy cut-off at ∼10 TeV. This result indicates that Cas A is not contributing to the high energy (∼PeV) cosmic ray sea in a significant manner at the present moment. A one-zone leptonic model fails to reproduce by itself the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution. Besides, if a non-negligible fraction of the flux seen by MAGIC is produced by leptons, the radiation should be emitted in a region with a low magnetic field (B⪅180 μG) like in the reverse shock.

  9. To choose the cut-off point of ferritin for differentiation between benign from malignant pleural-peritoneal effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Liu; Yang Wenjing; Liu Junfeng; Yu Jiuru

    2005-01-01

    To explore the level of ferritin for differentiating the benign from malignant pleural and peritoneal effusion, 218 pleural-peritoneal effusion samples from patients with different kinds of diseases were determined for ferritin (P Ft ) by RIA, in the meanwhile serum ferritin (S Ft ) was also determined. According to clinical diagnosis, these samples were divided into two groups: benign and malignant. P Ft and S Ft were compared between these two groups, and the ratio of P Ft to S Ft was counted. The ROC curve was used to choose the best cut-off point P Ft for differentiating benign from malignant pleural and peritoneal effusion. The results showed that in the benign effusion group the P Ft was 142.4±38.6 μg/L, S Ft was 89.7±43.5 μg/L, and P Ft / S Ft was 1.46±0.55, whereas in the group of malignant effusion the corresponding figures were 576.5±239.l μg/L, 189.±81.7 μg/L, and 3.67±1.48, respectively. The cut-off point for differentiating benign from malignant pleural and peritoneal effusion was 400 μg/L. Our differentiation standards are: P Ft ≥400 μg/L,P Ft /S Ft ≥3 for the malignant pleural and peritoneal ef- fusion, and P Ft Ft /S Ft <3 for the benign effusion. The sensitivity is 84.5%, the specificity is 87.5%, and the accuracy is 92.8%. (authors)

  10. Appropriate neck circumference cut-off points for metabolic syndrome in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Ismail; Yardimci, Bulent; Tunckale, Aydin

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the association between neck circumference (NC), overweight, and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 264 diabetic patients (mean age: 52.9±8.1 years) were recruited from two centers in Istanbul to perform anthropometric measurements, including waist and hip circumference, NC, and body mass index. Blood pressure, fasting glucose, and lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels) were determined. NC correlated with waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides in men, whereas NC only correlated with waist circumference in women. Additionally, NC was shown to negatively correlate with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in both men and women. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve for NC and overweight was 0.95 for both men and women (P<0.001). Moreover, a NC of 38cm for men and 37cm for women was the best cut-off point for determining overweight. The area under the curve for NC and MS was 0.87 for men and 0.83 for women (P<0.001). A NC of 39cm for men and 37cm for women was the best cut-off point to determine participants with MS. Our findings suggest a positive correlation of NC with MetS in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes, and could be a useful and accurate tool to identify MS. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. The assessment of anorexia in patients with cancer: cut-off values for the FAACT-A/CS and the VAS for appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauwhoff-Buskermolen, S; Ruijgrok, C; Ostelo, R W; de Vet, H C W; Verheul, H M W; de van der Schueren, M A E; Langius, J A E

    2016-02-01

    Anorexia is a frequently observed symptom in patients with cancer and is associated with limited food intake and decreased quality of life. Diagnostic instruments such as the Anorexia/Cachexia Subscale (A/CS) of the Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy (FAACT) questionnaire and the visual analog scale (VAS) for appetite have been recommended in the assessment of anorexia, but validated cut-off values are lacking. This study aimed to obtain cut-off values of these instruments for the assessment of anorexia in patients with cancer. The FAACT-A/CS and the VAS for appetite were administered to patients with cancer before start of chemotherapy. As reference standard for anorexia, two external criteria were used: (1) a cut-off value of ≥2 on the anorexia symptom scale of the EORTC QLQ C-30 and (2) the question "Do you experience a decreased appetite?" (yes/no). ROC curves were used to examine the optimal cut-off values for the FAACT-A/CS and VAS. A total of 273 patients (58 % male; 64.0 ± 10.6 years) were included. The median score on the FAACT-A/CS was 38 (IQR 32-42) points and 77 (IQR 47-93) points on the VAS. Considering both external criteria, the optimal cut-off value for the FAACT-A/CS was ≤37 (sensitivity (se) 80 %, specificity (sp) 81 %, positive predictive value (PV(+)) 79 %, negative predictive value (PV(-)) 82 %) and for the VAS was ≤70 (se 76 %, sp 83 %, PV(+) 80 %, PV(-) 79 %). For the assessment of anorexia in patients with cancer, our study suggests cut-off values of ≤37 for the FAACT-A/CS and ≤70 for the VAS. Future studies should confirm our findings in other patient samples.

  12. Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

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    Isidoro González-Álvaro

    Full Text Available To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI in patients with chronic polyarthritis.Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR] including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for low, moderate and high activity through receiver operating curve (ROC analysis. The areas under ROC (AUC were compared to those of validated indexes (SDAI, CDAI, DAS28. ROC analysis was also applied to establish minimal and relevant clinical improvement for HUPI.The best cut-off points for HUPI are 2, 5 and 9, classifying RA activity as remission if ≤2, low disease activity if >2 and ≤5, moderate if >5 and <9 and high if ≥9. HUPI's AUC to discriminate between low-moderate activity was 0.909 and between moderate-high activity 0.887. DAS28's AUCs were 0.887 and 0.846, respectively; both indices had higher accuracy than SDAI (AUCs: 0.832 and 0.756 and CDAI (AUCs: 0.789 and 0.728. HUPI discriminates remission better than DAS28-ESR in early arthritis, but similarly to SDAI. The HUPI cut-off for minimal clinical improvement was established at 2 and for relevant clinical improvement at 4. Response criteria were established based on these cut-off values.The cut-offs proposed for HUPI perform adequately in patients with either early or long term arthritis.

  13. Optimal cut-off levels to define obesity: body mass index and waist circumference, and their relationship to cardiovascular disease, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and diabetes in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Zaki Morad Mohd; Zambari, Robayaah; Pheng, Chan Siew; Muruga, Vadivale; Ng, Bernard; Appannah, Geeta; Onn, Lim Teck

    2009-01-01

    Many studies in Asia have demonstrated that Asian populations may require lower cut-off levels for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference to define obesity and abdominal obesity respectively, compared to western populations. Optimal cut-off levels for body mass index and waist circumference were determined to assess the relationship between the two anthropometric- and cardiovascular indices. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off levels. The study sample included 1833 subjects (mean age of 44+/-14 years) from 93 primary care clinics in Malaysia. Eight hundred and seventy two of the subjects were men and 960 were women. The optimal body mass index cut-off values predicting dyslipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or at least one cardiovascular risk factor varied from 23.5 to 25.5 kg/m2 in men and 24.9 to 27.4 kg/m2 in women. As for waist circumference, the optimal cut-off values varied from 83 to 92 cm in men and from 83 to 88 cm in women. The optimal cut-off values from our study showed that body mass index of 23.5 kg/m2 in men and 24.9 kg/m2 in women and waist circumference of 83 cm in men and women may be more suitable for defining the criteria for overweight or obesity among adults in Malaysia. Waist circumference may be a better indicator for the prediction of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors in men and women compared to BMI. Further investigation using a bigger sample size in Asia needs to be done to confirm our findings.

  14. Age-related differences in recommended anthropometric cut-off point validity to identify cardiovascular risk factors in ostensibly healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramoney, Sreevidya; Björkelund, Cecilia; Guo, Xinxin; Skoog, Ingmar; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Lissner, Lauren

    2014-12-01

    To investigate validity of widely recommended anthropometric and total fat percentage cut-off points in screening for cardiovascular risk factors in women of different ages. A population-based sample of 1002 Swedish women aged 38, 50, 75 (younger, middle-aged and elderly, respectively) underwent anthropometry, health examinations and blood tests. Total fat was estimated (bioimpedance) in 670 women. Sensitivity, specificity of body mass index (BMI; ≥25 and ≥30), waist circumference (WC; ≥80 cm and ≥88 cm) and total fat percentage (TF; ≥35%) cut-off points for cardiovascular risk factors (dyslipidaemias, hypertension and hyperglycaemia) were calculated for each age. Cut-off points yielding high sensitivity together with modest specificity were considered valid. Women reporting hospital admission for cardiovascular disease were excluded. The sensitivity of WC ≥80 cm for one or more risk factors was ~60% in younger and middle-aged women, and 80% in elderly women. The specificity of WC ≥80 cm for one or more risk factors was 69%, 57% and 40% at the three ages (p < .05 for age trends). WC ≥80 cm yielded ~80% sensitivity for two or more risk factors across all ages. However, specificity decreased with increasing age (p < .0001), being 33% in elderly. WC ≥88 cm provided better specificity in elderly women. BMI and TF % cut-off points were not better than WC. Validity of recommended anthropometric cut-off points in screening asymptomatic women varies with age. In younger and middle-age, WC ≥80 cm yielded high sensitivity and modest specificity for two or more risk factors, however, sensitivity for one or more risk factor was less than optimal. WC ≥88 cm showed better validity than WC ≥80 cm in elderly. Our results support age-specific screening cut-off points for women. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  15. Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Castrejón, Isabel; Ortiz, Ana M; Toledano, Esther; Castañeda, Santos; García-Vadillo, Alberto; Carmona, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) in patients with chronic polyarthritis. Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study) and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR]) including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for low, moderate and high activity through receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. The areas under ROC (AUC) were compared to those of validated indexes (SDAI, CDAI, DAS28). ROC analysis was also applied to establish minimal and relevant clinical improvement for HUPI. The best cut-off points for HUPI are 2, 5 and 9, classifying RA activity as remission if ≤2, low disease activity if >2 and ≤5), moderate if >5 and <9 and high if ≥9. HUPI's AUC to discriminate between low-moderate activity was 0.909 and between moderate-high activity 0.887. DAS28's AUCs were 0.887 and 0.846, respectively; both indices had higher accuracy than SDAI (AUCs: 0.832 and 0.756) and CDAI (AUCs: 0.789 and 0.728). HUPI discriminates remission better than DAS28-ESR in early arthritis, but similarly to SDAI. The HUPI cut-off for minimal clinical improvement was established at 2 and for relevant clinical improvement at 4. Response criteria were established based on these cut-off values. The cut-offs proposed for HUPI perform adequately in patients with either early or long term arthritis.

  16. Exploring optimum cut-off scores to screen for probable posttraumatic stress disorder within a sample of UK treatment-seeking veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dominic; Ross, Jana; Ashwick, Rachel; Armour, Cherie; Busuttil, Walter

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Previous research exploring the psychometric properties of the scores of measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggests there is variation in their functioning depending on the target population. To date, there has been little study of these properties within UK veteran populations. Objective: This study aimed to determine optimally efficient cut-off values for the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) that can be used to assess for differential diagnosis of presumptive PTSD. Methods: Data from a sample of 242 UK veterans assessed for mental health difficulties were analysed. The criterion-related validity of the PCL-5 and IES-R were evaluated against the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5). Kappa statistics were used to assess the level of agreement between the DSM-IV and DSM-5 classification systems. Results: The optimal cut-off scores observed within this sample were 34 or above on the PCL-5 and 46 or above on the IES-R. The PCL-5 cut-off is similar to the previously reported values, but the IES-R cut-off identified in this study is higher than has previously been recommended. Overall, a moderate level of agreement was found between participants screened positive using the DSM-IV and DSM-5 classification systems of PTSD. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the PCL-5 and IES-R can be used as brief measures within veteran populations presenting at secondary care to assess for PTSD. The use of a higher cut-off for the IES-R may be helpful for differentiating between veterans who present with PTSD and those who may have some sy`mptoms of PTSD but are sub-threshold for meeting a diagnosis. Further, the use of more accurate optimal cut-offs may aid clinicians to better monitor changes in PTSD symptoms during and after treatment. PMID:29435200

  17. Exploring optimum cut-off scores to screen for probable posttraumatic stress disorder within a sample of UK treatment-seeking veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dominic; Ross, Jana; Ashwick, Rachel; Armour, Cherie; Busuttil, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Background : Previous research exploring the psychometric properties of the scores of measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggests there is variation in their functioning depending on the target population. To date, there has been little study of these properties within UK veteran populations. Objective : This study aimed to determine optimally efficient cut-off values for the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) that can be used to assess for differential diagnosis of presumptive PTSD. Methods : Data from a sample of 242 UK veterans assessed for mental health difficulties were analysed. The criterion-related validity of the PCL-5 and IES-R were evaluated against the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5). Kappa statistics were used to assess the level of agreement between the DSM-IV and DSM-5 classification systems. Results : The optimal cut-off scores observed within this sample were 34 or above on the PCL-5 and 46 or above on the IES-R. The PCL-5 cut-off is similar to the previously reported values, but the IES-R cut-off identified in this study is higher than has previously been recommended. Overall, a moderate level of agreement was found between participants screened positive using the DSM-IV and DSM-5 classification systems of PTSD. Conclusions : Our findings suggest that the PCL-5 and IES-R can be used as brief measures within veteran populations presenting at secondary care to assess for PTSD. The use of a higher cut-off for the IES-R may be helpful for differentiating between veterans who present with PTSD and those who may have some sy`mptoms of PTSD but are sub-threshold for meeting a diagnosis. Further, the use of more accurate optimal cut-offs may aid clinicians to better monitor changes in PTSD symptoms during and after treatment.

  18. Determinants of self-reported smoking and misclassification during pregnancy, and analysis of optimal cut-off points for urinary cotinine: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; López, María José; Castilla, Ane Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Guxens, Mónica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Espada, Mercedes; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-24

    To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. We used logistic regression models to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and self-reported smoking and misclassification (self-reported non-smokers with UC >50 ng/ml). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the optimal cut-off point for discriminating smokers. The cut-offs were also calculated after stratification among non-smokers by the number of sources of SHS exposure. The cut-off points used to discriminate smoking status were the level of UC given by Youden's index and for 50 and 100 ng/ml for daily smokers, or 25 and 50 ng/ml for occasional smokers. At the third trimester of pregnancy, 2263 pregnant women of the INMA Project were interviewed between 2004 and 2008 and a urine sample was collected. Prevalence of self-reported smokers at the third trimester of pregnancy was 18.5%, and another 3.9% misreported their smoking status. Variables associated with self-reported smoking and misreporting were similar, including born in Europe, educational level and exposure to SHS. The optimal cut-off was 82 ng/ml (95% CI 42 to 133), sensitivity 95.2% and specificity 96.6%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.986 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.990). The cut-offs varied according to the SHS exposure level being 42 (95% CI 27 to 57), 82 (95% CI 46 to 136) and 106 ng/ml (95% CI 58 to 227) for not being SHS exposed, exposed to one, and to two or more sources of SHS, respectively. The optimal cut-off for discriminating occasional smokers from non-smokers was 27 ng/ml (95% CI 11 to 43). Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Spain remains high. UC is a reliable biomarker for classifying

  19. Determinants of self-reported smoking and misclassification during pregnancy, and analysis of optimal cut-off points for urinary cotinine: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; López, María José; Castilla, Ane Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Guxens, Mónica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Espada, Mercedes; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Design We used logistic regression models to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and self-reported smoking and misclassification (self-reported non-smokers with UC >50 ng/ml). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the optimal cut-off point for discriminating smokers. The cut-offs were also calculated after stratification among non-smokers by the number of sources of SHS exposure. The cut-off points used to discriminate smoking status were the level of UC given by Youden's index and for 50 and 100 ng/ml for daily smokers, or 25 and 50 ng/ml for occasional smokers. Participants At the third trimester of pregnancy, 2263 pregnant women of the INMA Project were interviewed between 2004 and 2008 and a urine sample was collected. Results Prevalence of self-reported smokers at the third trimester of pregnancy was 18.5%, and another 3.9% misreported their smoking status. Variables associated with self-reported smoking and misreporting were similar, including born in Europe, educational level and exposure to SHS. The optimal cut-off was 82 ng/ml (95% CI 42 to 133), sensitivity 95.2% and specificity 96.6%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.986 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.990). The cut-offs varied according to the SHS exposure level being 42 (95% CI 27 to 57), 82 (95% CI 46 to 136) and 106 ng/ml (95% CI 58 to 227) for not being SHS exposed, exposed to one, and to two or more sources of SHS, respectively. The optimal cut-off for discriminating occasional smokers from non-smokers was 27 ng/ml (95% CI 11 to 43). Conclusions Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in

  20. [Analysis of Cut-off Value in Screening of Thalassemia by Capillary Hemoglobin Electrophoresis for Pregnant Women from Shenzhen Region of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Mei; Wu, Wen-Yuan; Liu, Mei; Gan, Zhi-Biao; Mao, Wei-Yu; Lin, Rong-Yao; Liu, Ai-Qin; He, Gui-Rong

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the cut-off value in screening of thalassemia in pregnant women from Shenzhen region by capillary hemoglobin electrophoresis. The data of capillary hemoglobin electrophoresis and genetic diagnosis of thalassemia from 2122 examined prenatal women were retrospectively analyzed. Capillary hemoglobin electrophoresis and α-, β- genetic diagnosis of thalassemia were carried out for every woman. Hemoglobin electrophoresis was performed using Capillarys 2 full-automated electrophoresis instrument. Gap polymerase chain reaction and reverse dot blot were used for genetic diagnosis of thalassemia genotyping test. The cut-off value in screening of thalassemia was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve and next to analyze the value of HbA2 and HbF in screening of thalassemia using the decided cut-off value. The areas under the curve (AUC(Roc)) of HbA2 for diagnosis of α-, β- thalassemia were 0.75 and 0.981 respectively, and the AUC(Roc) of HbF for diagnosis of β-thalassemia was 0.787. When HbA2 ≤ 2.55 was taken as the cut-off value of HbA2 for diagnosis of α-thalassemia, the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR(+)) and negative likelihood ratio (LR(-)) were 89.5%, 54.8%, 1.98, 0.19 respectively. When HbA2 ≥3.9 was taken as the cut off value of HbA2 for diagnosis of β-thalassemia, the sensitivity, specificity, LR(+) and LR(-) were 96.1%, 99.8% 480.5, 0.04 respectively. When HbF ≥0.75 was taken as the cut off value of HbF for diagnosis of β-thalassemia, the sensitivity, specificity, LR(+) and LR(-) were 83.6%, 61.8% respectively. The cut-off value in screening of thalassemia by capillarys 2 full automated electrophoresis instrument is different from that of the traditional method of hemoglobin electrophoresis, such as cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis and agarose gel electrophoresis. Each laboratory should establish their own respective cut off value.

  1. Comparison of interferon-γ release assay to two cut-off points of tuberculin skin test to detect latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in primary health care workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mattos de Souza

    Full Text Available An interferon-γ release assay, QuantiFERON-TB (QFT test, has been introduced an alternative test for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI. Here, we compared the performance of QFT with tuberculin skin test (TST measured at two different cut-off points among primary health care work (HCW in Brazil.A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCWs in four Brazilian cities with a known history of high incidence of TB. Results of the QFT were compared to TST results based on both ≥5 mm and ≥10 mm as cut-off points.We enrolled 632 HCWs. When the cut-off value of ≥10 mm was used, agreement between QFT and TST was 69% (k = 0.31, and when the cut-off of ≥5 mm was chosen, the agreement was 57% (k = 0.22. We investigated possible factors of discordance of TST vs QFT. Compared to the TST-/QFT- group, risk factors for discordance in the TST+/QFT- group with TST cut-off of ≥5 mm included age between 41-45 years [OR = 2.70; CI 95%: 1.32-5.51] and 46-64 years [OR = 2.04; CI 95%: 1.05-3.93], BCG scar [OR = 2.72; CI 95%: 1.40-5.25], and having worked only in primary health care [OR = 2.30; CI 95%: 1.09-4.86]. On the other hand, for the cut-off of ≥10 mm, BCG scar [OR = 2.26; CI 95%: 1.03-4.91], being a household contact of a TB patient [OR = 1.72; CI 95%: 1.01-2.92] and having had a previous TST [OR = 1.66; CI 95%: 1.05-2.62], were significantly associated with the TST+/QFT- group. No statistically significant associations were found among the TST-/QFT+ discordant group with either TST cut-off value.Although we identified BCG vaccination to contribute to the discordance at both TST cut-off measures, the current Brazilian recommendation for the initiation of LTBI treatment, based on information gathered from medical history, TST, chest radiograph and physical examination, should not be changed.

  2. Comparison of interferon-γ release assay to two cut-off points of tuberculin skin test to detect latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in primary health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fernanda Mattos; do Prado, Thiago Nascimento; Pinheiro, Jair dos Santos; Peres, Renata Lyrio; Lacerda, Thamy Carvalho; Loureiro, Rafaela Borge; Carvalho, Jose Américo; Fregona, Geisa; Dias, Elias Santos; Cosme, Lorrayne Beliqui; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Riley, Lee Wood; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2014-01-01

    An interferon-γ release assay, QuantiFERON-TB (QFT) test, has been introduced an alternative test for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Here, we compared the performance of QFT with tuberculin skin test (TST) measured at two different cut-off points among primary health care work (HCW) in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCWs in four Brazilian cities with a known history of high incidence of TB. Results of the QFT were compared to TST results based on both ≥5 mm and ≥10 mm as cut-off points. We enrolled 632 HCWs. When the cut-off value of ≥10 mm was used, agreement between QFT and TST was 69% (k = 0.31), and when the cut-off of ≥5 mm was chosen, the agreement was 57% (k = 0.22). We investigated possible factors of discordance of TST vs QFT. Compared to the TST-/QFT- group, risk factors for discordance in the TST+/QFT- group with TST cut-off of ≥5 mm included age between 41-45 years [OR = 2.70; CI 95%: 1.32-5.51] and 46-64 years [OR = 2.04; CI 95%: 1.05-3.93], BCG scar [OR = 2.72; CI 95%: 1.40-5.25], and having worked only in primary health care [OR = 2.30; CI 95%: 1.09-4.86]. On the other hand, for the cut-off of ≥10 mm, BCG scar [OR = 2.26; CI 95%: 1.03-4.91], being a household contact of a TB patient [OR = 1.72; CI 95%: 1.01-2.92] and having had a previous TST [OR = 1.66; CI 95%: 1.05-2.62], were significantly associated with the TST+/QFT- group. No statistically significant associations were found among the TST-/QFT+ discordant group with either TST cut-off value. Although we identified BCG vaccination to contribute to the discordance at both TST cut-off measures, the current Brazilian recommendation for the initiation of LTBI treatment, based on information gathered from medical history, TST, chest radiograph and physical examination, should not be changed.

  3. The cut-off values of anthropometric variables for predicting mild cognitive impairment in Malaysian older adults: a large population based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won H

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Huiloo Won,1 Zahara Abdul Manaf,2 Arimi Fitri Mat Ludin,3 Mohd Azahadi Omar,4 Rosdinom Razali,5 Suzana Shahar2 1Nutrition Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 2Dietetics Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 3Biomedical Science Program, School of Diagnostic and Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 4Centre for Burden of Disease Research, Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Purpose: Older adults are at risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and simple anthropometric measurements can be used to screen for this condition. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the cut-off values of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC for predicting the risk of MCI in older Malaysian adults.Methods: A total of 2,240 Malaysian older adults aged ≥60 years were recruited using multistage random sampling in a population based cross-sectional study. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to determine the cut-off values of BMI and WC with optimum sensitivity and specificity for the detection of MCI. Age, gender, years of education, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, depression, and medical conditions were used as confounding factors in this analysis.Results: A BMI cut-off value of 26 kg/m2 (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.725; sensitivity 90.5%; specificity 38.8% was appropriate in identifying the risk of getting MCI in both men and women. The optimum WC cut-offs for likelihood of MCI were 90 cm (AUC 0.745; sensitivity 78.0%; specificity 59.8% for men and 82 cm (AUC 0.714; sensitivity 84.3%; specificity 49.7% for women. The optimum calf circumference (CC cut-off values for identifying MCI were 29 cm (AUC 0.731; sensitivity 72.6%; specificity

  4. Determination of cosmic ray (CR) ionization path and iono/atmospheric cut-off energy from CR intervals III, IV and V in the planetary environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velinov, P.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper are determined the ionization path and cut-off energies of the cosmic ray (CR) nuclei in relation to the general interaction model 'CR - ionosphere-middle atmosphere'. Here the ionization path and the iono/atmospheric cut-off energies of the galactic CR, solar CR and anomalous CR are separately considered in each energetic range, without taking into account the particle transfer from one range in another. This more general approach will be the object of a further paper

  5. Oocyst wall formation and composition in coccidian parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Mai

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The oocyst wall of coccidian parasites is a robust structure that is resistant to a variety of environmental and chemical insults. This resilience allows oocysts to survive for long periods, facilitating transmission from host to host. The wall is bilayered and is formed by the sequential release of the contents of two specialized organelles - wall forming body 1 and wall forming body 2 - found in the macrogametocyte stage of Coccidia. The oocyst wall is over 90% protein but few of these proteins have been studied. One group is cysteine-rich and may be presumed to crosslink via disulphide bridges, though this is yet to be investigated. Another group of wall proteins is rich in tyrosine. These proteins, which range in size from 8-31 kDa, are derived from larger precursors of 56 and 82 kDa found in the wall forming bodies. Proteases may catalyze processing of the precursors into tyrosine-rich peptides, which are then oxidatively crosslinked in a reaction catalyzed by peroxidases. In support of this hypothesis, the oocyst wall has high levels of dityrosine bonds. These dityrosine crosslinked proteins may provide a structural matrix for assembly of the oocyst wall and contribute to its resilience.

  6. Bronchodilator response cut-off points and FEV 0.75 reference values for spirometry in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burity, Edjane Figueiredo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Sayão, Larissa Bouwman; Andrade, Armèle Dornelas de; Britto, Murilo Carlos Amorim de

    2016-01-01

    To determine the cut-off points for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% bronchodilator responses in healthy preschool children and to generate reference values for FEV0.75. This was a cross-sectional community-based study involving children 3-5 years of age. Healthy preschool children were selected by a standardized questionnaire. Spirometry was performed before and after bronchodilator use. The cut-off point of the response was defined as the 95th percentile of the change in each parameter. We recruited 266 children, 160 (60%) of whom were able to perform acceptable, reproducible expiratory maneuvers before and after bronchodilator use. The mean age and height were 57.78 ± 7.86 months and 106.56 ± 6.43 cm, respectively. The success rate for FEV0.5 was 35%, 68%, and 70% in the 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, respectively. The 95th percentile of the change in the percentage of the predicted value in response to bronchodilator use was 11.6%, 16.0%, 8.5%, and 35.5% for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75%, respectively. Our results provide cut-off points for bronchodilator responsiveness for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% in healthy preschool children. In addition, we proposed gender-specific reference equations for FEV0.75. Our findings could improve the physiological assessment of respiratory function in preschool children. Determinar os pontos de corte de resposta ao broncodilatador do VEF1, VEF0,75, VEF0,5 e FEF25-75% em crianças pré-escolares saudáveis e gerar valores de referência para o VEF0,75. Foi realizado um estudo transversal de base comunitária em crianças de 3-5 anos de idade. Pré-escolares saudáveis foram selecionados por um questionário padronizado. Foi realizada espirometria antes e depois do uso de broncodilatador. Foram definidos os pontos de corte dessa resposta como o percentil 95 de variação em cada parâmetro. Foram recrutadas 266 crianças, e 160 (60,0%) foram capazes de gerar manobras expiratórias aceitáveis e reprodut

  7. Seismic Performance of Composite Shear Walls Constructed Using Recycled Aggregate Concrete and Different Expandable Polystyrene Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The seismic performance of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC composite shear walls with different expandable polystyrene (EPS configurations was investigated. Six concrete shear walls were designed and tested under cyclic loading to evaluate the effect of fine RAC in designing earthquake-resistant structures. Three of the six specimens were used to construct mid-rise walls with a shear-span ratio of 1.5, and the other three specimens were used to construct low-rise walls with a shear-span ratio of 0.8. The mid-rise and low-rise shear walls consisted of an ordinary recycled concrete shear wall, a composite wall with fine aggregate concrete (FAC protective layer (EPS modules as the external insulation layer, and a composite wall with sandwiched EPS modules as the insulation layer. Several parameters obtained from the experimental results were compared and analyzed, including the load-bearing capacity, stiffness, ductility, energy dissipation, and failure characteristics of the specimens. The calculation formula of load-bearing capacity was obtained by considering the effect of FAC on composite shear walls as the protective layer. The damage process of the specimen was simulated using the ABAQUS Software, and the results agreed quite well with those obtained from the experiments. The results show that the seismic resistance behavior of the EPS module composite for shear walls performed better than ordinary recycled concrete for shear walls. Shear walls with sandwiched EPS modules had a better seismic performance than those with EPS modules lying outside. Although the FAC protective layer slightly improved the seismic performance of the structure, it undoubtedly slowed down the speed of crack formation and the stiffness degradation of the walls.

  8. Diagnostic assessment without cut-offs: application of serology for the modelling of bovine digital dermatitis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, W D; Jones, G; Johnson, W O; Brown, J; Demirkan, I; Carter, S D; French, N P

    2009-11-15

    Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is an epidermitis which is a leading cause of infectious lameness. The only recognized diagnostic test is foot inspection, which is a labour-intensive procedure. There is no universally recognized, standardized lesion scoring system. As small lesions are easily missed, foot inspection has limited diagnostic sensitivity. Furthermore, interpretation is subjective, and prone to observer bias. Serology is more convenient to carry out and is potentially a more sensitive indicator of infection. By carrying out 20 serological assays using lesion-associated Treponema spp. isolates, three serogroups were identified. The reliability of the tests was established by assessing the level of agreement and the concordance correlation coefficient. Subsequently, an ELISA suitable for routine use was developed. The benchmark of diagnostic test validation is conventionally the determination of the key test parameters, sensitivity and specificity. This requires the imposition of a cut-off point. For serological assays with outcomes on a continuous scale, the degree by which the test result differs from this cut-off is disregarded. Bayesian statistical methodology has been developed which enables the assay result also to be interpreted on a continuous scale, thereby optimizing the information inherent in the test. Using a cross-sectional study dataset carried out on 8 representative dairy farms in the UK, the probability of infection, P(I), of each individual animal was estimated in the absence of a 'Gold Standard' by modelling I as a latent variable which was determined by lesion status, L as well as serology, S. Covariate data (foot hygiene score and age) were utilized to estimate P(L) when no lesion inspection was performed. Informative prior distributions were elicited where possible. The model was utilized for predictive inference, by computing estimates of P(I) and P(L) independently of the data. A more detailed and informative analysis of the farm

  9. Optimal cut?off value of alanine aminotransferase level to precisely estimate the presence of fatty liver in patients with poorly controlled type?2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Tanabe, Akihito; Tatsumi, Fuminori; Okauchi, Seizo; Yabe, Hiroki; Tsuda, Tomohiro; Okutani, Kazuma; Yamashita, Kazuki; Nakashima, Koji; Kaku, Kohei; Kaneto, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Optimal cut?off value of ALT level to precisely estimate the presence of fatty liver was as low as 28.0?U/L. We should consider the possibility of fatty liver even when ALT level is within normal range in subjects with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes.

  10. DMol3/COSMO-RS prediction of aqueous solubility and reactivity of selected Azo dyes: Effect of global orbital cut-off and COSMO segment variation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wahab, OO

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous solubility and reactivity of four azo dyes were investigated by DMol3/COSMO-RS calculation to examine the effects of global orbital cut-off and COSMO segment variation on the accuracies of theoretical solubility and reactivity. The studied...

  11. Use of cut-off values as meaningfulness limits in probabilistic studies and its effect on NPPs risk assessment and safety improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrangeli, G.; Valeri, A.; Zaffiro, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of cut-off values in probabilistic risk assessment/probabilistic safety assessment (PRA/PSA) of nuclear power plants (NPPs), in order to explore under which conditions this practice may help improve the meaningfulness of the results of the analyses and safety of plants, and how it may affect the assessment of risk. Reference is made, in particular, to some past practical applications, also taken from the experience of the authors within the frame of the Italian licensing process. The paper describes the Italian probabilistic criteria which use probabilistic targets and cut-off values to assess safety and identify plant safety improvements. The rationale of the approach is also discussed in the paper and results of sample applications are illustrated. The paper concludes that the use of cut-off values, if properly implemented, could be productive to improve the plant safety as it helps the analyst to focus on a restricted field of analysis, ignoring lower probability and less known events. It also points out that cut-off values should be considered as living numbers to be lowered and even eliminated as soon as significant advancements are made, through research and operational experience, in the knowledge of the pertinent events

  12. Insulin Resistance Distribution and Cut-Off Value in Koreans from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Kyung-Jin; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Park, Yong-Moon; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Song, Ki-Ho; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to identify the distribution and cut-off value of the ‘homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance’ (HOMA-IR) according to gender and menopausal status for metabolic syndrome in Koreans. Methods Data were from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2010. The subjects included adults aged 20 years or older. We excluded participants who had diabetes or fasting serum glucose ≥ 7 mmol/L. Finally, 11,121 subjects (4,911 men, 3,597 premenopausal women, 2,613 postmenopausal women) were enrolled. The modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome. Results The mean HOMA-IR was 2.11 (2.07–2.15) for men, 2.0 (1.97–2.04) for premenopausal women, and 2.14 (2.2–2.19) for postmenopausal women. The first cut-off values in men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women were 2.23 (sensitivity 70.6%, specificity 66.9%), 2.39 (sensitivity 72.3%, specificity 76.4%), and 2.48 (sensitivity 51.9%, specificity 80.2%), respectively. Based on the first HOMA-IR cut-off value, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.9% in men, 13.7% in premenopausal women, and 51.6% in postmenopausal women. The second cut-off value was around 3.2 in all three groups. Based on the second HOMA-IR cut-off value, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 50.8% in men, 42.5% in premenopausal women, and 71.6% in postmenopausal women. Conclusion In conclusion, the first cut-off values for HOMA-IR were 2.2–2.5 and the second cut-off value was 3.2 in Korea. The distribution of HOMA-IR showed differences according to gender and menopausal status. When we apply HOMA-IR, we should consider gender, menopausal status, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:27128847

  13. Serum anti-PLA2R antibody as a diagnostic biomarker of idiopathic membranous nephropathy: The optimal cut-off value for Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yipeng; Li, Xuan; Ma, Chaoqun; Wang, Ping; Liu, Ju; Su, Hong; Zhuo, Hao; Kong, Xianglei; Xu, Dayu; Xu, Dongmei

    2018-01-01

    The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is a specific target autoantigen identified in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). The autoantibody against PLA2R (anti-PLA2R) may be used to diagnose IMN. However, the appropriate diagnosis cut-off value for Chinese patients with IMN has not been established. In total, 119 patients who underwent renal biopsy (57 patients with IMN and 62 patients with non-IMN glomerulonephritis) and 22 healthy individuals were recruited for our observation study from Qianfoshan Hospital between September 2011 and March 2016. The serum concentration of anti-PLA2R was measured using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of anti-PLA2R in diagnosing IMN were analysed based on the ELISA detection. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of anti-PLA2R in the diagnosis of IMN in the Chinese patients were 82.5, 75, 69.1, and 86.3% for the 2RU/ml cut-off value; 78.9, 91.7, 86.5, and 86.5% for the 2.6RU/ml cut-off value; 59.6, 95.2, 89.5, and 77.7% for the 14RU/ml cut-off value; 50.9, 96.4, 90.6, and 74.3% for the 20RU/ml cut-off value; and 47.4, 97.6, 93.1, and 73.2% for the 40RU/ml cut-off value, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.879. The cut-off value of 2.6RU/ml is recommended for the use of anti-PLA2R for the diagnosis of IMN in Chinese patients based on the ELISA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Effect sizes and cut-off points: a meta-analytical review of burnout in latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arroyo, Jose; Osca Segovia, Amparo

    2018-05-02

    Burnout is a highly prevalent globalized health issue that causes significant physical and psychological health problems. In Latin America research on this topic has increased in recent years, however there are no studies comparing results across countries, nor normative reference cut-offs. The present meta-analysis examines the intensity of burnout (emotional exhaustion, cynicism and personal accomplishment) in 58 adult nonclinical samples from 8 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela). We found low intensity of burnout but there are significant differences between countries in emotional exhaustion explained by occupation and language. Social and human service professionals (police officers, social workers, public administration staff) are more exhausted than health professionals (physicians, nurses) or teachers. The samples with Portuguese language score higher in emotional exhaustion than Spanish, supporting the theory of cultural relativism. Demographics (sex, age) and study variables (sample size, instrument), were not found significant to predict burnout. The effect size and confidence intervals found are proposed as a useful baseline for research and medical diagnosis of burnout in Latin American countries.

  15. Performance tests of an abrasive cut-off systems for the finishing of high-precision casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the performance data of a newly designed and engineered grinding and cut-off system. The machine is used forseparation of models manufactured by the investment casting method. The machine comprises the following units:- base supporting other assemblies and elements: abrasive disc holder and drives; this solution enables an easy replacement and access toholding elements while a belt transmission allows the disc rpm to be varied,- mechanism moving the spindle in the horizontal, hence the abrasive disc position with respect to the batch can be precisely controlled,depending on the cast position and their shape,- holding and positioning-control of the batch to enable the fore and aft movements and rotations,- guide systems ensuring the travel of the batch in the specified direction and adjusting the travel speed to the required cutting rate,- centering, control, exhaust system, housing.Extensive tests were performed, including the tests of operating parameters of abrasive discs depending on the cast material, cyclograms ofthe applied treatment are obtained accordingly.

  16. Performance tests of an abrasive cut-off systems for the finishing of high-precision casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the performance data of a newly designed and engineered grinding and cut-off system. The machine is used for separation of models manufactured by the investment casting method. The machine comprises the following units:- base supporting other assemblies and elements: abrasive disc holder and drives; this solution enables an easy replacement and access to holding elements while a belt transmission allows the disc rpm to be varied,- mechanism moving the spindle in the horizontal, hence the abrasive disc position with respect to the batch can be precisely controlled, depending on the cast position and their shape,- holding and positioning-control of the batch to enable the fore and aft movements and rotations,- guide systems ensuring the travel of the batch in the specified direction and adjusting the travel speed to the required cutting rate,- centering, control, exhaust system, housingExtensive tests were performed, including the tests of operating parameters of abrasive discs depending on the cast material, cyclograms of the applied treatment are obtained accordingly.

  17. Experimental determination of the atmospheric gamma photons spectra at 12 GeV cut-off rigidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, I.M.; Dutra, S.L.G.; Palmeira, R.; Vedrenne, G.; Albernhe, F.

    1974-01-01

    The energy spectrum of atmospheric gamma-rays from 0.9 to 18.0 MeV has been measured as a function of altitude in a series of two balloon flights from Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil (12 GV cut-off rigidity). The detector used was a 4' x 4' NaI (Tl) crystal with a 1 cm thick plastic scintillator anti-coincidence shield, connected to a 128 channel pulse height analyser. Above 20g/cm 2 , the energy spectrum could be fitted to a power law with exponent 1.0 +- -+ 0.1 independent of the altitude. From 20 to 760 g/cm 2 , the spectrum was found to be somewhat steeper with the exponential index being 1.3 +- -+ 0.1. At 3.5 g/cm 2 , the gamma-ray flux was 0.30 photons/cm 2 -s at 1 MeV. These measurements are discussed and compared with calculated results [pt

  18. Low prevalence of hypopituitarism after subarachnoid haemorrhage using confirmatory testing and with BMI-specific GH cut-off levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Chris J; Javadpour, Mohsen; Stoneley, Catherine; Purthuran, Mani; Biswas, Shubhabrata; Daousi, Christina; MacFarlane, Ian A; Cuthbertson, Daniel J

    2013-04-01

    Hypopituitarism following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) has been reported to be a frequent occurrence. However, there is considerable heterogeneity between studies with differing patient populations and treatment modalities and most importantly employing differing endocrine protocols and (normal) reference ranges of GH. We aimed to examine prospectively a cohort of SAH survivors for development of hypopituitarism post-SAH using rigorous endocrine testing and compare GH response to glucagon stimulation with a cohort of healthy controls of a similar BMI. Sixty-four patients were investigated for evidence of hypopituitarism 3 months post-SAH with 50 patients tested again at 12 months. Glucagon stimulation testing (GST), with confirmation of deficiencies by GHRH/arginine testing for GH deficiency (GHD) and short synacthen testing for ACTH deficiency, was used. Basal testing of other hormonal axes was undertaken. Mean age of patients was 53±11.7 years and mean BMI was 27.5±5.7 kg/m(2). After confirmatory testing, the prevalence of hypopituitarism was 12% (GHD 10%, asymptomatic hypocortisolaemia 2%). There was no association between hypopituitarism and post-SAH vasospasm, presence of cerebral infarction, Fisher grade, or clinical grading at presentation. There was a significant correlation between BMI and peak GH to glucagon stimulation in both patients and controls. Identification of 'true' GHD after SAH requires confirmatory testing with an alternative stimulation test and application of BMI-specific cut-offs. Using such stringent criteria, we found a prevalence of hypopituitarism of 12% in our population.

  19. Detection of relevant colonic neoplasms with PET/CT: promising accuracy with minimal CT dose and a standardised PET cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luboldt, Wolfgang [Multiorgan Screening Foundation, Frankfurt (Germany); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany); Volker, Teresa; Zoephel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Joerg [University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany); Wiedemann, Baerbel [University Hospital Dresden, Institute of Medical Informatics and Biometrics, Dresden (Germany); Wehrmann, Ursula [University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Surgery, Dresden (Germany); Koch, Arne; Abolmaali, Nasreddin [University Hospital Dresden, Oncoray, Dresden (Germany); Toussaint, Todd; Luboldt, Hans-Joachim [Multiorgan Screening Foundation, Frankfurt (Germany); Middendorp, Markus; Gruenwald, Frank [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Frankfurt (Germany); Aust, Daniela [University Hospital Dresden, Department of Pathology, Dresden (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    To determine the performance of FDG-PET/CT in the detection of relevant colorectal neoplasms (adenomas {>=}10 mm, with high-grade dysplasia, cancer) in relation to CT dose and contrast administration and to find a PET cut-off. 84 patients, who underwent PET/CT and colonoscopy (n=79)/sigmoidoscopy (n=5) for (79 x 6+5 x 2)=484 colonic segments, were included in a retrospective study. The accuracy of low-dose PET/CT in detecting mass-positive segments was evaluated by ROC analysis by two blinded independent reviewers relative to contrast-enhanced PET/CT. On a per-lesion basis characteristic PET values were tested as cut-offs. Low-dose PET/CT and contrast-enhanced PET/CT provide similar accuracies (area under the curve for the average ROC ratings 0.925 vs. 0.929, respectively). PET demonstrated all carcinomas (n=23) and 83% (30/36) of relevant adenomas. In all carcinomas and adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (n=10) the SUV{sub max} was {>=}5. This cut-off resulted in a better per-segment sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) than the average PET/CT reviews (sensitivity: 89% vs. 82%; NPV: 99% vs. 98%). All other tested cut-offs were inferior to the SUV{sub max}. FDG-PET/CT provides promising accuracy for colorectal mass detection. Low dose and lack of iodine contrast in the CT component do not impact the accuracy. The PET cut-off SUV{sub max}{>=} 5 improves the accuracy. (orig.)

  20. Break-apart interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization assay in papillary thyroid carcinoma: on the road to optimizing the cut-off level for RET/PTC rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colato, Chiara; Vicentini, Caterina; Cantara, Silvia; Pedron, Serena; Brazzarola, Paolo; Marchetti, Ivo; Di Coscio, Giancarlo; Chilosi, Marco; Brunelli, Matteo; Pacini, Furio; Ferdeghini, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements of the RET proto-oncogene is one of the most common molecular events in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, their pathogenic role and clinical significance are still debated. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangement in a cohort of BRAF WT PTCs by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and to search a reliable cut-off level in order to distinguish clonal or non-clonal RET changes. Forty BRAF WT PTCs were analyzed by FISH for RET rearrangements. As controls, six BRAFV600E mutated PTCs, 13 follicular adenomas (FA), and ten normal thyroid parenchyma were also analyzed. We performed FISH analysis on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using a commercially available RET break-apart probe. A cut-off level equivalent to 10.2% of aberrant cells was accepted as significant. To validate FISH results, we analyzed the study cohort by qRT-PCR. Split RET signals above the cut-off level were observed in 25% (10/40) of PTCs, harboring a percentage of positive cells ranging from 12 to 50%, and in one spontaneous FA (1/13, 7.7%). Overall, the data obtained by FISH matched well with qRT-PCR results. Challenging findings were observed in five cases showing a frequency of rearrangement very close to the cut-off. FISH approach represents a powerful tool to estimate the ratio between broken and non-broken RET tumor cells. Establishing a precise FISH cut-off may be useful in the interpretation of the presence of RET rearrangement, primarily when this strategy is used for cytological evaluation or for targeted therapy. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. Detection of relevant colonic neoplasms with PET/CT: promising accuracy with minimal CT dose and a standardised PET cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luboldt, Wolfgang; Volker, Teresa; Zoephel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Joerg; Wiedemann, Baerbel; Wehrmann, Ursula; Koch, Arne; Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Toussaint, Todd; Luboldt, Hans-Joachim; Middendorp, Markus; Gruenwald, Frank; Aust, Daniela; Vogl, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the performance of FDG-PET/CT in the detection of relevant colorectal neoplasms (adenomas ≥10 mm, with high-grade dysplasia, cancer) in relation to CT dose and contrast administration and to find a PET cut-off. 84 patients, who underwent PET/CT and colonoscopy (n=79)/sigmoidoscopy (n=5) for (79 x 6+5 x 2)=484 colonic segments, were included in a retrospective study. The accuracy of low-dose PET/CT in detecting mass-positive segments was evaluated by ROC analysis by two blinded independent reviewers relative to contrast-enhanced PET/CT. On a per-lesion basis characteristic PET values were tested as cut-offs. Low-dose PET/CT and contrast-enhanced PET/CT provide similar accuracies (area under the curve for the average ROC ratings 0.925 vs. 0.929, respectively). PET demonstrated all carcinomas (n=23) and 83% (30/36) of relevant adenomas. In all carcinomas and adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (n=10) the SUV max was ≥5. This cut-off resulted in a better per-segment sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) than the average PET/CT reviews (sensitivity: 89% vs. 82%; NPV: 99% vs. 98%). All other tested cut-offs were inferior to the SUV max . FDG-PET/CT provides promising accuracy for colorectal mass detection. Low dose and lack of iodine contrast in the CT component do not impact the accuracy. The PET cut-off SUV max ≥ 5 improves the accuracy. (orig.)

  2. Study on Shear Performance of Cold-formed Steel Composite Wall with New Type of stud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chungang; Yue, Sizhe; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Zhuangnan

    2018-03-01

    The shear resistance of single oriented-strand board wall and single gypsum board wall can be improved in different degrees by increasing strength of steel. The experimental data of literatures were used, and the test specimens had been simulated and validated by ABAQUS finite element analysis. According to the research, it showed that the compressive bearing capacity of the new stud composite wall was much better than the common stud composite wall, so the establishment and research of all models had been based on the new section stud. The analysis results show that when using new type of stud the shear resistance of the single oriented-strand board wall can be improved efficiently by increasing strength of steel, but the shear resistance of the single gypsum wall can be increased little.

  3. Cell Wall Composition, Biosynthesis and Remodeling during Pollen Tube Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Mollet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The pollen tube is a fast tip-growing cell carrying the two sperm cells to the ovule allowing the double fertilization process and seed setting. To succeed in this process, the spatial and temporal controls of pollen tube growth within the female organ are critical. It requires a massive cell wall deposition to promote fast pollen tube elongation and a tight control of the cell wall remodeling to modify the mechanical properties. In addition, during its journey, the pollen tube interacts with the pistil, which plays key roles in pollen tube nutrition, guidance and in the rejection of the self-incompatible pollen. This review focuses on our current knowledge in the biochemistry and localization of the main cell wall polymers including pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose and callose from several pollen tube species. Moreover, based on transcriptomic data and functional genomic studies, the possible enzymes involved in the cell wall remodeling during pollen tube growth and their impact on the cell wall mechanics are also described. Finally, mutant analyses have permitted to gain insight in the function of several genes involved in the pollen tube cell wall biosynthesis and their roles in pollen tube growth are further discussed.

  4. Cell Wall Composition and Candidate Biosynthesis Gene Expression During Rice Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Fan; Manisseri, Chithra; Fagerström, Alexandra; Peck, Matthew L.; Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E.; Williams, Brian; Chiniquy, Dawn M.; Saha, Prasenjit; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Conlin, Brian; Zhu, Lan; Hahn, Michael G.; Willats, William G. T.; Scheller, Henrik V.; Ronald, Pamela C.; Bartley, Laura E.

    2016-08-01

    Cell walls of grasses, including cereal crops and biofuel grasses, comprise the majority of plant biomass and intimately influence plant growth, development and physiology. However, the functions of many cell wall synthesis genes, and the relationships among and the functions of cell wall components remain obscure. To better understand the patterns of cell wall accumulation and identify genes that act in grass cell wall biosynthesis, we characterized 30 samples from aerial organs of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Kitaake) at 10 developmental time points, 3-100 d post-germination. Within these samples, we measured 15 cell wall chemical components, enzymatic digestibility and 18 cell wall polysaccharide epitopes/ligands. We also used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure expression of 50 glycosyltransferases, 15 acyltransferases and eight phenylpropanoid genes, many of which had previously been identified as being highly expressed in rice. Most cell wall components vary significantly during development, and correlations among them support current understanding of cell walls. We identified 92 significant correlations between cell wall components and gene expression and establish nine strong hypotheses for genes that synthesize xylans, mixed linkage glucan and pectin components. This work provides an extensive analysis of cell wall composition throughout rice development, identifies genes likely to synthesize grass cell walls, and provides a framework for development of genetically improved grasses for use in lignocellulosic biofuel production and agriculture.

  5. Strengthening of Unreinforced Masonry Walls with Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Sorina Enţuc

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Unreinforced masonry (URM is considered one of the oldest construction materials being until the end of XIXth century, the basic material for: foundations, walls, columns, volts, staircases, floor joints, roofs, retaining walls, drainage channels, barrages, etc. Construction with URM elements posses a series of advantages such as: fire resistance, thermal an acoustic insulations between interior and outside spaces, humidity resistance. However the URM elements have some significant inconveniences such as: large self weight (heaviness causes cracks in the other elements of structures, reduced mechanical strengths in comparison with other traditional materials (steel and concrete, low tenacity, great manual labor consumptions, and vulnerability to earthquakes. Various factors cause deteriorations which must be overcome by strengthening solutions. Some strengthening solutions based on fiber reinforced polymers (FRP products applied directly on URM brick walls are presented in the paper.

  6. Combined Effect of an Atmospheric River and a Cut-off Low in Hiroshima Flooding Event on August 19, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayabu, Y. N.; Hirota, N.; Kato, M.; Arakane, S.

    2015-12-01

    An extraordinary precipitation over 100 mmhr-1in Hiroshima on August 19, 2014, caused a flash flood which resulted in 74 fatalities and collapse of 330 houses. In order to examine the meteorological background of this flooding event, we carried out a detailed analysis utilizing rain gauge data, satellite precipitation dataset, and a meso scale and a global scale objective analyses provided from the Japan Meteorological Agency. Then, we performed numerical experiments using a nonhydrostatic compressible equation model called the Cloud-Resolving Storm Simulator (CReSS). As a result, a combined effect of an atmospheric river (AR) and a cut-off low (COL) in this flooding event was elucidated. During the event, a filamentary transport of moisture extending from the Indochina Peninsula to the Japanese Islands was observed along the southern side of the subtropical jet, forming an AR. This AR had a deep structure with an amount of free tropospheric moisture comparable to that of the boundary layer. Concurrently, there was a COL, detached from the Mid-Pacific Trough, moving northwestward toward the Japanese Archipelago. With various sensitivity experiments, we concluded that a mid-tropospheric instability associated with the cold core of the COL and a dynamical ascent induced in its foreside, collaboratively worked with the anomalous moisture in the free troposphere associated with the AR, to extraordinarily enhance the precipitation over Hiroshima region. An orographic effect to concentrate the precipitation in this region was also confirmed. An implication on a difference in effects of AR in this event with a climatologically moist boundary layer, from those in the US west coast with a very dry environment, was also obtained. Acknowledgment: This study is supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (2-1503) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, and by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  7. Establishing a sample-to cut-off ratio for lab-diagnosis of hepatitis C virus in Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Aseem K; Pandey, Prashant K; Negi, Avinash; Bagga, Ruchika; Shanker, Ajay; Baveja, Usha; Vimarsh, Raina; Bhargava, Richa; Dara, Ravi C; Rawat, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Lab-diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is based on detecting specific antibodies by enzyme immuno-assay (EIA) or chemiluminescence immuno-assay (CIA). Center for Disease Control reported that signal-to-cut-off (s/co) ratios in anti-HCV antibody tests like EIA/CIA can be used to predict the probable result of supplemental test; above a certain s/co value it is most likely to be true-HCV positive result and below that certain s/co it is most likely to be false-positive result. A prospective study was undertaken in patients in tertiary care setting for establishing this "certain" s/co value. The study was carried out in consecutive patients requiring HCV testing for screening/diagnosis and medical management. These samples were tested for anti-HCV on CIA (VITROS(®) Anti-HCV assay, Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, New Jersey) for calculating s/co value. The supplemental nucleic acid test used was polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Abbott). PCR test results were used to define true negatives, false negatives, true positives, and false positives. Performance of different putative s/co ratios versus PCR was measured using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value and most appropriate s/co was considered on basis of highest specificity at sensitivity of at least 95%. An s/co ratio of ≥6 worked out to be over 95% sensitive and almost 92% specific in 438 consecutive patient samples tested. The s/co ratio of six can be used for lab-diagnosis of HCV infection; those with s/co higher than six can be diagnosed to have HCV infection without any need for supplemental assays.

  8. Establishing a sample-to cut-off ratio for lab-diagnosis of hepatitis C virus in Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem K Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lab-diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV is based on detecting specific antibodies by enzyme immuno-assay (EIA or chemiluminescence immuno-assay (CIA. Center for Disease Control reported that signal-to-cut-off (s/co ratios in anti-HCV antibody tests like EIA/CIA can be used to predict the probable result of supplemental test; above a certain s/co value it is most likely to be true-HCV positive result and below that certain s/co it is most likely to be false-positive result. A prospective study was undertaken in patients in tertiary care setting for establishing this "certain" s/co value. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in consecutive patients requiring HCV testing for screening/diagnosis and medical management. These samples were tested for anti-HCV on CIA (VITROS ® Anti-HCV assay, Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, New Jersey for calculating s/co value. The supplemental nucleic acid test used was polymerase chain reaction (PCR (Abbott. PCR test results were used to define true negatives, false negatives, true positives, and false positives. Performance of different putative s/co ratios versus PCR was measured using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value and most appropriate s/co was considered on basis of highest specificity at sensitivity of at least 95%. Results: An s/co ratio of ≥6 worked out to be over 95% sensitive and almost 92% specific in 438 consecutive patient samples tested. Conclusion: The s/co ratio of six can be used for lab-diagnosis of HCV infection; those with s/co higher than six can be diagnosed to have HCV infection without any need for supplemental assays.

  9. Modelling the Turbocharger Cut Off Application Due to Slow Steaming Operation 12RTA96C-B Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Wehner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Out of the total operational costs of a ship, fuel costs account for by far the highest proportion. In view of the global economic situation and the rising oil prices, shipowners and charterers are looking for solutions to cut costs by reducing fuel consumption. Low load operation, also well-known as “slow steaming”, represents the currently most effective and popular measure to cut fuel costs and, in consequence, the total operational costs for increased competitiveness in the market. Low load operation is possible and there is an increasing trend to operate in these very low engine load ranges. As the engines were not designed for this operational condition, various retrofit modifications to the engine can compensate for this. By using low load operation, the reduction of the RPM gives problems when sailing at low speed.  A turbocharger (TC compresses inlet air to a high pressure and after cooling this compressed air it results in higher mass of air in the cylinder. But when running at a low power load this air reaches temperatures that are too low for an optimal combustion process. One of the solution comes from the company Wärtsilä. They install so called “low steam engine kits”. When this kit is installed it allows the engine operators to cut off one turbocharger of the engine, this result’s in a higher RPM for the operating turbochargers. When the remaining TC’s have a higher RPM their efficiency improves and gives the engine more air for combustion.The goal of this Bachelor thesis is to make a calculation modelling and prove that by switching off one or more turbocharger on the system will improve the efficiency in slow steaming operation. Beside that, this thesis is aims to estimated the performance of the engine in both operation condition.

  10. Cut-Off Levels of Anti-Mullerian Hormone for The Prediction of Ovarian Response, In Vitro Fertilization Outcome and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salmassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH cut-off levels in assisted reproductive technology (ART as predictive factor for individualization of stimulation protocols and to avoid ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, 177 infertile patients were assessed for AMH in serum and follicular fluid (FF on the day of follicular puncture (FP, between 2012 and 2013 in Kiel, Germany. AMH levels and pregnancy rates were compared between low, moderate and high responders and cut-off levels of low and high responders. AMH cut-off levels in pathological cases were evaluated in analysis 1 (OHSS and in analysis 2 [polycystic ovarian syndrome, (PCOS] and compared in analysis 3 to normal endocrinological parameters. Results: AMH levels in FF were higher than in serum (P<0.001. AMH levels in serum and FF increased from low through moderate to high responders (P<0.001. Pregnancy rates were 14.7, 23.3 and 44.9% (P=0.009, respectively. AMH cut-off level for poor responders was 0.61 ng/ml in serum with a pregnancy rate of 13.8 and 37.1% for below and above of this level, respectively. For FF, it was 1.43 ng/ml. AMH levels in analysis 1 and 2 were significantly higher than in analysis 3 (P=0.001. AMH cut-off level for OHSS was 1.5 ng/ml in serum with OHSS rates of 80.8 and 19.2 % for above and below of the level, respectively. For FF, it was 2.7 ng/ml. PCOS patients had an AMH cut-off level of 3.9 ng/ml in serum and 6.8 ng/ml in FF, resulting in a PCOS rate of 100% above this level. Conclusion: AMH levels can help to assess ovarian response potential and guide ovarian stimulation while avoiding OHSS.

  11. Evaluation of an Optimal Cut-Off Point for the Ki-67 Index as a Prognostic Factor in Primary Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiko Tashima

    Full Text Available The Ki-67 index is an important biomarker for indicating the proliferation of cancer cells and is considered to be an effective prognostic factor for breast cancer. However, a standard cut-off point for the Ki-67 index has not yet been established. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective study was to determine an optimal cut-off point in order to establish it as a more accurate prognostic factor. Immunohistochemical analysis of the Ki-67 index was performed on 4329 patients with primary breast cancer from August 1987 to March 2012. Out of this sample, there were 3186 consecutive cases from September 1997 with simultaneous evaluations of ER, PgR and HER2 status. Cox's proportional hazard model was used to perform univariate and multivariate analyses of the factors related to OS. The hazard ratios (HR and the p values were then compared to determine the optimal cut-off point for the Ki-67 index. The median Ki-67 index value was 20.5% (mean value 26.2%. The univariate analysis revealed that there was a statistically significant negative correlation with DFS and OS and the multivariate analysis revealed that the Ki-67 index value was a significant factor for DFS and OS. The top seven cut-off points were then carefully chosen based on the results of the univariate analysis using the lowest p-values and the highest HR as the main selection criteria. The multivariate analysis of the factors for OS showed that the cut-off point of 20% had the highest HR in all of the cases. However, the cutoff point of 20% was only a significant factor for OS in the Luminal/HER2- subtype. There was no correlation between the Ki-67 index value and OS in any of the other subtypes. These data indicate that the optimal cut-off point of 20% is the most effective prognostic factor for Luminal/HER2- breast cancer.

  12. Compressive behavior of energy-saving fired facing brick composite wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kai; Wu, Cai

    2018-03-01

    The energy-saving fired facing brick composite wall has a broad development prospects due to its merits of thermal insulation, energy conservation, beautiful, and natural. The construction and characteristics of this wall are introduced and analyzed in this paper. Experimental studies of samples are also conducted to investigate its compressive performance. The results show that the energy-saving fired facing brick composite wall has high compressive capacity. It has considerable application prospect, the study in this paper provides foundation to further studies.

  13. Effect of nutrient calcium on the cell wall composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of calcium in the nutrient medium on kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst), grown in a solution culture, was investigated. Calcium had no effect on the lignin content of leaf material, but decreased the lignin content per unit stem cell wall. Calcium appeared to have no significant effect on either the ...

  14. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Cell Wall Composition and Properties in Temperate Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellucci, Andrea

    with a wide range of chemical bounds. At present the interest in plant cell wall is growing due to the possibility to convert ligno-cellulosic biomass (e.g. agricultural residues) into bioethanol but also for the benefits to human health of some cell wall constituents found in cereals, in particular beta......-glucans. Plant cell wall biosynthesis is regulated by a large number of genes and regulatory factors but very few of these are known and characterized. This PhD project aimed to the identification of putative candidate genes involved in plant cell wall composition and properties using a genome wide (GWAS......) approach. The species investigate were wheat, barley and B. distachyon, considered a model plant for temperate cereals. Agronomical traits as yield and plant height were also included in the analysis along with cell wall composition and saccharification properties. Several marker-trait associations were...

  15. Macroporous silica–alumina composites with mesoporous walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Macroporous silica–alumina composites with mesopores have been prepared by employing polymethylmethacrylate beads as templates in the presence of the cationic surfactant, N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide. The Si/Al ratio in the composites has been varied between 4.5 and 48 and the occurrence of ...

  16. Cut-off value of FEV1/FEV6 as a surrogate for FEV1/FVC for detecting airway obstruction in a Korean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung KS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kyung Soo Chung,1,2 Ji Ye Jung,1,2 Moo Suk Park,1,2 Young Sam Kim,1,2 Se Kyu Kim,1,2 Joon Chang,1,2 Joo Han Song1,2 1Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Institute of Chest Disease, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV6 has been proposed as an alternative to FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC for detecting airway obstruction. A fixed cut-off value for FEV1/FEV6 in a Korean population is lacking. We investigated a fixed cut-off for FEV1/FEV6 as a surrogate for FEV1/FVC for detecting airway obstruction.Materials and methods: We used data obtained in the 5 years of the Fifth and Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 14,978 participants aged ≥40 years who underwent spirometry adequately were the study cohort. “Airway obstruction” was a fixed cut-off FEV1/FVC <70% according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. We also used European Respiratory Society/Global Lung Initiative 2012 equations for the FEV1/FVC lower limit of normal.Results: Among the 14,978 participants (43.5% male, 56.5% female; mean age: 56.9 years for men and 57.0 years for women, 14.0% had obstructive lung function according to a fixed cut-off FEV1/FVC <70%. Optimal FEV1/FEV6 cut-off for predicting FEV1/FVC <70% was 75% using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses (area under receiver operating characteristic curve =0.989, 95% confidence interval 0.987–0.990. This fixed cut-off of FEV1/FEV6 showed 93.8% sensitivity, 94.8% specificity, 74.7% positive predictive value, 98.9% negative predictive value, and 0.8 Cohen’s kappa coefficient. When compared with FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal, FEV1/FEV6 <75% tended to over-diagnose airflow limitation (just like a fixed cut-off

  17. A cautionary note about the cross-national and clinical validity of cut-off points for the Maslach Burnout Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaufeli, W B; Van Dierendonck, D

    1995-06-01

    In the present study, burnout scores of three samples, as measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory, were compared: (1) the normative American sample from the test-manual (N = 10,067), (2) the normative Dutch sample (N = 3,892), and (3) a Dutch outpatient sample (N = 142). Generally, the highest burnout scores were found for the outpatient sample, followed by the American and Dutch normative samples, respectively. Slightly different patterns were noted for each of the three components. Probably sampling bias, i.e., the healthy worker effect, or cultural value patterns, i.e., femininity versus masculinity, might be responsible for the results. It is concluded that extreme caution is required when cut-off points are used to classify individuals by burnout scores; only nation-specific and clinically derived cut-off points should be employed.

  18. Comparative study of food transfers in the three castes of the honeybee (Apis mellifica ligustica S.) in which four distal sections of both antennae have been cut off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, Janine; Roger, Bernard; Douault, Philippe

    1978-01-01

    The study of food transfers between the three castes of Apis mellifica ligustica S., in which four distal sections have been cut off, has been carried out by means of a radioactive tracer 198 Au, which cannot be metabolized. The begging behavior of queens with cut off antennae towards 4-day-old worker Bees and workers of unknown age is not changed. So it is with drones and operated worker Bees which beg food of a worker Bee, that is 4 days old and undamaged. On the other hand the begging behavior of drones and workers of unknown age is reduced towards other worker Bees of unknown age that are undamaged. The two-sided amputation of antennal sections of donor worker Bees of both categories does not change their behavior towards undamaged worker Bees [fr

  19. Human variation and body mass index: a review of the universality of BMI cut-offs, gender and urban-rural differences, and secular changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas; Goto, Rie

    2007-03-01

    Use of BMI as a surrogate for body fat percentage is debatable and universal BMI cut-off points do not seem appropriate; lower cut-off points than currently recommended by WHO should be used in some populations, especially in Asia. The adult WHO BMI database indicates that, on average, women are more obese than men, while men are more likely to be pre-obese than women. Urban rates of overweight and obesity are generally higher than rural rates in both sexes. The trend in pre-obesity and obesity over time is generally upward, with very marked increases in the USA and UK in both sexes over the last 10 years.

  20. Waist circumference cut-off values to predict the incidence of hypertension: an estimation from a Brazilian population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gus, M; Cichelero, F Tremea; Moreira, C Medaglia; Escobar, G Fortes; Moreira, L Beltrami; Wiehe, M; Fuchs, S Costa; Fuchs, F Danni

    2009-01-01

    Central obesity is a key component in the definition of the metabolic syndrome, but the cut-off values proposed to define abnormal values vary among different guidelines and are mostly based on cross-sectional studies. In this study, we identify the best cut-off values for waist circumference (WC) associated with the incidence of hypertension. Participants for this prospectively planned cohort study were 589 individuals who were free of hypertension and selected at random from the community of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Hypertension was defined by a blood pressure measurement >or= 140/90 mmHg or the use of blood pressure lowering drugs. A logistic regression model established the association between WC and the incidence of hypertension. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was used to select the best WC cut-off point to predict the incidence of hypertension. During a mean follow-up of 5.5+/-0.9 years, 127 subjects developed hypertension. The hazard ratios for the development of hypertension, adjusted for age, baseline systolic blood pressure, alcohol consumption, gender and scholarship were 1.02 (95% CI; 1.00-1.04; P=0.02) for WC. The best cut-off WC values to predict hypertension were 87 cm in men and 80 cm in women, with an area under the curve of 0.56 (95% CI; 0.47-0.64; P=0.17) and 0.70 (95% CI; 0.63-0.77; Phypertension in individuals living in communities in Brazil, and this risk begins at lower values of WC that those recommended by some guidelines.

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin analysis in neuropediatric patients: establishment of a new cut off-value for the identification of inflammatory-immune mediated processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Molero-Luis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A high level of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF neopterin is a marker of central nervous system inflammatory-immune mediated processes. We aimed to assess data from 606 neuropediatric patients, describing the clinical and biochemical features of those neurological disorders presenting CSF neopterin values above a new cut-off value that was defined in our laboratory. METHODS: To establish the new CSF neopterin cut-off value, we studied two groups of patients: Group 1 comprised 68 patients with meningoencephalitis, and Group 2 comprised 52 children with a confirmed peripheral infection and no central nervous system involvement. We studied 606 CSF samples from neuropediatric patients who were classified into 3 groups: genetic diagnosis (A, acquired/unknown etiologic neurologic diseases (B and inflammatory-immune mediated processes (C. RESULTS: The CSF neopterin cut-off value was 61 nmol/L. Out of 606 cases, 56 presented a CSF neopterin level above this value. Group C had significantly higher CSF neopterin, protein and leukocyte values than the other groups. Sixteen of twenty-three patients in this group had a CSF neopterin level above the cut-off, whereas three and seven patients presented increased leukocyte and protein values, respectively. A significant association was found among CSF neopterin, proteins and leukocytes in the 606 patients. White matter disturbances were associated with high CSF neopterin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Although children with inflammatory-immune mediated processes presented higher CSF neopterin values, patients with other neurological disorders also showed increased CSF neopterin concentrations. These results stress the importance of CSF neopterin analysis for the identification of inflammatory-immune mediated processes.

  2. The Optimal Cut-Off Value of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio for Predicting Prognosis in Adult Patients with Henoch–Schönlein Purpura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Hyuk; Han, Dong Soo; Jeong, Jae Yoon; Eun, Chang Soo; Yoo, Kyo-Sang; Jeon, Yong Cheol; Sohn, Joo Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) can be a concern in the management of Henoch–Schönlein purpura (HSP). We aimed to evaluate whether the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is associated with the prognosis of adult patients with HSP. Methods Clinical data including the NLR of adult patients with HSP were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were classified into three groups as follows: (a) simple recovery, (b) wax & wane without GI bleeding, and (c) development of GI bleeding. The optimal cut-off value was determined using a receiver operating characteristics curve and the Youden index. Results A total of 66 adult patients were enrolled. The NLR was higher in the GI bleeding group than in the simple recovery or wax & wane group (simple recovery vs. wax & wane vs. GI bleeding; median [IQR], 2.32 [1.61–3.11] vs. 3.18 [2.16–3.71] vs. 7.52 [4.91–10.23], P<0.001). For the purpose of predicting simple recovery, the optimal cut-off value of NLR was 3.18, and the sensitivity and specificity were 74.1% and 75.0%, respectively. For predicting development of GI bleeding, the optimal cut-off value was 3.90 and the sensitivity and specificity were 87.5% and 88.6%, respectively. Conclusions The NLR is useful for predicting development of GI bleeding as well as simple recovery without symptom relapse. Two different cut-off values of NLR, 3.18 for predicting an easy recovery without symptom relapse and 3.90 for predicting GI bleeding can be used in adult patients with HSP. PMID:27073884

  3. A new method for detection of the electron temperature in laser-plasma short wave cut off of stimulated Raman scattering spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiatai

    1994-01-01

    From the theory of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) three wave interaction, a new method of detecting the electron temperature in laser-plasma is obtained. SRS spectrum obtained from Shenguang No. 12 Nd-laser experiments are analysed. Using the wave length of short wave cut off of SRS, the electron temperature in corona plasma region is calculated consistently. These results agree reasonable with X-ray spectrum experiments

  4. Determining the cut-off point of osteoporosis based on the osteoporosis self-assessment tool, body mass index and weight in Taiwanese young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu Fang; Yang, Rong Sen

    2014-09-01

    To examine the cut-off point of the osteoporosis self-assessment tool, age, weight and body mass index for osteoporosis among young adult Taiwanese women, using a large-scale health examination database containing bone mineral density tests. The cut-off points of osteoporosis risk factors identified earlier focus on menopausal or senior Caucasian and Asian women. However, young adult Asian women have seldom been identified. A retrospective historical cohort study. Using the 2009-2011 health examination database of a large-scale medical centre in northern Taiwan, this study investigated young adult Asian women (i.e. range in age from 30-49 years) in Taiwan who had received dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry test. This study also explored the cut-off point, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of receiver operating characteristics of osteoporosis among young adult females in Taiwan. This study collected 2454 young adult Asian women in Taiwan. Cochran-Armitage analysis results indicated that the prevalence of osteoporosis increased with decreasing weight, body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment method quartiles. According to the results of receiver operating characteristics, weight, body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment tool approaches can generally be used as indicators to predict osteoporosis among young adult Asian women. Results of this study demonstrate that Taiwanese women contracting osteoporosis tend to be young and underweight, as well as having a low body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment scores. Those results further suggest that the assessment indicators for cut-off points are appropriately suitable for young adult women in Taiwan. Early detection is the only available means of preventing osteoporosis. Professional nurses should apply convenient and accurate assessment procedures to help young adult women to adopt preventive strategies against osteoporosis early, thus eliminating the probability of osteoporotic

  5. Development and validation of optimal cut-off value in inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference for prediction of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Akira; Kusunose, Kenya; Kageyama, Norihito; Sumitomo, Masayuki; Abe, Masahiro; Fujinaga, Hiroyuki; Sata, Masataka

    2018-01-01

    An inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference (IAD) is associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the optimal cut-off value of IAD as a predictor of major adverse cardiac events in patients with arteriosclerosis risk factors. From 2009 to 2014, 1076 patients who had at least one cardiovascular risk factor were included in the analysis. We defined 700 randomly selected patients as a development cohort to confirm that IAD was the predictor of cardiovascular events and to determine optimal cut-off value of IAD. Next, we validated outcomes in the remaining 376 patients as a validation cohort. The blood pressure (BP) of both arms measurements were done simultaneously using the ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI) form of automatic device. The primary endpoint was the cardiovascular event and secondary endpoint was the all-cause mortality. During a median period of 2.8 years, 143 patients reached the primary endpoint in the development cohort. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, IAD was the strong predictor of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio: 1.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.05, p=0.005). The receiver operating characteristic curve revealed that 5mmHg was the optimal cut-off point of IAD to predict cardiovascular events (p<0.001). In the validation cohort, the presence of a large IAD (IAD ≥5mmHg) was significantly associated with the primary endpoint (p=0.021). IAD is significantly associated with future cardiovascular events in patients with arteriosclerosis risk factors. The optimal cut-off value of IAD is 5mmHg. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A study of insulin resistance by HOMA-IR and its cut-off value to identify metabolic syndrome in urban Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yashpal; Garg, M K; Tandon, Nikhil; Marwaha, Raman Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) and associated metabolic abnormalities are increasingly being reported in the adolescent population. Cut-off value of homeostasis model of assessment IR (HOMA-IR) as an indicator of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adolescents has not been established. This study aimed to investigate IR by HOMA-IR in urban Indian adolescents and to establish cut-off values of HOMA-IR for defining MS. A total of 691 apparently healthy adolescents (295 with normal body mass index (BMI), 205 overweight, and 199 obese) were included in this cross-sectional study. MS in adolescents was defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. IR was calculated using the HOMA model. Mean height, waist circumference (WC), waist/hip ratio (WHR), waist/height ratio (WHtR), and blood pressure were significantly higher in boys as compared to girls. The HOMA-IR values increased progressively from normal weight to obese adolescents in both sexes. Mean HOMA-IR values increased progressively according to sexual maturity rating in both sexes. HOMA-IR value of 2.5 had a sensitivity of >70% and specificity of >60% for MS. This cut-off identified larger number of adolescents with MS in different BMI categories (19.7% in normal weight, 51.7% in overweight, and 77.0% in obese subjects) as compared to the use of IDF or ATP III criteria for diagnosing MS. Odds ratio for having IR (HOMA-IR of >2.5) was highest with WHtR (4.9, p pHOMA-IR increased with sexual maturity and with progression from normal to obese. A HOMA-IR cut-off of 2.5 provided the maximum sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing MS in both genders as per ATP III and IDF criteria.

  7. Prediction of individual patient response to chemotherapy by the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) using drug specific cut-off limits and a Bayesian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, R; Nygren, P

    1993-01-01

    The semiautomated fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) based on the measurement of fluorescence generated from cellular hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) to fluorescein in microtiter plates, has been used for determination of cytotoxic drug resistance of tumor cells from patients with hematological and solid tumors. In the present study we describe a calibration procedure based on statistically derived cut-off limits and assay-predicted response probabilities using Bayes' theorem. Test results at a specified drug concentration were divided into three categories: low, intermediate or extreme drug resistance (LDR, IDR and EDR, respectively) using the median and median +1 standard deviation as the cut-off limits. When correlated with clinical outcome, LDR samples showed a higher response rate than expected, IDR a lower and EDR samples no response at all. The sensitivity and specificity of the test, using the median as cut-off limit, were 0.92 and 0.69 respectively. By fitting these test characteristics to a statistical model based on Bayes' theorem it is possible to calculate response probabilities for each individual patient taking into consideration not only the test characteristics and the particular assay result, but also the clinical and patient specific characteristics influencing the pre-test probability of response. EDR predicts clinical drug resistance with high specificity and is also observed in tumor types with high response rate.

  8. Evidence for a maximum mass cut-off in the neutron star mass distribution and constraints on the equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsing, Justin; Silva, Hector O.; Berti, Emanuele

    2018-04-01

    We infer the mass distribution of neutron stars in binary systems using a flexible Gaussian mixture model and use Bayesian model selection to explore evidence for multi-modality and a sharp cut-off in the mass distribution. We find overwhelming evidence for a bimodal distribution, in agreement with previous literature, and report for the first time positive evidence for a sharp cut-off at a maximum neutron star mass. We measure the maximum mass to be 2.0M⊙ sharp cut-off is interpreted as the maximum stable neutron star mass allowed by the equation of state of dense matter, our measurement puts constraints on the equation of state. For a set of realistic equations of state that support >2M⊙ neutron stars, our inference of mmax is able to distinguish between models at odds ratios of up to 12: 1, whilst under a flexible piecewise polytropic equation of state model our maximum mass measurement improves constraints on the pressure at 3 - 7 × the nuclear saturation density by ˜30 - 50% compared to simply requiring mmax > 2M⊙. We obtain a lower bound on the maximum sound speed attained inside the neutron star of c_s^max > 0.63c (99.8%), ruling out c_s^max c/√{3} at high significance. Our constraints on the maximum neutron star mass strengthen the case for neutron star-neutron star mergers as the primary source of short gamma-ray bursts.

  9. The cut-off values of dietary energy intake for determining metabolic syndrome in hemodialysis patients: A clinical cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuyen Van; Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Hsu, Yung-Ho; Peng, Sheng-Jeng; Kuo, Ko-Lin; Wang, Chi-Sin; Tseng, I-Hsin; Feng, Yi-Wei; Chang, Tai-Yue; Su, Chien-Tien

    2018-01-01

    Dietary energy intake strongly linked to dialysis outcomes. We aimed to explore the optimal cut-off point of energy intake (EI) for identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in hemodialysis patients. The cross-sectional data of 243 hemodialysis patients from multi-dialysis centers in Taiwan was used. The dietary intake was assessed by using the three-day dietary questionnaire, and a 24-hour dietary recall, clinical and biochemical data were also evaluated. The MetS was diagnosed by the Harmonized Metabolic Syndrome criteria. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was to depict the optimal cut-off value of EI for the diagnosis of MetS. The logistic regression was also used to explore the association between inadequate EI and MetS. The optimal cut-off points of EI for identifying the MetS were 26.7 kcal/kg/day for patients aged less than 60 years, or with non-diabetes, and 26.2 kcal/kg/day for patients aged 60 years and above, or with diabetes, respectively. The likelihood of the MetS increased with lower percentiles of energy intake in hemodialysis patients. In the multivariate analysis, the inadequate dietary energy intake strongly determined 3.24 folds of the MetS. The assessment of dietary EI can help healthcare providers detecting patients who are at risk of metabolic syndrome. PMID:29538427

  10. Return to Work: A Cut-Off of FIM Gain with Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score in Order to Identify Predictive Factors in Subjects with Acquired Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Marco; Massimiani, Maria Pia; Paravati, Stefano; Agosti, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Return to work (RTW) for people with acquired brain injury (ABI) represents a main objective of rehabilitation: this work presents a strong correlation between personal well-being and quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors that can predict RTW after ABI (traumatic or non- traumatic aetiology) in patients without disorders of consciousness (e.g. coma, vegetative or minimally conscious state) at the beginning of their admission to rehabilitation. At the end of a 6-month follow-up after discharge, data were successfully collected in 69 patients. The rehabilitation effectiveness (functional Recovery) between admission and discharge was assessed by Functional Independent Measure (FIM) gain, through the Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score (MRFS), which was obtained as follows: (discharge FIM-admission FIM)/(Maximum possible FIM-Admission FIM) x 100. The cut-off value (criterion) deriving from MRFS, which helped identify RTW patients, resulted in .659 (sn 88.9%; sp 52.4%). Considering the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the MRFS data, the multivariable binary logistic regression analysis presented 62.96% of correct RTW classification cases, 80.95% of non-RTW leading to an overall satisfactory predictability of 73.91%. The results of the present study suggest that occupational therapy intervention could modify cut-off in patients with an MFRS close to target at the end of an in-hospital rehabilitative program thus developing their capabilities and consequently surpassing cut-off itself.

  11. Return to Work: A Cut-Off of FIM Gain with Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score in Order to Identify Predictive Factors in Subjects with Acquired Brain Injury.

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    Marco Franceschini

    Full Text Available Return to work (RTW for people with acquired brain injury (ABI represents a main objective of rehabilitation: this work presents a strong correlation between personal well-being and quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors that can predict RTW after ABI (traumatic or non- traumatic aetiology in patients without disorders of consciousness (e.g. coma, vegetative or minimally conscious state at the beginning of their admission to rehabilitation. At the end of a 6-month follow-up after discharge, data were successfully collected in 69 patients. The rehabilitation effectiveness (functional Recovery between admission and discharge was assessed by Functional Independent Measure (FIM gain, through the Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score (MRFS, which was obtained as follows: (discharge FIM-admission FIM/(Maximum possible FIM-Admission FIM x 100. The cut-off value (criterion deriving from MRFS, which helped identify RTW patients, resulted in .659 (sn 88.9%; sp 52.4%. Considering the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the MRFS data, the multivariable binary logistic regression analysis presented 62.96% of correct RTW classification cases, 80.95% of non-RTW leading to an overall satisfactory predictability of 73.91%. The results of the present study suggest that occupational therapy intervention could modify cut-off in patients with an MFRS close to target at the end of an in-hospital rehabilitative program thus developing their capabilities and consequently surpassing cut-off itself.

  12. Methods for identifying the cost effective case definition cut-off for sequential monitoring tests: an extension of Phelps and Mushlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Roberta; Baxter, Paul; Hall, Peter; Hewison, Jenny; Afshar, Mehran; Hall, Geoff; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The arrival of personalized medicine in the clinic means that treatment decisions will increasingly rely on test results. The challenge of limited health care resources means that the dissemination of these technologies will be dependent on their value in relation to their cost; i.e. their cost effectiveness. Phelps and Mushlin have described how to optimize tests to meet cost effectiveness target. However, when tests are applied repeatedly the case mix of the patients tested changes with each administration, and this impacts upon the value of each subsequent test administration. In this paper we present a modification of Phelps and Mushlin’s framework for diagnostic tests; to identify the cost effective cut-off for monitoring tests. Using the Ca125 test monitoring for relapse in Ovarian Cancer, we show how the repeated use of the initial cut-off can lead to a substantially increased false negative rate compared to the monitoring cut-off – over 20% higher than in this example – with the associated harms for individual and population health. PMID:24488576

  13. Immuno and affinity cytochemical analysis of cell wall composition in the moss Physcomitrella patens

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    Elizabeth A. Berry

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to homeohydric vascular plants, mosses employ a poikilohydric strategy for surviving in the dry aerial environment. A detailed understanding of the structure, composition, and development of moss cell walls can contribute to our understanding of not only the evolution of overall cell wall complexity, but also the differences that have evolved in response to selection for different survival strategies. The model moss species Physcomitrella patens has a predominantly haploid lifecycle consisting of protonemal filaments that regenerate from protoplasts and enlarge by tip growth, and leafy gametophores composed of cells that enlarge by diffuse growth and differentiate into several different types. Advantages for genetic studies include methods for efficient targeted gene modification and extensive genomic resources. Immuno and affinity cytochemical labeling were used to examine the distribution of polysaccharides and proteins in regenerated protoplasts, protonemal filaments, rhizoids, and sectioned gametophores of P. patens. The cell wall composition of regenerated protoplasts was also characterized by flow cytometry. Crystalline cellulose was abundant in the cell walls of regenerating protoplasts and protonemal cells that developed on media of high osmolarity, whereas homogalacturonan was detected in the walls of protonemal cells that developed on low osmolarity media and not in regenerating protoplasts. Mannan was the major hemicellulose detected in all tissues tested. Arabinogalactan proteins were detected in different cell types by different probes, consistent with structural heterogeneity. The results reveal developmental and cell type specific differences in cell wall composition and provide a basis for analyzing cell wall phenotypes in knockout mutants.

  14. Analysis and seismic tests of composite shear walls with CFST columns and steel plate deep beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongying; Cao, Wanlin; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Jianwei; Xu, Fangfang

    2013-12-01

    A composite shear wall concept based on concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns and steel plate (SP) deep beams is proposed and examined in this study. The new wall is composed of three different energy dissipation elements: CFST columns; SP deep beams; and reinforced concrete (RC) strips. The RC strips are intended to allow the core structural elements — the CFST columns and SP deep beams — to work as a single structure to consume energy. Six specimens of different configurations were tested under cyclic loading. The resulting data are analyzed herein. In addition, numerical simulations of the stress and damage processes for each specimen were carried out, and simulations were completed for a range of location and span-height ratio variations for the SP beams. The simulations show good agreement with the test results. The core structure exhibits a ductile yielding mechanism characteristic of strong column-weak beam structures, hysteretic curves are plump and the composite shear wall exhibits several seismic defense lines. The deformation of the shear wall specimens with encased CFST column and SP deep beam design appears to be closer to that of entire shear walls. Establishing optimal design parameters for the configuration of SP deep beams is pivotal to the best seismic behavior of the wall. The new composite shear wall is therefore suitable for use in the seismic design of building structures.

  15. Stomatal cell wall composition: distinctive structural patterns associated with different phylogenetic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Ilana; Shelef, Yaniv; Marom, Ziv; Zelinger, Einat; Schwartz, Amnon; Popper, Zoë A; Bar-On, Benny; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2017-04-01

    Stomatal morphology and function have remained largely conserved throughout ∼400 million years of plant evolution. However, plant cell wall composition has evolved and changed. Here stomatal cell wall composition was investigated in different vascular plant groups in attempt to understand their possible effect on stomatal function. A renewed look at stomatal cell walls was attempted utilizing digitalized polar microscopy, confocal microscopy, histology and a numerical finite-elements simulation. The six species of vascular plants chosen for this study cover a broad structural, ecophysiological and evolutionary spectrum: ferns ( Asplenium nidus and Platycerium bifurcatum ) and angiosperms ( Arabidopsis thaliana and Commelina erecta ) with kidney-shaped stomata, and grasses (angiosperms, family Poaceae) with dumbbell-shaped stomata ( Sorghum bicolor and Triticum aestivum ). Three distinct patterns of cellulose crystallinity in stomatal cell walls were observed: Type I (kidney-shaped stomata, ferns), Type II (kidney-shaped stomata, angiosperms) and Type III (dumbbell-shaped stomata, grasses). The different stomatal cell wall attributes investigated (cellulose crystallinity, pectins, lignin, phenolics) exhibited taxon-specific patterns, with reciprocal substitution of structural elements in the end-walls of kidney-shaped stomata. According to a numerical bio-mechanical model, the end walls of kidney-shaped stomata develop the highest stresses during opening. The data presented demonstrate for the first time the existence of distinct spatial patterns of varying cellulose crystallinity in guard cell walls. It is also highly intriguing that in angiosperms crystalline cellulose appears to have replaced lignin that occurs in the stomatal end-walls of ferns serving a similar wall strengthening function. Such taxon-specific spatial patterns of cell wall components could imply different biomechanical functions, which in turn could be a consequence of differences in

  16. Prognostic impact of proliferation for resected early stage 'pure' invasive lobular breast cancer: Cut-off analysis of Ki67 according to histology and clinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbognin, Luisa; Sperduti, Isabella; Fabi, Alessandra; Dieci, Maria Vittoria; Kadrija, Dzenete; Griguolo, Gaia; Pilotto, Sara; Guarneri, Valentina; Zampiva, Ilaria; Brunelli, Matteo; Orvieto, Enrico; Nortilli, Rolando; Fiorio, Elena; Parolin, Veronica; Manfrin, Erminia; Caliò, Anna; Nisticò, Cecilia; Pellini, Francesca; Scarpa, Aldo; Pollini, Giovanni Paolo; Conte, Pierfranco; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bria, Emilio

    2017-10-01

    The intent of this analysis was to investigate and validate the prognostic potential of Ki67 in a multi-center series of patients affected by early stage 'pure' invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Clinical-pathological data of patients affected by ILC were correlated with overall survival and disease-free survival (OS/DFS); data from a parallel invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) patients' cohort were gathered as well. The maximally selected Log-Rank statistics analysis was applied to Ki67 continuous variable to estimate the appropriate cut-off. The Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) analysis was performed as well. Data from overall 1097 (457/222 ILC: training/validation set; 418 IDC) patients were gathered. The identified optimal Ki67 cut-offs were 4% and 14% for DFS in ILC and IDC cohort, respectively. In ILC patients, the Ki67 cut-off was an independent OS predictor. Ten-years OS and DFS were 89.9% and 77.2% (p = 0.007) and 79.4% and 69.2% (p = 0.03) for patients with Ki67 ≤ 4% and >4%, respectively. In IDC patients, 10-years OS was 93.8% and 71.7%, p = 0.02, DFS was 84.0% and 52.6%, p = 0.0003, for patients with Ki67 ≤ 14% and >14%, respectively. In the validation set, the optimal Ki67 OS cut-off was 5%. The STEPP analysis showed that in the presence of low Ki67 values, IDC patients have a better DFS than ILC patients, while with the increase of values the prognosis tends to overlap. Despite the retrospective design of the study, the prognostic relevance of Ki67 (as well as its optimal cut-off) seems to significantly differ according to breast cancer histology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Direct displacement-based design of special composite RC shear walls with steel boundary elements

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    H. Kazemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Special composite RC shear wall (CRCSW with steel boundary elements is a kind of lateral force resisting structural system which is used in earthquake-prone regions. Due to their high ductility and energy dissipation, CRCSWs have been widely used in recent years by structural engineers. However, there are few studies in the literature on the seismic design of such walls. Although there are many studies in the literature on the Direct Displacement-Based Design (DDBD of RC structures, however, no study can be found on DDBD of CRCSWs. Therefore, the aim of present study is to evaluate the ability of DDBD method for designing CRCSWs. In this study, four special composite reinforced concrete shear walls with steel boundary elements of 4, 8, 12 and 16 story numbers were designed using the DDBD method for target drift of 2%. The seismic behavior of the four CRCSWs was studied using nonlinear time-history dynamic analyses. Dynamic analyses were performed for the mentioned walls using 7 selected earthquake records. The seismic design parameters considered in this study includes: lateral displacement profile, inelastic dynamic inter-story drift demand, failure pattern and the composite RC shear walls overstrength factor. For each shear wall, the overall overstrength factor was calculated by dividing the ultimate dynamic base shear demand (Vu by the base shear demand (Vd as per the Direct Displacement Based-Design (DDBD method. The results show that the DDBD method can be used to design CRCSWs safely in seismic regions with predicted behavior.

  18. Effect of Yeast Cell Morphology, Cell Wall Physical Structure and Chemical Composition on Patulin Adsorption.

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    Ying Luo

    Full Text Available The capability of yeast to adsorb patulin in fruit juice can aid in substantially reducing the patulin toxic effect on human health. This study aimed to investigate the capability of yeast cell morphology and cell wall internal structure and composition to adsorb patulin. To compare different yeast cell morphologies, cell wall internal structure and composition, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and ion chromatography were used. The results indicated that patulin adsorption capability of yeast was influenced by cell surface areas, volume, and cell wall thickness, as well as 1,3-β-glucan content. Among these factors, cell wall thickness and 1,3-β-glucan content serve significant functions. The investigation revealed that patulin adsorption capability was mainly affected by the three-dimensional network structure of the cell wall composed of 1,3-β-glucan. Finally, patulin adsorption in commercial kiwi fruit juice was investigated, and the results indicated that yeast cells could adsorb patulin from commercial kiwi fruit juice efficiently. This study can potentially simulate in vitro cell walls to enhance patulin adsorption capability and successfully apply to fruit juice industry.

  19. Effect of Yeast Cell Morphology, Cell Wall Physical Structure and Chemical Composition on Patulin Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Bin; Wang, Zhouli; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2015-01-01

    The capability of yeast to adsorb patulin in fruit juice can aid in substantially reducing the patulin toxic effect on human health. This study aimed to investigate the capability of yeast cell morphology and cell wall internal structure and composition to adsorb patulin. To compare different yeast cell morphologies, cell wall internal structure and composition, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and ion chromatography were used. The results indicated that patulin adsorption capability of yeast was influenced by cell surface areas, volume, and cell wall thickness, as well as 1,3-β-glucan content. Among these factors, cell wall thickness and 1,3-β-glucan content serve significant functions. The investigation revealed that patulin adsorption capability was mainly affected by the three-dimensional network structure of the cell wall composed of 1,3-β-glucan. Finally, patulin adsorption in commercial kiwi fruit juice was investigated, and the results indicated that yeast cells could adsorb patulin from commercial kiwi fruit juice efficiently. This study can potentially simulate in vitro cell walls to enhance patulin adsorption capability and successfully apply to fruit juice industry.

  20. Discussion about different cut-off values of conventional hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio used in hamstring injury prediction among professional male football players.

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    Monika Grygorowicz

    Full Text Available To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests.Retrospective study.Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Hamstring strain injury cases and the reports generated via isokinetic testing were investigated. Isokinetic concentric(con hamstring(H and quadriceps(Q absolute strength in addition with Hcon/Qcon ratio were examined for the injured versus uninjured limbs among injured players, and for the injured and non-injured players. 2 x 2 contingency table was used for comparing variables: predicted injured or predicted uninjured with actual injured or actual uninjured. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for three different cut-off values (0.47 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.658 to compare the discriminative power of an isokinetic test, whilst examining the key value of Hcon/Qcon ratio which may indicate the highest level of ability to predispose a player to injury. McNemar's chi2 test with Yates's correction was used to determine agreement between the tests. PQStat software was used for all statistical analysis, and an alpha level of p <0.05 was used for all statistical comparisons.340 isokinetic test reports on both limbs of 66 professional soccer players were analysed. Eleven players suffered hamstring injuries during the analysed period. None of these players sustained recurrence of hamstring injury. One player sustained hamstring strain injury on both legs, thus the total number of injuries was 12. Application of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic test used as a tool for

  1. The composition of cell walls from grape skin in Vitis vinifera intraspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Terrier, Nancy; Doco, Thierry; Ros-García, José María

    2017-09-01

    Monastrell is a red grape cultivar adapted to the dry environmental conditions of Murcia, SE Spain. Its berries seem to be characterized by a rigid cell wall structure, which could make difficult the winemaking process. Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar is used to complement Monastrell wines in this region owing to its high phenolic content with high extractability. This study explores the skin cell wall composition of grapes from plants resulting from intraspecific crosses of Vitis vinifera cultivars Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon. Moreover, the morphology of the cell wall material (CWM) from some representative samples was visualized by transmission optical microscopy. The total sugar content of CWM from nine out of ten genotypes of the progeny was lower than that from Monastrell. Seven out of ten genotypes showed lower phenolic content than Cabernet Sauvignon. The CWM from nine out of ten hybrids presented lower protein content than that from Monastrell. This study confirms that skin cell walls from Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon hybrid grapes presented major differences in composition compared with their parents. These data could help in the development of new cultivars adapted to the dry conditions of SE Spain and with a cell wall composition favouring extractability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Therapeutic significance of a D-dimer cut-off level of >3 μg/ml in colorectal cancer patients treated with standard chemotherapy plus bevacizumab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Satoshi; Yoshino, Takayuki; Kojima, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The risk of venous thromboembolism has been reported to increase when receiving bevacizumab. Many cancer patients are reported to have elevated D-dimer levels. It is not clear what D-dimer level might indicate an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in the colorectal cancer patients treated with bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy. The D-dimer levels and any event concurrent with an elevated D-dimer level were evaluated in patients receiving bevacizumab. The D-dimer cut-off level was determined using the receiver-operating characteristic analysis. The selection criteria were as follows: histologically proven metastatic and unresectable colorectal adenocarcinoma; no prior chemotherapy containing bevacizumab; D-dimer test performed repetitively on the baseline and during bevacizumab administration; no venous thromboembolism identified at the baseline; and enhanced computed tomographic scan performed every 2 months. Sixty-nine patients were included. The chemotherapy regimens with bevacizumab included the regimen of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX), the regimen of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and irinotecan (FOLFIRI), and leucovorin-modulated 5-fluorouracil. The median baseline D-dimer level was 1.2 μg/ml. The appropriate D-dimer cut-off level was 3 μg/ml with the negative predictive value of 98% and relative risk of 6.9. Twenty-one of 69 patients showed elevated D-dimer levels of >3 μg/ml, with 11 patients for unknown reasons, 6 with tumor progression, 3 with venous thromboembolism and 1 with sepsis. In the remaining 48 patients whose D-dimer levels were ≤3 μg/ml, only one patient developed a venous thromboembolism. A D-dimer cut-off level of 3 μg/ml might be a useful indicator level to exclude venous thromboembolism or show an increased risk for venous thromboembolism in colorectal cancer patients treated with bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy. (author)

  3. Evaluation of serum galactomannan enzyme immunoassay at two different cut-offs for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in patients with febrile neutropenia

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    Ritin Mohindra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Invasive aspergillosis (IA is an increasingly common and fatal opportunistic fungal infection in patients with haematological diseases. Early diagnosis is difficult as mycological culture techniques have low sensitivity and the radiological tools have low specificity. Galactomannan enzyme immunoassay (GEI detects galactomannan in the human serum with a reported sensitivity and specificity between 30% and 100%. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse the role of GEI in diagnosis of IA in patients with febrile neutropenia and to evaluate the role of GEI in the diagnosis of IA as per the revised (2008 European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer–Mycoses Study Group (EORTC–MSG criteria at two different optical density (OD cut-offs of 0.5 and 1.0. Setting: This prospective study was conducted in Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India. Methods: GEI testing was performed in adult patients of febrile neutropenia with evidence of IA. Results at two different OD indices (ODIs of 0.5 and 1.0 were analysed. The evaluation of the diagnostic parameter, that is, GEI was measured in terms of sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive value and was validated with the revised (2008 EORTC–MSG diagnostic criteria of IA. Results: One hundred and eleven patients had evidence of IA, of which 79 patients were GEI positive when cut-off ODI was 0.5, whereas with cut-off ODI 1.0, 55 patients were GEI positive. Conclusion: ODI of 1.0 should be considered as positive while in patients with OD between 0.5 and 1.0, repeat sampling from the patient is recommended.

  4. Night-time heart rate cut-off point definition by resting office tachycardia in untreated hypertensive patients: data of the Spanish ABPM registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinyoles, Ernest; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Roso, Albert; de la Cruz, Juan J; Gorostidi, Manuel; Segura, Julián; Banegas, José R; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Ruilope, Luís M

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that an elevated resting heart rate (HR) is a risk factor for both total and cardiovascular mortality. Our aim was to estimate the night-time HR cut-off point that best predicts cardiovascular risk office tachycardia in hypertensive patients. Untreated hypertensive patients without concomitant cardiovascular diseases were included. Office and ambulatory HRs were measured. Cardiovascular risk office tachycardia was defined by office HR at least 85 beats per minute (bpm). Different night-time HR cut-offs were estimated by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses to predict cardiovascular risk office tachycardia. The best cut-off was selected on the basis of its combined sensitivity and specificity. A total of 32 569 hypertensive patients were included: 46.5% women, mean age (SD) 52 (14) years, office blood pressure 146 (16)/89 (11) mmHg, diabetes 10.3%, smoking 19.2%, BMI 29 (6.8) kg/m, office HR 77 (11.2) bpm, and night-time HR 64.9 (9.3) bpm. A total of 7070 (21.7%) patients were found to have cardiovascular risk office tachycardia. The night-time HR value that better predicted cardiovascular risk office tachycardia was more than 66 bpm. In comparison with patients with night HR below this value, those with night-time tachycardia were predominantly women, younger, with higher ambulatory blood pressure, greater BMI, and higher prevalence of diabetes and smoking. All comparisons were statistically significant (P less than 0.001). A mean night-time HR more than 66 bpm is a good predictor of cardiovascular risk office tachycardia in untreated hypertensive patients and could be considered a variable associated with an increased cardiovascular risk.

  5. Power of resting echocardiographic measurements to classify pulmonary hypertension patients according to European society of cardiology exercise testing risk stratification cut-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Michaela B; Garcia, Rodrigue; Christiaens, Luc; Larrieu-Ardilouze, Elisa; Howard, Luke S; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros

    2018-04-15

    Right ventricular function is the major determinant of morbidity and mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The ESC risk assessment strategy for PAH is based on clinical status, exercise testing, NTproBNP, imaging and haemodynamics but does not include right ventricular function. Our aims were to test the power of resting echocardiographic measurements to classify PAH patients according to ESC exercise testing risk stratification cut-offs and to determine if the classification power of echocardiographic parameters varied in chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We prospectively and consecutively recruited 46 PAH patients and 42 CTEPH patients referred for cardio-pulmonary exercise testing and comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography. Exercise testing parameters analyzed were peak oxygen consumption, percentage of predicted maximal oxygen consumption and the slope of ventilation against carbon dioxide production. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal diagnostic cut-off values of echocardiographic parameters for classifying the patients in intermediate or high risk category according to exercise testing. Measurements of right ventricular systolic function were the best for classifying in PAH (area under the curve 0.815 to 0.935). Measurements of right ventricular pressure overload (0.810 to 0.909) were optimal for classifying according to exercise testing in CTEPH. Measurements of left ventricular function were of no use in either group. Measurements of right ventricular systolic function can classify according to exercise testing risk stratification cut-offs in PAH. However, this is not the case in CTEPH where pressure overload, rather than right ventricular function seems to be linked to exercise performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle in the Highlands of Cameroon: Seroprevalence Estimates and Rates of Tuberculin Skin Test Reactors at Modified Cut-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Awah-Ndukum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain epidemiological estimates of bovine tuberculosis (TB prevalence in cattle in the highlands of Cameroon using two population-based tuberculin skin test (TST surveys in the years 2009 and 2010. However, prior to the TST survey in 2010, blood was collected from already chosen cattle for serological assay. Anti-bovine TB antibodies was detected in 37.17% of tested animals and bovine TB prevalence estimates were 3.59%–7.48%, 8.92%–13.25%, 11.77%–17.26% and 13.14%–18.35% for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and single TST, respectively. The agreement between TST and lateral flow was generally higher in TST positive than in TST negative subjects. The K coefficients were 0.119, 0.234, 0.251 and 0.254 for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and the single TST groups, respectively. Chi square statistics revealed that strong (P48 associations existed between seroprevalence rates and TST reactors. The study suggested that using lateral flow assay and TST at severe interpretations could improve the perception of bovine TB in Cameroon. The importance of defining TST at modified cut-offs and disease status by post-mortem detection and mycobacterial culture of TB lesions in local environments cannot be overemphasised.

  7. Proposed cut-off value of CA19-9 for detecting pancreatic cancer in patients with diabetes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Mariko; Nagai, Yoshio; Tenjin, Ayumi; Tanaka, Yasushi

    2018-04-11

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy. CA19-9 is a well-known marker for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, but the serum CA19-9 level is reported to be elevated in patients with poorly controlled diabetes. This study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, and cut-off value of serum CA19-9 for detection of pancreatic cancer in patients with diabetes. A case-control study of 236 patients was performed. The case group was selected from diabetic patients with pancreatic cancer, while one control was selected for each case from among diabetic patients without pancreatic cancer during the same period. The case group (n = 118) and the control group (n = 118) were matched for age, sex, and pancreatic cancer risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to determine the serum CA19-9 level that predicted pancreatic cancer. Then the sensitivity and specificity of CA19-9 were calculated for the threshold value. There were no significant differences of age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol intake, and HbA1c between the case and control groups. According to ROC analysis, a serum CA19-9 level of 75 U/mL had the maximum sensitivity and specificity for separating diabetic patients with or without pancreatic cancer. Using this cut-off value, the sensitivity and specificity of CA19-9 for pancreatic cancer was 69.5% and 98.2%, respectively, while the area under the ROC curve was 0.875 [95%CI: 0.826-0.924]. We propose that a serum CA19-9 level of 75 U/mL should be used as the cut-off value when screening patients with diabetes for pancreatic cancer.

  8. Dental fear and caries in 6-12 year old children in Greece. Determination of dental fear cut-off points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boka, V; Arapostathis, K; Karagiannis, V; Kotsanos, N; van Loveren, C; Veerkamp, J

    2017-03-01

    To present: the normative data on dental fear and caries status; the dental fear cut-off points of young children in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. Study Design: This is a cross-sectional study with two independent study groups. A first representative sample consisted of 1484 children from 15 primary public schools of Thessaloniki. A second sample consisted of 195 randomly selected age-matched children, all patients of the Postgraduate Paediatric Dental Clinic of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. First sample: In order to select data on dental fear and caries, dental examination took place in the classroom with disposable mirrors and a penlight. All the children completed the Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS). Second sample: In order to define the cut-off points of the CFSS-DS, dental treatment of the 195 children was performed at the University Clinic. Children⁁s dental fear was assessed using the CFSS-DS and their behaviour during dental treatment was observed by one calibrated examiner using the Venham scale. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with IBM SPSS Statistics 20 at a statistical significance level of fear. Mean differences between boys and girls were not significant. Caries was not correlated with dental fear. Second sample: CFSS-DSfear', scores 33-37 as 'borderline' and scores > 37 as 'dental fear'. In the first sample, 84.6% of the children did not suffer from dental fear (CFSS-DSfear was correlated to age and not to caries and gender. The dental fear cut-off point for the CFSS-DS was estimated at 37 for 6-12 year old children (33-37 borderlines).

  9. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) cut-off values and the metabolic syndrome in a general adult population: effect of gender and age: EPIRCE cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayoso-Diz, Pilar; Otero-González, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Alvarez, María Xosé; Gude, Francisco; García, Fernando; De Francisco, Angel; Quintela, Arturo González

    2013-10-16

    Insulin resistance has been associated with metabolic and hemodynamic alterations and higher cardio metabolic risk. There is great variability in the threshold homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels to define insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of age and gender in the estimation of HOMA-IR optimal cut-off values to identify subjects with higher cardio metabolic risk in a general adult population. It included 2459 adults (range 20-92 years, 58.4% women) in a random Spanish population sample. As an accurate indicator of cardio metabolic risk, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), both by International Diabetes Federation criteria and by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, were used. The effect of age was analyzed in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus separately. ROC regression methodology was used to evaluate the effect of age on HOMA-IR performance in classifying cardio metabolic risk. In Spanish population the threshold value of HOMA-IR drops from 3.46 using 90th percentile criteria to 2.05 taking into account of MetS components. In non-diabetic women, but no in men, we found a significant non-linear effect of age on the accuracy of HOMA-IR. In non-diabetic men, the cut-off values were 1.85. All values are between 70th-75th percentiles of HOMA-IR levels in adult Spanish population. The consideration of the cardio metabolic risk to establish the cut-off points of HOMA-IR, to define insulin resistance instead of using a percentile of the population distribution, would increase its clinical utility in identifying those patients in whom the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors imparts an increased metabolic and cardiovascular risk. The threshold levels must be modified by age in non-diabetic women.

  10. Bayesian decision and mixture models for AE monitoring of steel-concrete composite shear walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhidzadeh, Alireza; Epackachi, Siamak; Salamone, Salvatore; Whittaker, Andrew S.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an approach based on an acoustic emission technique for the health monitoring of steel-concrete (SC) composite shear walls. SC composite walls consist of plain (unreinforced) concrete sandwiched between steel faceplates. Although the use of SC system construction has been studied extensively for nearly 20 years, little-to-no attention has been devoted to the development of structural health monitoring techniques for the inspection of damage of the concrete behind the steel plates. In this work an unsupervised pattern recognition algorithm based on probability theory is proposed to assess the soundness of the concrete infill, and eventually provide a diagnosis of the SC wall’s health. The approach is validated through an experimental study on a large-scale SC shear wall subjected to a displacement controlled reversed cyclic loading.

  11. Understanding capacity fade in silicon based electrodes for lithium ion batteries using three electrode cells and upper cut-off voltage studies

    OpenAIRE

    Beattie, Shane D.; Loveridge, Melanie; Lain, Michael J.; Ferraria, Stefania; Polzin, Bryant; Bhagat, Rohit; Dashwood, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial Li-ion batteries are typically cycled between 3.0 and 4.2 V. These voltages limits are chosen based on the characteristics of the cathode (e.g. lithium cobalt oxide) and anode (e.g. graphite). When alternative anode/cathode chemistries are studied the same cut-off voltages are often, mistakenly, used. Silicon (Si) based anodes are widely studied as a high capacity alternative to graphite for Lithium-ion batteries. When silicon-based anodes are paired with high capacity cathodes (e....

  12. Retrospective analysis of insulin responses to standard dosed oral glucose tests (OGTs) via naso-gastric tubing towards definition of an objective cut-off value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnken, Tobias; Delarocque, Julien; Schumacher, Svenja; Huber, Korinna; Feige, Karsten

    2018-01-19

    Insulin dysregulation (ID) with basal or postprandial hyperinsulinemia is one of the key findings in horses and ponies suffering from the equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Assessment of ID can easily be performed in clinical settings by the use of oral glucose challenge tests. Oral glucose test (OGT) performed with 1 g/kg bodyweight (BW) glucose administered via naso-gastric tube allows the exact administration of a defined glucose dosage in a short time. However, reliable cut-off values have not been available so far. Therefore, the aim of the study was to describe variations in insulin response to OGT via naso-gastric tubing and to provide a clinical useful cut-off value for ID when using the insulin quantification performed with an equine-optimized insulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data visualization revealed no clear separation in the serum insulin concentration of insulin sensitive and insulin dysregulated horses during OGT. Therefore, a model based clustering method was used to circumvent the use of an arbitrary limit for categorization. This method considered all data-points for the classification, taking into account the individual insulin trajectory during the OGT. With this method two clusters were differentiated, one with low and one with high insulin responses during OGT. The cluster of individuals with low insulin response was consistently detected, independently of the initialization parameters of the algorithm. In this cluster the 97.5% quantile of insulin is 110 µLU/mL at 120 min. We suggest using this insulin concentration of 110 µLU/mL as a cut-off value for samples obtained at 120 min in OGT. OGT performed with 1 g/kg BW glucose and administration via naso-gastric tubing can easily be performed under clinical settings. Application of the cut-off value of 110 µLU/mL at 120 min allows assessment of ID in horses.

  13. Cut-off values for classifying active children and adolescents using the Physical Activity Questionnaire: PAQ-C and PAQ-A

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez-Porres, Javier; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Sardinha, Luis B.; López-Fernández, Iván; Carnero, Elvis A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Physical Activity Questionnaire for children and adolescents (PAQ-C & PAQ-A) has been widely used in research and field settings. However, there is a lack of information about its final score meaning. Objective: To determine PAQ-C and PAQ-A score cut-off values using physical activity (PA) thresholds objectively measured as reference criteria. Methods: 146 children (n = 83 boys, n = 63 girls) and 234 adolescents (n = 115 boys, n = 119 girls) participated in this study. Accel...

  14. Determination of sensitivity, specificity and cut off point of visual- Motor Bender Gestalt Test in the diagnosis of traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tayebeh Rezaie nasab

    2013-02-01

    Results: In this study, cut-off point was calculated as 6.5%, sensitivity as 55.8%, characteristic as 81.2%, and the area under the Roc curve as 0.69. Moreover, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and efficiency were 95.08%, 22.03%, and 59.17%, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that Bender Gestalt Test is relatively weak in diagnosis of mild TBI. Hence, its characteristic is high and it was successful in diagnosing healthy individuals.

  15. Stability of cell wall composition and saccharification efficiency in Miscanthus across diverse environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijde, van der Tim; Dolstra, Oene; Visser, Richard G.F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the potential effects of differences between growth locations on the cell wall composition and saccharification efficiency of the bioenergy crop miscanthus, a diverse set of 15 accessions were evaluated in six locations across Europe for the first 3 years following establishment.

  16. Crystallization and melting behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced nylon-6 composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phang, In Yee; Ma, Jianhua; Shen, Lu; Liu, Tianxi; Zhang, Wei-De

    2006-01-01

    The crystallization and melting behavior of neat nylon-6 (PA6) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)/PA6 composites prepared by simple melt-compounding was comparatively studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results show two crystallization exotherms (TCC, 1 and TCC, 2) for PA6/MWNTs

  17. Cell wall composition throughout development for the model grass Brachypodium distanchyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eRancour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperate perennial grasses are important worldwide as a livestock nutritive energy source and a potential feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuel production. The annual temperate grass Brachypodium distanchyon has been championed as a useful model system to facilitate biological research in agriculturally important temperate forage grasses based on phylogenetic relationships. To physically corroborate genetic predictions, we determined the chemical composition profiles of organ-specific cell walls throughout the development of two common diploid accessions of Brachypodium distanchyon, Bd21-3 and Bd21. Chemical analysis was performed on cell walls isolated from distinct organs (i.e. leaves, sheaths, stems and roots at three developmental stages of 1 12-day seedling, 2 vegetative-to-reproductive transition, and 3 mature seed-fill. In addition, we have included cell wall analysis of embryonic callus used for genetic transformations. Composition of cell walls based on components lignin, hydroxycinnamates, uronosyls, neutral sugars, and protein suggests that Brachypodium distanchyon is similar chemically to agriculturally important forage grasses. There were modest compositional differences in hydroxycinnamate profiles between accessions Bd21-3 and Bd21. In addition, when compared to agronomical important C3 grasses, more mature Brachypodium stem cell walls have a relative increase in glucose of 48% and a decrease in lignin of 36%. Though differences exists between Brachypodium and agronomical important C3 grasses, Brachypodium distanchyon should be still a useful model system for genetic manipulation of cell wall composition to determine the impact upon functional characteristics such as rumen digestibility or energy conversion efficiency for bioenergy production.

  18. Cell wall composition throughout development for the model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancour, David M.; Marita, Jane M.; Hatfield, Ronald D.

    2012-01-01

    Temperate perennial grasses are important worldwide as a livestock nutritive energy source and a potential feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuel production. The annual temperate grass Brachypodium distachyon has been championed as a useful model system to facilitate biological research in agriculturally important temperate forage grasses based on phylogenetic relationships. To physically corroborate genetic predictions, we determined the chemical composition profiles of organ-specific cell walls throughout the development of two common diploid accessions of Brachypodium distachyon, Bd21-3 and Bd21. Chemical analysis was performed on cell walls isolated from distinct organs (i.e., leaves, sheaths, stems, and roots) at three developmental stages of (1) 12-day seedling, (2) vegetative-to-reproductive transition, and (3) mature seed fill. In addition, we have included cell wall analysis of embryonic callus used for genetic transformations. Composition of cell walls based on components lignin, hydroxycinnamates, uronosyls, neutral sugars, and protein suggests that Brachypodium distachyon is similar chemically to agriculturally important forage grasses. There were modest compositional differences in hydroxycinnamate profiles between accessions Bd21-3 and Bd21. In addition, when compared to agronomical important C3 grasses, more mature Brachypodium stem cell walls have a relative increase in glucose of 48% and a decrease in lignin of 36%. Though differences exist between Brachypodium and agronomical important C3 grasses, Brachypodium distachyon should be still a useful model system for genetic manipulation of cell wall composition to determine the impact upon functional characteristics such as rumen digestibility or energy conversion efficiency for bioenergy production. PMID:23227028

  19. Preparation of graphene oxide/polypyrrole/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite and its application in supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bin; Qiu, Jianhui; Feng, Huixia; Sakai, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel method for synthesizing graphene oxide/polypyrrole/multi-walled nanotube composites. • Investigation of the effects of the mass ratio of GO, CM and Py on the capacitance of prepared composites. • Excellent electrochemical performance of PCMG composites. - Abstract: We report a novel method for preparing graphene oxide/polypyrrole/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites (PCMG). The MWCNTs are treated by sulfuric acid, nitric acid and thionyl chloride, and then composite with graphene oxide and PPy by in suit polymerization. Transition electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that in 3-D structure of PCMG composites, PPy chains act as the “bridge” between graphene oxide and chlorinated-MWCNTs. Electrochemical tests reveal that the PCMG1-1 composite has high capacitance of 406.7 F g −1 at current density of 0.5 A g −1 , and the capacitance retention of PCMG1-1 composite is 92% after 1000 cycles

  20. Muscle function-dependent sarcopenia and cut-off values of possible predictors in community-dwelling Turkish elderly: calf circumference, midarm muscle circumference and walking speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, S; Mucuk, S; Öztürk, A; Mazıcıoğlu, M; Göçer, Ş; Arguvanlı, S; Şafak, E D

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of muscle strength-based sarcopenia and to determine possible predictors. This is a cross-sectional population-based study in the community-dwelling Turkish elderly. Anthropometric measurements, namely body height, weight, triceps skin fold (TSF), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), waist circumference (WC) and calf circumference (CC), were noted. The midarm muscle circumference (MAMC) was calculated by using MUAC and TSF measurement. Sarcopenia was assessed, adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and gender, according to muscle strength. Physical performance was determined by 4 m walking speed (WS; m/s). The receiver operating curve analysis was performed to determine cut-offs of CC, MAMC and 4 m WS. A total of 879 elderly subjects, 50.1% of whom were female, were recruited. The mean handgrip strength (HGS) and s.d. was 24.2 (8.8) kg [17.9 (4.8) female, 30.6 (7.1) male]. The muscle function-dependent sarcopenia was 63.4% (female 73.5%, male 53.2%). The muscle mass-dependent sarcopenia for CC (sarcopenia. An adequate muscle mass may not mean a reliable muscle function. Muscle function may describe sarcopenia better compared with muscle mass. The CC, MAMC and 4 m WS cut-offs may be used to assess sarcopenia in certain age groups.

  1. Nicotine cut-off value in human hair as a tool to distinguish active from passive smokers: A cross-sectional study in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Masayoshi; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Mori, Yayoi; Ito, Teruna; Hidaka, Tomoo; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kawazoe, Miki; Sato, Sei; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2017-07-19

    Nicotine concentration in hair is a useful marker of tobacco exposure. Detection of nicotine in the hair of non-smokers indicates passive smoking. Accurate measurement of nicotine among active and passive smokers can help in smoking cessation programs or programs designed to prevent secondhand smoke exposure. To establish, using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV), a hair nicotine cut-off value to distinguish active from passive smokers. Hair samples were collected from randomly chosen Japanese men (n= 192) between 2009 and 2011. Nicotine and cotinine levels in hair were measured using HPLC/UV with column-switching. T-tests and chi-square tests were performed to compare active and passive smokers, while receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the cut-off value. There were 69 active smokers and 123 passive smokers. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair were significantly higher in active than in passive smokers (psmokers. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair clearly distinguished active from passive smokers.

  2. Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment cut-off score to clarify improvement of mild cognitive impairment after exercise training in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Marina; Sugie, Masamitsu; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Koyama, Teruyuki; Sengoku, Renpei; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Obuchi, Shuichi; Harada, Kazumasa; Kyo, Shunei; Ito, Hideki

    2018-02-02

    Physical exercise improves cognitive function in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, information about whether the degree of MCI before exercise training affects improvement in cognitive function is lacking. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the cut-off value in a MCI screening tool that predicts reversal to normal cognitive function after exercise training in older adults with MCI. Participants included 112 Japanese community-dwelling older adult outpatients (37 men, 75 women; mean age 76.3 years). We administered the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J) before and after exercise training. MCI was defined as a MoCA-J score cognitive function. The MoCA-J cut-off score to predict cognitive function potentially reversible to normal was 23, with receiver operating characteristic analysis showing an area under the curve of 0.80, sensitivity of 79.4% and specificity of 69.2%. Multiple logistic regression analysis to predict non-MCI after exercise training showed that MoCA-J score ≥23 (OR 6.9, P cognitive function that is potentially reversible to normal among community-dwelling Japanese older adults with MCI. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 The Authors Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. Clinical significance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) with respect to optimal cut-off value and tumor markers in advanced/metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi-Mouri, Yukako; Kousaka, Junko; Ando, Takahito; Tetsuka, Rie; Nakano, Shogo; Yoshida, Miwa; Fujii, Kimihito; Akizuki, Miwa; Imai, Tsuneo; Fukutomi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Katsumasa

    2016-01-01

    Although carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) are useful tumor markers (TMs) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC), circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are also detected in patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer. We analyzed CTCs in MBC patients in order to establish the optimal cut-off value, to evaluate the prognostic utility of CTC count, and to clarify whether CTC count could provide information in addition to CEA and CA15-3. We studied 98 MBC patients enrolled between June 2007 and March 2013. To quantify CTCs, 7.5 ml of blood was collected and CEA and CA15-3 were measured simultaneously. CTCs were counted using the CellSearch™ System. The CTC count was dichotomized as 0 (CTC-negative) or ≥1 (CTC-positive). The clinical significance of CTCs was evaluated in terms of its relationship with levels of CEA and CA15-3. Associations between qualitative variables were evaluated using the chi-square test. In order to evaluate the predictive value of CTCs for advanced or metastatic breast cancer, multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to calculate hazard ratios. With a CTC cut-off value of 1, there were 53 (54.1 %) CTC-negative patients and 45 (45.9 %) CTC-positive patients. Patients in the CTC-positive group had worse survival than those in the CTC-negative group (p CEA and CA15-3.

  4. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid endogenous production and post-mortem behaviour - the importance of different biological matrices, cut-off reference values, sample collection and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, André L; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a story of clinical use, since the 1960's. However, due to its secondary effects, it has become a controlled substance, entering the illicit market for recreational and "dance club scene" use, muscle enhancement purposes and drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Its endogenous context can bring some difficulties when interpreting, in a forensic context, the analytical values achieved in biological samples. This manuscript reviewed several crucial aspects related to GHB forensic toxicology evaluation, such as its post-mortem behaviour in biological samples; endogenous production values, whether in in vivo and in post-mortem samples; sampling and storage conditions (including stability tests); and cut-off reference values evaluation for different biological samples, such as whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, saliva, bile, vitreous humour and hair. This revision highlights the need of specific sampling care, storage conditions, and cut-off reference values interpretation in different biological samples, essential for proper practical application in forensic toxicology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimal Cut-Off Points for the Short-Negative Act Questionnaire and Their Association with Depressive Symptoms and Diagnosis of Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Høgh (Hogh), Annie; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2018-01-01

    to depressive symptoms and diagnosis of depression. Methods The study was based on a sample of 4882 participants from the Danish MODENA cohort study (year 2011), which included both the S-NAQ (score range 9–45) and a one-item measure applying the self-labelling method with a definition to assess occasional...... its criterion validity in relation to depressive symptoms (N = 4071) and diagnosis of depression (N = 4844). Results The S-NAQ cut-off points obtained were ≥12 and ≥16 when using occasional and frequent bullying as reference standards, respectively. Both cut-off points showed high classification.......44–1.86) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. In the adjusted logistic regression analyses, both the first (odds ratio [OR] = 3.55, 95% CI = 1.98–6.38) and the second threshold of exposure (OR = 5.90, 95% CI = 2.93–11.88) were significantly associated with diagnosis of depression. Conclusions...

  6. Understanding capacity fade in silicon based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries using three electrode cells and upper cut-off voltage studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Shane D.; Loveridge, M. J.; Lain, Michael J.; Ferrari, Stefania; Polzin, Bryant J.; Bhagat, Rohit; Dashwood, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Commercial Li-ion batteries are typically cycled between 3.0 and 4.2 V. These voltages limits are chosen based on the characteristics of the cathode (e.g. lithium cobalt oxide) and anode (e.g. graphite). When alternative anode/cathode chemistries are studied the same cut-off voltages are often, mistakenly, used. Silicon (Si) based anodes are widely studied as a high capacity alternative to graphite for Lithium-ion batteries. When silicon-based anodes are paired with high capacity cathodes (e.g. Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminium Oxide; NCA) the cell typically suffers from rapid capacity fade. The purpose of this communication is to understand how the choice of upper cut-off voltage affects cell performance in Si/NCA cells. A careful study of three-electrode cell data will show that capacity fade in Si/NCA cells is due to an ever-evolving silicon voltage profile that pushes the upper voltage at the cathode to >4.4 V (vs. Li/Li+). This behaviour initially improves cycle efficiency, due to liberation of new lithium, but ultimately reduces cycling efficiency, resulting in rapid capacity fade.

  7. A clinically based prognostic index for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a cut-off at 70 years of age significantly improves prognostic stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Anne O.; Pedersen, Michael; d'Amore, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of rituximab and generally improved health among elderly patients have increased the survival of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The International Prognostic Index (IPI) from 1992 is based on pre-rituximab data from clinical trials including several lymphoma ...... dehydrogenase (LDH), stage and albumin level, and (2) a separate age-adjusted DLBCL-PI for patients 1 extranodal lesion, however excluding stage....... subtypes. We applied IPI factors to a population-based rituximab-treated cohort of 1990 patients diagnosed 2000-2010 and explored new factors and the optimal prognostic age cut-off for DLBCL. Multivariate-analyses (MVA) confirmed the prognostic value of all IPI factors except the presence of > 1 extranodal...... lesion. The optimal age cut-off was 70 years. In a MVA of albumin, lymphocyte count, sex, immunoglobulin G, bulky disease, hemoglobin and B-symptoms, only albumin was prognostic. We propose: (1) a modified DLBCL prognostic index (DLBCL-PI) including: age (70 years), performance status (PS), lactate...

  8. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Cifuentes, Mario Ferney; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Córdoba-Rodríguez, Diana Paola; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box–Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years). Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS) sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001). The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia. PMID:27669294

  9. Rocking at 81 and Rolling at 34: ROC Cut-Off Scores for the Negative Acts Questionnaire–Revised in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Ivana B.; Vukelić, Milica; Čizmić, Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Researchers are still searching for the ways to identify different categories of employees according to their exposure to negative acts and psychological experience of workplace bullying. We followed Notelaers and Einarsen’s application of the ROC analysis to determine the NAQ-R cut-off scores applying a “lower” and “higher” threshold. The main goal of this research was to develop and test different gold standards of personal and organizational relevance in determining the NAQ-R cut-off scores in a specific cultural and economic context of Serbia. Apart from combining self-labeling as a victim with self-perceived health, the objectives were to test the gold standards developed as a combination of self-labeling with life satisfaction, self-labeling with intention to leave and a complex gold standard based on self-labeling, self-perceived health, life satisfaction and intention to leave taken together. The ROC analysis on Serbian workforce data supports applying of different gold standards. For identifying employees in a preliminary stage of bullying, the most applicable was the gold standard based on self-labeling and intention to leave (score 34 and higher). The most accurate identification of victims could be based on the most complex gold standard (score 81 and higher). This research encourages further investigation of gold standards in different cultures. PMID:28119652

  10. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box–Cox transformation, M (median, and S (coefficient of variation tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years. Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001. The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia.

  11. Serum cortisol concentration with exploratory cut-off values do not predict the effects of hydrocortisone administration in children with low cardiac output after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, E J; Hogenbirk, Karin; Roest, Arno A W; van Brempt, Ronald; Hazekamp, Mark G; de Jonge, Evert

    2012-10-01

    Low cardiac output syndrome is common after paediatric cardiac surgery. Previous studies suggested that hydrocortisone administration may improve haemodynamic stability in case of resistant low cardiac output syndrome in critically ill children. This study was set up to test the hypothesis that the effects of hydrocortisone on haemodynamics in children with low cardiac output syndrome depend on the presence of (relative) adrenal insufficiency. A retrospective study was done on paediatric patients who received hydrocortisone when diagnosed with resistant low cardiac output syndrome after paediatric cardiac surgery in the period from 1 November 2005 to 31 December 2008. We studied the difference in effects of treatment with hydrocortisone administration between patients with adrenal insufficiency defined as an exploratory cut-off value of total cortisol of cortisol of ≥ 100 nmol/l. A total of 62 of patients were enrolled, meeting the inclusion criteria for low cardiac output syndrome. Thirty-two patients were assigned to Group 1 (cortisol concentration and those with normal baseline cortisol levels. A cortisol value using an exploratory cut-off value of 100 nmol/l for adrenal insufficiency should not be used as a criterion to treat these patients with hydrocortisone.

  12. Discussion about different cut-off values of conventional hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio used in hamstring injury prediction among professional male football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygorowicz, Monika; Michałowska, Martyna; Walczak, Tomasz; Owen, Adam; Grabski, Jakub Krzysztof; Pyda, Andrzej; Piontek, Tomasz; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively) the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests. Retrospective study. Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Hamstring strain injury cases and the reports generated via isokinetic testing were investigated. Isokinetic concentric(con) hamstring(H) and quadriceps(Q) absolute strength in addition with Hcon/Qcon ratio were examined for the injured versus uninjured limbs among injured players, and for the injured and non-injured players. 2 x 2 contingency table was used for comparing variables: predicted injured or predicted uninjured with actual injured or actual uninjured. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for three different cut-off values (0.47 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.658) to compare the discriminative power of an isokinetic test, whilst examining the key value of Hcon/Qcon ratio which may indicate the highest level of ability to predispose a player to injury. McNemar's chi2 test with Yates's correction was used to determine agreement between the tests. PQStat software was used for all statistical analysis, and an alpha level of p hamstring injuries during the analysed period. None of these players sustained recurrence of hamstring injury. One player sustained hamstring strain injury on both legs, thus the total number of injuries was 12. Application of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic test used as a tool for muscle injury detection. The use of 0.47 of Hcon/Qcon as a discriminate value resulted in significantly lower sensitivity when compared to 0.658 threshold (sensitivity of 16.7% vs

  13. Influence of the microstructure on the supercapacitive behavior of polyaniline/single-wall carbon nanotube composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vinay; Miura, Norio [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Environment and Energy, KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2006-06-19

    Polyaniline/single-wall carbon nanotube (PANI/SWCNT) composites were prepared by in situ potentiostatic deposition of PANI onto SWCNTs at the potential of 0.75V versus SCE, with the aim to investigate the influence of microstructure on the specific capacitance of PANI/SWCNT composites. It was found that the specific capacitance of the PANI/SWCNT composites is strongly influenced by their microstructure, which is correlated to the wt.% of the PANI deposited onto the SWCNTs. The optimum condition, corresponding to the highest specific capacitance, 463Fg{sup -1} (at 10mAcm{sup -2}), was obtained for 73wt.% PANI deposited onto SWCNTs. The specific capacitance of the PANI/SWCNT composite electrode was highly stable, with a capacitive decrease of 5% during the first 500 cycles and just 1% during the next 1000 cycles, indicative of the excellent cyclic stability of the composite for supercapacitor applications. (author)

  14. Static resistance function for steel-plate composite (SC) walls subject to impactive loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhl, Jakob C., E-mail: jbruhl@purdue.edu; Varma, Amit H., E-mail: ahvarma@purdue.edu; Kim, Joo Min, E-mail: kim1493@purdue.edu

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • An idealized static resistance function for SC walls is proposed. • The influence of design parameters on static resistance is explained. • SDOF models can accurately estimate global response of SC walls to missile impact. - Abstract: Steel-plate composite (SC) walls consist of a plain concrete core reinforced with two steel faceplates on the surfaces. Modules (consisting of steel faceplates, shear connectors and tie-bars) can be shop-fabricated and shipped to the site for erection and concrete casting, which expedites construction schedule and thus economy. SC structures have recently been used in nuclear power plant designs and are being considered for the next generation of small modular reactors. Design for impactive and impulsive loading is an important consideration for SC walls in safety-related nuclear facilities. The authors have previously developed design methods to prevent local failure (perforation) of SC walls due to missile impact. This paper presents the development of static resistance functions for use in single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) analyses to predict the maximum displacement response of SC walls subjected to missile impact and designed to resist local failure (perforation). The static resistance function for SC walls is developed using results of numerical analyses and parametric studies conducted using benchmarked 3D finite element (FE) models. The influence of various design parameters are discussed and used to develop idealized bilinear resistance functions for SC walls with fixed edges and simply supported edges. Results from dynamic non-linear FE analysis of SC panels subjected to rigid missile impact are compared with the maximum displacements predicted by SDOF analyses using the bilinear resistance function.

  15. Static resistance function for steel-plate composite (SC) walls subject to impactive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhl, Jakob C.; Varma, Amit H.; Kim, Joo Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An idealized static resistance function for SC walls is proposed. • The influence of design parameters on static resistance is explained. • SDOF models can accurately estimate global response of SC walls to missile impact. - Abstract: Steel-plate composite (SC) walls consist of a plain concrete core reinforced with two steel faceplates on the surfaces. Modules (consisting of steel faceplates, shear connectors and tie-bars) can be shop-fabricated and shipped to the site for erection and concrete casting, which expedites construction schedule and thus economy. SC structures have recently been used in nuclear power plant designs and are being considered for the next generation of small modular reactors. Design for impactive and impulsive loading is an important consideration for SC walls in safety-related nuclear facilities. The authors have previously developed design methods to prevent local failure (perforation) of SC walls due to missile impact. This paper presents the development of static resistance functions for use in single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) analyses to predict the maximum displacement response of SC walls subjected to missile impact and designed to resist local failure (perforation). The static resistance function for SC walls is developed using results of numerical analyses and parametric studies conducted using benchmarked 3D finite element (FE) models. The influence of various design parameters are discussed and used to develop idealized bilinear resistance functions for SC walls with fixed edges and simply supported edges. Results from dynamic non-linear FE analysis of SC panels subjected to rigid missile impact are compared with the maximum displacements predicted by SDOF analyses using the bilinear resistance function.

  16. Quantitative CT: Associations between Emphysema, Airway Wall Thickness and Body Composition in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Erica P A; Grydeland, Thomas B; Pillai, Sreekumar G

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the association between CT phenotypes-emphysema by low attenuation area and bronchitis by airway wall thickness-and body composition parameters in a large cohort of subjects with and without COPD. In 452 COPD subjects and 459 subjects without COPD......, CT scans were performed to determine emphysema (%LAA), airway wall thickness (AWT-Pi10), and lung mass. Muscle wasting based on FFMI was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. In both the men and women with COPD, FFMI was negatively associated with %LAA. FMI was positively associated with AWT-Pi10...... in both subjects with and without COPD. Among the subjects with muscle wasting, the percentage emphysema was high, but the predictive value was moderate. In conclusion, the present study strengthens the hypothesis that the subgroup of COPD cases with muscle wasting have emphysema. Airway wall thickness...

  17. Quantitative CT: Associations between Emphysema, Airway Wall Thickness and Body Composition in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Erica P A; Grydeland, Thomas B; Pillai, Sreekumar G

    2011-01-01

    , CT scans were performed to determine emphysema (%LAA), airway wall thickness (AWT-Pi10), and lung mass. Muscle wasting based on FFMI was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. In both the men and women with COPD, FFMI was negatively associated with %LAA. FMI was positively associated with AWT-Pi10......The objective of the present study was to determine the association between CT phenotypes-emphysema by low attenuation area and bronchitis by airway wall thickness-and body composition parameters in a large cohort of subjects with and without COPD. In 452 COPD subjects and 459 subjects without COPD...... in both subjects with and without COPD. Among the subjects with muscle wasting, the percentage emphysema was high, but the predictive value was moderate. In conclusion, the present study strengthens the hypothesis that the subgroup of COPD cases with muscle wasting have emphysema. Airway wall thickness...

  18. Implication of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on polymer/graphene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araby, Sherif; Saber, Nasser; Ma, Xing; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Kang, Hailan; Shen, Heng; Zhang, Liqun; Xu, Jian; Majewski, Peter; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of adding carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into elastomer/graphene composites. • Multi-walled CNTs work supplementally to GnPs by forming conductive networks. • The findings illuminate marked synergistic effect between MWCNTs and graphene sheets. - Abstract: Graphene sheets stack in polymer matrices while multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) entangle themselves, forming two daunting challenges in the design and fabrication of polymer composites. Both challenges have been simultaneously addressed in this study by hybridizing the two nanomaterials through melt compounding to develop elastomer/graphene platelet/MWCNT (3-phase) composites, where MWCNTs were fixed at 2.8 vol% (5 wt%) for all fractions. We investigated the composites’ structure and properties, and compared the 3-phase composites with elastomer/graphene platelet (2-phase) composites. MWCNTs may bridge graphene platelets (GnPs) and promote their dispersion in the matrix, which would provide more interface area between the matrix and the fillers. MWCNTs worked supplementally to GnPs by forming conductive networks, where MWCNTs acted as long nanocables to transport electrons and stress while GnPs served as interconnection sites between the tubes forming local conductive paths. This produced a percolation threshold of electrical conductivity at 2.3 vol% for 3-phase composites, 88% lower than that of 2-phase composites. At 26.7 vol% of total filler content (MWCNTs + GnPs), tensile strength, Young’s modulus and tear strength showed respectively 303%, 115%, 155% further improvements over those of 2-phase composites. These improvements are originated from the synergistic effect between GnPs and MWCNTs. The conducting elastomeric composites developed would potentially open the door for applications in automotive and aerospace industries

  19. Single walled carbon nanotube network—Tetrahedral amorphous carbon composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Ajai, E-mail: ajai.iyer@aalto.fi; Liu, Xuwen; Koskinen, Jari [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, POB 16200, 00076 Espoo (Finland); Kaskela, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko I. [NanoMaterials Group, Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Aalto University, POB 15100, 00076 Espoo (Finland); Johansson, Leena-Sisko [Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, POB 16400, 00076 Espoo (Finland)

    2015-06-14

    Single walled carbon nanotube network (SWCNTN) was coated by tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) using a pulsed Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc system to form a SWCNTN—ta-C composite film. The effects of SWCNTN areal coverage density and ta-C coating thickness on the composite film properties were investigated. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements prove the presence of high quality sp{sup 3} bonded ta-C coating on the SWCNTN. Raman spectroscopy suggests that the single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) forming the network survived encapsulation in the ta-C coating. Nano-mechanical testing suggests that the ta-C coated SWCNTN has superior wear performance compared to uncoated SWCNTN.

  20. Microwave absorbing properties of polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites with various polyaniline contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, T.H.; Jau, Y.N.; Yu, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    Polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube (PANI/MWNT) composites were synthesized using in situ polymerization at different aniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube weight ratios (Ani/MWNT = 1/2, 1/1, 2/1 and 3/1) and introduced into an epoxy resin to act as a microwave absorber. The spectroscopic characterization of the process of formation of PANI/MWNT composites were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron spin resonance. The microwave absorbing properties were investigated by measuring complex permittivity, complex permeability and reflection loss in the 2-18 and 18-40 GHz microwave frequency range, using the free space method. The results showed that the addition of PANI was useful for achieving a large absorption over a wide frequency range, especially for higher frequency values.

  1. Experimental Study of Multi-Walled Composite Shell Fragments under Thermal Force Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Tairova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled composite shells are a relatively new prospective type of load carrying structures for rocket and space engineering. These CFRP structures are produced by injection and infusion methods and have several advantages in comparison with common structures such as stringer-frame, grid and sandwich structures with a light core. In particular, those have more structural parameters, which enable one to control mechanical properties of the structure, and this is important in designing the load carrying structures of different purpose.Presently, there are few national and foreign publications on experimental investigations of mechanical properties of multi-walled shells. That is why the objective of the paper is to conduct the experimental study of deformation and failure processes of a multi-walled panel both under steady-state heating and under unsteady-state one.The paper presents the results of two tests: (1 the study of deformation and failure modes under compression and complete heating up to a specified temperature and (2 validation of working capability of multi-walled samples under single-side heating and compression simulating a start and flight version of the “ Proton” launch vehicle.Experimental results have shown that average elastic properties of multi-walled samples slightly depend on temperature for the studied range (from room temperature up to 195C while strength properties considerably decrease with increasing temperature, and this is typical for CFRP structures under compression. However, under unsteady-state short-term heating the structure has a strength that exceeds the minimal necessary strength of load carrying structures of the “Proton” launch vehicle (the samples satisfy simulated start conditions of the “Proton” launch vehicle. This is because of a low heat conductivity of the multi-walled core: an unheated sheet holds a low temperature and high load carrying capacity.Obtained results can be used in

  2. Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat extensin (LRX) proteins modify cell wall composition and influence plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draeger, Christian; Ndinyanka Fabrice, Tohnyui; Gineau, Emilie; Mouille, Grégory; Kuhn, Benjamin M; Moller, Isabel; Abdou, Marie-Therese; Frey, Beat; Pauly, Markus; Bacic, Antony; Ringli, Christoph

    2015-06-24

    Leucine-rich repeat extensins (LRXs) are extracellular proteins consisting of an N-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain and a C-terminal extensin domain containing the typical features of this class of structural hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs). The LRR domain is likely to bind an interaction partner, whereas the extensin domain has an anchoring function to insolubilize the protein in the cell wall. Based on the analysis of the root hair-expressed LRX1 and LRX2 of Arabidopsis thaliana, LRX proteins are important for cell wall development. The importance of LRX proteins in non-root hair cells and on the structural changes induced by mutations in LRX genes remains elusive. The LRX gene family of Arabidopsis consists of eleven members, of which LRX3, LRX4, and LRX5 are expressed in aerial organs, such as leaves and stem. The importance of these LRX genes for plant development and particularly cell wall formation was investigated. Synergistic effects of mutations with gradually more severe growth retardation phenotypes in double and triple mutants suggest a similar function of the three genes. Analysis of cell wall composition revealed a number of changes to cell wall polysaccharides in the mutants. LRX3, LRX4, and LRX5, and most likely LRX proteins in general, are important for cell wall development. Due to the complexity of changes in cell wall structures in the lrx mutants, the exact function of LRX proteins remains to be determined. The increasingly strong growth-defect phenotypes in double and triple mutants suggests that the LRX proteins have similar functions and that they are important for proper plant development.

  3. The Best Cut-Off Value for HbA1c as a Screening Tool in Iranian Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Neda Mousavi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a prevalent disorder which increases maternal and fetal complications. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT is a traditional, time -consuming and intensive test which is poorly tolerated by pregnant women. To date, increasing evidence considered HbA1c as a screening tool and reported various cut-off values in different populations. In alignment with existing literature, we determined for the first time, the optimal cut-off value for HbA1c in Iranian women with GDM.Materials and methods: This case-control study was conducted in Valie-Asr hospital between June 2015 and March 2016. A total of 200 pregnant women who were diagnosed with GDM were selected as study cases. For the control group, 200 healthy women were randomly selected. Fasting blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis, and OGTT was done in all participants. Demographic and anthropometric indexes were measured. Performance of the HbA1c test was analyzed by the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, and the sensitivity and specificity for different HbA1c cut-off points were calculated subsequently.Results: Analysis showed that the mean age (p < 0.001 and BMI (p < 0.001 were significantly higher in the GDM group compared to those in non-GDM pregnant women. GDM participants reported positive family- and previous history of GDM more than healthy pregnant women (p = 0.04 and p < 0.001, respectively. All the markers for Lipid profile were significantly different between the two groups (p = <0.001 except for total cholesterol. The rate of Caesarean section and neonate’s Apgar score were not significantly different between the two groups. The best equilibrium between sensitivity (80% and specificity (76% for HbA1c was 5.05%.Conclusion: Our results suggest that pregnant women with HbA1c of ≥ 5.05% should proceed with an OGTT. Further investigations with larger sample size are needed to provide more robust evidence for the

  4. Effect of annealing temperature on electrochemical characteristics of ruthenium oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Min-Kang [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 253, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Saouab, Abdelghani [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Le Havre, Place Robert Schuman, BP 4006, 76610 Le Havre (France); Park, Soo-Jin, E-mail: sjpark@inha.ac.k [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 253, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-25

    The preparation and characterization of high-surface-area ruthenium oxide (RuO{sub 2})/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composite electrodes for use in supercapacitors is reported in this work. The RuO{sub 2}/MWCNTs composites were prepared by the polyol process of RuO{sub 2} into MWCNTs and by Ru annealing in air before mixed with MWCNTs. The chemically oxidized and annealed Ru nanoparticles contribute a pseudocapacitance to the electrodes and dramatically improve the energy storage characteristics of the MWCNTs. These composites annealed at 200 deg. C demonstrate specific capacitances in excess of 130 F/g in comparison to 80 F/g for pristine MWCNTs. The annealing temperature is found to play an important role, as it affects the electrochemical performance of annealed RuO{sub 2}/MWCNTs composites critically due to its influence on the diffusion of protons into the structure.

  5. Seasonal biochemical changes in composition of body wall tissues of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2011-03-01

    Seasonal Variation in proximate, amino acid and fatty acid composition of the body wall of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was evaluated. The proximate composition, except for ash content, changed significantly among seasons ( P<0.05). Alanine, glycine, glutamic acid and asparagic acid were the most abundant amino acids. Total amino acid and essential amino acid Contents both varied clearly with seasons ( P<0.05). 16:0 and 16:ln7 were the primary saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) respectively for all months. EPA (20:5n-3), AA (20:4n-6) and DHA (22:6n-3) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The proportions of SFA and PUFA yielded significant seasonal variations ( P<0.001), but MUFA did not changed significantly. The results indicated that the biochemical compositions of the body wall in A. japonicus were significantly influenced by seasons and that the body wall tissue is an excellent source of protein, MUFA and n-3 PUFA for humans.

  6. Study of guided modes in three-dimensional composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baste, S.; Gerard, A.

    The propagation of elastic waves in a three-dimensional carbon-carbon composite is modeled with a mixed variational method, using the Bloch or Floquet theories and the Hellinger-Reissner function for two independent fields. The model of the equivalent homogeneous material only exists below a cut-off frequency of about 600 kHz. The existence below the cut-off frequency of two guided waves can account for the presence of a slow guided wave on either side of the cut-off frequency. Optical modes are generated at low frequencies, and can attain high velocites (rapid guided modes of 15,000 m/sec).

  7. Highly scalable 3-D NAND-NOR hybrid-type dual bit per cell flash memory devices with an additional cut-off gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongjae; Shim, Wonbo; Park, Ilhan; Kim, Yoon; Park, Byunggook

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a nonvolatile memory (NVM) device of novel structure in 3 dimensions is introduced, and its operation physics is validated. It is based on a pillar structure in which two identical storage nodes are located for dual-bit operation. The two storage nodes on neighboring pillars are controlled by using one common control gate so that the space between silicon pillars can be further reduced. For compatibility with conventional memory operations, an additional cut-off gate is constructed under the common control gate. This is considered as the ultimate form for a 3-D nonvolatile memory device based on a double-gate structure. The underlying physics is explained, and the operational schemes are validated in various aspects by using a numerical device simulation. Also, critical issues in device design for higher reliability are discussed.

  8. BMI and waist circumference cut-offs for corresponding levels of insulin sensitivity in a Middle Eastern immigrant versus a native Swedish population - the MEDIM population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Louise; Stenkula, Karin; Cushman, Samuel W; Brismar, Kerstin

    2016-12-09

    The aim of this study was to identify corresponding body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference cut-offs for equivalent levels of insulin sensitivity in a Middle Eastern immigrant population compared with native Swedes. Citizens of Malmö, Sweden aged 30 to 75 years, who were born in Iraq or Sweden, were in 2010-2012 invited to participate in a health examination including anthropometrics, oral glucose tolerance test, fasting samples and interviews concerning sociodemographic factors and lifestyle behaviours. In total, 1176 individuals born in Iraq and 688 born in Sweden, without previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes, participated in the study. In normal weight participants (BMI Middle Eastern populations.

  9. The optimum cut-off value to differentiate Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from other species of E. granulosus sensu lato using larval rostellar hook morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, S V; Pierangeli, N B; Pianciola, L A; Mazzeo, M; Lazzarini, L E; Debiaggi, M F; Bergagna, H F J; Basualdo, J A

    2015-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is one of the most important helminth zoonoses in the world; it affects both humans and livestock. The disease is endemic in Argentina and highly endemic in the province of Neuquén. Considerable genetic and phenotypic variation has been demonstrated in E. granulosus, and ten different genotypes (G1-G10) have been identified using molecular tools. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato may be considered a species complex, comprised of E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3), E. equinus (G4), E. ortleppi (G5) and E. canadensis (G6-G10). In endemic areas, the characterization of cystic echinococcosis molecular epidemiology is important in order to apply adequate control strategies. A cut-off value for larval large hook total length to distinguish E. granulosus sensu stricto isolates from those produced by other species of the complex was defined for the first time. Overall, 1780 larval hooks of 36 isolates obtained from sheep (n= 11, G1), goats (n= 10, G6), cattle (n= 5, G6) and pigs (n= 10, G7) were analysed. Validation against molecular genotyping as gold standard was carried out using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The optimum cut-off value was defined as 26.5 μm. The proposed method showed high sensitivity (97.8%) and specificity (91.1%). Since in most endemic regions the molecular epidemiology of echinococcosis includes the coexistence of the widely distributed E. granulosus sensu stricto G1 strain and other species of the complex, this technique could be useful as a quick and economical tool for epidemiological and surveillance field studies, when fertile cysts are present.

  10. EARLY APPLICATION OF HIGH CUT-OFF HAEMODYALISIS FOR DE-NOVO MYELOMA NEPHROPATHY IS ASSOCIATED WITH LONG-TERM DIALYSIS-INDEPENDENCY AND RENAL RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhossain A. Khalafallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Multiple myeloma (MM is a haematological malignancy associated with kidney injury resulting from cast nephropathy, which can be caused by monoclonal free light chains (FLC. It has been demonstrated that reduction of FLC can lead to a higher proportion of patients recovering renal function with a better outcome, especially if extended high cut-off haemodialysis (HCO-HD combined with chemotherapy is used. Patients and Methods In this study, four cases of MM nephropathy were treated with HCO-HD and chemotherapy at a single institution during the period from August 2009 to August 2011. All of the patients presented with acute renal failure and high serum FLC. All patients underwent a bone marrow biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of MM, according to the WHO criteria. Three patients had de-novo MM and one patient had relapsed light chain myeloma disease. All patients underwent HCO-HD concomitantly with specific myeloma therapy once the diagnosis or relapse of MM was established. Results After a median follow up of 26 months, (range, 13-36 our data showed that all patients had a significant decrease in serum FLC through HCO-HD, proving the effectiveness of HCO-HD in managing MM. De-novo MM patients restored their renal function and achieved low-level FLC early on the treatment and become dialysis-independent. One patient with relapsed myeloma remained dialysis dependant. Conclusion Our study suggests that if myeloma nephropathy associated with light-chain disease, HCO-HD should be initiated as early as possible. At the same time a specific MM treatment should be initiated to gain control of the disease and salvage the kidneys in order to achieve dialysis-independency. Further trials to confirm our results are warranted. Key Words: Multiple myeloma, renal failure, High cut-off haemodialysis, chemotherapy, outcome.

  11. Determination of moderate-to-severe postoperative pain on the numeric rating scale: a cut-off point analysis applying four different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbershagen, H J; Rothaug, J; Kalkman, C J; Meissner, W

    2011-10-01

    Cut-off points (CPs) of the numeric rating scale (NRS 0-10) are regularly used in postoperative pain treatment. However, there is insufficient evidence to identify the optimal CP between mild and moderate pain. A total of 435 patients undergoing general, trauma, or oral and maxillofacial surgery were studied. To determine the optimal CP for pain treatment, four approaches were used: first, patients estimated their tolerable postoperative pain intensity before operation; secondly, 24 h after surgery, they indicated if they would have preferred to receive more analgesics; thirdly, satisfaction with pain treatment was analysed, and fourthly, multivariate analysis was used to calculate the optimal CP for pain intensities in relation to pain-related interference with movement, breathing, sleep, and mood. The estimated tolerable postoperative pain before operation was median (range) NRS 4.0 (0-10). Patients who would have liked more analgesics reported significantly higher average pain since surgery [median NRS 5.0 (0-9)] compared with those without this request [NRS 3.0 (0-8)]. Patients satisfied with pain treatment reported an average pain intensity of median NRS 3.0 (0-8) compared with less satisfied patients with NRS 5.0 (2-9). Analysis of average postoperative pain in relation to pain-related interference with mood and activity indicated pain categories of NRS 0-2, mild; 3-4, moderate; and 5-10, severe pain. Three of the four methods identified a treatment threshold of average pain of NRS≥4. This was considered to identify patients with pain of moderate-to-severe intensity. This cut-off was indentified as the tolerable pain threshold.

  12. Adult or not? Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age for legal purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameriere, R; Pacifici, A; Viva, S; Carbone, D; Pacifici, L; Polimeni, A

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of reliable means to determine the age of an individual is a fundamental objective in forensic medicine, in consideration of the constant increase of illegal immigration into the European community. In 2008 Cameriere et al. developed a method based on the relationship between age and the third molar index (I3m), which assesses the degree of maturation of the third molar through measurements made on orthopantomography. The purpose of this work was to test the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off for I3m as a tool to assess full age (18) on a new sample of living subjects. Orthopantomographs of 287 Italian living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years have been randomly selected and included in the study. Identification number, gender, date of birth and date of execution of the radiograph were recorded for each patient on a Microsoft Excel® spreadsheet. Radiographs were digitalized and analyzed using a computerized image-processing program (Adobe® Photoshop® CS4). The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 84.1% and the specificity was 92.5%. The estimated post-test probability was 90.1%, with a confidence interval of 95% (83.6%, 95.2%). Thus, the probability that a person being positive to the test has 18 or more years of age was 90.1%. The results highlight the contribution of Cameriere's cut-off value for the I3m in the assessment of full age, always remembering that the simultaneous employment of previously introduced complementary methods is essential for the purpose.

  13. N-acetylglucosamine affects Cryptococcus neoformans cell-wall composition and melanin architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Emma; Chrissian, Christine; Cordero, Radames J B; Liporagi-Lopes, Livia; Stark, Ruth E; Casadevall, Arturo

    2017-11-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental fungus that belongs to the phylum Basidiomycetes and is a major pathogen in immunocompromised patients. The ability of C. neoformans to produce melanin pigments represents its second most important virulence factor, after the presence of a polysaccharide capsule. Both the capsule and melanin are closely associated with the fungal cell wall, a complex structure that is essential for maintaining cell morphology and viability under conditions of stress. The amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is a key constituent of the cell-wall chitin and is used for both N-linked glycosylation and GPI anchor synthesis. Recent studies have suggested additional roles for GlcNAc as an activator and mediator of cellular signalling in fungal and plant cells. Furthermore, chitin and chitosan polysaccharides interact with melanin pigments in the cell wall and have been found to be essential for melanization. Despite the importance of melanin, its molecular structure remains unresolved; however, we previously obtained critical insights using advanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and imaging techniques. In this study, we investigated the effect of GlcNAc supplementation on cryptococcal cell-wall composition and melanization. C. neoformans was able to metabolize GlcNAc as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen, indicating a capacity to use a component of a highly abundant polymer in the biospherenutritionally. C. neoformans cells grown with GlcNAc manifested changes in the chitosan cell-wall content, cell-wall thickness and capsule size. Supplementing cultures with isotopically 15 N-labelled GlcNAc demonstrated that the exogenous monomer serves as a building block for chitin/chitosan and is incorporated into the cell wall. The altered chitin-to-chitosan ratio had no negative effects on the mother-daughter cell separation; growth with GlcNAc affected the fungal cell-wall scaffold, resulting in increased melanin deposition and assembly. In

  14. Synthesis of benzimidazole-grafted graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite for supercapacitance application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Rajesh Kr., E-mail: r05bhu@gmail.com [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637371 Singapore (Singapore); Xingjue, Wang [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637371 Singapore (Singapore); Kumar, Vinod [Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Srivastava, Anchal [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Singh, Vidya Nand [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi (India)

    2014-11-05

    Highlights: • We are reporting supercapacitance performance of BI-GO/MWCNTs composite. • The specific capacitance of BI-GO/MWCNTs is 275 and 460 F/g at 200 and 5 mV/s scan rate. • This composite has shown 224 F/g capacitance after 1300 cycles at 200 mV/s scan rate. - Abstract: We are reporting the fabrication, characterizations and supercapacitance performance of benzimidazole-grafted graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (BI-GO/MWCNTs) composite. The synthesis of BI-GO materials involves cyclization reaction of carboxylic groups on GO among the hydroxyl and amino groups on o-phenylenediamine. The BI-GO/MWCNTs composite has been fabricated via in situ reduction of BI-GO using hydrazine in presence of MWCNTs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been used to characterize its surface and elemental composition. The uniform dispersion of MWCNTs with BI-GO helps to improve the charge transfer reaction during electrochemical process. The specific capacitance of BI-GO/MWCNTs composite is 275 and 460 F/g at 200 and 5 mV/s scan rate in 1 mol/L aqueous solution of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This BI-GO/MWCNTs composite has shown 224 F/g capacitance after 1300 cycles at 200 mV/s scan rate, which represents its good electrochemical stability.

  15. Synthesis of benzimidazole-grafted graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite for supercapacitance application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Rajesh Kr.; Xingjue, Wang; Kumar, Vinod; Srivastava, Anchal; Singh, Vidya Nand

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We are reporting supercapacitance performance of BI-GO/MWCNTs composite. • The specific capacitance of BI-GO/MWCNTs is 275 and 460 F/g at 200 and 5 mV/s scan rate. • This composite has shown 224 F/g capacitance after 1300 cycles at 200 mV/s scan rate. - Abstract: We are reporting the fabrication, characterizations and supercapacitance performance of benzimidazole-grafted graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (BI-GO/MWCNTs) composite. The synthesis of BI-GO materials involves cyclization reaction of carboxylic groups on GO among the hydroxyl and amino groups on o-phenylenediamine. The BI-GO/MWCNTs composite has been fabricated via in situ reduction of BI-GO using hydrazine in presence of MWCNTs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been used to characterize its surface and elemental composition. The uniform dispersion of MWCNTs with BI-GO helps to improve the charge transfer reaction during electrochemical process. The specific capacitance of BI-GO/MWCNTs composite is 275 and 460 F/g at 200 and 5 mV/s scan rate in 1 mol/L aqueous solution of H 2 SO 4 . This BI-GO/MWCNTs composite has shown 224 F/g capacitance after 1300 cycles at 200 mV/s scan rate, which represents its good electrochemical stability

  16. Wet spinning of PVA composite fibers with a large fraction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengpan Lai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available PVA composites fibers with a large fraction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified by both covalent and non-covalent functionalization were produced by a wet-spinning process. Model XQ-1 tensile tester, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and wide-angle X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the properties of PVA/MWNT composite fibers. The TGA results suggested that MWNTs content in composite fibers were ranged from 5.3 wt% to 27.6 wt%. The mechanical properties of PVA/MWNT composite fibers were obviously superior to pure PVA fiber. The Young׳s modulus of composite fibers enhanced with increasing the content of MWNTs, and it rised gradually from 6.7 GPa for the pure PVA fiber to 12.8 GPa for the composite fibers with 27.6 wt% MWNTs. Meanwhile, the tensile strength increased gradually from 0.39 GPa for the pure PVA fiber to 0.74 GPa for the composite fibers with 14.4 wt% MWNTs. Nevertheless, the tensile strength of the composite fibers decreased as the MWNTs content up to 27.6 wt%. SEM results indicated that the MWNTs homogeneously dispersed in the composite fibers, however some agglomerates also existed when the content of MWNTs reached 27.6 wt%. DSC results proved strong interfacial interaction between MWNTs and PVA chain, which benefited composite fibers in the efficient stress-transfer. WXAD characterization showed that the orientation of PVA molecules declined from 94.1% to 90.9% with the increasing of MWNTs content. The good dispersibility of MWNTs throughout PVA matrix and efficient stress-transfer between MWNTs and PVA matrix may contributed to significant enhancement in the mechanical properties.

  17. Magnetic orientation of single-walled carbon nanotubes or their composites using polymer wrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Yonemura et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic orientation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs or the SWNT composites wrapped with polymer using poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEHPPV as the conducting polymer were examined. The formation of SWNT/MEHPPV composites was confirmed by examining absorption and fluorescence spectra. The N,N-dimethylformamide solution of SWNT/MEHPPV composites or the aqueous solution of the shortened SWNTs was introduced dropwise onto a mica or glass plate. The magnetic processing of the composites or the SWNTs was carried out using a superconducting magnet with a horizontal direction (8 T. The AFM images indicated that the SWNT/MEHPPV composites or the SWNTs were oriented randomly without magnetic processing, while with magnetic processing (8 T, they were oriented with the tube axis of the composites or the SWNTs parallel to the magnetic field. In polarized absorption spectra of SWNT/MEHPPV composites on glass plates without magnetic processing, the absorbance due to semiconducting SWNT in the near-IR region in horizontal polarized light was almost the same as that in vertical polarized light. In contrast, with magnetic processing (8 T, the absorbance due to semiconducting SWNT in the horizontal polarization direction against the direction of magnetic field was stronger than that in the vertical polarization direction. Similar results were obtained from the polarized absorption spectra for the shortened SWNTs. These results of polarized absorption spectra also support the magnetic orientation of the SWNT/MEHPPV composites or the SWNTs. On the basis of a comparison of the composites and the SWNTs alone, the magnetic orientation of SWNT/MEHPPV composites is most likely ascribable to the anisotropy in susceptibilities of SWNTs.

  18. Dynamic changes in transcriptome and cell wall composition underlying brassinosteroid-mediated lignification of switchgrass suspension cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Xiaolan; Shen, Hui; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G; Gelineo-Albersheim, Ivana; Mohnen, Debra; Pu, Yunqiao; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Chen, Xin; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Plant cell walls contribute the majority of plant biomass that can be used to produce transportation fuels. However, the complexity and variability in composition and structure of cell walls, particularly the presence of lignin, negatively impacts their deconstruction for bioenergy. Metabolic and genetic changes associated with secondary wall development in the biofuel crop switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum ) have yet to be reported. Our previous studies have established a cell suspension system for switchgrass, in which cell wall lignification can be induced by application of brassinolide (BL). We have now collected cell wall composition and microarray-based transcriptome profiles for BL-induced and non-induced suspension cultures to provide an overview of the dynamic changes in transcriptional reprogramming during BL-induced cell wall modification. From this analysis, we have identified changes in candidate genes involved in cell wall precursor synthesis, cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin formation and ester-linkage generation. We have also identified a large number of transcription factors with expression correlated with lignin biosynthesis genes, among which are candidates for control of syringyl (S) lignin accumulation. Together, this work provides an overview of the dynamic compositional changes during brassinosteroid-induced cell wall remodeling, and identifies candidate genes for future plant genetic engineering to overcome cell wall recalcitrance.

  19. Measurement and modification of first-wall surface composition in the Oak Ridge Tokamak (ORMAK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausing, R.E.; Emerson, L.C.; Heatherly, L.; Colchin, R.J.; Twichell, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Impurities coming into the plasma from the walls of present-day toroidal plasma confinement devices modify plasma behavior substantially. Small fractions of high-Z ions in the plasma greatly decrease plasma temperatures and increase plasma energy losses. Impurities from the ''first-wall'' in ORMAK were studied. Auger electron spectroscopy, soft x-ray appearance potential spectroscopy, and other surface sensitive techniques were used to characterize the surface composition of the first wall and to develop methods to remove carbon and oxygen. Oxygen glow discharge cleaning has been shown, in the laboratory, to be an effective way of removing carbon from gold films (simulated ORMAK linear material) and the use of oxygen discharge cleaning in ORMAK has resulted in a decrease in plasma contamination, a 50 percent increase in plasma current and an accompanying increase in plasma temperature. In spite of these improvements the walls of ORMAK are far from clean. Substantial amounts of carbon, oxygen, iron and other elements remain. (auth)

  20. Overexpression of SbMyb60 impacts phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and alters secondary cell wall composition in sorghum bicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway that generates lignin subunits represents a significant target to alter the abundance and composition of lignin. The major regulators of phenylpropanoid metabolism are myb transcription factors, which have been shown to modulate secondary cell wall compositi...

  1. The inaccuracy of conventional one-dimensional parallel thermal resistance circuit model for two-dimensional composite walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.-L.; Hsien, T.-L.; Hsiao, M.-C.; Chen, W.-L.; Lin, K.-C.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation is to show that two-dimensional steady state heat transfer problems of composite walls should not be solved by the conventionally one-dimensional parallel thermal resistance circuits (PTRC) model because the interface temperatures are not unique. Thus PTRC model cannot be used like its conventional recognized analogy, parallel electrical resistance circuits (PERC) model which has the unique node electric voltage. Two typical composite wall examples, solved by CFD software, are used to demonstrate the incorrectness. The numerical results are compared with those obtained by PTRC model, and very large differences are observed between their results. This proves that the application of conventional heat transfer PTRC model to two-dimensional composite walls, introduced in most heat transfer text book, is totally incorrect. An alternative one-dimensional separately series thermal resistance circuit (SSTRC) model is proposed and applied to the two-dimensional composite walls with isothermal boundaries. Results with acceptable accuracy can be obtained by the new model

  2. The surface modifications of multi-walled carbon nanotubes for multi-walled carbon nanotube/poly(ether ether ketone) composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Zongshuang; Qiu, Li; Yang, Yongzhen; Chen, Yongkang; Liu, Xuguang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotube/poly(ether ether ketone) (MWCNT/PEEK) composites incorporating surface modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as fillers were fabricated in a solution blending method in order to explore the dynamic mechanical and tribological properties of MWCNT/PEEK composites systematically. It is evident that surface modifications of MWCNTs have a significant impact on dispersibility of MWCNTs in PEEK, dynamic mechanical and tribological properties of MWCNT/PEEK composites. Typically, a clear effect of surface modifications of MWCNTs on tribological properties of MWCNT/PEEK composites was observed. A significant reduction in frictional coefficient of MWCNT/PEEK composites with the MWCNTs modified with ethanolamine has been achieved and the self-lubricating film on their worn surfaces was also observed. - Highlights: • The dispersibility of surface modified MWCNTs in PEEK has been studied. • MWCNTs modified with ethanolamine have showed a good dispersion in PEEK. • Surface modifications of MWCNTs have a significant impact on both dynamic mechanical and tribological properties of MWCNT/PEEK composites. - Abstract: The effects of surface modifications of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the morphology, dynamic mechanical and tribological properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube/poly(ether ether ketone) (MWCNT/PEEK) composites have been investigated. MWCNTs were treated with mixed acids to obtain acid-functionalized MWCNTs. Then the acid-functionalized MWCNTs were modified with ethanolamine (named e-MWCNTs). The MWCNT/PEEK composites were prepared by a solution-blending method. A more homogeneous distribution of e-MWCNTs within the composites was found with scanning electron microscopy. Dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated a clear increase in the storage modulus of e-MWCNT/PEEK composites because of the improved interfacial adhesion strength between e-MWCNTs and PEEK. Furthermore, the presence of e

  3. The surface modifications of multi-walled carbon nanotubes for multi-walled carbon nanotube/poly(ether ether ketone) composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Zongshuang [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Research Center of Advanced Material Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Qiu, Li [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Yang, Yongzhen, E-mail: yyztyut@126.com [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Research Center of Advanced Material Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Chen, Yongkang, E-mail: y.k.chen@herts.ac.uk [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); University of Hertfordshire, School of Engineering and Technology, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Liu, Xuguang [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotube/poly(ether ether ketone) (MWCNT/PEEK) composites incorporating surface modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as fillers were fabricated in a solution blending method in order to explore the dynamic mechanical and tribological properties of MWCNT/PEEK composites systematically. It is evident that surface modifications of MWCNTs have a significant impact on dispersibility of MWCNTs in PEEK, dynamic mechanical and tribological properties of MWCNT/PEEK composites. Typically, a clear effect of surface modifications of MWCNTs on tribological properties of MWCNT/PEEK composites was observed. A significant reduction in frictional coefficient of MWCNT/PEEK composites with the MWCNTs modified with ethanolamine has been achieved and the self-lubricating film on their worn surfaces was also observed. - Highlights: • The dispersibility of surface modified MWCNTs in PEEK has been studied. • MWCNTs modified with ethanolamine have showed a good dispersion in PEEK. • Surface modifications of MWCNTs have a significant impact on both dynamic mechanical and tribological properties of MWCNT/PEEK composites. - Abstract: The effects of surface modifications of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the morphology, dynamic mechanical and tribological properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube/poly(ether ether ketone) (MWCNT/PEEK) composites have been investigated. MWCNTs were treated with mixed acids to obtain acid-functionalized MWCNTs. Then the acid-functionalized MWCNTs were modified with ethanolamine (named e-MWCNTs). The MWCNT/PEEK composites were prepared by a solution-blending method. A more homogeneous distribution of e-MWCNTs within the composites was found with scanning electron microscopy. Dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated a clear increase in the storage modulus of e-MWCNT/PEEK composites because of the improved interfacial adhesion strength between e-MWCNTs and PEEK. Furthermore, the presence of e

  4. Cut-Off Points for Mild, Moderate, and Severe Pain on the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: Variability and Influence of Sex and Catastrophizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Anne M; Stewart, Roy E; Köke, Albère J A; Oosterwijk, René F A; Swaan, Jeannette L; Schreurs, Karlein M G; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The 0-10 Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) is often used in pain management. The aims of our study were to determine the cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, to measure the variability of the optimal cut-off points, and to determine the influence of patients' catastrophizing and their sex on these cut-off points. Methods: 2854 patients were included. Pain was assessed by the NRS, functioning by the Pain Disability Index (PDI) and catastrophizing by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Cut-off point schemes were tested using ANOVAs with and without using the PSC scores or sex as co-variates and with the interaction between CP scheme and PCS score and sex, respectively. The variability of the optimal cut-off point schemes was quantified using bootstrapping procedure. Results and conclusion: The study showed that NRS scores ≤ 5 correspond to mild, scores of 6-7 to moderate and scores ≥8 to severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning. Bootstrapping analysis identified this optimal NRS cut-off point scheme in 90% of the bootstrapping samples. The interpretation of the NRS is independent of sex, but seems to depend on catastrophizing. In patients with high catastrophizing tendency, the optimal cut-off point scheme equals that for the total study sample, but in patients with a low catastrophizing tendency, NRS scores ≤ 3 correspond to mild, scores of 4-6 to moderate and scores ≥7 to severe pain in terms of interference with functioning. In these optimal cut-off schemes, NRS scores of 4 and 5 correspond to moderate interference with functioning for patients with low catastrophizing tendency and to mild interference for patients with high catastrophizing tendency. Theoretically one would therefore expect that among the patients with NRS scores 4 and 5 there would be a higher average PDI score for those with low

  5. Plasma-activated multi-walled carbon nanotube-polystyrene composite substrates for biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Sanchez, Cesar; Orozco, Jahir; Jimenez-Jorquera, Cecilia; Pellicer, Eva; Lechuga, Laura M; Mendoza, Ernest

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotube-polymer composites have shown to be suitable materials for the fabrication of electrochemical transducers. The exposed surface of these materials is commonly passivated by a very thin layer of the polymer component that buries the conductive carbon particles. Working with multi-walled carbon nanotube-polystyrene (MWCNT-PS) composite structures, it was previously described how a simple low power oxygen plasma process produced an effective etching of the composite surface, thereby exposing the conductive surface of CNTs. This work shows how this plasma process not only gave rise to a suitable composite conductive surface for electrochemical sensing but simultaneously exposed and created a high density of oxygen-containing functional groups at both the CNT and the PS components, without affecting the material's mechanical stability. These chemical groups could be effectively modified for the stable immobilization of biological receptors. A detailed chemical characterization of the plasma-activated composite surface was possible using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The material reactivity towards the tethering of a protein was studied and protein-protein interactions were then evaluated on the modified composite transducers by scanning electron microscopy. Finally, an amperometric immunosensor approach for the detection of rabbit Immunoglobulin G target analyte was described and a minimum concentration of 3 ng ml -1 was easily measured.

  6. Plasma-activated multi-walled carbon nanotube-polystyrene composite substrates for biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Sanchez, Cesar; Orozco, Jahir; Jimenez-Jorquera, Cecilia [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Pellicer, Eva; Lechuga, Laura M; Mendoza, Ernest, E-mail: cesar.fernandez@imb-cnm.csic.e [Nanobiosensors and Molecular Nanobiophysics Group, Research Center on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CIN2) CSIC-ICN, ETSE, Campus UAB-Edificio Q, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-08-19

    Carbon nanotube-polymer composites have shown to be suitable materials for the fabrication of electrochemical transducers. The exposed surface of these materials is commonly passivated by a very thin layer of the polymer component that buries the conductive carbon particles. Working with multi-walled carbon nanotube-polystyrene (MWCNT-PS) composite structures, it was previously described how a simple low power oxygen plasma process produced an effective etching of the composite surface, thereby exposing the conductive surface of CNTs. This work shows how this plasma process not only gave rise to a suitable composite conductive surface for electrochemical sensing but simultaneously exposed and created a high density of oxygen-containing functional groups at both the CNT and the PS components, without affecting the material's mechanical stability. These chemical groups could be effectively modified for the stable immobilization of biological receptors. A detailed chemical characterization of the plasma-activated composite surface was possible using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The material reactivity towards the tethering of a protein was studied and protein-protein interactions were then evaluated on the modified composite transducers by scanning electron microscopy. Finally, an amperometric immunosensor approach for the detection of rabbit Immunoglobulin G target analyte was described and a minimum concentration of 3 ng ml{sup -1} was easily measured.

  7. ELECTROPHORETIC DEPOSITION OF TIO2-MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE COMPOSITE COATINGS: MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. MAHMOUDI JOZEE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A homogenous TiO2 / multi-walled carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs composite film were prepared by electrophoretic co-deposition from organic suspension on a stainless steel substrate.  In this study, MWCNTs was incorporated to the coating because of their long structure and their capability to be functionalized by different inorganic groups on the surface. FTIR spectroscopy showed the existence of carboxylic groups on the modified carbon nanotubes surface. The effect of applied electrical fields, deposition time and concentration of nanoparticulates on coatings morphology were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that combination of MWCNTs within TiO2 matrix eliminating micro cracks presented on TiO2 coating. Also, by increasing the deposition voltages, micro cracks were increased. SEM observation of the coatings revealed that TiO2/multi-walled carbon nanotubes coatings produced from optimized electric field was uniform and had good adhesive to the substrate.

  8. Isolate-dependent growth, virulence, and cell wall composition in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nansalmaa Amarsaikhan

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus is a mediator of allergic sensitization and invasive disease in susceptible individuals. The significant genetic and phenotypic variability between and among clinical and environmental isolates are important considerations in host-pathogen studies of A. fumigatus-mediated disease. We observed decreased radial growth, rate of germination, and ability to establish colony growth in a single environmental isolate of A. fumigatus, Af5517, when compared to other clinical and environmental isolates. Af5517 also exhibited increased hyphal diameter and cell wall β-glucan and chitin content, with chitin most significantly increased. Morbidity, mortality, lung fungal burden, and tissue pathology were decreased in neutropenic Af5517-infected mice when compared to the clinical isolate Af293. Our results support previous findings that suggest a correlation between in vitro growth rates and in vivo virulence, and we propose that changes in cell wall composition may contribute to this phenotype.

  9. Lateral stiffness and vibration characteristics of composite plated RC shear walls with variable fibres spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meftah, S.A.; Yeghnem, R.; Tounsi, A.; Adda Bedia, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a finite element model for static and free vibration analysis of reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls structures strengthened with thin composite plates having variable fibres spacing is presented. An efficient analysis method that can be used regardless to the sizes and location of the bonded plates is proposed in this study. In the numerical formulation, the adherents and the adhesives are all modelled as shear wall elements, using the mixed finite element method. Several test problems are examined to demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method. Numerical results are obtained for six nonuniform distributions of E-glass, graphite and boron fibres in epoxy matrices. The fibre redistributions of the bonded plates are seen to increase the frequencies modes and reduce substantially the lateral displacements

  10. Sensitization of the analytical methods for photoneutron calculations to the wall concrete composition in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiasi, Hosein; Mesbahi, Asghar

    2012-01-01

    The effect of wall material on photoneutron production in radiation therapy rooms was studied using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. An analytical formula was proposed to take into account the concrete composition in photoneutron dose calculations. Using the MCNPX MC code, the 18 MV photon beam of the Varian Clinac 2100 and a typical treatment room with concrete compositions according to report No. 144 of National Council of Radiation Protection (NCRP) were simulated. Number of room produced photoneutrons per Gray of X-ray at the isocenter was determined for different types of concrete and named as “Q W ”. This new factor was inserted in the used formula for photoneutron fluence calculations at the inner entrance of maze. The photoneutron fluence was calculated using new proposed formula at the inner entrance of maze for all studied concretes. The difference between conventional and proposed equations varied from 11% to 46% for studied concretes. It was found that room produced photoneutrons could be significant for high density concretes. Additionally, applying the new proposed formula can consider the effect of wall material composition on the photoneutron production in high energy radiation therapy rooms. Further studies to confirm the accuracy of newly developed method is recommended.

  11. CURVED WALLS: GRAIN GROWTH, SETTLING, AND COMPOSITION PATTERNS IN T TAURI DISK DUST SUBLIMATION FRONTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, M. K.; Calvet, N.; Hartmann, L.; Ingleby, L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, 830 Dennison Building., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); D' Alessio, P. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Espaillat, C. [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sargent, B. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Watson, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Hernández, J., E-mail: melisma@umich.edu, E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu, E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu, E-mail: lingleby@umich.edu, E-mail: p.dalessio@astrosmo.unam.mx, E-mail: cespaillat@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: baspci@rit.edu, E-mail: dmw@pas.rochester.edu, E-mail: hernandj@cida.ve [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía (CIDA), Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    The dust sublimation walls of disks around T Tauri stars represent a directly observable cross-section through the disk atmosphere and midplane. Their emission properties can probe the grain size distribution and composition of the innermost regions of the disk, where terrestrial planets form. Here we calculate the inner dust sublimation wall properties for four classical T Tauri stars with a narrow range of spectral types and inclination angles and a wide range of mass accretion rates to determine the extent to which the walls are radially curved. Best fits to the near- and mid-IR excesses are found for curved, two-layer walls in which the lower layer contains larger, hotter, amorphous pyroxene grains with Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.6 and the upper layer contains submicron, cooler, mixed amorphous olivine and forsterite grains. As the mass accretion rates decrease from 10{sup –8} to 10{sup –10} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, the maximum grain size in the lower layer decreases from ∼3 to 0.5 μm. We attribute this to a decrease in fragmentation and turbulent support for micron-sized grains with decreasing viscous heating. The atmosphere of these disks is depleted of dust with dust-gas mass ratios 1 × 10{sup –4} of the interstellar medium (ISM) value, while the midplane is enhanced to eight times the ISM value. For all accretion rates, the wall contributes at least half of the flux in the optically thin 10 μm silicate feature. Finally, we find evidence for an iron gradient in the disk, suggestive of that found in our solar system.

  12. CURVED WALLS: GRAIN GROWTH, SETTLING, AND COMPOSITION PATTERNS IN T TAURI DISK DUST SUBLIMATION FRONTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, M. K.; Calvet, N.; Hartmann, L.; Ingleby, L.; D'Alessio, P.; Espaillat, C.; Sargent, B.; Watson, D. M.; Hernández, J.

    2013-01-01

    The dust sublimation walls of disks around T Tauri stars represent a directly observable cross-section through the disk atmosphere and midplane. Their emission properties can probe the grain size distribution and composition of the innermost regions of the disk, where terrestrial planets form. Here we calculate the inner dust sublimation wall properties for four classical T Tauri stars with a narrow range of spectral types and inclination angles and a wide range of mass accretion rates to determine the extent to which the walls are radially curved. Best fits to the near- and mid-IR excesses are found for curved, two-layer walls in which the lower layer contains larger, hotter, amorphous pyroxene grains with Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.6 and the upper layer contains submicron, cooler, mixed amorphous olivine and forsterite grains. As the mass accretion rates decrease from 10 –8 to 10 –10 M ☉ yr –1 , the maximum grain size in the lower layer decreases from ∼3 to 0.5 μm. We attribute this to a decrease in fragmentation and turbulent support for micron-sized grains with decreasing viscous heating. The atmosphere of these disks is depleted of dust with dust-gas mass ratios 1 × 10 –4 of the interstellar medium (ISM) value, while the midplane is enhanced to eight times the ISM value. For all accretion rates, the wall contributes at least half of the flux in the optically thin 10 μm silicate feature. Finally, we find evidence for an iron gradient in the disk, suggestive of that found in our solar system

  13. Flexural behavior and design of steel-plate composite (SC) walls for accident thermal loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Peter N., E-mail: boothpn@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Varma, Amit H., E-mail: ahvarma@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Sener, Kadir C., E-mail: ksener@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Malushte, Sanjeev R. [Bechtel Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Modular steel-plate composite (SC) safety-related nuclear power plant structures must be designed to resist accident thermal and mechanical loads. The design accident thermal load represents the condition where high pressure and temperature steam is released as result of a mechanical failure and applied against the surfaces of power plant structural walls. The effect of heating and pressure can have both short and long term effects on the mechanical integrity of SC structures including degradation and cracking of concrete infill, residual stresses, and out-of-plane deformations. The purpose of this research is to study the effects of thermal and mechanical loads on the out-of-plane flexural response of SC walls and to develop simplified equations that can be used to predict behavior. Four experimental beam tests are reported that represent full-scale cross-sections of SC walls subjected to combinations of mechanical and thermal loads. The study determined that thermal loads reduce the out-of-plane flexural stiffness of SC walls. For the ambient condition, the flexural stiffness closely matches a conventional elastic cracked-transformed model, and at elevated temperatures, the stiffness is reduced to a fully-cracked flexural stiffness that only takes into account the stiffness of the steel faceplates. A method is presented for estimating the thermal curvature, ϕ{sub th}, and thermal moment, M{sub th}, resulting from unequal heating of opposing faces of an SC wall. Based on the tests in this study, the application of accident thermal loads did not result in a reduction of the flexural strength of the SC section.

  14. Genetic complexity of miscanthus cell wall composition and biomass quality for biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijde, Tim; Kamei, Claire L Alvim; Severing, Edouard I; Torres, Andres F; Gomez, Leonardo D; Dolstra, Oene; Maliepaard, Chris A; McQueen-Mason, Simon J; Visser, Richard G F; Trindade, Luisa M

    2017-05-25

    Miscanthus sinensis is a high yielding perennial grass species with great potential as a bioenergy feedstock. One of the challenges that currently impedes commercial cellulosic biofuel production is the technical difficulty to efficiently convert lignocellulosic biomass into biofuel. The development of feedstocks with better biomass quality will improve conversion efficiency and the sustainability of the value-chain. Progress in the genetic improvement of biomass quality may be substantially expedited by the development of genetic markers associated to quality traits, which can be used in a marker-assisted selection program. To this end, a mapping population was developed by crossing two parents of contrasting cell wall composition. The performance of 182 F1 offspring individuals along with the parents was evaluated in a field trial with a randomized block design with three replicates. Plants were phenotyped for cell wall composition and conversion efficiency characters in the second and third growth season after establishment. A new SNP-based genetic map for M. sinensis was built using a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach, which resulted in 464 short-sequence uniparental markers that formed 16 linkage groups in the male map and 17 linkage groups in the female map. A total of 86 QTLs for a variety of biomass quality characteristics were identified, 20 of which were detected in both growth seasons. Twenty QTLs were directly associated to different conversion efficiency characters. Marker sequences were aligned to the sorghum reference genome to facilitate cross-species comparisons. Analyses revealed that for some traits previously identified QTLs in sorghum occurred in homologous regions on the same chromosome. In this work we report for the first time the genetic mapping of cell wall composition and bioconversion traits in the bioenergy crop miscanthus. These results are a first step towards the development of marker-assisted selection programs in miscanthus

  15. Total motile sperm count has a superior predictive value over the WHO 2010 cut-off values for the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, E; Setti, A S; Braga, D P A F; Figueira, R C S; Iaconelli, A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare (i) the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes among groups with different total motile sperm count ranges, (ii) the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes between groups with normal and abnormal total motile sperm count, and (iii) the predictive values of WHO 2010 cut-off values and pre-wash total motile sperm count for the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes, in couples with male infertility. This study included data from 518 patients undergoing their first intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle as a result of male infertility. Couples were divided into five groups according to their total motile sperm count: Group I, total motile sperm count sperm count 1-5 × 10(6) ; group III, total motile sperm count 5-10 × 10(6) ; group IV, total motile sperm count 10-20 × 10(6) ; and group V, total motile sperm count >20 × 10(6) (which was considered a normal total motile sperm count value). Then, couples were grouped into an abnormal and normal total motile sperm count group. The groups were compared regarding intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes. The predictive values of WHO 2010 cut-off values and total motile sperm count for the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes were also investigated. The fertilization rate was lower in total motile sperm count group I compared to total motile sperm count group V (72.5 ± 17.6 vs. 84.9 ± 14.4, p = 0.011). The normal total motile sperm count group had a higher fertilization rate (84.9 ± 14.4 vs. 81.1 ± 15.8, p = 0.016) and lower miscarriage rate (17.9% vs. 29.5%, p = 0.041) compared to the abnormal total motile sperm count group. The total motile sperm count was the only parameter that demonstrated a predictive value for the formation of high-quality embryos on D2 (OR: 1.18, p = 0.013), formation of high-quality embryos on D3 (OR: 1.12, p = 0.037), formation of blastocysts on D5 (OR: 1.16, p = 0.011), blastocyst expansion grade on D5

  16. Effects of gas composition on the growth of multi-walled carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, T.-H.; Chang, W.-J.; Lu, D.-M.; Lien, W.-C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of different gas compositions on the growth of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films by using an electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECR-CVD) method. The Raman spectrum was employed to explore the composition of the MWCNT films grown under different mixtures of C 3 H 8 and H 2 . The results showed that the optimum relative intensity ratio of the D band to G band (i.e., I D /I G ) is 2 for the cases considered in this study. In addition, the morphology and microstructure of the MWCNTs were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and field emission gun transmission electron microscopy (FEG-TEM). Furthermore, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) were used to study the surface topography and thermal properties of the MWCNTs

  17. Transparent and flexible electrodes and supercapacitors using polyaniline/single-walled carbon nanotube composite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jun; Cheng, Guanghui; Chen, Liwei

    2011-08-01

    Large-scale transparent and flexible electronic devices have been pursued for potential applications such as those in touch sensors and display technologies. These applications require that the power source of these devices must also comply with transparent and flexible features. Here we present transparent and flexible supercapacitors assembled from polyaniline (PANI)/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite thin film electrodes. The ultrathin, optically homogeneous and transparent, electrically conducting films of the PANI/SWNT composite show a large specific capacitance due to combined double-layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance mechanisms. A supercapacitor assembled using electrodes with a SWNT density of 10.0 µg cm-2 and 59 wt% PANI gives a specific capacitance of 55.0 F g-1 at a current density of 2.6 A g-1, showing its possibility for transparent and flexible energy storage.

  18. Heat and mass transfer in a liquid pool with wall ablation and composition effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Q.T.

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the thermal-hydraulics of a melt pool coupled with the physical chemistry for the purpose of describing the behaviour of mixtures of materials (non-eutectic). Evolution of transient temperature in a liquid melt pool heated by volumetric power dissipation has been described with solidification on the cooled wall. The model has been developed and is validated for the experimental results given by LIVE experiment, performed at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in Germany. Under the conditions of these tests, it is shown that the interface temperature follows the liquidus temperature (corresponding to the composition of the liquid bath) during the whole transient. Assumption of interface temperature as liquidus temperature allows recalculating the evolution of the maximum melt temperature as well as the local crust thickness. Furthermore, we propose a model for describing the interaction between a non-eutectic liquid melt pool (subjected to volumetric power dissipation) and an ablated wall whose melting point is below the liquidus temperature of the melt. The model predictions are compared with results of ARTEMIS 2D tests. A new formulation of the interface temperature between the liquid melt and the solid wall (below liquidus temperature) has been proposed. (author) [fr

  19. The microwave absorbing properties of SmCo attached single wall carbon nanotube/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Liming; Li, Bo; Sheng, Leimei; An, Kang; Zhao, Xinluo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The SmCo nanoparticles attached SWCNTs were prepared by dc arc discharge method. •The nano-composite prepared by a rare earth permanent magnet Sm 2 Co 17 as catalyst. •The SmCo attached SWCNT/epoxy composites have an excellent electromagnetic matching characteristics. •The reflection loss and bandwidth below −20 dB of the composite can reach −23.7 dB, 6.2 GHz, respectively. -- Abstract: The SmCo nanoparticles attached single wall carbon nanotubes (SmCo attached SWCNTs) were prepared by hydrogen dc arc discharge method using 2:17 type SmCo permanent powder as catalyst. The SmCo attached SWCNT/epoxy composites with different doping ratios were investigated in the frequency region of 2–18 GHz. The complex permittivity and permeability of the SmCo attached SWCNT/epoxy composites were calculated. The reflection loss properties were simulated by transmission line theory and the microwave absorptive mechanisms were discussed. The results indicate that, due to the better interfacial polarization absorption mechanism of SmCo attached SWCNTs and the electromagnetic (EM) matching of magnetic loss and dielectric loss, the microwave absorption properties of SmCo attached SWCNT/epoxy are evidently improved. When the SmCo attached SWCNTs is doped by 1 wt%, the composite display a larger and wider absorption peak, and the bandwidth of the reflection loss below −20 dB is larger than 6 GHz with the thickness of 3.3 mm. It is expected that the new SmCo attached SWCNT/epoxy composites will be a good microwave absorbing material for the applications in X band, Ku band, or even K band

  20. Cut-Off Points for Mild, Moderate, and Severe Pain on the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: Variability and Influence of Sex and Catastrophizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.M.; Stewart, R.; Koke, A.J.A.; Oosterwijk, R.F.A.; Swaan, J.L.; Schreurs, Karlein Maria Gertrudis; Schiphorst Preuper, H.R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The 0–10 Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) is often used in pain management. The aims of our study were to determine the cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, to measure the

  1. Cut-Off Points for Mild, Moderate, and Severe Pain on the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain : Variability and Influence of Sex and Catastrophizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Anne M; Stewart, Roy E; Köke, Albère J A; Oosterwijk, René F A; Swaan, Jeannette L; Schreurs, Karlein M G; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The 0-10 Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) is often used in pain management. The aims of our study were to determine the cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, to measure the

  2. Removal of methadone by extended dialysis using a high cut-off dialyzer: implications for the treatment of overdose and for pain management in patients undergoing light chain removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arelin, Viktor; Schmidt, Julius J; Kayser, Nathalie; Kühn-Velten, W Nikolaus; Suhling, Hendrik; Eden, Gabriele; Kielstein, Jan T

    2016-06-01

    The synthetic opioid methadone hydrochloride has a low molecular weight of 346 D, a high volume of distribution (4 - 7 L/kg), and is lipophilic. It is used as an analgesic and for the maintenance treatment of opiate dependence. In drug addicts, methadone is frequently involved in mixed intoxications that can lead to death. Here we present the case of a drug addict in whom a high cut-off dialysis membrane together with extended dialysis was used in the setting of suspected overdose and acute kidney injury. Although the observed dialyzer plasma clearance (31.5 mL/min) and reduction ratio (38%) were higher than previously reported for standard hemodialysis, the total amount of methadone in the spent dialysate after 1 extended dialysis session was quite low. Hence, even extended dialysis with a high cut-off membrane does not seem to offer a clinically relevant benefit in the setting of overdose for enhanced methadone removal. On the other hand, in patients undergoing high cut-off dialysis for the removal of light chains, methadone could still be used as an analgesic without an additional dose after high cut-off hemodialysis.

  3. Lignin monomer composition affects Arabidopsis cell-wall degradability after liquid hot water pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladisch Michael

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignin is embedded in the plant cell wall matrix, and impedes the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic feedstocks. To investigate whether enzymatic digestibility of cell wall materials can be improved by altering the relative abundance of the two major lignin monomers, guaiacyl (G and syringyl (S subunits, we compared the degradability of cell wall material from wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana with a mutant line and a genetically modified line, the lignins of which are enriched in G and S subunits, respectively. Results Arabidopsis tissue containing G- and S-rich lignins had the same saccharification performance as the wild type when subjected to enzyme hydrolysis without pretreatment. After a 24-hour incubation period, less than 30% of the total glucan was hydrolyzed. By contrast, when liquid hot water (LHW pretreatment was included before enzyme hydrolysis, the S-lignin-rich tissue gave a much higher glucose yield than either the wild-type or G-lignin-rich tissue. Applying a hot-water washing step after the pretreatment did not lead to a further increase in final glucose yield, but the initial hydrolytic rate was doubled. Conclusions Our analyses using the model plant A. thaliana revealed that lignin composition affects the enzymatic digestibility of LHW pretreated plant material. Pretreatment is more effective in enhancing the saccharification of A. thaliana cell walls that contain S-rich lignin. Increasing lignin S monomer content through genetic engineering may be a promising approach to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of biomass to biofuel conversion.

  4. WATER VAPOUR PERMEABILITY PROPERTIES OF CELLULAR WOOD MATERIAL AND CONDENSATION RISK OF COMPOSITE PANEL WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis IEJAVS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Invention of light weight cellular wood material (CWM with a trade mark of Dendrolight is one of innovations in wood industry of the last decade. The aim of the research was to define the water vapour permeability properties of CWM and to analyse the condensation risk of various wall envelopes where solid wood cellular material is used. To determine the water vapour permeability of CWM, test samples were produced in the factory using routine production technology and tested according to the standard EN 12086:2014. Water vapour permeability factor (μ and other properties of six different configurations of CWM samples were determined. Using the experimental data the indicative influence of geometrical parameters such as lamella thickness, number of lamellas and material direction were investigated and evaluated. To study the condensation risk within the wall envelope containing CWM calculation method given in LVS EN ISO 13788:2012 was used. To ease the calculation process previously developed JavaScript calculation software that had only capability to calculate thermal transmittance was extended so that condensation risk in multi-layer composite walls can be analysed. Water vapour permeability factor in CWM is highly direction dependant. If parallel and perpendicular direction of CWM is compared the value of water vapour permeability factor can differentiate more than two times. Another significant factor for condensation risk analysis is overall thickness of CWM since it directly influences the equivalent air layer thickness. The influence of other factors such as lamella thickness, or groove depth is minor when water vapour permeability properties are compared. From the analysis of CWM performance in building envelope it can be concluded that uninsulated CWM panels used during winter months will pose the risk of condensation damage to structure, but the risk can be reduced or prevented if insulation layer is applied to the CWM panel wall

  5. Optimal cut-off of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome: third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in Iran (SuRFNCD-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteghamati, Alireza; Ashraf, Haleh; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Zandieh, Ali; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Rashidi, Armin; Haghazali, Mehrdad; Asgari, Fereshteh

    2010-04-07

    We have recently determined the optimal cut-off of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance for the diagnosis of insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in non-diabetic residents of Tehran, the capital of Iran. The aim of the present study is to establish the optimal cut-off at the national level in the Iranian population with and without diabetes. Data of the third National Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases, available for 3,071 adult Iranian individuals aging 25-64 years were analyzed. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. HOMA-IR cut-offs from the 50th to the 95th percentile were calculated and sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio for MetS diagnosis were determined. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of HOMA-IR for MetS diagnosis were depicted, and the optimal cut-offs were determined by two different methods: Youden index, and the shortest distance from the top left corner of the curve. The area under the curve (AUC) (95%CI) was 0.650 (0.631-0.670) for IDF-defined MetS and 0.683 (0.664-0.703) with the ATPIII definition. The optimal HOMA-IR cut-off for the diagnosis of IDF- and ATPIII-defined MetS in non-diabetic individuals was 1.775 (sensitivity: 57.3%, specificity: 65.3%, with ATPIII; sensitivity: 55.9%, specificity: 64.7%, with IDF). The optimal cut-offs in diabetic individuals were 3.875 (sensitivity: 49.7%, specificity: 69.6%) and 4.325 (sensitivity: 45.4%, specificity: 69.0%) for ATPIII- and IDF-defined MetS, respectively. We determined the optimal HOMA-IR cut-off points for the diagnosis of MetS in the Iranian population with and without diabetes.

  6. THERMAL DECOMPOSITION AND FLAMMABILITY OF ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE/MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-fang Tong; Hai-yun Ma; Zheng-ping Fang

    2008-01-01

    Thermal and flammability properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS) with the addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were studied. ABS/MWNTs composites were prepared via melt blending with the MWNTs content varied from 0.2% to 4.0% by mass. Thermogravimetry results showed that the addition of MWNTs accelerated the degradation of ABS during the whole process under air atmosphere, and both onset and maximum degradation temperature were lower than those of pure ABS. The destabilization effect of MWNTs on the thermal stability of the composites became unobvious under nitrogen, and the addition of MWNTs could improve the maximum degradation temperature. The heat release rate and time of ignition (tign) for the composites reduced greatly with the addition of MWNTs especially when the concentration of nanotubes was higher than 1.0%. The accumulation of carbon nanotubes with a network structure was observed and the char layer became thicker with increasing nanotubes concentration. Results from Raman spectra showed a higher degree of graphitization for the residues of ABS/MWNTs composites.

  7. Electrospun single-walled carbon nanotube/polyvinyl alcohol composite nanofibers: structure-property relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naebe, Minoo; Lin Tong; Wang Xungai; Staiger, Mark P; Dai Liming

    2008-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/PVA composite nanofibers have been produced by electrospinning. An apparent increase in the PVA crystallinity with a concomitant change in its main crystalline phase and a reduction in the crystalline domain size were observed in the SWNT/PVA composite nanofibers, indicating the occurrence of a SWNT-induced nucleation crystallization of the PVA phase. Both the pure PVA and SWNT/PVA composite nanofibers were subjected to the following post-electrospinning treatments: (i) soaking in methanol to increase the PVA crystallinity, and (ii) cross-linking with glutaric dialdehyde to control the PVA morphology. Effects of the PVA morphology on the tensile properties of the resultant electrospun nanofibers were examined. Dynamic mechanical thermal analyses of both pure PVA and SWNT/PVA composite electrospun nanofibers indicated that SWNT-polymer interaction facilitated the formation of crystalline domains, which can be further enhanced by soaking the nanofiber in methanol and/or cross-linking the polymer with glutaric dialdehyde

  8. Preparation and characterization of bagasse/HDPE composites using multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashori, Alireza; Sheshmani, Shabnam; Farhani, Foad

    2013-01-30

    This article presents the preparation and characterization of bagasse/high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. The effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), as reinforcing agent, on the mechanical and physical properties were also investigated. In order to increase the interphase adhesion, maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MAPE) was added as a coupling agent to all the composites studied. In the sample preparation, MWCNTs and MAPE contents were used as variable factors. The morphology of the specimens was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The results of strength measurement indicated that when 1.5 wt% MWCNTs were added, tensile and flexural properties reached their maximum values. At high level of MWCNTs loading (3 or 4 wt%), increased population of MWCNTs lead to agglomeration and stress transfer gets blocked. The addition of MWCNTs filler slightly decreased the impact strength of composites. Both mechanical and physical properties were improved when 4 wt% MAPE was applied. SEM micrographs also showed that the surface roughness improved with increasing MAPE loading from 0 to 4 wt%. The improvement of physicomechanical properties of composites confirmed that MWCNTs have good reinforcement and the optimum synergistic effect of MWCNTs and MAPE was achieved at the combination of 1.5 and 4 wt%, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Composite Behavior of Insulated Concrete Sandwich Wall Panels Subjected to Wind Pressure and Suction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insub Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A full-scale experimental test was conducted to analyze the composite behavior of insulated concrete sandwich wall panels (ICSWPs subjected to wind pressure and suction. The experimental program was composed of three groups of ICSWP specimens, each with a different type of insulation and number of glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP shear grids. The degree of composite action of each specimen was analyzed according to the load direction, type of the insulation, and number of GFRP shear grids by comparing the theoretical and experimental values. The failure modes of the ICSWPs were compared to investigate the effect of bonds according to the load direction and type of insulation. Bonds based on insulation absorptiveness were effective to result in the composite behavior of ICSWP under positive loading tests only, while bonds based on insulation surface roughness were effective under both positive and negative loading tests. Therefore, the composite behavior based on surface roughness can be applied to the calculation of the design strength of ICSWPs with continuous GFRP shear connectors.

  10. Cell wall composition profiling of parasitic giant dodder (Cuscuta reflexa) and its hosts: a priori differences and induced changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Hanne R; Striberny, Bernd; Olsen, Stian; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Fangel, Jonatan U; Willats, William G T; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Krause, Kirsten

    2015-08-01

    Host plant penetration is the gateway to survival for holoparasitic Cuscuta and requires host cell wall degradation. Compositional differences of cell walls may explain why some hosts are amenable to such degradation while others can resist infection. Antibody-based techniques for comprehensive profiling of cell wall epitopes and cell wall-modifying enzymes were applied to several susceptible hosts and a resistant host of Cuscuta reflexa and to the parasite itself. Infected tissue of Pelargonium zonale contained high concentrations of de-esterified homogalacturonans in the cell walls, particularly adjacent to the parasite's haustoria. High pectinolytic activity in haustorial extracts and high expression levels of pectate lyase genes suggest that the parasite contributes directly to wall remodeling. Mannan and xylan concentrations were low in P. zonale and in five susceptible tomato introgression lines, but high in the resistant Solanum lycopersicum cv M82, and in C. reflexa itself. Knowledge of the composition of resistant host cell walls and the parasite's own cell walls is useful in developing strategies to prevent infection by parasitic plants. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Suppressed oxygen extraction and degradation of LiNixMnyCozO2 cathodes at high charge cut-off voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Zhang, Jiandong; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Polzin, Bryant J.; Trask, Steve; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chongmin; Zhang, Jiguang

    2017-09-01

    The capacity degradation mechanism in lithium nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide (NMC) cathodes (LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC333) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442)) during high-voltage (cut-off of 4.8 V) operation has been investigated. In contrast to NMC442, NMC333 exhibits rapid structural changes including severe micro-crack formation and phase transformation from a layered to a disordered rock-salt structure, as well as interfacial degradation during high-voltage cycling, leading to a rapid increase of the electrode resistance and fast capacity decline. The fundamental reason behind the poor structural and interfacial stability of NMC333 was found to be correlated to its high Co content and the significant overlap between the Co3+/4+ t(2g) and O2- 2p bands, resulting in oxygen removal and consequent structural changes at high voltages. In addition, oxidation of the electrolyte solvents by the extracted oxygen species generates acidic species, which then attack the electrode surface and form highly resistive LiF. These findings highlight that both the structural and interfacial stability should be taken into account when tailoring cathode materials for high voltage battery systems

  12. Evaluation of epidemiological cut-off values indicates that biocide resistant subpopulations are uncommon in natural isolates of clinically-relevant microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Morrissey

    Full Text Available To date there are no clear criteria to determine whether a microbe is susceptible to biocides or not. As a starting point for distinguishing between wild-type and resistant organisms, we set out to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC distributions for four common biocides; triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite for 3319 clinical isolates, with a particular focus on Staphylococcus aureus (N = 1635 and Salmonella spp. (N = 901 but also including Escherichia coli (N = 368, Candida albicans (N = 200, Klebsiella pneumoniae (N = 60, Enterobacter spp. (N = 54, Enterococcus faecium (N = 53, and Enterococcus faecalis (N = 56. From these data epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs are proposed. As would be expected, MBCs were higher than MICs for all biocides. In most cases both values followed a normal distribution. Bimodal distributions, indicating the existence of biocide resistant subpopulations were observed for Enterobacter chlorhexidine susceptibility (both MICs and MBCs and the susceptibility to triclosan of Enterobacter (MBC, E. coli (MBC and MIC and S. aureus (MBC and MIC. There is a concern on the potential selection of antibiotic resistance by biocides. Our results indicate however that resistance to biocides and, hence any potential association with antibiotic resistance, is uncommon in natural populations of clinically relevant microorganisms.

  13. A cut-off in ocular chemesthesis from vapors of homologous alkylbenzenes and 2-ketones as revealed by concentration-detection functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cometto-Muniz, J. Enrique; Abraham, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of homologous series of environmental vapors have shown that their chemesthetic (i.e., sensory irritation) potency increases with carbon chain length (that is, their detection thresholds decrease) until they reach a homolog that fails to be detected, even at vapor saturation. All ensuing homologs cannot be detected either. In this investigation, we measured concentration-detection (i.e., psychometric) functions for ocular chemesthesis from homologous alkylbenzenes (pentyl, hexyl, and heptyl benzene) and 2-ketones (undecanone, dodecanone, and tridecanone). Using a three-alternative forced-choice procedure against air blanks, we tested a total of 18 to 24 subjects, about half of them females, average age 31 years, ranging from 18 to 56 years. Stimuli were generated and presented by a computer-controlled, vapor delivery device whose output was quantified by gas chromatography. Exposure time was 6 s and delivery flow 2.5 L/min. Within the context of present and previous findings, the outcome indicated that the functions for heptylbenzene and 2-tridecanone reached a plateau where further increases in concentration did not enhance detection. We conclude that: a) a cut-off point in ocular chemesthetic detection is reached along homologous alkylbenzenes and 2-ketones at the level of heptylbenzene and 2-tridecanone, respectively, and b) the observed effect rests on the homologs exceeding a critical molecular size (or dimension) rather than on them failing to achieve a high enough vapor concentration

  14. The Effect of Irrigation Cut-off in Flowering Stage and Foliar Application of Spermidine on Essential Oil Quantity and Quality of Three Ecotypes of Cumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bakhtari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. is an annual plant that commonly cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of Iran. The crop has a wide range of uses including medicinal, cosmetic and food industry. Cumin occupies about 26% of total area devoted to medicinal plants in Iran. However, cumin is seriously affected by the Fusarium wilt and blight diseases. The diseases usually increase under warm and wet conditions. Control of the diseases incidence is a crucial factor for cumin production. Limited control of the diseases is provided by seed pre-sowing with certain fungicides such as benlate. Soil fumigation with methyle bromide can provide a control measure against the disease but may be limited application value for large scale production systems in the open field. In addition, methyle bromide is considered an ozone-depleting compound and has potential risk on the living environment and human health. Considering the environmental limitations of chemical fungicides, it seems appropriate to search for a supplemental control strategy .It was demonstrated that peak of the diseases incidence is occurred at flowering stage and irrigation cut-off in this time may be reduced the diseases density. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted in a split-split-plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications in research farm of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman at 2014. The experimental treatments were irrigation (complete irrigation and cut-off the irrigation in flowering stage assigned to main plots, foliar application of spermidine (0, 1 and 2 Mm as subplot and cumin ecotypes (Kerman, Khorasan and Esfahan that was randomized in sub-subplot. The seedbed preparation was made based on common practices at the location. Plots size under the trial was 4 m×3 m so as to get 50 cm inter row spacing in six rows. The ideal density of the crops was considered as 120 plant.m-2. As soon as the seeds were sown, irrigation

  15. The Einsteinian T(3)-gauge approach and the stress tensor of the screw dislocation in the second order: avoiding the cut-off at the core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, C

    2007-01-01

    A translational gauge approach of the Einstein type is proposed for obtaining the stresses that are due to non-singular screw dislocation. The stress distribution of the second order around the screw dislocation is classically known for the hollow circular cylinder with traction-free external and internal boundaries. The inner boundary surrounds the dislocation's core, which is not captured by the conventional solution. The present gauge approach enables us to continue the classically known quadratic stresses inside the core. The gauge equation is chosen in the Hilbert-Einstein form, and it plays the role of non-conventional incompatibility law. The stress function method is used, and it leads to the modified stress potential given by two constituents: the conventional one, say, the 'background' and a short-ranged gauge contribution. The latter just causes additional stresses, which are localized. The asymptotic properties of the resulting stresses are studied. Since the gauge contributions are short-ranged, the background stress field dominates sufficiently far from the core. The outer cylinder's boundary is traction-free. At sufficiently moderate distances, the second-order stresses acquire regular continuation within the core region, and the cut-off at the core does not occur. Expressions for the asymptotically far stresses provide self-consistently new length scales dependent on the elastic parameters. These lengths could characterize an exteriority of the dislocation core region

  16. An algorithm developed in Matlab for the automatic selection of cut-off frequencies, in the correction of strong motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Georgios; Sakellariou, Nikolaos

    2018-05-01

    Strong motion recordings are the key in many earthquake engineering applications and are also fundamental for seismic design. The present study focuses on the automated correction of accelerograms, analog and digital. The main feature of the proposed algorithm is the automatic selection for the cut-off frequencies based on a minimum spectral value in a predefined frequency bandwidth, instead of the typical signal-to-noise approach. The algorithm follows the basic steps of the correction procedure (instrument correction, baseline correction and appropriate filtering). Besides the corrected time histories, Peak Ground Acceleration, Peak Ground Velocity, Peak Ground Displacement values and the corrected Fourier Spectra are also calculated as well as the response spectra. The algorithm is written in Matlab environment, is fast enough and can be used for batch processing or in real-time applications. In addition, the possibility to also perform a signal-to-noise ratio is added as well as to perform causal or acausal filtering. The algorithm has been tested in six significant earthquakes (Kozani-Grevena 1995, Aigio 1995, Athens 1999, Lefkada 2003 and Kefalonia 2014) of the Greek territory with analog and digital accelerograms.

  17. Calculation of cut-off values based on the Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI) pemphigus scoring systems for defining moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, C; Duvert Lehembre, S; Picard-Dahan, C; Kern, J S; Zambruno, G; Feliciani, C; Marinovic, B; Vabres, P; Borradori, L; Prost-Squarcioni, C; Labeille, B; Richard, M A; Ingen-Housz-Oro, S; Houivet, E; Werth, V P; Murrell, D F; Hertl, M; Benichou, J; Joly, P

    2016-07-01

    Two pemphigus severity scores, Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI), have been proposed to provide an objective measure of disease activity. However, the use of these scores in clinical practice is limited by the absence of cut-off values that allow differentiation between moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus. To calculate cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus based on the ABSIS and PDAI scores. In 31 dermatology departments in six countries, consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus were assessed for pemphigus severity, using ABSIS, PDAI, Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were calculated based on the 25th and 75th percentiles of the ABSIS and PDAI scores. The median ABSIS, PDAI, PGA and DLQI scores of the three severity subgroups were compared in order to validate these subgroups. Ninety-six patients with pemphigus vulgaris (n = 77) or pemphigus foliaceus (n = 19) were included. The median PDAI activity and ABSIS total scores were 27·5 (range 3-84) and 34·8 points (range 0·5-90·5), respectively. The respective cut-off values corresponding to the first and third quartiles of the scores were 15 and 45 for the PDAI, and 17 and 53 for ABSIS. The moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were thus defined, and had distinguishing median ABSIS (P cut-off values of 15 and 45 for PDAI and 17 and 53 for ABSIS, to distinguish moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus forms. Identifying these pemphigus activity subgroups should help physicians to classify and manage patients with pemphigus. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Validity of the rheumatoid arthritis impact of disease (RAID) score and definition of cut-off points for disease activity states in a population-based European cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaffi, Fausto; Di Carlo, Marco; Vojinovic, Jelena; Tincani, Angela; Sulli, Alberto; Soldano, Stefano; Andreoli, Laura; Dall'Ara, Francesca; Ionescu, Ruxandra; Simić Pašalić, Katarina; Balčune, Ineta; Ferraz-Amaro, Iván; Tlustochowicz, Malgorzata; Butrimienė, Irena; Punceviciene, Egle; Toroptsova, Natalia; Grazio, Simeon; Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Masaryk, Pavol; Otsa, Kati; Bernardes, Miguel; Boyadzhieva, Vladimira; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2017-05-24

    To assess the validity of the rheumatoid arthritis impact of disease (RAID) for measuring disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine cut-off values for defining the disease activity states. A total of 622 RA patients from an European database have been included. Cross-validation was based on assessment of convergent and discriminant validity. Optimal cut-offs were determined against external criteria by calculating the respective 25th and 75th percentiles mean values of RAID. External criteria included definitions for remission (REM), low disease activity (LDA), moderate disease activity (MDA) and high disease activity (HDA), cut-offs of the 28-joint disease activity score-C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) score. The RAID showed a moderate degree of correlation with respect to DAS28-CRP (rho=0.417; Pdisease was very good with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.847 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.816 to 0.878; Pdisease activity groups, we propose the following cut-off values for REM: RAID ≤3; for LDA: RAID >3 and ≤4; for MDA: RAID >4 and ≤6; for HDA: RAID >6. Mean RAID differed significantly between patients classified as REM, LDA, MDA or HDA (P=0.001). The cut-offs revealed good measurement characteristics in cross-validation analysis, had great discriminatory performance in distinguishing patients with different levels of disease activity and are suited for widespread use in everyday practice application and research. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Current concepts and systematic review of vascularized composite allotransplantation of the abdominal wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berli, Jens U; Broyles, Justin M; Lough, Denver; Shridharani, Sachin M; Rochlin, Danielle; Cooney, Damon S; Lee, W P Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald; Sacks, Justin M

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal wall vascularized composite allotransplantation (AW-VCA) is a rarely utilized technique for large composite abdominal wall defects. The goal of this article is to systematically review the literature and current concepts of AW-VCA, outline the challenges ahead, and provide an outlook for the future. Systematic review of the literature was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed to identify relevant articles discussing results of AW-VCA. Cadaver and animal studies were excluded from the systematic review, but selectively included in the discussion. The resultant five papers report their results on AW-VCA(Transplantation, 85, 2008, 1607; Am J Transplant, 7, 2007, 1304; Transplant Proc, 41, 2009, 521; Transplant Proc, 36, 2004, 1561; Lancet, 361, 2003, 2173). These papers represent the result of two study groups in which a total of 18 AW-VCA were performed in 17 patients. Two different operative approaches were used. Overall flap/graft survival was 88%. No mortality related to the transplant was reported. One cadaver study and two animal models were identified and separately presented (Transplant Proc, 43, 2011, 1701; Transplantation, 90, 2010, 1590; Journal of Surgical Research, 162, 2010, 314). Literature review reports AW-VCA is technically feasible with low morbidity and mortality. Functional outcomes are not reported and minimally considered. With advancements in vascularized composite allotransplantation research and decreasing toxicity of immunosuppression therapies and immunomodulatory regimens, AW-VCA can be applied in circumstances beyond conjunction with visceral transplantation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Parameter Sensitivity Analysis on Deformation of Composite Soil-Nailed Wall Using Artificial Neural Networks and Orthogonal Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbin Hao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the back-propagation algorithm of artificial neural networks (ANNs, this paper establishes an intelligent model, which is used to predict the maximum lateral displacement of composite soil-nailed wall. Some parameters, such as soil cohesive strength, soil friction angle, prestress of anchor cable, soil-nail spacing, soil-nail diameter, soil-nail length, and other factors, are considered in the model. Combined with the in situ test data of composite soil-nail wall reinforcement engineering, the network is trained and the errors are analyzed. Thus it is demonstrated that the method is applicable and feasible in predicting lateral displacement of excavation retained by composite soil-nailed wall. Extended calculations are conducted by using the well-trained intelligent forecast model. Through application of orthogonal table test theory, 25 sets of tests are designed to analyze the sensitivity of factors affecting the maximum lateral displacement of composite soil-nailing wall. The results show that the sensitivity of factors affecting the maximum lateral displacement of composite soil nailing wall, in a descending order, are prestress of anchor cable, soil friction angle, soil cohesion strength, soil-nail spacing, soil-nail length, and soil-nail diameter. The results can provide important reference for the same reinforcement engineering.

  1. Experimental, numerical, and analytical studies on the seismic response of steel-plate concrete (SC) composite shear walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epackachi, Siamak

    The seismic performance of rectangular steel-plate concrete (SC) composite shear walls is assessed for application to buildings and mission-critical infrastructure. The SC walls considered in this study were composed of two steel faceplates and infill concrete. The steel faceplates were connected together and to the infill concrete using tie rods and headed studs, respectively. The research focused on the in-plane behavior of flexure- and flexure-shear-critical SC walls. An experimental program was executed in the NEES laboratory at the University at Buffalo and was followed by numerical and analytical studies. In the experimental program, four large-size specimens were tested under displacement-controlled cyclic loading. The design variables considered in the testing program included wall thickness, reinforcement ratio, and slenderness ratio. The aspect ratio (height-to-length) of the four walls was 1.0. Each SC wall was installed on top of a re-usable foundation block. A bolted baseplate to RC foundation connection was used for all four walls. The walls were identified to be flexure- and flexure-shear critical. The progression of damage in the four walls was identical, namely, cracking and crushing of the infill concrete at the toes of the walls, outward buckling and yielding of the steel faceplates near the base of the wall, and tearing of the faceplates at their junctions with the baseplate. A robust finite element model was developed in LS-DYNA for nonlinear cyclic analysis of the flexure- and flexure-shear-critical SC walls. The DYNA model was validated using the results of the cyclic tests of the four SC walls. The validated and benchmarked models were then used to conduct a parametric study, which investigated the effects of wall aspect ratio, reinforcement ratio, wall thickness, and uniaxial concrete compressive strength on the in-plane response of SC walls. Simplified analytical models, suitable for preliminary analysis and design of SC walls, were

  2. Grid cut-off-effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Vosshenrich, R.; Grabbe, E.

    1992-01-01

    Tilting of a grid during portable radiography leads to uneven exposures, and errors greater than 3 0 can lead to errors in interpretation. Differentiation from abnormal findings can be made by recognising exposure difference of extrathoracic comparable areas. The difficulties caused by tilting of the grid can be reduced by increasing the film focus distance and by using suitable grids. A new cassette holder with an integrated balance makes it possible to correct tilting of the grid rapidly and effectively. This results in improved image quality which can be applied not only to conventional exposure systems but is also of advantage when using digital methods. (orig.) [de

  3. Cell-wall architecture and lignin composition of wheat developed in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, L. H.; Heyenga, A. G.; Levine, H. G.; Choi, J.; Davin, L. B.; Krikorian, A. D.; Lewis, N. G.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The microgravity environment encountered during space-flight has long been considered to affect plant growth and developmental processes, including cell wall biopolymer composition and content. As a prelude to studying how microgravity is perceived - and acted upon - by plants, it was first instructive to investigate what gross effects on plant growth and development occurred in microgravity. Thus, wheat seedlings were exposed to microgravity on board the space shuttle Discovery (STS-51) for a 10 day duration, and these specimens were compared with their counterparts grown on Earth under the same conditions (e.g. controls). First, the primary roots of the wheat that developed under both microgravity and 1 g on Earth were examined to assess the role of gravity on cellulose microfibril (CMF) organization and secondary wall thickening patterns. Using a quick freeze/deep etch technique, this revealed that the cell wall CMFs of the space-grown wheat maintained the same organization as their 1 g-grown counterparts. That is, in all instances, CMFs were randomly interwoven with each other in the outermost layers (farthest removed from the plasma membrane), and parallel to each other within the individual strata immediately adjacent to the plasma membranes. The CMF angle in the innermost stratum relative to the immediately adjacent stratum was ca 80 degrees in both the space and Earth-grown plants. Second, all plants grown in microgravity had roots that grew downwards into the agar; they did not display "wandering" and upward growth as previously reported by others. Third, the space-grown wheat also developed normal protoxylem and metaxylem vessel elements with secondary thickening patterns ranging from spiral to regular pit to reticulate thickenings. Fourthly, both the space- and Earth-grown plants were essentially of the same size and height, and their lignin analyses revealed no substantial differences in their amounts and composition regardless of the gravitational

  4. Study of the surface chemistry and morphology of single walled carbon nanotube-magnetite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez-Linares, F.; Uwakweh, O.N.C.; Lopez, N.; Chavez, E.; Polanco, R.; Morant, C.; Sanz, J.M.; Elizalde, E.; Neira, C.; Nieto, S.; Roque-Malherbe, R.

    2011-01-01

    The study of the morphologies of the single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), magnetite nanoparticles (MNP), and the composite based on them was carried with combined X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). These techniques together with thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and diffuse reflectance infrared transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) confirmed the production of pure single phases, and that the composite material consisted of MNP attached to the outer surface of the SWCNT. The Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) research showed the presence of a large quantity of Lewis acid sites in the highly dispersed magnetite particles supported on the SWCNT outer surface. The DRIFTS carbon dioxide adsorption study of the composites revealed significant adsorption of carbon dioxide, fundamentally in the Lewis acid sites. Then, the Lewis acid sites were observed to be catalytically active. Further, the electron exchange between the Lewis acid sites and the basic or amphoteric adsorbed molecules could influence the magnetic properties of the magnetite. Consequently, together with this first ever use of MS in the study of Lewis acid sites, this investigation revealed the potential of the composites for catalytic and sensors applications. -- Graphical abstract: A large amount of Lewis acid sites were found in the highly dispersed magnetite which is supported on the SWCNT outer surface. Display Omitted Research highlights: → The obtained materials were completely characterized with XRD, Raman and SEM-TEM. → DRIFT, TGA and adsorption of the composites allowed understand the material formation. → This is the first report of a study of Lewis sites by Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  5. Electrical resistivity and thermal properties of compatibilized multi-walled carbon nanotube/polypropylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Szentes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrical resistivity and thermal properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube/polypropylene (MWCNT/PP composites have been investigated in the presence of coupling agents applied for improving the compatibility between the nanotubes and the polymer. A novel olefin-maleic-anhydride copolymer and an olefin-maleic-anhydride copolymer based derivative have been used as compatibilizers to achieve better dispersion of MWCNTs in the polymer matrix. The composites have been produced by extrusion followed by injection moulding. They contained different amounts of MWCNTs (0.5, 2, 3 and 5 wt% and coupling agent to enhance the interactions between the carbon nanotubes and the polymer. The electrical resistivity of the composites has been investigated by impedance spectroscopy, whereas their thermal properties have been determined using a thermal analyzer operating on the basis of the periodic thermal perturbation method. Rheological properties, BET-area and adsorption-desorption isotherms have been determined. Dispersion of MWCNTs in the polymer has been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  6. Strain-dependent electrical resistance of multi-walled carbon nanotube/polymer composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Myounggu; Kim, Hyonny; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    The strain-dependent electrical resistance characteristics of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polymer composite films were investigated. In this research, polyethylene oxide (PEO) is used as the polymer matrix. Two representative volume fractions of MWCNT/PEO composite films were selected: 0.56 vol% (near the percolation threshold) and 1.44 vol% (away from the percolation threshold) of MWCNT. An experimental setup which can measure electrical resistance and strain simultaneously and continuously has been developed. Unique and repeatable relationships in resistance versus strain were obtained for multiple specimens with different volume fractions of MWCNT. The overall pattern of electrical resistance change versus strain for the specimens tested consists of linear and nonlinear regions. A resistance change model to describe the combination of linear and nonlinear modes of electrical resistance change as a function of strain is suggested. The unique characteristics in electrical resistance change for different volume fractions imply that MWCNT/PEO composite films can be used as tunable strain sensors and for application into embedded sensor systems in structures

  7. Aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced composites: processing and mechanical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thostenson, Erik T.; Chou, Tsuwei

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been the subject of considerable attention because of their exceptional physical and mechanical properties. These properties observed at the nanoscale have motivated researchers to utilize carbon nanotubes as reinforcement in composite materials. In this research, a micro-scale twin-screw extruder was used to achieve dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in a polystyrene matrix. Highly aligned nanocomposite films were produced by extruding the polymer melt through a rectangular die and drawing the film prior to cooling. Randomly oriented nanocomposites were produced by achieving dispersion first with the twin-screw extruder followed by pressing a film using a hydraulic press. The tensile behaviour of the aligned and random nanocomposite films with 5 wt.{%} loading of nanotubes were characterized. Addition of nanotubes increased the tensile modulus, yield strength and ultimate strengths of the polymer films, and the improvement in elastic modulus with the aligned nanotube composite is five times greater than the improvement for the randomly oriented composite. (author)

  8. Infrared and microwave properties of polypyrrole/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Qi; Wang, Yongsheng, E-mail: yshwang@bjtu.edu.cn; He, Dawei, E-mail: dwhe@bjtu.edu.cn; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Yikang; Fu, Ming

    2014-08-01

    This study analyses the formation of polypyrrole/multi-walled carbon nanotube (PPy/MWCNT) composite materials using chemical oxidation with varying amounts of MWCNTs added. The samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy, a four-probe method, and infrared thermal imaging using electromagnetic parameters. According to the test results, it is seen that the formation of PPy with the addition of MWCNTs can affect the material’s infrared properties and increase the material’s microwave return losses (up to −19 dB). This production procedure can also make the peak frequency of the microwave return losses adjustable, and the composite’s infrared and microwave performance becomes compatible and adjustable. - Highlights: • A one step in-situ synthesis method of PPy/MWCNT polymerization is proposed. • The composites were used for infrared camouflage and for their microwave properties. • The microwave return losses and infrared emissivity of the composites are adjustable. • The mechanism relies on changes in the composites’ conductivity.

  9. Infrared and microwave properties of polypyrrole/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Qi; Wang, Yongsheng; He, Dawei; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Yikang; Fu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses the formation of polypyrrole/multi-walled carbon nanotube (PPy/MWCNT) composite materials using chemical oxidation with varying amounts of MWCNTs added. The samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy, a four-probe method, and infrared thermal imaging using electromagnetic parameters. According to the test results, it is seen that the formation of PPy with the addition of MWCNTs can affect the material’s infrared properties and increase the material’s microwave return losses (up to −19 dB). This production procedure can also make the peak frequency of the microwave return losses adjustable, and the composite’s infrared and microwave performance becomes compatible and adjustable. - Highlights: • A one step in-situ synthesis method of PPy/MWCNT polymerization is proposed. • The composites were used for infrared camouflage and for their microwave properties. • The microwave return losses and infrared emissivity of the composites are adjustable. • The mechanism relies on changes in the composites’ conductivity

  10. Adsorption of Cadmium Ions from Water on Double-walled Carbon Nanotubes/Iron Oxide Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Seffah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new material (DWCNT/iron oxide for heavy metals removal was developed by combining the adsorption features of double-walled carbon nanotubes with the magnetic properties of iron oxides. Batch experiments were applied in order to evaluate adsorption capacity of the DWCNT/iron oxide composite for cadmium ions. The influence of operating parameters such as pH value, amount of adsorbent, initial adsorbate concentration and agitation speed was studied. The adsorption capacity of the DWCNT/iron oxide adsorbent for Cd2+ ions was 20.8 mg g-1, which is at the state of the art. The obtained results revealed that DWCNT/iron oxide composite is a very promising adsorbent for removal of Cd2+ ions from water under natural conditions. The advantage of the magnetic composite is that it can be used as adsorbent for contaminants in water and can be subsequently controlled and removed from the medium by a simple magnetic process.

  11. Production of Cu/diamond composites for first-wall heat sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, D.; Correia, J.B.; Carvalho, P.A.; Shohoji, N.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Alves, L.C.; Hanada, K.; Osawa, E.

    2011-01-01

    Due to their suitable thermal conductivity and strength, copper-based materials have been considered appropriate heat sinks for first wall panels in nuclear fusion devices. However, increased thermal conductivity and mechanical strength are demanded and the concept of property tailoring involved in the design of metal matrix composites advocates for the potential of nanodiamond dispersions in copper. Copper-nanodiamond composite materials can be produced by mechanical alloying followed by a consolidation operation. Yet, this powder metallurgy route poses several challenges: nanodiamond presents intrinsically difficult bonding with copper; contamination by milling media must be closely monitored; and full densification and microstructural homogeneity should be obtained with consolidation. The present line of work is aimed at an optimization of the processing conditions of Cu-nanodiamond composites. The challenges mentioned above have been addressed, respectively, by incorporating chromium in the matrix to form a stable carbide interlayer binding the two components; by assessing the contamination originating from the milling operation through particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy; and by comparing the densification obtained by spark plasma sintering with hot-extrusion data from previous studies.

  12. The Complex Cell Wall Composition of Syncytia Induced by Plant Parasitic Cyst Nematodes Reflects Both Function and Host Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant–parasitic cyst nematodes induce the formation of specialized feeding structures, syncytia, within their host roots. These unique plant organs serve as the sole nutrient resource for development and reproduction throughout the biotrophic interaction. The multinucleate syncytium, which arises through local dissolution of cell walls and protoplast fusion of multiple adjacent cells, has dense cytoplasm containing numerous organelles, surrounded by thickened outer cell walls that must withstand high turgor pressure. However, little is known about how the constituents of the syncytial cell wall and their conformation support its role during nematode parasitism. We used a set of monoclonal antibodies, targeted to a range of plant cell wall components, to reveal the microstructures of syncytial cell walls induced by four of the most economically important cyst nematode species, Globodera pallida, Heterodera glycines, Heterodera avenae and Heterodera filipjevi, in their respective potato, soybean, and spring wheat host roots. In situ fluorescence analysis revealed highly similar cell wall composition of syncytia induced by G. pallida and H. glycines. Both consisted of abundant xyloglucan, methyl-esterified homogalacturonan and pectic arabinan. In contrast, the walls of syncytia induced in wheat roots by H. avenae and H. filipjevi contain little xyloglucan but are rich in feruloylated xylan and arabinan residues, with variable levels of mixed-linkage glucan. The overall chemical composition of syncytial cell walls reflected the general features of root cell walls of the different host plants. We relate specific components of syncytial cell walls, such as abundant arabinan, methyl-esterification status of pectic homogalacturonan and feruloylation of xylan, to their potential roles in forming a network to support both the strength and flexibility required for syncytium function.

  13. The Complex Cell Wall Composition of Syncytia Induced by Plant Parasitic Cyst Nematodes Reflects Both Function and Host Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Lilley, Catherine J; Imren, Mustafa; Knox, J Paul; Urwin, Peter E

    2017-01-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes induce the formation of specialized feeding structures, syncytia, within their host roots. These unique plant organs serve as the sole nutrient resource for development and reproduction throughout the biotrophic interaction. The multinucleate syncytium, which arises through local dissolution of cell walls and protoplast fusion of multiple adjacent cells, has dense cytoplasm containing numerous organelles, surrounded by thickened outer cell walls that must withstand high turgor pressure. However, little is known about how the constituents of the syncytial cell wall and their conformation support its role during nematode parasitism. We used a set of monoclonal antibodies, targeted to a range of plant cell wall components, to reveal the microstructures of syncytial cell walls induced by four of the most economically important cyst nematode species, Globodera pallida , Heterodera glycines , Heterodera avenae and Heterodera filipjevi , in their respective potato, soybean, and spring wheat host roots. In situ fluorescence analysis revealed highly similar cell wall composition of syncytia induced by G. pallida and H. glycines . Both consisted of abundant xyloglucan, methyl-esterified homogalacturonan and pectic arabinan. In contrast, the walls of syncytia induced in wheat roots by H. avenae and H. filipjevi contain little xyloglucan but are rich in feruloylated xylan and arabinan residues, with variable levels of mixed-linkage glucan. The overall chemical composition of syncytial cell walls reflected the general features of root cell walls of the different host plants. We relate specific components of syncytial cell walls, such as abundant arabinan, methyl-esterification status of pectic homogalacturonan and feruloylation of xylan, to their potential roles in forming a network to support both the strength and flexibility required for syncytium function.

  14. Redox Control of Aphid Resistance through Altered Cell Wall Composition and Nutritional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Brwa; McGowan, Jack; Pastok, Daria; Marcus, Sue E; Morris, Jenny A; Verrall, Susan R; Hedley, Peter E; Hancock, Robert D; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-09-01

    The mechanisms underpinning plant perception of phloem-feeding insects, particularly aphids, remain poorly characterized. Therefore, the role of apoplastic redox state in controlling aphid infestation was explored using transgenic tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) plants that have either high (PAO) or low (TAO) ascorbate oxidase (AO) activities relative to the wild type. Only a small number of leaf transcripts and metabolites were changed in response to genotype, and cell wall composition was largely unaffected. Aphid fecundity was decreased significantly in TAO plants compared with other lines. Leaf sugar levels were increased and maximum extractable AO activities were decreased in response to aphids in all genotypes. Transcripts encoding the Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homolog F, signaling components involved in ethylene and other hormone-mediated pathways, photosynthetic electron transport components, sugar, amino acid, and cell wall metabolism, were increased significantly in the TAO plants in response to aphid perception relative to other lines. The levels of galactosylated xyloglucan were decreased significantly in response to aphid feeding in all the lines, the effect being the least in the TAO plants. Similarly, all lines exhibited increases in tightly bound (1→4)-β-galactan. Taken together, these findings identify AO-dependent mechanisms that limit aphid infestation. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Magnetic field effects for copper suspended nanofluid venture through a composite stenosed arteries with permeable wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Butt, Adil Wahid, E-mail: adil.maths86@gmail.com

    2015-05-01

    In the present paper magnetic field effects for copper nanoparticles for blood flow through composite stenosis in arteries with permeable wall are discussed. The copper nanoparticles for the blood flow with water as base fluid is not explored yet. The equations for the Cu–water nanofluid are developed first time in the literature and simplified using long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions. Exact solutions have been evaluated for velocity, pressure gradient, the solid volume fraction of the nanoparticles and temperature profile. The effect of various flow parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics is utilized. - Highlights: • It is observed that the velocity profile is symmetric for all the parameters and when we increase slip parameter α then there will be more resistance between blood and arteries, hence the blood flow slows down and velocity profile decreases. • It is seen that the velocity field rises due to high electromagnetic forces and buoyancy forces as compared to viscous forces. • It is also noticed that velocity is high for all the parameters in case of pure water as compare to Cu-water because copper makes arteries more flexible that makes the blood flow speed slow. • When we rise heat absorption parameter β then definitely temperature increases rapidly. • The wall shear stress increases for different values of the slip parameter α and the Darcy number D{sub α} with rapid change in copper as compared to pure water.

  16. Preparation of Multi-walled Carbon Nano tubes/ Natural Rubber Composite by Wet Mixing Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azira Abdul Aziz; Azira Abdul Aziz; Che Su Mat Saad; Mohamad Rusop Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Natural rubber/multi-walled carbon nano tubes (Nr/MWCNTs) nanocomposite is formed by incorporating nano tubes in a polymer solution and subsequently evaporating the solvent. Using this technique, nano tubes will be dispersed homogeneously in the NR matrix in an attempt to increase the mechanical properties of these nano composites. Mechanical test results show an increase in the tensile strength for up to 19 times in relation to pure NR. In addition to mechanical testing, the morphology of the MWNTs into NR was studied by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) in order to understand the morphology of the resulting system. Slight shift noted from Raman analyses from each different wt. % of MWCNTs with the NR due to the stress transfer that indicates reinforcement of the nano tubes. (author)

  17. A new method synthesis polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites for supercapacitor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, J.; Wei, X.; Zhou, S.P. [Shandong Univ. of Technology, Zibo (China). School of Chemical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    A series of polyaniline multi-walled nanotube (PANIMWNT) composite films were prepared using an in situ polymerization technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the morphology and microstructure of the samples. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge/discharge analyses were used to determine the electrochemical properties of the PANIMWNT films in a 3-electrode system. The electrochemical performance of PANI, PANIMWNT, and MWNT film performances was then compared. Results of the study showed that the PANI electrodes showed a much higher capacitance than the MWNT and PANIMWNT electrodes. Both the PANI and PANIMWNT nanocomposites showed good electrochemical capacitance. The improved performance of the electrodes was attributed to the presence of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). 5 refs.

  18. Micro/Nanomechanical characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced epoxy composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Wang, Xinnan; Tangpong, X W

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the mechanical properties of 1 wt.% multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reinforced epoxy nanocomposites were characterized using a self-designed micro/nano three point bending tester that was on an atomic force microscope (AFM) to in situ observe MWCNTs movement on the sample surface under loading. The migration of an individual MWCNT at the surface of the nanocomposite was tracked to address the nanomechanical reinforcing mechanism of the nanocomposites. Through morphology analysis of the nanocomposite via scanning electron microscopy, AFM, and digital image correlation technique, it was found that the MWCNTs agglomerate and the bundles were the main factors for limiting the bending strength of the composites. The agglomeration/bundle effect was included in the Halpin-Tsai model to account for the elastic modulus of the nanocomposites.

  19. Effect of Irrigation CutOff on Flowering Stage and Foliar Application of Spermidine on Some Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Various Ecotypes of Cumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bakhtari

    2017-02-01

    plants and proline contents were assessed. The results showed that irrigation treatment had a significant effect on all the studied traits except number of branches and umbels per plant. The irrigation cutoff at flowering stage caused a significant increase in seeds per umbel, infected plants and seed yield per plant and hectare Whereas harvest index, essential oil percentage and yield and proline contents were higher in irrigation cutoff treatment compared to completely irrigated treatment. The value of decrease in seed yield per hectare as affected by irrigation cutoff was so lower than that per plant; because more infected plants were observed in completely irrigatedtreatment in comparison with cutoff irrigated treatment. Decreasing the value of the seed yield per plant and hectare affected by irrigation cut-off were 58 and 15%, respectively. Proline contents in irrigation cut-off treatment were about two times more than completely irrigatedtreatment. Khorasan and Kerman ecotypes had higher value in comparison with Esfahan in all studied traits.. Seed yield per hectare for Kerman, Khorasan and Esfahan ecotypes were 525, 306 and 525 kg, respectively. The highest essential oil yield (14.92 kg ha-1 was gained in 1 Mm spermidine for Khorasan ecotype and the lowest (6.87 kg ha-1 was observed in 0 Mm spermidine for Esfahan ecotype. There was no significant difference between foliar application levels in terms of the studied traits such as…. Conclusion: Irrigation cutoff at flowering stage caused a significant increase in seeds per umbel, infected plants and seed yield per plant and hectare Whereas harvest index, essential oil percentage and yield and proline contents were higher in irrigation cutoff treatment compared to completely irrigated treatment. Khorasan and Kerman ecotypes achieved higher potential for cultivation in Kerman climate condition compared to Esfahan ecotype.

  20. Behavior of thin-walled beams made of advanced composite materials and incorporating non-classical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librescu, Liviu; Song, Ohseop

    1991-11-01

    Several results concerning the refined theory of thin-walled beams of arbitrary closed cross-section incorporating nonclassical effects are presented. These effects are related both with the exotic properties characterizing the advanced composite material structures and the nonuniform torsional model. A special case of the general equations is used to study several problems of cantilevered thin-walled beams and to assess the influence of the incorporated effects. The results presented in this paper could be useful toward a more rational design of aeronautical or aerospace constructions, as well as of helicopter or tilt rotor blades constructed of advanced composite materials.

  1. Biocompatibility of single-walled carbon nanotube composites for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Liberati, T A; Verhulst, S J; Main, B J; Roberts, M H; Potty, A G R; Pylawka, T K; El-Amin Iii, S F

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo biocompatibility of novel single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) composites for applications in bone and tissue regeneration. A total of 60 Sprague-Dawley rats (125 g to 149 g) were implanted subcutaneously with SWCNT/PLAGA composites (10 mg SWCNT and 1gm PLAGA 12 mm diameter two-dimensional disks), and at two, four, eight and 12 weeks post-implantation were compared with control (Sham) and PLAGA (five rats per group/point in time). Rats were observed for signs of morbidity, overt toxicity, weight gain and food consumption, while haematology, urinalysis and histopathology were completed when the animals were killed. No mortality and clinical signs were observed. All groups showed consistent weight gain, and the rate of gain for each group was similar. All groups exhibited a similar pattern for food consumption. No difference in urinalysis, haematology, and absolute and relative organ weight was observed. A mild to moderate increase in the summary toxicity (sumtox) score was observed for PLAGA and SWCNT/PLAGA implanted animals, whereas the control animals did not show any response. Both PLAGA and SWCNT/PLAGA showed a significantly higher sumtox score compared with the control group at all time intervals. However, there was no significant difference between PLAGA and SWCNT/PLAGA groups. Our results demonstrate that SWCNT/PLAGA composites exhibited in vivo biocompatibility similar to the Food and Drug Administration approved biocompatible polymer, PLAGA, over a period of 12 weeks. These results showed potential of SWCNT/PLAGA composites for bone regeneration as the low percentage of SWCNT did not elicit a localised or general overt toxicity. Following the 12-week exposure, the material was considered to have an acceptable biocompatibility to warrant further long-term and more invasive in vivo studies. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:70-7. ©2015 The British Editorial

  2. Impact of High-Cut-Off Dialysis on Renal Recovery in Dialysis-Dependent Multiple Myeloma Patients: Results from a Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans U Gerth

    Full Text Available High-cut-off hemodialysis (HCO-HD can effectively reduce high concentrations of circulating serum free light chains (sFLC in patients with dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI due to multiple myeloma (MM. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze renal recovery in a retrospective single-center cohort of dialysis-dependent MM patients treated with either conventional HD (conv. HD or HCO-HD.The final cohort consisted of 59 patients treated with HCO-HD (n = 42 or conv. HD (n = 17. A sustained sFLC response was detected in a significantly higher proportion of HCO-HD patients (83.3% compared with conv. HD patients (29.4%; p = 0.007. The median duration of sFLC required to reach values <1000 mg/l was 14.5 days in the HCO-HD group and 36 days in the conv. HD group. The corresponding rates of renal recovery were 64.3% and 29.4%, respectively (chi-squared test, p = 0.014. Multivariate regression and decision tree analysis (recursive partitioning revealed HCO-HD (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 6.1 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.5-24.5], p = 0.011 and low initial uric acid values (adjusted OR 1.3 [95%CI 1.0-1.7], p = 0.045 as independent and paramount variables associated with a favorable renal outcome.In summary, the results from this retrospective case-control study suggest in addition to novel agent-based chemotherapy a benefit of HCO-HD in sFLC removal and renal outcome in dialysis-dependent AKI secondary to MM. This finding was especially pertinent in patients with low initial uric acid values, resulting in a promising renal recovery rate of 71.9%. Further prospective studies are warranted.

  3. Specific cut-off points for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in Black subjects: a cross-sectional study in Benin and Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL Mabchour A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asma EL Mabchour,1 Hélène Delisle,1 Colette Vilgrain,2 Philippe Larco,2 Roger Sodjinou,3 Malek Batal1 1Transition Nutritionnelle (TRANSNUT, WHO Collaborating Centre on Nutrition Changes and Development, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Haitian Foundation for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases (FHADIMAC, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; 3West Africa Health Organization (WAHO, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Purpose: Waist circumference (WC and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR are widely used as indicators of abdominal adiposity and the cut-off values have been validated primarily in Caucasians. In this study we identified the WC and WHtR cut-off points that best predicted cardiometabolic risk (CMR in groups of African (Benin and African ancestry (Haiti Black subjects. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 452 apparently healthy subjects from Cotonou (Benin and Port-au-Prince (Haiti, 217 women and 235 men from 25 to 60 years. CMR biomarkers were the metabolic syndrome components. Additional CMR biomarkers were a high atherogenicity index (total serum cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥4 in women and ≥5 in men; insulin resistance set at the 75th percentile of the calculated Homeostasis Model Assessment index (HOMA-IR; and inflammation defined as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP concentrations between 3 and 10 mg/L. WC and WHtR were tested as predictors of two out of the three most prevalent CMR biomarkers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, Youden's index, and likelihood ratios were used to assess the performance of specific WC and WHtR cut-offs. Results: High atherogenicity index (59.5%, high blood pressure (23.2%, and insulin resistance (25% by definition were the most prevalent CMR biomarkers in the study groups. WC and WHtR were equally valid as predictors of CMR. Optimal WC cut-offs were 80 cm and 94 cm in men and women, respectively, which is exactly

  4. Brick walls for black holes in AdS/CFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Iizuka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the 't Hooft's brick wall model for black holes in a holographic context. The brick wall model suggests that without an appropriate near horizon IR cut-off, the free energy of the probe fields shows the divergence due to the large degenerate states near the horizons. After studying the universal nature of the divergence in various holographic settings in various dimensions, we interpret the nature of the divergence in a holographic context. The free energy divergence is due to the large degeneracy and continuity of the low energy spectrum in the boundary theory at the deconfinement phase. These divergence and continuity should be removed by finite N effects, which make the spectrum discrete even at the deconfinement phase. On the other hand, in the bulk, these degenerate states are localized near the horizon, and the universal divergence of these degenerate states implies that the naive counting of the degrees of freedom in bulk should be modified once we take into account the non-perturbative quantum gravity effects near the horizon. Depending on the microscopic degrees of freedom, the position, where the effective field theory description to count the states breaks down, has different Planck scale dependence. It also implies the difficulty to have an electron like gauge-singlet elementary field in the boundary theory Lagrangian. These singlet fields are at most composite fields, because they show divergent free energy, suggesting a positive power of N at the deconfinement phase.

  5. An effective simplified model of composite compression struts for partially-restrained steel frame with reinforced concrete infill walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guohua; Chuang-Sheng, Walter Yang; Gu, Qiang; DesRoches, Reginald

    2018-04-01

    To resolve the issue regarding inaccurate prediction of the hysteretic behavior by micro-based numerical analysis for partially-restrained (PR) steel frames with solid reinforced concrete (RC) infill walls, an innovative simplified model of composite compression struts is proposed on the basis of experimental observation on the cracking distribution, load transferring mechanism, and failure modes of RC infill walls filled in PR steel frame. The proposed composite compression struts model for the solid RC infill walls is composed of α inclined struts and main diagonal struts. The α inclined struts are used to reflect the part of the lateral force resisted by shear connectors along the frame-wall interface, while the main diagonal struts are introduced to take into account the rest of the lateral force transferred along the diagonal direction due to the complicated interaction between the steel frame and RC infill walls. This study derives appropriate formulas for the effective widths of the α inclined strut and main diagonal strut, respectively. An example of PR steel frame with RC infill walls simulating simulated by the composite inclined compression struts model is illustrated. The maximum lateral strength and the hysteresis curve shape obtained from the proposed composite strut model are in good agreement with those from the test results, and the backbone curve of a PR steel frame with RC infill walls can be predicted precisely when the inter-story drift is within 1%. This simplified model can also predict the structural stiffness and the equivalent viscous damping ratio well when the inter-story drift ratio exceeds 0.5%.

  6. Interplay of domain walls and magnetization rotation on dynamic magnetization process in iron/polymer–matrix soft magnetic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobák, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.dobak@student.upjs.sk [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Füzer, Ján; Kollár, Peter [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Fáberová, Mária; Bureš, Radovan [Institute of Materials Research, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 043 53 Košice (Slovakia)

    2017-03-15

    This study sheds light on the dynamic magnetization process in iron/resin soft magnetic composites from the viewpoint of quantitative decomposition of their complex permeability spectra into the viscous domain wall motion and magnetization rotation. We present a comprehensive view on this phenomenon over the broad family of samples with different average particles dimension and dielectric matrix content. The results reveal the pure relaxation nature of magnetization processes without observation of spin resonance. The smaller particles and higher amount of insulating resin result in the prevalence of rotations over domain wall movement. The findings are elucidated in terms of demagnetizing effects rising from the heterogeneity of composite materials. - Highlights: • A first decomposition of complex permeability into domain wall and rotation parts in soft magnetic composites. • A pure relaxation nature of dynamic magnetization processes. • A complete loss separation in soft magnetic composites. • The domain walls activity is considerably suppressed in composites with smaller iron particles and higher matrix content. • The demagnetizing field acts as a significant factor at the dynamic magnetization process.

  7. Compositional change of some first wall materials by considering multiple step nuclear reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Tetsuji; Utsumi, Misako; Fujita, Mitsutane [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The conceptual system for nuclear material design is considered and some trials on WWW server with functions of the easily accessible simulation of nuclear reactions are introduced. Moreover, as an example of the simulation on the system using nuclear data, transmutation calculation was made for candidate first wall materials such as 9Cr-2W steel, V-5Cr-5Ti and SiC in SUS316/Li{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O(SUS), 9Cr-2WLi{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O(RAF), V alloy/Li/Be(V), and SiC/Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}/He(SiC) blanket/shield systems based on ITER design model. Neutron spectrum varies with different blanket/shield compositions. The flux of low energy neutrons decreases in order of V-SiC-RAF-SUS blanket/shield systems. Fair amounts of W depletion in 9Cr-2W steel and the increase of Cr content in V-5Cr-5Ti were predicted in SUS or RAF systems. Concentration change in W and Cr is estimated to be suppressed if Li coolant is used in place of water. Helium and hydrogen production are not strongly affected by the different blanket/shield compositions. (author)

  8. Pullulan-based composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: Improved osteoconductivity by pore wall mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrita; Arora, Aditya; Sharma, Poonam; Katti, Dhirendra S

    2015-06-05

    Porous hydrogels have been explored for bone tissue engineering; however their poor mechanical properties make them less suitable as bone graft substitutes. Since incorporation of fillers is a well-accepted method for improving mechanical properties of hydrogels, in this work pullulan hydrogels were reinforced with nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite (nHAp) (5 wt% nHAp in hydrogel) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) fibers (3 wt% fibers in hydrogel) containing nHAp (3 wt% nHAp in fibers). Addition of these fillers to pullulan hydrogel improved compressive modulus of the scaffold by 10 fold. However, the hydrophilicity of pullulan did not support adhesion and spreading of cells. To overcome this limitation, porous composite scaffolds were modified using a double diffusion method that enabled deposition of hydroxyapatite on pore walls. This method resulted in rapid and uniform coating of HAp throughout the three-dimensional scaffolds which not only rendered them osteoconductive in vitro but also led to an improvement in their compressive modulus. These results demonstrate the potential of mineralized pullulan-based composite scaffolds in non-load bearing bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Accuracy of the WHO’s body mass index cut-off points to measure gender- and age-specific obesity in middle-aged adults living in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollner Materko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO as a disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of body fat. Obesity is considered a public health problem, leading to serious social, psychological and physical problems. However, the appropriate cut-off point of body mass index (BMI based on body fat percentage (BF% for classifying an individual as obese in middle-aged adults living in Rio de Janeiro remains unclear. Materials and methods. This was a prospective cross-sectional study comprising of 856 adults (413 men and 443 women living in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil ranging from 30-59 years of age. The data were collected over a two year period (2010-2011, and all participants were underwent anthropometric evaluation. The gold standard was the percentage of body fat estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The optimal sensitivity and specificity were attained by adjusting BMI cut-off values to predict obesity based on the WHO criteria: BF% >25% in men and >35% in women, according to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis adjusted for age and for the whole group.Results. The BMI cut-offs for predicting BF% were 29.9 kg/m2 in men and 24.9 kg/m2 in women. Conclusions. The BMI that corresponded to a BF% previously defining obesity was similar to that of other Western populations for men but not for women. Furthermore, gender and age specific cut-off values are recommended in this population.

  10. Modified Cut-Off Value of the Urine Protein-To-Creatinine Ratio Is Helpful for Identifying Patients at High Risk for Chronic Kidney Disease: Validation of the Revised Japanese Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yoshida, Katsumi; Shindoh, Chiyohiko; Takeda, Kyoko; Monden, Masami; Izumo, Hiroko; Niinuma, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Yutaro; Niwa, Koichiro; Komatsu, Yasuhiro

    2015-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health issue, and strategies for its early detection and intervention are imperative. The latest Japanese CKD guideline recommends that patients without diabetes should be classified using the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (PCR) instead of the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR); however, no validation studies are available. This study aimed to validate the PCR-based CKD risk classification compared with the ACR-based classification and to explore more accurate classification methods. We analyzed two previously reported datasets that included diabetic and/or cardiovascular patients who were classified into early CKD stages. In total, 860 patients (131 diabetic patients and 729 cardiovascular patients, including 193 diabetic patients) were enrolled. We assessed the CKD risk classification of each patient according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate and the ACR-based or PCR-based classification. The use of the cut-off value recommended in the current guideline (PCR 0.15 g/g creatinine) resulted in risk misclassification rates of 26.0% and 16.6% for the two datasets. The misclassification was primarily caused by underestimation. Moderate to substantial agreement between each classification was achieved: Cohen's kappa, 0.56 (95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.69) and 0.72 (0.67-0.76) in each dataset, respectively. To improve the accuracy, we tested various candidate PCR cut-off values, showing that a PCR cut-off value of 0.08-0.10 g/g creatinine resulted in improvement in the misclassification rates and kappa values. Modification of the PCR cut-off value would improve its efficacy to identify high-risk populations who will benefit from early intervention.

  11. Optimal Cut-Offs of Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) to Identify Dysglycemia and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 15-Year Prospective Study in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C H; Shih, A Z L; Woo, Y C; Fong, C H Y; Leung, O Y; Janus, E; Cheung, B M Y; Lam, K S L

    The optimal reference range of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in normal Chinese population has not been clearly defined. Here we address this issue using the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study (CRISPS), a prospective population-based cohort study with long-term follow-up. In this study, normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were defined according to the 1998 World Health Organization criteria. Dysglycemia referred to IFG, IGT or T2DM. This study comprised two parts. Part one was a cross-sectional study involving 2,649 Hong Kong Chinese subjects, aged 25-74 years, at baseline CRISPS-1 (1995-1996). The optimal HOMA-IR cut-offs for dysglycemia and T2DM were determined by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Part two was a prospective study involving 872 subjects who had persistent NGT at CRISPS-4 (2010-2012) after 15 years of follow-up. At baseline, the optimal HOMA-IR cut-offs to identify dysglyceia and T2DM were 1.37 (AUC = 0.735; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.713-0.758; Sensitivity [Se] = 65.6%, Specificity [Sp] = 71.3%] and 1.97 (AUC = 0.807; 95% CI = 0.777-0.886; Se = 65.5%, Sp = 82.9%) respectively. These cut-offs, derived from the cross-sectional study at baseline, corresponded closely to the 75th (1.44) and 90th (2.03) percentiles, respectively, of the HOMA-IR reference range derived from the prospective study of subjects with persistent NGT. HOMA-IR cut-offs, of 1.4 and 2.0, which discriminated dysglycemia and T2DM respectively from NGT in Southern Chinese, can be usefully employed as references in clinical research involving the assessment of insulin resistance.

  12. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from Chilean Salmon Farms and Their Epidemiological Cut-Off Values Using Agar Dilution and Disk Diffusion Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Claudio D; Smith, Peter; Rojas, Rodrigo; Contreras-Lynch, Sergio; Vega, J M Alonso

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the most important bacterial pathogen for freshwater farmed salmonids in Chile. The aims of this study were to determine the susceptibility to antimicrobials used in fish farming of Chilean isolates and to calculate their epidemiological cut-off (CO WT ) values. A number of 125 Chilean isolates of F. psychrophilum were isolated from reared salmonids presenting clinical symptoms indicative of flavobacteriosis and their identities were confirmed by 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction. Susceptibility to antibacterials was tested on diluted Mueller-Hinton by using an agar dilution MIC method and a disk diffusion method. The CO WT values calculated by Normalized Resistance Interpretation (NRI) analysis allow isolates to be categorized either as wild-type fully susceptible (WT) or as manifesting reduced susceptibility (NWT). When MIC data was used, NRI analysis calculated a CO WT of ≤0.125, ≤2, and ≤0.5 μg mL -1 for amoxicillin, florfenicol, and oxytetracycline, respectively. For the quinolones, the CO WT were ≤1, ≤0.5, and ≤0.125 μg mL -1 for oxolinic acid, flumequine, and enrofloxacin, respectively. The disk diffusion data sets obtained in this work were extremely diverse and were spread over a wide range. For the quinolones there was a close agreement between the frequencies of NWT isolates calculated using MIC and disk data. For oxolinic acid, flumequine, and enrofloxacin the frequencies were 45, 39, and 38% using MIC data, and 42, 41, and 44%, when disk data were used. There was less agreement with the other antimicrobials, because NWT frequencies obtained using MIC and disk data, respectively, were 24 and 10% for amoxicillin, 8 and 2% for florfenicol, and 70 and 64% for oxytetracycline. Considering that the MIC data was more precise than the disk diffusion data, MIC determination would be the preferred method for susceptibility testing for this species and the NWT frequencies derived from the MIC data sets should be

  13. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from Chilean Salmon Farms and their Epidemiological Cut-off Values using Agar Dilution and Disk Diffusion Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio D Miranda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the most important bacterial pathogen for freshwater farmed salmonids in Chile. The aims of this study were to determine the susceptibility to antimicrobials used in fish farming of Chilean isolates and to calculate their epidemiological cut-off (COWT values. A number of 125 Chilean isolates of F. psychrophilum were isolated from reared salmonids presenting clinical symptoms indicative of flavobacteriosis and their identities were confirmed by 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction. Susceptibility to antibacterials was tested on diluted Mueller-Hinton by using an agar dilution MIC method and a disk diffusion method. The COWT values calculated by Normalised Resistance Interpretation (NRI analysis allow isolates to be categorized either as wild-type fully susceptible (WT or as manifesting reduced susceptibility (NWT. When MIC data was used, NRI analysis calculated a COWT of ≤ 0.125 μg mL-1, ≤ 2 μg mL-1 and ≤ 0.5 μg mL-1 for amoxicillin, florfenicol and oxytetracycline, respectively. For the quinolones, the COWT were ≤1 μg mL-1, ≤ 0.5 μg mL-1 and ≤ 0.125 μg mL-1 for oxolinic acid, flumequine and enrofloxacin respectively. The disc diffusion data sets obtained in this work were extremely diverse and were spread over a wide range. For the quinolones there was a close agreement between the frequencies of NWT isolates calculated using MIC and disc data. For oxolinic acid, flumequine and enrofloxacin the frequencies were 45, 39 and 38% using MIC data, and 42, 41 and 44%, when disc data were used. There was less agreement with the other antimicrobials, because NWT frequencies obtained using MIC and disc data respectively, were 24% and 10% for amoxicillin, 8% and 2% for florfenicol and 70% and 64% for oxytetracycline. Considering that the MIC data was more precise than the disc diffusion data, MIC determination would be the preferred method for susceptibility testing for this species and the NWT frequencies

  14. Analysis of Material Removal and Surface Characteristics in Machining Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Filled Alumina Composites by WEDM Process

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    Annebushan Singh Meinam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reinforcement of ceramic materials with electrically conductive particles increases the overall conductivity of the ceramic material. This allows the ceramic material to be more readily machined using wire electrical discharge machining process. The current work is an approach to identify the machinability of multi walled carbon nanotubes filled alumina composites in wire electrical discharge machining process. Alumina samples of 5 vol. % and 10 vol. % multi walled carbon nanotubes are machined and analysed for material removal rate and the surface characteristics. An increase in material removal rate is observed with increase in filler concentrations. At the same time, better surface roughness is observed. The surface characteristics of composite alumina are further compared with Monel 400 alloy. It has been observed that spalling action is the dominating material removal mechanism for alumina composites, while melting and evaporation is for the Monel 400 alloy.

  15. Structural interpretations of deformation and fracture behavior of polypropylene/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganss, Martin; Satapathy, Bhabani K.; Thunga, Mahendra; Weidisch, Roland; Poetschke, Petra; Jehnichen, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    The deformation and crack resistance behavior of polypropylene (PP) multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) composites have been studied and their interrelation to the structural attributes studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarization light microscopy has been discussed. The composites were produced from industrial available MWNT by extrusion melt-mixing and injection-molding. In stress-strain measurements a strong increase in the yield stress and the Young's modulus at low MWNT contents has been observed, which was attributed to an efficient load transfer between the carbon nanotubes and polypropylene matrix through a good polymer-nanotube adhesion as indicated by SEM. The extent of enhancement in mechanical properties above 1.5 wt.% of MWNT decreased due to an apparently increased tendency of clustering of carbon nanotubes. Several theoretical models have been taken into account to explain the mechanical properties and to demonstrate the applicability of such models to the system under investigation. The crack resistance behavior has been studied with the essential work of fracture (EWF) approach based on post-yield fracture mechanics (PYFM) concept. A maximum in the non-essential work of fracture was observed at 0.5 wt.% MWNT demonstrating enhanced toughness compared to pure PP, followed by a sharp decline as the MWNT content was increased to 1.5 wt.% reveals a ductile-to-semi-ductile transition. Studies on the kinetics of crack propagation aspects have revealed a qualitative picture of the nature of such a transition in the fracture modes

  16. Optimal waist circumference cut-off points and ability of different metabolic syndrome criteria for predicting diabetes in Japanese men and women: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to establish the optimal waist circumference (WC cut-off point for predicting diabetes mellitus (DM and to compare the predictive ability of the metabolic syndrome (MetS criteria of the Joint Interim Statement (JIS and the Japanese Committee of the Criteria for MetS (JCCMS for DM in Japanese. Methods Participants of the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study, who were aged 20–69 years and free of DM at baseline (n = 54,980, were followed-up for a maximum of 6 years. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off points of WC for predicting DM. Time-dependent sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the prediction of DM were compared between the JIS and JCCMS MetS criteria. Results During 234,926 person-years of follow-up, 3180 individuals developed DM. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested that the most suitable cut-off point of WC for predicting incident DM was 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women. MetS was associated with 3–4 times increased hazard for developing DM in men and 7–9 times in women. Of the MetS criteria tested, the JIS criteria using our proposed WC cut-off points (85 cm for men and 80 cm for women had the highest sensitivity (54.5 % for men and 43.5 % for women for predicting DM. The sensitivity and specificity of the JCCMS MetS criteria were ~37.7 and 98.9 %, respectively. Conclusion Data from the present large cohort of workers suggest that WC cut-offs of 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women may be appropriate for predicting DM for Japanese. The JIS criteria can detect more people who later develop DM than does the JCCMS criteria.

  17. Optimal body fat percentage cut-off values for identifying cardiovascular risk factors in Mongolian and Han adults: a population-based cross-sectional study in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanlong; Wang, Hailing; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wenrui; Dong, Fen; Qian, Yonggang; Gong, Haiying; Xu, Guodong; Li, Guoju; Pan, Li; Zhu, Guangjin; Shan, Guangliang

    2017-04-17

    The present study was designed to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat percentage (BF%) for the detection of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Mongolian and Han adults. This cross-sectional study involving 3221 Chinese adults (2308 Han and 913 Mongolian) aged 20-80 years was conducted in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, in 2014. Data from a standardised questionnaire, physical examination and blood sample were obtained. The BF% was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Optimal BF% cut-offs were analysed by receiver operating characteristic curves to predict the risk of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the OR of each CVD risk factor according to obesity defined by BF%. Mean BF% levels were lower in men than in women (22.54±5.77 vs 32.95±6.18 in Han, 23.86±5.72 vs 33.98±6.40 in Mongolian population, respectively; ppopulation, the area under curve (AUC) values for BF% ranged from 0.589 to 0.699 for men and from 0.711 to 0.763 for women. Compared with men, AUCs for diabetes and clustering of ≥2 risk factors in women were significantly higher (ppopulation. In Han adults, the optimal BF% cut-off values to detect CVD risk factors varied from 18.7% to 24.2% in men and 32.7% to 35.4% in women. In Mongolian population, the optimal cut-off values of BF% for men and women ranged from 21.0% to 24.6% and from 35.7% to 40.0%, respectively. Subjects with high BF% (≥24% in men, ≥34% in women) had higher risk of CVD risk factors in Han (age-adjusted ORs from 1.479 to 3.680, 2.660 to 4.016, respectively). In Mongolia, adults with high BF% (≥25% in men, ≥35% in women) had higher risk of CVD risk factors (age-adjusted ORs from 2.587 to 3.772, 2.061 to 4.882, respectively). The optimal BF% cut-offs for obesity for the prediction of CVD risk factors in Chinese men and women were approximately 24% and 34% for Han adults and 25% and 35% for Mongolian

  18. Cell wall composition and candidate biosynthesis gene expression during rice development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Fan; Manisseri, Chithra; Fagerström, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Cell walls of grasses, including cereal crops and biofuel grasses, comprise the majority of plant biomass and intimately influence plant growth, development and physiology. However, the functions of many cell wall synthesis genes, and the relationships among and the functions of cell wall...... components remain obscure. To better understand the patterns of cell wall accumulation and identify genes that act in grass cell wall biosynthesis, we characterized 30 samples from aerial organs of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Kitaake) at 10 developmental time points, 3-100 d post-germination. Within these samples......, we measured 15 cell wall chemical components, enzymatic digestibility and 18 cell wall polysaccharide epitopes/ligands. We also used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure expression of 50 glycosyltransferases, 15 acyltransferases and eight phenylpropanoid genes, many of which had...

  19. Coherent polyaniline/graphene oxides/multi-walled carbon nanotubes ternary composites for asymmetric supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Ming; Chen, Yi; Xiong, Weilai; Zhang, Liu; Wu, Liyang; Fu, Yang; Mei, Tao; Wang, Jianying; Li, Jinhua; Wang, Xianbao

    2016-01-01

    A coherent polyaniline (PANI)/graphene oxides (GOs)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composite was prepared by in-situ solution polymerization as a positive electrode of supercapacitors. The orderly growth of PANI nano-dots on GOs led to the formation of the nano-ravines that can enhance ions diffusion efficiency. MWCNTs surrounded by PANI connected all components, and thus the conductivity with the increasing electron transfer rate was improved. The results showed that the electrode exhibited the outstanding electrochemical performances with the specific capacitance up to 696 F g −1 at 20 mV s −1 . The KOH-activated GOs/MWCNTs were used as a negative electrode to assemble an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC). The ASC possessed an extended working potential (1.6 V), a good rate capability (58% capacitance retention even after the current density being increased by 10 times), an excellent cycling stability (89% capacitance retention after 3000 cycles), and a decent average energy and power density (69 W h/kg and 6.4 kW/kg).

  20. Potentiometric urea biosensor based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/silica composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, Tarushee; Kumar, D.; Singh, Nahar; Biradar, A.M.; Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    A novel potentiometric urea biosensor has been fabricated with urease (Urs) immobilized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) embedded in silica matrix deposited on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass plate. The enzyme Urs was covalently linked with the exposed free -COOH groups of functionalized MWCNTs (F-MWCNTs), which are subsequently incorporated within the silica matrix by sol-gel method. The Urs/MWCNTs/SiO 2 /ITO composite modified electrode was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The morphologies and electrochemical performance of the modified Urs/MWCNTs/SiO 2 /ITO electrode have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and potentiometric method, respectively. The synergistic effect of silica matrix, F-MWCNTs and biocompatibility of Urs/MWCNTs/SiO 2 made the biosensor to have the excellent electro catalytic activity and high stability. The resulting biosensor exhibits a good response performance to urea detection with a wide linear range from 2.18 x 10 -5 to 1.07 x 10 -3 M urea. The biosensor shows a short response time of 10-25 s and a high sensitivity of 23 mV/decade/cm 2 .

  1. Mechanical properties of nickel-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes and their embedded gold matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Haiyang; Zha Xinwei

    2010-01-01

    The effects of nickel coating on the mechanical behaviors of armchair single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and their embedded gold matrix composites under axial tension are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method. The results show that the Young's moduli and tensile strength of SWCNTs obviously decrease after nickel coating. For armchair SWCNTs, the decreased ratio of the Young's moduli of SWCNTs with smaller radius is larger than that of SWCNTs with larger radius. A comparison is made between the response to Young's modulus of a composite with parallel embedded nanotube and the response of a composite with vertically embedded nanotube. The results show that the uncoated SWCNT can enhance the Young's modulus of composite under the condition of parallel embedment, but such improvement disappears under the condition of vertical embedment because the interaction between SWCNT and gold matrix is too weak for effective load transfer. However, the nickel-coated SWCNT can indeed significantly improve the composite behavior.

  2. Highly Stable and Flexible Pressure Sensors with Modified Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Composites for Human Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yin; Ming, Yue; Li, Wei; Li, Yafang; Wu, Maoqi; Song, Jinzhong; Li, Xiaojiu; Liu, Hao

    2018-04-26

    A facile method for preparing an easy processing, repeatable and flexible pressure sensor was presented via the synthesis of modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (m-MWNTs) and polyurethane (PU) films. The surface modification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) simultaneously used a silane coupling agent (KH550) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) to improve the dispersibility and compatibility of the MWNTs in a polymer matrix. The electrical property and piezoresistive behavior of the m-MWNT/PU composites were compared with raw multi-walled carbon nanotube (raw MWNT)/PU composites. Under linear uniaxial pressure, the m-MWNT/PU composite exhibited 4.282%kPa −1 sensitivity within the pressure of 1 kPa. The nonlinear error, hysteresis error and repeatability error of the piezoresistivity of m-MWNT/PU decreased 9%, 16.72% and 54.95% relative to raw MWNT/PU respectively. Therefore, the piezoresistive response of m-MWNT/PU had better stability than that of raw MWNT/PU composites. The m-MWNT/PU sensors could be utilized in wearable devices for body movement detection, monitoring of respiration and pressure detection in garments.

  3. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to variation in cell wall composition in mature desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jennifer A; Tan, Hwei-Ting; Collins, Helen M; Yap, Kuok; Khor, Shi Fang; Lim, Wai Li; Xing, Xiaohui; Bulone, Vincent; Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Tucker, Matthew R

    2018-03-13

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important nutritionally rich legume crop that is consumed worldwide. Prior to cooking, desi chickpea seeds are most often dehulled and cleaved to release the split cotyledons, referred to as dhal. Compositional variation between desi genotypes has a significant impact on nutritional quality and downstream processing, and this has been investigated mainly in terms of starch and protein content. Studies in pulses such as bean and lupin have also implicated cell wall polysaccharides in cooking time variation, but the underlying relationship between desi chickpea cotyledon composition and cooking performance remains unclear. Here, we utilized a variety of chemical and immunohistological assays to examine details of polysaccharide composition, structure, abundance, and location within the desi chickpea cotyledon. Pectic polysaccharides were the most abundant cell wall components, and differences in monosaccharide and glycosidic linkage content suggest both environmental and genetic factors contribute to cotyledon composition. Genotype-specific differences were identified in arabinan structure, pectin methylesterification, and calcium-mediated pectin dimerization. These differences were replicated in distinct field sites and suggest a potentially important role for cell wall polysaccharides and their underlying regulatory machinery in the control of cooking time in chickpea. © 2018 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. In vitro evaluation of three-dimensional single-walled carbon nanotube composites for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashim; Main, Benjamin J; Taylor, Brittany L; Gupta, Manu; Whitworth, Craig A; Cady, Craig; Freeman, Joseph W; El-Amin, Saadiq F

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop three-dimensional single-walled carbon nanotube composites (SWCNT/PLAGA) using 10-mg single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) for bone regeneration and to determine the mechanical strength of the composites, and to evaluate the interaction of MC3T3-E1 cells via cell adhesion, growth, survival, proliferation, and gene expression. PLAGA (polylactic-co-glycolic acid) and SWCNT/PLAGA microspheres and composites were fabricated, characterized, and mechanical testing was performed. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded and cell adhesion/morphology, growth/survival, proliferation, and gene expression analysis were performed to evaluate biocompatibility. Imaging studies demonstrated microspheres with uniform shape and smooth surfaces, and uniform incorporation of SWCNT into PLAGA matrix. The microspheres bonded in a random packing manner while maintaining spacing, thus resembling trabeculae of cancellous bone. Addition of SWCNT led to greater compressive modulus and ultimate compressive strength. Imaging studies revealed that MC3T3-E1 cells adhered, grew/survived, and exhibited normal, nonstressed morphology on the composites. SWCNT/PLAGA composites exhibited higher cell proliferation rate and gene expression compared with PLAGA. These results demonstrate the potential of SWCNT/PLAGA composites for musculoskeletal regeneration, for bone tissue engineering, and are promising for orthopedic applications as they possess the combined effect of increased mechanical strength, cell proliferation, and gene expression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Variable-viscosity thermal hemodynamic slip flow conveying nanoparticles through a permeable-walled composite stenosed artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Bég, O. Anwar

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for simulating viscous, incompressible, steady-state blood flow containing copper nanoparticles and coupled heat transfer through a composite stenosed artery with permeable walls. Wall slip hydrodynamic and also thermal buoyancy effects are included. The artery is simulated as an isotropic elastic tube, following Joshi et al. (2009), and a variable viscosity formulation is employed for the flowing blood. The equations governing the transport phenomena are non-dimensionalized and the resulting boundary value problem is solved analytically in the steady state subject to physically appropriate boundary conditions. Numerical computations are conducted to quantify the effects of relevant hemodynamic, thermophysical and nanoscale parameters emerging in the model on velocity and temperature profiles, wall shear stress, impedance resistance and also streamline distributions. The model may be applicable to drug fate transport modeling with nanoparticle agents and also to the optimized design of nanoscale medical devices for diagnosing stenotic diseases in circulatory systems.

  6. Thioridazine Induces Major Changes in Global Gene Expression and Cell Wall Composition in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsing, Mette; Klitgaard, Janne Kudsk; Atilano, Magda L.

    2013-01-01

    and the transcriptomic response of S. aureus to known inhibitors of cell wall synthesis suggests that TDZ disturbs PGN biosynthesis at a stage that precedes transpeptidation by penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). In support of this notion, dramatic changes in the muropeptide profile of USA300 were observed following....... In the present study, we have examined the effect of a subinhibitory concentration of TDZ on antimicrobial resistance, the global transcriptome, and the cell wall composition of MRSA USA300. We show that TDZ is able to sensitize the bacteria to several classes of antimicrobials targeting the late stages...... a major impact on the cell wall biosynthesis pathway in S. aureus and provides new insights into how MRSA may be sensitized towards β-lactam antibiotics....

  7. Composition and distribution of cell wall phenolic compounds in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) stem tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorshkova, T.A.; Salnikov, V.V.; Pogodina, N.M.; Chemikosova, S.B.; Yablokova, E.V.; Ulanov, A.V.; Ageeva, M.V.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Lozovaya, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    Cell wall phenolic compounds were analysed in xylem and bast fibre-rich peels of flax stems by biochemical, histochemical and ultrastructural approaches. Localization of cell wall phenolics by the enzyme-gold method using laccase revealed several gold particle distribution patterns. One of the major

  8. Cell wall composition and lignin biosynthetic gene expression along a developmental gradient in an Australian sugarcane cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Bewg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse is an abundant source of lignocellulosic material for bioethanol production. Utilisation of bagasse for biofuel production would be environmentally and economically beneficial, but the recalcitrance of lignin continues to provide a challenge. Further understanding of lignin production in specific cultivars will provide a basis for modification of genomes for the production of phenotypes with improved processing characteristics. Here we evaluated the expression profile of lignin biosynthetic genes and the cell wall composition along a developmental gradient in KQ228 sugarcane. The expression levels of nine lignin biosynthesis genes were quantified in five stem sections of increasing maturity and in root tissue. Two distinct expression patterns were seen. The first saw highest gene expression in the youngest tissue, with expression decreasing as tissue matured. The second pattern saw little to no change in transcription levels across the developmental gradient. Cell wall compositional analysis of the stem sections showed total lignin content to be significantly higher in more mature tissue than in the youngest section assessed. There were no changes in structural carbohydrates across developmental sections. These gene expression and cell wall compositional patterns can be used, along with other work in grasses, to inform biotechnological approaches to crop improvement for lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  9. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for detection of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1: tumour-to-liver ratio is superior to an SUV{sub max} cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamon, Johannes [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Veldhoen, Simon [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Medical Centre Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Apostolova, Ivayla [Otto-von-Guericke University, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany); Bannas, Peter; Yamamura, Jin; Herrmann, Jochen; Adam, Gerhard; Derlin, Thorsten [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Friedrich, Reinhard E. [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Mautner, Victor F. [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of normalising intra-tumour tracer accumulation on {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to reference tissue uptake for characterisation of peripheral nerve sheath tumours (PNSTs) in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) compared with the established maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) cut-off of >3.5. Forty-nine patients underwent FDG PET/CT. Intra-tumour tracer uptake (SUVmax) was normalised to three different reference tissues (tumour-to-liver, tumour-to-muscle and tumour-to-fat ratios). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used out to assess the diagnostic performance. Histopathology and follow-up served as the reference standard. Intra-tumour tracer uptake correlated significantly with liver uptake (r{sub s} = 0.58, P = 0.016). On ROC analysis, the optimum threshold for tumour-to-liver ratio was >2.6 (AUC = 0.9735). Both the SUVmax cut-off value of >3.5 and a tumour-to-liver ratio >2.6 provided a sensitivity of 100 %, but specificity was significantly higher for the latter (90.3 % vs 79.8 %; P = 0.013). In patients with NF1, quantitative {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging may identify malignant change in neurofibromas with high accuracy. Specificity could be significantly increased by using the tumour-to-liver ratio. The authors recommend further evaluation of a tumour-to-liver ratio cut-off value of >2.6 for diagnostic intervention planning. (orig.)

  10. [Selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation combined with exercise therapy for treating spastic cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs caused by cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Hu, Wei; Cao, Xu; Xu, Shi-gang; Li, De-kui; Xu, Lin

    2009-10-01

    To explore the feasibility and the result for the surgical treatment of spastic cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs in patients who underwent the selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation combined with exercise therapy. From March 2004 to April 2008, 27 patients included 19 boys and 8 girls, aging 13-21 years with an average of 15 years underwent selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation with exercise therapy. The AXIS 8 holes titanium plate was inserted into the lateral mass of spinous process through guidance of the nerve stimulator, choosed fasciculus of low-threshold nerve dorsal root and cut off its 1.5 cm. After two weeks, training exercise therapy was done in patients. Training will include lying position, turning body, sitting position, crawling, kneeling and standing position, walking and so on. Spastic Bobath inhibiting abnormal pattern was done in the whole process of training. The muscular tension, motor function (GMFM), functional independence (WeeFIM) were observed after treatment. All patients were followed up from 4 to 16 months with an average of 6 months. Muscular tension score were respectively 3.30 +/- 0.47 and 1.25 +/- 0.44 before and after treatment;GMFM score were respectively 107.82 +/- 55.17 and 131.28 +/- 46.45; WeeFIM score were respectively 57.61 +/- 25.51 and 87.91 +/- 22.39. There was significant improvement before and after treatment (P cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs is safe and effective method, which can decrease muscular tension and improve motor function, which deserves more wide use.

  11. Which are the cut-off values of 2D-Shear Wave Elastography (2D-SWE) liver stiffness measurements predicting different stages of liver fibrosis, considering Transient Elastography (TE) as the reference method?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sporea, Ioan, E-mail: isporea@umft.ro; Bota, Simona, E-mail: bota_simona1982@yahoo.com; Gradinaru-Taşcău, Oana, E-mail: bluonmyown@yahoo.com; Şirli, Roxana, E-mail: roxanasirli@gmail.com; Popescu, Alina, E-mail: alinamircea.popescu@gmail.com; Jurchiş, Ana, E-mail: ana.jurchis@yahoo.com

    2014-03-15

    Introduction: To identify liver stiffness (LS) cut-off values assessed by means of 2D-Shear Wave Elastography (2D-SWE) for predicting different stages of liver fibrosis, considering Transient Elastography (TE) as the reference method. Methods: Our prospective study included 383 consecutive subjects, with or without hepatopathies, in which LS was evaluated by means of TE and 2D-SWE. To discriminate between various stages of fibrosis by TE we used the following LS cut-offs (kPa): F1-6, F2-7.2, F3-9.6 and F4-14.5. Results: The rate of reliable LS measurements was similar for TE and 2D-SWE: 73.9% vs. 79.9%, p = 0.06. Older age and higher BMI were associated for both TE and 2D-SWE with the impossibility to obtain reliable LS measurements. Reliable LS measurements by both elastographic methods were obtained in 65.2% of patients. A significant correlation was found between TE and 2D-SWE measurements (r = 0.68). The best LS cut-off values assessed by 2D-SWE for predicting different stages of liver fibrosis were: F ≥ 1: >7.1 kPa (AUROC = 0.825); F ≥ 2: >7.8 kPa (AUROC = 0.859); F ≥ 3: >8 kPa (AUROC = 0.897) and for F = 4: >11.5 kPa (AUROC = 0.914). Conclusions: 2D-SWE is a reliable method for the non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis, considering TE as the reference method. The accuracy of 2D-SWE measurements increased with the severity of liver fibrosis.

  12. Alcohol and illicit drugs in drivers involved in road traffic crashes in the Milan area. A comparison with normal traffic reveals the possible inadequacy of current cut-off limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Davide; Manca, Monica; Banfi, Giuseppe; Locatelli, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs in Italy is regulated by the articles 186 and 187 of the National Street Code. Epidemiological studies on drivers involved in road traffic crashes (RTC) provide useful information about the use/abuse of these substances in the general population. Comparison with case control studies may reveal important information like the cut-off limits adequacy. Data from 1587 blood tests for alcohol and 1258 blood tests for illicit drugs on drivers involved in RTC around Milan between 2012 and 2016, were analyzed and compared with a published random survey (DRUID) from the European Community. Our data from RTC-involved drivers show that alcohol abuse is not age-related whereas illicit drugs are more common in young people. Cannabinoids are frequent among younger drivers (median age 27) whereas cocaine is more often detected in adults (median age 34). The calculated odds ratio after comparison with the DRUID survey shows that a blood alcohol concentration below the legal limit does not represent a risk factor in having a car accident whereas concentrations of cocaine and cannabinoids within the legal limits are associated with being involved in a car accident. Despite authority efforts, the abuse of alcohol and illicit drugs is still common in young drivers. We suspect that the cut-off limits for cannabinoids and cocaine and/or the pre-analytical procedures for these substances are inadequate. We suggest a better standardization of the procedure by shortening the time interval between the request for investigation and blood collection and propose the adoption of more stringent cut-off limits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The prevalence rate of internet addiction among Japanese college students: two cross-sectional studies and reconsideration of cut-off points of Young's internet addiction test in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Masaru; Teo, Alan R; Shiraishi, Masaki; Tayama, Masaya; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Kato, Takahiro A

    2018-05-30

    Due to variation in estimates of the prevalence of internet addiction (IA) in prior research, we conducted two cross-sectional studies over two years and investigated the prevalence rate of IA in college students in Japan, and reconsidered appropriate cut-off points of self-rating scale to screen possible IA. This study is composed of two parts: survey I in 2014 and survey II in 2016, which were conducted in the same schools with an interval of two years. The study questionnaire included questions about demographics and internet use, and the Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Additionally, the subjects in survey II were asked about self-reported IA. There were 1,005 respondents in total with a mean age of 18.9±1.3. The mean IAT scores remained stable between 2014 and 2016: 45.2±12.6 in survey I and 45.5±13.1 in survey II (overall mean IAT score of 45.4±13.0). With respect to self-reported IA in survey II, a total of 21.6% agreed (score of 5 or 6 on a 6-point Likert scale). We categorized these subjects as IA, and the remainder as non-IA. The mean IAT score showed significant difference between these two groups (57.8±14.3 vs 42.1±10.7, p<0.001). The severity of symptoms of IA among Japanese college students appears stable in recent years, with a mean IAT scores of over 40. Our results suggest that a screening score cut-off of 40 on the IAT could be reconsidered and that of 50 might be proposed for the cut-off. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimal cut-off values for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and pre-diabetes screening: Developments in research and prospects for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Li, Xueqin; Song, Peipei; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) appears to be increasing rapidly, threatening to reduce life expectancy for humans around the globe. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has estimated that there will be 642 million people living with the disease by 2040 and half as many again who will be not diagnosed. This means that pre-DM screening is a critical issue. Insulin resistance (IR) has emerged as a major pathophysiological factor in the development and progression of DM since it is evident in susceptible individuals at the early stages of DM, and particularly type 2 DM (T2DM). Therefore, assessment of IR via the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) is a key index for the primary prevention of DM and is thus found in guidelines for screening of high-risk groups. However, the cut-off values of HOMA-IR differ for different races, ages, genders, diseases, complications, etc. due to the complexity of IR. This hampers the determination of specific cut-off values of HOMA-IR in different places and in different situations. China has not published an official index to gauge IR for primary prevention of T2DM in the diabetic and non-diabetic population except for children and adolescents ages 6-12 years. Hence, this article summarizes developments in research on IR, HOMA-IR, and pre-DM screening in order to provide a reference for optimal cut-off values of HOMA-IR for the diagnosis of DM in the Chinese population.

  15. Behaviour of a new composite mesh for the repair of full-thickness abdominal wall defects in a rabbit model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Pascual

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Composite biomaterials designed for the repair of abdominal wall defects are composed of a mesh component and a laminar barrier in contact with the visceral peritoneum. This study assesses the behaviour of a new composite mesh by comparing it with two latest-generation composites currently used in clinical practice. METHODS: Defects (7x5cm created in the anterior abdominal wall of New Zealand White rabbits were repaired using a polypropylene mesh and the composites: Physiomesh(TM; Ventralight(TM and a new composite mesh with a three-dimensional macroporous polyester structure and an oxidized collagen/chitosan barrier. Animals were sacrificed on days 14 and 90 postimplant. Specimens were processed to determine host tissue incorporation, gene/protein expression of neo-collagens (RT-PCR/immunofluorescence, macrophage response (RAM-11-immunolabelling and biomechanical resistance. On postoperative days 7/14, each animal was examined laparoscopically to quantify adhesions between the visceral peritoneum and implant. RESULTS: The new composite mesh showed the lowest incidence of seroma in the short term. At each time point, the mesh surface covered with adhesions was greater in controls than composites. By day 14, the implants were fully infiltrated by a loose connective tissue that became denser over time. At 90 days, the peritoneal mesh surface was lined with a stable mesothelium. The new composite mesh induced more rapid tissue maturation than Physiomesh(TM, giving rise to a neoformed tissue containing more type I collagen. In Ventralight(TM the macrophage reaction was intense and significantly greater than the other composites at both follow-up times. Tensile strengths were similar for each biomaterial. CONCLUSIONS: All composites showed optimal peritoneal behaviour, inducing good peritoneal regeneration and scarce postoperative adhesion formation. A greater foreign body reaction was observed for Ventralight(TM. All composites induced

  16. Application of composition modulated thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Film produced by evaporating two components through a rotating pinwheel shutter which cuts off the vapor first from one source and then the other are evaluated. These films have a modulated composition rather than a layered structure. Mechanical properties were determined using a bulge tester

  17. Molecular level computational studies of polyethylene and polyacrylonitrile composites containing single walled carbon nanotubes: effect of carboxylic acid functionalization on nanotube-polymer interfacial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh eHaghighatpanah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics and molecular mechanics methods have been used to investigate additive-polymer interfacial properties in single walled carbon nanotube – polyethylene and single walled carbon nanotube – polyacrylonitrile composites. Properties such as the interfacial shear stress and bonding energy are similar for the two composites. In contrast, functionalizing the single walled carbon nanotubes with carboxylic acid groups leads to an increase in these properties, with a larger increase for the polar polyacrylonitrile composite. Increasing the percentage of carbon atoms that were functionalized from 1% to 5% also leads to an increase in the interfacial properties. In addition, the interfacial properties depend on the location of the functional groups on the single walled carbon nanotube wall.

  18. Cell Wall Composition of Neurospora crassa Under Conditions of Copper Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanyam, C.; Venkateswerlu, G.; Rao, S. L. N.

    1983-01-01

    The mycelia of Neurospora crassa grown in the presence of high concentrations of copper were blue in color, but only on a medium containing inorganic nitrate and phosphate as the nitrogen and phosphate sources, respectively. The cell wall isolate of the blue mycelia contained large amounts (12%) of copper and higher amounts of chitosan, phosphate, and amino groups, with a 42% decrease in the chitin content. Although all the glucosamine of the cell wall of control cultures could be released wi...

  19. The contribution of cell wall composition in the expansion of Camellia sinensis seedlings roots in response to aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Masoumeh; Ghanati, Faezeh; Safarnejad, Mohammad Reza; Chashmi, Najmeh Ahmadian

    2018-02-01

    Treatment with aluminum triggers a unique response in tea seedlings resulting in biochemical modification of the cell wall, regulation of the activity of the loosening agents, and elongation of root. Unlike most terrestrial plants, tea (Camellia sinensis L.) responds to aluminum (Al) through the promotion of its root elongation; but the real mechanism(s) behind this phenomenon is not well understood. A plausible relationship between the modifications of the cell wall and the promotion of root elongation was examined in tea seedlings treated for 8 days with 400 µM Al. The mechanical properties of the cell wall, the composition of its polysaccharides and their capacity to absorb Al, the expression of genes, and the activities of the wall-modifying proteins were studied. With 6 h of the treatment, about 40% of the absorbed Al was bound to the cell wall; however, the amount did not increase thereafter. Meanwhile, the activity of pectin methylesterase, the level of pectin demethylation, the amounts and the average molecular mass of xyloglucan in the root apices significantly decreased upon exposure to Al, resulting in the reduction of Al binding sites. On the other hand, the activity and the gene expression of peroxidase decreased, whereas the activity and gene expression of xyloglucan-degrading enzymes, the expression of expansin A and the H + -ATPase4 genes increased in the Al-treated plants. Interestingly, it was accompanied by the increase of elastic and viscous extensibility of the root apices. From the results, it can be suggested that the biochemical modification of the cell walls reduces sites of Al binding to roots and triggers the activity of the loosening agents, thereby increasing the length of tea roots.

  20. Enhanced mechanical properties of single walled carbon nanotube-borosilicate glass composite due to cushioning effect and localized plastic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan Ghosh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A borosilicate glass composite has been fabricated incorporating Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNT in the glass matrix by melt-quench technique. Hardness and the fracture toughness of the composite, were found to increase moderately with respect to the base glass. Interestingly one can observe accumulation of SWCNT bundles around the crack zone though no such accumulation was observed in the crack free indentation zone. The enhanced hardness of the composite was discussed by correlating the cushioning as well as toughening behavior of the agglomerated SWCNT bundles. On the other hand enhanced plastic flow was proposed to be the prime reason for the accumulation of SWCNT bundles around the crack, which increases the toughness of the composite by reducing the crack length. Moreover to ascertain the enhanced plasticity of the composite than that of the glass we calculated the recovery resistance of glass and the composite where recovery resistance of composite was found to be higher than that of the glass.

  1. The analysis of thin walled composite laminated helicopter rotor with hierarchical warping functions and finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dechao; Deng, Zhongmin; Wang, Xingwei

    2001-08-01

    In the present paper, a series of hierarchical warping functions is developed to analyze the static and dynamic problems of thin walled composite laminated helicopter rotors composed of several layers with single closed cell. This method is the development and extension of the traditional constrained warping theory of thin walled metallic beams, which had been proved very successful since 1940s. The warping distribution along the perimeter of each layer is expanded into a series of successively corrective warping functions with the traditional warping function caused by free torsion or free bending as the first term, and is assumed to be piecewise linear along the thickness direction of layers. The governing equations are derived based upon the variational principle of minimum potential energy for static analysis and Rayleigh Quotient for free vibration analysis. Then the hierarchical finite element method is introduced to form a numerical algorithm. Both static and natural vibration problems of sample box beams are analyzed with the present method to show the main mechanical behavior of the thin walled composite laminated helicopter rotor.

  2. Mechanical properties of PET composites using multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized by inorganic and itaconic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. May-Pat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were oxidized by two different acid treatments and further functionalized with itaconic acid (IA. The functionalized MWCNTs were used to fabricate Poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET composites by melt mixing. The presence of functional groups on the surface of the treated MWCNTs was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The MWCNTs oxidized with a concentrated mixture of HNO3 and H2SO4 exhibited more oxygen containing functional groups (OH, COOH but also suffer larger structural degradation than those oxidized by a mild treatment based on diluted HNO3 followed by H2O2. PET composites were fabricated using the oxidized-only and oxidized followed by functionalization with IA MWCNTs. PET composites fabricated with MWCNT oxidized by mild conditions showed improved tensile strength and failure strain, while harsh MWCNT oxidation render them overly brittle.

  3. Decoration of multi-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer wrapping and its application in MWCNT/polyethylene composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, An-En; Tsai, Shu-Ya; Hsu, Mei-Wen; Chang, Shinn-Jen

    2012-05-06

    We dispersed the non-covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a polymer dispersant and obtained a powder of polymer-wrapped CNTs. The UV-vis absorption spectrum was used to investigate the optimal weight ratio of the CNTs and polymer dispersant. The powder of polymer-wrapped CNTs had improved the drawbacks of CNTs of being lightweight and difficult to process, and it can re-disperse in a solvent. Then, we blended the polymer-wrapped CNTs and polyethylene (PE) by melt-mixing and produced a conductive masterbatch and CNT/PE composites. The polymer-wrapped CNTs showed lower surface resistivity in composites than the raw CNTs. The scanning electron microscopy images also showed that the polymer-wrapped CNTs can disperse well in composites than the raw CNTs.

  4. Direct Extraction of InP/GaAsSb/InP DHBT Equivalent-Circuit Elements From S-Parameters Measured at Cut-Off and Normal Bias Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Leblanc, Rémy; Poulain, Julien

    2016-01-01

    A unique direct parameter extraction method for the small-signal equivalent-circuit model of InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBTs) is presented. $S$-parameters measured at cut-off bias are used, at first, to extract the distribution factor $X_{0}$ for the base-collector......A unique direct parameter extraction method for the small-signal equivalent-circuit model of InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBTs) is presented. $S$-parameters measured at cut-off bias are used, at first, to extract the distribution factor $X_{0}$ for the base......-collector capacitance at zero collector current and the collector-to-emitter overlap capacitance $C_{ceo}$ present in InP DHBT devices. Low-frequency $S$-parameters measured at normal bias conditions then allows the extraction of the external access resistances $R_{bx}$, $R_{e}$, and $R_{cx}$ as well as the intrinsic...

  5. Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Applied to Abrasive Cut-Off Wheels: An Advanced Aerospace Materials Characterization Method for the Abrasives Industry. A NASA Lewis Research Center Technology Transfer Case History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Farmer, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Abrasive cut-off wheels are at times unintentionally manufactured with nonuniformity that is difficult to identify and sufficiently characterize without time-consuming, destructive examination. One particular nonuniformity is a density variation condition occurring around the wheel circumference or along the radius, or both. This density variation, depending on its severity, can cause wheel warpage and wheel vibration resulting in unacceptable performance and perhaps premature failure of the wheel. Conventional nondestructive evaluation methods such as ultrasonic c-scan imaging and film radiography are inaccurate in their attempts at characterizing the density variation because a superimposing thickness variation exists as well in the wheel. In this article, the single transducer thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method, developed specifically to allow more accurate characterization of aerospace components, is shown to precisely characterize the extent of the density variation in a cut-off wheel having a superimposing thickness variation. The method thereby has potential as an effective quality control tool in the abrasives industry for the wheel manufacturer.

  6. Influence of essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis on the chemical composition of the walls of Aspergillus fumigatus (Fresenius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghfir, B; Fonvieille, J L; Dargent, R

    1997-07-01

    The cell walls of the growing hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus (Fresenius) cultured in the presence or absence of the essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis were isolated and their chemical composition analysed. The presence of the essential oil led to a reduction in levels of neutral sugars, uronic acid and proteins, whereas amino sugars, lipids and phosphorus levels were increased. HPLC analysis of the neutral sugars showed that they consisted mainly of glucose, mannose and galactose, while the amino sugars consisted of glucosamine and galactosamine. The presence of the essential oil in the culture medium induced marked changes in the content of galactose and galactosamine. Cell walls were fractionated by treatment with alkali and acid. The essential oil induced similar alterations in the various fractions with a more marked effect on the major constituents. The alterations were related to changes in the structure of the cells.

  7. Comparative thermal performance of static sunshade and brick cavity wall for energy efficient building envelope in composite climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charde Meghana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient building technologies can reduce energy consumption in buildings. In present paper effect of designed static sunshade, brick cavity wall with brick projections and their combined effect on indoor air temperature has been analyzed by constructing three test rooms each of habitable dimensions (3.0 m × 4.0 m × 3.0 m and studying hourly temperatures on typical days for one month in summer and winter each. The three rooms have also been simulated using a software and the results have been compared with the experimental results. Designed static sunshade increased indoor air temperature in winter while proposed brick cavity wall with brick projections lowered it in summer. Combined effect of building elements lowered indoor air temperature in summer and increased it in winter as compared to outdoor air temperature. It is thus useful for energy conservation in buildings in composite climate.

  8. Thermo-mechanical design windows for SiC/SiC composite first wall of A-SSTR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Kaihui; Satoshi Nishio

    2002-01-01

    The finite element analysis and calculation is performed for the blanket first wall made of SiC/SiC composite material for Advanced Steady-state Tokamak Reactor 2, A-SSTR2, which is now conceptually designed in Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI. Comparison analysis and design window is analyzed by using the finite element code ADINA 7.4. Through 2D calculation for various geometrical configurations and sensitive material properties, a fundamental guideline for first wall and blanket design is established with respect to maximum temperature, thermal and mechanical stress for many configurations. To satisfy hydrodynamic requirement, a4d4 (the dimension of coolant channel is 4 mm x 8 mm, and the distance between neighboring channels is 4 mm) is chosen as design point for high thermal conductivity up to 50 W/m·K

  9. Vibrational behavior of adaptive aircraft wing structures modelled as composite thin-walled beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, O.; Librescu, L.; Rogers, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    The vibrational behavior of cantilevered aircraft wings modeled as thin-walled beams and incorporating piezoelectric effects is studied. Based on the converse piezoelectric effect, the system of piezoelectric actuators conveniently located on the wing yield the control of its associated vertical and lateral bending eigenfrequencies. The possibility revealed by this study enabling one to increase adaptively the eigenfrequencies of thin-walled cantilevered beams could play a significant role in the control of the dynamic response and flutter of wing and rotor blade structures.

  10. Optimisation of the electromagnetic matching of manganese dioxide/multi-wall carbon nanotube composites as dielectric microwave-absorbing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, Tzu-Hao; Chiang, Chih-Chia; Lin, Po-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Huei

    2013-01-01

    An optimised composite sample was prepared using two dielectric materials manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in an epoxy-resin matrix. Structural characterisations of both the synthesised manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) and the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were performed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microwave absorption properties of dielectric composites with different weight fractions of MnO 2 were investigated by measuring the complex permittivity, the complex permeability and the reflection loss in the 2–18 and 18–40 GHz microwave frequency ranges using the free space method. The complex permittivity varied with the MnO 2 content, and the results show that a high concentration of fillers increased the dielectric constant. Therefore, the appropriate combination of components and experimental conditions can produce materials with specific characteristic for use as wide-band microwave absorbers. - Highlights: ► This paper analyses optimised microwave absorption for MnO 2 /MWNT composites. ► Structural characterisations were performed by using XRD and SEM. ► Increasing MnO 2 content enhances the complex permittivity in MnO 2 /MWNT matrix. ► The reflection loss varies with changes content of MnO 2 for required frequency bands

  11. Cell wall composition and digestibility alterations in Brachypodium distachyon achieved through reduced expression of the UDP-arabinopyranose mutase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancour, David M.; Hatfield, Ronald D.; Marita, Jane M.; Rohr, Nicholas A.; Schmitz, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide-activated sugars are essential substrates for plant cell-wall carbohydrate-polymer biosynthesis. The most prevalent grass cell wall (CW) sugars are glucose (Glc), xylose (Xyl), and arabinose (Ara). These sugars are biosynthetically related via the UDP–sugar interconversion pathway. We sought to target and generate UDP–sugar interconversion pathway transgenic Brachypodium distachyon lines resulting in CW carbohydrate composition changes with improved digestibility and normal plant stature. Both RNAi-mediated gene-suppression and constitutive gene-expression approaches were performed. CWs from 336 T0 transgenic plants with normal appearance were screened for complete carbohydrate composition. RNAi mutants of BdRGP1, a UDP-arabinopyranose mutase, resulted in large alterations in CW carbohydrate composition with significant decreases in CW Ara content but with minimal change in plant stature. Five independent RNAi-RGP1 T1 plant lines were used for in-depth analysis of plant CWs. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that gene expression levels for BdRGP1, BdRGP2, and BdRGP3 were reduced in RNAi-RGP1 plants to 15–20% of controls. CW Ara content was reduced by 23–51% of control levels. No alterations in CW Xyl and Glc content were observed. Corresponding decreases in CW ferulic acid (FA) and ferulic acid-dimers (FA-dimers) were observed. Additionally, CW p-coumarates (pCA) were decreased. We demonstrate the CW pCA decrease corresponds to Ara-coupled pCA. Xylanase-mediated digestibility of RNAi-RGP1 Brachypodium CWs resulted in a near twofold increase of released total carbohydrate. However, cellulolytic hydrolysis of CW material was inhibited in leaves of RNAi-RGP1 mutants. Our results indicate that targeted manipulation of UDP–sugar biosynthesis can result in biomass with substantially altered compositions and highlights the complex effect CW composition has on digestibility. PMID:26136761

  12. Development and application of new composite grouting material for sealing groundwater inflow and reinforcing wall rock in deep mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinpeng, Zhang; Limin, Liu; Futao, Zhang; Junzhi, Cao

    2018-04-04

    With cement, bentonite, water glass, J85 accelerator, retarder and water as raw materials, a new composite grouting material used to seal groundwater inflow and reinforce wall rock in deep fractured rock mass was developed in this paper. Based on the reaction mechanism of raw material, the pumpable time, stone rate, initial setting time, plastic strength and unconfined compressive strength of multi-group proportion grouts were tested by orthogonal experiment. Then, the optimum proportion of composite grouting material was selected and applied to the grouting engineering for sealing groundwater inflow and reinforcing wall rock in mine shaft lining. The results show the mixing proportion of the maximum pumpable time, maximum stone rate and minimum initial setting time of grout are A K4 B K1 C K4 D K2 , A K3 B K1 C K1 D K4 and A K3 B K3 C K4 D K1 , respectively. The mixing proportion of the maximum plastic strength and unconfined compressive strength of grouts concretion bodies are A K1 B K1 C K1 D K3 and A K1 B K1 C K1 D K1 , respectively. Balanced the above 5 indicators overall and determined the optimum proportion of grouts: bentonite-cement ratio of 1.0, water-solid ratio of 3.5, accelerator content of 2.9% and retarder content of 1.45%. This new composite grouting material had good effect on the grouting engineering for sealing groundwater inflow and reinforcing wall rock in deep fractured rock mass.

  13. In-situ Raman microprobe studies of plant cell walls: macromolecular organization and compositional variability in the secondary wall of Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.P. Agarwal; R.H. Atalla

    1986-01-01

    Native-state organization and distribution of cell-wall components in the secondary wall of woody tissue from P. mariana (Black Spruce) have been investigated using polarized Raman microspectroscopy. Evidence for orientation is detected through Raman intensity variations resulting from rotations of the exciting electric vector with respect to cell-wall geometry....

  14. Overexpression of PhEXPA1 increases cell size, modifies cell wall polymer composition and affects the timing of axillary meristem development in Petunia hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Dal Santo, Silvia; Sanson, Andrea; de Groot, Peter; Sordo, Sara; Citterio, Sandra; Monti, Francesca; Pezzotti, Mario

    2011-08-01

    • Expansins are cell wall proteins required for cell enlargement and cell wall loosening during many developmental processes. The involvement of the Petunia hybrida expansin A1 (PhEXPA1) gene in cell expansion, the control of organ size and cell wall polysaccharide composition was investigated by overexpressing PhEXPA1 in petunia plants. • PhEXPA1 promoter activity was evaluated using a promoter-GUS assay and the protein's subcellular localization was established by expressing a PhEXPA1-GFP fusion protein. PhEXPA1 was overexpressed in transgenic plants using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and chemical analysis were used for the quantitative analysis of cell wall polymers. • The GUS and GFP assays demonstrated that PhEXPA1 is present in the cell walls of expanding tissues. The constitutive overexpression of PhEXPA1 significantly affected expansin activity and organ size, leading to changes in the architecture of petunia plants by initiating premature axillary meristem outgrowth. Moreover, a significant change in cell wall polymer composition in the petal limbs of transgenic plants was observed. • These results support a role for expansins in the determination of organ shape, in lateral branching, and in the variation of cell wall polymer composition, probably reflecting a complex role in cell wall metabolism. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Suppression of CCR impacts metabolite profile and cell wall composition in Pinus radiata tracheary elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Armin; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Goeminne, Geert; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Steward, Diane; Torr, Kirk; Donaldson, Lloyd; Boerjan, Wout; Ralph, John

    2013-01-01

    Suppression of the lignin-related gene cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) in the Pinus radiata tracheary element (TE) system impacted both the metabolite profile and the cell wall matrix in CCR-RNAi lines. UPLC-MS/MS-based metabolite profiling identified elevated levels of p-coumaroyl hexose, caffeic acid hexoside and ferulic acid hexoside in CCR-RNAi lines, indicating a redirection of metabolite flow within phenylpropanoid metabolism. Dilignols derived from coniferyl alcohol such as G(8-5)G, G(8-O-4)G and isodihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (IDDDC) were substantially depleted, providing evidence for CCR's involvement in coniferyl alcohol biosynthesis. Severe CCR suppression almost halved lignin content in TEs based on a depletion of both H-type and G-type lignin, providing evidence for CCR's involvement in the biosynthesis of both lignin types. 2D-NMR studies revealed minor changes in the H:G-ratio and consequently a largely unchanged interunit linkage distribution in the lignin polymer. However, unusual cell wall components including ferulate and unsaturated fatty acids were identified in TEs by thioacidolysis, pyrolysis-GC/MS and/or 2D-NMR in CCR-RNAi lines, providing new insights into the consequences of CCR suppression in pine. Interestingly, CCR suppression substantially promoted pyrolytic breakdown of cell wall polysaccharides, a phenotype most likely caused by the incorporation of acidic compounds into the cell wall matrix in CCR-RNAi lines.

  16. Fracture toughness of epoxy/multi-walled carbon nanotube nano-composites under bending and shear loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayatollahi, M.R.; Shadlou, S.; Shokrieh, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mode I and mode II fracture tests were conducted on epoxy/MWCNT nano-composites. → Addition of MWCNT to epoxy increased both K Ic and K IIc of nano-composites. → The improvement in K IIc was more pronounced than in K Ic . → Mode I and mode II fracture surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy. -- Abstract: The effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the mechanical properties of epoxy/MWCNT nano-composites were studied with emphasis on fracture toughness under bending and shear loading conditions. Several finite element (FE) analyses were performed to determine appropriate shear loading boundary conditions for a single-edge notch bend specimen (SENB) and an equation was derived for calculating the shear loading fracture toughness from the fracture load. It was seen that the increase in fracture toughness of nano-composite depends on the type of loading. That is to say, the presence of MWCNTs had a greater effect on fracture toughness of nano-composites under shear loading compared with normal loading. To study the fracture mechanisms, several scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures were taken from the fracture surfaces. A correlation was found between the characteristics of fracture surface and the mechanical behaviors observed in the fracture tests.

  17. Ultralow percolation threshold of single walled carbon nanotube-epoxy composites synthesized via an ionic liquid dispersant/initiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watters, Arianna L; Palmese, Giuseppe R

    2014-01-01

    Uniform dispersion of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in an epoxy was achieved by a streamlined mechano-chemical processing method. SWNT-epoxy composites were synthesized using a room temperature ionic liquid (IL) with an imidazolium cation and dicyanamide anion. The novel approach of using ionic liquid that behaves as a dispersant for SWNTs and initiator for epoxy polymerization greatly simplifies nanocomposite synthesis. The material was processed using simple and scalable three roll milling. The SWNT dispersion of the resultant composite was evaluated by electron microscopy and electrical conductivity measurements in conjunction with percolation theory. Processing conditions were optimized to achieve the lowest possible percolation threshold, 4.29 × 10 −5 volume fraction SWNTs. This percolation threshold is among the best reported in literature yet it was obtained using a streamlined method that greatly simplifies processing. (paper)

  18. Ultralow percolation threshold of single walled carbon nanotube-epoxy composites synthesized via an ionic liquid dispersant/initiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Arianna L.; Palmese, Giuseppe R.

    2014-09-01

    Uniform dispersion of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in an epoxy was achieved by a streamlined mechano-chemical processing method. SWNT-epoxy composites were synthesized using a room temperature ionic liquid (IL) with an imidazolium cation and dicyanamide anion. The novel approach of using ionic liquid that behaves as a dispersant for SWNTs and initiator for epoxy polymerization greatly simplifies nanocomposite synthesis. The material was processed using simple and scalable three roll milling. The SWNT dispersion of the resultant composite was evaluated by electron microscopy and electrical conductivity measurements in conjunction with percolation theory. Processing conditions were optimized to achieve the lowest possible percolation threshold, 4.29 × 10-5 volume fraction SWNTs. This percolation threshold is among the best reported in literature yet it was obtained using a streamlined method that greatly simplifies processing.

  19. Polyaniline/single-wall carbon nanotube (PANI/SWCNT) composites for high performance supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vinay; Miura, Norio [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2006-12-01

    PANI/SWCNT composites were prepared by electrochemical polymerisation of polyaniline onto SWCNTs and their capacitive performance was evaluated by means of cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling in 1M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. The PANI/SWCNT composites single electrode showed much higher specific capacitance, specific energy and specific power than pure PANI and SWCNTs. The highest specific capacitance, specific power and specific energy values of 485F/g, 228Wh/kg and 2250W/kg were observed for 73wt.% PANI deposited onto SWCNTs. PANI/SWCNT composites also showed long cyclic stability. Based upon the variations in the surface morphologies and specific capacitance of the composite, a mechanism is proposed to explain enhancement in the capacitive characteristics. The PANI/SWCNT composites have demonstrated the potential as excellent electrode materials for application in high performance supercapacitors. (author)

  20. [Case-control study on needle-knife to cut off the medial branch of the lumbar posterior ramus under C-arm guiding for the treatment of low back pain caused by lumbar facet osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Di; Xu, Wei-xing; Ding, Wei-Guo; Guo, Qiao-Feng; Ma, Gou-ping; Zhu, Wei-min

    2013-03-01

    To study the clinical efficacy of needle-knife to cut off the medial branch of the lumbar posterior ramus under C-arm guiding to treat low back pain caused by lumbar facet osteoarthritis. From July 2009 to June 2011, 60 patients with low back pain caused by lumbar facet osteoarthritis were reviewed,including 34 males and 26 females, ranging in age from 39 to 73 years old,averaged 61.9 years old; the duration of the disease ranged from 6 to 120 months, with a mean of 18.9 months. All the patients were divided into two groups, 30 patients (18 males and 12 females, ranging in age from 39 to 71 years old, needle-knife group) were treated with needle-knife to cut off medial branch of the lumbar posterior ramus under C -arm guiding and the other 30 patients(16 males and 14 females, ranging in age from 41 to 73 years old, hormone injection group) were treated with hormone injection in lumbar facet joint under C-arm guiding. The preoperative JOA scores and the scores at the 1st, 12th and 26th weeks after treatment were analyzed. Before treatment,the JOA scores between the two groups had no significant difference (P= 0.479); after 1 week of treatment, the JOA scores between the two groups had significant difference (P= 0.040), the improvement rate of hormone injection group was superior than that of the needle-knife group,which were (58.73+/-18.20)% in needle-knife group and (71.10+/-22.19)% in hormone injection group; after 12 weeks of treatment, the JOA scores between the two groups had no significant difference(P=0.569), and the improvement rate between the two groups had no significant difference,which were (50.09+/-19.33)% in the needle-knife group and (48.70+/-18.36)%) in the hormone injection group; after 26 weeks of treatment,the JOA scores between the two groups had significant difference (P=0.000), the improvement rate of hormone injection group was superior than that of the needle-knife group,which were (48.56+/-28.24)% in needle-knife group and (15

  1. Twin-screw extrusion of multi walled carbon nanotubes reinforced polycarbonate composites: Investigation of electrical and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, C; Sathyanarayana, S; Weiss, P; Mikonsaari, I; Hübner, C; Henning, F; Elsner, P

    2012-01-01

    1, 3 and 5 wt.% multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) reinforced polycarbonate (PC) composites were processed in a twin-screw extruder (L/D=52) with two different screw speeds, throughputs and screw configurations. Extruded strands were characterized for dispersion and measurement of electrical resistivities while the pelletized extrudates were injection molded to produce samples for mechanical and further electrical property measurements. The absolute resistance of the melt was recorded with an online melt resistance setup developed by our group. The volume resistivity of pure PC (10 17 Ω.m) was lowered to 10 4 − 10 5 Ω.m on an injection molded PC-1 wt. % MWCNT composite. 3 wt.% MWCNT incorporated composites showed volume resistivity less than 1 Ω.m independent of process conditions. At lower filler contents the volume resistivity of injection molded samples were higher than those observed on the extruded strands and this effect diminished with increasing MWCNT loadings; owing to the loss of CNT network contacts due to shear induced filler orientation and core-skin effects. The quality of dispersion was exceptional for all filler concentrations at any process condition owing to the affinity of MWCNT towards PC due to the lower interfacial energy difference between the reactants and high polarity of PC. The modulus and strength of the composites increased with filler addition, however at 5 wt.% filler loading the strength of the composites processed with lower SMEs was less than that observed on the 1 wt.% MWCNT reinforced PC composite. The elongation of the composites at maximum tensile strength were comparable to that of neat PC except for composites with 5 wt.% MWCNT loading processed with lower SMEs. Composites with identical filler loadings which were processed with higher SMEs showed higher notched impact strength values principally because of the ability of very well dispersed filler fractions to inhibit crack propagation. The significance of the

  2. Seismic behavior and design of a primary shield structure consisting of steel-plate composite (SC) walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Peter N., E-mail: boothpn@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN (United States); Varma, Amit H., E-mail: ahvarma@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN (United States); Sener, Kadir C., E-mail: ksener@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN (United States); Mori, Kentaro, E-mail: kentaro_mori@mhi.co.jp [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd, Kobe (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents an analytical evaluation of the seismic behavior and design of a unique primary shield (PSW) structure consisting of steel-plate composite (SC) walls designed for a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant. Researchers in Japan have previously conducted a reduced (1/6th) scale test of a PSW structure to evaluate its seismic (lateral) load-deformation behavior. This paper presents the development and benchmarking of a detailed 3D nonlinear inelastic finite element (NIFE) model to predict the lateral load-deformation response and behavior of the 1/6th scale test structure. The PSW structure consists of thick SC wall segments with complex and irregular geometry that surround the central reactor vessel cavity. The wall segments have three layers of steel plates (one each on the interior and exterior surfaces and one embedded in the middle) that are anchored to the concrete infill with stud anchors. The results from the 3D NIFE analyses include: (i) the lateral load-deformation behavior of the PSW structure, (ii) the progression of yielding in the steel plates, concrete cracking, formation of compression struts, and (iii) the final failure mode. These results are compared and benchmarked using experimental measurements and observations reported by Shodo et al. (2003). The analytical results provide significant insight into the lateral behavior and strength of the PSW structure, and are used for developing a design approach. This design approach starts with ACI 349 code equations for reinforced concrete shear walls and modifies them for application to the PSW structure. A simplified 3D linear elastic finite element (LEFE) model of the PSW structure is also proposed as a conventional structural analysis tool for estimating the design force demands for various load combinations.

  3. Seismic behavior and design of a primary shield structure consisting of steel-plate composite (SC) walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Peter N.; Varma, Amit H.; Sener, Kadir C.; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical evaluation of the seismic behavior and design of a unique primary shield (PSW) structure consisting of steel-plate composite (SC) walls designed for a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant. Researchers in Japan have previously conducted a reduced (1/6th) scale test of a PSW structure to evaluate its seismic (lateral) load-deformation behavior. This paper presents the development and benchmarking of a detailed 3D nonlinear inelastic finite element (NIFE) model to predict the lateral load-deformation response and behavior of the 1/6th scale test structure. The PSW structure consists of thick SC wall segments with complex and irregular geometry that surround the central reactor vessel cavity. The wall segments have three layers of steel plates (one each on the interior and exterior surfaces and one embedded in the middle) that are anchored to the concrete infill with stud anchors. The results from the 3D NIFE analyses include: (i) the lateral load-deformation behavior of the PSW structure, (ii) the progression of yielding in the steel plates, concrete cracking, formation of compression struts, and (iii) the final failure mode. These results are compared and benchmarked using experimental measurements and observations reported by Shodo et al. (2003). The analytical results provide significant insight into the lateral behavior and strength of the PSW structure, and are used for developing a design approach. This design approach starts with ACI 349 code equations for reinforced concrete shear walls and modifies them for application to the PSW structure. A simplified 3D linear elastic finite element (LEFE) model of the PSW structure is also proposed as a conventional structural analysis tool for estimating the design force demands for various load combinations.

  4. Effects of Operating Temperature on Droplet Casting of Flexible Polymer/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Composite Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chern Chiou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the performance of a flexible polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT composite sensor array as a function of operating temperature. The response magnitudes of a cost-effective flexible gas sensor array equipped with a heater were measured with respect to five different operating temperatures (room temperature, 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C, and 70 °C via impedance spectrum measurement and sensing response experiments. The selected polymers that were droplet cast to coat a MWCNT conductive layer to form two-layer polymer/MWCNT composite sensing films included ethyl cellulose (EC, polyethylene oxide (PEO, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP. Electrical characterization of impedance, sensing response magnitude, and scanning electron microscope (SEM morphology of each type of polymer/MWCNT composite film was performed at different operating temperatures. With respect to ethanol, the response magnitude of the sensor decreased with increasing operating temperatures. The results indicated that the higher operating temperature could reduce the response and influence the sensitivity of the polymer/MWCNT gas sensor array. The morphology of polymer/MWCNT composite films revealed that there were changes in the porous film after volatile organic compound (VOC testing.

  5. Gel spinning of PVA composite fibers with high content of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yizhe; Lai, Dengpan; Zou, Liming; Ling, Xinlong; Lu, Hongwei; Xu, Yongjing

    2015-01-01

    In this report, poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite fibers with high content of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide (MWCNTs-GO) hybrids were prepared by gel spinning, and were characterized by TGA, DSC, SEM, XL-2 yarn strength tester and electrical conductivity measurement. The total content of MWCNTs-GO hybrids in the PVA composite fibers, which is up to 25 wt%, was confirmed by TGA analysis. The DSC measurement shows that the melting and crystallization peaks decreased after the addition of nano-fillers. This is due to the reason that the motion of PVA chains is completely confined by strong hydrogen bonding interaction between PVA and nano-fillers. After the addtion of GO, the dispersibility of MWCNTs in composite fibers improved slightly. And the tensile strength and Young's modulus increased by 38% and 67%, respectively. This is caused by the increased hydrogen bonding interaction and synergistic effect through hybridization of MWCNTs and GO. More significantly, the electrical conductivity of PVA/MWCNTs/GO composite fibers enhanced by three orders of magnitude with the addition of GO. (paper)

  6. Nonlinear optical properties of polyaniline and poly (o-toluidine) composite thin films with multi walled carbon nano tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaraja, K.K. [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, Leninskii pr. 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Pramodini, S. [Department of Physics, School of Engineering and Technology, Jain University, Jakkasandra Post, Bengaluru 5621112, Karnataka (India); Poornesh, P., E-mail: poorneshp@gmail.com [Nonlinear Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104, Karnataka (India); Telenkov, M.P. [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, Leninskii pr. 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Kityk, I.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Czestochowa University Technology, Czestochowa (Poland)

    2017-05-01

    We report the improved third-order nonlinear optical properties of polyaniline and poly (o-toluidine) with different doping concentrations of multi walled carbon nano tube (MWCNTs) composite thin films investigated using z-scan technique and continuous wave He–Ne laser at 633 nm wavelength was used as source of excitation. Thin films were prepared by spin coating technique on glass substrate. The structural properties of the composite films were analysed by X-ray diffraction studies and the characteristic peaks corresponding to MWCNTs and polymers have been observed. The surface morphology of the deposited films was analysed using scanning electron microscopy and it confirms that the polymer in the composites has been coated on the MWCNTs homogeneously. The z-scan results reveal that the films exhibit reverse saturable absorption and self-defocusing nonlinearity. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ{sup (3)} is found to be of the order of 10{sup −3} esu. Also, optical power limiting and clamping experiment was performed. The clamping values increases with increase in concentration and the lowest clamping observed for composite films are 1 mW and 0.7 mW.

  7. Effect of cooling rate on the properties of high density polyethylene/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Dong; Harkin-Jones, Eileen [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen’s University Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom); Linton, David [School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Queen’s University Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-22

    High density polyethylene (HDPE)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites were prepared by melt mixing using twin-screw extrusion. The extruded pellets were compression moulded at 200°C for 5min followed by cooling at different cooling rates (20°C/min and 300°C/min respectively) to produce sheets for characterization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the MWCNTs are uniformly dispersed in the HDPE. At 4 wt% addition of MWCNTs composite modulus increased by over 110% compared with the unfilled HDPE (regardless of the cooling rate). The yield strength of both unfilled and filled HDPE decreased after rapid cooling by about 10% due to a lower crystallinity and imperfect crystallites. The electrical percolation threshold of composites, irrespective of the cooling rate, is between a MWCNT concentration of 1∼2 wt%. Interestingly, the electrical resistivity of the rapidly cooled composite with 2 wt% MWCNTs is lower than that of the slowly cooled composites with the same MWCNT loading. This may be due to the lower crystallinity and smaller crystallites facilitating the formation of conductive pathways. This result may have significant implications for both process control and the tailoring of electrical conductivity in the manufacture of conductive HDPE/MWCNT nanocomposites.

  8. Effect of cooling rate on the properties of high density polyethylene/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Dong; Harkin-Jones, Eileen; Linton, David

    2015-01-01

    High density polyethylene (HDPE)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites were prepared by melt mixing using twin-screw extrusion. The extruded pellets were compression moulded at 200°C for 5min followed by cooling at different cooling rates (20°C/min and 300°C/min respectively) to produce sheets for characterization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the MWCNTs are uniformly dispersed in the HDPE. At 4 wt% addition of MWCNTs composite modulus increased by over 110% compared with the unfilled HDPE (regardless of the cooling rate). The yield strength of both unfilled and filled HDPE decreased after rapid cooling by about 10% due to a lower crystallinity and imperfect crystallites. The electrical percolation threshold of composites, irrespective of the cooling rate, is between a MWCNT concentration of 1∼2 wt%. Interestingly, the electrical resistivity of the rapidly cooled composite with 2 wt% MWCNTs is lower than that of the slowly cooled composites with the same MWCNT loading. This may be due to the lower crystallinity and smaller crystallites facilitating the formation of conductive pathways. This result may have significant implications for both process control and the tailoring of electrical conductivity in the manufacture of conductive HDPE/MWCNT nanocomposites

  9. Unexpected features of exponentially growing Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 cell suspension culture in relation to excreted extracellular polysaccharides and cell wall composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issawi, Mohammad; Muhieddine, Mohammad; Girard, Celine; Sol, Vincent; Riou, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    This article presents a new insight about TBY-2 cells; from extracellular polysaccharides secretion to cell wall composition during cell suspension culture. In the medium of cells taken 2 days after dilution (end of lag phase), a two unit pH decrease from 5.38 to 3.45 was observed and linked to a high uronic acid (UA) amount secretion (47.8%) while, in 4 and 7 day-old spent media, pH increased and UA amounts decreased 35.6 and 42.3% UA, respectively. To attain deeper knowledge of the putative link between extracellular polysaccharide excretion and cell wall composition, we determined cell wall UA and neutral sugar composition of cells from D2 to D12 cultures. While cell walls from D2 and D3 cells contained a large amount of uronic acid (twice as much as the other analysed cell walls), similar amounts of neutral sugar were detected in cells from lag to end of exponential phase cells suggesting an enriched pectin network in young cultures. Indeed, monosaccharide composition analysis leads to an estimated percentage of pectins of 56% for D3 cell wall against 45% D7 cell walls indicating that the cells at the mid-exponential growth phase re-organized their cell wall linked to a decrease in secreted UA that finally led to a stabilization of the spent medium pH to 5.4. In conclusion, TBY-2 cell suspension from lag to stationary phase showed cell wall remodeling that could be of interest in drug interaction and internalization study.

  10. Poly(malachite green) at nafion doped multi-walled carbon nanotube composite film for simple aliphatic alcohols sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umasankar, Yogeswaran; Periasamy, Arun Prakash; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2010-01-15

    Conductive composite film which contains nafion (NF) doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) along with the incorporation of poly(malachite green) (PMG) has been synthesized on glassy carbon electrode (GCE), gold and indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes by potentiostatic methods. The presence of MWCNTs in the composite film (MWCNTs-NF-PMG) enhances surface coverage concentration (Gamma) of PMG to approximately 396%, and increases the electron transfer rate constant (k(s)) to approximately 305%. Similarly, electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance study reveals the enhancement in the deposition of PMG at MWCNTs-NF film. The surface morphology of the composite film deposited on ITO electrode has been studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). These two techniques reveal that the PMG incorporated on MWCNTs-NF film. The MWCNTs-NF-PMG composite film also exhibits promising enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards the simple aliphatic alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and propanol. The electroanalytical responses of analytes at NF-PMG and MWCNTs-NF-PMG films were measured using both cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). From electroanalytical studies, well defined voltammetric peaks have been obtained at MWCNTs-NF-PMG composite film for methanol, ethanol and propanol at Epa=609, 614 and 602mV respectively. The sensitivity of MWCNTs-NF-PMG composite film towards methanol, ethanol and propanol in CV technique are 0.59, 0.36 and 0.92microAmM(-1)cm(-2) respectively, which are higher than NF-PMG film. Further, the sensitivity values obtained using DPV are higher than the values obtained using CV technique.

  11. Prevalence of swallowing and speech problems in daily life after chemoradiation for head and neck cancer based on cut-off scores of the patient-reported outcome measures SWAL-QOL and SHI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkel, Rico N; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Doornaert, Patricia; Buter, Jan; de Bree, Remco; Langendijk, Johannes A; Aaronson, Neil K; Leemans, C René

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to assess swallowing and speech outcome after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer, based on the patient-reported outcome measures Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and Speech Handicap Index (SHI), both provided with cut-off scores. This is a cross-sectional study. Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery of a University Medical Center. Sixty patients, 6 months to 5 years after chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and SHI, both validated in Dutch and provided with cut-off scores. Associations were tested between the outcome measures and independent variables (age, gender, tumor stage and site, and radiotherapy technique, time since treatment, comorbidity and food intake). Fifty-two patients returned the SWAL-QOL and 47 the SHI (response rate 87 and 78 %, respectively). Swallowing and speech problems were present in 79 and 55 %, respectively. Normal food intake was noticed in 45, 35 % had a soft diet and 20 % tube feeding. Patients with soft diet and tube feeding reported more swallowing problems compared to patients with normal oral intake. Tumor subsite was significantly associated with swallowing outcome (less problems in larynx/hypopharynx compared to oral/oropharynx). Radiation technique was significantly associated with psychosocial speech problems (less problems in patients treated with IMRT). Swallowing and (to a lesser extent) speech problems in daily life are frequently present after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Future prospective studies will give more insight into the course of speech and swallowing problems after chemoradiation and into efficacy of new radiation techniques and swallowing and speech rehabilitation programs.

  12. Multiparameter structural optimization of single-walled carbon nanotube composites: toward record strength, stiffness, and toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Bong Sup; Zhu, Jian; Jan, Edward; Critchley, Kevin; Ho, Szushen; Podsiadlo, Paul; Sun, Kai; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2009-07-28

    Efficient coupling of mechanical properties of SWNTs with the matrix leading to the transfer of unique mechanical properties of SWNTs to the macroscopic composites is a tremendous challenge of today's materials science. The typical mechanical properties of known SWNT composites, such as strength, stiffness, and toughness, are assessed in an introductory survey where we focused on concrete numerical parameters characterizing mechanical properties. Obtaining ideal stress transfer will require fine optimization of nanotube-polymer interface. SWNT nanocomposites were made here by layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and the first example of optimization in respect to key parameters determining the connectivity at the graphene-polymer interface, namely, degree of SWNT oxidation and cross-linking chemistry, was demonstrated. The resulting SWNT-PVA composites demonstrated tensile strength (σ(ult)) = 504.5 ± 67.3 MPa, stiffness (E) = 15.6 ± 3.8 GPa, and toughness (K) = 121.2 ± 19.2 J/g with maximum values recorded at σ(ult) = 600.1 MPa, E = 20.6 GPa, and K = 152.1 J/g. This represents the strongest and stiffest nonfibrous SWNT composites made to date outperforming other bulk composites by 2-10 times. Its high performance is attributed to both high nanotube content and efficient stress transfer. The resulting LBL composite is also one of the toughest in this category of materials and exceeding the toughness of Kevlar by 3-fold. Our observation suggests that the strengthening and toughening mechanism originates from the synergistic combination of high degree of SWNT exfoliation, efficient SWNT-PVA binding, crack surface roughening, and fairly efficient distribution of local stress over the SWNT network. The need for a multiscale approach in designing SWNT composites is advocated.

  13. Automated image segmentation and registration of vessel wall MRI for quantitative assessment of carotid artery vessel wall dimensions and plaque composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Ronald van 't

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to develop methods for automated segmentation, registration and classification of the carotid artery vessel wall and plaque components using multi-sequence MR vessel wall images to assess atherosclerosis. First, a general introduction into atherosclerosis and

  14. All-solid-state flexible microsupercapacitors based on reduced graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiling; Xu, Jianhua; He, Xin; Yang, Wenyao; Yang, Yajie; Xu, Lu; Zhao, Yuetao; Zhou, Yujiu

    2018-03-01

    All-solid-state flexible microsupercapacitors have been intensely investigated in order to meet the rapidly growing demands for portable microelectronic devices. Herein, we demonstrate a facile, readily scalable and cost-effective laser induction process for preparing reduced graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite, which can be used as the interdigital electrodes in microsupercapacitors. The obtained composite exhibits high volumetric capacitance about 49.35 F cm-3, which is nearly 5 times higher than that of the pristine reduced graphene oxide film in aqueous 1.0 M H2SO4 solution (measured at a current density of 5 A cm-3 in a three-electrode testing). Additionally, an all-solid-state flexible microsupercapacitor employing these composite electrodes with PVA/H3PO4 gel electrolyte delivers high volumetric energy density of 6.47 mWh cm-3 at 10 mW cm-3 under the current density of 20 mA cm-3 as well as achieve excellent cycling stability retaining 88.6% of its initial value and outstanding coulombic efficiency after 10,000 cycles. Furthermore, the microsupercapacitors array connected in series/parallel can be easily adjusted to achieve the demands in practical applications. Therefore, this work brings a promising new candidate of prepare technologies for all-solid-state flexible microsupercapacitors as miniaturized power sources used in the portable and wearable electronics.

  15. Composite Behavior of a Novel Insulated Concrete Sandwich Wall Panel Reinforced with GFRP Shear Grids: Effects of Insulation Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JunHee; You, Young-Chan

    2015-03-03

    A full-scale experimental program was used in this study to investigate the structural behavior of novel insulated concrete sandwich wall panels (SWPs) reinforced with grid-type glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) shear connectors. Two kinds of insulation-expanded polystyrene (EPS) and extruded polystyrene (XPS) with 100 mm thickness were incased between the two concrete wythes to meet the increasing demand for the insulation performance of building envelope. One to four GFRP shear grids were used to examine the degree of composite action of the two concrete wythes. Ten specimens of SWPs were tested under displacement control subjected to four-point concentrated loads. The test results showed that the SWPs reinforced with GFRP grids as shear connectors developed a high degree of composite action resulting in high flexural strength. The specimens with EPS foam exhibited an enhanced load-displacement behavior compared with the specimens with XPS because of the relatively stronger bond between insulation and concrete. In addition, the ultimate strength of the test results was compared to the analytical prediction with the mechanical properties of only GRFP grids. The specimens with EPS insulation presented higher strength-based composite action than the ones with XPS insulation.

  16. Effectively enhanced load transfer by interfacial reactions in multi-walled carbon nanotube reinforced Al matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Weiwei; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Kikuchi, Keiko; Nomura, Naoyuki; Kawasaki, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The thermal expansion response of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced Al matrix composites was employed to discuss the improvement of the load transfer at the interface between the MWCNTs and the Al matrix. An aluminum car