WorldWideScience

Sample records for component manufacturing continuous

  1. IMHEX fuel cell repeat component manufacturing continuous improvement accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakaitis, L.A.; Petraglia, V.J.; Bryson, E.S. [M-C Power Corp., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    M-C Power is taking a power generation technology that has been proven in the laboratory and is making it a commercially competitive product. There are many areas in which this technology required scale up and refinement to reach the market entry goals for the IMHEX{reg_sign} molten carbonate fuel cell power plant. One of the primary areas that needed to be addressed was the manufacturing of the fuel cell stack. Up to this point, the fuel cell stack and associated components were virtually hand made for each system to be tested. M-C Power has now continuously manufactured the repeat components for three 250 kW stacks. M-C Power`s manufacturing strategy integrated both evolutionary and revolutionary improvements into its comprehensive commercialization effort. M-C Power`s objectives were to analyze and continuously improve stack component manufacturing and assembly techniques consistent with established specifications and commercial scale production requirements. Evolutionary improvements are those which naturally occur as the production rates are increased and experience is gained. Examples of evolutionary (learning curve) improvements included reducing scrap rates and decreasing raw material costs by buying in large quantities. Revolutionary improvements result in significant design and process changes to meet cost and performance requirements of the market entry system. Revolutionary changes often involve identifying new methods and developing designs to accommodate the new process. Based upon our accomplishments, M-C Power was able to reduce the cost of continuously manufactured fuel cell repeat components from the first to third 250 kW stack by 63%. This paper documents the continuous improvement accomplishments realized by M-C Power during IMHEX{reg_sign} fuel cell repeat component manufacturing.

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  3. COMPONENTS PROVISION MANAGEMENT FOR MACHINE BUILDING MANUFACTURER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina P. Bochkareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is given an approach to themanagement of components provision formachine building manufacturer based uponinternational standards and best practicesof leading international companies. Thecomplex expertise methods are used forthe development of the proposed machinebuilding manufacturer suppliers’ operational management method. At a strategic level is proposed a tool for planning the suppliers’portfolio and a machine building manufacturer supplier development methodology.

  4. Product costing guide for wood dimension and component manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2014-01-01

    The North American hardwood dimension and components industry plays a critical role in the hardwood forest products industry as the industry is a user of high-value hardwood lumber. Customer expectations, global markets, and international competition, however, require hardwood dimension and components manufacturers to continuously improve their ability to manage their...

  5. Five-Axis Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing for Nuclear Component Manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Wenning, Justin; Terrani, Kurt; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Norfolk, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a three-dimensional metal printing technology which uses high-frequency vibrations to scrub and weld together both similar and dissimilar metal foils. There is no melting in the process and no special atmosphere requirements are needed. Consequently, dissimilar metals can be joined with little to no intermetallic compound formation, and large components can be manufactured. These attributes have the potential to transform manufacturing of nuclear reactor core components such as control elements for the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These components are hybrid structures consisting of an outer cladding layer in contact with the coolant with neutron-absorbing materials inside, such as neutron poisons for reactor control purposes. UAM systems are built into a computer numerical control (CNC) framework to utilize intermittent subtractive processes. These subtractive processes are used to introduce internal features as the component is being built and for net shaping. The CNC framework is also used for controlling the motion of the welding operation. It is demonstrated here that curved components with embedded features can be produced using a five-axis code for the welder for the first time.

  6. Lithographic manufacturing of adaptive optics components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R. Phillip; Jean, Madison; Johnson, Lee; Gatlin, Ridley; Bronson, Ryan; Milster, Tom; Hart, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Adaptive optics systems and their laboratory test environments call for a number of unusual optical components. Examples include lenslet arrays, pyramids, and Kolmogorov phase screens. Because of their specialized application, the availability of these parts is generally limited, with high cost and long lead time, which can also significantly drive optical system design. These concerns can be alleviated by a fast and inexpensive method of optical fabrication. To that end, we are exploring direct-write lithographic techniques to manufacture three different custom elements. We report results from a number of prototype devices including 1, 2, and 3 wave Multiple Order Diffractive (MOD) lenslet arrays with 0.75 mm pitch and phase screens with near Kolmogorov structure functions with a Fried length r0 around 1 mm. We also discuss plans to expand our research to include a diffractive pyramid that is smaller, lighter, and more easily manufactured than glass versions presently used in pyramid wavefront sensors. We describe how these components can be produced within the limited dynamic range of the lithographic process, and with a rapid prototyping and manufacturing cycle. We discuss exploratory manufacturing methods, including replication, and potential observing techniques enabled by the ready availability of custom components.

  7. Methods for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B.

    2010-08-03

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases. The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  8. Feasibility and Testing of Additive Manufactured Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Hummelt, Ed [Eaton Corporation; Solovyeva, Lyudmila [Eaton Corporation

    2016-09-01

    This project focused on demonstrating the ability to fabricate two parts with different geometry: an arc flash interrupter and a hydraulic manifold. Eaton Corporation provided ORNL solid models, information related to tolerances and sensitive parameters of the parts and provided testing and evaluation. ORNL successfully manufactured both components, provided cost models of the manufacturing (materials, labor, time and post processing) and delivered test components for Eaton evaluation. The arc flash suppressor was fabricated using the Renishaw laser powder bed technology in CoCrMo while the manifold was produced from Ti-6Al-4V using the Arcam electron beam melting technology. These manufacturing techniques were selected based on the design and geometrical tolerances required. A full-scale manifold was produced on the Arcam A2 system (nearly 12 inches tall). A portion of the manifold was also produced in the Arcam Q10 system. Although a full scale manifold could not be produced in the system, a full scale manifold is expected to have similar material properties, geometric accuracy, and surface finish as could be fabricated on an Arcam Q20 system that is capable of producing four full scale manifolds in a production environment. In addition to the manifold, mechanical test specimens, geometric tolerance artifacts, and microstructure samples were produced alongside the manifold. The development and demonstration of these two key components helped Eaton understand the impact additive manufacturing can have on many of their existing products. By working within the MDF and leveraging ORNL’s manufacturing and characterization capabilities, the work will ensure the rapid insertion and commercialization of this technology.

  9. Manufacturing of nuclear power components in CDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, J.; Jawale, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the nuclear research programme in India, Dr. H.J. Bhabha, the architecture of the Indian Nuclear programme felt a need for proto-type development and precision manufacturing facility to fulfill the requirements of mechanical components in establishing the manufacturing capability for the successful and self sustained nuclear programme. Centre for Design and Manufacture (CDM) hitherto known as CWS was established in 1964 to cater to the specific requirements of DAE and other associated units like ISRO, DRDO. Since then CDM has made multiple technological achievements and changes towards high quality products. The acquisition of up-to-date machines during High-Tech facility under VIII Plan project and Advance Precision Fabrication facility under IX Plan project has changed the capability of CDM towards CAD, CAM, CAE and CNC machining centres. Considering the rapid growth in the design and manufacturing, it was renamed as Centre for Design and Manufacture in March 2002, with the mission of quality output through group effort and team work

  10. Smart manufacturing of complex shaped pipe components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salchak, Y. A.; Kotelnikov, A. A.; Sednev, D. A.; Borikov, V. N.

    2018-03-01

    Manufacturing industry is constantly improving. Nowadays the most relevant trend is widespread automation and optimization of the production process. This paper represents a novel approach for smart manufacturing of steel pipe valves. The system includes two main parts: mechanical treatment and quality assurance units. Mechanical treatment is performed by application of the milling machine with implementation of computerized numerical control, whilst the quality assurance unit contains three testing modules for different tasks, such as X-ray testing, optical scanning and ultrasound testing modules. The advances of each of them provide reliable results that contain information about any failures of the technological process, any deviations of geometrical parameters of the valves. The system also allows detecting defects on the surface or in the inner structure of the component.

  11. Size effects in manufacturing of metallic components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, F; Biermann, D; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    In manufacturing of metallic components, the size of the part plays an important role for the process behaviour. This is due to so called size effects, which lead to changes in the process behaviour even if the relationship between the main geometrical features is kept constant. The aim...... of this paper is to give a systematic review on Such effects and their potential use or remedy. First, the typology of size effects will be explained, followed by a description of size effects on strength and tribology. The last three sections describe size effects on formability, forming processes and cutting...... processes. (C) 2009 CIRP....

  12. Control systems engineering in continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myerson, Allan S; Krumme, Markus; Nasr, Moheb; Thomas, Hayden; Braatz, Richard D

    2015-03-01

    This white paper provides a perspective of the challenges, research needs, and future directions for control systems engineering in continuous pharmaceutical processing. The main motivation for writing this paper is to facilitate the development and deployment of control systems technologies so as to ensure quality of the drug product. Although the main focus is on small-molecule pharmaceutical products, most of the same statements apply to biological drug products. An introduction to continuous manufacturing and control systems is followed by a discussion of the current status and technical needs in process monitoring and control, systems integration, and risk analysis. Some key points are that: (1) the desired objective in continuous manufacturing should be the satisfaction of all critical quality attributes (CQAs), not for all variables to operate at steady-state values; (2) the design of start-up and shutdown procedures can significantly affect the economic operation of a continuous manufacturing process; (3) the traceability of material as it moves through the manufacturing facility is an important consideration that can at least in part be addressed using residence time distributions; and (4) the control systems technologies must assure quality in the presence of disturbances, dynamics, uncertainties, nonlinearities, and constraints. Direct measurement, first-principles and empirical model-based predictions, and design space approaches are described for ensuring that CQA specifications are met. Ways are discussed for universities, regulatory bodies, and industry to facilitate working around or through barriers to the development of control systems engineering technologies for continuous drug manufacturing. Industry and regulatory bodies should work with federal agencies to create federal funding mechanisms to attract faculty to this area. Universities should hire faculty interested in developing first-principles models and control systems technologies for

  13. Potential of Continuous Manufacturing for Liposomal Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsham, Robert D; Thomas, Vaughan; Farid, Suzanne S

    2018-05-21

    Over the last several years, continuous manufacturing of pharmaceuticals has evolved from bulk APIs and solid oral dosages into the more complex realm of biologics. The development of continuous downstream processing techniques has allowed biologics manufacturing to realize the benefits (e.g. improved economics, more consistent quality) that come with continuous processing. If relevant processing techniques and principles are selected, the opportunity arises to develop continuous manufacturing designs for additional pharmaceutical products including liposomal drug formulations. Liposome manufacturing has some inherent aspects that make it favorable for a continuous process. Other aspects such as formulation refinement, materials of construction, and aseptic processing need development, but present an achievable challenge. This paper reviews the current state of continuous manufacturing technology applicable to liposomal drug product manufacturing and an assessment of the challenges and potential of this application. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Additively Manufactured Ceramic Rocket Engine Components

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HRL Laboratories, LLC, with Vector Space Systems (VSS) as subcontractor, has a 24-month effort to develop additive manufacturing technology for reinforced ceramic...

  15. Manufacture of components for Canadian reactor programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, L.P.

    Design features, especially those relating to calandrias, are pointed out for many CANDU-type reactors and the Taiwan research reactor. The special requirements shouldered by the Canadian suppliers of heavy reactor components are analyzed. (E.C.B.)

  16. Manufacture and Erection of SFR Components: Feedback from PFBR Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellapandi, P.

    2013-01-01

    Unique Features of SFR Components: • Large diameter thin walled shell and slender structures calling for stringent tolerances posing challenges in manufacturing, handling and erection. • Single side welds are unavoidable at some difficult locations. • In-service inspection is difficult. • Residual stresses should be minimum calling for robust heat treatment strategy. • Minimum number of materials to be used from reliability point of view (but not preferred from economic considerations). • Mainly austenitic stainless steels calling for careful considerations for welding without significant weld repairs and distortions. • Reactor assembly components decide the project time schedule (large manufacturing, assembly and erection time). • Leak tightness is very important in view of resulting sodium leaks. • Limited experience on manufacturing and erection of components. • Design and manufacturing codes still evolvingPFBR Reactor Assembly – Major Lessons: • Grid plate Large number of sleeves, posing difficulty in assembly, hard facing of large diameter plates and heavy flange construction. • Roof slab Large box type structure with many penetrations – complicated manufacturing process, time consuming and difficulty to overcome lamellar tearing problems. • Inclined Fuel Transfer Machine Complex manufacturing processes leading to large time and extensive qualification tests. • Increase of number of primary pipes – essential for enhancing safety. • Integration of components manufactured by different industries took unduly long time

  17. Review of manufacturing processes for fabrication of SOFC components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, B.; Badwal, S.P.S.; Foger, K.

    1998-01-01

    In order for fuel cell technology to be commercial, it must meet stringent criteria of reliability, life-time expectations and cost. While materials play an important role in determining these parameters, engineering design and manufacturing processes for fuel cell stack components are equally important. Manufacturing processes must be low cost and suitable for large volume production for the technology to be viable and competitive in the market place. Several processes suitable for the production of ceramic components used in solid oxide fuel cells as well as ceramic coating techniques required for the protection of some metal components have been described. Copyright (1998) Australasian Ceramic Society

  18. Continuous improvement in manufacturing and inspection of fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingon, A.; Ruiz, R.

    2015-01-01

    The manufacturing and inspection process of fuel assemblies in ENUSA is characterized by its robustness acquired over the last thirty years of experience in manufacturing. The reliability of these processes is based on a qualified processes and continuous improvement in the design and upgrading of equipment and optimization of software and manufacturing processes. Additionally, management and quality control systems have been improved in both software and measuring business objectives. this article emphasizes the improvements made over the past five years in management, production and inspection of fuel assemblies. (Author)

  19. Multilayer electronic component systems and methods of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dane (Inventor); Wang, Guoan (Inventor); Kingsley, Nickolas D. (Inventor); Papapolymerou, Ioannis (Inventor); Tentzeris, Emmanouil M. (Inventor); Bairavasubramanian, Ramanan (Inventor); DeJean, Gerald (Inventor); Li, RongLin (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Multilayer electronic component systems and methods of manufacture are provided. In this regard, an exemplary system comprises a first layer of liquid crystal polymer (LCP), first electronic components supported by the first layer, and a second layer of LCP. The first layer is attached to the second layer by thermal bonds. Additionally, at least a portion of the first electronic components are located between the first layer and the second layer.

  20. The manufacturing of depleted uranium biological shield components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelkin, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The unique combination of the physical and mechanical properties of uranium made it possible to manufacture biological shield components of transport package container (TPC) for transportation nuclear power plant irradiated fuel and radionuclides of radiation diagnostic instruments. Protective properties are substantially dependent on the nature radionuclide composition of uranium, that why I recommended depleted uranium after radiation chemical processing. Depleted uranium biological shield (DUBS) has improved specific mass-size characteristics compared to a shield made of lead, steel or tungsten. Technological achievements in uranium casting and machining made it possible to manufacture DUBS components of TPC up to 3 tons of mass and up to 2 metres of the maximum size. (authors)

  1. Additive Manufacturing Design Considerations for Liquid Engine Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Dave; Hissam, Andy; Baker, Kevin; Rice, Darron

    2014-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department has gained significant experience in the last year designing, building, and testing liquid engine components using additive manufacturing. The department has developed valve, duct, turbo-machinery, and combustion device components using this technology. Many valuable lessons were learned during this process. These lessons will be the focus of this presentation. We will present criteria for selecting part candidates for additive manufacturing. Some part characteristics are 'tailor made' for this process. Selecting the right parts for the process is the first step to maximizing productivity gains. We will also present specific lessons we learned about feature geometry that can and cannot be produced using additive manufacturing machines. Most liquid engine components were made using a two-step process. The base part was made using additive manufacturing and then traditional machining processes were used to produce the final part. The presentation will describe design accommodations needed to make the base part and lessons we learned about which features could be built directly and which require the final machine process. Tolerance capabilities, surface finish, and material thickness allowances will also be covered. Additive Manufacturing can produce internal passages that cannot be made using traditional approaches. It can also eliminate a significant amount of manpower by reducing part count and leveraging model-based design and analysis techniques. Information will be shared about performance enhancements and design efficiencies we experienced for certain categories of engine parts.

  2. Continuous manufacturing of active pharmaceutical ingredients via flow technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borukhova, S.; Hessel, V.; Kleinbudde, P.; Khinast, J.; Rantanen, J.

    2017-01-01

    The main drivers to implement continuous manufacturing are aspects related to logistics, quality of the final product, chemistry to be implemented, process and safety concerns. Flow technology offers a platform to realize those drivers. This chapter introduces the reader to a relatively new

  3. Manufacturing and testing experience for FFTF major safety related components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peckinpaugh, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    Experience with FFTF Heat Transport System components during design, manufacturing, and prototype testing is dscussed. Specifically the special design features and the results of the testing performed to assure that the designs provide for safe operation are outlined. Particular emphasis is placed on the full size prototype testing programs and the valuable experience gained

  4. Metabolic engineering: the ultimate paradigm for continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vikramaditya G; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2014-07-01

    Research and development (R&D) expenditures by pharmaceutical companies doubled over the past decade, yet candidate attrition rates and development times rose markedly during this period. Understandably, companies have begun downsizing their pipelines and diverting investments away from R&D in favor of manufacturing. It is estimated that transitioning to continuous manufacturing could enable companies to compete for a share in emerging markets. Accordingly, the model for continuous manufacturing that has emerged commences with the conversion of late-stage intermediates into the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a series of continuous flow reactors, followed by continuous solid processing to form finished tablets. The use of flow reactions for API synthesis will certainly generate purer products at higher yields in shorter times compared to equivalent batch reactions. However, transitioning from batch to flow configuration simply alleviates transport limitations within the reaction milieu. As the catalogue of reactions used in flow syntheses is a subset of batch-based chemistries, molecules such as natural products will continue to evade drug prospectors. Also, it is uncertain whether flow synthesis can deliver improvements in the atom and energy economies of API production at the scales that would achieve the levels of revenue growth targeted by companies. Instead, it is argued that implementing metabolic engineering for the production of oxidized scaffolds as gateway molecules for flow-based addition of electrophiles is a more effective and scalable strategy for accessing natural product chemical space. This new paradigm for manufacturing, with metabolic engineering as its engine, would also permit rapid optimization of production variables and allow facile scale-up from gram to ton scale to meet material requirements for clinical trials, thus recasting manufacturing as a tool for discovery. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  6. Design, Manufacture, and Experimental Serviceability Validation of ITER Blanket Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshukov, A. Yu.; Strebkov, Yu. S.; Sviridenko, M. N.; Safronov, V. M.; Putrik, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    In 2014, the Russian Federation and the ITER International Organization signed two Procurement Arrangements (PAs) for ITER blanket components: 1.6.P1ARF.01 "Blanket First Wall" of February 14, 2014, and 1.6.P3.RF.01 "Blanket Module Connections" of December 19, 2014. The first PA stipulates development, manufacture, testing, and delivery to the ITER site of 179 Enhanced Heat Flux (EHF) First Wall (FW) Panels intended for withstanding the heat flux from the plasma up to 4.7MW/m2. Two Russian institutions, NIIEFA (Efremov Institute) and NIKIET, are responsible for the implementation of this PA. NIIEFA manufactures plasma-facing components (PFCs) of the EHF FW panels and performs the final assembly and testing of the panels, and NIKIET manufactures FW beam structures, load-bearing structures of PFCs, and all elements of the panel attachment system. As for the second PA, NIKIET is the sole official supplier of flexible blanket supports, electrical insulation key pads (EIKPs), and blanket module/vacuum vessel electrical connectors. Joint activities of NIKIET and NIIEFA for implementing PA 1.6.P1ARF.01 are briefly described, and information on implementation of PA 1.6.P3.RF.01 is given. Results of the engineering design and research efforts in the scope of the above PAs in 2015-2016 are reported, and results of developing the technology for manufacturing ITER blanket components are presented.

  7. Manufacturing of ultra high vacuum compatible accelerator and laser components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundra, G.; Sharma, S.D.; Bhatnagar, V.

    2015-01-01

    For carrying out advanced basic research, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, (RRCAT) had set up 450 MeV and 2.5 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Sources. Many beamlines are being utilized by researchers from various universities and institutions of the country. Centre has also developed various lasers that find application in various front line areas like medicine, industry and research. To cater the need of manufacturing for these programs, an advanced and versatile manufacturing development center was established, called Accelerator Components Design and Fabrication Section (ACDFS),

  8. Additive manufacturing method for SRF components of various geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Robert; Frigola, Pedro E; Murokh, Alex Y

    2015-05-05

    An additive manufacturing method for forming nearly monolithic SRF niobium cavities and end group components of arbitrary shape with features such as optimized wall thickness and integral stiffeners, greatly reducing the cost and technical variability of conventional cavity construction. The additive manufacturing method for forming an SRF cavity, includes atomizing niobium to form a niobium powder, feeding the niobium powder into an electron beam melter under a vacuum, melting the niobium powder under a vacuum in the electron beam melter to form an SRF cavity; and polishing the inside surface of the SRF cavity.

  9. Apparatus with moderating material for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN

    2011-05-10

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  10. Additive Manufacturing Technology for Biomedical Components: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimi Zaharin, Haizum; Rani, Ahmad Majdi Abdul; Lenggo Ginta, Turnad; Azam, Farooq I.

    2018-03-01

    Over the last decades, additive manufacturing has shown potential application in ranging fields. No longer a prototyping technology, it is now being utilised as a manufacturing technology for giant industries such as the automotive, aircraft and recently in the medical industry. It is a very successful method that provides health-care solution in biomedical sectors by producing patient-specific prosthetics, improve tissues engineering and facilitate pre-operating session. This paper thus presents a brief overview of the most commercially important additive manufacturing technologies, which is currently available for fabricating biomedical components such as Stereolithography (SLA), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Selective Laser Melting (SLM), Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM). It introduces the basic principles of the main process, highlights some of the beneficial applications in medical industry and the current limitation of applied technology.

  11. Ecological and Economic Assessment of Micro-/Milli-Continuous Campaign Manufacturing: The Case of Writing Ink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Grundemann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many products from the fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals industries are currently manufactured batch-wise in multi-product plants. However, this processing scheme suffers from severe drawbacks, such as a high specific energy demand, cleaning costs and high staff requirements. Transferring batch into continuous campaign productions may overcome these drawbacks. Using the case of writing ink, such a continuous manufacturing scheme was developed employing micro- and milli-structured components in order to intensify certain unit operations. In this paper, an ecological and economic assessment of both production concepts considering all lifecycle stages is presented. The aim of our work is to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the two multi-product plants and to derive recommendations for the most efficient design and operation of a continuous campaign manufacturing plant. The results show that lower environmental impacts are related to continuous processing, which is due to the option for energy integration in this case. Furthermore, in the economic assessment, continuous processing proved to be economically viable. In this case, reduced staff requirements based on a highly automated manufacturing plant are the key to lower personnel costs. In general, the results emphasize the importance of such micro-/milli-continuous multi-product plants for the future manufacturing of newly developed products in the mentioned industries.

  12. Advanced Continuous Flow Platform for On-Demand Pharmaceutical Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Weeranoppanant, Nopphon; Thomas, Dale A; Tahara, Kohei; Stelzer, Torsten; Russell, Mary Grace; O'Mahony, Marcus; Myerson, Allan S; Lin, Hongkun; Kelly, Liam P; Jensen, Klavs F; Jamison, Timothy F; Dai, Chunhui; Cui, Yuqing; Briggs, Naomi; Beingessner, Rachel L; Adamo, Andrea

    2018-02-21

    As a demonstration of an alternative to the challenges faced with batch pharmaceutical manufacturing including the large production footprint and lengthy time-scale, we previously reported a refrigerator-sized continuous flow system for the on-demand production of essential medicines. Building on this technology, herein we report a second-generation, reconfigurable and 25 % smaller (by volume) continuous flow pharmaceutical manufacturing platform featuring advances in reaction and purification equipment. Consisting of two compact [0.7 (L)×0.5 (D)×1.3 m (H)] stand-alone units for synthesis and purification/formulation processes, the capabilities of this automated system are demonstrated with the synthesis of nicardipine hydrochloride and the production of concentrated liquid doses of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, neostigmine methylsulfate and rufinamide that meet US Pharmacopeia standards. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Design and Manufacturing of Young 3 and 4 NSSS Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chungwoon

    1989-01-01

    Korea nuclear unit 11 and 12 (Young 3 and 4) project, which is the 6th nuclear construction project in Korea, has been implemented since 1987. The project is scheduled to commence commercial operation by March 1995 and March 1996, respectively. The project is executed in such a manner that local firms play the leading role. In parallel with the project, nationwide technical self-reliance program for nuclear power plant construction is activated. Accordingly, the clear-cut division and achievement of responsibilities assigned to local firms will determine the success of this project and future nuclear projects. The local manufacturer takes responsibility for on-time delivery of safety-assured and reliable equipment and also for achieving technical self-reliance in component design and manufacturing. This paper describes the objectives to be achieved by the local manufacturer in the execution of design and manufacturing of NSSS components for the project and action plans taken and/or to be taken to achieve those objectives

  14. Manufacturing technology development for vacuum vessel and plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitinen, Arttu; Liimatainen, Jari; Hallila, Pentti

    2005-01-01

    Vacuum vessel and plasma facing components of the ITER construction including shield modules and primary first wall panels have great impact on the production costs and reliability of the installation. From the manufacturing technology point of view, accuracy of shape, properties of the various austenitic stainless steel/austenitic stainless steel interfaces or CuCrZr/austenitic stainless steel interfaces as well as those of the base materials are crucial for technical reliability of the construction. The current approach in plasma facing components has been utilisation of solid-HIP technology and solid-powder-HIP technology. Due to the large size of especially shield modules shape, control of the internal cavities and cooling channels is extremely demanding. This requires strict control of the raw materials and manufacturing parameters

  15. Additive manufacturing of titanium alloy for aircraft components

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlmann, E.; Kersting, R.; Klein, T.B.; Cruz, M.F.; Borille, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Selective Laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technology that uses laser as a power source to sinter powdered metals to produce solid structures. The application of SLM permits engineers to develop and implement components with topologically optimized designs and resultant material properties in comparison to conventionally produced casting parts. Current aviation programs as ACARE 2020 (Advisory Council for Aviation Research and Innovation in the EU) and Flightpath 2050 request ...

  16. Using PAT to accelerate the transition to continuous API manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gouveia, Maria Francisca Dias Folque; Rahbek, Jesper P.; Mortensen, Asmus R.

    2017-01-01

    the following: speeding up the design of the continuous process and a better understanding of the manufacturing requirements to ensure optimal yield and avoid unreacted raw materials and by-products in the continuous reactor effluent. Graphical Abstract Using PAT to accelerate the transition to continuous API......Significant improvements can be realized by converting conventional batch processes into continuous ones. The main drivers include reduction of cost and waste, increased safety, and simpler scale-up and tech transfer activities. Re-designing the process layout offers the opportunity to incorporate...... a set of process analytical technologies (PAT) embraced in the Quality-by-Design (QbD) framework. These tools are used for process state estimation, providing enhanced understanding of the underlying variability in the process impacting quality and yield. This work describes a road map for identifying...

  17. White paper on continuous bioprocessing. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Konstantin B; Cooney, Charles L

    2015-03-01

    There is a growing interest in realizing the benefits of continuous processing in biologics manufacturing, which is reflected by the significant number of industrial and academic researchers who are actively involved in the development of continuous bioprocessing systems. These efforts are further encouraged by guidance expressed in recent US FDA conference presentations. The advantages of continuous manufacturing include sustained operation with consistent product quality, reduced equipment size, high-volumetric productivity, streamlined process flow, low-process cycle times, and reduced capital and operating cost. This technology, however, poses challenges, which need to be addressed before routine implementation is considered. This paper, which is based on the available literature and input from a large number of reviewers, is intended to provide a consensus of the opportunities, technical needs, and strategic directions for continuous bioprocessing. The discussion is supported by several examples illustrating various architectures of continuous bioprocessing systems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  18. Strategy for continuous improvement in IC manufacturability, yield, and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Dean J.; Berry, Mark; Schani, Phil; Phillips, Michael; Steinberg, Joe; DePinto, Gary

    1993-01-01

    Continual improvements in yield, reliability and manufacturability measure a fab and ultimately result in Total Customer Satisfaction. A new organizational and technical methodology for continuous defect reduction has been established in a formal feedback loop, which relies on yield and reliability, failed bit map analysis, analytical tools, inline monitoring, cross functional teams and a defect engineering group. The strategy requires the fastest detection, identification and implementation of possible corrective actions. Feedback cycle time is minimized at all points to improve yield and reliability and reduce costs, essential for competitiveness in the memory business. Payoff was a 9.4X reduction in defectivity and a 6.2X improvement in reliability of 256 K fast SRAMs over 20 months.

  19. High performance, rapid thermal/UV curing epoxy resin for additive manufacturing of short and continuous carbon fiber epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, James

    2018-04-17

    An additive manufacturing resin system including an additive manufacturing print head; a continuous carbon fiber or short carbon fibers operatively connected to the additive manufacturing print head; and a tailored resin operatively connected to the print head, wherein the tailored resin has a resin mass and wherein the tailored resin includes an epoxy component, a filler component, a catalyst component, and a chain extender component; wherein the epoxy component is 70-95% of the resin mass, wherein the filler component is 1-20% of the resin mass, wherein the catalyst component is 0.1-10% of the resin mass, and wherein the chain extender component is 0-50% of the resin mass.

  20. Neutron Characterization of Additively Manufactured Components. Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Thomas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Payzant, E. Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a collection of promising manufacturing methods that industry is beginning to explore and adopt. Macroscopically complicated and near net shape components are being built using AM, but how the material behaves in service is a big question for industry. Consequently, AM components/materials need further research into exactly what is made and how it will behave in service. This one and a half day workshop included a series of invited presentations from academia, industry and national laboratories (see Appendix A for the workshop agenda and list of talks). The workshop was welcomed by Alan Tennant, Chief Scientist, Neutron Sciences Directorate, ORNL, and opened remotely by Rob Ivestor, Deputy Director, Advanced Manufacturing Office-DOE, who declared AM adoptees as titans who will be able to create customized 3-D structures with 1 million to 1 billion micro welds with locally tailored microstructures. Further he stated that characterization with neutrons is key to be able to bring critical insight/information into the AM process/property/behavior relationship. Subsequently, the presentations spanned a slice of the current state of the art AM techniques and many of the most relevant characterization techniques using neutrons. After the talks, a panel discussion was held; workshop participants (see Appendix B for a list of attendees) providing questions and the panel answers. The main purpose of the panel discussion was to build consensus regarding the critical research needs in AM that can be addressed with neutrons. These needs were placed into three categories: modes of access for neutrons, new capabilities needed, new AM material issues and neutrons. Recommendations from the workshop were determined based on the panel discussion.

  1. Developing a Continuous Bioprocessing Approach to Stromal Cell Manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Martina; Gouveia, Ricardo; Abidin, Fadhilah Zainal; Figueiredo, Francisco; Connon, Che J

    2017-11-29

    To this day, the concept of continuous bioprocessing has been applied mostly to the manufacture of molecular biologics such as proteins, growth factors, and secondary metabolites with biopharmaceutical uses. The present work now sets to explore the potential application of continuous bioprocess methods to source large numbers of human adherent cells with potential therapeutic value. To this purpose, we developed a smart multifunctional surface coating capable of controlling the attachment, proliferation, and subsequent self-detachment of human corneal stromal cells. This system allowed the maintenance of cell cultures under steady-state growth conditions, where self-detaching cells were continuously replenished by the proliferation of those remaining attached. This facilitated a closed, continuous bioprocessing platform with recovery of approximately 1% of the total adherent cells per hour, a yield rate that was maintained for 1 month. Moreover, both attached and self-detached cells were shown to retain their original phenotype. Together, these results represent the proof-of-concept for a new high-throughput, high-standard, and low-cost biomanufacturing strategy with multiple potentials and important downstream applications.

  2. Continuously variable transmission (CVT) with ceramic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, A.; Stuffer, A.; Bernhardt, J. [Universitaet Karlsruhe (T.H.), IPEK Institut fuer Produktentwicklung, Kaiserstr. 10, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVTs) are a powerful alternative to automatic gearboxes for passenger cars. Some of these CVTs transmit the power via traction forces through highly loaded lubricated contacts. The aim of the presented work is to increase the capability of this system by means of appropriate engineering ceramics. The modifications are investigated on a machine element test bench. The necessary new tools for the design process and the configuration of the test bench are presented. Measurements show that the desired improvements can be achieved by using engineering ceramics but lifetime requirements have not been met yet. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Stufenlos verstellbare Getriebe sind eine leistungsfaehige Alternative zu konventionellen Stufenautomaten in Kraftfahrzeugen. Die Leistung wird bei einigen dieser stufenlosen Getriebe reibschluessig ueber hoch belastete geschmierte Friktionswirkflaechen uebertragen. Die vorgestellten Arbeiten haben das Ziel, durch den Einsatz von geeigneten Ingenieurkeramiken die Leistungsfaehigkeit des Systems weiter zu steigern. Die Modifikationen werden an einem Bauteilpruefstand untersucht. Es werden die Werkzeuge fuer den Systemdesignprozess und der Aufbau des Pruefstands vorgestellt. Messergebnisse zeigen, dass mit der eingesetzten Ingenieurkeramik die gewuenschten Verbesserungen erzielt werden koennen, die Lebensdaueraspekte werden jedoch noch nicht erfuellt. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. First wall and shield components manufacturing by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Anders; Tegman, R.

    1994-01-01

    At a meeting in Garching in June 1994 Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) was presented as a possible route to manufacture ITER first wall and shield components. The main advantages of the HIP concept include excellent and uniform mechanical properties of the produced materials and joints, high reliability and robustness of the HIP process, double containment of coolant, good flexibility concerning general design as well as size and location for inner cooling tubes, low cost and short delivery times, and a good near net shape capability for components in size up to 15 tons. To assess the applicability of HIP for the manufacturing of ITER first wall and shield components, it was agreed * to choose possible production parameters based in the present know-how, * to produce a compound mock-up in one shot from available solid steel/powder copper/steel tubes to demonstrate the joinability of the materials, * to examine the produced mock-up/materials by multi array ultrasonic testing, limited mechanical testing, metallography, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, and * to compile data on Type 316L steels produced by HIP. Preliminary results and the mock-up were presented at a meeting in Garching in mid July 1994. This study clearly shows the excellent joinability of a copper alloy (Cu-0.5%Zr) and stainless steels (Type 304, 316 L) by HIP at temperatures close to the melting temperature of copper, with only limited influence on the microstructures, which makes it possible to HIP the first wall and shield structure in one step. Excellent mechanical properties of the compound are obtained with the copper alloy and not the joint being the weakest part. 7 refs, 21 figs, 1 tab

  4. System and method for manufacture of airfoil components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Thomas Michael

    2016-11-29

    Embodiments of the present disclosure relate generally to systems and methods for manufacturing an airfoil component. The system can include: a geometrical mold; an elongated flexible sleeve having a closed-off interior and positioned within the geometrical mold, wherein the elongated flexible sleeve is further positioned to have a desired geometry; an infusing channel in fluid communication with the closed-off interior of the elongated flexible sleeve and configured to communicate a resinous material thereto; a vacuum channel in fluid communication with the closed-off interior of the elongated flexible sleeve and configured to vacuum seal the closed-off interior of the elongated flexible sleeve; and a glass fiber layer positioned within the closed-off interior of the elongated flexible sleeve.

  5. Precision reconstruction of manufactured free-form components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, Mihailo; Brujic, Djordje; Ainsworth, Iain

    2000-03-01

    Manufacturing needs in many industries, especially the aerospace and the automotive, involve CAD remodeling of manufactured free-form parts using NURBS. This is typically performed as part of 'first article inspection' or 'closing the design loop.' The reconstructed model must satisfy requirements such as accuracy, compatibility with the original CAD model and adherence to various constraints. The paper outlines a methodology for realizing this task. Efficiency and quality of the results are achieved by utilizing the nominal CAD model. It is argued that measurement and remodeling steps are equally important. We explain how the measurement was optimized in terms of accuracy, point distribution and measuring speed using a CMM. Remodeling steps include registration, data segmentation, parameterization and surface fitting. Enforcement of constraints such as continuity was performed as part of the surface fitting process. It was found necessary that the relevant algorithms are able to perform in the presence of measurement noise, while making no special assumptions about regularity of data distribution. In order to deal with real life situations, a number of supporting functions for geometric modeling were required and these are described. The presented methodology was applied using real aeroengine parts and the experimental results are presented.

  6. Mechanized inspection of steam generator components during manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otte, H.-J.; Leupoldt, K.; Meister, W.

    2009-01-01

    Steam Generator (SG) parts are intensively inspected by UT in the course of the manufacturing process. These inspections - mostly performed manually using different codes - are time consuming and call for a sophisticated documentation, figuring part of the life time documentation package. In order to reduce time and costs mechanized inspection equipment is introduced, combining short inspection times, avoiding influence of the human factor and providing proper electronic storage of all inspection results prepared for comparison with data generated during in-service inspection. Since 2001 Cegelec delivered various UT systems for gas turbine disks and rotor ends called SIRO-MAN. Within only a few years the majority of important providers of such components successfully switched from manual inspection to mechanized inspection following the requirements of manufacturers like ALSTOM, GE and Siemens. The SIRO-MAN is now adapted to the needs of mechanized inspection of SG components. The inspection is performed on the products during rotation around the vertical axis. The multi - probe assemblies are manoeuvred on the products by a manipulator system backed by a NC control unit. Acoustic coupling of UT probes to the product surface is performed with oil or water in a closed circuit. UT and - if requested ET - data along with position information of the probe assembly provided by the control unit are acquired, processed and evaluated by an UT / ET electronic system delivered by either Olympus or ZETEC. As performed already on rotor ends a sequence of inspections using different parameter settings can be programmed with simple means (Teach In) so that such inspection sequence can be executed without operating personnel. Probe assemblies allow for individual operation of probes out of the probe assembly according to the individual needs. Conventional UT and phased array applications or combination of both techniques can be provided. The UT / ET electronic equipment offers

  7. Integrated Manufacturing of Aerospace Components by Superplastic Forming Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Min Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerospace vehicle requires lightweight structures to obtain weight saving and fuel efficiency. It is known that superplastic characteristics of some materials provide significant opportunity for forming complicated, lightweight components of aerospace structure. One of the most important advantages of using superplastic forming process is its simplicity to form integral parts and economy in tooling[1]. For instance, it can be applied to blow-forming, in which a metal sheet is deformed due to the pressure difference of hydrostatic gas on both sides of the sheet. Since the loading medium is gas pressure difference, this forming is different from conventional sheet metal forming technique in that this is stress-controlled rather than strain and strain rate controlled. This method is especially advantageous when several sheet metals are formed into complex shapes. In this study, it is demonstrated that superplastic forming process with titanium and steel alloy can be applied to manufacturing lightweight integral structures of aerospace structural parts and rocket propulsion components. The result shows that the technology to design and develop the forming process of superplastic forming can be applied for near net shape forming of a complex contour of a thrust chamber and a toroidal fuel tank.

  8. Flexible continuous manufacturing platforms for solid dispersion formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karry-Rivera, Krizia Marie

    In 2013 16,000 people died in the US due to overdose from prescription drugs and synthetic narcotics. As of that same year, 90% of new molecular entities in the pharmaceutical drug pipeline are classified as poor water-soluble. The work in this dissertation aims to design, develop and validate platforms that solubilize weak acids and can potentially deter drug abuse. These platforms are based on processing solid dispersions via solvent-casting and hot-melt extrusion methods to produce oral transmucosal films and melt tablets. To develop these platforms, nanocrystalline suspensions and glassy solutions were solvent-casted in the form of films after physicochemical characterizations of drug-excipient interactions and design of experiment approaches. A second order model was fitted to the emulsion diffusion process to predict average nanoparticle size and for process optimization. To further validate the manufacturing flexibility of the formulations, glassy solutions were also extruded and molded into tablets. This process included a systematic quality-by-design (QbD) approach that served to identify the factors affecting the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the melt tablets. These products, due to their novelty, lack discriminatory performance tests that serve as predictors to their compliance and stability. Consequently, Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools were integrated into the continuous manufacturing platform for films. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, including chemical imaging, combined with deconvolution algorithms were utilized for a holistic assessment of the effect of formulation and process variables on the product's CQAs. Biorelevant dissolution protocols were then established to improve the in-vivo in-vitro correlation of the oral transmucosal films. In conclusion, the work in this dissertation supports the delivery of poor-water soluble drugs in products that may deter abuse. Drug nanocrystals ensured high bioavailability, while glassy

  9. An intuitive concept for manufacturing and inspecting of aspherical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hsiao-Yu; Chang, Keng-Shou

    2011-09-01

    In this paper we propose an intuitive concept for manufacturing and inspecting of aspherical components. Two types, parabolic and cylinder, of plano-convex and plano-concave aspherical lenses were made by LOH 120S form generation machine. Three form error measurement methods were used known as coordinate measuring machine (CMM), interferometer with CGH null lens and inspection with combined pair lenses. Ultra high accuracy CMM from Panasonic Co., CGH cylinder null and CGH aspheric null from Diffraction International and OWI 150 ASPH CGH interferometer from OptoTech GmbH play the roll for measurement. CMM was used as a surface profiler to inspect the surface shape, and the software GRAPHER was also used as analysis tool to exam asphere numerical datum. The difference between theoretical and practical is as a surface polishing revised reference. The finished plano-convex and plano-concave aspherical lenses can be combined to be a plane lens. The individual and combined lenses were inspected on OPTOTECH OWI 150 ASPH CGH interferometer. The compared interference patterns have shown with the Diffration International CGH Aspheric Null "ASPHERIC 1" and CGH Cylinder Null "H80F2C". Through the procedure, the combined plano-convex and plano-concave aspherical lenses should be a perfect match plane lens and the individual lens might be an aspherical test standard element for quick inspection.

  10. Simulation of Assembly Line Balancing in Automotive Component Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Muthanna; Mohd Razali, Noraini

    2016-02-01

    This study focuses on the simulation of assembly line balancing in an automotive component in a vendor manufacturing company. A mixed-model assembly line of charcoal canister product that is used in an engine system as fuel's vapour filter was observed and found that the current production rate of the line does not achieve customer demand even though the company practices buffer stock for two days in advance. This study was carried out by performing detailed process flow and time studies along the line. To set up a model of the line by simulation, real data was taken from a factory floor and tested for distribution fit. The data gathered was then transformed into a simulation model. After verification of the model by comparing it with the actual system, it was found that the current line efficiency is not at its optimum condition due to blockage and idle time. Various what-if analysis were applied to eliminate the cause. Proposed layout shows that the line is balanced by adding buffer to avoid the blockage. Whereas, manpower is added the stations to reduce process time therefore reducing idling time. The simulation study was carried out using ProModel software.

  11. Equipment and Analytical Companies Meeting Continuous Challenges May 20-21 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Trevor; Dubina, Henry; Fillipi, Gabriele; Guidat, Roland; Patnaik, Saroj; Poechlauer, Peter; Shering, Phil; Guinn, Martin; Mcdonnell, Peter; Johnston, Craig

    2015-03-01

    This white paper focuses on equipment, and analytical manufacturers' perspectives, regarding the challenges of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing across five prompt questions. In addition to valued input from several vendors, commentary was provided from experienced pharmaceutical representatives, who have installed various continuous platforms. Additionally, a small medium enterprise (SME) perspective was obtained through interviews. A range of technical challenges is outlined, including: the presence of particles, equipment scalability, fouling (and cleaning), technology derisking, specific analytical challenges, and the general requirement of improved technical training. Equipment and analytical companies can make a significant contribution to help the introduction of continuous technology. A key point is that many of these challenges exist in batch processing and are not specific to continuous processing. Backward compatibility of software is not a continuous issue per se. In many cases, there is available learning from other industries. Business models and opportunities through outsourced development partners are also highlighted. Agile smaller companies and academic groups have a key role to play in developing skills, working collaboratively in partnerships, and focusing on solving relevant industry challenges. The precompetitive space differs for vendor companies compared with large pharmaceuticals. Currently, there is no strong consensus around a dominant continuous design, partly because of business dynamics and commercial interests. A more structured common approach to process design and hardware and software standardization would be beneficial, with initial practical steps in modeling. Conclusions include a digestible systems approach, accessible and published business cases, and increased user, academic, and supplier collaboration. This mirrors US FDA direction. The concept of silos in pharmaceutical companies is a common theme throughout the white

  12. Equipment and analytical companies meeting continuous challenges. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Trevor; Dubina, Henry; Fillipi, Gabriele; Guidat, Roland; Patnaik, Saroj; Poechlauer, Peter; Shering, Phil; Guinn, Martin; Mcdonnell, Peter; Johnston, Craig

    2015-03-01

    This white paper focuses on equipment, and analytical manufacturers' perspectives, regarding the challenges of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing across five prompt questions. In addition to valued input from several vendors, commentary was provided from experienced pharmaceutical representatives, who have installed various continuous platforms. Additionally, a small medium enterprise (SME) perspective was obtained through interviews. A range of technical challenges is outlined, including: the presence of particles, equipment scalability, fouling (and cleaning), technology derisking, specific analytical challenges, and the general requirement of improved technical training. Equipment and analytical companies can make a significant contribution to help the introduction of continuous technology. A key point is that many of these challenges exist in batch processing and are not specific to continuous processing. Backward compatibility of software is not a continuous issue per se. In many cases, there is available learning from other industries. Business models and opportunities through outsourced development partners are also highlighted. Agile smaller companies and academic groups have a key role to play in developing skills, working collaboratively in partnerships, and focusing on solving relevant industry challenges. The precompetitive space differs for vendor companies compared with large pharmaceuticals. Currently, there is no strong consensus around a dominant continuous design, partly because of business dynamics and commercial interests. A more structured common approach to process design and hardware and software standardization would be beneficial, with initial practical steps in modeling. Conclusions include a digestible systems approach, accessible and published business cases, and increased user, academic, and supplier collaboration. This mirrors US FDA direction. The concept of silos in pharmaceutical companies is a common theme throughout the white

  13. Advances in the manufacture of clad tubes and components for PHWR fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.; Jha, S.K.; Chandrasekha, B.; Tonpe, S.; Jayaraj, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Fuel bundles for Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) consists of Uranium di-oxide pellets encapsulated into thin wall Zircaloy clad tubes. Other components such as end caps, bearing pads and spacer pads are the integral elements of the fuel bundle. As the fuel assembly is subjected to severe operating conditions of high temperature and pressure in addition to continual irradiation exposure, all the components are manufactured conforming to stringent specifications with respect to chemical composition, mechanical & metallurgical properties and dimensional tolerances. The integrity of each component is ensured by NDE at different stages of manufacture. The manufacturing route for fuel tubes and components comprise of a combination of thermomechanical processing and each process step has marked effect on the final properties. The fuel tubes are manufactured by processing the extruded blanks in four stage cold pilgering with intermediate annealing and final stress relieving operation. The bar material is produced by hot extrusion followed by multi-pass swaging and intermediate annealing. Spacer pads and bearing pads are manufactured by blanking and coining of Zircaloy sheet which is made by a combination of hot and cold rolling operations. Due to the small size and stringent dimensional requirements of these appendages, selection of production route and optimization of process parameters are important. This paper discusses about various measures taken for improving the recoveries and mechanical and corrosion properties of the tube, sheet and bar materials being manufactured at Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad For the production of clad tubes, modifications at extrusion stage to reduce the wall thickness variation, introduction of ultrasonic testing of extruded blanks, optimization of cold working and heat treatment parameters at various stages of production etc. were done. The finished bar material is subjected to 100% Ultrasonic and eddy current testing to ensure

  14. Process analytical technology in continuous manufacturing of a commercial pharmaceutical product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Jenny M; Nielsen, Sarah; Cárdenas, Vanessa; Gonzalez, Anthony; Aymat, Efrain Y; Almodovar, Elvin; Classe, Gustavo; Colón, Yleana; Sanchez, Eric; Romañach, Rodolfo J

    2018-03-01

    The implementation of process analytical technology and continuous manufacturing at an FDA approved commercial manufacturing site is described. In this direct compaction process the blends produced were monitored with a Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopic calibration model developed with partial least squares (PLS) regression. The authors understand that this is the first study where the continuous manufacturing (CM) equipment was used as a gravimetric reference method for the calibration model. A principal component analysis (PCA) model was also developed to identify the powder blend, and determine whether it was similar to the calibration blends. An air diagnostic test was developed to assure that powder was present within the interface when the NIR spectra were obtained. The air diagnostic test as well the PCA and PLS calibration model were integrated into an industrial software platform that collects the real time NIR spectra and applies the calibration models. The PCA test successfully detected an equipment malfunction. Variographic analysis was also performed to estimate the sampling analytical errors that affect the results from the NIR spectroscopic method during commercial production. The system was used to monitor and control a 28 h continuous manufacturing run, where the average drug concentration determined by the NIR method was 101.17% of label claim with a standard deviation of 2.17%, based on 12,633 spectra collected. The average drug concentration for the tablets produced from these blends was 100.86% of label claim with a standard deviation of 0.4%, for 500 tablets analyzed by Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) transmission spectroscopy. The excellent agreement between the mean drug concentration values in the blends and tablets produced provides further evidence of the suitability of the validation strategy that was followed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Additive Manufacturing of Multifunctional Components Using High Density Carbon Nanotube Yarn Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John M.; Sauti, Godfrey; Kim, Jae-Woo; Cano, Roberto J.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Stelter, Christopher J.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Working, Dennis C.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for design freedom and part complexity not currently attainable using traditional manufacturing technologies. Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), for example, can yield novel component geometries and functionalities because the method provides a high level of control over material placement and processing conditions. This is achievable by extrusion of a preprocessed filament feedstock material along a predetermined path. However if fabrication of a multifunctional part relies only on conventional filament materials, it will require a different material for each unique functionality printed into the part. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an attractive material for many applications due to their high specific strength as well as good electrical and thermal conductivity. The presence of this set of properties in a single material presents an opportunity to use one material to achieve multifunctionality in an additively manufactured part. This paper describes a recently developed method for processing continuous CNT yarn filaments into three-dimensional articles, and summarizes the mechanical, electrical, and sensing performance of the components fabricated in this way.

  16. Automated packaging platform for low-cost high-performance optical components manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Robert T.

    2004-05-01

    Delivering high performance integrated optical components at low cost is critical to the continuing recovery and growth of the optical communications industry. In today's market, network equipment vendors need to provide their customers with new solutions that reduce operating expenses and enable new revenue generating IP services. They must depend on the availability of highly integrated optical modules exhibiting high performance, small package size, low power consumption, and most importantly, low cost. The cost of typical optical system hardware is dominated by linecards that are in turn cost-dominated by transmitters and receivers or transceivers and transponders. Cost effective packaging of optical components in these small size modules is becoming the biggest challenge to be addressed. For many traditional component suppliers in our industry, the combination of small size, high performance, and low cost appears to be in conflict and not feasible with conventional product design concepts and labor intensive manual assembly and test. With the advent of photonic integration, there are a variety of materials, optics, substrates, active/passive devices, and mechanical/RF piece parts to manage in manufacturing to achieve high performance at low cost. The use of automation has been demonstrated to surpass manual operation in cost (even with very low labor cost) as well as product uniformity and quality. In this paper, we will discuss the value of using an automated packaging platform.for the assembly and test of high performance active components, such as 2.5Gb/s and 10 Gb/s sources and receivers. Low cost, high performance manufacturing can best be achieved by leveraging a flexible packaging platform to address a multitude of laser and detector devices, integration of electronics and handle various package bodies and fiber configurations. This paper describes the operation and results of working robotic assemblers in the manufacture of a Laser Optical Subassembly

  17. Advances in compact manufacturing for shape and performance controllability of large-scale components-a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fangcheng; Li, Yongtang; Qi, Huiping; Ju, Li

    2017-01-01

    Research on compact manufacturing technology for shape and performance controllability of metallic components can realize the simplification and high-reliability of manufacturing process on the premise of satisfying the requirement of macro/micro-structure. It is not only the key paths in improving performance, saving material and energy, and green manufacturing of components used in major equipments, but also the challenging subjects in frontiers of advanced plastic forming. To provide a novel horizon for the manufacturing in the critical components is significant. Focused on the high-performance large-scale components such as bearing rings, flanges, railway wheels, thick-walled pipes, etc, the conventional processes and their developing situations are summarized. The existing problems including multi-pass heating, wasting material and energy, high cost and high-emission are discussed, and the present study unable to meet the manufacturing in high-quality components is also pointed out. Thus, the new techniques related to casting-rolling compound precise forming of rings, compact manufacturing for duplex-metal composite rings, compact manufacturing for railway wheels, and casting-extruding continuous forming of thick-walled pipes are introduced in detail, respectively. The corresponding research contents, such as casting ring blank, hot ring rolling, near solid-state pressure forming, hot extruding, are elaborated. Some findings in through-thickness microstructure evolution and mechanical properties are also presented. The components produced by the new techniques are mainly characterized by fine and homogeneous grains. Moreover, the possible directions for further development of those techniques are suggested. Finally, the key scientific problems are first proposed. All of these results and conclusions have reference value and guiding significance for the integrated control of shape and performance in advanced compact manufacturing.

  18. Regulatory Perspectives on Continuous Pharmaceutical Manufacturing: Moving From Theory to Practice: September 26-27, 2016, International Symposium on the Continuous Manufacturing of Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Moheb M; Krumme, Markus; Matsuda, Yoshihiro; Trout, Bernhardt L; Badman, Clive; Mascia, Salvatore; Cooney, Charles L; Jensen, Keith D; Florence, Alastair; Johnston, Craig; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Lee, Sau L

    2017-11-01

    Continuous manufacturing plays a key role in enabling the modernization of pharmaceutical manufacturing. The fate of this emerging technology will rely, in large part, on the regulatory implementation of this novel technology. This paper, which is based on the 2nd International Symposium on the Continuous Manufacturing of Pharmaceuticals, describes not only the advances that have taken place since the first International Symposium on Continuous Manufacturing of Pharmaceuticals in 2014, but the regulatory landscape that exists today. Key regulatory concepts including quality risk management, batch definition, control strategy, process monitoring and control, real-time release testing, data processing and management, and process validation/verification are outlined. Support from regulatory agencies, particularly in the form of the harmonization of regulatory expectations, will be crucial to the successful implementation of continuous manufacturing. Collaborative efforts, among academia, industry, and regulatory agencies, are the optimal solution for ensuring a solid future for this promising manufacturing technology. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation into CO2 laser cleaning of titanium alloys for gas-turbine component manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.W.; Crouse, P.L.; Li, L; Smith, A.J.E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports results of the investigation into the feasibility of using a CO 2 laser technology to perform critical cleaning of gas-turbine aero-engine components for manufacture. It reports the results of recent trials and relates these to a thermal model of the cleaning mechanisms, and describes resultant component integrity. The paper defines the experimental conditions for the laser cleaning of various aerospace-grade contaminated titanium alloys, using a continuous wave CO 2 laser. Laser cleaning of Ti64 proved successful for electron beam welding, but not for the more sensitive Ti6246. For diffusion bonding the trials produced a defective standard of joint. Effects of oxide formation is modelled and examined experimentally

  20. Procedure and equipment for continuous manufacture of solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiefel, M.

    1979-01-01

    In order to manufacture boric acid solution for reactor commissioning, the heated water is divided into a main and subsidiary flow, and the total amount of the salt is added to the subsidiary flow. Mixing of the main flow with the salt-containing subsidiary flow takes place on a mixing column. Undissolved salt is removed in a hydro-cyclotron. Preheating of the water takes place in a recuperator heat exchanger and a through boiler provides the final temperatures. (HK) [de

  1. Manufacture of piping components for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartecek, R.

    1983-01-01

    Hammer forging of hollow forging ingots, extrusion and elestroslag remelting may be used for the manufacture of large pipes. Technologies have been developed for the manufacture of elbows based on various types of forming. These procedures mainly include the hydraulic pressing of elbows from tubes and the pressing of symmetrical halves of elbows with subsequent welding. The hammer forging of valves, cross pieces, etc., has been replaced by forging and pressing. In order to prevent failures from occurring in the pipes during operation of nuclear power plants, pipes are being made of larger forgings, which reduces the number of welds. This improves the quality of the pipes, reduces production and assembly costs and is metal-saving. (E.S.)

  2. Continuous 3-day exposure assessment of workplace manufacturing silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Kangho; Kim, Sun Man; Jeon, Ki Soo; Lee, Jong Seong; Yu, Il Je

    2012-01-01

    With the increased production and widespread use of nanomaterials, human and environmental exposure to nanomaterials is inevitably increasing. Therefore, this study monitored the possible nanoparticle exposure at a workplace that manufactures silver nanoparticles. To estimate the potential exposure of workers, personal sampling, area monitoring, and real-time monitoring were conducted over 3 days using a scanning mobility particle sizer and dust monitor at a workplace where the workers handle nanomaterials. The area sampling concentrations obtained from the injection room showed the highest concentration, ranging from 0.00501 to 0.28873 mg/m 3 . However, apart from the injection room, none of the area samplings obtained from other locations showed a concentration higher than 0.0013 mg/m 3 . Meanwhile, the personal sampling concentrations ranged from 0.00004 to 0.00243 mg/m 3 over the 3 days of sampling, which was much lower than the silver TLV. The particle number concentrations at the silver nanoparticle manufacturing workplace were 911,170 (1st day), 1,631,230 (2nd day), and 1,265,024 (3rd day) particles/cm 3 with a size range of 15–710.5 nm during the operation of the reactor, while the concentration decreased to 877,364.9 (1st day), 492,732 (2nd day), and 344,343 (3rd day) particles/cm 3 when the reactor was stopped.

  3. Experience in the application of the IAEA QA code and guides to the manufacture of nuclear reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, N.G.; Mankame, M.A.; Kulkarni, P.G.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Balaramamoorthy, K.

    1985-01-01

    India has made considerable progress in the indigenous manufacture of 'Quality' nuclear reactor components. All activities associated with the development of atomic energy from mining of strategic minerals to the design, construction, and operation of nuclear power plants including supporting research and development efforts are mainly carried out by the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). Through the sustained efforts of DAE, the major industries, both in public and private sectors supplying nuclear components have now adopted the practice of systematic quality assurance (QA). The stringent QA steps are mandatory for achieving the desired quality in the manufactured nuclear components. Control blades for BWRs are now indigenously manufactured by the Atomic Fuels Division (AFD) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), a constituent unit of DAE. For the Project Dhruva, a 100 MW(th) nuclear reactor, constructed at BARC, Trombay, Bombay, an independent cell was formed to carry out quality audit on the manufactured components. The components were designed, fabricated, inspected and tested to the desired quality level. The QA activities were enforced from the procurement of raw materials to the audit of the completed component for monitoring the manufacturer's continued compliance with the design. The major components of Dhruva, viz. calandria, end-shield, coolant channels, heat exchangers, etc., were covered under these quality audit activities. The paper highlights the QA programme implemented in the manufacture of control blades for BWRs, illustrated with a typical example, the end-shield for Dhruva. The authors consider that the recommendations and guidelines provided in the documents 50-SG-QA3, 50-SG-QA8, 50-SG-QA10, etc., were useful in providing a formal and systematic framework, under which various quality assurance functions have been carried out

  4. Quality assurance during the manufacture of nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.

    1976-01-01

    Apart from the special requirements of quality assurance in the production of components for the nuclear industry, in particular nuclear power stations, the author discusses special methods of quality control in the testing of welded joints. (TK) [de

  5. Control of microstructure in soldered, brazed, welded, plated, cast or vapor deposited manufactured components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B.; Hallman, Russell L.

    2015-11-10

    Disclosed are methods and systems for controlling of the microstructures of a soldered, brazed, welded, plated, cast, or vapor deposited manufactured component. The systems typically use relatively weak magnetic fields of either constant or varying flux to affect material properties within a manufactured component, typically without modifying the alloy, or changing the chemical composition of materials or altering the time, temperature, or transformation parameters of a manufacturing process. Such systems and processes may be used with components consisting of only materials that are conventionally characterized as be uninfluenced by magnetic forces.

  6. Quality assurance in the manufacture of pressure components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoedler, D.

    1979-01-01

    New regulations for nuclear power plants emphasize more quality assurance than it was the case in the past. Quality assurance is a management tool. During erection the quality assurance measures of the manufacturer, the main contractor and the required quality and the reliability of the proof of quality. The qualification of processes, equipment and personnel is a significant measure of quality assurance. The proof for quality assurance to be effective needs not only system-oriented audits, but also product audits aimed at quality characteristics of the product itself. The existing problems of examination techniques not optimized according to latest experience and of the large volume of documetation will persist in case the existing regulations are not adjusted according to the results of relevant studies. Furthermore the effectiveness of quality assurance is too often hampered by vague definitions of the safety objectives. (orig.) [de

  7. Detection of incorrect manufacturer labelling of hip components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand-Hill, Matthieu; Henckel, Johann; Skinner, John; Hart, Alister [University College London, Institute of Orthopaedics, London (United Kingdom); Burwell, Matthew [Royal United Hospital, Bath (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    We describe the case of a 53-year-old man who underwent a left metal-on-metal hip resurfacing in 2015. Component size mismatch (CSM) was suspected because of the patient's immediate post-operative mechanical symptoms and high metal ion levels. Surgical notes indicated the appropriate combinations of implants were used. However, we detected a mismatch using computed tomography. Revision was performed and subsequent measurements of explanted components confirmed the mismatch. To our knowledge, this case is the first report of a CT method being used in a patient to pre-operatively identify CSM. (orig.)

  8. Manufacture of heavy reactor components with particular considerations to quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreppel, H.; Clausmeyer, H.

    1980-01-01

    The use of adequate quality assurance measures is one of the most important prerequisites for the manufacture of reactor components. Nature and extent of the quality assurance system at present adopted in the Federal Republic of Germany are illustrated, using the manufacture of a reactor pressure vessel as an example. The system comprises quality organization, planning of all quality assurance measures, quality surveillance through all stages of manufacture and documentation of quality attained. (orig.)

  9. Manufacture of heavy reactor components with particular consideration to quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausmeyer, H.; Kreppel, H.

    1977-01-01

    The use of adequate quality assurance measures is one of the most important prerequisites for the manufacture of reactor components. Nature and extent of the quality assurance system at present adopted in the Federal Republic of Germany are illustrated, using the manufacture of a reactor pressure vessel as an example. The system comprises quality organization, planning of all quality assurance measures, quality surveillance through all stages of manufacture and documentation of quality attained. (orig.) [de

  10. Manufacture of heavy reactor components with particular consideration to quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreppel, H.; Clausmeyer, H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of adequate quality assurance measures is one of the most important prerequisites for the manufacture of reactor components. Nature and extent of the quality assurance system at present adopted in the Federal Republic of Germany are illustrated, using the manufacture of a reactor pressure vessel as an example. The system comprises quality organization, planning of all quality assurance measures, quality surveillance through all stages of manufacture and documentation of quality attained. (orig.)

  11. The manufacturing of components for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogarty, John

    The experience of one company in the Canadian nuclear industry, a prime supplier of end fittings for CANDU type reactors, is described. Many factors such as work flow and continuity, financing, quality control, and export trade, are dealt with. (E.C.B.)

  12. Achieving continuous manufacturing: technologies and approaches for synthesis, workup, and isolation of drug substance. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Ian R; Braatz, Richard D; Hodnett, Benjamin K; Jensen, Klavs F; Johnson, Martin D; Sharratt, Paul; Sherlock, Jon-Paul; Florence, Alastair J

    2015-03-01

    This whitepaper highlights current challenges and opportunities associated with continuous synthesis, workup, and crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (drug substances). We describe the technologies and requirements at each stage and emphasize the different considerations for developing continuous processes compared with batch. In addition to the specific sequence of operations required to deliver the necessary chemical and physical transformations for continuous drug substance manufacture, consideration is also given to how adoption of continuous technologies may impact different manufacturing stages in development from discovery, process development, through scale-up and into full scale production. The impact of continuous manufacture on drug substance quality and the associated challenges for control and for process safety are also emphasized. In addition to the technology and operational considerations necessary for the adoption of continuous manufacturing (CM), this whitepaper also addresses the cultural, as well as skills and training, challenges that will need to be met by support from organizations in order to accommodate the new work flows. Specific action items for industry leaders are: Develop flow chemistry toolboxes, exploiting the advantages of flow processing and including highly selective chemistries that allow use of simple and effective continuous workup technologies. Availability of modular or plug and play type equipment especially for workup to assist in straightforward deployment in the laboratory. As with learning from other industries, standardization is highly desirable and will require cooperation across industry and academia to develop and implement. Implement and exploit process analytical technologies (PAT) for real-time dynamic control of continuous processes. Develop modeling and simulation techniques to support continuous process development and control. Progress is required in multiphase systems such as

  13. The manufacture of carbon armoured plasma-facing components for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schedler, B.; Huber, T.; Zabernig, A.; Rainer, F.; Scheiber, K.H.; Schedle, D.

    2001-01-01

    Within the last decade Plansee has been active in the development and manufacture of different plasma-facing-components for nuclear fusion experiments consisting in a tungsten or CFC-armor joined onto metallic substrates like TZM, stainless steel or copper-alloys. The manufacture of these components requires unique joining technologies in order to obtain reliable thermo mechanical stable joints able to withstand highest heat fluxes without any deterioration of the joint. In an overview the different techniques will be presented by some examples of components already manufactured and successfully tested under high heat flux conditions. Furthermore an overview will be given on the manufacture of different high heat flux components for TORE SUPRA, Wendelstein 7-X and ITER. (author)

  14. NDE during precision manufacturing of pressure components in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Baldev; Venkataram, B.; Chellapandi, P.

    2010-01-01

    Energy is the critical enabler for all social and economic developments and growth of civilization. For a nation to be energy secure, it should have a balanced and healthy energy basket with a varied mix of energy sources in right proportions depending on the resources of the country. It is now a well realized fact that nuclear energy is an inevitable option that should be present in energy basket of nuclear mature countries. This is due the fact that nuclear power has proved to be (a) capable of generating electricity safely on a large-scale with price stability over long periods of time satisfying a modern economy's significant demand for electricity that must be available round-the-clock; and (b) it is environmentally benign and provides a clean energy source with minimum of green house gas emissions. Internationally, about I 696 electricity is derived from nuclear power. In the Indian context, the contribution from nuclear power currently is about 3%, which needs to be enhanced by 4 fold by 2030 and 10 fold by 2050 if India is to sustain its current gross domestic product. NDE intertwined with materials, manufacturing technology and total life cycle management are crucial to safe and economic nuclear power.

  15. Component Manufacturing Development for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitzenroeder, P.J.; Brown, T.G.; Chrzanowski, J.H.; Cole, M.J.; Goranson, P.L.; Neilson, G.H.; Nelson, B.E.; Reiersen, W.T.; Sutton, L.L.; Williamson, D.E.; Viola, M.E.

    2004-11-01

    NCSX [National Compact Stellarator Experiment] is the first of a new class of stellarators called compact stellarators which hold the promise of retaining the steady state feature of the stellarator but at a much lower aspect ratio and using a quasi-axisymmetric magnetic field to obtain tokamak-like performance. Although much of NCSX is conventional in design and construction, the vacuum vessel and modular coils provide significant engineering challenges due to their complex shapes, need for high dimensional accuracy, and the high current density required in the modular coils due space constraints. Consequently, a three-phase development program has been undertaken. In the first phase, laboratory/industrial studies were performed during the development of the conceptual design to permit advances in manufacturing technology to be incorporated into NCSX's plans. In the second phase, full-scale prototype modular coil winding forms, compacted cable conductors, and 20 degree sectors of the vacuum vessel were fabricated in industry. In parallel, the NCSX project team undertook RandD studies that focused on the windings. The third (production) phase began in September 2004. First plasma is scheduled for January 2008

  16. Component manufacturing development for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitzenroeder, P.J.; Brown, T.G.; Chrzanowski, J.H.; Neilson, G.H.; Reiersen, W.T.; Sutton, L.L.; Viola, M.E.; Cole, M.J.; Goranson, P.L.; Nelson, B.E.; Williamson, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    NCSX is the first of a new class of stellarators called compact stellarators which hold the promise of retaining the steady state feature of the stellarator but at a much lower aspect ratio and using a quasi-axisymmetric magnetic field to obtain tokamak-like performance. Although much of NCSX is conventional in design and construction, the vacuum vessel and modular coils provide significant engineering challenges due to their complex shapes, need for high dimensional accuracy, and the need for high current density in the modular coils due space constraints. Consequently, a three-phase development program has been undertaken. In the first phase, laboratory / industrial studies were performed during the development of the conceptual design to permit advances in manufacturing technology to be incorporated into NCSX's plans. In the second phase, full-scale prototype modular coil winding forms, compacted cable conductors, and 20-degree sectors of the vacuum vessel were fabricated in industry. In parallel, the NCSX project team undertook R and D studies that focused on the windings. The third (production) phase began in September 2004. First plasma is scheduled for January 2008. (author)

  17. Design, Manufacturing and Integration of LHC Cryostat Components an Example of Collaboration between CERN and Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Slits, Ivo; Canetti, Marco; Colombet, Thierry; Gangini, Fabrizio; Parma, Vittorio; Tock, Jean-Philippe

    2006-01-01

    The components for the LHC cryostats and interconnections are supplied by European industry. The manufacturing, assembly and testing of these components in accordance with CERN technical specifications require a close collaboration and dedicated approach from the suppliers. This paper presents the different phases of design, manufacturing, testing and integration of four LHC cryostat components supplied by RIAL Vacuum (Parma, Italy), including 112 Insulation Vacuum Barriers (IVB), 482 Cold-mass Extension Tubes (CET), 121 cryostat vacuum vessel Jumper Elbows (JE) and 10800 Interconnection Sleeves (IS). The Quality Assurance Plan, which the four projects have in common, is outlined. The components are all leak-tight thin stainless steel assemblies (<10-8 mbar l/s), most of them operating at cryogenic temperature (2 K), however each having specific requirements. The particularities of each component are presented with respect to manufacturing, assembly and testing. These components are being integrated ...

  18. The influence of cellular structures on flow stress of high strength components manufactured using SLM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Loft Højbjerre, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing has shown significant improvement in material and machines for high-quality solid freeform fabrication processes such as selective laser melting (SLM). In particular, manufacturing lattice structures using the SLM procedure is of interest. This research examines the effect...... of cellular materials on compression strength. The specimens are manufactured additively using industrial 3D printing systems from high-strength alloy. The material has the right mechanical properties for manufacturing tool components. This includes samples with solid and lattice structures. The Compression...

  19. Numerical and Experimental Study of Ti6Al4V Components Manufactured Using Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Jonas; Mindt, Hans-Wilfried; Düchting, Jan; Schleifenbaum, Johannes Henrich; Megahed, Mustafa

    2017-12-01

    Powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of titanium alloys is an interesting manufacturing route for many applications requiring high material strength combined with geometric complexity. Managing powder bed fusion challenges, including porosity, surface finish, distortions and residual stresses of as-built material, is the key to bringing the advantages of this process to production main stream. This paper discusses the application of experimental and numerical analysis towards optimizing the manufacturing process of a demonstration component. Powder characterization including assessment of the reusability, assessment of material consolidation and process window optimization is pursued prior to applying the identified optima to study the distortion and residual stresses of the demonstrator. Comparisons of numerical predictions with measurements show good correlations along the complete numerical chain.

  20. Computer-controlled ultrasonic equipment for automatic inspection of nuclear reactor components after manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, P.; Roehrich, H.

    1983-01-01

    After foundation of the working team ''Automated US-Manufacture Testing'' in 1976 the realization of an ultrasonic test facility for nuclear reactor components after manufacturing has been started. During a period of about 5 years, an automated prototype facility has been developed, fabricated and successfully tested. The function of this facility is to replace the manual ultrasonic tests, which are carried out autonomically at different stages of the manufacturing process and to fulfil the test specification under improved economic conditions. This prototype facility has been designed as to be transported to the components to be tested at low expenditure. Hereby the reproduceability of a test is entirely guaranteed. (orig.) [de

  1. [Noise hazard and hearing loss in workers in automotive component manufacturing industry in Guangzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Liang, Jiabin; Rong, Xing; Zhou, Hao; Duan, Chuanwei; Du, Weijia; Liu, Yimin

    2015-12-01

    To investigate noise hazard and its influence on hearing loss in workers in the automotive component manufacturing industry. Noise level in the workplace of automotive component manufacturing enterprises was measured and hearing examination was performed for workers to analyze the features and exposure levels of noise in each process, as well as the influence on hearing loss in workers. In the manufacturing processes for different products in this industry, the manufacturing processes of automobile hub and suspension and steering systems had the highest degrees of noise hazard, with over-standard rates of 79.8% and 57.1%, respectively. In the different technical processes for automotive component manufacturing, punching and casting had the highest degrees of noise hazard, with over-standard rates of 65.0% and 50%, respectively. The workers engaged in the automotive air conditioning system had the highest rate of abnormal hearing ability (up to 3.1%). In the automotive component manufacturing industry, noise hazard exceeds the standard seriously. Although the rate of abnormal hearing is lower than the average value of the automobile manufacturing industry in China, this rate tends to increase gradually. Enough emphasis should be placed on the noise hazard in this industry.

  2. Electrochemical machining - manufacturing of turbine and reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, K.

    1987-01-01

    Electrochemical machining is a shaping process for metallic workpieces with complex geometries. Using an electrode corresponding to the negative of the desired shape, the material to be removed is dissolved anodically at erosion rates of up to 10 mm/min. The reproducible shape accuracy lies between 0,02 and 0,08 mm, depending on the machining problem. Surface finishes of less than 18 μm are attained. The hardness of the material has no influence on the metal removal process. The workpiece is not subjected to any thermal stressing during machining. The process is well suited for quantity production of complex parts and is used inter alia for turbine blades and components for nuclear reactors. (orig.) [de

  3. Orodispersible films: Product transfer from lab-scale to continuous manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Yasmin; Breitkreutz, Joerg

    2018-01-15

    Orodispersible films have been described as new beneficial dosage forms for special patient populations. Due to various production settings, different requirements on film formulations are required for non- continuous and continuous manufacturing. In this study, a continuous coating machine was qualified in regards of the process conditions for film compositions and their effects on the formed films. To investigate differences between both manufacturing processes, various film formulations of hydrochlorothiazide and hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) or hydroxypropylmethycellulose (HPMC) as film formers were produced and the resulting films were characterized. The qualification of the continuously operating coating machine reveals no uniform heat distribution during drying. Coating solutions for continuous manufacturing should provide at least a dynamic viscosity of 1 Pa*s (wet film thickness of 500 μm, velocity of 15.9 cm/min). HPC films contain higher residuals of ethanol or acetone in bench-scale than in continuous production mode. Continuous production lead to lower drug content of the films. All continuously produced films disintegrate within less than 30 s. There are observed significant effects of the production process on the film characteristics. When transferring film manufacturing from lab-scale to continuous mode, film compositions, processing conditions and suitable characterization methods have to be carefully selected and adopted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Method of Manufacturing A Porous Polymer Component Involving Use of A Dissolvable, Sacrificial Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    and thereby the resulting inner structure of the component 1 is arranged in a controlled and reproducible manner. The sacrificial material 2 and possibly also the component material 3 may e.g. be arranged by use of a 3D-printer or manually. The method may e.g. be used to manufacture a three...

  5. Continuous improvement in manufacturing and inspection of fuel; Mejora continua en fabricacion e inspeccion de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingon, A.; Ruiz, R.

    2015-07-01

    The manufacturing and inspection process of fuel assemblies in ENUSA is characterized by its robustness acquired over the last thirty years of experience in manufacturing. The reliability of these processes is based on a qualified processes and continuous improvement in the design and upgrading of equipment and optimization of software and manufacturing processes. Additionally, management and quality control systems have been improved in both software and measuring business objectives. this article emphasizes the improvements made over the past five years in management, production and inspection of fuel assemblies. (Author)

  6. Impact of Flexibility of Manufacturing System Components on Competitiveness of SMEs in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakun Preet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present manufacturing environment is characterized by a number of changes which poses challenges to a typical manufacturing unit. Time demands a shift from the traditional manufacturing strategies as they do not fit to present market competition. A flexible systems strategy has to be designed for remaining competitive in the market and perform well. For designing strategies and policies it is important to know the factors that influence performance of the system. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of the flexibility of manufacturing system components on competitiveness of SMEs in northern India. A questionnaire based survey was conducted in the SMEs across northern India analysing three sectors namely automotive, machine tool and light engineering (mechanical components and equipment. The study contributes to the existing literature by empirically investigating the impact of machine, material handling and worker flexibility on competitiveness of manufacturing firms. This paper presents a Structural Equation Model displaying the impact of flexibility of manufacturing system components on competitiveness of SMEs.

  7. 40 CFR 59.506 - How do I demonstrate compliance if I manufacture multi-component kits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I demonstrate compliance if I manufacture multi-component kits? 59.506 Section 59.506 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 59.506 How do I demonstrate compliance if I manufacture multi-component kits? (a) If you manufacture...

  8. Testing of high heat flux components manufactured by ENEA for ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visca, Eliseo; Escourbiac, F.; Libera, S.; Mancini, A.; Mazzone, G.; Merola, M.; Pizzuto, A.

    2009-01-01

    ENEA is involved in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) R and D activities and in particular in the manufacturing of high heat flux plasma-facing components, such as the divertor targets. During the last years ENEA has manufactured actively cooled mock-ups by using different technologies, namely brazing, diffusion bonding and HIPping. A new manufacturing process that combines two main techniques PBC (Pre-Brazed Casting) and the HRP (Hot Radial Pressing) has been set up and widely tested. A full monoblock medium scale vertical target, having a straight CFC armoured part and a curved W armoured part, was manufactured using this process. The ultrasonic method was used for the non-destructive examinations performed during the manufacturing of the component, from the monoblock preparation up to the final mock-up assembling. The component was also examined by thermography on SATIR facility (CEA, France), afterwards it was thermal fatigue tested at FE200 (200 kW electron beam facility, CEA/AREVA France). The successful results of the thermal fatigue testing performed according the ITER requirements (10 MW/m 2 , 3000 cycles of 10 s on both CFC and W part, then 20/15 MW/m 2 , 2000 cycles of 10 s on CFC/W part, respectively) have confirmed that the developed process can be considerate a candidate for the manufacturing of monoblock divertor components. Furthermore, a 35-MW/m 2 Critical Heat Flux was measured at relevant thermal-hydraulics conditions at the end of the testing campaign. This paper reports the manufacturing route, the thermal fatigue testing results, the pre and post non-destructive examination and the destructive examination performed on the ITER vertical target medium scale mock-up. These activities were performed in the frame of EFDA contracts (04-1218 with CEA, 93-851 JN with AREVA and 03-1054 with ENEA).

  9. [Epidemiology of contact hypersensitivity to rubber components in manufacturers of automobile tires at the Stomil plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubisz-Brzezińska, J; Bogdanowski, T; Brzezińska-Wcisło, L; Mozdzanowska, K; Bajcar, S

    1990-01-01

    Dermatological examination and patch tests with 34 rubber components were carried out in 114 tire manufacturers, 78 women and 36 men aged 29 years on average, with a mean duration of work in the plant 7 years. For correct interpretation of the obtained results patch tests with the same components were done in two control groups that is in 120 healthy subjects and 120 patients with contact dermatitis. Patch tests with proper concentrations of the studied components were evaluated after 48, 72 and 96 hours. Positive patch tests were found most frequently with antioxidants--16.6% (including IPPD--8.6%), followed by vulcanization accelerators--10.6%, and other rubber components--11.4% in all. During about 3 years of follow-up in 4 manufacturers contact allergic eczema was noted and polyvalent hypersensitivity to antioxidants and vulcanization accelerators without clinical manifestations of this hypersensitivity was diagnosed in 3 other subjects.

  10. Laser Additive Manufacturing of F/M Steels for Radiation Tolerant Nuclear Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienert, Thomas J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maloy, Stuart Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-02

    According to the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap Report submitted to Congress in 2010, one the key challenges facing the nuclear energy industry involves development of new reactor designs with reduced capital costs. Two related R&D objectives outlined in the report include: 1) Making improvements in the affordability of new reactors; and 2) Development of structural materials to withstand irradiation for longer periods. Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is particularly well suited for more rapid and economical fabrication of reactor components relative to current fabrication methods. The proposed work involving LAM directly addresses the two R&D objectives outlined above relevant to the pertinent mission problems. The classical Materials Science approach involving development of Process/Structure/Property/Performance (P/S/P/P) relations was employed in this project. Processing included LAM and heat-treating. Thermal cycling during LAM is discussed here, and phase diagrams and continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams are used to rationalize microstructural evolution. Structures were characterized including grain size & morphology, volume fraction, morphology, composition and location of carbides in as-deposited and heat-treated conditions. In the simplest sense, the goal was to control microstructures through process manipulation with a view toward optimizing properties and performance in service.

  11. The scope of additive manufacturing in cryogenics, component design, and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stautner, W.; Vanapalli, S.; Weiss, K.-P.; Chen, R.; Amm, K.; Budesheim, E.; Ricci, J.

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques using composites or metals are rapidly gaining momentum in cryogenic applications. Small or large, complex structural components are now no longer limited to mere design studies but can now move into the production stream thanks to new machines on the market that

  12. Optimising the design and operation of semi-continuous affinity chromatography for clinical and commercial manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, James; Bolton, Glen; Coffman, Jon; Ho, Sa V; Bracewell, Daniel G; Farid, Suzanne S

    2013-04-05

    This paper presents an integrated experimental and modelling approach to evaluate the potential of semi-continuous chromatography for the capture of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in clinical and commercial manufacture. Small-scale single-column experimental breakthrough studies were used to derive design equations for the semi-continuous affinity chromatography system. Verification runs with the semi-continuous 3-column and 4-column periodic counter current (PCC) chromatography system indicated the robustness of the design approach. The product quality profiles and step yields (after wash step optimisation) achieved were comparable to the standard batch process. The experimentally-derived design equations were incorporated into a decisional tool comprising dynamic simulation, process economics and sizing optimisation. The decisional tool was used to evaluate the economic and operational feasibility of whole mAb bioprocesses employing PCC affinity capture chromatography versus standard batch chromatography across a product's lifecycle from clinical to commercial manufacture. The tool predicted that PCC capture chromatography would offer more significant savings in direct costs for early-stage clinical manufacture (proof-of-concept) (∼30%) than for late-stage clinical (∼10-15%) or commercial (∼5%) manufacture. The evaluation also highlighted the potential facility fit issues that could arise with a capture resin (MabSelect) that experiences losses in binding capacity when operated in continuous mode over lengthy commercial campaigns. Consequently, the analysis explored the scenario of adopting the PCC system for clinical manufacture and switching to the standard batch process following product launch. The tool determined the PCC system design required to operate at commercial scale without facility fit issues and with similar costs to the standard batch process whilst pursuing a process change application. A retrofitting analysis established that the direct cost

  13. Integrated continuous bioprocessing: Economic, operational, and environmental feasibility for clinical and commercial antibody manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, James; Coffman, Jon; Ho, Sa V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a systems approach to evaluating the potential of integrated continuous bioprocessing for monoclonal antibody (mAb) manufacture across a product's lifecycle from preclinical to commercial manufacture. The economic, operational, and environmental feasibility of alternative continuous manufacturing strategies were evaluated holistically using a prototype UCL decisional tool that integrated process economics, discrete‐event simulation, environmental impact analysis, operational risk analysis, and multiattribute decision‐making. The case study focused on comparing whole bioprocesses that used either batch, continuous or a hybrid combination of batch and continuous technologies for cell culture, capture chromatography, and polishing chromatography steps. The cost of goods per gram (COG/g), E‐factor, and operational risk scores of each strategy were established across a matrix of scenarios with differing combinations of clinical development phase and company portfolio size. The tool outputs predict that the optimal strategy for early phase production and small/medium‐sized companies is the integrated continuous strategy (alternating tangential flow filtration (ATF) perfusion, continuous capture, continuous polishing). However, the top ranking strategy changes for commercial production and companies with large portfolios to the hybrid strategy with fed‐batch culture, continuous capture and batch polishing from a COG/g perspective. The multiattribute decision‐making analysis highlighted that if the operational feasibility was considered more important than the economic benefits, the hybrid strategy would be preferred for all company scales. Further considerations outside the scope of this work include the process development costs required to adopt continuous processing. © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:854–866, 2017

  14. Integrated continuous bioprocessing: Economic, operational, and environmental feasibility for clinical and commercial antibody manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, James; Coffman, Jon; Ho, Sa V; Farid, Suzanne S

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a systems approach to evaluating the potential of integrated continuous bioprocessing for monoclonal antibody (mAb) manufacture across a product's lifecycle from preclinical to commercial manufacture. The economic, operational, and environmental feasibility of alternative continuous manufacturing strategies were evaluated holistically using a prototype UCL decisional tool that integrated process economics, discrete-event simulation, environmental impact analysis, operational risk analysis, and multiattribute decision-making. The case study focused on comparing whole bioprocesses that used either batch, continuous or a hybrid combination of batch and continuous technologies for cell culture, capture chromatography, and polishing chromatography steps. The cost of goods per gram (COG/g), E-factor, and operational risk scores of each strategy were established across a matrix of scenarios with differing combinations of clinical development phase and company portfolio size. The tool outputs predict that the optimal strategy for early phase production and small/medium-sized companies is the integrated continuous strategy (alternating tangential flow filtration (ATF) perfusion, continuous capture, continuous polishing). However, the top ranking strategy changes for commercial production and companies with large portfolios to the hybrid strategy with fed-batch culture, continuous capture and batch polishing from a COG/g perspective. The multiattribute decision-making analysis highlighted that if the operational feasibility was considered more important than the economic benefits, the hybrid strategy would be preferred for all company scales. Further considerations outside the scope of this work include the process development costs required to adopt continuous processing. © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:854-866, 2017. © 2017 The

  15. A meta-model based approach for rapid formability estimation of continuous fibre reinforced components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerling, Clemens; Dörr, Dominik; Henning, Frank; Kärger, Luise

    2018-05-01

    Due to their high mechanical performance, continuous fibre reinforced plastics (CoFRP) become increasingly important for load bearing structures. In many cases, manufacturing CoFRPs comprises a forming process of textiles. To predict and optimise the forming behaviour of a component, numerical simulations are applied. However, for maximum part quality, both the geometry and the process parameters must match in mutual regard, which in turn requires numerous numerically expensive optimisation iterations. In both textile and metal forming, a lot of research has focused on determining optimum process parameters, whilst regarding the geometry as invariable. In this work, a meta-model based approach on component level is proposed, that provides a rapid estimation of the formability for variable geometries based on pre-sampled, physics-based draping data. Initially, a geometry recognition algorithm scans the geometry and extracts a set of doubly-curved regions with relevant geometry parameters. If the relevant parameter space is not part of an underlying data base, additional samples via Finite-Element draping simulations are drawn according to a suitable design-table for computer experiments. Time saving parallel runs of the physical simulations accelerate the data acquisition. Ultimately, a Gaussian Regression meta-model is built from the data base. The method is demonstrated on a box-shaped generic structure. The predicted results are in good agreement with physics-based draping simulations. Since evaluations of the established meta-model are numerically inexpensive, any further design exploration (e.g. robustness analysis or design optimisation) can be performed in short time. It is expected that the proposed method also offers great potential for future applications along virtual process chains: For each process step along the chain, a meta-model can be set-up to predict the impact of design variations on manufacturability and part performance. Thus, the method is

  16. Manufacturing requirements of reactor assembly components for PFBR (Paper No. 041)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, C.G.K.; Bhoje, S.B.

    1987-02-01

    This paper enumerates the requirements of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) components and considering the present state of art of Indian industry an analysis is made on the challenges to be faced in manufacture highlighting the areas needing development. The large sizes and weights of the components coupled with the limitations on shop facilities and ODC transport, demand part of the fabrication to be done at shop and balance assembly work as well as certain assembly machining operations to be done at site work shop. The stringent geometrical tolerances coupled with extensive destructive and non-destructive examinations call for balanced and low heat input welding techniques and special inspection equipment like electronic co-ordinate determination system. The present paper deals with the specific manufacturing problems of the main reactor components. (author)

  17. The scope of additive manufacturing in cryogenics, component design, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stautner, W.; Vanapalli, S.; Weiss, K.-P.; Chen, R.; Amm, K.; Budesheim, E.; Ricci, J.

    2017-12-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques using composites or metals are rapidly gaining momentum in cryogenic applications. Small or large, complex structural components are now no longer limited to mere design studies but can now move into the production stream thanks to new machines on the market that allow for light-weight, cost optimized designs with short turnaround times. The potential for cost reductions from bulk materials machined to tight tolerances has become obvious. Furthermore, additive manufacturing opens doors and design space for cryogenic components that to date did not exist or were not possible in the past, using bulk materials along with elaborate and expensive machining processes, e.g. micromachining. The cryogenic engineer now faces the challenge to design toward those new additive manufacturing capabilities. Additionally, re-thinking designs toward cost optimization and fast implementation also requires detailed knowledge of mechanical and thermal properties at cryogenic temperatures. In the following we compile the information available to date and show a possible roadmap for additive manufacturing applications of parts and components typically used in cryogenic engineering designs.

  18. Estimation of cellular manufacturing cost components using simulation and activity-based costing

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Savory; Robert Williams

    2010-01-01

    It can be difficult estimating all of the cost components that are attributed to a machined part.  This problem is more pronounced when a factory uses group technology manufacturing cells as opposed to a functional or process layout of a job shop.  This paper describes how activity-based costing (ABC) concepts can be integrated into a discrete-event simulation model of a U-shaped manufacturing cell producing a part family with four members.  The simulation model generates detai...

  19. Estimation of cellular manufacturing cost components using simulation and activity-based costing

    OpenAIRE

    Savory, Paul

    2010-01-01

    It can be difficult estimating all of the cost components that are attributed to a machined part. This problem is more pronounced when a factory uses group technology manufacturing cells as opposed to a functional or process layout of a job shop. This paper describes how activity-based costing (ABC) concepts can be integrated into a discrete-event simulation model of a U-shaped manufacturing cell producing a part family with four members. The simulation model generates detailed Bills of Ac...

  20. Future Supply Chains Enabled by Continuous Processing-Opportunities Challenges May 20-21 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srai, Jagjit Singh; Badman, Clive; Krumme, Markus; Futran, Mauricio; Johnston, Craig

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines the opportunities and challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry in moving to a primarily "continuous processing"-based supply chain. The current predominantly "large batch" and centralized manufacturing system designed for the "blockbuster" drug has driven a slow-paced, inventory heavy operating model that is increasingly regarded as inflexible and unsustainable. Indeed, new markets and the rapidly evolving technology landscape will drive more product variety, shorter product life-cycles, and smaller drug volumes, which will exacerbate an already unsustainable economic model. Future supply chains will be required to enhance affordability and availability for patients and healthcare providers alike despite the increased product complexity. In this more challenging supply scenario, we examine the potential for a more pull driven, near real-time demand-based supply chain, utilizing continuous processing where appropriate as a key element of a more "flow-through" operating model. In this discussion paper on future supply chain models underpinned by developments in the continuous manufacture of pharmaceuticals, we have set out; The paper recognizes that although current batch operational performance in pharma is far from optimal and not necessarily an appropriate end-state benchmark for batch technology, the adoption of continuous supply chain operating models underpinned by continuous production processing, as full or hybrid solutions in selected product supply chains, can support industry transformations to deliver right-first-time quality at substantially lower inventory profiles. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing Part I: System Analysis, Component Identification, Additive Manufacturing, and Testing of Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Haller, William J.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Schnulo, Sydney L.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Weir, Don; Wali, Natalie; Vinup, Michael; Jones, Michael G.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The research and development activities reported in this publication were carried out under NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) funded project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing." The objective of the project was to conduct evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. The results of the activities are described in three part report. The first part of the report contains the data and analysis of engine system trade studies, which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. The technical scope of activities included an assessment of the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composites, which were accomplished by fabricating prototype engine components and testing them in simulated engine operating conditions. The manufacturing process parameters were developed and optimized for polymer and ceramic composites (described in detail in the second and third part of the report). A number of prototype components (inlet guide vane (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included turbine nozzle components. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  2. Continuous powder feeding for pharmaceutical solid dosage form manufacture: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackshields, Caroline A; Crean, Abina M

    2018-07-01

    There has been a noticeable shift from pharmaceutical batch processing towards a more continuous mode of manufacture for solid oral dosage forms. Continuous solid oral dose processes would not be possible in the absence of a highly accurate feeding system. The performance of feeders defines the content of formulations and is therefore a critical operation in continuous manufacturing of solid dosage forms. It was the purpose of this review to review the role of the initial powder feeding step in a continuous manufacturing process. Different feeding mechanisms are discussed with a particular emphasis on screw controlled loss in weight (LIW) feeding. The importance of understanding the physical properties of the raw materials and its impact on the feeding process is reviewed. Prior knowledge of materials provides an initial indication of how the powders will behave through processing and facilitates in the selection of the most suitable (i) feeder (capacity), (ii) feeding mechanism, and (iii) in the case of screw feeder - screw type. The studies identified in this review focus on the impact of material on powder feeding performance.

  3. Development in the manufacture of fuel assembly components at Nuclear Fuel Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.

    2012-01-01

    The integrity of the fuel bundle and pellet-clad mechanical and chemical interaction (PCMCI) is the major limiting factor in achieving high burn up in thermal as well as fast reactors. Zircaloy based fuel bundle used for Indian pressurized heavy water reactor consists of number of components such as fuel clad tube, end cap bearing pad and spacer pad. These tubular, bar and sheet components are manufactured at Nuclear Fuel Complex using a series of thermomechanical processes involving hot and cold working with intermediate heat treatment. This paper is aimed at bringing out recent advances in NFC in the manufacture of fuel assembly components. Zircaloy based double clad tube adopting co-extrusion route followed by cold pilgering was successfully produced for its potential usage for high burnup in advance thermal reactors such as Advanced Heavy Water Reactors, This paper also includes process modifications carried out in the manufacture of clad tube and end cap components based on in-depth metallurgical studies. A radial forging process was established for primary breakdown of arc melted ingot which allows for better soundness and homogeneous microstructure. Manufacturing route of bar components for end caps was suitably modified by adopting only barrel straightening to minimize the residual stress and thereby increasing the recovery appreciably. NFC also supplies clad tube for fast breeder reactors where limiting factor for burn up are void swelling and fuel-clad interaction. In view of this, advance claddings such as P/M based 9Cr - Oxide Dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel clad and Zirconium lined T91 (9Cr-1 Mo) steel double clad have been successfully produced. Zirconium lined T91 (9Cr-1 Mo) double clad tubes required was successfully produced by adopting the method of co-pilgering, as a candidate material for clad tubes of Fast Breeder Reactors. (author)

  4. Future Supply Chains Enabled by Continuous Processing—Opportunities and Challenges. May 20–21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srai, Jagjit Singh; Badman, Clive; Krumme, Markus; Futran, Mauricio; Johnston, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the opportunities and challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry in moving to a primarily “continuous processing”-based supply chain. The current predominantly “large batch” and centralized manufacturing system designed for the “blockbuster” drug has driven a slow-paced, inventory heavy operating model that is increasingly regarded as inflexible and unsustainable. Indeed, new markets and the rapidly evolving technology landscape will drive more product variety, shorter product life-cycles, and smaller drug volumes, which will exacerbate an already unsustainable economic model. Future supply chains will be required to enhance affordability and availability for patients and healthcare providers alike despite the increased product complexity. In this more challenging supply scenario, we examine the potential for a more pull driven, near real-time demand-based supply chain, utilizing continuous processing where appropriate as a key element of a more “flow-through” operating model. In this discussion paper on future supply chain models underpinned by developments in the continuous manufacture of pharmaceuticals, we have set out; The significant opportunities to moving to a supply chain flow-through operating model, with substantial opportunities in inventory reduction, lead-time to patient, and radically different product assurance/stability regimes. Scenarios for decentralized production models producing a greater variety of products with enhanced volume flexibility. Production, supply, and value chain footprints that are radically different from today's monolithic and centralized batch manufacturing operations. Clinical trial and drug product development cost savings that support more rapid scale-up and market entry models with early involvement of SC designers within New Product Development. The major supply chain and industrial transformational challenges that need to be addressed. The paper recognizes that although current

  5. Future supply chains enabled by continuous processing--opportunities and challenges. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srai, Jagjit Singh; Badman, Clive; Krumme, Markus; Futran, Mauricio; Johnston, Craig

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines the opportunities and challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry in moving to a primarily "continuous processing"-based supply chain. The current predominantly "large batch" and centralized manufacturing system designed for the "blockbuster" drug has driven a slow-paced, inventory heavy operating model that is increasingly regarded as inflexible and unsustainable. Indeed, new markets and the rapidly evolving technology landscape will drive more product variety, shorter product life-cycles, and smaller drug volumes, which will exacerbate an already unsustainable economic model. Future supply chains will be required to enhance affordability and availability for patients and healthcare providers alike despite the increased product complexity. In this more challenging supply scenario, we examine the potential for a more pull driven, near real-time demand-based supply chain, utilizing continuous processing where appropriate as a key element of a more "flow-through" operating model. In this discussion paper on future supply chain models underpinned by developments in the continuous manufacture of pharmaceuticals, we have set out; The significant opportunities to moving to a supply chain flow-through operating model, with substantial opportunities in inventory reduction, lead-time to patient, and radically different product assurance/stability regimes. Scenarios for decentralized production models producing a greater variety of products with enhanced volume flexibility. Production, supply, and value chain footprints that are radically different from today's monolithic and centralized batch manufacturing operations. Clinical trial and drug product development cost savings that support more rapid scale-up and market entry models with early involvement of SC designers within New Product Development. The major supply chain and industrial transformational challenges that need to be addressed. The paper recognizes that although current batch operational

  6. Manufacturing studies of double wall components for the ITER EC H and CD upper launcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaeh, P.; Aiello, G.; Goldmann, A.; Kleefeldt, K.; Kroiss, A.; Meier, A.; Obermeier, C.; Scherer, T.; Schreck, S.; Serikov, A.; Strauss, D.; Vaccaro, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Double wall manufacturing technologies for ITER In-vessel components. ► Rigid and safe accommodation of ECRH heating and current drive systems. ► Thermo hydraulic analysis of coolant flow in double-wall structures. - Abstract: To counteract plasma instabilities, Electron Cyclotron Launchers will be installed in four of the ITER Upper Ports. The structural system of an EC Upper Launcher accommodates the MM-wave-components and has to meet strong demands on alignment, removal of nuclear heat loads, mechanical strength and nuclear shielding. The EC Upper Launcher has successfully undergone the Preliminary Design Review in 2009 and is now in the final design phase. Nuclear heat loads from 0.1 W/cm 3 up to 0.8 W/cm 3 will affect the front area of the launcher main frame. To guarantee save and homogenous removal of those heat loads, the front part of the launcher main frame is designed as a double wall steel-casing with cooling channels inside the shell structure. To finalize the design of this double wall component, the main emphasis is now to define the cooling channels geometry and to identify the optimum manufacturing route to assure adequate flow of coolant and sufficient mechanical strength in compliance with required dimension tolerances and quality of the welds. Several manufacturing options have been investigated and were evaluated by computational analysis and fabrication of pre-prototypes. To come to a final design, the most promising route will be chosen to manufacture a full-size mock-up of the double wall main frame. It will be tested at the KIT Launcher Handling Test facility to check the compliance with the design goals related to geometrical accuracy and thermo-hydraulic characteristics. This paper describes the design and the manufacturing routes of the prototypic double wall main frame.

  7. Manufacturing studies of double wall components for the ITER EC H and CD upper launcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaeh, P., E-mail: peter.spaeh@kit.edu [Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Aiello, G. [Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Goldmann, A. [MAN Diesel and Turbo, D-94452 Deggendorf, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kleefeldt, K. [Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kroiss, A. [MAN Diesel and Turbo, D-94452 Deggendorf, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Meier, A. [Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Obermeier, C. [MAN Diesel and Turbo, D-94452 Deggendorf, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Scherer, T.; Schreck, S. [Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Serikov, A. [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Strauss, D.; Vaccaro, A. [Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Double wall manufacturing technologies for ITER In-vessel components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rigid and safe accommodation of ECRH heating and current drive systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermo hydraulic analysis of coolant flow in double-wall structures. - Abstract: To counteract plasma instabilities, Electron Cyclotron Launchers will be installed in four of the ITER Upper Ports. The structural system of an EC Upper Launcher accommodates the MM-wave-components and has to meet strong demands on alignment, removal of nuclear heat loads, mechanical strength and nuclear shielding. The EC Upper Launcher has successfully undergone the Preliminary Design Review in 2009 and is now in the final design phase. Nuclear heat loads from 0.1 W/cm{sup 3} up to 0.8 W/cm{sup 3} will affect the front area of the launcher main frame. To guarantee save and homogenous removal of those heat loads, the front part of the launcher main frame is designed as a double wall steel-casing with cooling channels inside the shell structure. To finalize the design of this double wall component, the main emphasis is now to define the cooling channels geometry and to identify the optimum manufacturing route to assure adequate flow of coolant and sufficient mechanical strength in compliance with required dimension tolerances and quality of the welds. Several manufacturing options have been investigated and were evaluated by computational analysis and fabrication of pre-prototypes. To come to a final design, the most promising route will be chosen to manufacture a full-size mock-up of the double wall main frame. It will be tested at the KIT Launcher Handling Test facility to check the compliance with the design goals related to geometrical accuracy and thermo-hydraulic characteristics. This paper describes the design and the manufacturing routes of the prototypic double wall main frame.

  8. Fabricating Superior NiAl Bronze Components through Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghong Ding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cast nickel aluminum bronze (NAB alloy is widely used for large engineering components in marine applications due to its excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Casting porosity, as well as coarse microstructure, however, are accompanied by a decrease in mechanical properties of cast NAB components. Although heat treatment, friction stir processing, and fusion welding were implemented to eliminate porosity, improve mechanical properties, and refine the microstructure of as-cast metal, their applications are limited to either surface modification or component repair. Instead of traditional casting techniques, this study focuses on developing NAB components using recently expanded wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM. Consumable welding wire is melted and deposited layer-by-layer on substrates producing near-net shaped NAB components. Additively-manufactured NAB components without post-processing are fully dense, and exhibit fine microstructure, as well as comparable mechanical properties, to as-cast NAB alloy. The effects of heat input from the welding process and post-weld-heat-treatment (PWHT are shown to give uniform NAB alloys with superior mechanical properties revealing potential marine applications of the WAAM technique in NAB production.

  9. Defect recognition in CFRP components using various NDT methods within a smart manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, David; Meyendorf, Norbert; Hakim, Issa; Ewert, Uwe

    2018-04-01

    The manufacturing process of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) components is gaining a more and more significant role when looking at the increasing amount of CFRPs used in industries today. The monitoring of the manufacturing process and hence the reliability of the manufactured products, is one of the major challenges we need to face in the near future. Common defects which arise during manufacturing process are e.g. porosity and voids which may lead to delaminations during operation and under load. To find irregularities and classify them as possible defects in an early stage of the manufacturing process is of high importance for the safety and reliability of the finished products, as well as of significant impact from an economical point of view. In this study we compare various NDT methods which were applied to similar CFRP laminate samples in order to detect and characterize regions of defective volume. Besides ultrasound, thermography and eddy current, different X-ray methods like radiography, laminography and computed tomography are used to investigate the samples. These methods are compared with the intention to evaluate their capability to reliably detect and characterize defective volume. Beyond the detection and evaluation of defects, we also investigate possibilities to combine various NDT methods within a smart manufacturing process in which the decision which method shall be applied is inherent within the process. Is it possible to design an in-line or at-line testing process which can recognize defects reliably and reduce testing time and costs? This study aims to show up opportunities of designing a smart NDT process synchronized to the production based on the concepts of smart production (Industry 4.0). A set of defective CFRP laminate samples and different NDT methods were used to demonstrate how effective defects are recognized and how communication between interconnected NDT sensors and the manufacturing process could be organized.

  10. Additive manufacture (3d printing) of plasma diagnostic components and assemblies for fusion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieck, Paul; Woodruff, Simon; Stuber, James; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Rivera, William; You, Setthivoine; Card, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) is now becoming sufficiently accurate with a large range of materials for use in printing sensors needed universally in fusion energy research. Decreasing production cost and significantly lowering design time of energy subsystems would realize significant cost reduction for standard diagnostics commonly obtained through research grants. There is now a well-established set of plasma diagnostics, but these expensive since they are often highly complex and require customization, sometimes pace the project. Additive manufacturing (3D printing) is developing rapidly, including open source designs. Basic components can be printed for (in some cases) less than 1/100th costs of conventional manufacturing. We have examined the impact that AM can have on plasma diagnostic cost by taking 15 separate diagnostics through an engineering design using Conventional Manufacturing (CM) techniques to determine costs of components and labor costs associated with getting the diagnostic to work as intended. With that information in hand, we set about optimizing the design to exploit the benefits of AM. Work performed under DOE Contract DE-SC0011858.

  11. Additively Manufactured IN718 Components with Wirelessly Powered and Interrogated Embedded Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attridge, Paul [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Bajekal, Sanjay [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Klecka, Michael [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Wu, Xin [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Savulak, Steve [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Viens, Dan [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Carey, Michael [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Miano, John [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Rioux, William [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Zacchio, Joseph [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Dunst, Richard [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Straub, Doug [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Mantese, Joseph [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2017-07-14

    A methodology is described for embedding commercial-off-the-shelf sensors together with wireless communication and power circuit elements using direct laser metal sintered additively manufactured components. Physics based models of the additive manufacturing processes and sensor/wireless level performance models guided the design and embedment processes. A combination of cold spray deposition and laser engineered net shaping was used to fashion the transmitter/receiving elements and embed the sensors, thereby providing environmental protection and component robustness/survivability for harsh conditions. By design, this complement of analog and digital sensors were wirelessly powered and interrogated using a health and utilization monitoring system; enabling real-time, in situ prognostics and diagnostics.

  12. The study and design of a national supply chain for the aerospace titanium components manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene van der Merwe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Titanium’s strength-to-density ratio, corrosion resistance and high thermal compatibility makes it the perfect metal for aerospace. Titanium is for instance used for the structural airframe, seat tracks, engine components and landing gear of aircraft. The Boeing 787 that had its test flight in 2009 is one of the latest aircraft designs that incorporates a substantially higher percentage of parts manufactured from titanium due to the weight benefit. Titanium’s extensive use in aerospace applications ensures that the aerospace market is the main driver of titanium metal demand. South Africa is the second largest titanium producer in the world after Australia. The abundance of titanium in South Africa together with the growing demand has led it to be identified as a beneficiation priority in a collaborative government initiative, called Titanium Beneficiation Initiative (TBI. The purpose of this paper is to develop a supply chain model for the anticipated South African titanium component manufacturing industry.

  13. Changes in flavor components and microbial flora during Fukuyama rice vinegar manufacture.

    OpenAIRE

    円谷, 悦造; 正井, 博之; ETSUZO, ENTANI; HIROSHI, MASAI; (株)中埜酢店中埜生化学研究所; (株)中埜酢店中埜生化学研究所; Nakano Biochemical Research Institute, Nakano Vinegar Co., Ltd.,; Nakano Biochemical Research Institute, Nakano Vinegar Co., Ltd.,

    1985-01-01

    Fukuyama rice vinegar is a type of Japanese vinegar that has been produced by a traditional method using a pot as a surface fermentor in the Fukuyama district of Kagoshima prefecture. There have been few detailed studies of the fermentation process of this vineger. Therefore, changes in the flavor components and microbial flora of Fukuyama rice vinegar were examined during the manufacturing process.The maximum viable cell counts of yeasts were observed at the early stage. Alcohols, such as et...

  14. 3D-Printing: How Additive Manufacturing impacts Supply Chain Business Processes and Management Components

    OpenAIRE

    Oettmeier, Katrin; Hofmann, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The business implications of additive manufacturing (AM) are explored; specific focus thereby lies on the impact of AM technology adoption in customized parts production. Design/methodology/approach Based on two explorative case studies from the hearing aid industry, the impact of AM technology adoption on supply chain business processes and management components is analyzed. General systems theory and a supply chain management framework serve as theoretical underpinning....

  15. Users guide for WoodCite, a product cost quotation tool for wood component manufacturers [computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff Palmer; Adrienn Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann

    2014-01-01

    WoodCite is a Microsoft® Access-based application that allows wood component manufacturers to develop product price quotations for their current and potential customers. The application was developed by the U.S. Forest Service and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, in cooperation with the Wood Components Manufacturers Association.

  16. 3D additive manufactured 316L components microstructural features and changes induced by working life cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, M. L.; Guarnaccio, A.; Dolce, P.; Mollica, D.; Parisi, G. P.; Lettino, A.; Medici, L.; Summa, V.; Ciancio, R.; Santagata, A.

    2017-10-01

    The ability of processing through laser beams different kinds of metallic powders for direct production of 3D components with complex geometries has been gaining an impressive and growing attention for specific industrial applications. The process which can be distinguished as Selective Laser Sintering or Selective Laser Melting is even considered, more generally, as Additive Manufacturing where layer by layer material is built by the interaction between a laser beam and a powder bed. The rapid heating of the powder due to the laser beam energy transfer process followed by a rapid cooling rate induces within the manufactured material a cellular structure with fine sub-grains, which are in the range of few hundreds of micrometers. These metastable structures, which are smaller than the grain size in conventionally manufactured 316L stainless steel components, can undertake towards a recrystallization process due to either heat or mechanical treatments. For instance, when sub-grain boundaries of the cells are enriched with Mo and higher concentration of dislocation, dynamical processes occur generating local residual stresses. In these circumstances the segregation of Mo in cell boundaries is out of thermodynamic equilibrium conditions so that microstructures and phases are metastable. In the range of 1100-1400 °C heat treatments a complete dissolution of Mo in the Fe matrix with a gradual disappearance of sub-microns cell is observed feeding the growth of larger austenitic sub-grains formation. It follows a higher degree of Mo dissolution in the material matrix and a decrease of dislocation's concentration (Saeidi et al., 2015) [1]. In the work here presented we point out which are the microstructural features of stainless steel 316L components realized by Additive Manufacturing. Furthermore, the occurrence of a microstructural evolution is presented after experiencing to fatigue of 80000 cycles some door joints obtained by this technique. A decrease of dislocation

  17. Influence of Powder Characteristics on Formation of Porosity in Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iebba, Maurizio; Astarita, Antonello; Mistretta, Daniela; Colonna, Ivano; Liberini, Mariacira; Scherillo, Fabio; Pirozzi, Carmine; Borrelli, Rosario; Franchitti, Stefania; Squillace, Antonino

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims to study the genesis of defects in titanium components made through two different additive manufacturing technologies: selective laser melting and electron beam melting. In particular, we focussed on the influence of the powders used on the formation of porosities and cavities in the manufactured components. A detailed experimental campaign was carried out to characterize the components made through the two additive manufacturing techniques aforementioned and the powders used in the process. It was found that some defects of the final components can be attributed to internal porosities of the powders used in the manufacturing process. These internal porosities are a consequence of the gas atomization process used for the production of the powders themselves. Therefore, the importance of using tailored powders, free from porosities, in order to manufacture components with high mechanical properties is highlighted.

  18. Additive Manufacturing Thermal Performance Testing of Single Channel GRCop-84 SLM Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Chance P.; Cross, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The surface finish found on components manufactured by sinter laser manufacturing (SLM) is rougher (0.013 - 0.0006 inches) than parts made using traditional fabrication methods. Internal features and passages built into SLM components do not readily allow for roughness reduction processes. Alternatively, engineering literature suggests that the roughness of a surface can enhance thermal performance within a pressure drop regime. To further investigate the thermal performance of SLM fabricated pieces, several GRCop-84 SLM single channel components were tested using a thermal conduction rig at MSFC. A 20 kW power source running at 25% duty cycle and 25% power level applied heat to each component while varying water flow rates between 2.1 - 6.2 gallons/min (GPM) at a supply pressure of 550 to 700 psi. Each test was allowed to reach quasi-steady state conditions where pressure, temperature, and thermal imaging data were recorded. Presented in this work are the heat transfer responses compared to a traditional machined OHFC Copper test section. An analytical thermal model was constructed to anchor theoretical models with the empirical data.

  19. Challenges faced in selection, manufacture, quality assurance and qualification of the components for FBTR CRDM applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, E.; Krovvidi, S.C.S.P. Kumar; Sarangarajan, S.; Kasinathan, N.; Srinivasan, G.

    2015-01-01

    Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is a sodium cooled type experimental reactor. Six numbers of Control Rod Drive Mechanisms (CRDM) along with their B4C control rods perform reactor start up, controlled shutdown, reactivity control for power changing and burn-up compensation and to shut down the reactor by SCRAM action during abnormal conditions. Lower part of the CRDM which consists of translation tube, outer sheath and gripper is partially immersed in sodium. Nested Ripple type Welded Disc Bellows (NRWDB) called translation bellows prevents entry of sodium in the space between the translation tube and outer sheath and acts as primary leak tight barrier. Silicone bellows which is near ground level elevation acts as secondary leak tight barrier. Non standard Aluminium bronze rod was used as raw material for various drive components in CRDM. These components were imported earlier from FRANCE. Indigenous development of these items and bellows was taken up due to difficulties in procurement. Extensive studies were carried out on selection of materials, establishment of manufacturing procedures and stringent Quality Assurance Program (QAP) to ensure defect free component during indigenous development. Suitable methodology was arrived for qualification of these components. Successful development of silicone bellows and Aluminium bronze rods were completed as per our requirements and selection, establishment of manufacturing procedure and QAP were completed for (NRWDB). Prototype development of NRWDB is in progress. (author)

  20. Manufacturing of reliable actively cooled fusion components - a challenge for non-destructive inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reheis, N.; Zabernig, A.; Ploechl, L.

    1994-01-01

    Actively cooled in-vessel components like divertors or limiters require high quality and reliability to ensure safe operation during long term use. Such components are subjected to very severe thermal and mechanical cyclic loads and high power densities. Key requirements for materials in question are e.g. high melting point and thermal conductivity and low atomic mass number. Since no single material can simultaneously meet all of these requirements the selection of materials to be combined in composite components as well as of manufacturing and non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods is a particularly challenging task. Armour materials like graphite intended to face the plasma and help to maintain its desired properties, are bonded to metallic substrates like copper, molybdenum or stainless steel providing cooling and mechanical support. Several techniques such as brazing and active metal casting have been developed and successfully applied for joining materials with different thermophysical properties, pursuing the objective of sufficient heat dissipation from the hot, plasma facing surface to the coolant. NDI methods are an integral part of the manufacturing schedule of these components, starting in the design phase and ending in the final inspection. They apply all kinds of divertor types (monobloc and flat-tile concept). Particular focus is put on the feasibility of detecting small flaws and defects in complex interfaces and on the limits of these techniques. Special test pieces with defined defects acting as standards were inspected. Accompanying metallographic investigations were carried out to compare actual defects with results recorded during NDI

  1. Innovative approaches in the manufacture of zirconium alloy components for PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, M.N.; Srivastava, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Selection of an appropriate route for the fabrication of Zirconium alloy fuel components has a direct bearing on the quality of finished product. Many sophisticated and intricate processes such as vacuum arc melting, extrusion, hot rolling and cold working processes - swaging, drawing and sheet rolling are employed. Many advances were made in eddy current and ultrasonic evaluation to meet the stringent quality control requirement and locate the micro flaws. Emphasis was laid on achieving high recoveries and manufacture the product at minimum cost. Several creative and innovative processes were adopted particularly in the fabrication of end caps and spacers. The spacers were produced through the wire route and subsequently parting them into tiny spacers, which is entirely different from the conventional route of fabricating the sheets followed by blanking and coining. This has improved the material recovery and the lead time has been reduced substantially. The end caps used for the closure of clad tubes have to meet the most stringent quality requirements to avoid micro-flaws. The manufacturing processes adopted have direct influence on the integrity of the finished product. Special defect standards were developed to identify and eliminate micro-flaws and thereby ensure consistent and repetitive quality product. The paper brings out the above innovative approaches made in fabrication and quality control techniques in the manufacture of fuel components for PHWR fuel bundles. (author)

  2. NEET-AMM Final Technical Report on Laser Direct Manufacturing (LDM) for Nuclear Power Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Scott; Baca, Georgina; O'Connor, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Final technical report summarizes the program progress and technical accomplishments of the Laser Direct Manufacturing (LDM) for Nuclear Power Components project. A series of experiments varying build process parameters (scan speed and laser power) were conducted at the outset to establish the optimal build conditions for each of the alloys. Fabrication was completed in collaboration with Quad City Manufacturing Laboratory (QCML). The density of all sample specimens was measured and compared to literature values. Optimal build process conditions giving fabricated part densities close to literature values were chosen for making mechanical test coupons. Test coupons whose principal axis is on the x-y plane (perpendicular to build direction) and on the z plane (parallel to build direction) were built and tested as part of the experimental build matrix to understand the impact of the anisotropic nature of the process.. Investigations are described 316L SS, Inconel 600, 718 and 800 and oxide dispersion strengthed 316L SS (Yttria) alloys.

  3. NEET-AMM Final Technical Report on Laser Direct Manufacturing (LDM) for Nuclear Power Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Scott [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Denver, CO (United States). Space Systems Company; Baca, Georgina [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Denver, CO (United States). Space Systems Company; O' Connor, Michael [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Denver, CO (United States). Space Systems Company

    2015-12-31

    Final technical report summarizes the program progress and technical accomplishments of the Laser Direct Manufacturing (LDM) for Nuclear Power Components project. A series of experiments varying build process parameters (scan speed and laser power) were conducted at the outset to establish the optimal build conditions for each of the alloys. Fabrication was completed in collaboration with Quad City Manufacturing Laboratory (QCML). The density of all sample specimens was measured and compared to literature values. Optimal build process conditions giving fabricated part densities close to literature values were chosen for making mechanical test coupons. Test coupons whose principal axis is on the x-y plane (perpendicular to build direction) and on the z plane (parallel to build direction) were built and tested as part of the experimental build matrix to understand the impact of the anisotropic nature of the process.. Investigations are described 316L SS, Inconel 600, 718 and 800 and oxide dispersion strengthed 316L SS (Yttria) alloys.

  4. Control of three different continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes: Use of soft sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehrl, Jakob; Karttunen, Anssi-Pekka; Nicolaï, Niels; Hörmann, Theresa; Horn, Martin; Korhonen, Ossi; Nopens, Ingmar; De Beer, Thomas; Khinast, Johannes G

    2018-05-30

    One major advantage of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing over traditional batch manufacturing is the possibility of enhanced in-process control, reducing out-of-specification and waste material by appropriate discharge strategies. The decision on material discharge can be based on the measurement of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) concentration at specific locations in the production line via process analytic technology (PAT), e.g. near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. The implementation of the PAT instruments is associated with monetary investment and the long term operation requires techniques avoiding sensor drifts. Therefore, our paper proposes a soft sensor approach for predicting the API concentration from the feeder data. In addition, this information can be used to detect sensor drift, or serve as a replacement/supplement of specific PAT equipment. The paper presents the experimental determination of the residence time distribution of selected unit operations in three different continuous processing lines (hot melt extrusion, direct compaction, wet granulation). The mathematical models describing the soft sensor are developed and parameterized. Finally, the suggested soft sensor approach is validated on the three mentioned, different continuous processing lines, demonstrating its versatility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. How Development and Manufacturing Will Need to Be Structured-Heads of Development/Manufacturing May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepveux, Kevin; Sherlock, Jon-Paul; Futran, Mauricio; Thien, Michael; Krumme, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Continuous manufacturing (CM) is a process technology that has been used in the chemical industry for large-scale mass production of chemicals in single-purpose plants with benefit for many years. Recent interest has been raised to expand CM into the low-volume, high-value pharmaceutical business with its unique requirements regarding readiness for human use and the required quality, supply chain, and liability constraints in this business context. Using a fairly abstract set of definitions, this paper derives technical consequences of CM in different scenarios along the development-launch-supply axis in different business models and how they compare to batch processes. Impact of CM on functions in development is discussed and several operational models suitable for originators and other business models are discussed and specific aspects of CM are deduced from CM's technical characteristics. Organizational structures of current operations typically can support CM implementations with just minor refinements if the CM technology is limited to single steps or small sequences (bin-to-bin approach) and if the appropriate technical skill set is available. In such cases, a small, dedicated group focused on CM is recommended. The manufacturing strategy, as centralized versus decentralized in light of CM processes, is discussed and the potential impact of significantly shortened supply lead times on the organization that runs these processes. The ultimate CM implementation may be seen by some as a totally integrated monolithic plant, one that unifies chemistry and pharmaceutical operations into one plant. The organization supporting this approach will have to reflect this change in scope and responsibility. The other extreme, admittedly futuristic at this point, would be a highly decentralized approach with multiple smaller hubs; this would require a new and different organizational structure. This processing approach would open up new opportunities for products that

  6. How development and manufacturing will need to be structured--heads of development/manufacturing. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepveux, Kevin; Sherlock, Jon-Paul; Futran, Mauricio; Thien, Michael; Krumme, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Continuous manufacturing (CM) is a process technology that has been used in the chemical industry for large-scale mass production of chemicals in single-purpose plants with benefit for many years. Recent interest has been raised to expand CM into the low-volume, high-value pharmaceutical business with its unique requirements regarding readiness for human use and the required quality, supply chain, and liability constraints in this business context. Using a fairly abstract set of definitions, this paper derives technical consequences of CM in different scenarios along the development-launch-supply axis in different business models and how they compare to batch processes. Impact of CM on functions in development is discussed and several operational models suitable for originators and other business models are discussed and specific aspects of CM are deduced from CM's technical characteristics. Organizational structures of current operations typically can support CM implementations with just minor refinements if the CM technology is limited to single steps or small sequences (bin-to-bin approach) and if the appropriate technical skill set is available. In such cases, a small, dedicated group focused on CM is recommended. The manufacturing strategy, as centralized versus decentralized in light of CM processes, is discussed and the potential impact of significantly shortened supply lead times on the organization that runs these processes. The ultimate CM implementation may be seen by some as a totally integrated monolithic plant, one that unifies chemistry and pharmaceutical operations into one plant. The organization supporting this approach will have to reflect this change in scope and responsibility. The other extreme, admittedly futuristic at this point, would be a highly decentralized approach with multiple smaller hubs; this would require a new and different organizational structure. This processing approach would open up new opportunities for products that

  7. The Application of the Method of Continuous Casting for Manufacturing of Welding Wire AMg6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhazha, V.M.; Sverdlov, V.Ya.; Kondratov, A.A.; Rudycheva, T.Yu.

    2007-01-01

    The method of manufacturing semifinished item of high alloyed of aluminum, silver and copper alloys has been investigated on the basis of the continuous casting method. The sample of aluminum alloy AMg6 consist of small grains with the vios-cut dimension ∼ 15 mkm and which are stretched in the direction of longitudinal axis of the sample Such microstructure is favourable for plastic deformation of the sample. Welding wire which meets the demands of standards of commercial welding wires of this brand has been produced by the drawing from the sample

  8. The continuous improvement in quality management for nuclear fuel manufacturing in CNNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoling

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear fuel plant has been keeping good records in quality. Only one pot failure has been found in the fuels loaded in the reactors at more than ten years. The paper describes quality management in nuclear fuel manufacturing and focuses on the continuous improvement on quality system and process by running the quality management system, process by quality control group, and data analyze, the requirements and the improvements for the quality system, the measurement system and the standardization system, the importance of clearance system. It also describes the future plans in quality management

  9. Identification of Barriers Towards Change and Proposal to Institutionalize Continuous Improvement Programs in Manufacturing Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvair Silveira Torres Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A multi case research unfolded into a study in a sample of Brazilian manufacturing companies concerning their Continuous Improvement (CI program in manufacturing operations. Stakeholders interviews and performance analyses were conducted. The study aims to analyze the existence or absence of the institutionalization of a CI culture in manufacturing operations, identify barriers and difficulties within the process and propose a model for change. As a result of the research, it was observed that despite the considerable motivation of staff, rapid gains of the company and superior results during the early phases of the CI program, time and again such results were either not upheld or faded out over time, delivering no significant mid-term or long term results, due to poor management of changes. This happened mainly as a result of lack of strategic alignment at all levels of the organization, translated in measureable activities and projects, coached and mentored by the middle and upper management throughout the implementation and maintenance of the program. The selected cases showed a declining in performance after two years of CI program start up. Learning, union and process ownership among participants by means of interactions, are necessary to absorb and incorporate changes, instead of merely "smart words" .

  10. MANUFACTURING AND CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PERFORMANCE LEVEL IN PLANTS OF MEXICO; A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AMONG LARGE AND MEDIUM SIZE PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Monge; Jesús Cruz

    2015-01-01

    A random and statistically significant sample of 40 medium (12) and large (28) manufacturing plants of Apodaca, Mexico were surveyed using a structured and validated questionnaire to investigate the level of implementation of lean manufacturing, sustainable manufacturing, continuous improvement and operational efficiency and environmental responsibility in them, it is important to mention it was found that performance in the mentioned philosophies, on the two categories of plants is low, howe...

  11. Lightweight custom composite prosthetic components using an additive manufacturing-based molding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, Michael T; Belter, Joseph T; Gemmell, Kevin D; Dollar, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques are becoming more prominent and cost-effective as 3D printing becomes higher quality and more inexpensive. The idea of 3D printed prosthetics components promises affordable, customizable devices, but these systems currently have major shortcomings in durability and function. In this paper, we propose a fabrication method for custom composite prostheses utilizing additive manufacturing, allowing for customizability, as well the durability of professional prosthetics. The manufacturing process is completed using 3D printed molds in a multi-stage molding system, which creates a custom finger or palm with a lightweight epoxy foam core, a durable composite outer shell, and soft urethane gripping surfaces. The composite material was compared to 3D printed and aluminum materials using a three-point bending test to compare stiffness, as well as gravimetric measurements to compare weight. The composite finger demonstrates the largest stiffness with the lowest weight compared to other tested fingers, as well as having customizability and lower cost, proving to potentially be a substantial benefit to the development of upper-limb prostheses.

  12. Manufacturing study of Be, W and CFC bonded structures for plasma-facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Hirai, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Oda, Y.; Shimizu, K.

    2004-01-01

    A manufacturing study has been conducted for Be, W, and CFC bonded structures employed in plasma-facing components for the ITER. For Be tiles bonded to the Cu-Cr-Zr alloy heat sink with stainless-steel cooling pipes, a one-axis hot press with two heating processes has been used to bond the three materials. An Al-Si base interlayer has been used to bond Be to the Cu-alloy. The heating processes have been selected to match the required heat treatment conditions for the Cu-alloy. Because of the limited heat processes using a conventional hot press, the manufacturing cost can be minimized. For both the W and CFC tiles, the materials have been brazed at the same time to the Cu-alloy. Ni-Cu-Mn and Cu-Ti brazing materials have been used for the W and CFC tiles, respectively. Using the above bonding techniques, partial mockups of a blanket first-wall panel and divertor target have been successfully manufactured

  13. Manufacturing study of Be, W and CFC bonded structures for plasma-facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, M.; Hirai, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Oda, Y.; Shimizu, K.

    2004-08-01

    A manufacturing study has been conducted for Be, W, and CFC bonded structures employed in plasma-facing components for the ITER. For Be tiles bonded to the Cu-Cr-Zr alloy heat sink with stainless-steel cooling pipes, a one-axis hot press with two heating processes has been used to bond the three materials. An Al-Si base interlayer has been used to bond Be to the Cu-alloy. The heating processes have been selected to match the required heat treatment conditions for the Cu-alloy. Because of the limited heat processes using a conventional hot press, the manufacturing cost can be minimized. For both the W and CFC tiles, the materials have been brazed at the same time to the Cu-alloy. Ni-Cu-Mn and Cu-Ti brazing materials have been used for the W and CFC tiles, respectively. Using the above bonding techniques, partial mockups of a blanket first-wall panel and divertor target have been successfully manufactured.

  14. The identification of a sensitizing component used in the manufacturing of an ink ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Tapp, Loren; Durgam, Srinivas; Meade, B. Jean; Jackson, Laurel G.; Cohen, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Skin diseases including dermatitis constitute ≈ 30% of all occupational illnesses, with a high incidence in the printing industry. An outbreak of contact dermatitis among employees at an ink ribbon manufacturing plant was investigated by scientists from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Employees in the process areas of the plant were exposed to numerous chemicals and many had experienced skin rashes, especially after the introduction of a new ink ribbon product. To identify the causative agent(s) of the occupational dermatitis, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) was used to identify the potential of the chemicals used in the manufacture of the ink ribbon to induce allergic contact dermatitis. Follow-up patch testing with the suspected allergens was conducted on exposed employees. Polyvinyl butyral, a chemical component used in the manufacture of the ink ribbon in question and other products, tested positive in the LLNA, with an EC3 of 3.6%, which identifies it as a potential sensitizer; however, no employees tested positive to this chemical during skin patch testing. This finding has implications beyond those described in this report because of occupational exposure to polyvinyl butyral outside of the printing industry. PMID:22375946

  15. Organisational learning and continuous improvement of health and safety in certified manufacturers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granerud, Lise; Rocha, Robson Sø

    2011-01-01

    and raise goals within health and safety on a continuous basis. The article examines how certified occupational and health management systems influence this process to evaluate how far they hinder or support learning. It presents a model with which it is possible to identify and analyse improvement......Certified management systems have increasingly been applied by firms in recent decades and now cover the management of health and safety, principally through the OHSAS 18001 standard. In order to become certified, firms must not only observe the relevant legislation, but also improve performance...... processes. The model is applied to five cases from a qualitative study of Danish manufacturers with certified health and safety management systems. The cases illustrate the wide variation in health and safety management among certified firms. Certification is found to support lower levels of continuous...

  16. Design and Testing of a Hall Effect Thruster with Additively Manufactured Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopping, Ethan

    The UAH-78AM is a low-power Hall effect thruster developed at the University of Alabama in Huntsville to study the application of low-cost additive manufacturing in the design and fabrication of Hall thrusters. The goal of this project is to assess the feasibility of using unconventional materials to produce a low-cost functioning Hall effect thruster and consider how additive manufacturing can expand the design space and provide other benefits. The thruster features channel walls and a propellant distributor that were manufactured using 3D printing with a variety of materials including ABS, ULTEM, and glazed ceramic. A version of the thruster was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center to obtain performance metrics and to validate the ability of the thruster to produce thrust and sustain a discharge. The design of the thruster and the transient performance measurements are presented here. Measured thrust ranged from 17.2 mN to 30.4 mN over a discharge power of 280 W to 520 W with an anode Isp range of 870 s to 1450 s. Temperature limitations of materials used for the channel walls and propellant distributor limit the ability to run the thruster at thermal steady-state. While the current thruster design is not yet ready for continuous operation, revisions to the device that could enable longer duration tests are discussed.

  17. Continuous manufacturing and analytical characterization of fixed-dose, multilayer orodispersible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Yasmin; Lunter, Dominique; Breitkreutz, Joerg

    2018-05-30

    Various drug therapies require more than one active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) for an effective treatment. There are many advantages, e.g. to improve the compliance or pharmacodynamic response in comparison to a monotherapy or to increase the therapy safety. Until now, there are only a few products available for the paediatric population due to the lack of age appropriate dosage forms or studies proving the efficacy and safety of these products. This study aims to develop orodispersible films (ODFs) in a continuous solvent casting process as child appropriate dosage form containing both enalapril maleate (EM) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) separated in different film layers. Furthermore, they should be characterised and the API migration analysed by confocal Raman microscopy (CRM). ODFs were successfully produced in a continuous manufacturing process in form of double- and triple-layer formulations based on hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) or a combination of HPC and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). CRM revealed that both APIs migrate within the film layers shortly after manufacturing. PVA inhibits the migration inside the double-layer film, but is not able to prevent the API migration as an interlayer inside a triple-layer ODF. With increasing film layers, the content of residual solvents and the disintegration time increases (mono-layer films: processing two incompatible APIs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Knowledge Assisted Integrated Design of a Component and Its Manufacturing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautham, B. P.; Kulkarni, Nagesh; Khan, Danish; Zagade, Pramod; Reddy, Sreedhar; Uppaluri, Rohith

    Integrated design of a product and its manufacturing processes would significantly reduce the total cost of the products as well as the cost of its development. However this would only be possible if we have a platform that allows us to link together simulations tools used for product design, performance evaluation and its manufacturing processes in a closed loop. In addition to that having a comprehensive knowledgebase that provides systematic knowledge guided assistance to product or process designers who may not possess in-depth design knowledge or in-depth knowledge of the simulation tools, would significantly speed up the end-to-end design process. In this paper, we propose a process and illustrate a case for achieving an integrated product and manufacturing process design assisted by knowledge support for the user to make decisions at various stages. We take transmission component design as an example. The example illustrates the design of a gear for its geometry, material selection and its manufacturing processes, particularly, carburizing-quenching and tempering, and feeding the material properties predicted during heat treatment into performance estimation in a closed loop. It also identifies and illustrates various decision stages in the integrated life cycle and discusses the use of knowledge engineering tools such as rule-based guidance, to assist the designer make informed decisions. Simulation tools developed on various commercial, open-source platforms as well as in-house tools along with knowledge engineering tools are linked to build a framework with appropriate navigation through user-friendly interfaces. This is illustrated through examples in this paper.

  19. Powder Injection Molding - An innovative manufacturing method for He-cooled DEMO divertor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, Steffen; Norajitra, Prachai; Piotter, Volker; Ritzhaupt-Kleissl, Hans-Joachim; Spatafora, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    At Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), a He-cooled divertor design for future fusion power plants has been developed. This concept is based on the use of modular cooling fingers made from tungsten and tungsten alloy, which are presently considered the most promising divertor materials to withstand the specific heat load of 10 MW/m 2 . Since a large number of the finger modules (n > 250,000) are needed for the whole reactor, developing a mass-oriented manufacturing method is indispensable. In this regard, an innovative manufacturing technology, Powder Injection Molding (PIM), has been adapted to W processing at KIT since a couple of years. This production method is deemed promising in view of large-scale production of tungsten parts with high near-net-shape precision, hence, offering an advantage of cost-saving process compared to conventional machining. The complete technological PIM process for tungsten materials and its application on manufacturing of real divertor components, including the design of a new PIM tool is outlined and, results of the examination of the finished product after heat-treatment are discussed. A binary tungsten powder feedstock with a solid load of 50 vol.% was developed and successfully tested in molding experiments. After design, simulation and manufacturing of a new PIM tool, real divertor parts are produced. After heat-treatment (pre-sintering and HIP) the successful finished samples showed a sintered density of approximately 99%, a hardness of 457 HV0.1, a grain size of approximately 5 μm and a microstructure without cracks and porosity.

  20. Recent developments in turbomachinery component materials and manufacturing challenges for aero engine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, G.; Raghunandana, K.; Satish Shenoy, B.

    2018-02-01

    In the recent years the development of turbomachinery materials performance enhancement plays a vital role especially in aircraft air breathing engines like turbojet engine, turboprop engine, turboshaft engine and turbofan engines. Especially the transonic flow engines required highly sophisticated materials where it can sustain the entire thrust which can create by the engine. The main objective of this paper is to give an overview of the present cost-effective and technological capabilities process for turbomachinery component materials. Especially the main focus is given to study the Electro physical, Photonic additive removal process and Electro chemical process for turbomachinery parts manufacture. The aeronautical propulsion based technologies are reviewed thoroughly where in surface reliability, geometrical precession, and material removal and highly strengthened composite material deposition rates usually difficult to cut dedicated steels, Titanium and Nickel based alloys. In this paper the past aeronautical and propulsion mechanical based manufacturing technologies, current sophisticated technologies and also future challenging material processing techniques are covered. The paper also focuses on the brief description of turbomachinery components of shaping process and coating in aeromechanical applications.

  1. Rheo-processing of semi-solid metal alloys: a new technology for manufacturing Automotive and aerospace components - Conference paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ivanchev, L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available -solid forming processes. The CSIR in SA, developed and patented a rheocasting process and equipment for semi solid casting, which is in the commercialization stage and an automotive component will be manufactured soon....

  2. Numerical and experimental study of Ti6Al4V components manufactured using powder bed fusion additive manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Zielinski, J.; Mindt, H.-W.; Düchting, J.; Schleifenbaum, J.H.; Megahed, M.

    2017-01-01

    Powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of titanium alloys is an interesting manufacturing route for many applications requiring high material strength combined with geometric complexity. Managing powder bed fusion challenges, including porosity, surface finish, distortions and residual stresses of as-built material, is the key to bringing the advantages of this process to production main stream. This paper discusses the application of experimental and numerical analysis towards optimizing t...

  3. Microstructure investigation of bronze/steel brazed joints proposed for HHF components of ITER manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinin, G.M. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, P.O. Box 788, Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: gmk@nikiet.ru; Krestnikov, N.S. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, P.O. Box 788, Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation); Jarovinskiy, Yu.L.; Makhin, I.D.; Nikolaev, V.V. [Rocket and Space Corporation ' Energia' , Korolev, Lenina Street 4-a, Moscow 141070 (Russian Federation); Skladnov, K.S.; Strebkov, Yu.S.; Zolotarev, V.B. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, P.O. Box 788, Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation)

    2008-12-15

    Brazing is considered as one of the perspective option of high heat flux components of ITER manufacturing. CuCrZr bronze, austenitic steel AISI 321-type and PM-17-type (Ni-Mn-Fe-Si-Sn-B alloy) brazed material were used for the development of brazing technology. Two type of brazing have been studied within the framework of recent investigation: - Hot isostatic pressing (HIP)-assisted brazing. - Furnace-assisted brazing (with uniaxial compression loading). For the hydrostatic pressing (HIP) the brazed components were pressed out for about 175 MPa during 2.5 h at the temperature 1035-1040 deg. C. For the furnace-assisted brazing all components were inserted into the sealed can, vacuumed and heated up to brazing temperature {approx}950 deg. C. Fast cooling and ageing heat treatment (500 deg. C and 4 h) were applied to provide high strength of CuCrZr bronze. Microsections of specimens cut from the joints were studied by optical microscopy and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microstructure, distribution of alloying elements of base metals and of brazed material components were studied in the joints. Results of these studies are discussed in this paper. The data shows that there is a potential for using more simple and cheap (in comparison with common HIP) technologies of bronze to steel joining with satisfactory quality.

  4. An example of RCCM application to exportation. Manufacture of components for 900 MW nuclear power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitouzet, P.

    1983-03-01

    The National Korean Electricy society KEPCO ordered the KNU9 and 10 power plants from FRAMATOME. This contract involve an important fabrication of components. The KHIC society has been indicated to manufacture the main components. This paper gives some precisions about the organization of the Technical Assistance for the Korean realization of five big components (pressure vessel, steam generator, pressurizer, accumulator and injection reservoir of boron), components manufactured according to French standard, including RCC (design and construction rules). Finally, it is shown how this Technical Assistance is carried out [fr

  5. Design and R&D for manufacturing the beamline components of MITICA and ITER HNBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Palma, M., E-mail: mauro.dallapalma@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Sartori, E. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Blatchford, P.; Chuilon, B. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Graceffa, J. [ITER Organization, St Paul Lez Durance (France); Hanke, S. [KIT, Institute for Technical Physics, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hardie, C. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Masiello, A. [F4E, Barcelona (Spain); Muraro, A. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Ochoa, S. [KIT, Institute for Technical Physics, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Shah, D. [ITER Organization, St Paul Lez Durance (France); Veltri, P.; Zaccaria, P.; Zaupa, M. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Particle beam-component interaction was analysed developing and applying numerical codes. • Gas density distribution was calculated with AVOCADO code and applied for electrical analyses. • High heat flux components were designed, analysed with subcooled boiling, verified for fatigue. • Fracture behaviour of ceramics was analysed by finite element modelling and was verified. • R&D supports the design of the beamline components, especially for water-vacuum barriers. - Abstract: The design of the beamline components of MITICA, the full prototype of the ITER heating neutral beam injectors, is almost finalised and technical specifications for the procurement are under preparation. These components are the gas neutraliser, the electrostatic residual ion dump, and the calorimeter. Electron dump panels are foreseen each side of the upstream end of the neutraliser to protect the cryo-panels from electrons, created by stripping and other processes, that exit the 1 MeV accelerator. As the design of the components must fulfil requirements on the beam physics, insight on physical processes is required to identify performance trade-offs and constraints. The spatial gas distribution was simulated to verify the pumping requirements with electron dump panels and local conditions for breakdown voltage. Electrostatic analyses were carried out for the insulating elements of the RID to verify the limits of the electric field intensity. Different criteria were approached to investigate the fracture behaviour of ceramics considering the manufacturing implications and extrapolating the conditions for proof testing. Severe heating conditions will be applied steadily, as the maximum pulse duration is 1 h, and cyclically so requiring to fulfil fatigue and ratcheting verifications. High heat fluxes, up to 13 MW/m{sup 2} on the calorimeter, with enhanced heat transfer in subcooled boiling conditions will occur in the actively cooled CuCr1Zr panel elements provided with

  6. Continuous functionally graded porous titanium scaffolds manufactured by selective laser melting for bone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changjun; Li, Yan; Wang, Qian; Wen, Shifeng; Wei, Qingsong; Yan, Chunze; Hao, Liang; Liu, Jie; Shi, Yusheng

    2018-04-01

    A significant requirement for a bone implant is to replicate the functional gradient across the bone to mimic the localization change in stiffness. In this work, continuous functionally graded porous scaffolds (FGPSs) based on the Schwartz diamond unit cell with a wide range of graded volume fraction were manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM). The micro-topology, strut dimension characterization and effect of graded volume fraction on the mechanical properties of SLM-processed FGPSs were systematically investigated. The micro-topology observations indicate that diamond FGPSs with a wide range of graded volume fraction from 7.97% to 19.99% were fabricated without any defects, showing a good geometric reproduction of the original designs. The dimensional characterization demonstrates the capability of SLM in manufacturing titanium diamond FGPSs with the strut size of 483-905µm. The elastic modulus and yield strength of the titanium diamond FGPSs can be tailored in the range of 0.28-0.59GPa and 3.79-17.75MPa respectively by adjusting the graded volume fraction, which are comparable to those of the cancellous bone. The mathematical relationship between the graded porosity and compression properties of a FGPS was revealed. Furthermore, two equations based on the Gibson and Ashby model have been established to predict the modulus and yield strength of SLM-processed diamond FGPSs. Compared to homogeneous diamond porous scaffolds, FGPSs provide a wide range of mutative pore size and porosity, which are potential to be tailored to optimize the pore space for bone tissue growth. The findings provide a basis of new methodologies to design and manufacture superior graded scaffolds for bone implant applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Failure analysis a practical guide for manufacturers of electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bâzu, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Failure analysis is the preferred method to investigate product or process reliability and to ensure optimum performance of electrical components and systems. The physics-of-failure approach is the only internationally accepted solution for continuously improving the reliability of materials, devices and processes. The models have been developed from the physical and chemical phenomena that are responsible for degradation or failure of electronic components and materials and now replace popular distribution models for failure mechanisms such as Weibull or lognormal. Reliability engineers nee

  8. A Systematic Framework for Data Management and Integration in a Continuous Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Processing Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyi Cao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As the pharmaceutical industry seeks more efficient methods for the production of higher value therapeutics, the associated data analysis, data visualization, and predictive modeling require dependable data origination, management, transfer, and integration. As a result, the management and integration of data in a consistent, organized, and reliable manner is a big challenge for the pharmaceutical industry. In this work, an ontological information infrastructure is developed to integrate data within manufacturing plants and analytical laboratories. The ANSI/ISA-88.01 batch control standard has been adapted in this study to deliver a well-defined data structure that will improve the data communication inside the system architecture for continuous processing. All the detailed information of the lab-based experiment and process manufacturing, including equipment, samples and parameters, are documented in the recipe. This recipe model is implemented into a process control system (PCS, data historian, as well as Electronic Laboratory Notebook (ELN system. Data existing in the recipe can be eventually exported from this system to cloud storage, which could provide a reliable and consistent data source for data visualization, data analysis, or process modeling.

  9. Lubricant based determination of design space for continuously manufactured high dose paracetamol tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale-Kovalainen, Krista; Karttunen, Anssi-Pekka; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Korhonen, Ossi

    2018-03-30

    The objective of this study was to devise robust and stable continuous manufacturing process settings, by exploring the design space after an investigation of the lubrication-based parameters influencing the continuous direct compression tableting of high dose paracetamol tablets. Experimental design was used to generate a structured study plan which involved 19 runs. The formulation variables studied were the type of lubricant (magnesium stearate or stearic acid) and its concentration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%). Process variables were total production feed rate (5, 10.5 and 16kg/h), mixer speed rpm (500, 850 and 1200rpm), and mixer inlet port for lubricant (A or B). The continuous direct compression tableting line consisted of loss-in-weight feeders, a continuous mixer and a tablet press. The Quality Target Product Profile (QTPP) was defined for the final product, as the flowability of powder blends (2.5s), tablet strength (147N), dissolution in 2.5min (90%) and ejection force (425N). A design space was identified which fulfilled all the requirements of QTPP. The type and concentration of lubricant exerted the greatest influence on the design space. For example, stearic acid increased the tablet strength. Interestingly, the studied process parameters had only a very minor effect on the quality of the final product and the design space. It is concluded that the continuous direct compression tableting process itself is insensitive and can cope with changes in lubrication, whereas formulation parameters exert a major influence on the end product quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Continuous and pulsed laser high power beam combiner for additive manufacturing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassignana, Marta; Califano, Alessio; Pescarmona, Francesco; Braglia, Andrea; Perrone, Guido

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based additive manufacturing (AM) from metal powders is emerging as the new industrial revolution, although current fabrication approaches still require long mechanical post-processing to improve the final surface quality and meet the design tolerances. To overcome this limitation, the next generation machines are expected to complement laser AM with laser ablation (LA) to implement surface finishing and micro texturing already during the device growth process. With this aim, a new beam combiner to allow the real-time interchange of additive and subtractive processes using the same scanner head has been designed. Extensive tests have been carried out using a 6 kW continuous-wave laser similar to that used for the metal powder fusion and a nanosecond 100W pulsed source similar to that used for laser ablation.

  11. Experience feedback from high heat flux component manufacturing for Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, J.; Durocher, A.; Huber, T.; Garin, P.; Schedler, B.; Agarici, G.

    2001-01-01

    Tore Supra is involved in flat tile carbon armoured plasma facing components (PFCs) since 1985. In 1997, a third generation of components, based on the original concept developed with Plansee Company, called active metal casting (AMC[reg]), has been launched. Since 1998, 660 elementary components for the toroidal pump limiter (TPL) are in production. The route of the manufacture is rather complex and many controls were requested all along the fabrication to insure a high reliability of the elements. One of the main controls is the final infrared (IR) test allowing to determine the quality of the bonding between the carbon fibre composite (CFC) tiles and the heat sink made of copper-chromium-zirconium alloy (CuCrZr). Although results for the first batch of elements were as expected (less than 5% rejected at the final test), unexpected defects appeared with the followings batches. Investigations on the fabrication processes underlined the importance of having a better heat treatment of the pieces in copper alloy (CuCrZr), however this was not sufficient to completely explain the observed defects

  12. Additive Manufacturing of Hierarchical Multi-Phase High-Entropy Alloys for Nuclear Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Nan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-10

    In recent years, high entropy alloys (HEAs), composed of four or more metallic elements mixed in equal or near equal atomic percent, have attracted significant attention due to their excellent mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance. They show significant promise as candidates for high temperature fission and fusion structural applications. However, the conventional synthesis methods are unlikely to present an industrially suitable route for the production and use of HEAs. Recognizing rapidly evolving additive manufacturing (AM) techniques, the goal of this proposal is to optimize the AM process to fabricate HEAs with predesigned chemical compositions and phase morphologies for nuclear components. For this project, two HEAs FeCrNiMn and FeCrNiMnAl have been successfully synthesized. Correlated mechanical response has been systematically characterized under a variety of laser processing and ion irradiations. Both high entropy alloys are found to present comparable swelling and extraordinary irradiation tolerance (limited voids and stabilized phase structure under high irradiation dose). In addition, the microstructure and radiation-induced hardening can be tailored by laser processing under additive manufacturing. And we have assembled at LANL a unique database of HEAs containing a total of 674 compositions with Phase Stability information. Based on this, the machine learning and Artificial Intelligence capability now are established to predict the microstructure of casted HEAs by given chemical compositions. This unique integration will lead to an optimal AM recipe for fabricating radiation tolerant HEAs. The development of both modeling models and experimental capability will also benefit other programs at LANL.

  13. Raw material variability of an active pharmaceutical ingredient and its relevance for processability in secondary continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, F; Vanhoorne, V; Pilcer, G; Chavez, P-F; Rome, S; Schubert, M A; Aerts, L; De Beer, T

    2018-06-01

    Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) raw material variability is not always thoroughly considered during pharmaceutical process development, mainly due to low quantities of drug substance available. However, synthesis, crystallization routes and production sites evolve during product development and product life cycle leading to changes in physical material attributes which can potentially affect their processability. Recent literature highlights the need for a global approach to understand the link between material synthesis, material variability, process and product quality. The study described in this article aims at explaining the raw material variability of an API using extensive material characterization on a restricted number of representative batches using multivariate data analysis. It is part of a larger investigation trying to link the API drug substance manufacturing process, the resulting physical API raw material attributes and the drug product continuous manufacturing process. Eight API batches produced using different synthetic routes, crystallization, drying, delumping processes and processing equipment were characterized, extensively. Seventeen properties from seven characterization techniques were retained for further analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Three principal components (PCs) were sufficient to explain 92.9% of the API raw material variability. The first PC was related to crystal length, agglomerate size and fraction, flowability and electrostatic charging. The second PC was driven by the span of the particle size distribution and the agglomerates strength. The third PC was related to surface energy. Additionally, the PCA allowed to summarize the API batch-to-batch variability in only three PCs which can be used in future drug product development studies to quantitatively evaluate the impact of the API raw material variability upon the drug product process. The approach described in this article could be applied to any

  14. Workshop Report on Additive Manufacturing for Large-Scale Metal Components - Development and Deployment of Metal Big-Area-Additive-Manufacturing (Large-Scale Metals AM) System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility; Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility; Peter, William H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility; Dehoff, Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility

    2016-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is considered an emerging technology that is expected to transform the way industry can make low-volume, high value complex structures. This disruptive technology promises to replace legacy manufacturing methods for the fabrication of existing components in addition to bringing new innovation for new components with increased functional and mechanical properties. This report outlines the outcome of a workshop on large-scale metal additive manufacturing held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on March 11, 2016. The charter for the workshop was outlined by the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office program manager. The status and impact of the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for polymer matrix composites was presented as the background motivation for the workshop. Following, the extension of underlying technology to low-cost metals was proposed with the following goals: (i) High deposition rates (approaching 100 lbs/h); (ii) Low cost (<$10/lbs) for steel, iron, aluminum, nickel, as well as, higher cost titanium, (iii) large components (major axis greater than 6 ft) and (iv) compliance of property requirements. The above concept was discussed in depth by representatives from different industrial sectors including welding, metal fabrication machinery, energy, construction, aerospace and heavy manufacturing. In addition, DOE’s newly launched High Performance Computing for Manufacturing (HPC4MFG) program was reviewed. This program will apply thermo-mechanical models to elucidate deeper understanding of the interactions between design, process, and materials during additive manufacturing. Following these presentations, all the attendees took part in a brainstorming session where everyone identified the top 10 challenges in large-scale metal AM from their own perspective. The feedback was analyzed and grouped in different categories including, (i) CAD to PART software, (ii) selection of energy source, (iii

  15. Advanced surface chemical analysis of continuously manufactured drug loaded composite pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Akter; Nandi, Uttom; Fule, Ritesh; Nokhodchi, Ali; Maniruzzaman, Mohammed

    2017-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to develop and characterise polymeric composite pellets by means of continuous melt extrusion techniques. Powder blends of a steroid hormone (SH) as a model drug and either ethyl cellulose (EC N10 and EC P7 grades) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC AS grade) as polymeric carrier were extruded using a Pharma 11mm twin screw extruder in a continuous mode of operation to manufacture extruded composite pellets of 1mm length. Molecular modelling study using commercial Gaussian 09 software outlined a possible drug-polymer interaction in the molecular level to develop solid dispersions of the drug in the pellets. Solid-state analysis conducted via a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hot stage microscopy (HSM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses revealed the amorphous state of the drug in the polymer matrices. Surface analysis using SEM/energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) of the produced pellets arguably showed a homogenous distribution of the C and O atoms in the pellet matrices. Moreover, advanced chemical surface analysis conducted via atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed a homogenous phase system having the drug molecule dispersed onto the amorphous matrices while Raman mapping confirmed the homogenous single-phase drug distribution in the manufactured composite pellets. Such composite pellets are expected to deliver multidisciplinary applications in drug delivery and medical sciences by e.g. modifying drug solubility/dissolutions or stabilizing the unstable drug (e.g. hormone, protein) in the composite network. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. An Assessment of Nondestructive Evaluation Capability for Complex Additive Manufacturing Aerospace Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James; Beshears, Ron; Lambert, Dennis; Tilson, William

    2016-01-01

    The primary focus of this work is to investigate some of the fundamental relationships between processing, mechanical testing, materials characterization, and NDE for additively manufactured (AM) components using the powder bed fusion direct melt laser sintered process. The goal is to understand the criticality of defects unique to the AM process and then how conventional nondestructive evaluation methods as well as some of the more non-traditional methods such as computed tomography, are effected by the AM material. Specific defects including cracking, porosity and partially/unfused powder will be addressed. Besides line-of-site NDE, as appropriate these inspection capabilities will be put into the context of complex AM geometries where hidden features obscure, or inhibit traditional NDE methods.

  17. Characterization of titanium aluminide alloy components fabricated by additive manufacturing using electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murr, L.E.; Gaytan, S.M.; Ceylan, A.; Martinez, E.; Martinez, J.L.; Hernandez, D.H.; Machado, B.I.; Ramirez, D.A.; Medina, F.; Collins, S.; Wicker, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Intermetallic, γ-TiAl, equiaxed, small-grain (∼2 μm) structures with lamellar γ/α 2 -Ti 3 Al colonies with average spacing of 0.6 μm have been fabricated by additive manufacturing using electron beam melting (EBM) of precursor, atomized powder. The residual microindentation (Vickers) hardness (HV) averaged 4.1 GPa, corresponding to a nominal yield strength of ∼1.4 GPa (∼HV/3), and a specific yield strength of 0.37 GPa cm 3 g -1 (for a density of 3.76 g cm -3 ), in contrast to 0.27 GPa cm 3 g -1 for EBM-fabricated Ti-6Al-4V components. These results demonstrate the potential to fabricate near net shape and complex titanium aluminide products directly using EBM technology in important aerospace and automotive applications.

  18. Net Shape Manufacturing of Accelerator Components by High Pressure Combustion Driven Powder Compaction

    CERN Document Server

    Nagarathnam, Karthik

    2005-01-01

    We present an overview of the net shape and cost-effective manufacturing aspects of high density accelerator (normal and superconducting) components (e.g., NLC Copper disks) and materials behavior of copper, stainless steel, refractory materials (W, Mo and TZM), niobium and SiC by innovative high pressure Combustion Driven Compaction (CDC) technology. Some of the unique process advantages include high densities, net-shaping, improved surface finish/quality, suitability for simple/complex geometries, synthesis of single as well as multilayered materials, milliseconds of compaction process time, little or no post-machining, and process flexibility. Some of the key results of CDC fabricated sample geometries, process optimization, sintering responses and structure/property characteristics such as physical properties, surface roughness/quality, electrical conductivity, select microstructures and mechanical properties will be presented. Anticipated applications of CDC compaction include advanced x-ray targets, vac...

  19. Potential criticality accident at the General Electric Nuclear Fuel and Component Manufacturing Facility, May 29, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    At the General Electric Nuclear Fuel and Component Manufacturing facility, located near Wilmington, North Carolina, on May 28 and 29, 1991, approximately 150 kilograms of uranium were inadvertently transferred from safe process tanks to an unsafe tank located at the waste treatment facility, thus creating the potential for a localized criticality safety problem. The excess uranium was ultimately safely recovered when the tank contents were centrifuged to remove the uranium-bearing material. Subsequently, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission dispatched an Incident Investigation Team to determine what happened, to identify probable causes, and to make appropriate findings and conclusions. This report describes the incident, the methodology used by the team in its investigation, and presents the team's findings and conclusions. 48 figs., 8 tabs

  20. Computer Simulation of Robotic Device Components in 3D Printer Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kiselev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a relevant problem "Computer simulation of robotic device components in manufacturing on a 3D printer" and highlights the problem of computer simulation based on the cognitive programming technology of robotic device components. The paper subject is urgent because computer simulation of force-torque and accuracy characteristics of robot components in terms of their manufacturing properties and conditions from polymeric and metallic materials is of paramount importance for programming and manufacturing on the 3D printers. Two types of additive manufacturing technologies were used:1. FDM (Fused deposition modeling - layered growth of products from molten plastic strands;2. SLM (Selective laser melting - selective laser sintering of metal powders, which, in turn, create:• conditions for reducing the use of expensive equipment;• reducing weight and increasing strength through optimization of  the lattice structures when using a bionic design;• a capability to implement mathematical modeling of individual components of robotic and other devices in terms of appropriate characteristics;• a 3D printing capability to create unique items, which cannot be made by other known methods.The paper aim was to confirm the possibility of ensuring the strength and accuracy characteristics of cases when printing from polymeric and metallic materials on a 3D printer. The investigation emphasis is on mathematical modeling based on the cognitive programming technology using the additive technologies in their studies since it is, generally, impossible to make the obtained optimized structures on the modern CNC machines.The latter allows us to create a program code to be clear to other developers without cost, additional time for development, adaptation and implementation.Year by year Russian companies increasingly use a 3D-print system in mechanical engineering, aerospace industry, and for scientific purposes. Machines for the additive

  1. Manufacturing of curd products of increased biological value for the elderly from dried components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabodalova, Ludmila A; Belozerova, Maria S; Evstigneeva, Tatiana N

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the number of elderly people has increased, and the diseases that arise in old age are associated, amongst other factors, with malnutrition. In the elderly, the need for primary nutrients and energy changes, so the development of food products intended for this particular group of people is becom- ing increasingly important. The purpose of this research is to work out the composition of and technology for producing low-fat curd products from raw milk and vegetable components. The developed products can be used for their gerodietetic properties, because nutritional and energy needs in the elderly were taken into account when designing the product. The curd product was manufactured from skimmed dried milk (SDM), soy isolate protein (SIP) and spelt grain. Optimal conditions for the recombination of SIP were determined. The influence of mass fraction of SIP on the properties of the clot and the end product was studied. The degree of dispersion of the grain component was determined, from the organoleptic evaluation of samples of the mixture, and the optimum method of addition was chosen. The method of adding cooked spelt into the clot after pressing was chosen. Harrington’s generalized desirability function was used for the calculation of the optimum mass frac- tion of the grain component in the end product. The formulation and technology for a curd product based on dry ingredients were determined. The amino acid composition and content of essential components in the developed product were determined, and the biological and nutritional value were calculated. The use of dry ingredients for the production of a curd product makes it possible to manufac- ture the product in the absence of raw milk. The formulation of the product is designed taking into account the needs of the body in old age. The incorporation of spelt increases the biological value of the curd product to 81.5%.

  2. Design of a continuous emissions monitoring system at a manufacturing facility recycling hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlow, G.; Bartman, C.D.; Renfroe, J.

    1991-01-01

    In March 1988, Marine Shale Processors, Inc. (MSP) initiated a project to incorporate a continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMS) at its manufacturing facility in Amelia, Louisiana, which recycles hazardous material into light-weight, general purpose aggregate. The stimuli for the project were: To quantify stack gas emissions for the purpose of risk assessment; To use the data generated for process control and evaluation purposes; and, MSP's commitment to advance the science of continuous monitoring of stack gas emissions. In order to successfully respond to these goals, MSP sought a system which could monitor combustion products such as NOx, SO 2 , HCl and CO 2 , as well as speciated organic compounds. Several analytical technologies and sampling system designs were reviewed to determine the best fit to satisfy the requirements. A process mass spectrometer and a heated sample extraction subsystem were selected for the project. The purpose of this paper is to review the available analytical technologies for CEMS and sample extraction subsystems and to describe the CEMS now installed at MSP

  3. Flexural Properties of PLA Components Under Various Test Condition Manufactured by 3D Printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya Christiyan, K. G.; Chandrasekhar, U.; Venkateswarlu, K.

    2018-06-01

    Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have emerged as a fabrication method to obtain engineering components in the resent past. Desktop 3D printing, also referred as an additive layer manufacturing technology is a powerful method of RP technique that can fabricate 3 dimensional engineering components. In this method, 3D digital data is converted into real product. In the present investigation, Polylactic Acid (PLA) was considered as a starting material. Flexural strength of PLA material was evaluated using 3-point bend test, as per ASTM D790 standard. Specimens with flat (0°) and vertical (90°) orientation were considered. Moreover, layer thicknesses of 0.2, 0.25, and 0.3 mm were considered. To fabricate these specimens, printing speed of 38 and 52 mm/s was maintained. Nozzle diameter of 0.4 mm with 40 % of infill density were used. Based on the experimental results, it was observed that 0° orientation, 38 mm/s printing speed, and 0.2 mm layer thickness resulted maximum flexural strength, as compared to all other specimens. The improved flexural strength was due to the lower layer thickness (0.2 mm) specimens, as compared with other specimens made of 0.25 and 0.30 mm layer thicknesses. It was concluded that flexural strength properties were greatly influenced by lower the layer thickness, printing speed, and orientation.

  4. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raguvarun, K.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Palanisamy, Suresh; Nagarajah, Romesh; Kapoor, Ajay; Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength

  5. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raguvarun, K., E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan, E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in; Rajagopal, Prabhu, E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in [Centre for NDE, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, Tamilnadu (India); Palanisamy, Suresh [Swinburne University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Science and Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 Australia and Defence Materials Technology Centre, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Nagarajah, Romesh; Kapoor, Ajay [Swinburne University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Science and Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic [University of Wollongong, Faculty of Engineering, New South Wales 2522, Australia and Defence Materials Technology Centre, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2015-03-31

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  6. Development of technology and properties investigation of steel/bronze joints proposed for ITER HHF components manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, G.; Krestnikov, N.S.; Strebkov, Y.S.; Abramov, V.Y.; Gervash, A.; Mazul, I.; Zolotarev, V.B.; Fabritsiev, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: During the development of ITER HHF components manufacturing it is necessary to provide reliable joints between heat sink material made of CuCrZr bronze and the supporting construction made of austenitic steel. Four different methods have been tried out: - Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), - HIP assisted brazing, - furnace assisted brazing, - Casting. The investigation of structure and properties of joints show that HIP and casting provide the better results than the other technologies. However, HIP is relatively expensive technology, and big size HIP furnace is required for the full scale components manufacturing that are not available n RF now. Therefore, casting was selected as a reference manufacturing technology for the primary wall of ITER modules n RF. The paper summarizes the results of bronze/steel joints manufacturing and investigation of their properties. (authors)

  7. Progress of High Heat Flux Component Manufacture and Heat Load Experiments in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Lian, Y.; Xu, Z.; Chen, J.; Chen, L.; Wang, Q.; Duan, X., E-mail: xliu@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengu (China); Luo, G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Yan, Q. [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China)

    2012-09-15

    procedure is 3 MW/m{sup 2} by 200 cycles and then 6 MW/m{sup 2} by 1000 cycles, following by 8.5 MW/m{sup 2} for 200 cycles and 11 MW/m{sup 2} for 100 cycles. No off-normal surface temperature change and cracks were observed. The similar screening tests of small-scale mono-block W/CuCrZr mockups will be tested soon. Next large size brazed W/CuCrZr components will be manufactured and evaluated. (author)

  8. Manufacturing Hydraulic Components for the Primary Double Entry S-Pump Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iu. Kuptsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a new design of the primary pump to run in powerful units (more than 1 GW of power plants. The new construction has some advantages such as compactness, theoretical lack of radial and axial forces, and high efficiency in a wide range of flow. The abovementioned advantages can be possible owing to applying an innovative shape of the pump flow path. An impeller with the guide vanes forms the three-row single stage in the each row axial double entry blade system. The inlet and outlet parts have a shape of the involute that can ensure (according to calculated data the efficiency and stability in a wide range of flow because of a lack of the spiral parts. The results of numerical calculations of the pump working flow theoretically confirm that demanding parameters of the pump (H=286 m; Q=1,15 m3 /s can be obtained with competitive efficiency. To verify the proposed advantages of the construction, there was decision made to conduct the real physical experiment. For this purpose the small model of a real pump was designed with parameters H=14 m, Q=13 l/s. Construction of the pump model has a cartridge conception. In addition, there is a possibility for quick replacement of the some parts of the blade system in case of operational development of the pump. In order to obtain hydraulic characteristics of the pump to say nothing of the electromotor the torque gauge coupling is used. Numerical calculations for the pump model were also performed which confirm the operability. For manufacturing of the blade system the new perspective technology is applied. The main hydraulic components (impellers and guide vanes are made of ABS plastic by using 3D-printer. According to this technology parts are made layer by layer by means of welded plastic filament. Using this method the satisfactory tolerance (approximately ±0,3 mm of the parts was obtained. At that moment, it is possible to create the parts with the maximum size no higher than 150 mm

  9. Applications of dimensional micro metrology to the product and process quality control in manufacturing of precision polymer micro components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Precision manufacturing of micro injection moulded (mu IM) components presents challenges in terms of quality control due to the miniaturization of product dimensions and tolerances. This paper addresses product compliance with specifications, focusing on tolerances of dimensions and position on mu...... IM components selected from industrial production. Two systems were analysed: a tactile coordinate measuring machine (CMM) with sub-micrometer uncertainty and an optical CMM allowing fast measurements suitable for in-line quality control. Product quality control capability, measuring uncertainty...... and calibration guidelines are discussed for both systems. Finally, a new approach for the manufacturing of hybrid micro polymer-metal calibrated objects is proposed....

  10. Continuous Digital Light Processing (cDLP): Highly Accurate Additive Manufacturing of Tissue Engineered Bone Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David; Jonathan, Wallace; Siblani, Ali; Wang, Martha O; Kim, Kyobum; Mikos, Antonios G; Fisher, John P

    2012-03-01

    Highly accurate rendering of the external and internal geometry of bone tissue engineering scaffolds effects fit at the defect site, loading of internal pore spaces with cells, bioreactor-delivered nutrient and growth factor circulation, and scaffold resorption. It may be necessary to render resorbable polymer scaffolds with 50 μm or less accuracy to achieve these goals. This level of accuracy is available using Continuous Digital Light processing (cDLP) which utilizes a DLP(®) (Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX) chip. One such additive manufacturing device is the envisionTEC (Ferndale, MI) Perfactory(®). To use cDLP we integrate a photo-crosslinkable polymer, a photo-initiator, and a biocompatible dye. The dye attenuates light, thereby limiting the depth of polymerization. In this study we fabricated scaffolds using the well-studied resorbable polymer, poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) as a dye, Irgacure(®) 819 (BASF [Ciba], Florham Park, NJ) as an initiator, and diethyl fumarate as a solvent to control viscosity.

  11. Continuous fermentative hydrogen production from coffee drink manufacturing wastewater by applying UASB reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Shin, Hang-Sik [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Hoon [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Ave., Essex Hall, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    The feasibility of continuous H{sub 2} production from coffee drink manufacturing wastewater (CDMW) was tested in two different types of reactors: a completely-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBr). While the performance in CSTR was limited, it was significantly enhanced in UASBr. The maximum H{sub 2} yield of 1.29 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose{sub added} was achieved at HRT of 6 h in UASBr operation. Non-hydrogenic, lactic acid was the dominant in CSTR, while butyric and caproic acids in UASBr. As caproic acid is generated by consuming acetic and butyric acids, all of which are related to H{sub 2} production, the presence of caproic acid in the broth also indicates H{sub 2} production, yielding 1.33 mol H{sub 2}/glucose. It was speculated that the enhanced performance in UASBr was attributed to the high concentration of biomass over 60,000 mg VSS/L in the blanket zone, which provided insufficient substrate for indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to survive. The abundance of LAB in CDMW was confirmed by natural fermentation of CDMW. That is without the addition of external inoculum, CDMW was mainly fermented into lactic acid under mesophilic condition. For the first time ever, H{sub 2} producing granules (HPG) with diameters of 2.1 mm were successfully formed by using actual waste as a substrate. (author)

  12. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  13. Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko Iaroslav

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a method of in-situ process monitoring in the digital light processing (DLP 3D printer. It is based on the continuous measurement of the adhesion force between printing surface and bottom of a liquid resin bath. This method is suitable only for the bottom-up DPL printers. Control system compares the force at the moment of unsticking of printed layer from the bottom of the tank, when it has the largest value in printing cycle, with theoretical value. Implementation of suggested algorithm can make detection of faults during the printing process possible.

  14. Modeling the Downstream Processing of Monoclonal Antibodies Reveals Cost Advantages for Continuous Methods for a Broad Range of Manufacturing Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Jonathan; Pagkaliwangan, Mark; Gjoka, Xhorxhi; Davidovits, Terence; Stock, Rick; Ransohoff, Thomas; Gantier, Rene; Schofield, Mark

    2018-01-17

    The biopharmaceutical industry is evolving in response to changing market conditions, including increasing competition and growing pressures to reduce costs. Single-use (SU) technologies and continuous bioprocessing have attracted attention as potential facilitators of cost-optimized manufacturing for monoclonal antibodies. While disposable bioprocessing has been adopted at many scales of manufacturing, continuous bioprocessing has yet to reach the same level of implementation. In this study, the cost of goods of Pall Life Science's integrated, continuous bioprocessing (ICB) platform is modeled, along with that of purification processes in stainless-steel and SU batch formats. All three models include costs associated with downstream processing only. Evaluation of the models across a broad range of clinical and commercial scenarios reveal that the cost savings gained by switching from stainless-steel to SU batch processing are often amplified by continuous operation. The continuous platform exhibits the lowest cost of goods across 78% of all scenarios modeled here, with the SU batch process having the lowest costs in the rest of the cases. The relative savings demonstrated by the continuous process are greatest at the highest feed titers and volumes. These findings indicate that existing and imminent continuous technologies and equipment can become key enablers for more cost effective manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. An Assessment of NDE Capability and Materials Characterization for Complex Additive Manufacturing Aerospace Components

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This multi-center activity investigates the correlation between nondestructive evaluation (NDE), mechanical testing, microstructure, and additive manufacturing (AM)...

  16. Consequences for designer and manufacturer of mechanical components due to future requirements in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans-Joachim, Frank

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of European harmonization, a lot of changes on requirements for designer and manufacturer of mechanical components have been performed. Differed organizations are involved in preparing future requirements for nuclear application. On one side the French German cooperation on the development of EPR. At the origin of this project was the common decision in 1989 of Framatome and Siemens to cooperate through NPI, to design the Nuclear Island, which meets the future needs of utilities. EDF and a group of the main German Utilities joined this cooperation in 1991 and since then they have been totally involved to the progress of the work. In addition, all the process was backed up to the end by the strong cooperation between the French and the German. Safety Authorities, which have a long lasting cooperation to define common requirements, which have to be applied to future Nuclear Power Plants. Furthermore an organization has been set up to elaborate common codes related to the EPR design, at the level of the French design and construction rules (RCC) or the German KTA safety standards, the so-called EPR technical codes (ETC). On the other side, the European utilities co-operate on a much broader basis for the establishment of European Utilities Requirements (EUR). These requirements are prepared by a group of European utilities that represent the major European electricity generating companies that are determined to keep the nuclear option open. The technical requirements specified in the EUR document define the boundaries in which future plants need to be designed in order to be acceptable for the needs of the utilities and in order to fulfill the basic requirements of competitive power generation costs and licensability in all countries represented in the EUR group. All the new requirements have to be applied by designer and manufacturer. Siemens /SNP act as a designer of a lot of various vessels and tanks, heat exchangers and other items of process

  17. Manufacture of a four-sheet complex component from different titanium alloys by superplastic forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allazadeh, M. R.; Zuelli, N.

    2017-10-01

    A superplastic forming (SPF) technology process was deployed to form a complex component with eight-pocket from a four-sheet sandwich panel sheetstock. Six sheetstock packs were composed of two core sheets made of Ti-6Al-4V or Ti-5Al-4Cr-4Mo-2Sn-2Zr titanium alloy and two skin sheets made of Ti-6Al-4V or Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo titanium alloy in three different combinations. The sheets were welded with two subsequent welding patterns over the core and skin sheets to meet the required component's details. The applied welding methods were intermittent and continuous resistance seam welding for bonding the core sheets to each other and the skin sheets over the core panel, respectively. The final component configuration was predicted based on the die drawings and finite element method (FEM) simulations for the sandwich panels. An SPF system set-up with two inlet gas pipe feeding facilitated the trials to deliver two pressure-time load cycles acting simultaneously which were extracted from FEM analysis for specific forming temperature and strain rate. The SPF pressure-time cycles were optimized via GOM scanning and visually inspecting some sections of the packs in order to assess the levels of core panel formation during the inflation process of the sheetstock. Two sets of GOM scan results were compared via GOM software to inspect the surface and internal features of the inflated multisheet packs. The results highlighted the capability of the tested SPF process to form complex components from a flat multisheet pack made of different titanium alloys.

  18. Crystal and Particle Engineering Strategies for Improving Powder Compression and Flow Properties to Enable Continuous Tablet Manufacturing by Direct Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattoraj, Sayantan; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2018-04-01

    Continuous manufacturing of tablets has many advantages, including batch size flexibility, demand-adaptive scale up or scale down, consistent product quality, small operational foot print, and increased manufacturing efficiency. Simplicity makes direct compression the most suitable process for continuous tablet manufacturing. However, deficiencies in powder flow and compression of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) limit the range of drug loading that can routinely be considered for direct compression. For the widespread adoption of continuous direct compression, effective API engineering strategies to address power flow and compression problems are needed. Appropriate implementation of these strategies would facilitate the design of high-quality robust drug products, as stipulated by the Quality-by-Design framework. Here, several crystal and particle engineering strategies for improving powder flow and compression properties are summarized. The focus is on the underlying materials science, which is the foundation for effective API engineering to enable successful continuous manufacturing by the direct compression process. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Automated microfluidic platform for systematic studies of colloidal perovskite nanocrystals: towards continuous nano-manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Robert W; Felton, Kobi C; Coley, Connor W; Abolhasani, Milad

    2017-11-21

    format results in high-quality perovskite nanocrystals with kinetically tunable emission wavelength, ranging as much as 25 nm at equivalent residence times. Further application of this unique platform would allow rapid parameter optimization in the colloidal synthesis of a wide range of nanomaterials (e.g., metal or semiconductor), that is directly transferable to continuous manufacturing in a numbered-up platform with a similar characteristic length scale.

  20. Spatially dependent properties in a laser additive manufactured Ti–6Al–4V component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanivel, S.; Dutt, A.K.; Faierson, E.J.; Mishra, R.S.

    2016-01-01

    Automotive and aerospace sectors have provided a strong product pull for advancing powder bed fusion technologies. However, as these technologies mature towards large-scale production, issues of build consistency and surface finish are of concern. In order to study these issues, a Ti–6Al–4V mini impeller was fabricated using laser additive manufacturing. The primary objective of this work was to quantify and correlate the variation in mechanical properties and microstructure across and along different locations in the component. Hardness measured at various build locations revealed a stronger hub (highest value: 428 HV) with lower spatial variations in comparison to the blade (highest value: 415 HV). Additional examinations to assess anisotropy showed an average hardness of 397±11 and 385±8 HV along the blade build (Z) and longitudinal (X) directions respectively. Region and direction specific uniaxial tensile testing of the samples indicated a strong hub bottom with yield strength (YS) of 1193 MPa, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 1310 MPa, and a total elongation of 5.5% in the longitudinal direction. Although the low elongation value correlates well with previous studies, strength is significantly higher and is attributed to having a complete martensitic structure induced by the high cooling rates experienced at the build–substrate interface. On the other hand, YS, UTS and total elongation in the blade were recorded as 978 MPa, 1096 MPa and 9.12%, respectively, along the build direction. Microstructure in the blade region consisted of α′ and α+β. When compared to the polished specimen in the blade, its unpolished counterpart yielded at 896 MPa, had UTS of 1018 MPa, and elongation of 6.24%. An understanding of the reduction in performance of the unfinished blade would help in deciding the need for surface finishing operations after fabrication.

  1. Spatially dependent properties in a laser additive manufactured Ti–6Al–4V component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palanivel, S.; Dutt, A.K. [Center for Friction Stir Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Faierson, E.J. [Quad City Manufacturing Laboratory, Western Illinois University, Rock Island, IL 61201 (United States); Mishra, R.S., E-mail: Rajiv.Mishra@unt.edu [Center for Friction Stir Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States)

    2016-01-27

    Automotive and aerospace sectors have provided a strong product pull for advancing powder bed fusion technologies. However, as these technologies mature towards large-scale production, issues of build consistency and surface finish are of concern. In order to study these issues, a Ti–6Al–4V mini impeller was fabricated using laser additive manufacturing. The primary objective of this work was to quantify and correlate the variation in mechanical properties and microstructure across and along different locations in the component. Hardness measured at various build locations revealed a stronger hub (highest value: 428 HV) with lower spatial variations in comparison to the blade (highest value: 415 HV). Additional examinations to assess anisotropy showed an average hardness of 397±11 and 385±8 HV along the blade build (Z) and longitudinal (X) directions respectively. Region and direction specific uniaxial tensile testing of the samples indicated a strong hub bottom with yield strength (YS) of 1193 MPa, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 1310 MPa, and a total elongation of 5.5% in the longitudinal direction. Although the low elongation value correlates well with previous studies, strength is significantly higher and is attributed to having a complete martensitic structure induced by the high cooling rates experienced at the build–substrate interface. On the other hand, YS, UTS and total elongation in the blade were recorded as 978 MPa, 1096 MPa and 9.12%, respectively, along the build direction. Microstructure in the blade region consisted of α′ and α+β. When compared to the polished specimen in the blade, its unpolished counterpart yielded at 896 MPa, had UTS of 1018 MPa, and elongation of 6.24%. An understanding of the reduction in performance of the unfinished blade would help in deciding the need for surface finishing operations after fabrication.

  2. A framework for the computer-aided planning and optimisation of manufacturing processes for components with functional graded properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, D.; Gausemeier, J.; Heim, H.-P.; Hess, S.; Petersen, M.; Ries, A.; Wagner, T.

    2014-05-01

    In this contribution a framework for the computer-aided planning and optimisation of functional graded components is presented. The framework is divided into three modules - the "Component Description", the "Expert System" for the synthetisation of several process chains and the "Modelling and Process Chain Optimisation". The Component Description module enhances a standard computer-aided design (CAD) model by a voxel-based representation of the graded properties. The Expert System synthesises process steps stored in the knowledge base to generate several alternative process chains. Each process chain is capable of producing components according to the enhanced CAD model and usually consists of a sequence of heating-, cooling-, and forming processes. The dependencies between the component and the applied manufacturing processes as well as between the processes themselves need to be considered. The Expert System utilises an ontology for that purpose. The ontology represents all dependencies in a structured way and connects the information of the knowledge base via relations. The third module performs the evaluation of the generated process chains. To accomplish this, the parameters of each process are optimised with respect to the component specification, whereby the result of the best parameterisation is used as representative value. Finally, the process chain which is capable of manufacturing a functionally graded component in an optimal way regarding to the property distributions of the component description is presented by means of a dedicated specification technique.

  3. Selective Laser Melting of Hot Gas Turbine Components: Materials, Design and Manufacturing Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios

    2017-01-01

    are built additively to nearly net shape. This allows the fabrication of arbitrary complex geometries that cannot be made by conventional manufacturing techniques. However, despite the powerful capabilities of SLM, a number of issues (e.g. part orientation, support structures, internal stresses), have......Selective Laser Melting (SLM) allows the design and manufacturing of novel parts and structures with improved performance e.g. by incorporating complex and more efficient cooling schemes in hot gas turbine parts. In contrast to conventional manufacturing of removing material, with SLM parts...... to be considered in order to manufacture cost-effective and high quality parts at an industrial scale. These issues are discussed in the present work from an engineering point of view with the aim to provide simple quidelines to produce high quality SLM parts....

  4. A Multi-Component Automated Laser-Origami System for Cyber-Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Woo-Hyun; Srinivasa, Arun; Kumar, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    Cyber-manufacturing systems can be enhanced by an integrated network architecture that is easily configurable, reliable, and scalable. We consider a cyber-physical system for use in an origami-type laser-based custom manufacturing machine employing folding and cutting of sheet material to manufacture 3D objects. We have developed such a system for use in a laser-based autonomous custom manufacturing machine equipped with real-time sensing and control. The basic elements in the architecture are built around the laser processing machine. They include a sensing system to estimate the state of the workpiece, a control system determining control inputs for a laser system based on the estimated data and user’s job requests, a robotic arm manipulating the workpiece in the work space, and middleware, named Etherware, supporting the communication among the systems. We demonstrate automated 3D laser cutting and bending to fabricate a 3D product as an experimental result.

  5. Integrated Predictive Tools for Customizing Microstructure and Material Properties of Additively Manufactured Aerospace Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fattebert, Jean-Luc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gorti, Sarma B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Haxhimali, Timor [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); El-Wardany, Tahany [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, CT (United States); Acharya, Ranadip [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, CT (United States); Staroselsky, Alexander [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to a process by which digital three-dimensional (3-D) design data is converted to build up a component by depositing material layer-by-layer. United Technologies Corporation (UTC) is currently involved in fabrication and certification of several AM aerospace structural components made from aerospace materials. This is accomplished by using optimized process parameters determined through numerous design-of-experiments (DOE)-based studies. Certification of these components is broadly recognized as a significant challenge, with long lead times, very expensive new product development cycles and very high energy consumption. Because of these challenges, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), together with UTC business units have been developing and validating an advanced physics-based process model. The specific goal is to develop a physics-based framework of an AM process and reliably predict fatigue properties of built-up structures as based on detailed solidification microstructures. Microstructures are predicted using process control parameters including energy source power, scan velocity, deposition pattern, and powder properties. The multi-scale multi-physics model requires solution and coupling of governing physics that will allow prediction of the thermal field and enable solution at the microstructural scale. The state-of-the-art approach to solve these problems requires a huge computational framework and this kind of resource is only available within academia and national laboratories. The project utilized the parallel phase-fields codes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), along with the high-performance computing (HPC) capabilities existing at the two labs to demonstrate the simulation of multiple dendrite growth in threedimensions (3-D). The LLNL code AMPE was used to implement the UTRC phase field model that was previously developed for a model binary alloy, and

  6. Implementation of an advanced hybrid MPC-PID control system using PAT tools into a direct compaction continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Sahay, Abhishek; Karry, Krizia M; Muzzio, Fernando; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2014-10-01

    It is desirable for a pharmaceutical final dosage form to be manufactured through a quality by design (QbD)-based approach rather than a quality by testing (QbT) approach. An automatic feedback control system coupled with PAT tools that is part of the QbD paradigm shift, has the potential to ensure that the pre-defined end product quality attributes are met in a time and cost efficient manner. In this work, an advanced hybrid MPC-PID control architecture coupled with real time inline/online monitoring tools and principal components analysis (PCA) based additional supervisory control layer has been proposed for a continuous direct compaction tablet manufacturing process. The advantages of both MPC and PID have been utilized in a hybrid scheme. The control hardware and software integration and implementation of the control system has been demonstrated using feeders and blending unit operation of a continuous tablet manufacturing pilot plant and an NIR based PAT tool. The advanced hybrid MPC-PID control scheme leads to enhanced control loop performance of the critical quality attributes in comparison to a regulatory (e.g. PID) control scheme indicating its potential to improve pharmaceutical product quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of microCT to the non-destructive testing of an additive manufactured titanium component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton du Plessis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the application of X-ray microCT to the non-destructive testing of an additive manufactured titanium alloy component of complex geometry is demonstrated. Additive manufacturing of metal components is fast growing and shows great promise, yet these parts may contain defects which affect mechanical properties of the components. In this work a layered form of defect is found by microCT, which would have been very difficult or impossible to detect by other non-destructive testing methods due to the object complexity, defect size and shape and because the pores are entirely contained inside the object and not connected to the surface. Additionally, this test part was subjected to hot isostatic pressing (HIPPING and subsequently scanned. Comparing before and after scans by alignment of the volumes allows visualization and quantification of the pore size changes. The application of X-ray microCT to additive manufacturing is thus demonstrated in this example to be an ideal combination, especially for process improvements and for high value components.

  8. Characterization of shrubland ecosystem components as continuous fields in the northwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, George Z.; Homer, Collin G.; Rigge, Matthew B.; Shi, Hua; Meyer, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and consistent estimates of shrubland ecosystem components are crucial to a better understanding of ecosystem conditions in arid and semiarid lands. An innovative approach was developed by integrating multiple sources of information to quantify shrubland components as continuous field products within the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). The approach consists of several procedures including field sample collections, high-resolution mapping of shrubland components using WorldView-2 imagery and regression tree models, Landsat 8 radiometric balancing and phenological mosaicking, medium resolution estimates of shrubland components following different climate zones using Landsat 8 phenological mosaics and regression tree models, and product validation. Fractional covers of nine shrubland components were estimated: annual herbaceous, bare ground, big sagebrush, herbaceous, litter, sagebrush, shrub, sagebrush height, and shrub height. Our study area included the footprint of six Landsat 8 scenes in the northwestern United States. Results show that most components have relatively significant correlations with validation data, have small normalized root mean square errors, and correspond well with expected ecological gradients. While some uncertainties remain with height estimates, the model formulated in this study provides a cross-validated, unbiased, and cost effective approach to quantify shrubland components at a regional scale and advances knowledge of horizontal and vertical variability of these components.

  9. Mechanical properties of sheet metal components with local reinforcement produced by additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünsal, Ismail; Hama-Saleh, R.; Sviridov, Alexander; Bambach, Markus; Weisheit, A.; Schleifenbaum, J. H.

    2018-05-01

    New technological challenges like electro-mobility pose an increasing demand for cost-efficient processes for the production of product variants. This demand opens the possibility to combine established die-based manufacturing methods and innovative, dieless technologies like additive manufacturing [1, 2]. In this context, additive manufacturing technologies allow for the weight-efficient local reinforcement of parts before and after forming, enabling manufacturers to produce product variants from series parts [3]. Previous work by the authors shows that the optimal shape of the reinforcing structure can be determined using sizing optimization. Sheet metal parts can then be reinforced using laser metal deposition. The material used is a pearlite-reduced, micro-alloyed steel (ZE 630). The aim of this paper is to determine the effect of the additive manufacturing process on the material behavior and the mechanical properties of the base material and the resulting composite material. The parameters of the AM process are optimized to reach similar material properties in the base material and the build-up volume. A metallographic analysis of the parts is presented, where the additive layers, the base material and also the bonding between the additive layers and the base material are analyzed. The paper shows the feasibility of the approach and details the resulting mechanical properties and performance.

  10. Empirical component model to predict the overall performance of heating coils: Calibrations and tests based on manufacturer catalogue data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruivo, Celestino R.; Angrisani, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An empirical model for predicting the performance of heating coils is presented. • Low and high heating capacity cases are used for calibration. • Versions based on several effectiveness correlations are tested. • Catalogue data are considered in approach testing. • The approach is a suitable component model to be used in dynamic simulation tools. - Abstract: A simplified methodology for predicting the overall behaviour of heating coils is presented in this paper. The coil performance is predicted by the ε-NTU method. Usually manufacturers do not provide information about the overall thermal resistance or the geometric details that are required either for the device selection or to apply known empirical correlations for the estimation of the involved thermal resistances. In the present work, heating capacity tables from the manufacturer catalogue are used to calibrate simplified approaches based on the classical theory of heat exchangers, namely the effectiveness method. Only two reference operating cases are required to calibrate each approach. The validity of the simplified approaches is investigated for a relatively high number of operating cases, listed in the technical catalogue of a manufacturer. Four types of coils of three sizes of air handling units are considered. A comparison is conducted between the heating coil capacities provided by the methodology and the values given by the manufacturer catalogue. The results show that several of the proposed approaches are suitable component models to be integrated in dynamic simulation tools of air conditioning systems such as TRNSYS or EnergyPlus

  11. Model-based analysis of a twin-screw wet granulation system for continuous solid dosage manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Mortier, Severine T. F. C.

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of twin-screw granulation in a continuous from-powder-to-tablet manufacturing line requires process knowledge development. This is often pursued by application of mechanistic models incorporating the underlying mechanisms. In this study, granulation mechanisms considered to be domi......Implementation of twin-screw granulation in a continuous from-powder-to-tablet manufacturing line requires process knowledge development. This is often pursued by application of mechanistic models incorporating the underlying mechanisms. In this study, granulation mechanisms considered...... to be dominant in the kneading element regions of the granulator i.e., aggregation and breakage, were included in a one-dimensional population balance model. The model was calibrated using the experimentally determined inflow granule size distribution, and the mean residence time was used as additional input...

  12. Sustainable Micro-Manufacturing of Micro-Components via Micro Electrical Discharge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Marrocco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-manufacturing emerged in the last years as a new engineering area with the potential of increasing peoples’ quality of life through the production of innovative micro-devices to be used, for example, in the biomedical, micro-electronics or telecommunication sectors. The possibility to decrease the energy consumption makes the micro-manufacturing extremely appealing in terms of environmental protection. However, despite this common belief that the micro-scale implies a higher sustainability compared to traditional manufacturing processes, recent research shows that some factors can make micro-manufacturing processes not as sustainable as expected. In particular, the use of rare raw materials and the need of higher purity of processes, to preserve product quality and manufacturing equipment, can be a source for additional environmental burden and process costs. Consequently, research is needed to optimize micro-manufacturing processes in order to guarantee the minimum consumption of raw materials, consumables and energy. In this paper, the experimental results obtained by the micro-electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM of micro-channels made on Ni–Cr–Mo steel is reported. The aim of such investigation is to shed a light on the relation and dependence between the material removal process, identified in the evaluation of material removal rate (MRR and tool wear ratio (TWR, and some of the most important technological parameters (i.e., open voltage, discharge current, pulse width and frequency, in order to experimentally quantify the material waste produced and optimize the technological process in order to decrease it.

  13. Additive manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V components by shaped metal deposition: Microstructure and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baufeld, Bernd; Biest, Omer Van der; Gault, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    Shaped metal deposition (SMD) is a relatively new technology of additive manufacturing, which creates near-net shaped components by additive manufacture utilizing tungsten inert gas welding. Especially for Ti alloys, which are difficult to shape by traditional methods and for which the loss of material during machining is also very costly, SMD has great advantages. In the case of Ti-6Al-4V the dense SMD components exhibit large, columnar prior β grains, with a Widmanstaetten α/β microstructure. These prior β grains are slightly tilted in a direction following the temperature field resulting from the moving welding torch. The ultimate tensile strength is between 929 and 1014 MPa, depending on orientation and location of the tensile specimens. Tensile testing vertically to the deposition layers exhibits a strain at failure of 16 ± 3%, while testing parallel to the layers gives a lower value of about 9%.

  14. Effect of ITER components manufacturing cycle on the irradiation behaviour of 316L(N)-IG steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodchenkov, B.S.; Prokhorov, V.I.; Makarov, O.Yu.; Shamardin, V.K.; Kalinin, G.M.; Strebkov, Yu.S.; Golosov, O.A.

    2000-01-01

    The main options for the manufacturing of high heat flux (HHF) components is hot isostatic pressing (HIP) using either solid pieces or powder. There was no database on the radiation behaviour of these materials, and in particular stainless steel (SS) 316L(N)-IG with ITER components manufacturing thermal cycle. Irradiation of wrought steel, powder-HIP, solid-HIP and HIPed joints has been performed within the framework of an ITER task. Specimens cut from 316L(N)-IG plate, HIP products, and solid-HIP joints were irradiated in the SM-3 reactor in Dimitrovgrad up to 4 and 10 dpa at 175 deg. C and 265 deg. C. The paper describes the results of post-irradiation tensile and fracture toughness tests

  15. Using Additive Manufacturing to Mitigate the Risks of Limited Key Ship Components of the Zumwalt-Class Destroyer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    and services are high tech and defense-specific in nature; therefore, there is often only one qualified provider/supplier available. Moreover...support for low-volume and obsolete parts. From commercial aviation and luxury car manufacturers to major defense contractors and the DOD, financial...components that are currently obsolete or approaching obsolescence through 2019 (Southard, 2016). The iPDA is critical to support the distributed

  16. Procedure for the qualification of a manufacturer of ingot iron pieces for application in nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, K.M.M.; Jusevicius, E.; Michael, H.

    1981-01-01

    The process for the qualification of 'Sao Caetano do Sul (Acos Villares S/A)' Plant as manufacturers of ingot iron pieces for application in components of Angra 2 and Angra 3 Nuclear Power Plants, is presented. The qualification was executed by IBQN - Instituto Brasileiro de Qualidade Nuclear - the organ officially in charge of the execution of qualification of suppliers of materials for the nuclear industry. (E.G.) [pt

  17. Hot radial pressing: An alternative technique for the manufacturing of plasma-facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visca, E.; Libera, S.; Mancini, A.; Mazzone, G.; Pizzuto, A.; Testani, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Hot radial pressing (HRP) manufacturing technique is based on the radial diffusion bonding principle performed between the cooling tube and the armour tile. The bonding is achieved by pressurizing the cooling tube while the joining interface is kept at the vacuum and temperature conditions. This technique has been used for the manufacturing of relevant mock-ups of the ITER divertor vertical target. Tungsten monoblock mock-ups were successfully tested to high heat flux thermal fatigue (20 MW/m 2 of absorbed heat flux for 1000 cycles). After these good results the activity is now focused on the developing of a manufacturing process suitable also for the CFC monoblock mock-ups. A FE calculation was performed to investigate the stress involved in the CFC tiles during the process and to avoid the CFC fracture. The results obtained by the FE calculation and by the test performed in air simulating a HRP manufacturing process for a CFC monoblock mock-ups is reported in the paper

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COMPRESSED AIR EQUIPMENT COMPONENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF REBUILT RAILWAY CARS AND COMPONENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  20. Methods for converting continuous shrubland ecosystem component values to thematic National Land Cover Database classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigge, Matthew B.; Gass, Leila; Homer, Collin G.; Xian, George Z.

    2017-10-26

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) provides thematic land cover and land cover change data at 30-meter spatial resolution for the United States. Although the NLCD is considered to be the leading thematic land cover/land use product and overall classification accuracy across the NLCD is high, performance and consistency in the vast shrub and grasslands of the Western United States is lower than desired. To address these issues and fulfill the needs of stakeholders requiring more accurate rangeland data, the USGS has developed a method to quantify these areas in terms of the continuous cover of several cover components. These components include the cover of shrub, sagebrush (Artemisia spp), big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp.), herbaceous, annual herbaceous, litter, and bare ground, and shrub and sagebrush height. To produce maps of component cover, we collected field data that were then associated with spectral values in WorldView-2 and Landsat imagery using regression tree models. The current report outlines the procedures and results of converting these continuous cover components to three thematic NLCD classes: barren, shrubland, and grassland. To accomplish this, we developed a series of indices and conditional models using continuous cover of shrub, bare ground, herbaceous, and litter as inputs. The continuous cover data are currently available for two large regions in the Western United States. Accuracy of the “cross-walked” product was assessed relative to that of NLCD 2011 at independent validation points (n=787) across these two regions. Overall thematic accuracy of the “cross-walked” product was 0.70, compared to 0.63 for NLCD 2011. The kappa value was considerably higher for the “cross-walked” product at 0.41 compared to 0.28 for NLCD 2011. Accuracy was also evaluated relative to the values of training points (n=75,000) used in the development of the continuous cover components. Again, the “cross-walked” product outperformed NLCD

  1. Low-cost manufacturing of the point focus concentrating module and its key component, the Fresnel lens. Final subcontract report, 31 January 1991--6 May 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifee, T.; Konnerth, A. III [Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) has been developing point-focus concentrating PV modules since 1986. SKI is currently in position to manufacture between 200 to 600 kilowatts annually of the current design by a combination of manual and semi-automated methods. This report reviews the current status of module manufacture and specifies the required approach to achieve a high-volume manufacturing capability and low cost. The approach taken will include process development concurrent with module design for automated manufacturing. The current effort reviews the major manufacturing costs and identifies components and processes whose improvements would produce the greatest effect on manufacturability and cost reduction. The Fresnel lens is one such key component. Investigating specific alternative manufacturing methods and sources has substantially reduced the lens costs and has exceeded the DOE cost-reduction goals. 15 refs.

  2. Manufacturing of large and integral-type steel forgings for nuclear steam supply system components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, S.; Tsukada, H.; Suzuki, K.; Sato, I.; Onodera, S.

    1986-01-01

    Forgings for the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of the pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) 700 MWe, which is composed of seven major parts and nozzles totaling about 965 tons, were successfully developed. These forgings are: 1. Flanges: an outside diameter of 8440 mm and a weight of 238 tons max, requiring an ingot of 570 tons. 2. Shells and torus: an outside diameter of about 8000 mm with large height. 3. Cover dome: a diameter of 6800 mm and a thickness of 460 mm, requiring a blank forging before forming of 8000 mm in diameter and 550 m thick. The material designation is 20Mn-Mo-Ni 5 5 (equivalent to SA508, Class 3). In this paper, the manufacturing of and the properties of such large and integral forgings are discussed, including an overview of manufacturing processes for ultralarge-sized forgings over the last two decades

  3. Investigation of plasma arc welding as a method for the additive manufacturing of titanium-(6)aluminum-(4)vanadium alloy components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinoha, Joe N.

    The process of producing near net-shape components by material deposition is known as additive manufacturing. All additive manufacturing processes are based on the addition of material with the main driving forces being cost reduction and flexibility in both manufacturing and product design. With wire metal deposition, metal is deposited as beads side-by-side and layer-by-layer in a desired pattern to build a complete component or add features on a part. There are minimal waste products, low consumables, and an efficient use of energy and feedstock associated with additive manufacturing processes. Titanium and titanium alloys are useful engineering materials that possess an extraordinary combination of properties. Some of the properties that make titanium advantageous for structural applications are its high strength-to-weight ratio, low density, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and good corrosion resistance. The most commonly used titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, is typically used in aerospace applications, pressure vessels, aircraft gas turbine disks, cases and compressor blades, and surgical implants. Because of the high material prices associated with titanium alloys, the production of near net-shape components by additive manufacturing is an attractive option for the manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy components. In this thesis, the manufacturing of cylindrical Ti-6Al-4V alloy specimens by wire metal deposition utilizing the plasma arc welding process was demonstrated. Plasma arc welding is a cost effective additive manufacturing technique when compared to other current additive manufacturing methods such as laser beam welding and electron beam welding. Plasma arc welding is considered a high-energy-density welding processes which is desirable for the successful welding of titanium. Metal deposition was performed using a constant current plasma arc welding power supply, flow-purged welding chamber, argon shielding and orifice gas, ERTi-5 filler metal, and Ti-6Al

  4. Method of estimating changes in vapor concentrations continuously generated from two-component organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hajime; Ishidao, Toru; Ishimatsu, Sumiyo

    2010-12-01

    We measured vapor concentrations continuously evaporated from two-component organic solvents in a reservoir and proposed a method to estimate and predict the evaporation rate or generated vapor concentrations. Two kinds of organic solvents were put into a small reservoir made of glass (3 cm in diameter and 3 cm high) that was installed in a cylindrical glass vessel (10 cm in diameter and 15 cm high). Air was introduced into the glass vessel at a flow rate of 150 ml/min, and the generated vapor concentrations were intermittently monitored for up to 5 hours with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. The solvent systems tested in this study were the methanoltoluene system and the ethyl acetate-toluene system. The vapor concentrations of the more volatile component, that is, methanol in the methanol-toluene system and ethyl acetate in the ethyl acetate-toluene system, were high at first, and then decreased with time. On the other hand, the concentrations of the less volatile component were low at first, and then increased with time. A model for estimating multicomponent organic vapor concentrations was developed, based on a theory of vapor-liquid equilibria and a theory of the mass transfer rate, and estimated values were compared with experimental ones. The estimated vapor concentrations were in relatively good agreement with the experimental ones. The results suggest that changes in concentrations of two-component organic vapors continuously evaporating from a liquid reservoir can be estimated by the proposed model.

  5. Component, Context and Manufacturing Model Library (C2M2L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Penn State team were stored in a relational database for easy access, storage and maintainability. The relational database consisted of a PostGres ...file into a format that can be imported into the PostGres database. This same custom application was used to generate Microsoft Excel templates...Press Break Forming Equipment 4.14 Manufacturing Model Library Database Structure The data storage mechanism for the ARL PSU MML was a PostGres database

  6. Manufacturing and Characterization of 18Ni Marage 300 Lattice Components by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lamberti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The spreading use of cellular structures brings the need to speed up manufacturing processes without deteriorating mechanical properties. By using Selective Laser Melting (SLM to produce cellular structures, the designer has total freedom in defining part geometry and manufacturing is simplified. The paper investigates the suitability of Selective Laser Melting for manufacturing steel cellular lattice structures with characteristic dimensions in the micrometer range. Alternative lattice topologies including reinforcing bars in the vertical direction also are considered. The selected lattice structure topology is shown to be superior over other lattice structure designs considered in literature. Compression tests are carried out in order to evaluate mechanical strength of lattice strut specimens made via SLM. Compressive behavior of samples also is simulated by finite element analysis and numerical results are compared with experimental data in order to assess the constitutive behavior of the lattice structure designs considered in this study. Experimental data show that it is possible to build samples of relative density in the 0.2456–0.4367 range. Compressive strength changes almost linearly with respect to relative density, which in turns depends linearly on the number of vertical reinforces. Specific strength increases with cell and strut edge size. Numerical simulations confirm the plastic nature of the instability phenomena that leads the cellular structures to collapse under compression loading.

  7. Characterization of CuCrZr and CuCrZr/SS joint strength for different blanket components manufacturing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillia, Olivier; Briottet, Laurent; Chu, Isabelle; Lemoine, Patrick; Rigal, Emmanuel; Peacock, Alan

    2009-04-01

    This work describes studies on the strength of CuCrZr/SS joints for different manufacturing conditions foreseen for the fabrication of blanket components. In the meantime, as junction strength is expected to be strongly related to CuCrZr properties, investigation on the properties of the CuCrZr itself after the different manufacturing conditions is also presented. The initial manufacturing conditions retained were made of a HIP treatment combined with a fast cooling plus a subsequent ageing treatment. For security reasons, the HIP-quenching operation was not possible. A supplementary solutionning cycle with fast cooling has thus been inserted in the heat treatment process just after the HIP bonding treatment. The influence of solutionning temperature (1040 °C or 980 °C), the cooling rate after solutionning (70 °C/min to water quench), the ageing temperature (480 °C or 560 °C) and the HIP temperature (1040 °C or 980 °C) have been addressed. Test results show that the ageing temperature is very important for keeping high strength of material whereas elongation properties are not very sensible to the manufacturing conditions. 1040 °C HIP or solutionning temperature gives better strength properties, as well as a higher cooling rate after solutionning. Concerning samples with joints, it appears that CT test is more selective than other tests since tensile test does not give rupture at joint and KCU test eliminates a route without classifying other routes.

  8. Characterization of CuCrZr and CuCrZr/SS joint strength for different blanket components manufacturing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillia, Olivier; Briottet, Laurent; Chu, Isabelle; Lemoine, Patrick; Rigal, Emmanuel; Peacock, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This work describes studies on the strength of CuCrZr/SS joints for different manufacturing conditions foreseen for the fabrication of blanket components. In the meantime, as junction strength is expected to be strongly related to CuCrZr properties, investigation on the properties of the CuCrZr itself after the different manufacturing conditions is also presented. The initial manufacturing conditions retained were made of a HIP treatment combined with a fast cooling plus a subsequent ageing treatment. For security reasons, the HIP-quenching operation was not possible. A supplementary solutionning cycle with fast cooling has thus been inserted in the heat treatment process just after the HIP bonding treatment. The influence of solutionning temperature (1040 deg. C or 980 deg. C), the cooling rate after solutionning (70 deg. C/min to water quench), the ageing temperature (480 deg. C or 560 deg. C) and the HIP temperature (1040 deg. C or 980 deg. C) have been addressed. Test results show that the ageing temperature is very important for keeping high strength of material whereas elongation properties are not very sensible to the manufacturing conditions. 1040 deg. C HIP or solutionning temperature gives better strength properties, as well as a higher cooling rate after solutionning. Concerning samples with joints, it appears that CT test is more selective than other tests since tensile test does not give rupture at joint and KCU test eliminates a route without classifying other routes.

  9. Methods for tape fabrication of continuous filament composite parts and articles of manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Andrew H

    2013-10-01

    A method for forming a composite structure according to one embodiment includes forming a first ply; and forming a second ply above the first ply. Forming each ply comprises: applying a bonding material to a tape, the tape comprising a fiber and a matrix, wherein the bonding material has a curing time of less than about 1 second; and adding the tape to a substrate for forming adjacent tape winds having about a constant distance therebetween. Additional systems, methods and articles of manufacture are also presented.

  10. An action research study; cultural differences impact how manufacturing organizations receive continuous improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattman, Braden R.

    National culture and organizational culture impact how continuous improvement methods are received, implemented and deployed by suppliers. Previous research emphasized the dominance of national culture over organizational culture. The countries studied included Poland, Mexico, China, Taiwan, South Korea, Estonia, India, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan. The research found that Canada was most receptive to continuous improvement, with China being the least receptive. The study found that organizational culture was more influential than national culture. Isomorphism and benchmarking is driving continuous-improvement language and methods to be more universally known within business. Business and management practices are taking precedence in driving change within organizations.

  11. Sensory Characteristics and Volatile Components of Dry Dog Foods Manufactured with Sorghum Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri

    2017-06-17

    Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a modified headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was performed on three extruded dry dog food diets manufactured with different fractions of red sorghum and a control diet containing corn, brewer's rice, and wheat as a grain source in order to determine the effect of sorghum fractions on dry dog food sensory properties. The aroma compounds and flavor profiles of samples were similar with small differences, such as higher toasted aroma notes, and musty and dusty flavor in the mill-feed sample. A total of 37 compounds were tentatively identified and semi-quantified. Aldehydes were the major group present in the samples. The total volatile concentration was low, reflecting the mild aroma of the samples. Partial least squares regression was performed to identify correlations between sensory characteristics and detected aroma compounds. Possible relationships, such as hexanal and oxidized oil, and broth aromatics were identified. Volatile compounds were also associated with earthy, musty, and meaty aromas and flavor notes. This study showed that extruded dry dog foods manufactured with different red sorghum fractions had similar aroma, flavor, and volatile profiles.

  12. Simple scattering analysis and simulation of optical components created by additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, M.; Horsak, A.; Heinrich, A.

    2017-10-01

    Additive manufacturing of optical elements is known but still new to the field of optical fabrication. In 3D printers, the parts are deposited layer-by-layer approximating the shape defined in optics design enabling new shapes, which cannot be manufactured using conventional methods. However, the layered structure also causes surface roughness and subsurface scattering, which decrease the quality of optical elements. Illuminating a flat sample with a laser beam, different light distributions are generated on a screen depending on the printing orientation of the sample. Whereas the laser beam is mainly diffused by the samples, a line shaped light distribution can be achieved for a special case in which the laser light goes parallel to the layer structure. These optical effects of 3D printed parts are analyzed using a goniometric setup and fed back into the optics simulation with the goal to improve the design considering the characteristics of the real sample. For a detailed look on the effect, the total scattering is split up into surface contributions and subsurface scattering using index matching techniques to isolate the effects from each other. For an index matched sample with negligible surface effects the line shaped distribution turns into a diffraction pattern which corresponds to the layer thickness of the printer. Finally, an optic simulation with the scattering data is set up for a simple curved sample. The light distribution measured with a robot-based goniophotometer differs from the simulation, because the curvature is approximated by the layer structure. This makes additional analysis necessary.

  13. Application of rapid prototyping technology in the prototype manufacturing for evaluation of NPP components and equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. Y.; Kim, J. W.; Shon, H. K.; Choi, H. S.; Yang, D. Y.

    2001-01-01

    A brief overview of rapid prototyping technology in which a part with complex shape can be produced easily and rapidly in a layer-by-layer additive manner is given in this article. In addition, a prototype model of a complex fan is manufactured using three-dimensional solid CAD modeling and Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM), a rapid prototyping technology. This enables designers to verify and modify design rapidly at an early stage of product development; and the prototype model of a fan can be used as a pattern for various secondary casting process such as vacumm casting, lost-paper casting to make prototypes of a fan. It has been shown that the combination of three-dimensional solid CAD modeling and rapid prototyping technology can reduce greatly the cost and time of prototyping of fans and turbine blades in comparison with conventional CNC machining. It should also be noted that rapid prototyping technology enables the visualization of various physical and chemical defects at a nuclear power plant so that it can help engineers understand those defects in an effective way

  14. Roadmap for Lean implementation in Indian automotive component manufacturing industry: comparative study of UNIDO Model and ISM Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, J. R.; Mantha, S. S.; Rane, S. B.

    2015-06-01

    The demands for automobiles increased drastically in last two and half decades in India. Many global automobile manufacturers and Tier-1 suppliers have already set up research, development and manufacturing facilities in India. The Indian automotive component industry started implementing Lean practices to fulfill the demand of these customers. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has taken proactive approach in association with Automotive Component Manufacturers Association of India (ACMA) and the Government of India to assist Indian SMEs in various clusters since 1999 to make them globally competitive. The primary objectives of this research are to study the UNIDO-ACMA Model as well as ISM Model of Lean implementation and validate the ISM Model by comparing with UNIDO-ACMA Model. It also aims at presenting a roadmap for Lean implementation in Indian automotive component industry. This paper is based on secondary data which include the research articles, web articles, doctoral thesis, survey reports and books on automotive industry in the field of Lean, JIT and ISM. ISM Model for Lean practice bundles was developed by authors in consultation with Lean practitioners. The UNIDO-ACMA Model has six stages whereas ISM Model has eight phases for Lean implementation. The ISM-based Lean implementation model is validated through high degree of similarity with UNIDO-ACMA Model. The major contribution of this paper is the proposed ISM Model for sustainable Lean implementation. The ISM-based Lean implementation framework presents greater insight of implementation process at more microlevel as compared to UNIDO-ACMA Model.

  15. Process for the manufacture of adhering NbC layers on components consisting of NiCr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleemann, W.

    1985-01-01

    The invention concerns a process for the manufacture of adhering NbC layers on Ni Cr alloys, whose adhesion is guaranteed in a helium atmosphere even at high temperatures (≥ 950 0 C). Differing from the conventional process in which such layers are applied by thermal spraying, and which does not provide layers adhering at high temperatures, the NbC layers are formed in situ, by applying a niobium layer on the components to be coated and by subsequent carburisation of the niobium layer by means of existing CH 4 impurities in the helium atmosphere. (orig.) [de

  16. Manufacture of steam generator units and components for the AGR power stations at Heysham II and Torness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasgow, J R; Parkin, K [N.E.I. Nuclear Systems Ltd., Gateshead, Tyne and Wear (United Kingdom)

    1984-07-01

    The current AGR Steam Generator is a development of the successful once-through units supplied for the Oldbury Magnox and Hinkley B/Hunterston B AGR power stations. In this paper a brief outline of the evolution of the steam generator design from the earlier gas cooled reactor stations is presented. A description of the main items of fabrication development is given. The production facilities for the manufacture of the units are described. Reference is also made to some of the work on associated components. The early experience on the construction site of installation of the steam generators is briefly outlined. (author)

  17. Manufacture of steam generator units and components for the AGR power stations at Heysham II and Torness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, J.R.; Parkin, K.

    1984-01-01

    The current AGR Steam Generator is a development of the successful once-through units supplied for the Oldbury Magnox and Hinkley B/Hunterston B AGR power stations. In this paper a brief outline of the evolution of the steam generator design from the earlier gas cooled reactor stations is presented. A description of the main items of fabrication development is given. The production facilities for the manufacture of the units are described. Reference is also made to some of the work on associated components. The early experience on the construction site of installation of the steam generators is briefly outlined. (author)

  18. Rapid die manufacturing - high pressure casting of low volume non ferrous metals components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFV

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available .csir.co.za Models of assembled Die Slide 12 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za 3. Die manufacture, assembly and data capturing 21.521.521.525.5total 4electrode 3Fitting3Fitting3Fitting3Fitting 2Polish2Polish2Polish2Polish 7SER 3F grind3F grind...3F grind4F grind Heat trHeat trHeat tr1Heat tr Jig boreJig boreJig boreJig bore GrindingGrindingGrinding2Grinding 13.5DMLS13.5DMLS13.5DMLS2.5Milling HrsCostProcessHrsCostProcessHrsCostProcessHrsCostProcess Core 4Core 3Core 2Core 1 NB. Times...

  19. Lead loaded flexible component for protection against radiations and manufacture process of it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, Dominique; Lepage, Louis; Lucas, J.-M.

    1977-01-01

    Lead loaded flexible substance for protection against radiation, particularly of the handling glove type, comprising different thicknesses on the back and palm of the glove respectively, the most important thickness being in the area receiving the radiation. The process consists in making the flexible component by immersing a former in a plastic gel containing dispersed lead oxide and polyvinyl chloride powder, so that an initial coat of even thickness is deposited on the former, gelling this coat by heating, cutting out this initial coat and removing from it the areas of the component with a lesser protection thickness, repeating the process as many times as required in order to obtain the final variable thickness of the component, and separating the latter from the former [fr

  20. Statistical analysis of manufacturing defects on fatigue life of wind turbine casted Component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafsanjani, Hesam Mirzaei; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Mukherjee, Krishnendu

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbine components experience heavily variable loads during its lifetime and fatigue failure is a main failure mode of casted components during their design working life. The fatigue life is highly dependent on the microstructure (grain size and graphite form and size), number, type, location...... and size of defects in the casted components and is therefore rather uncertain and needs to be described by stochastic models. Uncertainties related to such defects influence prediction of the fatigue strengths and are therefore important in modelling and assessment of the reliability of wind turbine...... for the fatigue life, namely LogNormal and Weibull distributions. The statistical analyses are performed using the Maximum Likelihood Method and the statistical uncertainty is estimated. Further, stochastic models for the fatigue life obtained from the statistical analyses are used for illustration to assess...

  1. Continuous quality improvement based on Lean Six Sigma in manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timans, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Kleine en middelgrote bedrijven uit de maakindustrie ervaren toenemende eisen met betrekking tot de kwaliteit van producten en processen. Om in competitie te blijven is voortdurend verbeteren van cruciaal belang, en de Lean Six Sigma benadering biedt veelbelovende mogelijkheden om continu verbeteren

  2. Continuous, Automated Manufacturing of String Ribbon Si PV Modules: Final Report, 21 May 1998 - 20 May 2001; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanoka, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done under a three-year PVMaT Phase 5A2 program. The overall goal was to attain a continuous, highly automated, fully integrated PV production line. In crystal growth, advances were made that resulted in lower substrate costs, higher yields, and lower capital and labor costs. A new string material was developed and implemented. Following this development, better control of the edge meniscus was achieved. A completely new furnace design was accomplished, and this became the standard platform in our new factory. Automation included ribbon thickness control and laser cutting of String Ribbon strips. Characterization of Evergreen's String Ribbon silicon was done with extensive help from the NREL laboratories, and this work provided a foundation for higher efficiency cells in the future. Advances in cell manufacturing included the development of high-speed printing and drying methods for Evergreen's unique cell making method and the design and building of a completely automated cell line from the beginning of front-contact application to the final tabbing of the cells. A so-called no-etch process whereby substrates from crystal growth go directly into p-n junction formation and emerge from this sequence without needing to go in and out of plastic carriers for any wet-chemical processing was developed. Process development as well as automation were brought to bear on improvements in soldering technology and cell interconnection in general. Using state-of-the-art manufacturing science, the Fraunhofer USA Center for Manufacturing Innovation at Boston University facilitated layout and process flow for the operation of our new factory. Evergreen Solar's new factory began operations in the second quarter of 2001. A good measure of the significant impact of this PVMaT subcontract is that virtually all of the manufacturing developments stemming from this project have been incorporated in this new factory

  3. Animal use in the chemical and product manufacturing sectors - can the downtrend continue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Rodger

    2009-12-01

    During the 1990s and early 2000s, a number of manufacturing companies in the cosmetic, personal care and household product industries were able to substantially reduce their use of animals for testing (or to not use animals in the first place). These reductions were almost always the result of significant financial contributions to either direct, in-house alternatives research, or to support personnel whose duties were to understand and apply the current state-of-the-art for in vitro testing. They occurred almost exclusively in non-regulatory areas, and primarily involved acute topical toxicities. Over the last few years, the reduction in animal use has been much less dramatic, because some companies are still reluctant to change from the traditional animal studies, because systemic, repeat-dose toxicity is more difficult to model in vitro, and because many products still require animal testing for regulatory approval. Encouragingly, we are now observing an increased acceptance of non-animal methods by regulatory agencies. This is due to mounting scientific evidence from larger databases, agreement by companies to share data and testing strategies with regulatory agencies, and a focus on smaller domains of applicability. These changes, along with new emphasis and financial support for addressing systemic toxicities, promise to provide additional possibilities for industry to replace animals with in vitro methods, alone or in combination with in silico methods. However, the largest advance will not occur until more companies commit to using the non-animal test strategies that are currently available. 2009 FRAME.

  4. Status and opportunities associated with product costing strategies in wood component manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jan Wiedenbeck; Steve Lawser

    2013-01-01

    Product costing systems are critically important for businesses because they help reduce costs, price products at competitive prices, and enable strategic decisionmaking. This article reports the results of a survey designed to collect information about practices used by the North American hardwood dimension and components industry to calculate the cost of their...

  5. Metallurgical evaluation of laser additive manufactured Ti6Al4V components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutombo, K

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available of contact between single deposited layer and Ti6Al4V base as well as the tensile properties of the component were evaluated. Powdered metal globularization, size segregation, un-melted or semi-melted particles and chemical surface contamination were revealed...

  6. Narrow gap mechanised arc welding in nuclear components manufactured by AREVA NP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peigney, A.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear components require welds of irreproachable and reproducible quality. Moreover, for a given welding process, productivity requirements lead to reduce the volume of deposited metal and thus to use narrow gap design. In the shop, narrow gap Submerged Arc Welding process (SAW) is currently used on rotating parts in flat position for thicknesses up to 300 mm. Welding is performed with one or two wires in two passes per layer. In Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process (GTAW), multiple applications can be found because this process presents the advantage of allowing welding in all positions. Welding is performed in one or two passes per layer. The process is used in factory and on the nuclear sites for assembling new components but also for replacing components and for repairs. Presently, an increase of productivity of the process is sought through the use of hot wire and/or two wires. Concerning Gas Metal Arc Welding process (GMAW), its use is growing for nuclear components, including narrow gap applications. This process, limited in its applications in the past on account of the defects it generated, draws benefit from the progress of the welding generators. Then it is possible to use this efficient process for high security components such as those of nuclear systems. It is to be noted that the process is applicable in the various welding positions as it is the case for GTAW, while being more efficient than the latter. This paper presents the state of the art in the use of narrow gap mechanised arc welding processes by AREVA NP units. (author) [fr

  7. System-wide hybrid MPC-PID control of a continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing process via direct compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2013-11-01

    The next generation of QbD based pharmaceutical products will be manufactured through continuous processing. This will allow the integration of online/inline monitoring tools, coupled with an efficient advanced model-based feedback control systems, to achieve precise control of process variables, so that the predefined product quality can be achieved consistently. The direct compaction process considered in this study is highly interactive and involves time delays for a number of process variables due to sensor placements, process equipment dimensions, and the flow characteristics of the solid material. A simple feedback regulatory control system (e.g., PI(D)) by itself may not be sufficient to achieve the tight process control that is mandated by regulatory authorities. The process presented herein comprises of coupled dynamics involving slow and fast responses, indicating the requirement of a hybrid control scheme such as a combined MPC-PID control scheme. In this manuscript, an efficient system-wide hybrid control strategy for an integrated continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing process via direct compaction has been designed. The designed control system is a hybrid scheme of MPC-PID control. An effective controller parameter tuning strategy involving an ITAE method coupled with an optimization strategy has been used for tuning of both MPC and PID parameters. The designed hybrid control system has been implemented in a first-principles model-based flowsheet that was simulated in gPROMS (Process System Enterprise). Results demonstrate enhanced performance of critical quality attributes (CQAs) under the hybrid control scheme compared to only PID or MPC control schemes, illustrating the potential of a hybrid control scheme in improving pharmaceutical manufacturing operations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDs) risk assessment at core assembly production of electronic components manufacturing company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, N. M.; Zahid, M. N. O.

    2018-03-01

    This study conducted to assess the work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDs) among the workers at core assembly production in an electronic components manufacturing company located in Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia. The study is to identify the WMDs risk factor and risk level. A set of questionnaires survey based on modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaires have been distributed to respective workers to acquire the WMDs risk factor identification. Then, postural analysis was conducted in order to measure the respective WMDs risk level. The analysis were based on two ergonomics assessment tools; Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). The study found that 30 respondents out of 36 respondents suffered from WMDs especially at shoulder, wrists and lower back. The WMDs risk have been identified from unloading process, pressing process and winding process. In term of the WMDs risk level, REBA and RULA assessment tools have indicated high risk level to unloading and pressing process. Thus, this study had established the WMDs risk factor and risk level of core assembly production in an electronic components manufacturing company at Malaysia environment.

  9. Manufacturing technology development of plasma/ion nitriding for improvement of hardness of machine components and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprapto; Tjipto Sujitno; Saminto

    2015-01-01

    The manufacturing technology development of plasma/ion nitriding to improve of hardness of machine components and tools has been done. The development of this technology aims to improve device performance plasma nitriding double chamber and conducted with the addition of thermal radiation shield. Testing was done by testing for preheating operation (start-up), test operation for conditions nitriding and test for nitriding process. The results show that: the plasma nitriding device can be operated for nitriding process at the temperature of about 500 °C for 6 hours, using the thermal radiation shield obtained outside wall temperature of about 65 °C and shorten start-up time to about 60 minutes. The use of thermal radiation shield can also improve the efficiency of the electric power supply and increase the operating temperature for nitriding process. Test for nitriding obtained increase of hardness 1.33 times for the original camshaft (genuine parts) and 1.8 times for the imitation camshaft (imitation parts), the results are compared with after the tempering process at a temperature of 600 °C. For sample SS 304 was 2.45 times compared with before nitrided These results indicate that the development of manufacturing technology of plasma/ion nitriding to increase hardness of machine components and tools have been successfully able to increase the hardness, although still need to be optimized. Besides that, these devices can be developed to use for the process of carburizing and carbonitriding. (author)

  10. Aspects for selection of materials and fabrication processes for nuclear component manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernstich, K.

    1980-01-01

    For components of the Nuclear steam supply System of Light Water Reactors an extremely high safety standard is required. These requirements only can be met by adequate selection of materials and fabrication processes and their proper application in combination with strict quality assurance and control measurements. A general overview of the basic aspects to be considered in this connection is presented together with an indication of the present state of art for the main materials and fabrication processes. (author) [pt

  11. Optical sensor technology for a noninvasive continuous monitoring of blood components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraitl, Jens; Timm, Ulrich; Lewis, Elfed; Ewald, Hartmut

    2010-02-01

    NIR-spectroscopy and Photoplethysmography (PPG) is used for a measurement of blood components. The absorptioncoefficient of blood differs at different wavelengths. This fact is used to calculate the optical absorbability characteristics of blood which is yielding information about blood components like hemoglobin (Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (CoHb) and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2). The measured PPG time signals and the ratio between the peak to peak pulse amplitudes are used for a measurement of these parameters. Hemoglobin is the main component of red blood cells. The primary function of Hb is the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the tissue and carbon dioxide back to the lungs. The Hb concentration in human blood is an important parameter in evaluating the physiological status of an individual and an essential parameter in every blood count. Currently, invasive methods are used to measure the Hb concentration, whereby blood is taken from the patient and subsequently analyzed. Apart from the discomfort of drawing blood samples, an added disadvantage of this method is the delay between the blood collection and its analysis, which does not allow real time patient monitoring in critical situations. A noninvasive method allows pain free continuous on-line patient monitoring with minimum risk of infection and facilitates real time data monitoring allowing immediate clinical reaction to the measured data.

  12. Manufacturing and coating of optical components for the EnMAP hyperspectral imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürmann, M.; Gäbler, D.; Schlegel, R.; Schwinde, S.; Peschel, T.; Damm, C.; Jende, R.; Kinast, J.; Müller, S.; Beier, M.; Risse, S.; Sang, B.; Glier, M.; Bittner, H.; Erhard, M.

    2016-07-01

    The optical system of the hyperspectral imager of the Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP) consists of a three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) and two independent spectrometers working in the VNIR and SWIR spectral range, respectively. The VNIR spectrometer includes a spherical NiP coated Al6061 mirror that has been ultra-precisely diamond turned and finally coated with protected silver as well as four curved fused silica (FS) and flint glass (SF6) prisms, respectively, each with broadband antireflection (AR) coating, while the backs of the two outer prisms are coated with a high-reflective coating. For AR coating, plasma ion assisted deposition (PIAD) has been used; the high-reflective enhanced Ag-coating on the backside has been deposited by magnetron sputtering. The SWIR spectrometer contains four plane and spherical gold-coated mirrors, respectively, and two curved FS prisms with a broadband antireflection coating. Details about the ultra-precise manufacturing of metal mirrors and prisms as well as their coating are presented in this work.

  13. Manufacturing and testing in reactor relevant conditions of brazed plasma facing components of the ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisio, M.; Branca, V.; Marco, M. Di; Federici, A.; Grattarola, M.; Gualco, G.; Guarnone, P.; Luconi, U.; Merola, M.; Ozzano, C.; Pasquale, G.; Poggi, P.; Rizzo, S.; Varone, F.

    2005-01-01

    A fabrication route based on brazing technology has been developed for the realization of the high heat flux components for the ITER vertical target and Dome-Liner. The divertor vertical target is armoured with carbon fiber reinforced carbon and tungsten in the lower straight part and in the upper curved part, respectively. The armour material is joined to heat sinks made of precipitation hardened copper-chromium-zirconium alloy. The plasma facing units of the dome component are based on a tungsten flat tile design with hypervapotron cooling. An innovative brazing technique based on the addition of carbon fibers to the active brazing alloy, developed by Ansaldo Ricerche for applications in the field of the energy production, has been used for the carbon fiber composite to copper joint to reduce residual stresses. The tungsten-copper joint has been realized by direct casting. A proper brazing thermal cycle has been studied to guarantee the required mechanical properties of the precipitation hardened alloy after brazing. The fabrication route of plasma facing components for the ITER vertical target and dome based on the brazing technology has been proved by means of thermal fatigue tests performed on mock-ups in reactor relevant conditions

  14. Continuous-flow technology—a tool for the safe manufacturing of active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Bernhard; Cantillo, David; Kappe, C Oliver

    2015-06-01

    In the past few years, continuous-flow reactors with channel dimensions in the micro- or millimeter region have found widespread application in organic synthesis. The characteristic properties of these reactors are their exceptionally fast heat and mass transfer. In microstructured devices of this type, virtually instantaneous mixing can be achieved for all but the fastest reactions. Similarly, the accumulation of heat, formation of hot spots, and dangers of thermal runaways can be prevented. As a result of the small reactor volumes, the overall safety of the process is significantly improved, even when harsh reaction conditions are used. Thus, microreactor technology offers a unique way to perform ultrafast, exothermic reactions, and allows the execution of reactions which proceed via highly unstable or even explosive intermediates. This Review discusses recent literature examples of continuous-flow organic synthesis where hazardous reactions or extreme process windows have been employed, with a focus on applications of relevance to the preparation of pharmaceuticals. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Stability criteria and critical runway conditions of propylene glycol manufacture in a continuous stirred tank reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Gómez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Here, a new method for the analysis of the steady state and the safety operational conditions of the hydrolysis of propylene oxide with excess of water, in a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR, was developed. For industrial operational typical values, at first, the generated and removed heat balances were examined. Next, the effect of coolant fluid temperature in the critical ignition and extinction temperatures (TCI and TCE, respectively was analyzed. The influence of the heat exchange parameter (hS on coolant and critical temperatures was also studied. Finally, the steady state operation areas were defined. The existence of multiple stable states was recognized when the heat exchange parameter was in the range 6.636 < hS kJ/(min.K < 11.125. Unstable operation area was located between the TCI and TCE values, restricting the reactor operation area to the low stable temperatures.

  16. Justification and manufacturing quality assurance for the use of hot Isostatically pressed, reactor coolant system components in PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulley, J. L.; Hookham, I. D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the work undertaken by Rolls-Royce to introduce Hot Isostatically Pressed (HIP) components into Pressurised Water Reactor plant. It presents the work from a design justification and manufacturing quality assurance perspective, rather than from a pure metallurgical perspective, although some metallurgical and mechanical property comparisons with the traditional forged material are presented. Although the HIP process is not new, it was new in its application to Rolls-Royce designed nuclear reactor plant. In order to satisfy the regulatory requirement of 'Proven Engineering Practices' with regard to the introduction of new material processes, and to provide a robust manufacturing substantiation leg of a multi-legged safety case, Rolls-Royce has implemented an evolving, staged approach, starting with HIP bonding of solid valve seats into small bore valve pressure boundaries. This was followed by powder HIP consolidation of leak-limited, thin-walled toroids, and has culminated in the powder HIP consolidation of components, such as steam generator headers, large bore valves and pipe sections. The paper provides an overview of each of these stages and the approach taken with respect to justification. The paper describes the benefits that Rolls-Royce has realised so far through the introduction of HIPed components, and improvements planned for the future. Structural integrity benefits are described, such as improved grain structure, mechanical properties, and ultrasonic inspection. Project-based benefits are also described, such as provision of an alternative strategic sourcing route, cost and lead-time reduction. A full description is provided of key quality assurance steps applied to the process to ensure a high quality product is delivered commensurate with a high integrity nuclear application. 2008 Rolls-Royce plc. (authors)

  17. Characterization of CuCrZr and CuCrZr/SS junction strength for different blanket components manufacturing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillia, O.; Briottet, L.; Chu, I.; Lemoine, P.; Bucci, P.; Peacock, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This work describes studies on the strength of CuCrZr/SS joint for different manufacturing conditions foreseen for the fabrication of blanket components. In the meantime, as junction strength is expected to be strongly related to CuCrZr property, investigation on the properties of the CuCrZr itself after the different manufacturing conditions is also presented. The initial manufacturing conditions retained were made of a HIP treatment combined with a fast cooling plus a subsequent ageing treatment. For security reasons, the HIP quenching operation was not possible. It is too severe for the HIP vessel. A supplementary solutioning cycle has then been inserted to the heat treatment process just after the HIP-bonding treatment in order to have a sufficient fast cooling of the CuCrZr. The manufacturing conditions thus comprise a HIP cycle (simulated for mono-material samples), a separate solutioning cycle with controlled cooling rate and an ageing treatment. The influence of solutioning temperature has been addressed (1040 deg. C or 980 deg. C) as well as that of the cooling rate after solutioning (70 deg. C/min to water quench), the ageing temperature (480 deg. C or 560 deg. C) and the HIP temperature (1040 deg. C or 980 deg. C). Test results show that the ageing temperature is very important for keeping high strength of material whereas elongation properties are not very sensible to the manufacturing conditions. 1040 deg. C HIP or solutioning temperature gives better strength properties, as well as a higher cooling rate after solutioning. Concerning samples with junctions, it appears that CT test is more selective than other tests since tensile test does not give rupture at joint and KCU test eliminates a route without classifying other routes. A minimum value of J Q for CT test is given, but as confined plasticity requirement is not satisfied for the sample geometry, this value should only be used concomitantly with the same testing

  18. Materials, manufacture and testing of pressurized components of high-power steam power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blind, D.; Foehl, J.; Issler, L.; Schellhammer, W.; Sturm, D.; Kussmaul, K.; Heinrich, D.; Meyer, H.J.; Prestel, W.

    1981-01-01

    This is the first German review of materials, production and testing of pressure components of high-capacity steam power plants. The authors have been working in this field for years; their special subject has been the availability and reliability of pressure vessels, in particular in nuclear engineering. Fundamentals are presented as well as the findings obtained at the state Materials Testing Institute in Stuttgart. The material is presented in a well-structured classification; the most recent international findings, especially of the USA, are presented. This is possible due to the close cooperation between the Stuttgart institute and a number of US research institutes. The new subject of fracture mechanics is treated in some detail; its fundamentals are discussed from the American point of view while German considerations - in particular of the Reactor Safety Commission - are taken into account in the field of applications. (orig.) [de

  19. Design, manufacture and initial operation of the beryllium components of the JET ITER-like wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardo, V., E-mail: valeria.riccardo@ccfe.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lomas, P.; Matthews, G.F. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Nunes, I. [Associação EURATOM-IST, IPFN – Laboratório Associado, IST, Lisbon (Portugal); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Thompson, V. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Villedieu, E. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► 40 m{sup 2} of plasma facing surface covered with bulk Be re-using existing supports, designed for C-based tiles (hence for much lower disruption loads). ► Optimization of power handling to allow compatibility with higher (×1.5) and longer (×2) neutral beam power. ► Beryllium re-cycling. ► Machining and cleaning to ultra high vacuum standards of <350 μm thin castellations in Be. ► Quality control to minimize installation problems (proto-types, full scale jigs, inspections). -- Abstract: The aim of the JET ITER-like wall project was to provide JET with the plasma facing material combination now selected for the DT phase of ITER (bulk beryllium main chamber limiters and a full tungsten divertor) and, in conjunction with the upgraded neutral beam heating system, to achieve ITER relevant conditions. The design of the bulk Be plasma facing components had to be compatible with increased heating power and pulse length, as well as to reuse the existing tile supports originally designed to cope with disruption loads from carbon based tiles and be installed by remote handling. Risk reduction measures (prototypes, jigs, etc.) were implemented to maximize efficiency during the shutdown. However, a large number of clashes with existing components not fully captured by the configuration model occurred. Restarting the plasma on the ITER-like Wall proved much easier than for the carbon wall and no deconditioning by disruptions was observed. Disruptions have been more threatening than expected due to the reduced radiative losses compared to carbon, leaving most of the plasma magnetic energy to be conducted to the wall and requiring routine disruption mitigation. The main chamber power handling has achieved and possibly exceeded the design targets.

  20. Design, manufacture and initial operation of the beryllium components of the JET ITER-like wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardo, V.; Lomas, P.; Matthews, G.F.; Nunes, I.; Thompson, V.; Villedieu, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► 40 m 2 of plasma facing surface covered with bulk Be re-using existing supports, designed for C-based tiles (hence for much lower disruption loads). ► Optimization of power handling to allow compatibility with higher (×1.5) and longer (×2) neutral beam power. ► Beryllium re-cycling. ► Machining and cleaning to ultra high vacuum standards of <350 μm thin castellations in Be. ► Quality control to minimize installation problems (proto-types, full scale jigs, inspections). -- Abstract: The aim of the JET ITER-like wall project was to provide JET with the plasma facing material combination now selected for the DT phase of ITER (bulk beryllium main chamber limiters and a full tungsten divertor) and, in conjunction with the upgraded neutral beam heating system, to achieve ITER relevant conditions. The design of the bulk Be plasma facing components had to be compatible with increased heating power and pulse length, as well as to reuse the existing tile supports originally designed to cope with disruption loads from carbon based tiles and be installed by remote handling. Risk reduction measures (prototypes, jigs, etc.) were implemented to maximize efficiency during the shutdown. However, a large number of clashes with existing components not fully captured by the configuration model occurred. Restarting the plasma on the ITER-like Wall proved much easier than for the carbon wall and no deconditioning by disruptions was observed. Disruptions have been more threatening than expected due to the reduced radiative losses compared to carbon, leaving most of the plasma magnetic energy to be conducted to the wall and requiring routine disruption mitigation. The main chamber power handling has achieved and possibly exceeded the design targets

  1. Application of continual annealing and roll bonding (CAR) process for manufacturing Al–Zn multilayered composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehsorkhi, Reza Nasiri; Qods, Fathallah; Tajally, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CAR process was performed on Al–Zn composite. ► Good bonding between layers was achieved by increasing the number of CAR cycles. ► With increasing number of cycles, a good distribution of Zn fragmentations was achieved. ► The composites which were produced by CAR process, possess a higher tensile strength and elongation than ARB process. ► By EDX analysis it is proved that Al and Zn atoms would diffuse with each other. - Abstract: In this study, an aluminium–zinc composite was produced for the first time by using a continual annealing and roll-bonding (CAR) process. A composite with homogeneous distribution of fragmented zinc layers in aluminium matrix was produced after ten CAR cycles. The results demonstrate that tensile strength of the final composites increases up to 410 MPa, which is about 4 times higher than those of initial aluminium and zinc sheets. However, elongation of the composite reduced down to 4% after ten CAR cycles. The fracture surfaces of the tensile samples were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to evaluate the failure mode. Observations reveal that the failure mode in CAR-processed composites is a typical ductile fracture which shows deep dimples in samples with few CAR cycles, while the failure mode was shear ductile fracture with shallow and elongated dimples in samples with ten CAR cycles.

  2. Development of a continuous monitoring system for PM10 and components of PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, M; Xiong, J Q; Li, W

    2000-01-01

    While particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters below 10 and 2.5 microns (PM10 and PM2.5) correlate with excess mortality and morbidity, there is evidence for still closer epidemiological associations with sulfate ion, and experimental exposure-response studies suggest that the hydrogen ion and ultrafine (PM0.15) concentrations may be important risk factors. Also, there are measurement artifacts in current methods used to measure ambient PM10 and PM2.5, including negative artifacts because of losses of sampled semivolatile components (ammonium nitrate and some organics) and positive artifacts due to particle-bound water. To study such issues, we are developing a semi-continuous monitoring system for PM10, PM2.5, semivolatiles (organic compounds and NH4NO3), particle-bound water, and other PM2.5 constituents that may be causal factors. PM10 is aerodynamically sorted into three size-fractions: (1) coarse (PM10-PM2.5); (2) accumulation mode (PM2.5-PM0.15); and (3) ultrafine (PM0.15). The mass concentration of each fraction is measured in terms of the linear relation between accumulated mass and pressure drop on polycarbonate pore filters. The PM0.15 mass, being highly correlated with the ultrafine number concentration, provides a good index of the total number concentration in ambient air. For the accumulation mode (PM2.5-PM0.15), which contains nearly all of the semivolatiles and particle-bound water by mass, aliquots of the aerosol stream flow into system components that continuously monitor sulfur (by flame photometry), ammonium and nitrate (by chemiluminescence following catalytic transformations to NO), organics (by thermal-optical analysis) and particle-bound water (by electrolytic hygrometer after vacuum evaporation of sampled particles). The concentration of H+ can be calculated (by ion balance using the monitoring data on NO3-, NH4+, and SO4=).

  3. Modelling and computer simulation for the manufacture by powder HIPing of Blanket Shield components for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillia, O.; Bucci, Ph.; Vidotto, F.; Leibold, J.-M.; Boireau, B.; Boudot, C.; Cottin, A.; Lorenzetto, P.; Jacquinot, F.

    2006-01-01

    In components of blanket modules for ITER, intricate cooling networks are needed in order to evacuate all heat coming from the plasma. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIPing) technology is a very convenient method to produce near net shape components with complex cooling network through massive stainless steel parts by bonding together tubes inserted in grooves machined in bulk stainless steel. Powder is often included in the process so as to release difficulties arising with gaps closure between tube and solid part or between several solid parts. In the mean time, it releases the machining precision needed on the parts to assemble before HIP. However, inserting powder in the assembly means densification, i.e. volume change of powder during the HIP cycle. This leads to global and local shape changes of HIPed parts. In order to control the deformations, modelling and computer simulation are used. This modelling and computer simulation work has been done in support to the fabrication of a shield prototype for the ITER blanket. Problems such as global bending of the whole part and deformations of tubes in their powder bed are addressed. It is important that the part does not bend too much. It is important as well to have circular tube shape after HIP, firstly in order to avoid their rupture during HIP but also because non destructive ultrasonic examination is needed to check the quality of the densification and bonding between tube and powder or solid parts; the insertions of a probe in the tubes requires a minimal circular tube shape. For simulation purposes, the behaviour of the different materials has to be modelled. Although the modelling of the massive stainless steel behaviour is not neglected, the most critical modelling is about power. For this study, a thorough investigation on the powder behaviour has been performed with some in-situ HIP dilatometry experiments and some interrupted HIP cycles on trial parts. These experiments have allowed the identification of a

  4. Potential of direct metal deposition technology for manufacturing thick functionally graded coatings and parts for reactors components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Laget, B.; Smurov, I.

    2009-01-01

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D deposition process arising from laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection to refine or refurbish parts. Recently DMD has been extended to manufacture large-size near-net-shape components. When applied for manufacturing new parts (or their refinement), DMD can provide tailored thermal properties, high corrosion resistance, tailored tribology, multifunctional performance and cost savings due to smart material combinations. In repair (refurbishment) operations, DMD can be applied for parts with a wide variety of geometries and sizes. In contrast to the current tool repair techniques such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal inert gas (MIG) and plasma welding, laser cladding technology by DMD offers a well-controlled heat-treated zone due to the high energy density of the laser beam. In addition, this technology may be used for preventative maintenance and design changes/up-grading. One of the advantages of DMD is the possibility to build functionally graded coatings (from 1 mm thickness and higher) and 3D multi-material objects (for example, 100 mm-sized monolithic rectangular) in a single-step manufacturing cycle by using up to 4-channel powder feeder. Approved materials are: Fe (including stainless steel), Ni and Co alloys, (Cu,Ni 10%), WC compounds, TiC compounds. The developed coatings/parts are characterized by low porosity (<1%), fine microstructure, and their microhardness is close to the benchmark value of wrought alloys after thermal treatment (Co-based alloy Stellite, Inox 316L, stainless steel 17-4PH). The intended applications concern cooling elements with complex geometry, friction joints under high temperature and load, light-weight mechanical support structures, hermetic joints, tubes with complex geometry, and tailored inside and outside surface properties, etc

  5. Potential of direct metal deposition technology for manufacturing thick functionally graded coatings and parts for reactors components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Laget, B. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Saint-Etienne (ENISE), DIPI Laboratory, 58 rue Jean Parot, 42023 Saint-Etienne cedex 2 (France); Smurov, I. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Saint-Etienne (ENISE), DIPI Laboratory, 58 rue Jean Parot, 42023 Saint-Etienne cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: smurov@enise.fr

    2009-03-31

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D deposition process arising from laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection to refine or refurbish parts. Recently DMD has been extended to manufacture large-size near-net-shape components. When applied for manufacturing new parts (or their refinement), DMD can provide tailored thermal properties, high corrosion resistance, tailored tribology, multifunctional performance and cost savings due to smart material combinations. In repair (refurbishment) operations, DMD can be applied for parts with a wide variety of geometries and sizes. In contrast to the current tool repair techniques such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal inert gas (MIG) and plasma welding, laser cladding technology by DMD offers a well-controlled heat-treated zone due to the high energy density of the laser beam. In addition, this technology may be used for preventative maintenance and design changes/up-grading. One of the advantages of DMD is the possibility to build functionally graded coatings (from 1 mm thickness and higher) and 3D multi-material objects (for example, 100 mm-sized monolithic rectangular) in a single-step manufacturing cycle by using up to 4-channel powder feeder. Approved materials are: Fe (including stainless steel), Ni and Co alloys, (Cu,Ni 10%), WC compounds, TiC compounds. The developed coatings/parts are characterized by low porosity (<1%), fine microstructure, and their microhardness is close to the benchmark value of wrought alloys after thermal treatment (Co-based alloy Stellite, Inox 316L, stainless steel 17-4PH). The intended applications concern cooling elements with complex geometry, friction joints under high temperature and load, light-weight mechanical support structures, hermetic joints, tubes with complex geometry, and tailored inside and outside surface properties, etc.

  6. Potential of direct metal deposition technology for manufacturing thick functionally graded coatings and parts for reactors components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Laget, B.; Smurov, I.

    2009-03-01

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D deposition process arising from laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection to refine or refurbish parts. Recently DMD has been extended to manufacture large-size near-net-shape components. When applied for manufacturing new parts (or their refinement), DMD can provide tailored thermal properties, high corrosion resistance, tailored tribology, multifunctional performance and cost savings due to smart material combinations. In repair (refurbishment) operations, DMD can be applied for parts with a wide variety of geometries and sizes. In contrast to the current tool repair techniques such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal inert gas (MIG) and plasma welding, laser cladding technology by DMD offers a well-controlled heat-treated zone due to the high energy density of the laser beam. In addition, this technology may be used for preventative maintenance and design changes/up-grading. One of the advantages of DMD is the possibility to build functionally graded coatings (from 1 mm thickness and higher) and 3D multi-material objects (for example, 100 mm-sized monolithic rectangular) in a single-step manufacturing cycle by using up to 4-channel powder feeder. Approved materials are: Fe (including stainless steel), Ni and Co alloys, (Cu,Ni 10%), WC compounds, TiC compounds. The developed coatings/parts are characterized by low porosity (<1%), fine microstructure, and their microhardness is close to the benchmark value of wrought alloys after thermal treatment (Co-based alloy Stellite, Inox 316L, stainless steel 17-4PH). The intended applications concern cooling elements with complex geometry, friction joints under high temperature and load, light-weight mechanical support structures, hermetic joints, tubes with complex geometry, and tailored inside and outside surface properties, etc.

  7. Advanced computational simulation for design and manufacturing of lightweight material components for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simunovic, S.; Aramayo, G.A.; Zacharia, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Toridis, T.G. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Bandak, F.; Ragland, C.L. [Dept. of Transportation, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Computational vehicle models for the analysis of lightweight material performance in automobiles have been developed through collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration, and George Washington University. The vehicle models have been verified against experimental data obtained from vehicle collisions. The crashed vehicles were analyzed, and the main impact energy dissipation mechanisms were identified and characterized. Important structural parts were extracted and digitized and directly compared with simulation results. High-performance computing played a key role in the model development because it allowed for rapid computational simulations and model modifications. The deformation of the computational model shows a very good agreement with the experiments. This report documents the modifications made to the computational model and relates them to the observations and findings on the test vehicle. Procedural guidelines are also provided that the authors believe need to be followed to create realistic models of passenger vehicles that could be used to evaluate the performance of lightweight materials in automotive structural components.

  8. Silicon Valley's Processing Needs versus San Jose State University's Manufacturing Systems Processing Component: Implications for Industrial Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Samuel C.

    2004-01-01

    Manufacturing professionals within universities tend to view manufacturing systems from a global perspective. This perspective tends to assume that manufacturing processes are employed equally in every manufacturing enterprise, irrespective of the geography and the needs of the people in those diverse regions. But in reality local and societal…

  9. 3D Microstructural Architectures for Metal and Alloy Components Fabricated by 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, E.; Murr, L. E.; Amato, K. N.; Hernandez, J.; Shindo, P. W.; Gaytan, S. M.; Ramirez, D. A.; Medina, F.; Wicker, R. B.

    The layer-by-layer building of monolithic, 3D metal components from selectively melted powder layers using laser or electron beams is a novel form of 3D printing or additive manufacturing. Microstructures created in these 3D products can involve novel, directional solidification structures which can include crystallographically oriented grains containing columnar arrays of precipitates characteristic of a microstructural architecture. These microstructural architectures are advantageously rendered in 3D image constructions involving light optical microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations. Microstructural evolution can also be effectively examined through 3D image sequences which, along with x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis in the x-y and x-z planes, can effectively characterize related crystallographic/texture variances. This paper compares 3D microstructural architectures in Co-base and Ni-base superalloys, columnar martensitic grain structures in 17-4 PH alloy, and columnar copper oxides and dislocation arrays in copper.

  10. Feasibility Study of Cryogenic Cutting Technology by Using a Computer Simulation and Manufacture of Main Components for Cryogenic Cutting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Kyun; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Song, Oh Seop

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenic cutting technology is one of the most suitable technologies for dismantling nuclear facilities due to the fact that a secondary waste is not generated during the cutting process. In this paper, the feasibility of cryogenic cutting technology was investigated by using a computer simulation. In the computer simulation, a hybrid method combined with the SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) method and the FE (finite element) method was used. And also, a penetration depth equation, for the design of the cryogenic cutting system, was used and the design variables and operation conditions to cut a 10 mm thickness for steel were determined. Finally, the main components of the cryogenic cutting system were manufactures on the basis of the obtained design variables and operation conditions.

  11. Use of computed tomography slices 3D-reconstruction as a powerful tool to improve manufacturing processes on aeroengine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellan, C.; Dastarac, D.

    2000-01-01

    TURBOMECA has been using computed tomography for several years as an inner-health analysis powerful tool for engine components. From 2D slices of the examined part, detailed information about lacks or inclusions could easily be extracted. But, measurements on internal features were quickly required because no other NDT methods were able to do it. CT has thus logically become a powerful 2D dimensional measuring tool. Recently, with new software and the latest computers able to deal with huge files, CT has become a powerful 3D digitization tool and now, TOMO ADOUR can offer a complete solution for reverse engineering of complex parts. Several months ago, TURBOMECA introduced CT into many development, validation and industrialization processes and has demonstrated how to take corrective actions to process deviation on their aeroengine components by: extracting the nonexisting CAD model of a part, generating CAD compatible data to check dimensional conformity and, eventually correct design misfits or manufacturing drifts, highlighting the metallurgical health of first article parts, making the decision of repairing the defining the appropriate method, generating a file (.STL) to build a rapid prototype or a file to pilot tool parts for machining, calculating physical properties such as behavior or flow analysis on a 'real' model. The image also allows a drawing to be made of a part that was originally produced by a supplier or competitor. This paper will be illustrated with a large number of examples

  12. Infrared Preheating to Enhance Interlayer Strength of Components Printed on the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore, Vidya [ORNL; Ajinjeru, Christine [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Nycz, Andrzej [ORNL; Post, Brian K [ORNL; Lindahl, John M [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system has the capacity to print structures on the order of several meters at a rate exceeding 50 kg/h, thereby having the potential to significantly impact the production of components in automotive, aerospace and energy sectors. However, a primary issue that limits the functional use of such parts is mechanical anisotropy. The strength of printed parts across successive layers in the build direction (z-direction) is significantly lower than the corresponding in-plane strength (x-y directions). This is largely due to poor bonding between the printed layers as the lower layers cool below the glass transition temperature (Tg) before the next layer is deposited. This work explores the use of infrared heating to increase the surface temperature of the printed layer just prior to deposition of new material to improve the interlayer strength of the components. The material used in this study was acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) reinforced with 20% chopped carbon fiber by weight. Significant improvements in z-strength were observed for the parts whose surface temperature was increased from below Tg to close to or above Tg using infrared heating. Parameters such as print speed, nozzle diameter and extrusion temperature were also found to impact the heat input required to enhance interlayer adhesion without significantly degrading the polymer and compromising on surface finish.

  13. On the continuous spectral component of the Floquet operator for a periodically kicked quantum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaw, James; McKellar, B.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    By a straightforward generalization, we extend the work of Combescure [J. Stat. Phys. 59, 679 (1990)] from rank-1 to rank-N perturbations. The requirement for the Floquet operator to be pure point is established and compared to that in Combescure. The result matches that in McCaw and McKeller [J. Math. Phys. 46, 032108 (2005)]. The method here is an alternative to that work. We show that if the condition for the Floquet operator to be pure point is relaxed, then in the case of the δ-kicked Harmonic oscillator, a singularly continuous component of the Floquet operator spectrum exists. We also provide an in-depth discussion of the conjecture presented in the work of Combescure of the case where the unperturbed Hamiltonian is more general. We link the physics conjecture directly to a number-theoretic conjecture of Vinogradov [The Method of Trigonometrical Sums in the Theory of Numbers (Interscience, London, 1954)] and show that a solution of Vinogradov's conjecture solves the physics conjecture. The result is extended to the rank-N case. The relationship between our work and the work of Bourget [J. Math. Anal. Appl. 276, 28 (2002); 301, 65 (2005)], on the physics conjecture is discussed

  14. Continuous tunable broadband emission of fluorphosphate glasses for single-component multi-chromatic phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruilin; Zhang, Qi; Yu, Kehan; Liu, Chunxiao; Ding, Jianyong; Lv, Peng; Wei, Wei

    2017-10-15

    A kind of Sn 2+ /Mn 2+ co-doped fluorphosphate (FP) glasses that served as single-component continuous tunable broadband emitting multi-chromatic phosphors are developed for the first time. Importantly, these FP glasses have high thermal conductivity (3.25-3.70  W/m·K) and good chemical stability in water (80°C). By combining with commercially available UV-LEDs directly, the emission colors can be tuned from blue/cold-white to warm-white/red through the energy transfer from Sn 2+ to Mn 2+ , and the broadband spectra covering the whole visible region from 380 nm to 760 nm. Notably, the FP glass can also serve as a white light phosphor by controlling the content of SnO/MnO, which has excellent optical properties. The CIE chromaticity coordinate, color rendering index, and quantum efficiency are (0.33, 0.29), 84, and 0.952, respectively. These new phosphors, possessing good optical and chemical properties, are promising for applications in solid-state lighting devices.

  15. Continuous Video Modeling to Prompt Completion of Multi-Component Tasks by Adults with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Purrazzella, Kaitlin; Purrazzella, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined the ability of four adults with moderate intellectual disability to complete multi-component tasks using continuous video modeling. Continuous video modeling, which is a newly researched application of video modeling, presents video in a "looping" format which automatically repeats playing of the video while…

  16. The Integration of SME'S into Fusion Projects - Especially for the Manufacturing of Components for W7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyn, K.; Scheller, H.; Andersson, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Consortium of Babcock Noell in Wuerzburg (Germany) and Ansaldo Superconduttori in Genoa (Italy) is producing the 50 nonplanar superconducting coils for the W7-X project. For the realization of the W7-X coils, especially for the manufacturing of the different components, an international network of companies is used, among them several SME's: highly specialized small and medium size enterprises. One of these SME's, which surpassed itself, is the Swedish foundry oesterby Gjuteri AB which has produced the stainless steel coil casings for W7-X. The design of the SS casings was changed by the customer after placing the contact. This has caused the question to manufacture the halfrings with cast segments or as entire castings, which lead finally to the contact with oesterby. A lot of effort was necessary to design the 10 different patterns for the 5 types of casings each consisting of 2 halfrings. The qualification of the SS grade for the high requirements of the project, among them the low cobalt content or the required mechanical properties at 4 K needed some time. Further on a lot of investigations about the test procedures were necessary to be applied for the special geometry of the product, for the 3D measurements or the NDT. The conventional x-ray was not completely suitable for this product due to the thickness of the material in some areas. The main production steps for each halfring will be presented in the paper. The testing includes different NDT, the material tests at RT and 4 K and the 3D measurement. The first casing was delivered end of 2001 and the last in autumn 2005 after several unexpected interruptions. All were treated in a close contact with the customer and in good collaboration between oesterby and BNG and have lead to a significant increase of competence on both sides. Several other SME's are involved in the network for W7-X realization. There are for example: C-CON in Rottenburg and its subcontractors PEM and KUKA in Schwarzenberg for Final

  17. An integrated continuous improvement model of TPM, TPS and TQM for boosting profitability of manufacturing industries: An innovative model & guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haftu Hailu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to develop an integrated literature based TPM, TPS and TQM mod-el through PDCA cycle, and implementation guideline for the implementation of the model. At this time very few studies are available on this research area, even this research on integrated model of TPM, TPS and TQM practices, and implementation guideline are not corresponding. The method-ology to develop the model and the implementation guideline is based on identifying the uniqueness and common practices of TPM, TPS and TQM systems, existing practice of the integration and implementation guideline, identifying the existing gaps on the model and implementation guideline, developing new integrated TPM, TPS and TQM practice model, and implementation guideline. Previous very few studies of uniqueness, common practices and implementation guideline of the three systems are preserved. The findings of this research, an integrated cutting-edge model of TPM, TPS and TQM practices and implementation guidelines are developed. The originality / value of the developed model and implementation guideline enable manufacturing industries continuously to be competitive and profitable.

  18. Influence of Components of Net Working Capital on Costs of Companies Manufacturing Machinery and Equipment in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Motlíček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach to working capital management significantly affects the performance of companies. Nevertheless, this effect varies depending on the observed industry and company’s size and it may be assumed that it is also dependent on territory differences. The paper presents an empirical research aiming to identify particular links between net working capital and costs of the company. The outcomes indicate a relatively strong positive correlation between the variables, especially in case of inventory. Furthermore he ratio of financial costs to ordinary costs is low, as well as the impact of net working capital components on financial costs. It follows that a focus on collection period would not lead to significant savings. The findings appropriately complement Czech and foreign literature focused more on impact of net working capital or working capital on profitability indicators. Further studies concerning a more detailed analysis of the influence of net working capital on corporate costs are difficult to be found. The present research has been conducted on medium-sized companies located in the Czech Republic and manufacturing machinery and equipment. The obtained results suggest the most suitable area of focus for optimization of working capital in relation to costs for the types of companies defined above.

  19. Phase equilibria for mixtures containing very many components. development and application of continuous thermodynamics for chemical process design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotterman, R.L.; Bender, R.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    For some multicomponent mixtures, where detailed chemical analysis is not feasible, the compositio of the mixture may be described by a continuous distribution function of some convenient macroscopic property suc as normal boiling point or molecular weight. To attain a quantitative description of phase equilibria for such mixtures, this work has developed thermodynamic procedures for continuous systems; that procedure is called continuous thermodynamics. To illustrate, continuous thermodynamics is used to calculate dew points for natural-gas mixtures, solvent loss in a high-pressure absorber, and liquid-liquid phase equilibria in a polymer fractionation process. Continuous thermodynamics provides a rational method for calculating phase equilibria for those mixtures where complete chemical analysis is not available but where composition can be given by some statistical description. While continuous thermodynamics is only the logical limit of the well-known pseudo-component method, it is more efficient than that method because it is less arbitrary and it often requires less computer time

  20. C-E Nuclear Power Businesses Quality Management of Manufacturing and Design and its impact on Reliability of C-E Supplied Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawhinney, D.

    1989-01-01

    To attain and sustain this objective, Nuclear Power Businesses has established a quality system for design and manufacturing of Nuclear Steam Supply System components, nuclear fuel and operating plant systems and services. Today's quality system has been designed, developed and refined over the past forty (40) years. This system is a dynamic one, based on solid quality principles, accepted industry standards and practices, complies with the ASME Code and 10 CFRP 50, Appendix B, but within the bounds of mandated requirements is adaptable to unique client needs. Nuclear Power Businesses is successfully implementing its quality philosophy through management and organizational commitment, strong leadership, teamwork and use of modern quality techniques. The quality system at C-E Nuclear Power Businesses has been developed in response to changing requirements over the past forty years. It is still changing today. The effectiveness of the system is evidenced by the superior performance of C-E Nuclear Power Businesses supplied Ness's. The system includes management involvement and awareness involvement and awareness and ensures that all employees are aware of Nuclear Power Businesses' quality goals. The system has a strong quality organization that establishes uniform policies and assures compliance. In addition, the system promotes open communication and prompt, permanent corrective action. Although we believe our system, as they exist today, meet or exceed client requirements, they are continuously reviewed and adjusted to improve their usefulness to make them more cost effective

  1. C-E Nuclear Power Businesses Quality Management of Manufacturing and Design and its impact on Reliability of C-E Supplied Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mawhinney, D. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor (United States)

    1989-04-15

    To attain and sustain this objective, Nuclear Power Businesses has established a quality system for design and manufacturing of Nuclear Steam Supply System components, nuclear fuel and operating plant systems and services. Today's quality system has been designed, developed and refined over the past forty (40) years. This system is a dynamic one, based on solid quality principles, accepted industry standards and practices, complies with the ASME Code and 10 CFRP 50, Appendix B, but within the bounds of mandated requirements is adaptable to unique client needs. Nuclear Power Businesses is successfully implementing its quality philosophy through management and organizational commitment, strong leadership, teamwork and use of modern quality techniques. The quality system at C-E Nuclear Power Businesses has been developed in response to changing requirements over the past forty years. It is still changing today. The effectiveness of the system is evidenced by the superior performance of C-E Nuclear Power Businesses supplied Ness's. The system includes management involvement and awareness involvement and awareness and ensures that all employees are aware of Nuclear Power Businesses' quality goals. The system has a strong quality organization that establishes uniform policies and assures compliance. In addition, the system promotes open communication and prompt, permanent corrective action. Although we believe our system, as they exist today, meet or exceed client requirements, they are continuously reviewed and adjusted to improve their usefulness to make them more cost effective.

  2. Technical cost modelling for a novel semi-solid metal (SSM) casting processes for automotive component manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlale, NS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available to predict the cost structure of a newly developed manufacturing process if it is to be considered by manufacturing enterprises for development to substitute a process that is in use. The costs of the new SSM technologies was established by technical cost...

  3. Project Experience of MMIS for Shin-Hanul units 1 and 2 (Component Design, Manufacturing and Testing)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Seo-ryong; Kim, Kook-hun [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co. Ltd., Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Doosan is uniquely positioned in the field of nuclear power plant in the world-wide. Doosan has secured the first step to nuclear technology field through the development of the nuclear power plant (NPP) man machine interface system (MMIS), which is one of the three major core technologies of non-independence. In the nuclear power plant, MMIS takes a function as the brain and nerve system in the human body. Korean MMIS was selected for the Shin-Hanul units 1 and 2 for the first time and Doosan is charge of a component design and equipment supply. At the end of successful completion of MMIS for Shin-Hanul units 1 and 2, Doosan will be a total provider of the MMIS from development, validation, and manufacturing to delivery in Korea. Man Machine Interface System (MMIS) is equivalent to the brain and nerve system of a nuclear power plant. It monitors and controls the operating conditions to prevent accidents proactively. Doosan achieved a complete development of MMIS which is core part of nuclear technology that was relied on oversea's companies in the past by an accomplishment of RnD in cooperation with domestic utility, KHNP and research institutions. Doosan's MMIS is very user-friendly, easy to understand, transparent to audits, and guarantees maximum reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety. Doosan proved safety and reliability through test and inspection of integrated function of nuclear safety and non-safety control system. Doosan MMIS was evaluated a one of the best system through IAEA IERIC's review via safety guide from IAEA specialist's group in 2010. Doosan also achieved the improvements of quality through the KINS audits in 2014.

  4. An approach for characterizing the distribution of shrubland ecosystem components as continuous fields as part of NLCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, George Z.; Homer, Collin G.; Meyer, Debbie; Granneman, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Characterizing and quantifying distributions of shrubland ecosystem components is one of the major challenges for monitoring shrubland vegetation cover change across the United States. A new approach has been developed to quantify shrubland components as fractional products within National Land Cover Database (NLCD). This approach uses remote sensing data and regression tree models to estimate the fractional cover of shrubland ecosystem components. The approach consists of three major steps: field data collection, high resolution estimates of shrubland ecosystem components using WorldView-2 imagery, and coarse resolution estimates of these components across larger areas using Landsat imagery. This research seeks to explore this method to quantify shrubland ecosystem components as continuous fields in regions that contain wide-ranging shrubland ecosystems. Fractional cover of four shrubland ecosystem components, including bare ground, herbaceous, litter, and shrub, as well as shrub heights, were delineated in three ecological regions in Arizona, Florida, and Texas. Results show that estimates for most components have relatively small normalized root mean square errors and significant correlations with validation data in both Arizona and Texas. The distribution patterns of shrub height also show relatively high accuracies in these two areas. The fractional cover estimates of shrubland components, except for litter, are not well represented in the Florida site. The research results suggest that this method provides good potential to effectively characterize shrubland ecosystem conditions over perennial shrubland although it is less effective in transitional shrubland. The fractional cover of shrub components as continuous elements could offer valuable information to quantify biomass and help improve thematic land cover classification in arid and semiarid areas.

  5. Continuous Fractionation of a two-component mixture by zone electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalewski, D.R.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Synchronized continuous-flow zone electrophoresis is a recently demonstrated tool for performing electrophoretic fractionation of a complex sample. The method resembles free flow electrophoresis, but unlike in that technique, no mechanical fluid pumping is required. Instead, fast electrokinetic flow

  6. Industrial based volume manufacturing of lightweight aluminium alloy panel components with high-strength and complex-shape for car body and chassis structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyasodor, Gerald; Koroschetz, Christian

    2017-09-01

    To achieve the high volume manufacture of lightweight passenger cars at economic cost as required in the automotive industry, low density materials and new process route will be needed. While high strength aluminium alloy grades: AA7075 and AA6082 may provide the alternative material solution, hot stamping process used for high-strength and ultrahigh strength steels such as boron steel 22mnb5 can enable the volume manufacture of panel components with high-strength and complex-shape for car body and chassis structures. These aluminium alloy grades can be used to manufacture panel components with possible yield strengths ≥ 500 MPa. Due to the differences in material behaviors, hot stamping process of 22mnb5 cannot be directly applied to high strength aluminium alloy grades. Despite recorded successes in laboratories, researches and niche hot forming processes of high strength aluminium alloy grades, not much have been achieved for adequate and efficient volume manufacturing system applicable in the automotive industry. Due to lack of such system and based on expert knowledge in hot stamping production-line, AP&T presents in this paper a hot stamping processing route for high strength aluminium alloys been suitable for production-line development and volume manufacturing.

  7. Experimental study of advanced continuous acoustic-emission monitoring of BWR components. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents the results of a four year research program on the utilization of acoustic emission techniques on light water reactor component applications. Two techniques of the acoustic emission technology were applied to specific problems occurring within the light water reactor system. Crack detection AE monitoring was applied to thermal cycle fatigue cracking problems and stress corrosion cracking problems. Leak detection AE monitoring was applied to valve leakage in the main steam safety relief valves and incontainment packing gland valves. The report provides AE data showing how AE crack detection can be used as an on-line diagnostic monitoring tool. By having an active monitor on light water reactor components, the inservice inspection of the components is being performed during operation rather than refueling periods, thereby reducing critical path time during outages. The resultant benefit is increased plant availability and a reduction in accumulated radiation exposure

  8. A Soft Tooling process chain employing Additive Manufacturing for injection molding of a 3D component with micro pillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Pedersen, David Bue; Segebrecht Gøtje, Asger

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper is to investigate the capability of a soft tooling process chain employing Additive Manufacturing (AM) for preproduction of an insert with micro features by injection molding. The Soft Tooling insert was manufactured in a high temperature...... photopolymer by Digital Light Processing (vat photopolymerization). The mold cavity was formed by two insert halves, by design; both inserts have four angled tines, with micro holes (Ø200 μm, 200 μm deep) on the surface. Injection molding with polyethylene was used with the soft tool inserts to manufacture...

  9. The Development Of A Theoretical Lean Culture Causal Framework To Support The Effective Implementation Of Lean In Automotive Component Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Merwe, Karl Robert

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although it is generally accepted that lean manufacturing improves operational performance, many organisations are struggling to adapt to the lean philosophy. The purpose of this study is to contribute to a more effective strategy for implementing the lean manufacturing improvement philosophy. The study sets out both to integrate well-researched findings and theories related to generic organisational culture with more recent research and experience related to lean culture, and to examine the role that culture plays in the effective implementation of lean manufacturing principles and techniques. The ultimate aim of this exercise is to develop a theoretical lean culture causal framework.

  10. Investigation on structural integrity of graphite component during high temperature 950degC continuous operation of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Junya; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Shibata, Taiju

    2014-01-01

    Graphite material is used for internal structures in high temperature gas-cooled reactor. The core components and graphite core support structures are so designed as to maintain the structural integrity to keep core cooling capability. To confirm that the core components and graphite core support structures satisfy the design requirements, the temperatures of the reactor internals are measured during the reactor operation. Surveillance test of graphite specimens and in-service inspection using TV camera are planned in conjunction with the refueling. This paper describes the evaluation results of the integrity of the core components and graphite core support structures during the high temperature 950degC continuous operation, a high temperature continuous operation with reactor outlet temperature of 950degC for 50 days, in high temperature engineering test reactor. The design requirements of the core components and graphite core support structures were satisfied during the high temperature 950degC continuous operation. The dimensional change of graphite which directly influences the temperature of coolant was estimated considering the temperature profiles of fuel block. The magnitude of irradiation-induced dimensional change considering temperature profiles was about 1.2 times larger than that under constant irradiation temperature of 1000degC. In addition, the programs of surveillance test and ISI using TV camera were introduced. (author)

  11. Ceramic-Based 4D Components: Additive Manufacturing (AM) of Ceramic-Based Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) by Thermoplastic 3D Printing (T3DP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, Uwe; Weingarten, Steven; Johne, Robert; Schwarzer, Eric; Abel, Johannes; Richter, Hans-Jürgen; Moritz, Tassilo; Michaelis, Alexander

    2017-11-28

    In our study, we investigated the additive manufacturing (AM) of ceramic-based functionally graded materials (FGM) by the direct AM technology thermoplastic 3D printing (T3DP). Zirconia components with varying microstructures were additively manufactured by using thermoplastic suspensions with different contents of pore-forming agents (PFA), which were co-sintered defect-free. Different materials were investigated concerning their suitability as PFA for the T3DP process. Diverse zirconia-based suspensions were prepared and used for the AM of single- and multi-material test components. All of the samples were sintered defect-free, and in the end, we could realize a brick wall-like component consisting of dense (<1% porosity) and porous (approx. 5% porosity) zirconia areas to combine different properties in one component. T3DP opens the door to the AM of further ceramic-based 4D components, such as multi-color, multi-material, or especially, multi-functional components.

  12. A flexible continuous-variable QKD system using off-the-shelf components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comandar, Lucian C.; Brunner, Hans H.; Bettelli, Stefano; Fung, Fred; Karinou, Fotini; Hillerkuss, David; Mikroulis, Spiros; Wang, Dawei; Kuschnerov, Maxim; Xie, Changsong; Poppe, Andreas; Peev, Momtchil

    2017-10-01

    We present the development of a robust and versatile CV-QKD architecture based on commercially available optical and electronic components. The system uses a pilot tone for phase synchronization with a local oscillator, as well as local feedback loops to mitigate frequency and polarization drifts. Transmit and receive-side digital signal processing is performed fully in software, allowing for rapid protocol reconfiguration. The quantum link is complemented with a software stack for secure-key processing, key storage and encrypted communication. All these features allow for the system to be at the same time a prototype for a future commercial product and a research platform.

  13. Development of high thermal flux components for continuous operation in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, J.; Chappuis, P.; Coston, J.F.; Deschamps, P.; Lipa, M.

    1991-01-01

    High heat flux plasma facing components are under development and appropriate experimental evaluations have been carried out in order to operate during cycles of several hundred seconds. In Tore Supra, a large tokamak with a plasma nominal duration in excess of 30 seconds, solutions are tested that could be later applied to the NET/ITER tokamak, where peaked heat flux values of 15 MW/m 2 on the divertor plates are foreseen. The proposed concept is a swirl square tube design protected with brazed CFC flat tiles. Development programs and validation tests are presented. The tests results are compared with calculations

  14. The basic components of residual migration in VTI media using anisotropy continuation

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Fomel, S.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce anisotropy continuation as a process which relates changes in seismic images to perturbations in the anisotropic medium parameters. This process is constrained by two kinematic equations, one for perturbations in the normal-moveout (NMO) velocity and the other for perturbations in the dimensionless anisotropy parameter ?. We consider separately the case of post-stack migration and show that the kinematic equations in this case can be solved explicitly by converting them to ordinary differential equations using the method of characteristics. When comparing the results of kinematic analytical computations with synthetic numerical experiments confirms the theoretical accuracy of the method.

  15. Main error sources in sorbtion technique and plasma electron component parameter definition by continuous X radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, V.V.; Torokhova, N.V.; Fasakhov, I.K.

    1986-01-01

    Recombination radiation effect on the relation of signals behind the filters depending on the plasma temperature(sorption method for T determination) is demonstrated. This factor produces the main effect on the method accuracy (100-400%), the other factors analysed in combination make an error in temperature at the level of 50%. Method of plasma electron distribution function reconstruction by continuous x-radiation spectrum, based on the correctness (under certain limitations for the required function) of the equation, linking the electron distribution function with bremmsstrahlung spectral density is presented

  16. The basic components of residual migration in VTI media using anisotropy continuation

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-03-24

    We introduce anisotropy continuation as a process which relates changes in seismic images to perturbations in the anisotropic medium parameters. This process is constrained by two kinematic equations, one for perturbations in the normal-moveout (NMO) velocity and the other for perturbations in the dimensionless anisotropy parameter ?. We consider separately the case of post-stack migration and show that the kinematic equations in this case can be solved explicitly by converting them to ordinary differential equations using the method of characteristics. When comparing the results of kinematic analytical computations with synthetic numerical experiments confirms the theoretical accuracy of the method.

  17. Spatially Controlled Delivery of siRNAs to Stem Cells in Implants Generated by Multi-Component Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Østergaard; Le, Dang Quang Svend; Chen, Muwan

    2013-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a promising technique in tissue engineering, as it enables truly individualized implants to be made to fit a particular defect. As previously shown, a feasible strategy to produce complex multicellular tissues is to deposit different small interfering RNA (siRNA) in porous...... implants that are subsequently sutured together. In this study, an additive manufacturing strategy to deposit carbohydrate hydrogels containing different siRNAs is applied into an implant, in a spatially controlled manner. When the obtained structures are seeded with mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells......, the selected siRNAs are delivered to the cells and induces specific and localized gene silencing. Here, it is demonstrated how to replicate part of a patient's spinal cord from a computed tomography scan, using an additive manufacturing technique to produce an implant with compartmentalized si...

  18. Continuous roll-to-roll a-Si photovoltaic manufacturing technology. Final subcontract report, 1 April 1992--30 September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izu, M. [Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., Troy, MI (US)

    1996-02-01

    ECD has made important progress in the development of materials, device designs, and manufacturing processes required for the continued advancement of practical photovoltaic technology{sub 1-23}. ECD has pioneered and continues further development of two key proprietary technologies, with significant potential for achieving the cost goals necessary for widespread growth of the photovoltaic market: (1) a low cost, roll-to- roll continuous substrate thin-film solar cell manufacturing process; (2) a high efficiency, monolithic, multiple-junction, spectrum- splitting thin-film amorphous silicon alloy device structure. Commercial production of multiple-junction a-Si alloy modules has been underway at ECD and its joint venture company for a number of years using ECD's proprietary roll-to-roll process and numerous advantages of this technology have been demonstrated. These include relatively low semiconductor material cost, relatively low process cost, a light-weight, rugged and flexible substrate that results in lowered installed costs of PV systems, and environmentally safe materials. Nevertheless, the manufacturing cost per watt of PV modules from our current plant remains high. In order to achieve high stable efficiency and low manufacturing cost, ECD has, at ECD's expense, engineered and constructed a 2 MW production line and a 200 kW pilot line, incorporating earlier ECD research advances in device efficiency through the use of multi-junction spectrum-splitting and high performance back-reflector cell design. Under this subcontract six tasks were directed towards achieving this goal. They are: Task I: Optimization of back-reflector system; Task II: Optimization of the Si-Ge narrow bandgap solar cells; Task III: Optimization of the stable efficiency of photovoltaic modules; Task IV: Demonstration of serpentine web continuous roll-to-roll deposition technology; Task V: Material cost reductions; and Task VI: Improving the module assembly process.

  19. Technical cost modelling for a novel semi-solid metal (SSM) casting processes for automotive component manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlale, NS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available . It has been well established that over 70% of the total development cost of a product and its manufacturing process is decided during the design phase, although this phase accounts for less than 7% of the total costs. It is thus important to be able...

  20. Comparative analysis of quality assurance systems which effectively control, review and verify the quality of components manufactured for liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors within the EEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benn, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Comparative analyses are made of Quality Assurance Systems, by techniques and the methodology used, for the manufacture of component parts for the Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) within the EEC. Two differing alternative systems are presented in the analysis. First, a tabulated analytical treatment which analyses 14 codes and standards relating to Quality Assurance which can be applied to LMFBR's. The comparison equates equivalent clauses between codes and standards followed by an analysis of individual clauses in tabular form, the International Standard ISO 6215. A statistical summary and recommendations conclude this analysis. The second alternative system used in the comparison is a descriptive analytical method applied to 9 selected codes and standards relating to Quality Assurance based on the 13 criteria of the International IAEA Code of Practice no. 50 C.QA entitled ''Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants''. An investigation is then made of the state of the art on the subject of classification of component parts bearing generally on Quality Assurance. The method of classification is segregated into General, Safety and Inspection categories. A summary of destructive and non destructive controls that may be applied during the manufacture of LMFBR components is given, together with tests that may be applied to selected components, namely Primary Tank, Secondary Sodium Pump and the Primary Cold Trap allocated to Safety Classes, 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The report concludes with a summary of typical records produced at the delivery of a component

  1. Bi-continuous Multi-component Nanocrystal Superlattices for Solar Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Cherie [University of Pennsylvania; Murray, Christopher [University of Pennsylvania; Kikkawa, James [University of Pennsylvania; Engheta, Nader [University of Pennsylvania

    2017-06-14

    Our SISGR program studied an emerging class of nanomaterials wherein different combinations of semiconductor or semiconductor and plasmonic nanocrystals (NCs) are self-assembled into three-dimensional multi-component superlattices. The NC assemblies were designed to form bicontinuous semiconductor NC sublattices with type-II energy offsets to drive charge separation onto electron and hole transporting sublattices for collection and introduce plasmonic NCs to increase solar absorption and charge separation. Our group is expert in synthesizing and assembling an extraordinary variety of artificial systems by tailoring the NC building blocks and the superlattice unit cell geometry. Under this DOE BES Materials Chemistry program, we introduced chemical methods to control inter-particle distance and to dope NC assemblies, which enabled our demonstration of strong electronic communication between NCs and the use of NC thin films as electronic materials. We synthesized, assembled and structurally, spectroscopically, and electrically probed NC superlattices to understand and manipulate the flow of energy and charge toward discovering the design rules and optimizing these complex architectures to create materials that efficiently convert solar radiation into electricity.

  2. Plasma surface reflectance spectroscopy for non-invasive and continuous monitoring of extracellular component of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Takatani, Setsuo

    2012-04-01

    To achieve the quantitative optical non-invasive diagnosis of blood during extracorporeal circulation therapies, the instrumental technique to extract extracellular spectra from whole blood was developed. In the circuit, the continuous blood flow was generated by a centrifugal blood pump. The oxygen saturation was maintained 100% by an oxygenator. The developed glass optical flow cell was attached to the outlet tubing of the oxygenator. The halogen lamp including the light from 400 to 900 nm wavelength was used for the light source. The light was guided into an optical fiber. The light emitted by the fiber was collimated and emitted to the flow cell flat surface at the incident angle of 45 degrees. The light just reflected on the boundary between inner surface of the flow cell and plasma at 45 degrees was detected by the detection fiber. The detected light was analyzed by a spectral photometer. The obtained spectrum from 400 to 600nm wavelength was not changed with respect to the hematocrit. In contrast, the signal in the spectral range was changed when the plasma free hemoglobin increased. By using two spectral range, 505+/-5 nm and 542.5+/-2.5 nm, the differential spectrum was correlated with the free hemoglobin at R2=0.99. On the other hand, as for the hematocrit, the differential spectrum was not correlated at R2=0.01. Finally, the plasma free hemoglobin was quantified with the accuracy of 22+/-19mg/dL. The result shows that the developed plasma surface reflectance spectroscopy (PSRS) can extract the plasma spectrum from flowing whole blood.

  3. Development of and verification test integral reactor major components - Development of manufacturing process and fabrication of prototype for SG and CEDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Park, Hwa Kyu; Kim, Yong Kyu; Choi, Yong Soon; Kang, Ki Su; Hyun, Young Min [Korea Heavy Industries and Construction Co., LTD., Changwon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Integral SMART(System integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) type reactor is under conceptual design. Because major components is integrated within in a single pressure vessel, compact design using advanced technology is essential. It means that manufacturing process for these components is more complex and difficult. The objective of this study is to confirm the possibility of manufacture of Steam Generator, Control Element Drive Mechanism(CEDM) and Reactor Assembly which includes Reactor Pressure Vessel, it is important to understand the design requirement and function of the major components. After understanding the design requirement and function, it is concluded that the helical bending and weld qualification of titanium tube for Steam Generator and the applicability of electron beam weld for CEDM step motor parts is the critical to fabricate the components. Therefore, bending mock-up and weld qualification of titanium tube was performed and the results are quite satisfactory. Also, it is concluded that electron beam welding technique can be applicable to the CEDM step motor part. (author). 22 refs., 14 figs., 46 tabs.

  4. Continuous improvement in the Netherlands: current practices and experiences in Dutch manufacturing industry (awarded with ANBAR Citation of excellence)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieskes, J.F.B.; Baudet, F.C.M.; Baudet, Frank; Schuring, R.W.; Boer, Harm

    1997-01-01

    In order to get insight into the current continuous-improvement practices in European industry, EuroCINet carried out a survey in its member countries. In this article, continuous-improvement activities in a sample of 135 Dutch industrial companies are described. The results show that CI is a

  5. Business continuity in blood services: two case studies from events with potentially catastrophic effect on the national provision of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, S J; Rackham, R A; Penny, S; Lawson, J R; Walsh, R J; Ismay, S L

    2015-02-01

    NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) and the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (ARCBS) are national blood establishments providing blood components to England and North Wales, and Australia, respectively. In 2012, both services experienced potentially catastrophic challenges to key assets. NHSBT suffered a flood that closed the largest blood-manufacturing centre in Europe, whilst ARCBS experienced the failure of a data centre network switch that rendered the national blood management system inaccessible for 42 h. This paper describes both crisis events, including the immediate actions, recovery procedures and lessons learned. Both incidents triggered emergency response plans. These included hospital reprovisioning and recovery from the incident. Once normal services had been restored, both events were subjected to root cause analysis (RCA) and production of 'lessons learned' reports. In both scenarios, the key enablers of rapid recovery were established emergency plans, clear leadership and the support of a flexible workforce. Product issues to hospitals were unaffected, and there were no abnormal trends in hospital complaints. RCA identified the importance of risk mitigations that require co-operation with external organizations. Reviews of both events identified opportunities to enhance business resilience through prior identification of external risks and improvements to contingency plans, for example by implementing mass messaging to staff and other stakeholders. Blood establishment emergency plans tend to focus on responding to mass casualty events. However, consolidation of manufacturing to fewer sites combined with a reliance on national IT systems increases the impact of loss of function. Blood services should develop business continuity plans which include prevention of such losses, and the maintenance of services and disaster recovery. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  6. Continuous roll-to-roll a-Si photovoltaic manufacturing technology. Annual subcontractor report, 1 April 1992--31 March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izu, M. [Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., Troy, MI (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This report describes work done under a 3-year program to advance ECD`s roll-to-roll, triple-junction photovoltaic manufacturing technologies, to reduce the module production costs, to increase the stabilized module performance, and to expand commercial capacity utilizing ECD technology. The specific 3-year goal is to develop advanced large-scale manufacturing technology incorporating ECD`s earlier research advances with the capability of producing modules with stable 11% efficiency at a cost of approximately $1.00 per peak watt. Accomplishments during Phase 1 included: (1) ECD successfully incorporated a high-performance Ag/metal-oxide back-reflector system into its continuous roll-to-roll commercial production operation. (2) High-quality a-Si-Ge narrow-band-gap solar cells were incorporated into the manufacturing. (3) ECD demonstrated the continuous roll-to-roll production of high-efficiency, triple-junction, two-band-gap solar cells consistently and uniformly throughout a 762-m (2500-ft) run with high yield. (4) ECD achieved 11.1% initial sub-cell efficiency of triple-junction, two-band-gap a-Si alloy solar cells in the production line. (5) The world`s first 0.37-m{sup 2} (4-ft{sup 2}) PV modules were produced utilizing triple-junction spectrum-splitting solar cells manufactured in the production line. (6) As a result of process optimization to reduce the layer thickness and to improve the gas utilization, ECD achieved a 77% material cost reduction for germane and 58% reduction for disilane. Additionally, ECD developed a new low-cost module that saves approximately 30% in assembly material costs.

  7. Process for the manufacture of a shielding or container wall assembled from components in plants with radioactive radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The shielding or container wall is assembled from cast iron components. Liquid lead at a temperature of 500 0 C is introduced into the gaps between the cast iron components by means of a lead pump and a heated lance. The casting can be done at several positions of the container wall. To increase the flow paths of the lead, the walls with gaps are provided with a ground cork layer. (DG) [de

  8. "Relevance of Earnings Components: Evidence from Manufacturing Firms in Japan - Part II Industry-Period Analysis -" (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Obinata

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the value relevance of components of net income by industries and periods. Net income is divided into three components, i.e. operating profits, financial income (including non-core operating profits), and other income (extraordinary items, special items and taxes), which are mandatorily disclosed in Japanese accounting system as known 'multi-step calculation of net income'. Financial income and other income are usually considered noisy. Many accountants think that they...

  9. Similarities of lean manufacturing approaches implementation in SMEs towards the success: Case study in the automotive component industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose A.N.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, manufacturing companies are striving for a better system like lean manufacturing (LM. The primary objective of LM is to identify and eliminate wastes. LM can be applied successfully in all industries providing a full understanding of lean ingredients i.e. concept, principles, and practices. There are a lot of practices which are necessary to be implemented in order to gain full benefits of LM. However, small and medium enterprises (SMEs are lack of knowledge in LM and facing difficulties to adopt all of the LM principles. Therefore, it is necessary to the researchers to come out with a simple guideline for LM implementation. The objective of this paper is to explore the journey of LM implementation including preliminary, in process and post of LM. This research was conducted through multi-case study research. There were four SMEs and two large companies. The gathered information shows that the preliminary stage of LM implementation is similar to each other including large companies. The result shows SMEs still have a potential to success in LM. This finding might give an opportunity to SMEs to prepare the basis for LM implementation effectively. As a result, SMEs able compete in the competitive global marketplace and strive for world class performance through implementation of LM.

  10. Process-Structure-Property Relationships for 316L Stainless Steel Fabricated by Additive Manufacturing and Its Implication for Component Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nancy; Yee, J.; Zheng, B.; Gaiser, K.; Reynolds, T.; Clemon, L.; Lu, W. Y.; Schoenung, J. M.; Lavernia, E. J.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the process-structure-property relationships for 316L stainless steel prototyping utilizing 3-D laser engineered net shaping (LENS), a commercial direct energy deposition additive manufacturing process. The study concluded that the resultant physical metallurgy of 3-D LENS 316L prototypes is dictated by the interactive metallurgical reactions, during instantaneous powder feeding/melting, molten metal flow and liquid metal solidification. The study also showed 3-D LENS manufacturing is capable of building high strength and ductile 316L prototypes due to its fine cellular spacing from fast solidification cooling, and the well-fused epitaxial interfaces at metal flow trails and interpass boundaries. However, without further LENS process control and optimization, the deposits are vulnerable to localized hardness variation attributed to heterogeneous microstructure, i.e., the interpass heat-affected zone (HAZ) from repetitive thermal heating during successive layer depositions. Most significantly, the current deposits exhibit anisotropic tensile behavior, i.e., lower strain and/or premature interpass delamination parallel to build direction (axial). This anisotropic behavior is attributed to the presence of interpass HAZ, which coexists with flying feedstock inclusions and porosity from incomplete molten metal fusion. The current observations and findings contribute to the scientific basis for future process control and optimization necessary for material property control and defect mitigation.

  11. Survey of sustainability of continuous improvement systems: a comparison of two manufacturing communities in Spain and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Jaca

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: During the last 50 years industrial companies have adopted continuous improvement systems to improve their competitiveness. However, the maintenance of improvement systems is not an easy matter. Some companies, after an initial period of one to two years, abandon the system for various reasons. This article aims to examine the level of application of Continuous Improvement Systems and the factors which support sustainability over time in two different regions.Design/methodology/approach: In order to obtain a comparative result between two different regions, a survey was conducted in two industrial zones—one in the north of Spain and another in Mexico—that are important industrial clusters these countries. The study was conducted through the analysis of survey data. Specifically, the survey was directed at large industrial enterprises who had participated in activities supported by local foundations for the promotion of quality and improvement.Findings and Originality/value: We suggest the following three keys for sustainable improvement: greater involvement of task forces in the improvement program, a PDCA improvement cycle for improvement and a clear purpose for continuous improvement, integration of the continuous improvement system in the organization, and the establishment of indicators associated with the system.Research limitations/implications: The comparative study focused on only two industrial zones in Spain and Mexico. In that sense, the findings of the research are limited to the Basque zone and geographical zone of Toluca-Lerma.Practical implications: Some of the companies have started to apply some continuous improvement techniques in a sustainability way. Therefore, these findings could be very useful for general and operation managers that are involved in continuous improvement systems in industrial companies in Spain and Mexico.Social implications: As a consequence, slow and small transformations in certain

  12. Process Chain for the Manufacture of Polymeric Tubular Micro-Components and “POLYTUBES Micro-Factory” Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Yi; Perzon, Erik; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    The paper presents a process chain for the shaping of poly-meric tubular micro-components for the volume production as well as presents a concept for the integration of the developed processes and modular machines onto a platform to form a "POLYTUBES Micro-Factory", being resulting from the Europ...

  13. Benefits of Hot Isostatic Pressure/Powdered Metal (HIP/PM) and Additive Manufacturing (AM) To Fabricate Advanced Energy System Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Nancy [Energy Industries of Ohio, Cleveland, OH (United States); Sheppard, Roy [Energy Industries of Ohio, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-12-31

    Advanced Energy systems require large, complex components produced from materials capable of withstanding severe operating environments (high temperature, pressure, corrosivity). Such parts can be difficult to source, as conventional material processing technologies must be tailored to ensure a safe and cost effective approach to large-scale manufacture of quality structural advanced alloy components that meet the performance specifications of AE systems. (HIP/PM) has shown advantages over other manufacturing methods when working with these materials. For example, using HIP’ing in lieu of casting means significant savings in raw material costs, which for expensive, high-nickel alloys can be considerable for large-scale production. Use of HIP/PM also eliminates the difficulties resulting from reactivity of these materials in the molten state and facilitates manufacture of the large size requirements of the AE industry, producing a part that is defect and porosity free, thus further reducing or eliminating time and expense of post processing machining and weld repair. New advances in Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques make it possible to further expand the benefits of HIP/PM in producing AE system components to create an even more robust manufacturing approach. Traditional techniques of welding and forming sheet metal to produce the HIP canisters can be time consuming and costly, with limitations on the complexity of part which can be achieved. A key benefit of AM is the freedom of design that it offers, so use of AM could overcome such challenges, ultimately enabling redesign of complete energy systems. A critical step toward this goal is material characterization of the required advanced alloys, for use in AM. Using Haynes 282, a high nickel alloy of interest to the Fossil Energy community, particularly for Advanced-UltraSuperCritical (AUSC) operating environments, as well as the crosscutting interests of the aerospace, defense and medical markets, this

  14. Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave Fm-Cw Radar for Evaluation of Refractory Structures Used in Glass Manufacturing Furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, B.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Limmer, R.

    2009-03-01

    A frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM-CW) handheld radar operating in the frequency range of 8-18 GHz, resulting in a relatively fine range resolution was designed and constructed for on-site inspection of refractory structure thickness. This paper presents the design of the radar and the results of measurements conducted on typical refractory furnace structures assembled in the laboratory.

  15. Additive Manufacturing of Metallic and Ceramic Components by the Material Extrusion of Highly-Filled Polymers: A Review and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Santiago

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is the fabrication of real three-dimensional objects from metals, ceramics, or plastics by adding material, usually as layers. There are several variants of AM; among them material extrusion (ME) is one of the most versatile and widely used. In MEAM, molten or viscous materials are pushed through an orifice and are selectively deposited as strands to form stacked layers and subsequently a three-dimensional object. The commonly used materials for MEAM are thermoplastic polymers and particulate composites; however, recently innovative formulations of highly-filled polymers (HP) with metals or ceramics have also been made available. MEAM with HP is an indirect process, which uses sacrificial polymeric binders to shape metallic and ceramic components. After removing the binder, the powder particles are fused together in a conventional sintering step. In this review the different types of MEAM techniques and relevant industrial approaches for the fabrication of metallic and ceramic components are described. The composition of certain HP binder systems and powders are presented; the methods of compounding and filament making HP are explained; the stages of shaping, debinding, and sintering are discussed; and finally a comparison of the parts produced via MEAM-HP with those produced via other manufacturing techniques is presented. PMID:29783705

  16. Additive Manufacturing of Metallic and Ceramic Components by the Material Extrusion of Highly-Filled Polymers: A Review and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gutierrez, Joamin; Cano, Santiago; Schuschnigg, Stephan; Kukla, Christian; Sapkota, Janak; Holzer, Clemens

    2018-05-18

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is the fabrication of real three-dimensional objects from metals, ceramics, or plastics by adding material, usually as layers. There are several variants of AM; among them material extrusion (ME) is one of the most versatile and widely used. In MEAM, molten or viscous materials are pushed through an orifice and are selectively deposited as strands to form stacked layers and subsequently a three-dimensional object. The commonly used materials for MEAM are thermoplastic polymers and particulate composites; however, recently innovative formulations of highly-filled polymers (HP) with metals or ceramics have also been made available. MEAM with HP is an indirect process, which uses sacrificial polymeric binders to shape metallic and ceramic components. After removing the binder, the powder particles are fused together in a conventional sintering step. In this review the different types of MEAM techniques and relevant industrial approaches for the fabrication of metallic and ceramic components are described. The composition of certain HP binder systems and powders are presented; the methods of compounding and filament making HP are explained; the stages of shaping, debinding, and sintering are discussed; and finally a comparison of the parts produced via MEAM-HP with those produced via other manufacturing techniques is presented.

  17. Axial strain localization of CuCrZr tubes during manufacturing of ITER-like mono-block W/Cu components using HIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, S.X.; Peng, L.J.; Li, Q.; Wang, W.J.; Wei, R.; Qin, S.G.; Shi, Y.L.; Chang, S.P.; Xu, Y.; Liu, G.H.; Wang, T.J.; Luo, G.-N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Axial cracking and denting of CuCrZr tubes were observed. • Annealing the as-received tubes can alleviate cracking. • Denting results in the formation bonding flaws at the Cu/CuCrZr interfaces. - Abstract: Two forms of axial strain localization of CuCrZr tubes, i.e., cracking and denting, were observed during the manufacturing of ITER-like mono-block W/Cu components for EAST employing hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Microscopic investigations indicate that the occurrence of axial strain localization correlates to the heavily deformed Cu grains and elongated Cr-rich precipitates as well as highly anisotropic microstructures, which impair the circumferential ductility. Annealing the as-received tubes at 600 °C alleviates cracking due to partial recrystallization of Cu grains. However, the annealed tubes are still sensitive to wall thinning (caused by non-uniform polishing or tube bending), which results in denting. Denting may cause bonding flaws at CuCrZr/Cu interfaces and the underlying mechanisms are discussed. To some extent, denting seems do not affect the high heat flux performance of components. In this paper, we demonstrate that testing only the axial mechanical properties is not enough for manufacturers who use HIP or hot radial pressing technologies, especially for those anisotropic tubes

  18. Bridge between control science and technology. Volume 5 Manufacturing man-machine systems, computers, components, traffic control, space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rembold, U; Kempf, K G; Towill, D R; Johannsen, G; Paul, M

    1985-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are: robotics; CAD/CAM applications; and man-machine systems. Consideration is also given to: tools and software for system design and integration; communication systems for real-time computer control; fail-safe design of real-time computer systems; and microcomputer-based control systems. Additional topics discussed include: programmable and intelligent components and instruments in automatic control; transportation systems; and space applications of automatic control systems.

  19. Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE Enhancement in Manufacture of Electronic Components & Boards Industry through Total Productive Maintenance Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fam Soo-Fen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In an environment of intense global competition, both creative and proven strategies need to be considered in order to bring about the effectiveness and efficiency in manufacturing operation. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM is one of the effective maintenance strategy in enhancing the equipment effectiveness and to achieve a significant competitive advantage. This research paper addresses the impact of three TPM pillars namely planned maintenance (PM, autonomous maintenance (AM and focused maintenance (FM on overall equipment effectiveness (OEE of die attach equipment in the production line of semiconductor industry. The effect of TPM on the OEE is also investigated depending on the equipment types, in where die attach process consist of two models-CANON and ESEC. The primary data was collected from an organization's database and was analysed by SPSS V23. The preliminary results of the analysis showed that the performance of OEE in ESEC is better than the CANON after the implementation of TPM. The analysis also showed that out of the three TPM practices deployed, planned maintenance of equipment by production and maintenance team played the biggest role in increasing the equipment effectiveness. In conclusion, this study provides insights the importance of implementing TPM in order to succeed in a highly demanding market arena.

  20. Fault Classification and Location in Transmission Lines Using Traveling Waves Modal Components and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Namdari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate fault classification and localization are the bases of protection for transmission systems. This paper presents a new method for classifying and showing location of faults by travelling waves and modal analysis. In the proposed method, characteristics of different faults are investigated using Clarke transformation and initial current traveling wave; then, appropriate indices are introduced to identify different types of faults. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT is employed to extract information of current and voltage travelling waves. Fault location and classification algorithm is being designed according to wavelet transform coefficients relating to current and voltage modal components. The performance of the proposed method is tested for different fault conditions (different fault distance, different fault resistances, and different fault inception angles by using PSCAD and MATLAB with satisfactory results

  1. The Effect of Tow Shearing on Reinforcement Positional Fidelity in the Manufacture of a Continuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Matrix Composite via Pultrusion-Like Processing of Commingled Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlick, Kent M.

    While the addition of short fiber to 3D printed articles has increased structural performance, ultimate gains will only be realized through the introduction of continuous reinforcement placed along pre-planned load paths. Most additive manufacturing research focusing on the addition of continuous reinforcement has revolved around utilization of a prefrabricated composite filament or a fiber and matrix mixed within a hot end prior to deposition on a printing surface such that conventional extrusion based FDM can be applied. Although stronger 3D printed parts can be made in this manner, high quality homogenous composites are not possible due to fiber dominated regions, matrix dominated regions, and voids present between adjacent filaments. Conventional composite manufacturing processes are much better at creating homogeneous composites; however, the layer by layer approach in which they are made is inhibiting the alignment of reinforcement with loads. Automated Fiber Placement techniques utilize in plane bending deformation of the tow to facilitate tow steering. Due to buckling fibers on the inner radius of curves, manufacturers recommend a minimum curvature for path placement with this technique. A method called continuous tow shearing has shown promise to enable the placement of tows in complex patterns without tow buckling, spreading, and separation inherent in conventional forms of automated reinforcement positioning. The current work employs fused deposition modeling hardware and the continuous tow shearing technique to manufacture high quality fiber reinforced composites with high positional fidelity, varying continuous reinforcement orientations within a layer, and plastic elements incorporated enabling the ultimate gains in structural performance possible. A mechanical system combining concepts of additive manufacturing with fiber placement via filament winding was developed. Paths with and without tension inherent in filament winding were analyzed through

  2. Micro Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance....... If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development...... processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing...

  3. A new pair of hard-soft plastic combination for precision manufacturing of two component plastic parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Marhöfer, David Maximilian

    2011-01-01

    the pressure developed inside the socket house and finally could detect the leak of the fluid due to the sealing ring leakage. All the test procedures and results presented in this paper can be a valuable source of information for researchers and scientists who work with two component micro injection moulding....... sequential and simultaneous injection of two materials and afterwards by using a precision tensile testing machine. To characterize the sealing properties of the sealing ring material, a sealing test device was developed. It could provide hydraulic pressure inside the socket house and precisely detect...

  4. Continuity and change in ceramic manufacture: Archaeometric study of Late Byzantine-Early Islamic transition in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawneh, Firas Mohamad

    This thesis investigates continuity and change of ceramics from Late Byzantine-Early Islamic transition period Jordan. The transition period has been characterized largely by an overlap of two ceramic traditions. The material culture of this period has been primarily viewed through formal and stylistic changes. However, ceramic technology and distribution have never been subjected to rigorous analytical study. In order to explain continuity and change in ceramic tradition the undertaken study has focused on the provenance and technology, using multifaceted analytical approach. This study of the transition period pottery has focused on the classification and technological features of potsherds from selected sites in Jordan (Amman, Aqaba, Beit Ras, Khirbet el-Nawafleh, Jarash, Jericho, Pella, Madaba, Gharndal, Humaimah, Um er-Rassas and Um el-Waleed). Samples were studied by particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and optical microscopy to analyze their chemical, mineralogical and textural features in the aim of determining their possible provenance and production technology. Compositional data were statistically processed with multivariate analysis using SYSTAT II software 2006. To obtain further information about possible source areas of raw materials used in ceramic production, clays were also sampled in the studied areas. Firing experiments were conducted for clays with compositions comparable with those of ceramic sherds, to better understand the firing technology of the pottery. The multifaceted analytical approach has revealed important information on ceramic production in Transjordan. Khirbet el-Nawafleh and Aqaba in the south, Jarash and Pella in the north, Amman and Madaba in the middle are possibly just a few important production centers during this period. The study shows a multidirectional socio-cultural exchange and economic trade patterns within each region and between adjacent regions, as well. Also, importation from

  5. Comparative study of material loss at the taper interface in retrieved metal-on-polyethylene and metal-on-metal femoral components from a single manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Paul; Racasan, Radu; Bhattacharya, Saugatta; Blunt, Liam; Isaac, Graham

    2017-08-01

    There have been a number of reports on the occurrence of taper corrosion and/or fretting and some have speculated on a link to the occurrence of adverse local tissue reaction specifically in relation to total hip replacement which have a metal-on-metal bearing. As such a study was carried out to compare the magnitude of material loss at the taper in a series of retrieved femoral heads used in metal-on-polyethylene bearings with that in a series of retrieved heads used in metal-on-metal bearings. A total of 36 metal-on-polyethylene and 21 metal-on-metal femoral components were included in the study all of which were received from a customer complaint database. Furthermore, a total of nine as-manufactured femoral components were included to provide a baseline for characterisation. All taper surfaces were assessed using an established corrosion scoring method and measurements were taken of the female taper surface using a contact profilometry. In the case of metal-on-metal components, the bearing wear was also assessed using coordinate metrology to determine whether or not there was a relationship between bearing and taper material loss in these cases. The study found that in this cohort the median value of metal-on-polyethylene taper loss was 1.25 mm 3 with the consequent median value for metal-on-metal taper loss being 1.75 mm 3 . This study also suggests that manufacturing form can result in an apparent loss of material from the taper surface determined to have a median value of 0.59 mm 3 . Therefore, it is clear that form variability is a significant confounding factor in the measurement of material loss from the tapers of femoral heads retrieved following revision surgery.

  6. Collaborative Technology Assessments Of Transient Field Processing And Additive Manufacturing Technologies As Applied To Gas Turbine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Szabo, Attila [General Electric (GE) Power and Water; Ucok, Ibrahim [General Electric (GE) Power and Water

    2016-01-01

    ORNL partnered with GE Power & Water to investigate the effect of thermomagnetic processing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of GE Power & Water newly developed wrought Ni-Fe-Cr alloys. Exploration of the effects of high magnetic field process during heat treatment of the alloys indicated conditions where applications of magnetic fields yields significant property improvements. The alloy aged using high magnetic field processing exhibited 3 HRC higher hardness compared to the conventionally-aged alloy. The alloy annealed at 1785 F using high magnetic field processing demonstrated an average creep life 2.5 times longer than that of the conventionally heat-treated alloy. Preliminary results show that high magnetic field processing can improve the mechanical properties of Ni-Fe-Cr alloys and potentially extend the life cycle of the gas turbine components such as nozzles leading to significant energy savings.

  7. XCT analysis of the influence of melt strategies on defect population in Ti–6Al–4V components manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammas-Williams, S.; Zhao, H.; Léonard, F.; Derguti, F.; Todd, I.; Prangnell, P.B.

    2015-01-01

    Selective Electron Beam Melting (SEBM) is a promising powder bed Additive Manufacturing technique for near-net-shape manufacture of high-value titanium components. However without post-manufacture HIPing the fatigue life of SEBM parts is currently dominated by the presence of porosity. In this study, the size, volume fraction, and spatial distribution of the pores in model samples have been characterised in 3D, using X-ray Computed Tomography, and correlated to the process variables. The average volume fraction of the pores (< 0.2%) was measured to be lower than that usually observed in competing processes, such as selective laser melting, but a strong relationship was found with the different beam strategies used to contour, and infill by hatching, a part section. The majority of pores were found to be small spherical gas pores, concentrated in the infill hatched region; this was attributed to the lower energy density and less focused beam used in the infill strategy allowing less opportunity for gas bubbles to escape the melt pool. Overall, increasing the energy density or focus of the beam was found to correlate strongly to a reduction in the level of gas porosity. Rarer irregular shaped pores were mostly located in the contour region and have been attributed to a lack of fusion between powder particles. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Vast majority of defects detected were small spherical gas pores. • Gas bubbles trapped in the powder granules expand and coalesce in the melt pool. • Pores have been shown not to be randomly distributed. • Larger and deeper melt pools give more opportunity for gas to escape. • Minor changes to melt strategy result in significant reductions in pore population

  8. XCT analysis of the influence of melt strategies on defect population in Ti–6Al–4V components manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammas-Williams, S., E-mail: Samuel.tammas-wiliams@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Zhao, H. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Léonard, F. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Derguti, F.; Todd, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Prangnell, P.B. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Selective Electron Beam Melting (SEBM) is a promising powder bed Additive Manufacturing technique for near-net-shape manufacture of high-value titanium components. However without post-manufacture HIPing the fatigue life of SEBM parts is currently dominated by the presence of porosity. In this study, the size, volume fraction, and spatial distribution of the pores in model samples have been characterised in 3D, using X-ray Computed Tomography, and correlated to the process variables. The average volume fraction of the pores (< 0.2%) was measured to be lower than that usually observed in competing processes, such as selective laser melting, but a strong relationship was found with the different beam strategies used to contour, and infill by hatching, a part section. The majority of pores were found to be small spherical gas pores, concentrated in the infill hatched region; this was attributed to the lower energy density and less focused beam used in the infill strategy allowing less opportunity for gas bubbles to escape the melt pool. Overall, increasing the energy density or focus of the beam was found to correlate strongly to a reduction in the level of gas porosity. Rarer irregular shaped pores were mostly located in the contour region and have been attributed to a lack of fusion between powder particles. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Vast majority of defects detected were small spherical gas pores. • Gas bubbles trapped in the powder granules expand and coalesce in the melt pool. • Pores have been shown not to be randomly distributed. • Larger and deeper melt pools give more opportunity for gas to escape. • Minor changes to melt strategy result in significant reductions in pore population.

  9. Integrated hot-melt extrusion - injection molding continuous tablet manufacturing platform: Effects of critical process parameters and formulation attributes on product robustness and dimensional stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Parind M; Hogan, Rachael C; Brancazio, David; Puri, Vibha; Jensen, Keith D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2017-10-05

    This study provides a framework for robust tablet development using an integrated hot-melt extrusion-injection molding (IM) continuous manufacturing platform. Griseofulvin, maltodextrin, xylitol and lactose were employed as drug, carrier, plasticizer and reinforcing agent respectively. A pre-blended drug-excipient mixture was fed from a loss-in-weight feeder to a twin-screw extruder. The extrudate was subsequently injected directly into the integrated IM unit and molded into tablets. Tablets were stored in different storage conditions up to 20 weeks to monitor physical stability and were evaluated by polarized light microscopy, DSC, SEM, XRD and dissolution analysis. Optimized injection pressure provided robust tablet formulations. Tablets manufactured at low and high injection pressures exhibited the flaws of sink marks and flashing respectively. Higher solidification temperature during IM process reduced the thermal induced residual stress and prevented chipping and cracking issues. Polarized light microscopy revealed a homogeneous dispersion of crystalline griseofulvin in an amorphous matrix. DSC underpinned the effect of high tablet residual moisture on maltodextrin-xylitol phase separation that resulted in dimensional instability. Tablets with low residual moisture demonstrated long term dimensional stability. This study serves as a model for IM tablet formulations for mechanistic understanding of critical process parameters and formulation attributes required for optimal product performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Manufacturing and High Heat Flux Testing of Brazed Flat-Type W/CuCrZr Plasma Facing Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Youyun; Liu, Xiang; Feng, Fan; Chen, Lei; Cheng, Zhengkui; Wang, Jin; Chen, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Water-cooled flat-type W/CuCrZr plasma facing components with an interlayer of oxygen-free copper (OFC) have been developed by using vacuum brazing route. The OFC layer for the accommodation of thermal stresses was cast onto the surface of W at a temperature range of 1150 °C-1200 °C in a vacuum furnace. The W/OFC cast tiles were vacuum brazed to a CuCrZr heat sink at 940 °C using the silver-free filler material CuMnSiCr. The microstructure, bonding strength, and high heat flux properties of the brazed W/CuCrZr joint samples were investigated. The W/Cu joint exhibits an average tensile strength of 134 MPa, which is about the same strength as pure annealed copper. High heat flux tests were performed in the electron beam facility EMS-60. Experimental results indicated that the brazed W/CuCrZr mock-up experienced screening tests of up to 15 MW/m2 and cyclic tests of 9 MW/m2 for 1000 cycles without visible damage. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11205049) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2011GB110004)

  11. ITER Port Plug Engineering Trainee Program: Design, manufacturing and integration of structural components (analysis of the attachment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeile, Christian; Neuberger, Heiko; Dolensky, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    The structural connection of helium cooled plasma facing components in ITER to the water cooled structural port plug shield requires an attachment system, which is able to cope with two main contradicting requirements: The attachment system has to be rigid in order to withstand mechanical loads, e.g. due to the deadweight or static and transient electro-magnetic loads. On the other hand, the attachment system has to be flexible in order to compensate the different thermal strains in between the plasma facing test devices (300-550 deg. C) and the port plug structure (∼120 deg. C). The paper presents the latest developments of an attachment system consisting of flexible attachment blocks with lamellae. The optimization steps as well as the connection to the shield are described. The results of the thermo-mechanical analyses under a defined worst-case scenario confirm the feasibility of the lamella design. This work has been performed in the frame of the EFDA goal orientated trainee program on port plug engineering.

  12. Additive Manufacturing of IN100 Superalloy Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair: Process Development, Modeling, Microstructural Characterization, and Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Das, Suman

    2015-09-01

    This article describes additive manufacturing (AM) of IN100, a high gamma-prime nickel-based superalloy, through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE), aimed at the creation of thick deposits onto like-chemistry substrates for enabling repair of turbine engine hot-section components. SLE is a metal powder bed-based laser AM technology developed for nickel-base superalloys with equiaxed, directionally solidified, and single-crystal microstructural morphologies. Here, we combine process modeling, statistical design-of-experiments (DoE), and microstructural characterization to demonstrate fully metallurgically bonded, crack-free and dense deposits exceeding 1000 μm of SLE-processed IN100 powder onto IN100 cast substrates produced in a single pass. A combined thermal-fluid flow-solidification model of the SLE process compliments DoE-based process development. A customized quantitative metallography technique analyzes digital cross-sectional micrographs and extracts various microstructural parameters, enabling process model validation and process parameter optimization. Microindentation measurements show an increase in the hardness by 10 pct in the deposit region compared to the cast substrate due to microstructural refinement. The results illustrate one of the very few successes reported for the crack-free deposition of IN100, a notoriously "non-weldable" hot-section alloy, thus establishing the potential of SLE as an AM method suitable for hot-section component repair and for future new-make components in high gamma-prime containing crack-prone nickel-based superalloys.

  13. Development of Maltodextrin-Based Immediate-Release Tablets Using an Integrated Twin-Screw Hot-Melt Extrusion and Injection-Molding Continuous Manufacturing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, Dave; Desai, Parind M; Jensen, Keith D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2017-11-01

    The combination of hot-melt extrusion and injection molding (HME-IM) is a promising process technology for continuous manufacturing of tablets. However, there has been limited research on its application to formulate crystalline drug-containing immediate-release tablets. Furthermore, studies that have applied the HME-IM process to molded tablets have used a noncontinuous 2-step approach. The present study develops maltodextrin (MDX)-based extrusion-molded immediate-release tablets for a crystalline drug (griseofulvin) using an integrated twin-screw HME-IM continuous process. At 10% w/w drug loading, MDX was selected as the tablet matrix former based on a preliminary screen. Furthermore, liquid and solid polyols were evaluated for melt processing of MDX and for impact on tablet performance. Smooth-surfaced tablets, comprising crystalline griseofulvin solid suspension in the amorphous MDX-xylitol matrix, were produced by a continuous process on a twin-screw extruder coupled to a horizontally opening IM machine. Real-time HME process profiles were used to develop automated HME-IM cycles. Formulation adjustments overcame process challenges and improved tablet strength. The developed MDX tablets exhibited adequate strength and a fast-dissolving matrix (85% drug release in 20 min), and maintained performance on accelerated stability conditions. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prediction of protein structural classes by Chou's pseudo amino acid composition: approached using continuous wavelet transform and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan-Chao; Zhou, Xi-Bin; Dai, Zong; Zou, Xiao-Yong

    2009-07-01

    A prior knowledge of protein structural classes can provide useful information about its overall structure, so it is very important for quick and accurate determination of protein structural class with computation method in protein science. One of the key for computation method is accurate protein sample representation. Here, based on the concept of Chou's pseudo-amino acid composition (AAC, Chou, Proteins: structure, function, and genetics, 43:246-255, 2001), a novel method of feature extraction that combined continuous wavelet transform (CWT) with principal component analysis (PCA) was introduced for the prediction of protein structural classes. Firstly, the digital signal was obtained by mapping each amino acid according to various physicochemical properties. Secondly, CWT was utilized to extract new feature vector based on wavelet power spectrum (WPS), which contains more abundant information of sequence order in frequency domain and time domain, and PCA was then used to reorganize the feature vector to decrease information redundancy and computational complexity. Finally, a pseudo-amino acid composition feature vector was further formed to represent primary sequence by coupling AAC vector with a set of new feature vector of WPS in an orthogonal space by PCA. As a showcase, the rigorous jackknife cross-validation test was performed on the working datasets. The results indicated that prediction quality has been improved, and the current approach of protein representation may serve as a useful complementary vehicle in classifying other attributes of proteins, such as enzyme family class, subcellular localization, membrane protein types and protein secondary structure, etc.

  15. Development and Implementation of an Automatic Continuous Online Monitoring and Control Platform for Polymerization Reactions to Sharply Boost Energy and Resource Efficiency in Polymer Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Wayne [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States); Drenski, Michael [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States); Romagnoli, Jose [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2017-10-16

    The project goal was to create an energy saving paradigm shift in how polymers are manufactured in the 21st century. It used Automatic Continuous Online Monitoring of Polymerization reactions (ACOMP) integrated for the first time with automatic active control to create the innovative ‘ACOMP/Control Interface’, or ‘ACOMP/CI’. ACOMP/CI will begin the transformation from old, inefficient processes into highly evolved, energy and resource efficient ones. The ACOMP platform is broadly applicable to many types of reactions and processes throughout the vast polymer industry. The industry provides materials for sectors such as automotive, aerospace, oil recovery, agriculture, paints, resins, adhesives, pharmaceuticals and therapeutic proteins, optics, electronics, lightweight building materials, and many more. The U.S. chemical industry is one of the last major sectors in which the U.S. has top global stature. It consumes 24% of all U.S. manufacturing energy, produces over $800B of product annually, supports 25% of the U.S. GDP and employs over 6 million people. It is also a major source of GHG emissions. Polymers make up approximately 30% of this sector. It is estimated that annually 60 TBtu of energy could be saved and 3 million tons less of GHG emissions produced by optimizing production in the polyolefin manufacturing sector alone. The project scope included first time design and prototyping of an ACOMP/CI, creation of active reaction controllers, and demonstration of control capabilities on ideal, low concentration polymerization reactions. All these elements of the scope were met, including advances and findings not originally anticipated. Extensions to more complex reactions, beyond the reactor capabilities of the current project ACOMP/CI, such as polyolefins and other high pressure/high temperature reactions, are being proposed in Fall 2017 to CESMII, a DoE based NNMI. The initial proposal was for a three year funded project, but this was reduced to a two

  16. Fatores críticos para a melhoria contínua em indústrias brasileiras Critical factors for the continuous improvement in brazilian manufacturing companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carlos Oprime

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é identificar e analisar fatores críticos no desenvolvimento de atividades de melhoria contínua (MC em empresas industriais brasileiras. Um modelo conceitual de relacionamento entre práticas e resultados foi testado por meio de um survey utilizando uma amostra de 46 empresas industriais. Fatores como: treinamento em ferramentas de solução de problemas, o incentivo a sugestões, a comunicação face a face, visitas ao chão de fábrica e adoção de sistemas de incentivos, se mostraram críticos para alcance de sucesso em atividades de MC. Identificaram pela análise fatorial dois constructos críticos relacionados ao processo de melhoria contínua: 1 a promoção das atividades de melhoria contínua por meio de políticas de incentivos; e 2 o suporte e liderança da alta administração e ativa participação da gerência. Observou-se que há relação estatisticamente significativa entre o uso de técnicas de solução de problemas e mecanismos de incentivos com o desempenho das empresas.The aim of this paper is to identify and analyze critical factors in the development of continuous improvement (CI activities in Brazilian manufacturing companies. A conceptual model of relationship between practices and results was tested through a survey conducted in 46 manufacturing companies. Factors such as: problems solving tools training, suggestion incentives, face-to-face communication, visits to the shop floor and adoption of incentive systems, have proved to be critical at reaching success in CI activities. Through factorial analysis, two critical constructs concerning continuous improvement process were identified: 1 promotion of continuous improvement through incentive mechanisms; and 2 High level management support and leadership and management active involvement. It was observed that there is a statistically meaningful relationship between the use of problem solving techniques and the incentive mechanisms in face of

  17. Screening apatites for (U-Th)/He thermochronometry via continuous ramped heating: He age components and implications for age dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannell, Kalin T.; Zeitler, Peter K.; Janes, Darwin G.; Idleman, Bruce D.; Fayon, Annia K.

    2018-02-01

    Old slowly-cooled apatites often yield dispersed (U-Th)/He ages for a variety of reasons, some well understood and some not. Analytical protocols like careful grain selection can reduce the impact of this dispersion but add costs in time and resources and too often have proven insufficient. We assess a new analytical protocol that utilizes static-gas measurement during continuous ramped heating (CRH) as a means to rapidly screen apatite samples. In about the time required for a conventional total-gas analysis, this method can discriminate between samples showing expected volume-diffusion behavior and those showing anomalous release patterns inconsistent with their direct use in thermochronologic applications. This method also appears able to discriminate between the radiogenic and extraneous 4He fractions released by a sample, potentially allowing ages to be corrected. Well-behaved examples such as the Durango standard and other apatites with good age reproducibility show the expected smooth, sigmoidal gas-release curves predicted for volume diffusion using typical apatite kinetics, with complete exhaustion by ∼900 °C for linear heating at 20 °C/min. Secondary factors such as U and Th zoning and alpha-loss distribution have a relatively minor impact on such profiles. In contrast, samples having greater age dispersion show significant He release in the form of outgassing spikes and He release deferred to higher temperatures. Screening results for a range of samples permit us to assess the degree to which CRH screening can identify misbehaving grains, give insight into the source of extraneous He, and suggest that in some cases it may be possible to correct ages for the presence of such components.

  18. Design and Evaluation of Topical Diclofenac Sodium Gel Using Hot Melt Extrusion Technology as a Continuous Manufacturing Process with Kolliphor® P407.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Jaywant; Narkhede, Rajkiran; Amin, Purnima; Tawde, Vaishali

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present context was to develop and evaluate a Kolliphor® P407-based transdermal gel formulation of diclofenac sodium by hot melt extrusion (HME) technology; central composite design was used to optimize the formulation process. In this study, we have explored first time ever HME as an industrially feasible and continuous manufacturing technology for the manufacturing of gel formulation using Kolliphor® P407 and Kollisolv® PEG400 as a gel base. Diclofenac sodium was used as a model drug. The HME parameters such as feeding rate, screw speed, and barrel temperature were crucial for the semisolid product development, and were optimized after preliminary trials. For the processing of the gel formulation by HME, a modified screw design was used to obtain a uniform product. The obtained product was evaluated for physicochemical characterization such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), pH measurement, rheology, surface tension, and texture profile analysis. Moreover, it was analyzed for general appearance, spreadibility, surface morphology, and drug content. The optimized gel formulation showed homogeneity and transparent film when applied on a glass slide under microscope, pH was 7.02 and uniform drug content of 100.04 ± 2.74 (SD = 3). The DSC and XRD analysis of the HME gel formulation showed complete melting of crystalline API into an amorphous form. The Kolliphor® P407 and Kollisolv® PEG400 formed excellent gel formulation using HME with consistent viscoelastic properties of the product. An improved drug release was found for the HME gel, which showed a 100% drug release than that of a marketed product which showed only 88% of drug release at the end of 12 h. The Flux value of the HME gel was 106 than that of a marketed formulation, which showed only about 60 value, inferring a significant difference (P process for manufacturing of topical semisolid products.

  19. Manufacturing network evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed...... different manufacturing plants in the network and their impact on network transformation. Findings – The paper highlights the dominant role of manufacturing plants in the continuously changing shape of a manufacturing network. The paper demonstrates that a product or process change at one manufacturing...... by identifying the gaps in the reviewed literature. The paper is based on three case studies undertaken in Danish manufacturing companies to explore in detail their manufacturing plants and networks. The cases provide a sound basis for developing the research questions and explaining the interaction between...

  20. Continuous, automated manufacturing of string ribbon Si PV modules. PVMaT Phase 5A2 Subcontract: First Annual Report, 21 May 1998--20 May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanoka, J.I.

    1999-11-03

    This report describes the first year of a 3-year PVMaT Phase 5A2 program. Evergreen Solar will soon be expanding into a multi-megawatt facility and the PVMaT work will be used to further the objective of a high-throughput automated production line in every aspect of PV module making from producing silicon ribbon to making a finished module. The project has four task areas for this first year: crystal growth; cell manufacturing; modules; and factory layout and automation. The vast majority of the work this first year has been in the crystal growth and cell manufacturing areas. Evergreen Solar has its own unique technology in each of these areas. In crystal growth, a key goal of this PVMaT project has been developing and deploying an improved string material. The high-temperature string materials are used to stabilize the edges of the growing silicon ribbon in the String Ribbon silicon sheet growth. The result has been one of the major successes of this first year. Significant cost reductions and yield improvements have emerged from this improved string material. In addition, some of the groundwork for automation of the String Ribbon crystal growth process has been laid and shows much promise. A method for controlling the edge meniscus height was developed, and a patent has been filed based on this discovery. In the cell manufacturing area, the focus has been on reducing the number of processing steps and on design and construction of high-speed processing equipment. The possibility of eliminating all pre-diffusion etching and going directly from growth to diffusion has been demonstrated on an R and D scale. Unique designs for high-speed drying equipment and for a high-speed contact and AR-coating application machine have been developed. In the latter case, the basic concepts underlying various aspects of the machine design have been successfully tested for viability. The integration of the different components of this machine into a smoothly working whole is now

  1. Validating continuous digital light processing (cDLP) additive manufacturing accuracy and tissue engineering utility of a dye-initiator package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jonathan; Wang, Martha O; Thompson, Paul; Busso, Mallory; Belle, Vaijayantee; Mammoser, Nicole; Kim, Kyobum; Fisher, John P; Siblani, Ali; Xu, Yueshuo; Welter, Jean F; Lennon, Donald P; Sun, Jiayang; Caplan, Arnold I; Dean, David

    2014-03-01

    This study tested the accuracy of tissue engineering scaffold rendering via the continuous digital light processing (cDLP) light-based additive manufacturing technology. High accuracy (i.e., <50 µm) allows the designed performance of features relevant to three scale spaces: cell-scaffold, scaffold-tissue, and tissue-organ interactions. The biodegradable polymer poly (propylene fumarate) was used to render highly accurate scaffolds through the use of a dye-initiator package, TiO2 and bis (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phenylphosphine oxide. This dye-initiator package facilitates high accuracy in the Z dimension. Linear, round, and right-angle features were measured to gauge accuracy. Most features showed accuracies between 5.4-15% of the design. However, one feature, an 800 µm diameter circular pore, exhibited a 35.7% average reduction of patency. Light scattered in the x, y directions by the dye may have reduced this feature's accuracy. Our new fine-grained understanding of accuracy could be used to make further improvements by including corrections in the scaffold design software. Successful cell attachment occurred with both canine and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Highly accurate cDLP scaffold rendering is critical to the design of scaffolds that both guide bone regeneration and that fully resorb. Scaffold resorption must occur for regenerated bone to be remodeled and, thereby, achieve optimal strength.

  2. Validating continuous digital light processing (cDLP) additive manufacturing accuracy and tissue engineering utility of a dye-initiator package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Jonathan; Wang, Martha O; Kim, Kyobum

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the accuracy of tissue engineering scaffold rendering via the continuous digital light processing (cDLP) light-based additive manufacturing technology. High accuracy (i.e., <50 µm) allows the designed performance of features relevant to three scale spaces: cell-scaffold, scaffold-tissue, and tissue-organ interactions. The biodegradable polymer poly (propylene fumarate) was used to render highly accurate scaffolds through the use of a dye-initiator package, TiO 2  and bis (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phenylphosphine oxide. This dye-initiator package facilitates high accuracy in the Z dimension. Linear, round, and right-angle features were measured to gauge accuracy. Most features showed accuracies between 5.4–15% of the design. However, one feature, an 800 µm diameter circular pore, exhibited a 35.7% average reduction of patency. Light scattered in the x, y directions by the dye may have reduced this feature's accuracy. Our new fine-grained understanding of accuracy could be used to make further improvements by including corrections in the scaffold design software. Successful cell attachment occurred with both canine and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Highly accurate cDLP scaffold rendering is critical to the design of scaffolds that both guide bone regeneration and that fully resorb. Scaffold resorption must occur for regenerated bone to be remodeled and, thereby, achieve optimal strength. (paper)

  3. Manufacturing knowledge management strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw , Duncan; Edwards , John

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The study sought to understand the components of knowledge management strategy from the perspective of staff in UK manufacturing organisations. To analyse this topic we took an empirical approach and collaborated with two manufacturing organisations. Our main finding centres on the key components of a knowledge management strategy, and the relationships between it and manufacturing strategy and corporate strategy. Other findings include: the nature of knowledge in manufact...

  4. Final environmental impact statement for the continued operation of the Pantex Plant and associated storage of nuclear weapon components. Volume 3 -- Comment response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the continued operation of Pantex Plant was published in March 1996. The document assessed the alternatives of no action, relocation of the storage of plutonium components resulting from nuclear weapon disassemble activities at Pantex Plant to another site, and the proposed action (preferred alternative) of continuing operations and increasing the quantity of pits in interim storage at Pantex Plant. This report contains the comments and responses received on the Draft EIS

  5. Simulating the reactions of CO2 in aqueous monoethanolamine solution by reaction ensemble Monte Carlo using the continuous fractional component method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balaji, S.P.; Gangarapu, S.; Ramdin, M.; Torres-Knoop, A.; Zuilhof, H.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Dubbeldam, D.; Vlugt, T.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular simulations were used to compute the equilibrium concentrations of the different species in CO2/monoethanolamine solutions for different CO2 loadings. Simulations were performed in the Reaction Ensemble using the continuous fractional component Monte Carlo method at temperatures of 293,

  6. The Analysis of Content and Operational Components of Public School Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Kravets, Svitlana; Khamulyak, Nataliya

    2016-01-01

    In the article the content and operational components of continuing professional development of public school teachers in Great Britain, Canada, the USA have been characterized. The main objectives are defined as the theoretical analysis of scientific-pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research;…

  7. Highly active, recyclable catalyst for the manufacture of viscous, low molecular weight, CO–ethene–propene-based polyketone, base component for a new class of resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Dirkzwager, Hendrik; Mul, Wilhelmus P.; Heeres, Hero J.; Linden, Adrianus J. van der; Orpen, A. Guy

    2002-01-01

    A highly active, recyclable homogeneous palladium(II) catalyst is described for the manufacture of viscous, low molecular weight CO–ethene–propene-based polyketone (Carilite Oligomer), used for the manufacture of a new class of resins (Carilite Resins). The catalyst is composed of palladium acetate,

  8. Efficiency and Throughput Advances in Continuous Roll-to-Roll a-Si Alloy PV Manufacturing Technology: Final Subcontract Report, 22 June 1998 -- 5 October 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, T.

    2002-04-01

    This report describes a roll-to-roll triple-junction amorphous silicon alloy PV manufacturing technology developed and commercialized by Energy Conversion Devices (ECD) and United Solar Systems. This low material cost, roll-to-roll production technology has the economies of scale needed to meet the cost goals necessary for widespread use of PV. ECD has developed and built six generations of a-Si production equipment, including the present 5 MW United Solar manufacturing plant in Troy, Michigan. ECD is now designing and building a new 25-MW facility, also in Michigan. United Solar holds the world's record for amorphous silicon PV conversion efficiency, and manufactures and markets a wide range of PV products, including flexible portable modules, power modules, and innovative building-integrated PV (BIPV) shingle and metal-roofing modules that take advantage of this lightweight, rugged, and flexible PV technology. All of United Solar's power and BIPV products are approved by Underwriters Laboratories and carry a 10-year warranty. In this PVMaT 5A subcontract, ECD and United Solar are addressing issues to reduce the cost and improve the manufacturing technology for the ECD/United Solar PV module manufacturing process. ECD and United Solar identified five technology development areas that would reduce the module manufacturing cost in the present 5-MW production facility, and also be applicable to future larger-scale manufacturing facilities.

  9. Lean Manufacturing Auto Cluster at Chennai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2012-10-01

    Due the presence of lot of automotive Industry, Chennai is known as Detroit of India, that producing over 40 % of the Indian vehicle and components. Lean manufacturing concepts have been widely recognized as an important tool in improving the competitiveness of industries. This is a continuous process involving everyone, starting from management to the shop floor. Automotive Component Industries (ACIs) in Ambattur Industrial Estate, Chennai has formed special purpose vehicle (SPV) society namely Ambattur Industrial Estate Manufacturers Association (AIEMA) Technology Centre (ATC) lean manufacturing cluster (ATC-LMC) during July 2010 under lean manufacturing competitiveness scheme, that comes under National Manufacturing Competitiveness Programme of Government of India. The Tripartite Agreement is taken place between National Productivity Council, consultants and cluster (ATC-LMC). The objective is to conduct diagnostic study, study on training and application of various lean manufacturing techniques and auditing in ten ACIs. The methodology adopted is collection of primary data/details from ten ACIs. In the first phase, diagnostic study is done and the areas for improvement in each of the cluster member companies are identified. In the second phase, training programs and implementation is done on 5S and other areas. In the third phase auditing is done and found that the lean manufacturing techniques implementation in ATC-LMC is sustainable and successful in every cluster companies, which will not only enhance competitiveness but also decrease cost, time and increase productivity. The technical efficiency of LMC companies also increases significantly.

  10. Key issues in decomposing fMRI during naturalistic and continuous music experience with independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Fengyu; Puoliväli, Tuomas; Alluri, Vinoo; Sipola, Tuomo; Burunat, Iballa; Toiviainen, Petri; Nandi, Asoke K; Brattico, Elvira; Ristaniemi, Tapani

    2014-02-15

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been often used to decompose fMRI data mostly for the resting-state, block and event-related designs due to its outstanding advantage. For fMRI data during free-listening experiences, only a few exploratory studies applied ICA. For processing the fMRI data elicited by 512-s modern tango, a FFT based band-pass filter was used to further pre-process the fMRI data to remove sources of no interest and noise. Then, a fast model order selection method was applied to estimate the number of sources. Next, both individual ICA and group ICA were performed. Subsequently, ICA components whose temporal courses were significantly correlated with musical features were selected. Finally, for individual ICA, common components across majority of participants were found by diffusion map and spectral clustering. The extracted spatial maps (by the new ICA approach) common across most participants evidenced slightly right-lateralized activity within and surrounding the auditory cortices. Meanwhile, they were found associated with the musical features. Compared with the conventional ICA approach, more participants were found to have the common spatial maps extracted by the new ICA approach. Conventional model order selection methods underestimated the true number of sources in the conventionally pre-processed fMRI data for the individual ICA. Pre-processing the fMRI data by using a reasonable band-pass digital filter can greatly benefit the following model order selection and ICA with fMRI data by naturalistic paradigms. Diffusion map and spectral clustering are straightforward tools to find common ICA spatial maps. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Manufacture of disposal canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolvi, L.

    2009-12-01

    The report summarizes the development work carried out in the manufacturing of disposal canister components, and present status, in readiness for manufacturing, of the components for use in assembly of spent nuclear fuel disposal canister. The disposal canister consist of two major components: the nodular graphite cast iron insert and overpack of oxygen-free copper. The manufacturing process for copper components begins with a cylindrical cast copper billet. Three different manufacturing processes i.e. pierce and draw, extrusion and forging are being developed, which produce a seamless copper tube or a tube with an integrated bottom. The pierce and draw process, Posiva's reference method, makes an integrated bottom possible and only the lid requires welding. Inserts for BWR-element are cast with 12 square channels and inserts for VVER 440-element with 12 round channels. Inserts for EPR-elements have four square channels. Casting of BWR insert type has been studied so far. Experience of casting inserts for PWR, which is similar to the EPR-type, has been got in co-operation with SKB. The report describes the processes being developed for manufacture of disposal canister components and some results of the manufacturing experiments are presented. Quality assurance and quality control in manufacture of canister component is described. (orig.)

  12. National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU-4 performance evaluation of the PET component of the NanoPET/CT preclinical PET/CT scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanda, Istvan; Mackewn, Jane; Patay, Gergely; Major, Peter; Sunassee, Kavitha; Mullen, Gregory E; Nemeth, Gabor; Haemisch, York; Blower, Philip J; Marsden, Paul K

    2011-11-01

    The NanoPET/CT represents the latest generation of commercial preclinical PET/CT systems. This article presents a performance evaluation of the PET component of the system according to the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU-4 2008 standard. The NanoPET/CT consists of 12 lutetium yttrium orthosilicate:cerium modular detectors forming 1 ring, with 9.5-cm axial coverage and a 16-cm animal port. Each detector crystal is 1.12 × 1.12 × 13 mm, and 1 module contains 81 × 39 of these crystals. An optical light guide transmits the scintillation light to the flat-panel multianode position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. Analog-to-digital converter cards and a field-programmable gate array-based data-collecting card provide the readout. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, counting rate capabilities, and image quality were evaluated in accordance with the NEMA NU-4 standard. Energy and temporal resolution measurements and a mouse imaging study were performed in addition to the standard. Energy resolution was 19% at 511 keV. The spatial resolution, measured as full width at half maximum on single-slice rebinning/filtered backprojection-reconstructed images, approached 1 mm on the axis and remained below 2.5 mm in the central 5-cm transaxial region both in the axial center and at one-quarter field of view. The maximum absolute sensitivity for a point source at the center of the field of view was 7.7%. The maximum noise equivalent counting rates were 430 kcps at 36 MBq and 130 kcps at 27 MBq for the mouse- and rat-sized phantoms, respectively. The uniformity and recovery coefficients were measured with the image-quality phantom, giving good-quality images. In a mouse study with an (18)F-labeled thyroid-specific tracer, the 2 lobes of the thyroid were clearly distinguishable, despite the small size of this organ. The flexible readout system allowed experiments to be performed in an efficient manner, and the system remained stable throughout. The large number

  13. A layers-overlapping strategy for robotic wire and arc additive manufacturing of multi-layer multi-bead components with homogeneous layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Han, Qinglin; Zhang, Guangjun; Horvath, I.

    2018-01-01

    Robotic wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) systems are required to provide predictable and efficient operations to fabricate solid metallic parts with high morphological fidelity and geometric accuracy. Since the metallic parts are fabricated based on a layer-by-layer principle, the

  14. Component for the manufacture of sound and thermally insulating shell for walls, ceilings or floors. Baueelement fuer die Herstellung einer schall- und/oder waermedaemmenden Vorsatzschale fuer Waende, Decken und Boeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehldorfer, H

    1977-07-04

    The invention concerns a component for the manufacture of a sound and/or thermally insulating shell for walls, ceilings or floors, which can be connected to these and is used directly to carry the cover plates or the plaster as an ouside shell. The problem is solved by having the component consisting of two spring loaded connected profiles, whose free ends, as seen in cross section, overlap with play in the operating position. There is a pin to connect the two profiles, which passes through openings in the free ends of the profiles and is elastically supported in them. The profiles may be made of metal, wood or plastic material. Compared with the well known ''swinging timbers'', the component is distinguished by the fact that the whole cladding can be covered with fibrous feld, instead of the strips of fibrous felt between the rows of swinging timbers, and the component can therefore be fixed to the wall.

  15. Social manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Hamalainen, Markko; Karjalainen, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    New business models harnessing the power of individuals have already revolutionized service industries and digital content production. In this study, we investigate whether a similar phenomenon is taking place in manufacturing industries. We start by conceptually defining two distinct forms of firm-individual collaboration in manufacturing industries: (1) social cloud manufacturing, in which firms outsource manufacturing to individuals, and (2) social platform manufacturing, in which firms pr...

  16. Contribution of components of Green Supply Chain Execution-Supply Loops in Green Supply Chain Performance measurement-A Pilot Empirical Study of the Indian Automobile Manufacturing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Asif Gandhi

    2017-01-01

    This paper is one of the several extensions of the research works done by [5]. Green Supply Chain Practices have been known to have an impact on Green Supply Chain Performance [5].This paper tests empirically through a pilot study of the Indian Automobile Manufacturing Sector, the contribution of the three variables constituting the construct Green Supply Chain Execution-Supply Loops in Green Supply Chain Performance measurement. Also the paper establishes the reliability of the questionnaire...

  17. Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology Facility Expedites Manufacturing Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology facility (CoMET) at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) paves the way for innovative wind turbine components and accelerated manufacturing. Available for use by industry partners and university researchers, the 10,000-square-foot facility expands NREL's composite manufacturing research capabilities by enabling researchers to design, prototype, and test composite wind turbine blades and other components -- and then manufacture them onsite. Designed to work in conjunction with NREL's design, analysis, and structural testing capabilities, the CoMET facility expedites manufacturing innovation.

  18. Final environmental impact statement for the continued operation of the Pantex Plant and associated storage of nuclear weapon components. Volume 1 -- Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This document assesses the potential environmental impacts over approximately 10 years of continued operation of Pantex Plant, including foreseeable projects and activities. For Pantex Plant, this document assesses the alternatives of No Action, Relocation of the storage of plutonium components (pits) resulting from nuclear weapon disassembly activities at Pantex Plant to another site, and the Proposed Action (Preferred Alternative) of continuing operations and increasing the quantity of pits in interim storage at Pantex Plant. For the Pit Storage Relocation Alternative, this document also assesses the potential environmental impacts to three DOE candidate sites and one Department of Defense candidate site that could be selected for the relocation of the nuclear component storage activities from Pantex Plant. Evaluations of site infrastructure, land resources, geology and soils, water resources, air quality, acoustics, biotic resources, cultural resources, socio-economic resources, intrasite transportation, waste management, human health, aircraft accidents, and environmental justice for Pantex Plant and the candidate sites are included in the assessment. The intersite transportation of nuclear and hazardous materials is also assessed

  19. 21 CFR 226.42 - Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-contamination from manufacturing operations. ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Components. 226.42 Section 226.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL...

  20. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Norstrom, Ross J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p'- and o,p'-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p'- versus p,p'-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife. - DDT persists in the environment near a former manufacturing facility that ceased production over 40 years ago, and concentrations represent a risk to fish and piscivorous birds in the area

  1. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  2. Development of non-destructive examination techniques for CFC-metal joints in annular geometry and their application to the manufacturing of plasma-facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pietro, E.; Visca, E.; Orsini, A.; Sacchetti, M.; Borruto, T.M.R.; Varone, P.; Vesprini, R.

    1995-01-01

    The design of plasma-facing components for ITER, as for any of the envisaged next-step machines, relies heavily on the use of brazed junctions to couple armour materials to the heat sink and cooling tubes. Moreover, the typical number of brazed components and the envisaged effects of local overheating due to failure in a single brazed junction stress the importance of having a set of NDE techniques developed that can ensure the flawless quality of the joint. The qualification and application of two NDE techniques (ultrasonic and thermographic analysis) for inspection of CFC-to-metal joints is described with particular regard to the annular geometry typical of macroblock/monoblock solutions for divertor high-heat-flux components. The results of the eddy current inspection are not reported. The development has been focused specifically on the joint between carbon-fiber composite and TZM molybdenum alloy; techniques for the production of reference defect samples have been devised and a set of reference defect samples produced. The comparative results of the NDE inspections are reported and discussed, also on the basis of the destructive examination of the samples. The nature and size of relevant and detectable defects are discussed together with hints for a possible NDE strategy for divertor high-heat-flux components

  3. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, J.E.; Norstrom, R.J.; Orazio, C.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p???- and o,p???-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p???- versus p,p???-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p???-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife.

  4. Advanced optical manufacturing digital integrated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Li, Wei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    It is necessarily to adapt development of advanced optical manufacturing technology with modern science technology development. To solved these problems which low of ration, ratio of finished product, repetition, consistent in big size and high precision in advanced optical component manufacturing. Applied business driven and method of Rational Unified Process, this paper has researched advanced optical manufacturing process flow, requirement of Advanced Optical Manufacturing integrated System, and put forward architecture and key technology of it. Designed Optical component core and Manufacturing process driven of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Digital Integrated System. the result displayed effective well, realized dynamic planning Manufacturing process, information integration improved ratio of production manufactory.

  5. Indigenous Manufacturing realization of TWIN Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, R.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Parmar, D.; Yadav, R.; Tyagi, H.; Soni, J.; Shishangiya, H.; Sudhir Kumar, D.; Shah, S.; Bansal, G.; Pandya, K.; Parmar, K.; Vuppugalla, M.; Gahlaut, A.; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-04-01

    TWIN source is two RF driver based negative ion source that has been planned to bridge the gap between single driver based ROBIN source (currently operational) and eight river based DNB source (to be operated under IN-TF test facility). TWIN source experiments have been planned at IPR keeping the objective of long term domestic fusion programme to gain operational experiences on vacuum immersed multi driver RF based negative ion source. High vacuum compatible components of twin source are designed at IPR keeping an aim on indigenous built in attempt. These components of TWIN source are mainly stainless steel and OFC-Cu. Being high heat flux receiving components, one of the major functional requirements is continuous heat removal via water as cooling medium. Hence for the purpose stainless steel parts are provided with externally milled cooling lines and that shall be covered with a layer of OFC-cu which would be on the receiving side of high heat flux. Manufacturability of twin source components requires joining of these dissimilar materials via process like electrode position, electron beam welding and vacuum brazing. Any of these manufacturing processes shall give a vacuum tight joint having proper joint strength at operating temperature and pressure. Taking the indigenous development effort vacuum brazing (in non-nuclear environment) has been opted for joining of dissimilar materials of twin source being one of the most reliable joining techniques and commercially feasible across the suppliers of country. Manufacturing design improvisation for the components has been done to suit the vacuum brazing process requirement and to ease some of the machining without comprising over the functional and operational requirements. This paper illustrates the details on the indigenous development effort, design improvisation to suits manufacturability, vacuum brazing basics and its procedures for twin source components.

  6. Development and Optimization of a Wet Granulation Process at Elevated Temperature for a Poorly Compactible Drug Using Twin Screw Extruder for Continuous Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Anuprabha K; Desai, Divyakant; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance tabletability of a poorly compactible drug, acetaminophen, by wet granulation using twin screw extruder at high temperature. It was desired that there would be minimum amounts of excipients used and the granules obtained after extrusion would be dry and fall within a size range suitable for tableting without any further processing. Mixtures of acetaminophen (95%) with binders (5% povidone or partially pregelatinized starch) were wet granulated through twin screw extruder at 70°C by adding 7% w/w water. The process had a short granulation time (processing temperature used, no drying after extrusion was needed. By optimizing formulation and processing parameters, >90% granules in the size range of 125 to 1000 μm (1.7 MPa, which was superior to that of tablets prepared by conventional high shear wet granulation. As the granules could be extruded continuously and did not require drying and milling, the method was amenable to continuous processing. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumith, A; Thomas, M; Shah, Z; Coathup, M; Blunn, G

    2018-04-01

    Increasing innovation in rapid prototyping (RP) and additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is bringing about major changes in translational surgical research. This review describes the current position in the use of additive manufacturing in orthopaedic surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:455-60.

  8. Manufacturing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  9. Continuous and semicontinuous monitoring techniques for particulate matter mass and chemical components: a synthesis of findings from EPA's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Paul A; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2008-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program to provide key stakeholders (government and private sector) with significantly improved information needed to develop effective and efficient strategies for reducing PM on urban and regional scales. All Supersites projects developed and evaluated methods and instruments, and significant advances have been made and applied within these programs to yield new insights to our understanding of PM accumulation in air as well as improved source-receptor relationships. The tested methods include a variety of continuous and semicontinuous instruments typically with a time resolution of an hour or less. These methods often overcome many of the limitations associated with measuring atmospheric PM mass concentrations by daily filter-based methods (e.g., potential positive or negative sampling artifacts). Semicontinuous coarse and ultrafine mass measurement methods also were developed and evaluated. Other semicontinuous monitors tested measured the major components of PM such as nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, organic and elemental carbon, trace elements, and water content of the aerosol as well as methods for other physical properties of PM, such as number concentration, size distribution, and particle density. Particle mass spectrometers, although unlikely to be used in national routine monitoring networks in the foreseeable future because of their complex technical requirements and cost, are mentioned here because of the wealth of new information they provide on the size-resolved chemical composition of atmospheric particles on a near continuous basis. Particle mass spectrometers likely represent the greatest advancement in PM measurement technology during the last decade. The improvements in time resolution achieved by the reported semicontinuous methods have proven to be especially useful in characterizing ambient PM, and are becoming essential in allowing scientists to

  10. Competitive manufacturing strategies for the manufacturing industries in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, Gündüz; Ulusoy, Gunduz

    2003-01-01

    In this study, results of the research into competitive manufacturing strategies of companies in four different sector studies covering 82 companies from the electronics, cement, automotive manufacturers, and appliances part and component suppliers in Turkey are presented. The data used in the study are gathered by conducting four sector surveys in 1997 and 1998 using a questionnaire supported by some follow-up interviews and site visits. A competitive manufacturing strategy is represented he...

  11. Three techniques for the fabrication of high precision, mm-sized metal components based on two-photon lithography, applied for manufacturing horn antennas for THz transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standaert, Alexander; Brancato, Luigi; Lips, Bram; Ceyssens, Frederik; Puers, Robert; Reynaert, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel packaging solution which integrates micro-machined 3D horn antennas with millimeter-wave and THz tranceivers. This packaging solution is shown to be a valid competitor to existing technologies like metallic split-block waveguides and low temperature cofired ceramics. Three different fabrication methods based on two-photon lithography are presented to form the horn antennas. The first uses two-photon lithography to form the bulk of the antenna. This structure is then metalised through physical vapor deposition (PVD) and copper plating. The second fabrication method makes use of a soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold to easily replicate structures and the third method forms the horn antenna through electroforming. A prototype is accurately positioned on top of a 400 GHz 28 nm CMOS transmitter and glued in place with epoxy, thus providing a fully packaged solution. Measurement results show a 12 dB increase in the antenna gain when using the packaged solution. The fabrication processes are not limited to horn antennas alone and can be used to form a wide range of mm-sized metal components.

  12. Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortovich, C. [PCC Airfoils, Inc., Beachwood, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The specific goal of this program is to define manufacturing methods that will allow single crystal technology to be applied to complex-cored airfoils components for power generation applications. Tasks addressed include: alloy melt practice to reduce the sulfur content; improvement of casting process; core materials design; and grain orientation control.

  13. AN ANALYSIS OF THE MANUFACTURING POSSIBILITY OF SPECIAL ANKLE FOOT ORTHOSIS COMPONENTS BY OMPARISON BETWEEN THE REQUIRED PRECISION AND THE VAILABLE PRECISION ON A VERTICAL MACHINING CENTER PROGRAMED WITH TOPSOLID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru STANIMIR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Validation of different solutions adopted to achieve new ankle foot orthosis involves among others their prototyping. In these paper we developed a representative part for two axis machining that requires the use of the main features of TopSolid Cad and Cam modules, and that assumes the use of the main manufacturing processes that usually may be met on a vertical machining center. Also, in order to determine the dimensional and geometrical deviations of the part this was done on the YMC 1050 machining center. After comparing the measured deviations with the requirements of various components of orthesis, we concluded that the available precision meets the requirements and that the machining center with TopSolid software that we have will enable us to realize special ankle foot orthosis of quality, for experimental research .

  14. Smart Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  15. Evaluation of the BioVigilant IMD-A, a novel optical spectroscopy technology for the continuous and real-time environmental monitoring of viable and nonviable particles. Part II. Case studies in environmental monitoring during aseptic filling, intervention assessments, and glove integrity testing in manufacturing isolators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael J; Walsh, Michael R; Shrake, Jerry L; Dukes, Randall E; Hill, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the use of the BioVigilant IMD-A, a real-time and continuous monitoring technology based on optical spectroscopy, to simultaneously and instantaneously detect, size, and enumerate both viable and nonviable particles in a variety of filling and transfer isolator environments during an aseptic fill, transfer of sterilized components, and filling interventions. Continuous monitoring of three separate isolators for more than 16 h and representing more than 28 m3 of air per isolator (under static conditions) yielded a mean viable particle count of zero (0) per cubic meter. Although the mean count per cubic meter was zero, the detection of very low levels of single viable particles was randomly observed in each of these sampling runs. No viable particles were detected during the manual transfer of sterilized components from transfer isolators into a filling isolator, and similar results were observed during an aseptic fill, a filling needle change-out procedure, and during disassembly, movement, and reassembly of a vibrating stopper bowl. During the continuous monitoring of a sample transfer port and a simulated mousehole, no viable particles were detected; however, when the sampling probe was inserted beyond the isolator-room interface, the IMD-A instantaneously detected and enumerated both viable and nonviable particles originating from the surrounding room. Data from glove pinhole studies showed no viable particles being observed, although significant viable particles were immediately detected when the gloves were removed and a bare hand was allowed to introduce microorganisms into the isolator. The IMD-A technology offers the industry an unprecedented advantage over growth-based bioaerosol samplers for monitoring the state of microbiological control in pharmaceutical manufacturing environments, and represents significant progress toward the acceptance of microbiology process analytical technology solutions for the industry.

  16. Manufacturing development of low activation vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Johnson, W.R.; Baxi, C.B.

    1996-10-01

    General Atomics is developing manufacturing methods for vanadium alloys as part of a program to encourage the development of low activation alloys for fusion use. The culmination of the program is the fabrication and installation of a vanadium alloy structure in the DIII-D tokamak as part of the Radiative Divertor modification. Water-cooled vanadium alloy components will comprise a portion of the new upper divertor structure. The first step, procuring the material for this program has been completed. The largest heat of vanadium alloy made to date, 1200 kg of V-4Cr-4Ti, has been produced and is being converted into various product forms. Results of many tests on the material during the manufacturing process are reported. Research into potential fabrication methods has been and continues to be performed along with the assessment of manufacturing processes particularly in the area of joining. Joining of vanadium alloys has been identified as the most critical fabrication issue for their use in the Radiative Divertor Program. Joining processes under evaluation include resistance seam, electrodischarge (stud), friction and electron beam welding. Results of welding tests are reported. Metallography and mechanical tests are used to evaluate the weld samples. The need for a protective atmosphere during different welding processes is also being determined. General Atomics has also designed, manufactured, and will be testing a helium-cooled, high heat flux component to assess the use of helium cooled vanadium alloy components for advanced tokamak systems. The component is made from vanadium alloy tubing, machined to enhance the heat transfer characteristics, and joined to end flanges to allow connection to the helium supply. Results are reported

  17. Product costing program for wood component manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and timely product costing information is critically important for companies in planning the optimal utilization of company resources. While an overestimation of product costs can lead to loss of potential business and market share, underestimation of product costs can result in financial losses to the company. This article introduces a product costing program...

  18. LEAN Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne

    . The mission with the strategy is to obtain competitive production in Denmark and in Western Europe based on the right combination of manufacturing principles, motivated and trained employees, level of automation, and cooperation with suppliers and customers worldwide. The strategy has resulted in technical...

  19. Ultrasonic NDE Simulation for Composite Manufacturing Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, Cara A. C.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    The increased use of composites in aerospace components is expected to continue into the future. The large scale use of composites in aerospace necessitates the development of composite-appropriate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods to quantitatively characterize defects in as-manufactured parts and damage incurred during or post manufacturing. Ultrasonic techniques are one of the most common approaches for defect/damage detection in composite materials. One key technical challenge area included in NASA's Advanced Composite's Project is to develop optimized rapid inspection methods for composite materials. Common manufacturing defects in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites include fiber waviness (in-plane and out-of-plane), porosity, and disbonds; among others. This paper is an overview of ongoing work to develop ultrasonic wavefield based methods for characterizing manufacturing waviness defects. The paper describes the development and implementation of a custom ultrasound simulation tool that is used to model ultrasonic wave interaction with in-plane fiber waviness (also known as marcelling). Wavefield data processing methods are applied to the simulation data to explore possible routes for quantitative defect characterization.

  20. NREL Patents Method for Continuous Monitoring of Materials During

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing | News | NREL NREL Patents Method for Continuous Monitoring of Materials During Manufacturing News Release: NREL Patents Method for Continuous Monitoring of Materials During Manufacturing NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF). More information, including the published patent, can

  1. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  2. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  3. Manufacturing: the new case for vertical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumpe, Ted; Bolwijn, Piet

    1988-01-01

    The article argues that the solid corporation will continue to view vertical integration as a critical part of manufacturing reform. Manufacturing reform and backward integration are related in insidious ways to the three stages of production over which the big manufacturers preside. Without

  4. Toward New-Generation Intelligent Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent manufacturing is a general concept that is under continuous development. It can be categorized into three basic paradigms: digital manufacturing, digital-networked manufacturing, and new-generation intelligent manufacturing. New-generation intelligent manufacturing represents an in-depth integration of new-generation artificial intelligence (AI technology and advanced manufacturing technology. It runs through every link in the full life-cycle of design, production, product, and service. The concept also relates to the optimization and integration of corresponding systems; the continuous improvement of enterprises’ product quality, performance, and service levels; and reduction in resources consumption. New-generation intelligent manufacturing acts as the core driving force of the new industrial revolution and will continue to be the main pathway for the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry in the decades to come. Human-cyber-physical systems (HCPSs reveal the technological mechanisms of new-generation intelligent manufacturing and can effectively guide related theoretical research and engineering practice. Given the sequential development, cross interaction, and iterative upgrading characteristics of the three basic paradigms of intelligent manufacturing, a technology roadmap for “parallel promotion and integrated development” should be developed in order to drive forward the intelligent transformation of the manufacturing industry in China. Keywords: Advanced manufacturing, New-generation intelligent manufacturing, Human-cyber-physical system, New-generation AI, Basic paradigms, Parallel promotion, Integrated development

  5. Manufacturing strategy issues in selected Indian manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahender Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some findings of Indian manufacturing sectors viz. automobile (especially two-wheeler, tractor and general manufacturing industry. Various manufacturing strategy issues such as competitive priorities, improvement activities, and performance measures, have been identified and assessed in Indian context. Sector wise comparison of competitive priorities, improvement activities i.e. advanced manufacturing technology (AMT, integrated information systems (IIS, and advanced management systems (AMS, and performance measure, is provided. Our results showed that most of the Indian companies are still emphasizing on quality. However, automobile sector has set to compete globally with high innovation rate, faster new product development, and continuous improvement. It is also observed that Indian companies are investing more in AMS as compared to IIS and AMT. Manufacturing competence index is also computed for each sector.

  6. Out-of-autoclave manufacturing of a stiffened thermoplastic carbon fibre PEEK panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, M.; Goggins, J.; Doyle, A.; Weafer, B.; Ward, M.; Bizeul, M.; Canavan, R.; O'Bradaigh, C.; Doyle, K.; Harrison, N.

    2017-10-01

    Out-of-Autoclave manufacturing methods, specifically Automated Tape Placement (ATP) and induction welding, used in the fabrication of a stiffened thermoplastic demonstrator panel, are presented in this study. The demonstrator panel consists of two stiffeners induction welded to a flat skin, to form a typical load bearing aerospace sub-component. The skin of the panel is manufactured from uni-directional Carbon Fibre (CF) Polyetheretherkeytone (PEEK) using laser assisted Automated Tape Placement (ATP) and the stiffeners are press formed from woven CF-PEEK. The stiffeners are fusion bonded to the skin using a continuous induction welding process. A susceptor material is used at the interface to ensure the required heating is concentrated at the weldline. Microscopy was used to examine the manufactured coupons for defects. Destructive testing was carried out to evaluate the strength of the overall assembly. The work shows that assemblies manufactured using continuous induction welding and ATP are suitable for load bearing aerospace applications.

  7. Implementation of microelectronic components in nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashour, M.A

    1997-01-01

    As the next logical step in the evolution of programmable devices, Field programmable interconnect components (FPIC) bring the benefits of programmability to the system-level by enabling totally p rogrammable hardware . Continuing what was started by programmable memories twenty years ago and then enhanced by programmable logic ten years later, programmable interconnect holds the key to complete system programmability. History has shown that flexibility is the key benefit realized by programmable technologies (see figure 1). Initially used in a lab environment for design verification purposes, programmable technologies enhance development and ease of experimentation. As experience by more users is accumulated, performances improves and component prices are reduced, applications rapidly expand to address highly flexible and quickly implemented final manufactured products. With similar attributes of it's programmable predecessors, FPIC technology provides an attractive solution to the design verification problems of today and the manufacturing challenges of tomorrow

  8. Support given by the manufacturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomer, E.

    1993-01-01

    As regards German NPP, the purchaser has the control function and the manufacturer the role of a general planner binding together all supply lots. Therefore the manufacturer possesses a very broad and thorough detailed knowledge of the plant functioning and becomes a life-long important partner of the plant. Such partnership requires from the manufacturer to provide continuously available and economical services to the plant; he must work purposefully in a quality-conscious and innovative way. This is his vision, and he will comply with it over the whole service life of the plant. The importance of services is illustrated by a large number of examples. (orig./DG) [de

  9. Test manufacturing of copper canisters with cast inserts. Assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, C.G

    1998-08-01

    The current design of canisters for the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel consists of an outer corrosion-protective copper casing in the form of a tubular section with lid and bottom and an inner pressure-resistant insert. The insert is designed to be manufactured by casting and inside are channels in which the fuel assemblies are to be placed. Over the last years, a number of full-scale manufacturing tests of all canister components have been carried out. The purpose has been to determine and develop the best manufacturing technique and to establish long-term contacts with the best suppliers of material and technology. Part of the work has involved the developing and implementing of a quality assurance system in accordance with ISO 9001, covering the whole chain from suppliers of material up to and including the delivery of assembled canisters. This report consists of a description of the design of the canister together with current drawings and complementary technical specifications stipulating, among other things, requirements placed on different materials. The different manufacturing methods that have been used are also described and commented on in both text and illustrations. For the manufacturing of copper tubes, the roll-forming of rolled plate to tube halves and longitudinal welding is a method that has been tested on a relatively large number of tubes by now, and that probably can be developed into a functioning production method. However, the very promising outcome of performed tests on seamless tube manufacturing, has resulted in a change in direction in tube manufacturing, focusing on continued testing of extrusion as well as pierce and draw processing in the immediate future. In connection with ongoing operations, new manufacturing tests of tubes with less material thickness will be carried out. Test manufacturing of cast inserts has resulted in the choice of nodular iron as material in the continued work. This improvement in design has resulted

  10. Test manufacturing of copper canisters with cast inserts. Assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, C.G.

    1998-08-01

    The current design of canisters for the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel consists of an outer corrosion-protective copper casing in the form of a tubular section with lid and bottom and an inner pressure-resistant insert. The insert is designed to be manufactured by casting and inside are channels in which the fuel assemblies are to be placed. Over the last years, a number of full-scale manufacturing tests of all canister components have been carried out. The purpose has been to determine and develop the best manufacturing technique and to establish long-term contacts with the best suppliers of material and technology. Part of the work has involved the developing and implementing of a quality assurance system in accordance with ISO 9001, covering the whole chain from suppliers of material up to and including the delivery of assembled canisters. This report consists of a description of the design of the canister together with current drawings and complementary technical specifications stipulating, among other things, requirements placed on different materials. The different manufacturing methods that have been used are also described and commented on in both text and illustrations. For the manufacturing of copper tubes, the roll-forming of rolled plate to tube halves and longitudinal welding is a method that has been tested on a relatively large number of tubes by now, and that probably can be developed into a functioning production method. However, the very promising outcome of performed tests on seamless tube manufacturing, has resulted in a change in direction in tube manufacturing, focusing on continued testing of extrusion as well as pierce and draw processing in the immediate future. In connection with ongoing operations, new manufacturing tests of tubes with less material thickness will be carried out. Test manufacturing of cast inserts has resulted in the choice of nodular iron as material in the continued work. This improvement in design has resulted

  11. IAEA Coordinated Research Project on the Establishment of a Material Properties Database for Irradiated Core Structural Components for Continued Safe Operation and Lifetime Extension of Ageing Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borio Di Tigliole, A.; Schaaf, Van Der; Barnea, Y.; Bradley, E.; Morris, C.; Rao, D. V. H. [Research Reactor Section, Vianna (Australia); Shokr, A. [Research Reactor Safety Section, Vienna (Australia); Zeman, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    Today more than 50% of operating Research Reactors (RRs) are over 45 years old. Thus, ageing management is one of the most important issues to face in order to ensure availability (including life extension), reliability and safe operation of these facilities for the future. Management of the ageing process requires, amongst others, the predictions for the behavior of structural materials of primary components subjected to irradiation such as reactor vessel and core support structures, many of which are extremely difficult or impossible to replace. In fact, age-related material degradation mechanisms resulted in high profile, unplanned and lengthy shutdowns and unique regulatory processes of relicensing the facilities in recent years. These could likely have been prevented by utilizing available data for the implementation of appropriate maintenance and surveillance programmes. This IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) will provide an international forum to establish a material properties Database for irradiated core structural materials and components. It is expected that this Database will be used by research reactor operators and regulators to help predict ageing related degradation. This would be useful to minimize unpredicted outages due to ageing processes of primary components and to mitigate lengthy and costly shutdowns. The Database will be a compilation of data from RRs operators' inputs, comprehensive literature reviews and experimental data from RRs. Moreover, the CRP will specify further activities needed to be addressed in order to bridge the gaps in the new created Database, for potential follow-on activities. As per today, 13 Member States (MS) confirmed their agreement to contribute to the development of the Database, covering a wide number of materials and properties. The present publication incorporates two parts: the first part includes details on the pre-CRP Questionnaire, including the conclusions drawn from the answers received from

  12. IAEA Coordinated Research Project on the Establishment of a Material Properties Database for Irradiated Core Structural Components for Continued Safe Operation and Lifetime Extension of Ageing Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borio Di Tigliole, A.; Schaaf, Van Der; Barnea, Y.; Bradley, E.; Morris, C.; Rao, D. V. H.; Shokr, A.; Zeman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Today more than 50% of operating Research Reactors (RRs) are over 45 years old. Thus, ageing management is one of the most important issues to face in order to ensure availability (including life extension), reliability and safe operation of these facilities for the future. Management of the ageing process requires, amongst others, the predictions for the behavior of structural materials of primary components subjected to irradiation such as reactor vessel and core support structures, many of which are extremely difficult or impossible to replace. In fact, age-related material degradation mechanisms resulted in high profile, unplanned and lengthy shutdowns and unique regulatory processes of relicensing the facilities in recent years. These could likely have been prevented by utilizing available data for the implementation of appropriate maintenance and surveillance programmes. This IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) will provide an international forum to establish a material properties Database for irradiated core structural materials and components. It is expected that this Database will be used by research reactor operators and regulators to help predict ageing related degradation. This would be useful to minimize unpredicted outages due to ageing processes of primary components and to mitigate lengthy and costly shutdowns. The Database will be a compilation of data from RRs operators' inputs, comprehensive literature reviews and experimental data from RRs. Moreover, the CRP will specify further activities needed to be addressed in order to bridge the gaps in the new created Database, for potential follow-on activities. As per today, 13 Member States (MS) confirmed their agreement to contribute to the development of the Database, covering a wide number of materials and properties. The present publication incorporates two parts: the first part includes details on the pre-CRP Questionnaire, including the conclusions drawn from the answers received from the MS

  13. The DARPA manufacturing initiative in high temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, K.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has a very aggressive Technology Base program in high temperature superconductivity. This program is expected to provide the basis for a specialized set of military products - passive microwave and millimeter wave devices - within the next three years. In order to get these high leverage products into military systems, a manufacturing base must be developed for HTSC components. A plan for DARPA in HTSC manufacturing is directly coupled with the ongoing DARPA materials and device oriented R and D program. In essence, this plan recommends a three phased effort: 1. Phase I (two years); Fund companies through R and D contracts for specialized HTSC components; prepare a detailed plan and develop an HTSC consortium. 2. Phase II (six years): Establish an HTSC Sematech initiative for electronic applications, including active devices. 3. Phase III (optional): Continue the HTSC Sematech with emphasis on high power applications

  14. Semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of different silage crops: VFAs formation, methane yield from fiber and non-fiber components and digestate composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokój, T; Bułkowska, K; Gusiatin, Z M; Klimiuk, E; Jankowski, K J

    2015-08-01

    This study presents the results of long-term semi-continuous experiments on anaerobic digestion at an HRT of 45d with ten silages: 2 annual and 4 perennial crops, and 4 mixtures of annual with perennial crops. The composition of substrates and digestates was determined with Van Soest's fractionation method. Removal of non-fiber materials ranged from 49.4% (Miscanthus sacchariflorus) to 89.3% (Zea mays alone and mixed with M. sacchariflorus), that of fiber materials like lignin ranged from 0.005% (Z. mays alone and mixed with grasses at VS ratio of 90:10%) to 46.5% (Sida hermaphrodita). The lowest stability of anaerobic digestion, as confirmed by normalized data concentrations of volatile fatty acids, was reported for both miscanthuses and sugar sorghum. The methane yield coefficients for non-fiber and fiber materials were 0.3666 and 0.2556L/g, respectively. All digestate residues had high fertilizing value, especially those from mixtures of crops. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Good manufacturing practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the Implementation of good manufacturing practice for radiopharmaceuticals. The presentation is divided into next parts: Batch size; Expiration date; QC Testing; Environmental concerns; Personnel aspects; Radiation concerns; Theoretical yields; Sterilizing filters; Control and reconciliation of materials and components; Product strength; In process sampling and testing; Holding and distribution; Drug product inspection; Buildings and facilities; Renovations at BNL for GMP; Aseptic processing and sterility assurance; Process validation and control; Quality control and drug product stability; Documentation and other GMP topics; Building design considerations; Equipment; and Summary

  16. Detecting Attacks in CyberManufacturing Systems: Additive Manufacturing Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Mingtao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available CyberManufacturing System is a vision for future manufacturing where physical components are fully integrated with computational processes in a connected environment. However, realizing the vision requires that its security be adequately ensured. This paper presents a vision-based system to detect intentional attacks on additive manufacturing processes, utilizing machine learning techniques. Particularly, additive manufacturing systems have unique vulnerabilities to malicious attacks, which can result in defective infills but without affecting the exterior. In order to detect such infill defects, the research uses simulated 3D printing process images as well as actual 3D printing process images to compare accuracies of machine learning algorithms in classifying, clustering and detecting anomalies on different types of infills. Three algorithms - (i random forest, (ii k nearest neighbor, and (iii anomaly detection - have been adopted in the research and shown to be effective in detecting such defects.

  17. Manufactured volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, Noemi; Meuli, Martin; Subotic, Ulrike; Moehrlen, Ueli; Mazzone, Luca; Arlettaz, Romaine

    2013-06-01

    Malrotation with a common mesentery is the classical pathology allowing midgut volvulus to occur. There are only a few reports of small bowel volvulus without malrotation or other pathology triggering volvulation. We describe three cases of small bowel volvulus in very premature newborns with a perfectly normal intra-abdominal anatomy and focus on the question, what might have set off volvulation. In 2005 to 2008, three patients developed small bowel volvulus without any underlying pathology. Retrospective patient chart review was performed with special focus on clinical presentation, preoperative management, intraoperative findings, and potential causative explanations. Mean follow-up period was 46 months. All patients were born between 27 and 31 weeks (mean 28 weeks) with a birth weight between 800 and 1,000 g (mean 887 g). They presented with an almost identical pattern of symptoms including sudden abdominal distension, abdominal tenderness, erythema of the abdominal wall, high gastric residuals, and radiographic signs of ileus. All of them were treated with intensive abdominal massage or pelvic rotation to improve bowel movement before becoming symptomatic. Properistaltic maneuvers including abdominal massage and pelvic rotation may cause what we term a "manufactured" volvulus in very premature newborns. Thus, this practice was stopped. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. A system approach to controlling semiconductor manufacturing operations

    OpenAIRE

    Σταυράκης, Γιώργος Δ.

    1987-01-01

    Semicoductor manufacturers, faced with stiffening competition in both product cost and quality, require improved utilization of their development and manufacturing resources. Manufacturing philosophy must be changed, from focusing on short term results, to support continuous improvements in both output and quality. Such improvements demand better information management to monitor and control the manufacturing process. From these considerations, a process control methodology was develope...

  19. Electronics manufacturing and assembly in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukowski, John A.; Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    In the consumer electronics industry, precision processing technology is the basis for enhancing product functions and for minimizing components and end products. Throughout Japan, manufacturing technology is seen as critical to the production and assembly of advanced products. While its population has increased less than 30 percent over twenty-five years, Japan's gross national product has increase thirtyfold; this growth has resulted in large part from rapid replacement of manual operations with innovative, high-speed, large-scale, continuously running, complex machines that process a growing number of miniaturized components. The JTEC panel found that introduction of next-generation electronics products in Japan goes hand-in-hand with introduction of new and improved production equipment. In the panel's judgment, Japan's advanced process technologies and equipment development and its highly automated factories are crucial elements of its domination of the consumer electronics marketplace - and Japan's expertise in manufacturing consumer electronics products gives it potentially unapproachable process expertise in all electronics markets.

  20. The impact of fit manufacturing on green manufacturing: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ang Nian; Sin, Tan Chan; Fathullah, M.; Lee, C. C.

    2017-09-01

    Fit manufacturing and Green manufacturing are a new trend principle and concept. They are getting popular in industrial. This paper is identifying the impact between Fit manufacturing and Green manufacturing. Besides Fit manufacturing, Lean manufacturing, Agile manufacturing and Sustainable manufacturing gives big impacts to Green Manufacturing. On top of that, this paper also discuss the benefits of applying Fit manufacturing and Green manufacturing in industrial as well as environment. Hence, applications of Fit manufacturing and Green Manufacturing are increasing year by year.

  1. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  2. Nano Manufacturing - Products and Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Alting, Leo

    2004-01-01

    The use of micro and nano technologies in components and products not only sets new demands to the manufacturing technologies. Product concepts have to be rethought and redefined in order to implement the micro and nano technologies into functional systems. Both a technology driven and a product ...

  3. Tribology in Manufacturing Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The present book aims to provide research advances on tribology in manufacturing technology for modern industry. This book can be used as a research book for final undergraduate engineering course (for example, mechanical, manufacturing, materials, etc) or as a subject on manufacturing at the postgraduate level. Also, this book can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and tribology researchers, mechanical, mechanical, manufacturing and materials engineers, professionals in related industries with manufacturing and tribology.

  4. Supply Chain and Blade Manufacturing Considerations in the Global Wind Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Ted [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Goodrich, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-12

    Over the past decade, significant wind manufacturing capacity has been built in the United States in response to an increasingly large domestic market. Recent U.S. manufacturing production levels exceed anticipated near-term domestic demand for select parts of the supply chain, in part due to policy uncertainty, and this is resulting in some restructuring in the industry. Factor location decisions are influenced by a combination of quantitative and qualitative factors; proximity to end-markets is often a key consideration, especially for manufacturers of large wind turbine components. Technology advancements in the wind sector are continuing, and larger blade designs are being pursued in the market, which may increase U.S.-based manufacturing opportunities.

  5. Cloud Manufacturing Service Paradigm for Group Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingtao Zhou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous refinement of specialization requires that the group manufacturing company must be constantly focused on how to concentrate its core resources in special sphere to form its core competitive advantage. However, the resources in enterprise group are usually distributed in different subsidiary companies, which means they cannot be fully used, constraining the competition and development of the enterprise. Conducted as a response to a need for cloud manufacturing studies, systematic and detailed studies on cloud manufacturing schema for group companies are carried out in this paper. A new hybrid private clouds paradigm is proposed to meet the requirements of aggregation and centralized use of heterogeneous resources and business units distributed in different subsidiary companies. After the introduction of the cloud manufacturing paradigm for enterprise group and its architecture, this paper presents a derivation from the abstraction of paradigm and framework to the application of a practical evaluative working mechanism. In short, the paradigm establishes an effective working mechanism to translate collaborative business process composed by the activities into cloud manufacturing process composed by services so as to create a foundation resulting in mature traditional project monitoring and scheduling technologies being able to be used in cloud manufacturing project management.

  6. Cost Accounting in the Automated Manufacturing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    1 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL M terey, California 0 DTIC II ELECTE R AD%$° NO 0,19880 -- THESIS COST ACCOUNTING IN THE AUTOMATED MANUFACTURING...PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO NO ACCESSION NO 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) E COST ACCOUNTING IN THE AUTOMATED MANUFACTURING...GROUP ’" Cost Accounting ; Product Costing ; Automated Manufacturing; CAD/CAM- CIM 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by blo

  7. Component design for LMFBR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillnow, R.H.; France, L.L.; Zerinvary, M.C.; Fox, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    Just as FFTF has prototype components to confirm their design, FFTF is serving as a prototype for the design of the commercial LMFBR's. Design and manufacture of critical components for the FFTF system have been accomplished primarily using vendors with little or no previous experience in supplying components for high temperature sodium systems. The exposure of these suppliers, and through them a multitude of subcontractors, to the requirements of this program has been a necessary and significant step in preparing American industry for the task of supplying the large mechanical components required for commercial LMFBR's

  8. Laser additive manufacturing of multimaterial tool inserts: a simulation-based optimization study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2017-01-01

    laser additive manufacturing. The physical handling of multi-material in a SLM setup continues to be a primary challenge along with the selection of process parameters/plan to achieve the desired results – both challenges requiring considerable experimental undertakings. Consequently, numerical process...... which a layer of steel has been deposited using cold-spraying technique, such as to protect the microstructure of Ni during selective laser melting. The process modelled thus entails additively manufacturing a steel tool insert around the multi-material specimen with a goal of achieving a dense product......Selective laser melting is fast evolving into an industrially applicable manufacturing process. While components produced from high-value materials, such as Ti6Al4V and Inconel 718 alloys, are already being produced, the processing of multi-material components still remains to be achieved by using...

  9. Components selection for ageing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingiuc, C.; Vidican, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents a synthesis of methods and activities realized for the selection of critical components to assure plant safety and availability (as electricity supplier). There are presented main criteria for selection, screening process. For the resulted categories of components shall be applied different category of maintenance (condition oriented, scheduled or corrective), function of the importance and financial effort necessary to fulfil the task. 1. Systems and components screening for plant safety assurance For the systems selection, from Safety point of view, was necessary first, to define systems which are dangerous in case of failure (mainly by rupture/ release of radioactivity) and the safety systems which have to mitigate the effects. This is realized based on accident analysis (from Safety Report). Also where taken in to account the 4 basic Safety Principles: 'Reactor shut down; Residual heat removal; Radioactivity products confinement; NPP status monitoring in normal and accident conditions'. Following step is to establish safety support systems, which have to action to assure main safety systems operation. This could be realized based on engineering judgement, or on PSA Level I analysis. Finally shall be realized chains of the support systems, which have to work, till primary systems. For the critical components selection, was realized a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), considering the components effects of failures, on system safety function. 2. Systems and components screening for plant availability assurance The work was realized in two steps: Systems screening; Components screening The systems screening, included: General, analyze of the plant systems list and the definition of those which clearly have to run continue to assure the nominal power; Realization of a complex diagram to define interdependence between the systems (e.g. PHT and auxiliaries, moderator and auxiliaries, plant electrical diagram); Fill of special

  10. Automation and Integration in Semiconductor Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Da-Yin

    2010-01-01

    Semiconductor automation originates from the prevention and avoidance of frauds in daily fab operations. As semiconductor technology and business continuously advance and grow, manufacturing systems must aggressively evolve to meet the changing technical and business requirements in this industry. Semiconductor manufacturing has been suffering pains from islands of automation. The problems associated with these systems are limited

  11. Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-08-28

    A major accomplishment of the Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM) project was the development of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined part products. Key components of the framework are a manufacturing model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering working environment, knowledge-based software systems for design, process planning, and manufacturing and new production technologies for making products directly from design application software.

  12. Application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for cleaning verification in pharmaceutical manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Damion K; Cauchi, Michael; Piletsky, Sergey; Mccrossen, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Cleaning verification is the process by which pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment is determined as sufficiently clean to allow manufacture to continue. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a very sensitive spectroscopic technique capable of detection at levels appropriate for cleaning verification. In this paper, commercially available Klarite SERS substrates were employed in order to obtain the necessary enhancement of signal for the identification of chemical species at concentrations of 1 to 10 ng/cm2, which are relevant to cleaning verification. The SERS approach was combined with principal component analysis in the identification of drug compounds recovered from a contaminated steel surface.

  13. Beryllium brazing considerations in CANDU fuel bundle manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmsen, J.; Pant, A.; Lewis, B.J.; Thompson, W.T.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' Appendages of CANDU fuel bundle elements are currently joined to zircaloy sheaths by vacuum beryllium brazing. Ongoing environmental and workplace concerns about beryllium combined with the continuous efforts by Cameco Fuel Manufacturing in its improvement process, initiated this study to find a substitute for pure beryllium. The presentation will review the necessary functionality of brazing alloy components and short list a series of alloys with the potential to duplicate the performance of pure beryllium. Modifications to current manufacturing processes based on in-plant testing will be discussed in relation to the use of these alloys. The presentation will conclude with a summary of the progress to date and further testing expected to be necessary.

  14. Semiconductors integrated circuit design for manufacturability

    CERN Document Server

    Balasinki, Artur

    2011-01-01

    Because of the continuous evolution of integrated circuit manufacturing (ICM) and design for manufacturability (DfM), most books on the subject are obsolete before they even go to press. That's why the field requires a reference that takes the focus off of numbers and concentrates more on larger economic concepts than on technical details. Semiconductors: Integrated Circuit Design for Manufacturability covers the gradual evolution of integrated circuit design (ICD) as a basis to propose strategies for improving return-on-investment (ROI) for ICD in manufacturing. Where most books put the spotl

  15. Advanced manufacturing: Technology and international competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-02-01

    Dramatic changes in the competitiveness of German and Japanese manufacturing have been most evident since 1988. All three countries are now facing similar challenges, and these challenges are clearly observed in human capital issues. Our comparison of human capital issues in German, Japanese, and US manufacturing leads us to the following key judgments: Manufacturing workforces are undergoing significant changes due to advanced manufacturing technologies. As companies are forced to develop and apply these technologies, the constituency of the manufacturing workforce (especially educational requirements, contingent labor, job content, and continuing knowledge development) is being dramatically and irreversibly altered. The new workforce requirements which result due to advanced manufacturing require a higher level of worker sophistication and responsibility.

  16. Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) For The Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    This Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Manufacturing Development Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project was conducted in two phases as a CRADA with Local Motors Inc. Phase 1 was previously reported as Advanced Manufacturing of Complex Cyber Mechanical Devices through Community Engagement and Micro-manufacturing and demonstrated the integration of components onto a prototype body part for a vehicle. Phase 2 was reported as Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for the Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles and demonstrated the high profile live printing of an all-electric vehicle using ONRL s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology. This demonstration generated considerable national attention and successfully demonstrated the capabilities of the BAAM system as developed by ORNL and Cincinnati, Inc. and the feasibility of additive manufacturing of a full scale electric vehicle as envisioned by the CRADA partner Local Motors, Inc.

  17. Bionic Manufacturing: Towards Cyborg Cells and Sentient Microbots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sarvesh Kumar; Yadav, Vikramaditya G

    2018-05-01

    Bio-inspired engineering applies biological design principles towards developing engineering solutions but is not practical as a manufacturing paradigm. We advocate 'bionic manufacturing', a synergistic fusion of biotic and abiotic components, to transition away from bio-inspiration toward bio-augmentation to address current limitations in bio-inspired manufacturing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 46 CFR 50.25-3 - Manufacturer or mill certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manufacturer or mill certification. 50.25-3 Section 50... PROVISIONS Acceptance of Material and Piping Components § 50.25-3 Manufacturer or mill certification. (a) A manufacturer or mill producing materials used in certain products for installation on inspected vessels, shall...

  19. 27 CFR 53.114 - Use in further manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use in further manufacture... further manufacture. For purposes of section 4218 and § 53.111, an article is used as material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, another article, if it is incorporated in, or is a...

  20. Robotics and automation in manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    NEI involvement in Heysham II and Torness included contracts for equipment both for the Nuclear Island and for non-nuclear associated plant. Fundamental to the approach to manufacture was the capital investment in plant and facilities to ensure the quality requirements were met with economic production methods and prompt delivery. Some of the production facilities for a selection of varied components are described. Examples of subsequent development of facilities are given to illustrate their current capability. (author)

  1. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  2. APPROACHES FOR SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G(U)NTHER Seliger; SEBASTIAN Kernbaum; MARCO Zettl

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable development is a holistic approach harmonizing ecological, economical and socio-political needs with respect to the superior objective of enhancing human living standards. Thereby the availability of natural resources and the conservation of the ecosystems have to be considered that future generations have the possibility to meet their own needs. A long-term economical development demands the transition from a source-sink economy to a cycle economy as a result of limited resources, limited environmental capacities to absorb waste and emissions as well as increasing needs of a growing population. A reference model for sustainability in manufacturing is presented and used to illustrate sustainable approaches with respect to management, technology, process and product. Adaptation of products and components is a vital element for supporting efficient reuse of products and components. Consequently adaptation contributes to the ambitious goals of sustainability. Technological enablers for adaptation as modularity, information and communication technology are exemplarily introduced. Moreover, approaches for disseminating knowledge in sustainability are given.

  3. Sustainable Manufacturing via Multi-Scale, Physics-Based Process Modeling and Manufacturing-Informed Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-04-01

    This factsheet describes a project that developed and demonstrated a new manufacturing-informed design framework that utilizes advanced multi-scale, physics-based process modeling to dramatically improve manufacturing productivity and quality in machining operations while reducing the cost of machined components.

  4. Continuous spray forming of functionally gradient materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKechnie, T.N.; Richardson, E.H.

    1995-01-01

    Researchers at Plasma Processes Inc. have produced a Functional Gradient Material (FGM) through advanced vacuum plasma spray processing for high heat flux applications. Outlined in this paper are the manufacturing methods used to develop a four component functional gradient material of copper, tungsten, boron, and boron nitride. The FGM was formed with continuous gradients and integral cooling channels eliminating bondlines and providing direct heat transfer from the high temperature exposed surface to a cooling medium. Metallurgical and x-ray diffraction analyses of the materials formed through innovative VPS (vacuum plasma spray) processing are also presented. Applications for this functional gradient structural material range from fusion reactor plasma facing components to missile nose cones to boilers

  5. Appraising manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the

  6. Manufacturing engineering and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kalpakjian, Serope; Vijai Sekar, K S

    2014-01-01

    For courses in manufacturing processes at two- or four-year schools. An up-to-date text that provides a solid background in manufacturing processes. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, SI Edition, 7e, presents a mostly qualitative description of the science, technology, and practice of manufacturing. This includes detailed descriptions of manufacturing processes and the manufacturing enterprise that will help introduce students to important concepts. With a total of 120 examples and case studies, up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of all topics, and superior two-color graphics, this text provides a solid background for manufacturing students and serves as a valuable reference text for professionals. Teaching and Learning Experience To provide a better teaching and learning experience, for both instructors and students, this program will: * Apply Theory and/or Research: An excellent overview of manufacturing conceptswith a balance of relevant fundamentals and real-world practices. * Engage Students: E...

  7. Development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. Development of manufacturing technologies for low-cost substrates (low-cost Si sheets by continuous casting method); Usugata takessho taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Tei cost kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (renzoku cast ho ni yoru tei cost Si kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on manufacturing of low-cost Si substrates by continuous casting method in fiscal 1994. (1) On manufacturing of ingots of 16 piece size, the ingot of nearly 170kg was manufactured by batch process using the Si melt injection unit prepared in last year. (2) On oxygen and carbon contents in wafers, the contents were measured by FT-IR after slicing of the ingot. As a result, the oxygen and carbon contents could be successfully reduced to the targets of 10ppma and 5ppma or less, respectively. (3) The resistivity distribution of the ingot ranged over the target of 1-2ohm-cm. (4) Cells of 100 {times} 100mm{sup 2} wide and 350{mu}m thick were verified by in-house evaluation process. Although lower cell conversion efficiency was found at the center top of the ingot, a vertical efficiency stability was nearly sufficient as a whole. (5) On the crystal growth unit prepared in fiscal 1994, any problems were not found on automatic driving and vibration during moving. 8 figs.

  8. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  9. Continuous downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-08-01

    Continuous manufacturing has been applied in many different industries but has been pursued reluctantly in biotechnology where the batchwise process is still the standard. A shift to continuous operation can improve productivity of a process and substantially reduce the footprint. Continuous operation also allows robust purification of labile biomolecules. A full set of unit operations is available to design continuous downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals. Chromatography, the central unit operation, is most advanced in respect to continuous operation. Here, the problem of 'batch' definition has been solved. This has also paved the way for implementation of continuous downstream processing from a regulatory viewpoint. Economic pressure, flexibility, and parametric release considerations will be the driving force to implement continuous manufacturing strategies in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Additive Manufacturing of Fuel Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadek Tadros, Dr. Alber Alphonse [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ritter, Dr. George W. [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Drews, Charles Donald [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ryan, Daniel [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D-printing, has been shifting from a novelty prototyping paradigm to a legitimate manufacturing tool capable of creating components for highly complex engineered products. An emerging AM technology for producing metal parts is the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process; however, industry manufacturing specifications and component design practices for L-PBF have not yet been established. Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), an industrial gas turbine manufacturer, has been evaluating AM technology for development and production applications with the desire to enable accelerated product development cycle times, overall turbine efficiency improvements, and supply chain flexibility relative to conventional manufacturing processes (casting, brazing, welding). Accordingly, Solar teamed with EWI on a joint two-and-a-half-year project with the goal of developing a production L-PBF AM process capable of consistently producing high-nickel alloy material suitable for high temperature gas turbine engine fuel injector components. The project plan tasks were designed to understand the interaction of the process variables and their combined impact on the resultant AM material quality. The composition of the high-nickel alloy powders selected for this program met the conventional cast Hastelloy X compositional limits and were commercially available in different particle size distributions (PSD) from two suppliers. Solar produced all the test articles and both EWI and Solar shared responsibility for analyzing them. The effects of powder metal input stock, laser parameters, heat treatments, and post-finishing methods were evaluated. This process knowledge was then used to generate tensile, fatigue, and creep material properties data curves suitable for component design activities. The key process controls for ensuring consistent material properties were documented in AM powder and process specifications. The basic components of the project

  11. 21 CFR 111.170 - What requirements apply to rejected components, packaging, and labels, and to rejected products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to rejected components... supplement? 111.170 Section 111.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  12. ACE - Manufacturer Identification Code (MID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The ACE Manufacturer Identification Code (MID) application is used to track and control identifications codes for manufacturers. A manufacturer is identified on an...

  13. Sustainable Manufacturing Practices in Malaysian Automotive Industry: Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Habidin, Nurul Fadly; Zubir, Anis Fadzlin Mohd; Fuz, Nursyazwani Mohd; Latip, Nor Azrin Md; Azman, Mohamed Nor Azhari

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable manufacturing practices (SMPs) have received enormous attention in current years as an effective solution to support the continuous growth and expansion of the automotive manufacturing industry. This reported study was conducted to examine confirmatory factor analysis for SMP such as manufacturing process, supply chain management, social responsibility, and environmental management based on automotive manufacturing industry. The results of confirmatory factor analysis show that fo...

  14. Fabrication of high performance components for Indian nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraj, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), a Unit of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) has been engaged for well over three-and-half decades in the manufacture of fuels for Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). All the fuel assembly components, like, fuel clad tubes, end plugs, spacers, spacer grids etc. are also being manufactured at NFC in Zirconium alloy material. Apart from the regular production of these components and finished fuel assemblies, NFC has also been engaged in the production of Zirconium alloy reactor core structurals, like, pressure tubes, calandria tubes, garter springs and reactivity control mechanisms for PHWRs and square channels for BWRs. While all these structural components are produced through standardized flow sheets, there have been continuous innovations carried out in the processes to meet the ever increasing end-use characteristics laid down by the utilities. The paper enumerates various aspects of different technologies developed at NFC for the manufacture of high performance components for reactor applications

  15. Integrated and Intelligent Manufacturing: Perspectives and Enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubao Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With ever-increasing market competition and advances in technology, more and more countries are prioritizing advanced manufacturing technology as their top priority for economic growth. Germany announced the Industry 4.0 strategy in 2013. The US government launched the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership (AMP in 2011 and the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI in 2014. Most recently, the Manufacturing USA initiative was officially rolled out to further “leverage existing resources... to nurture manufacturing innovation and accelerate commercialization” by fostering close collaboration between industry, academia, and government partners. In 2015, the Chinese government officially published a 10-year plan and roadmap toward manufacturing: Made in China 2025. In all these national initiatives, the core technology development and implementation is in the area of advanced manufacturing systems. A new manufacturing paradigm is emerging, which can be characterized by two unique features: integrated manufacturing and intelligent manufacturing. This trend is in line with the progress of industrial revolutions, in which higher efficiency in production systems is being continuously pursued. To this end, 10 major technologies can be identified for the new manufacturing paradigm. This paper describes the rationales and needs for integrated and intelligent manufacturing (i2M systems. Related technologies from different fields are also described. In particular, key technological enablers, such as the Internet of Things and Services (IoTS, cyber-physical systems (CPSs, and cloud computing are discussed. Challenges are addressed with applications that are based on commercially available platforms such as General Electric (GE’s Predix and PTC’s ThingWorx.

  16. Quality assurance in tube manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, H.

    1976-01-01

    Reliability in service essential for many high-technology products fabricated today. This is particularly the case within the nuclear industry. Here defective materials or components may have diastrous consequences to the safety of human beings and the environment. A new concept - Quality Assurance - originates from this industry. The concept implies that all contractors, fabricators and material manufactures involved must prove that the quality control system used, fulfits particular requirements at all manufacturing, inspection and testing stages. These requirement are laid down in two standards issued by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. These standards are discussed in the paper. As a manufacturer of steel products for nuclear applications Sandvik has been forced to establish a quality assurance system according to these principles. The Sandvik approach is briefly described with regard to organisation and other major quality assurance activities. Further the education and training of operators and technicians is touched upon. Finally some viewpoints regarding audits performed by customers of steel manufacturers are expressed. (author)

  17. Ionitriding of Weapon Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    and documented tho production sequences required for the case- hardening of AISI 4140 and Nitralloy 13514 steels. Determination of processina...depths were established experimentally for Nitralloy 135M and for AISI 4140 steels. These steels are commonly used for the manufacture of nitrlded...weapons components. A temperature of 050F, upper limit for lonitrlding, was selected for the Nitralloy 135M to keep treatment times short. Since AISI 4140

  18. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by

  19. Development of Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing Technology; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, V.K.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced structural ceramics are enabling materials for new transportation engine systems that have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption and pollution in automobiles and heavy vehicles. Ceramic component reliability and performance have been demonstrated in previous U.S. DOE initiatives, but high manufacturing cost was recognized as a major barrier to commercialization. Norton Advanced Ceramics (NAC), a division of Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics, Inc. (SGIC), was selected to perform a major Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing Technology (ACMT) Program. The overall objectives of NAC's program were to design, develop, and demonstrate advanced manufacturing technology for the production of ceramic exhaust valves for diesel engines. The specific objectives were (1) to reduce the manufacturing cost by an order of magnitude, (2) to develop and demonstrate process capability and reproducibility, and (3) to validate ceramic valve performance, durability, and reliability. I n order to achieve these objectives, NAC, a leading U.S. advanced ceramics component manufacturer, assembled a multidisciplinary, vertically integrated team. This team included: a major diesel engine builder, Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC); a corporate ceramics research division, SGIC's Northboro R and D Center; intelligent processing system developers, BDM Federal/MATSYS; a furnace equipment company, Centorr/Vacuum Industries; a sintering expert, Wittmer Consultants; a production OEM, Deco-Grand; a wheel manufacturer and grinding operation developer, Norton Company's Higgins Grinding Technology Center (HGTC); a ceramic machine shop, Chand Kare Technical Ceramics; and a manufacturing cost consultant, IBIS Associates. The program was divided into four major tasks: Component Design and Specification, Component Manufacturing Technology Development, Inspection and Testing, and Process Demonstration

  20. Material Database for Additive Manufacturing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    components in the field. II. BACKGROUND Additive manufacturing is a rapidly maturing process by which digital 3-D design data are used to build up...improves readiness by offering on-demand low-rate production [8, 9]. 3-D printing also enables rapid design iterations and complexity, which improve...abundant in additive manufacturing , allowing design freedom that is only limited by the material strength requirements. A set of eight conductive

  1. Lean Application to Manufacturing Ramp-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Irene; Rymaszewska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    . Abstracting from the extant literature, the authors considered the competitiveness of manufacturing companies from two principal perspectives: the leanness of the ramp-up process and the new-value creation of quality managers. While much of the literature fails to acknowledge that the roots of lean actually......This article provides a theoretical overview of the concepts of lean and manufacturing ramp-up in an attempt to conceptualize the strategic areas in which lean philosophy and principles can be applied for continuous improvements. The application of lean principles during the final stage of a new...... product development process, that is, the ramp-up process, is a critical, early enabler of lean manufacturing. The manufacturing strategy literature conceptualizes a state of “leanness in operations,” which can consolidate both the concepts of lean and manufacturing ramp-up, providing a dual perspective...

  2. Green electronics manufacturing creating environmental sensible products

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, John X

    2012-01-01

    Going ""green"" is becoming a major component of the mission for electronics manufacturers worldwide. While this goal seems simplistic, it poses daunting dilemmas. Yet, to compete effectively in the global economy, manufacturers must take the initiative to drive this crucial movement. Green Electronics Manufacturing: Creating Environmental Sensible Products provides you with a complete reference to design, develop, build, and install an electronic product with special consideration for the product's environmental impacts during its whole life cycle. The author discusses how to integrate the st

  3. ITER central solenoid manufacturing R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay Jayakumar, R.; Tsuji, H.; Ohsaki, O.

    2001-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Engineering Design Activity (EDA) includes the development of high performance superconductors, high current joints between superconducting cables and insulating materials. Also in the EDA, the resulting products of this R and D are incorporated in a Central Solenoid Model Coil which utilizes full size conductors. The manufacturing of the model coil and components has led to the development of the design, materials, tooling and process which are fully applicable to the manufacture of the ITER relevant CS coil. The R and D is essentially complete and final stages of the CS Model Coil manufacturing are underway. (author)

  4. ITER central solenoid manufacturing R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.J.; Tsuji, H.; Ohsaki, O.

    1999-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Engineering Design Activity (EDA) includes the development of high performance superconductors, high current joints between superconducting cables and insulating materials. Also in the EDA, the resulting products of this R and D are incorporated in a Central Solenoid Model Coil which utilizes full size conductors. The manufacturing of the model coil and components has led to the development of the design, materials, tooling and process which are fully applicable to the manufacture of the ITER relevant CS coil. The R and D is essentially complete and final stages of the CS Model Coil manufacturing are underway. (author)

  5. Emerging technologies in arthroplasty: additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Samik; Kulesha, Gene; Kester, Mark; Mont, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Additive manufacturing is an industrial technology whereby three-dimensional visual computer models are fabricated into physical components by selectively curing, depositing, or consolidating various materials in consecutive layers. Although initially developed for production of simulated models, the technology has undergone vast improvements and is currently increasingly being used for the production of end-use components in various aerospace, automotive, and biomedical specialties. The ability of this technology to be used for the manufacture of solid-mesh-foam monolithic and coated components of complex geometries previously considered unmanufacturable has attracted the attention of implant manufacturers, bioengineers, and orthopedic surgeons. Currently, there is a paucity of reports describing this fabrication method in the orthopedic literature. Therefore, we aimed to briefly describe this technology, some of the applications in other orthopedic subspecialties, its present use in hip and knee arthroplasty, and concerns with the present form of the technology. As there are few reports of clinical trials presently available, the true benefits of this technology can only be realized when studies evaluating the clinical and radiographic outcomes of cementless implants manufactured with additive manufacturing report durable fixation, less stress shielding, and better implant survivorship. Nevertheless, the authors believe that this technology holds great promise and may potentially change the conventional methods of casting, machining, and tooling for implant manufacturing in the future. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Replaceable LMFBR core components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding material and component performance in the high temperature, fast neutron environment of the LMFBR. Current data have provided strong assurance that the initial core component lifetime objectives of FFTF and CRBR can be met. At the same time, this knowledge translates directly into the need for improved core designs that utilize improved materials and advanced fuels required to meet objectives of low doubling times and extended core component lifetimes. An industrial base for the manufacture of quality core components has been developed in the US, and all procurements for the first two core equivalents for FFTF will be completed this year. However, the problem of fabricating recycled plutonium while dramatically reducing fabrication costs, minimizing personnel exposure, and protecting public health and safety must be addressed

  7. Case study of lean manufacturing application in a die casting manufacturing company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Ng Tan; Hoe, Clarence Chan Kok; Hong, Tang Sai; Ghobakhloo, Morteza; Pin, Chen Kah

    2015-05-01

    The case study of lean manufacturing aims to study the application of lean manufacturing in a die casting manufacturing company located in Pulau Penang, Malaysia. This case study describes mainly about the important concepts and applications of lean manufacturing which could gradually help the company in increasing the profit by studying and analyzing their current manufacturing process and company culture. Many approaches of lean manufacturing are studied in this project which includes: 5S housekeeping, Kaizen, and Takt Time. Besides, the lean tools mentioned, quality tool such as the House of Quality is being used as an analysis tool to continuously improve the product quality. In short, the existing lean culture in the company is studied and analyzed, with recommendations written at the end of this paper.

  8. Safety in a Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopczewski Marian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The safety systems include the functioning of the institutions of a state, central, and local government, businesses, and social organizations. Research in this discipline should contribute to the development of the theoretical foundations and systems of national and international security and operating systems in the area of technical safety. Technical safety engineering should deal with a design, build, operation, and decommissioning of technical measures in order to minimize the opportunities and the size of their negative impact on the environment, people, and the good of civilization. With this in mind, the main purpose of the research was to evaluate the safety of technical manufacturing company that uses a wide machine park. A plant manufacturing parts and components for automobiles was the audited company.

  9. Additive Manufacturing of Wind Turbine Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Richardson, Bradley [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lloyd, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nolet, Stephen [TPI Composites, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Hannan, James [TPI Composites, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this project was to explore the utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for low cost manufacturing of wind turbine molds. Engineers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and TPI Composites (TPI) collaborated to design and manufacture a printed mold that can be used for resin infusion of wind turbine components. Specific focus was on required material properties (operating temperatures and pressures, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), thermal conductivity), surface finish (accuracy and coatings) and system integration (integrated vacuum ports, and heating element). The project began with a simple proof of principle components, targeting surface coatings and material properties for printing a small section (approximately 4’ x 4’ x 2’) of a mold. Next, the second phase scaled up and integrated with the objective of capturing all of the necessary components (integrated heating to accelerate cure time, and vacuum, sealing) for resin infusion on a mold of significant size (8’ x 20’ x 6’).

  10. Measuring Manufacturing Innovativeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Henrik; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    2017-01-01

    Globalization and customization increases the pressure on manufacturing companies, and the ability to provide innovativeness is a potential source of competitive advantage. This paper positions the manufacturing entity in the innovation process, and investigates the relation between innovation vers...... technology and organizational concepts. Based on Danish survey data from the European Manufacturing Survey (EMS-2015) this paper finds that there is a relation between innovative companies, and their level of technology and use of organizational concepts. Technology and organizational concepts act...... as manufacturing levers to support the manufacturing and production system to provide innovativeness. The managerial implication lies in building manufacturing capabilities to support the innovative process, by standardization, optimization and creating stability in combination with automation and advanced...

  11. Manufacturing ontology through templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diciuc Vlad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing industry contains a high volume of knowhow and of high value, much of it being held by key persons in the company. The passing of this know-how is the basis of manufacturing ontology. Among other methods like advanced filtering and algorithm based decision making, one way of handling the manufacturing ontology is via templates. The current paper tackles this approach and highlights the advantages concluding with some recommendations.

  12. Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering | Classification | College of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  13. Strategic Roles of Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng

    with the trend of globalisation, how do industrial companies develop their global manufacturing networks? These two questions are actually interlinked. On the one hand, facing increasing offshoring and outsourcing of production activities, industrial companies have to understand how to develop their global...... manufacturing networks. On the other hand, ongoing globalisation also brings tremendous impacts to post-industrial economies (e.g. Denmark). A dilemma therefore arises, i.e. whether it is still necessary to keep manufacturing in these post-industrial economies; if yes, what kinds of roles manufacturing should...

  14. Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility specializes in the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of advanced composite structures and materials for both...

  15. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  16. Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Maryland provides the state of the art facilities for realizing next generation products and educating the...

  17. Chalon/Saint-Marcel manufacturing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    AREVA is the world leader in the design and construction of nuclear power plants, the manufacture of heavy components, and the supply of nuclear fuel and nuclear services such as maintenance and inspection. The Equipment Division provides the widest range of nuclear components and equipment, manufactured at its two facilities in Jeumont, northern France, and St. Marcel, in Burgundy. The St. Marcel plant, set on 35 ha (87.5 acres) near Chalon-sur-Saone, was established in 1973 in a region with a long history of specialized metalworking and mechanical activities to meet the demand for non-military nuclear requirements in France. The site offers two advantages: - excellent facilities for loading and transporting heavy components on the Saone river, - it's proximity to other group sites. Since its completion in 1975, the Chalon/St. Marcel facility has manufactured all the heavy components for French pressurized water reactors (PWRs) ranging from 900 MW to 1500 MW. It has also completed a significant number of export contracts that have made AREVA world leader. Nearly 600 heavy components (reactor vessels, steam generators, pressurizers and closure heads) have been manufactured or are currently being manufactured since the plant opened in 1975. The plant is at the heart of the manufacturing chain for nuclear steam supply systems (NSSS) supplied by AREVA. On the basis of engineering data, the plant manufactures reactor vessels, reactor vessel internals, steam generators, pressurizers and related components such as accumulators, auxiliary heat exchangers and supporting elements. Vessel upper internals Other similar components such as reactor vessels for boiling water reactors (BWR) or high temperature reactors (HTR) and other types of steam generators can also be manufactured in the plant (for example Once Through Steam Generators - OTSG). The basic activities performed at Chalon/St. Marcel are metalworking and heavy machining. These activities are carried out in strict

  18. Other components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  19. Electrostatic Discharge (ESD and Electrical Overstress (EOS: The state of the art in components to systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H. Voldman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic Discharge (ESD, Electrical Overstress (EOS and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC continue to impact semiconductor manufacturing, semiconductor components and systems as technologies scale from micro- to nano-electronics. The range of concern for components include semiconductor components, magnetic recording industry, MEMs, and for products from disk drives, cell phones, notebooks, tablets, laptops, and desktop computers. The objective of this lecture is to address the state of the art of electrostatic discharge (ESD and electrical overstress (EOS in today’s electronic components and systems. The tutorial provides a clear picture of ESD, EOS and EMC phenomena, sources, physics, failure mechanisms, testing and qualification of components and systems. The conclusion of this talk is that ESD and EOS continue to be a concern in technologies from micro-electronics to nano-structures, and will remain a reliability and quality issue in the future.

  20. ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, T.; Vieider, G.; Akiba, M.

    1991-01-01

    This document summarizes results of the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, namely those that pertain to the plasma facing components of the reactor vessel, of which the main components are the first wall and the divertor plates. After an introduction and an executive summary, the principal functions of the plasma-facing components are delineated, i.e., (i) define the low-impurity region within which the plasma is produced, (ii) absorb the electromagnetic radiation and charged-particle flux from the plasma, and (iii) protect the blanket/shield components from the plasma. A list of critical design issues for the divertor plates and the first wall is given, followed by discussions of the divertor plate design (including the issues of material selection, erosion lifetime, design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, operating limits and overall lifetime, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, and advanced divertor concepts) and the first wall design (armor material and design, erosion lifetime, overall design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, lifetime and operating limits, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, an alternative first wall design, and the limiters used instead of the divertor plates during start-up). Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents by a rapid prototyping process chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knitter, R.; Bauer, W.; Goehring, D.; Hausselt, J.

    2001-01-01

    Manufacturing of new ceramic components may be improved significantly by the use of rapid prototyping processes especially in the development of miniaturized or micropatterned components. Most known generative ceramic molding processes do not provide a sufficient resolution for the fabrication of microstructured components. In contrast to this, a rapid prototyping process chain that for example, combines micro-stereolithography and low-pressure injection molding, allows the rapid manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents from functional models to preliminary or small-lot series. (orig.)

  2. ENABLING SMART MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECISION-MAKING SUPPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helu, Moneer; Libes, Don; Lubell, Joshua; Lyons, Kevin; Morris, KC

    2017-01-01

    Smart manufacturing combines advanced manufacturing capabilities and digital technologies throughout the product lifecycle. These technologies can provide decision-making support to manufacturers through improved monitoring, analysis, modeling, and simulation that generate more and better intelligence about manufacturing systems. However, challenges and barriers have impeded the adoption of smart manufacturing technologies. To begin to address this need, this paper defines requirements for data-driven decision making in manufacturing based on a generalized description of decision making. Using these requirements, we then focus on identifying key barriers that prevent the development and use of data-driven decision making in industry as well as examples of technologies and standards that have the potential to overcome these barriers. The goal of this research is to promote a common understanding among the manufacturing community that can enable standardization efforts and innovation needed to continue adoption and use of smart manufacturing technologies. PMID:28649678

  3. Post Processing Methods used to Improve Surface Finish of Products which are Manufactured by Additive Manufacturing Technologies: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhar, N. N.; Mulay, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes open the possibility to go directly from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to a physical prototype. These prototypes are used as test models before it is finalized as well as sometimes as a final product. Additive Manufacturing has many advantages over the traditional process used to develop a product such as allowing early customer involvement in product development, complex shape generation and also save time as well as money. Additive manufacturing also possess some special challenges that are usually worth overcoming such as Poor Surface quality, Physical Properties and use of specific raw material for manufacturing. To improve the surface quality several attempts had been made by controlling various process parameters of Additive manufacturing and also applying different post processing techniques on components manufactured by Additive manufacturing. The main objective of this work is to document an extensive literature review in the general area of post processing techniques which are used in Additive manufacturing.

  4. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  5. Improving Project Manufacturing Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpivaara Ville

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to develop firms’ project manufacturing coordination. The development will be made by centralizing the manufacturing information flows in one system. To be able to centralize information, a deep user need assessment is required. After user needs have been identified, the existing system will be developed to match these needs. The theoretical background is achieved through exploring the literature of project manufacturing, development project success factors and different frameworks and tools for development project execution. The focus of this research is rather in customer need assessment than in system’s technical expertise. To ensure the deep understanding of customer needs this study is executed by action research method. As a result of this research the information system for project manufacturing coordination was developed to respond revealed needs of the stakeholders. The new system improves the quality of the manufacturing information, eliminates waste in manufacturing coordination processes and offers a better visibility to the project manufacturing. Hence it provides a solid base for the further development of project manufacturing.

  6. Modern manufacturing engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers recent research and trends in Manufacturing Engineering. The chapters emphasize different aspects of the transformation from materials to products. It provides the reader with fundamental materials treatments and the integration of processes. Concepts such as green and lean manufacturing are also covered in this book.

  7. Improved Methods for Production Manufacturing Processes in Environmentally Benign Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available How to design a production process with low carbon emissions and low environmental impact as well as high manufacturing performance is a key factor in the success of low-carbon production. It is important to address concerns about climate change for the large carbon emission source manufacturing industries because of their high energy consumption and environmental impact during the manufacturing stage of the production life cycle. In this paper, methodology for determining a production process is developed. This methodology integrates process determination from three different levels: new production processing, selected production processing and batch production processing. This approach is taken within a manufacturing enterprise based on prior research. The methodology is aimed at providing decision support for implementing Environmentally Benign Manufacturing (EBM and low-carbon production to improve the environmental performance of the manufacturing industry. At the first level, a decision-making model for new production processes based on the Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (GSAA is presented. The decision-making model considers not only the traditional factors, such as time, quality and cost, but also energy and resource consumption and environmental impact, which are different from the traditional methods. At the second level, a methodology is developed based on an IPO (Input-Process-Output model that integrates assessments of resource consumption and environmental impact in terms of a materials balance principle for batch production processes. At the third level, based on the above two levels, a method for determining production processes that focus on low-carbon production is developed based on case-based reasoning, expert systems and feature technology for designing the process flow of a new component. Through the above three levels, a method for determining the production process to identify, quantify, assess, and optimize the

  8. Optimized manufacturable porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    Topology optimization has been used to design two-dimensional material structures with specific elastic properties, but optimized designs of three-dimensional material structures are more scarsely seen. Partly because it requires more computational power, and partly because it is a major challenge...... to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM....../S). The available manufacturing methods are best suited for porous materials (one constituent and void), but the optimization procedure can easily include more constituents. The elasticity tensor is found from one unit cell using the homogenization method together with a standard finite element (FE) discretization...

  9. Report of National Research Institute for Pollution and Resources for fiscal 1979. Research on conversion of coal to petroleum, research on coal liquefaction, high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation of coal by continuous test equipment, and manufacture of coal chemicals; 1979 nendo sekitan no yuka no kenkyu / sekitan no ekika no kenkyu / renzoku shiken sochi ni yoru sekitan no koatsu ekiso suisoka bunkai / coal chemicals no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    Research was conducted on conversion of coal to petroleum for the purpose of securing substitute liquid fuel. Recovery of hydrogen from the waste gas from the conversion process was explained, as were the conversion results from various coals produced in Japan. In coal liquefaction researches with the aim of manufacturing artificial petroleum, a report was made on each of the researches, i.e., the experiment results of coal liquefaction using various catalysts, manufacture of hydrogen by water gas reaction, catalytic action against coal paste, action of mixed oil and pressure against coal paste, result of hydrogen adding test for coal paste using an intermediate scale device, test result of secondary hydrogen addition for coal liquefied oil, and the test result of continuous secondary hydrogen addition for the liquefied oil. In the manufacture of fuel oil by hydro-cracking of coal or tar, a report was made on high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation of coal using a continuous testing device. Aromatic chemicals useful as chemical materials are supposed to be obtained by cutting inter-polymerized-unit bonding to make low molecules from the chemical structure of coal, removing surrounding radicals and simplifying it. A report was also made on the experiment of manufacturing coal chemicals by combination of high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation and hydro-dealkylation. (NEDO)

  10. DECOMPOSITION OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.Z.N. Mohamed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing is a global activity that started during the industrial revolution in the late 19th century to cater for the large-scale production of products. Since then, manufacturing has changed tremendously through the innovations of technology, processes, materials, communication and transportation. The major challenge facing manufacturing is to produce more products using less material, less energy and less involvement of labour. To face these challenges, manufacturing companies must have a strategy and competitive priority in order for them to compete in a dynamic market. A review of the literature on the decomposition of manufacturing processes outlines three main processes, namely: high volume, medium volume and low volume. The decomposition shows that each sub process has its own characteristics and depends on the nature of the firm’s business. Two extreme processes are continuous line production (fast extreme and project shop (slow extreme. Other processes are in between these two extremes of the manufacturing spectrum. Process flow patterns become less complex with cellular, line and continuous flow compared with jobbing and project. The review also indicates that when the product is high variety and low volume, project or functional production is applied.

  11. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  12. Advances in solid dosage form manufacturing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gavin P

    2007-12-15

    Currently, the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries are moving through a period of unparalleled change. Major multinational pharmaceutical companies are restructuring, consolidating, merging and more importantly critically assessing their competitiveness to ensure constant growth in an ever-more demanding market where the cost of developing novel products is continuously increasing. The pharmaceutical manufacturing processes currently in existence for the production of solid oral dosage forms are associated with significant disadvantages and in many instances provide many processing problems. Therefore, it is well accepted that there is an increasing need for alternative processes to dramatically improve powder processing, and more importantly to ensure that acceptable, reproducible solid dosage forms can be manufactured. Consequently, pharmaceutical companies are beginning to invest in innovative processes capable of producing solid dosage forms that better meet the needs of the patient while providing efficient manufacturing operations. This article discusses two emerging solid dosage form manufacturing technologies, namely hot-melt extrusion and fluidized hot-melt granulation.

  13. Laser additive manufacturing of high-performance materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    This book entitled “Laser Additive Manufacturing of High-Performance Materials” covers the specific aspects of laser additive manufacturing of high-performance new materials components based on an unconventional materials incremental manufacturing philosophy, in terms of materials design and preparation, process control and optimization, and theories of physical and chemical metallurgy. This book describes the capabilities and characteristics of the development of new metallic materials components by laser additive manufacturing process, including nanostructured materials, in situ composite materials, particle reinforced metal matrix composites, etc. The topics presented in this book, similar as laser additive manufacturing technology itself, show a significant interdisciplinary feature, integrating laser technology, materials science, metallurgical engineering, and mechanical engineering. This is a book for researchers, students, practicing engineers, and manufacturing industry professionals interested i...

  14. Micro/Nano manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Micro- and nano-scale manufacturing has been the subject of an increasing amount of interest and research effort worldwide in both academia and industry over the past 10 years.Traditional (MEMS) manufacturing, but also precision manufacturing technologies have been developed to cover micro......-scale dimensions and accuracies. Furthermore, these fundamentally different technology ecosystems are currently combined in order to exploit strengths of both platforms. One example is the use of lithography-based technologies to establish nanostructures that are subsequently transferred to 3D geometries via...

  15. High energy beam manufacturing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geskin, E.S.; Leu, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Technological progress continues to enable us to utilize ever widening ranges of physical and chemical conditions for material processing. The increasing cost of energy, raw materials and environmental control make implementation of advanced technologies inevitable. One of the principal avenues in the development of material processing is the increase of the intensity, accuracy, flexibility and stability of energy flow to the processing site. The use of different forms of energy beams is an effective way to meet these sometimes incompatible requirements. The first important technological applications of high energy beams were welding and flame cutting. Subsequently a number of different kinds of beams have been used to solve different problems of part geometry control and improvement of surface characteristics. Properties and applications of different specific beams were subjects of a number of fundamental studies. It is important now to develop a generic theory of beam based manufacturing. The creation of a theory dealing with general principles of beam generation and beam-material interaction will enhance manufacturing science as well as practice. For example, such a theory will provide a format approach for selection and integration of different kinds of beams for a particular application. And obviously, this theory will enable us to integrate the knowledge bases of different manufacturing technologies. The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells, as well as a number of more technical, although less exciting, publications demonstrate both the feasibility and effectiveness of the generic approach to the description of beam oriented technology. Without any attempt to compete with Wells, we still hope that this volume will contribute to the creation of the theory of beam oriented manufacturing

  16. International photovoltaic products and manufacturers directory, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepperd, L.W. [ed.] [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This international directory of more than 500 photovoltaic-related manufacturers is intended to guide potential users of photovoltaics to sources for systems and their components. Two indexes help the user to locate firms and materials. A glossary describes equipment and terminology commonly used in the photovoltaic industry.

  17. Predictive Manufacturing: Classification of categorical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Abdul Rauf; Schiøler, Henrik; Kulahci, Murat

    2018-01-01

    and classification capabilities of our methodology (on different experimental settings) is done through a specially designed simulation experiment. Secondly, in order to demonstrate the applicability in a real life problem a data set from electronics component manufacturing is being analysed through our proposed...

  18. Laser-based additive manufacturing: where it has been, where it needs to go

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Khershed P.

    2014-03-01

    It is no secret that the laser was the driver for additive manufacturing (AM) of 3D objects since such objects were first demonstrated in the mid-1980s. A myriad of techniques utilizing the directed energy of lasers were invented. Lasers are used to selectively sinter or fuse incremental layers in powder-beds, melt streaming powder following a programmed path, and polymerize photopolymers in a liquid vat layer-by-layer. The laser is an energy source of choice for repair of damaged components, for manufacture of new or replacement parts, and for rapid prototyping of concept designs. Lasers enable microstructure gradients and heterogeneous structures designed to exhibit unique properties and behavior. Laserbased additive manufacturing has been successful in producing relatively simple near net-shape metallic parts saving material and cost, but requiring finish-machining and in repair and refurbishment of worn components. It has been routinely used to produce polymer parts. These capabilities have been widely recognized as evidenced by the explosion in interest in AM technology, nationally. These successes are, however, tempered by challenges facing practitioners such as process and part qualification and verification, which are needed to bring AM as a true manufacturing technology. The ONR manufacturing science program, in collaboration with other agencies, invested in basic R&D in AM since its beginnings. It continues to invest, currently focusing on developing cyber-enabled manufacturing systems for AM. It is believed that such computation, communication and control approaches will help in validating AM and moving it to the factory floor along side CNC machines.

  19. Components and renewal parts in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.F. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This paper indicates that the nuclear parts industry has been forced to make major investments in time, personnel and financial resources in order to solve short term/emergency procurement problems. What is required, as was previously indicated, is a coordinated industry-wide effort toward long range planning and implementation of a program that addresses these issues. The industry is developing programs directed toward inventory optimization and ''innovative-creative'' financing of manufacturing inventory/work-in-process in an effort to significantly reduce delivery lead times. Product transition, utilization of cancelled plant equipment, equipment qualification programs, and dedication of commercially manufactured/procured parts and components for safety related application continue to be major elements of our program to support current utility requirements

  20. Evaluation of polymer micro parts produced by additive manufacturing processes using vat photopolymerization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Micro manufacturing scale feature production by Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes for the direct production of miniaturized polymer components is analysed in this work. The study characterizes the AM processes for polymer micro parts productions using the vat photopolymerization method...

  1. Manufacturers' support to plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuschel, D.

    1996-01-01

    For more than 30 years now, safety and availablity of German nuclear power plants has been a common interest of the plant owners and the manufacturing company KWU. This longstanding collaboration for a common goal has created a safety culture unprecented in other countries, and a partnership worth to be continued. Due to the nuclear power phaseout policy, the priority today is on maintaining and safeguarding economically efficient operation of existing power plants. KWU have been adapting their business strategy to the change in the market, and are prepared to stick to this line. Thus KWU and plant operators see to it that the acquired competence in nuclear power plant technology will remain to be concentrated in the hands of the manufacturers. Continuing the partnership in this field, and encouraged by the placement of orders for the future EPR and the SWR 1000, KWU and plant operators will be in the position to offer a sound option for future decisions about construction of new nuclear power plants in Germany. (orig.) [de

  2. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick...... (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization...... approach, under- and over-etching is modelled by image processing-based "erode" and "dilate" operators and the optimization problem is formulated as a worst case design problem. Applications of the method to the design of macro structures for minimum compliance and micro compliant mechanisms show...

  3. Manufacturing parabolic mirrors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The photo shows the construction of a vertical centrifuge mounted on an air cushion, with a precision of 1/10000 during rotation, used for the manufacture of very high=precision parabolic mirrors. (See Annual Report 1974.)

  4. MEDICAL MANUFACTURING INNOVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosma Sorin Cosmin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these studies was to improve the design and manufacturing process by selective laser melting, of new medical implants. After manufacturing process, the implants were measured, microscopically and mechanical analyzed. Implants manufactured by AM can be an attractive option for surface coatings to improve the osseointegration process. The main advantages of customized implants made by AM process are: the precise adaptation to the region of implantation, better cosmesis, reduced surgical times and better performance over their generic counterparts. These medical manufacturing changes the way that the surgeons are planning surgeries and engineers are designing custom implant. AM process has eliminated the constraints of shape, size, internal structure and mechanical properties making it possible for fabrication of implants that conform to the physical and mechanical requirements of implantation according to CT images. This article will review some custom implants fabricated in DME using biocompatible titanium.

  5. Manufacturing Enterprise in Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-13

    Dec 13, 2017 ... 53 Designing Financial Systems in East Asia and Japan ..... 5.3 Weights for the industrial production index (%) ..... The demand for manufactured goods for this low level of consumption per capita also tends to be very low.

  6. Advanced Material Strategies for Next-Generation Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinke; He, Jiankang; Zhou, Wenxing; Lei, Qi; Li, Xiao; Li, Dichen

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has drawn tremendous attention in various fields. In recent years, great efforts have been made to develop novel additive manufacturing processes such as micro-/nano-scale 3D printing, bioprinting, and 4D printing for the fabrication of complex 3D structures with high resolution, living components, and multimaterials. The development of advanced functional materials is important for the implementation of these novel additive manufacturing processes. Here, a state-of-the-art review on advanced material strategies for novel additive manufacturing processes is provided, mainly including conductive materials, biomaterials, and smart materials. The advantages, limitations, and future perspectives of these materials for additive manufacturing are discussed. It is believed that the innovations of material strategies in parallel with the evolution of additive manufacturing processes will provide numerous possibilities for the fabrication of complex smart constructs with multiple functions, which will significantly widen the application fields of next-generation additive manufacturing. PMID:29361754

  7. Advanced Material Strategies for Next-Generation Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinke; He, Jiankang; Mao, Mao; Zhou, Wenxing; Lei, Qi; Li, Xiao; Li, Dichen; Chua, Chee-Kai; Zhao, Xin

    2018-01-22

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has drawn tremendous attention in various fields. In recent years, great efforts have been made to develop novel additive manufacturing processes such as micro-/nano-scale 3D printing, bioprinting, and 4D printing for the fabrication of complex 3D structures with high resolution, living components, and multimaterials. The development of advanced functional materials is important for the implementation of these novel additive manufacturing processes. Here, a state-of-the-art review on advanced material strategies for novel additive manufacturing processes is provided, mainly including conductive materials, biomaterials, and smart materials. The advantages, limitations, and future perspectives of these materials for additive manufacturing are discussed. It is believed that the innovations of material strategies in parallel with the evolution of additive manufacturing processes will provide numerous possibilities for the fabrication of complex smart constructs with multiple functions, which will significantly widen the application fields of next-generation additive manufacturing.

  8. Advanced Material Strategies for Next-Generation Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM has drawn tremendous attention in various fields. In recent years, great efforts have been made to develop novel additive manufacturing processes such as micro-/nano-scale 3D printing, bioprinting, and 4D printing for the fabrication of complex 3D structures with high resolution, living components, and multimaterials. The development of advanced functional materials is important for the implementation of these novel additive manufacturing processes. Here, a state-of-the-art review on advanced material strategies for novel additive manufacturing processes is provided, mainly including conductive materials, biomaterials, and smart materials. The advantages, limitations, and future perspectives of these materials for additive manufacturing are discussed. It is believed that the innovations of material strategies in parallel with the evolution of additive manufacturing processes will provide numerous possibilities for the fabrication of complex smart constructs with multiple functions, which will significantly widen the application fields of next-generation additive manufacturing.

  9. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  10. Design and manufacture of high performance hollow engine valves by Additive Layer Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, D.; Thornby, J.; Blundell, N.; Henrys, R.; Williams, M.A.; Gibbons, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • High performance engine valve has been redesigned and optimised for and using ALM. • FEA was utilised to optimise and select a design for manufacture and testing. • Micro computed tomography was used in design and validation as an NDT technique. • Real world test of components was conducted to evaluate their performance. • Has demonstrated the potential for ALM in a high performance engineering context. - Abstract: Additive Layer Manufacture (ALM) of metallic components provides significant opportunities for the reduction of component weight, in order to realise improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency or performance. This paper examines the potential benefits of ALM with regard to reducing the weight of Internal Combustion Engine inlet or exhaust valves. A case study component is presented, for which an improved ALM design has been created, manufactured and evaluated. Micro-Computed Tomography (μ-CT) scanning was utilised to reverse engineer an original component, and to assess the ALM component’s internal geometry and material integrity. The case study valve was re-designed using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to select a light weighted design which provides a conservative 9.4 g, (20%) weight saving on the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) component. An engine test of over 175,000 cycles at between 2000 and 9500 rpm was conducted, after which μ-CT scanning confirmed no evidence of internal cracking, failure or significant deformation

  11. Additive manufactured serialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, III, John T.

    2017-04-18

    Methods for forming an identifying mark in a structure are described. The method is used in conjunction with an additive manufacturing method and includes the alteration of a process parameter during the manufacturing process. The method can form in a unique identifying mark within or on the surface of a structure that is virtually impossible to be replicated. Methods can provide a high level of confidence that the identifying mark will remain unaltered on the formed structure.

  12. Lightweighting Automotive Materials for Increased Fuel Efficiency and Delivering Advanced Modeling and Simulation Capabilities to U.S. Manufacturers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Steve

    2013-09-11

    Abstract The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), to bring together research and development (R&D) collaborations to develop and accelerate the knowledgebase and infrastructure for lightweighting materials and manufacturing processes for their use in structural and applications in the automotive sector. The purpose/importance of this DOE program: • 2016 CAFÉ standards. • Automotive industry technology that shall adopt the insertion of lightweighting material concepts towards manufacturing of production vehicles. • Development and manufacture of advanced research tools for modeling and simulation (M&S) applications to reduce manufacturing and material costs. • U.S. competitiveness that will help drive the development and manufacture of the next generation of materials. NCMS established a focused portfolio of applied R&D projects utilizing lightweighting materials for manufacture into automotive structures and components. Areas that were targeted in this program: • Functionality of new lightweighting materials to meet present safety requirements. • Manufacturability using new lightweighting materials. • Cost reduction for the development and use of new lightweighting materials. The automotive industry’s future continuously evolves through innovation, and lightweight materials are key in achieving a new era of lighter, more efficient vehicles. Lightweight materials are among the technical advances needed to achieve fuel/energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions: • Establish design criteria methodology to identify the best materials for lightweighting. • Employ state-of-the-art design tools for optimum material development for their specific applications. • Match new manufacturing technology to production volume. • Address new process variability with new production-ready processes.

  13. Business continuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breunhoelder, Gert

    2002-01-01

    This presentation deals with the following keypoints: Information Technology (IT) Business Continuity and Recovery essential for any business; lessons learned after Sept. 11 event; Detailed planning, redundancy and testing being the key elements for probability estimation of disasters

  14. Bio-reinforced composite development for additive manufacturing: Nanocellulose-PLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekinalp, Halil L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lu, Yuan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peter, William H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ozcan, Soydan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is transitioning from being only a prototyping method towards becoming a manufacturing technique for the quick production of parts with complex geometries. For the complete realization of this transition, the mechanical properties of the printed parts have to meet the requirements of actual load-bearing structural components. Integration of a reinforcing second phase into a polymer is a viable approach for the improvement of resins mechanical performance. Addition of carbon fibers into acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) has already been shown to improve its mechanical properties compared to the neat ABS resin (both additively manufactured), and led to the manufacture of world s first 3D-printed car. However, both ABS resin and carbon fibers are petroleum-based products, and there is a continuous search for alternative, bio-sourced, renewable materials as a feedstock for manufacturing. Towards this direction, we have investigated the potential of cellulose nanofibril-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) resin systems as an alternative. CNF-PLA composite systems with up to 40 wt% CNF loadings were prepared via compression molding technique and tested. Significant improvements in both tensile strength (80%) and elastic modulus (128%) were observed. Filaments prepared from the same compositions were also successfully 3D-printed into tensile testing specimens with up to 30% CNF concentrations, and showed similar improvements in mechanical performance. Although CNFs were not individually dispersed in PLA matrix, they were observed to be well blended with the polymer based on SEM micrographs. In summary, preparation and 3D-printing of a 100% bio-based feedstock material with the mechanical properties comparable to the carbon fiber-ABS system was successfully demonstrated that it can open up new window of opportunities in the additive manufacturing industry. Acknowledgement Research sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy

  15. Development of Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujari, V.K.

    2001-04-05

    Advanced structural ceramics are enabling materials for new transportation engine systems that have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption and pollution in automobiles and heavy vehicles. Ceramic component reliability and performance have been demonstrated in previous U.S. DOE initiatives, but high manufacturing cost was recognized as a major barrier to commercialization. Norton Advanced Ceramics (NAC), a division of Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics, Inc. (SGIC), was selected to perform a major Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing Technology (ACMT) Program. The overall objectives of NAC's program were to design, develop, and demonstrate advanced manufacturing technology for the production of ceramic exhaust valves for diesel engines. The specific objectives were (1) to reduce the manufacturing cost by an order of magnitude, (2) to develop and demonstrate process capability and reproducibility, and (3) to validate ceramic valve performance, durability, and reliability. The program was divided into four major tasks: Component Design and Specification, Component Manufacturing Technology Development, Inspection and Testing, and Process Demonstration. A high-power diesel engine valve for the DDC Series 149 engine was chosen as the demonstration part for this program. This was determined to be an ideal component type to demonstrate cost-effective process enhancements, the beneficial impact of advanced ceramics on transportation systems, and near-term commercialization potential. The baseline valve material was NAC's NT451 SiAION. It was replaced, later in the program, by an alternate silicon nitride composition (NT551), which utilized a lower cost raw material and a simplified powder-processing approach. The material specifications were defined based on DDC's engine requirements, and the initial and final component design tasks were completed.

  16. Point Locations of 849 Continuous Record Streamflow Gages Used to Estmate Annual and Average Values of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  17. Continuous tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.

    1978-04-01

    A tokamak configuration is proposed that permits the rapid replacement of a plasma discharge in a ''burn'' chamber by another one in a time scale much shorter than the elementary thermal time constant of the chamber first wall. With respect to the chamber, the effective duty cycle factor can thus be made arbitrarily close to unity minimizing the cyclic thermal stress in the first wall. At least one plasma discharge always exists in the new tokamak configuration, hence, a continuous tokamak. By incorporating adiabatic toroidal compression, configurations of continuous tokamak compressors are introduced. To operate continuous tokamaks, it is necessary to introduce the concept of mixed poloidal field coils, which spatially groups all the poloidal field coils into three sets, all contributing simultaneously to inducing the plasma current and maintaining the proper plasma shape and position. Preliminary numerical calculations of axisymmetric MHD equilibria in continuous tokamaks indicate the feasibility of their continued plasma operation. Advanced concepts of continuous tokamaks to reduce the topological complexity and to allow the burn plasma aspect ratio to decrease for increased beta are then suggested

  18. Value Chain Model for Steel Manufacturing Sector: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    S G Acharyulu; K Venkata Subbaiah; K Narayana Rao

    2018-01-01

    Michael E Porter developed a value chain model for manufacturing sector with five primary activities and four supporting activities. The value chain model developed by Porter is extended to a steel manufacturing sector due to expansions of steel plants has become a continual process for their growth and survival. In this paper a value chain model for steel manufacturing sector is developed considering five primary activities and six support activities.

  19. Benchmarking performance measurement and lean manufacturing in the rough mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Cumbo; D. Earl Kline; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2006-01-01

    Lean manufacturing represents a set of tools and a stepwise strategy for achieving smooth, predictable product flow, maximum product flexibility, and minimum system waste. While lean manufacturing principles have been successfully applied to some components of the secondary wood products value stream (e.g., moulding, turning, assembly, and finishing), the rough mill is...

  20. PWR heavy equipments manufacture for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boury, C.; Terrien, J.F.

    1983-10-01

    The manufacture of boilers has been imported by the French nuclear program to the societe FRAMATOME. FRAMATOME, because of the size of this market, has constructed two special plants for manufacturing of nuclear components (vapor generators, reactor tanks, pressurizers); these two high technical facilities are presented: production, staff training, technical overseas assistance, and technical and economical repercussions on the industrial vicinity [fr

  1. Generalized analytic continuation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, William T

    2002-01-01

    The theory of generalized analytic continuation studies continuations of meromorphic functions in situations where traditional theory says there is a natural boundary. This broader theory touches on a remarkable array of topics in classical analysis, as described in the book. This book addresses the following questions: (1) When can we say, in some reasonable way, that component functions of a meromorphic function on a disconnected domain, are "continuations" of each other? (2) What role do such "continuations" play in certain aspects of approximation theory and operator theory? The authors use the strong analogy with the summability of divergent series to motivate the subject. In this vein, for instance, theorems can be described as being "Abelian" or "Tauberian". The introductory overview carefully explains the history and context of the theory. The authors begin with a review of the works of Poincaré, Borel, Wolff, Walsh, and Gončar, on continuation properties of "Borel series" and other meromorphic func...

  2. Laser polishing of additive manufactured Ti alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. P.; Guan, Y. C.; Zhou, W.

    2017-06-01

    Laser-based additive manufacturing has attracted much attention as a promising 3D printing method for metallic components in recent years. However, surface roughness of additive manufactured components has been considered as a challenge to achieve high performance. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of fiber laser in polishing rough surface of additive manufactured Ti-based alloys as Ti-6Al-4V and TC11. Both as-received surface and laser-polished surfaces as well as cross-section subsurfaces were analyzed carefully by White-Light Interference, Confocal Microscope, Focus Ion Beam, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, and X-ray Diffraction. Results revealed that as-received Ti-based alloys with surface roughness more than 5 μm could be reduce to less than 1 μm through laser polishing process. Moreover, microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of laser-polished zone was investigated in order to examine the thermal effect of laser polishing processing on the substrate of additive manufactured Ti alloys. This proof-of-concept process has the potential to effectively improve the surface roughness of additive manufactured metallic alloy by local polishing method without damage to the substrate.

  3. Collaborative Manufacturing for Small-Medium Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianto, D.

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing systems involve decisions concerning production processes, capacity, planning, and control. In a MTO manufacturing systems, strategic decisions concerning fulfilment of customer requirement, manufacturing cost, and due date of delivery are the most important. In order to accelerate the decision making process, research on decision making structure when receiving order and sequencing activities under limited capacity is required. An effective decision making process is typically required by small-medium components and tools maker as supporting industries to large industries. On one side, metal small-medium enterprises are expected to produce parts, components or tools (i.e. jigs, fixture, mold, and dies) with high precision, low cost, and exact delivery time. On the other side, a metal small- medium enterprise may have weak bargaining position due to aspects such as low production capacity, limited budget for material procurement, and limited high precision machine and equipment. Instead of receiving order exclusively, a small-medium enterprise can collaborate with other small-medium enterprise in order to fulfill requirements high quality, low manufacturing cost, and just in time delivery. Small-medium enterprises can share their best capabilities to form effective supporting industries. Independent body such as community service at university can take a role as a collaboration manager. The Laboratory of Production Systems at Bandung Institute of Technology has implemented shared manufacturing systems for small-medium enterprise collaboration.

  4. Role of Ontologies for CPS Implementation in Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garetti Marco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyber Physical Systems are an evolution of embedded systems featuring a tight combination of collaborating computational elements that control physical entities. CPSs promise a great potential of innovation in many areas including manufacturing and production. This is because we obtain a very powerful, flexible, modular infrastructure allowing easy (re configurability and fast ramp-up of manufacturing applications by building a manufacturing system with modular mechatronic components (for machining, transportation and storage and embedded intelligence, by integrating them into a system, through a network connection. However, when building such kind of architectures, the way to supply the needed domain knowledge to real manufacturing applications arises as a problem to solve. In fact, a CPS based architecture for manufacturing is made of smart but independent manufacturing components without any knowledge of the role they have to play together in the real world of manufacturing applications. Ontologies can supply such kind of knowledge, playing a very important role in CPS for manufacturing. The paper deals with this intriguing theme, also presenting an implementation of this approach in a research project for the open automation of manufacturing systems, in which the power of CPS is complemented by the support of an ontology of the manufacturing domain.

  5. Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC), established in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) Program, is Navy...

  6. Development of Manufacturing Technology to Accelerate Cost Reduction of Low Concentration and

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detrick, Adam [The Solaria Corporation, Fremont, CA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    The purpose of this project was to accelerate deployment of cost-effective US-based manufacturing of Solaria’s unique c-Si module technology. This effort successfully resulted in the development of US-based manufacturing technology to support two highly-differentiated, market leading product platforms. The project was initially predicated on developing Solaria’s low-concentration PV (LCPV) module technology which at the time of the award was uniquely positioned to exceed the SunShot price goal of $0.50/Wp for standard c-Si modules. The Solaria LCPV module is a 2.5x concentrator that leverages proven, high-reliability PV module materials and low silicon cell usage into a technology package that already had the lowest direct material cost and leading Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). With over 25 MW commercially deployed globally, the Solaria module was well positioned to continue to lead in PV module cost reduction. Throughout the term of the contract, market conditions changed dramatically and so to did Solaria’s product offerings to support this. However, the manufacturing technology developed for the LCPV module was successfully leveraged and optimized to support two new and different product platforms. BIPV “PowerVision” and High-efficiency “PowerXT” modules. The primary barrier to enabling high-volume PV module manufacturing in the US is the high manual labor component in certain unique aspects of our manufacturing process. The funding was used to develop unique manufacturing automation which makes the manual labor components of these key processes more efficient and increase throughput. At the core of Solaria’s product offerings are its unique and proprietary techniques for dicing and re-arranging solar cells into modules with highly-differentiated characteristics that address key gaps in the c-Si market. It is these techniques that were successfully evolved and deployed into US-based manufacturing site with SunShot funding. Today, Solaria

  7. Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, Deven [Abengoa Solar LLC, Lakewood, CO (United States); Farr, Adrian [Abengoa Solar LLC, Lakewood, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The parabolic trough is the most established CSP technology and carries a long history of design experimentation dating back to the 1970’s. This has led to relatively standardized collector architectures, a maturing global supply chain, and a fairly uniform cost reduction strategy. Abengoa has deployed more than 1,500MWe of CSP troughs across several countries and has built and tested full-scale prototypes of many R&D concepts. The latest trough R&D efforts involved efforts to internalize non-CSP industry experience including a preliminary DFMA principles review done with Boothroyd Dewhurst, a construction literature review by the Arizona State University School of Construction Management, and two more focused manufacturing engineering subcontracts done by Ricardo Inc. and the nonprofit Edison Welding Institute. The first two studies highlighted strong opportunities in lowering part count, standardizing components and fasteners, developing modular designs to support prefabrication and automation, and devising simple, error-proof manual assembly methods. These principles have delivered major new cost savings in otherwise “mature” products in analogous industries like automotive, truck trailer manufacture, metal building fabrication, and shipbuilding. For this reason, they were core in the design development of the SpaceTube® collector, and arguably key to its early successes. The latter two studies were applied specifically to the first-generation SpaceTube® design and were important in setting the direction of the present SolarMat project. These studies developed a methodology to analyze the costs of manufacture and assembly, and identify new tooling concepts for more efficient manufacture. Among the main opportunities identified in these studies were the automated mirror arm manufacturing concept and the need for a less infrastructure-intensive assembly line, both of which now form central pillars of the SolarMat project strategy. These new designs will be

  8. Continuous Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xu; Tian, Xinmei; Liu, Tongliang; Xu, Fang; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-10-03

    Dropout has been proven to be an effective algorithm for training robust deep networks because of its ability to prevent overfitting by avoiding the co-adaptation of feature detectors. Current explanations of dropout include bagging, naive Bayes, regularization, and sex in evolution. According to the activation patterns of neurons in the human brain, when faced with different situations, the firing rates of neurons are random and continuous, not binary as current dropout does. Inspired by this phenomenon, we extend the traditional binary dropout to continuous dropout. On the one hand, continuous dropout is considerably closer to the activation characteristics of neurons in the human brain than traditional binary dropout. On the other hand, we demonstrate that continuous dropout has the property of avoiding the co-adaptation of feature detectors, which suggests that we can extract more independent feature detectors for model averaging in the test stage. We introduce the proposed continuous dropout to a feedforward neural network and comprehensively compare it with binary dropout, adaptive dropout, and DropConnect on Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research-10, Street View House Numbers, NORB, and ImageNet large scale visual recognition competition-12. Thorough experiments demonstrate that our method performs better in preventing the co-adaptation of feature detectors and improves test performance.

  9. Overview of NASA/OAST efforts related to manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, N. T.

    1976-01-01

    An overview of some of NASA's current efforts related to manufacturing technology and some possible directions for the future are presented. The topics discussed are: computer-aided design, composite structures, and turbine engine components.

  10. Manufacturing opportunities in the Canadian CANDU and heavy water programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reny, J.P.

    The volume of business available to Canadian manufacturers of CANDU power plant and heavy water plant components is analyzed over about the next 10 years. Implications of exported nuclear technology and plants are explored. (E.C.B.)

  11. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  12. Continuity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...

  13. Manufacturing prototypes for LIPAC beam dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz, F., E-mail: fernando.arranz@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Brañas, B.; Iglesias, D. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Nomen, O. [IREC, Barcelona (Spain); Rapisarda, D.; Lapeña, J.; Muñoz, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Szcepaniak, B. [GALVANO-T, Windeck (Germany); Manini, J. [CARMAN, Madrid (Spain); Gómez, J. [TRINOS VACUUM, Valencia (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Electroforming of copper and electronbeam welding techniques are compared. •Mechanical properties of Cu–stainless steel joint by electroforming are presented. •Achieved manufacturing tolerances are shown. •The difficulties and solutions for the complicated manufacturing are explained. -- Abstract: The purpose of the research is to define the most adequate manufacturing process for the dump of a linear deuteron accelerator. The deuteron beam can be pulsed as well as continuous with energies up to 9 MeV. The maximum beam power is 1.12 MW corresponding to a beam current of 125 mA. The requirements on the surface on which the deuterons will be stopped are quite demanding and the length and slenderness of the cone poses a considerable difficulty in the manufacturing process. The design of the beam dump is based on a copper cone 2500 mm long, 300 mm aperture and 5 to 6.5 mm thickness. Basically only two technologies were found feasible for the manufacturing of the cone: Electroforming and Electron Beam Welding (EBW). The article shows the main results found when manufacturing different prototypes.

  14. 26 CFR 145.4061-1 - Application to manufacturers tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application to manufacturers tax. 145.4061-1...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY EXCISE TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE HIGHWAY REVENUE ACT OF 1982 (PUB. L. 97-424) § 145.4061-1 Application to manufacturers tax. The provisions of § 145.4051-1(e) (1...

  15. 31 CFR 500.412 - Process vs. manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process vs. manufacture. 500.412 Section 500.412 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Interpretations § 500.412 Process vs. manufacture. A commodity subject to § 500.204 remains subject howsoever it...

  16. 40 CFR 600.316-78 - Multistage manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Multistage manufacture. 600.316-78 Section 600.316-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY... and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.316-78 Multistage manufacture. Where more than one...

  17. RPC industries - UV and EB equipment manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    RPC Industries has been manufacturing electron beam and ultraviolet equipment for the industrial processing of materials for more than 15 years. RPC maintains its headquarters and electron processor manufacturing plant in Hayward, California. UV equipment is made in the company's plant near Chicago. Sales offices are maintained in New York, Illinois, and California in the USA, and in Germany, Japan, Australia, Italy, Israel, and Sweden. Complete testing and pilot facilities are available in Hayward (EB) and near Chicago (UV). Described below are the basic system components, applications and advantages of RPC's UV and EB systems. (orig.)

  18. Overview and status of ITER Cryostat manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, Anil K., E-mail: anil.bhardwaj@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, A-29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sector-25, Gandhinagar 382016 (India); Gupta, Girish; Prajapati, Rajnikant; Joshi, Vaibhav; Patel, Mitul; Bhavsar, Jagrut; More, Vipul; Jindal, Mukesh; Bhattacharya, Avik; Jogi, Gourav; Palaliya, Amit; Jha, Saroj; Pandey, Manish; Shukla, Dileep [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, A-29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sector-25, Gandhinagar 382016 (India); Iyer, Ganesh; Jadhav, Pandurang; Goyal, Dipesh; Desai, Anish [Larsen & Toubro Limited, Heavy Engineering, Hazira Manufacturing Complex, Gujarat (India); Sekachev, I.; Vitupier, Guillaume [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon – CS 90046, 13067 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Manufacturing status of one of the largest and the heaviest fully welded stainless steel vacuum chambers in the world (ITER Cryostat). • Overview of manufacturing stages and its segmentation. • Overview of manufacturing procedures and assembly and installation. - Abstract: One of ITER-India's commitments to the ITER Organization is procurement of the ITER Cryostat. It is a large vacuum vessel (∼29 m dia. and ∼29 m height), which is made up of 304/304 L dual marked stainless steel and has a total mass over 3500 t. The thickness of the vessel wall varies from 50 mm to 190 mm. It is one of the largest and the heaviest fully welded stainless steel vacuum chambers in the world which provides vacuum thermal insulation for the superconducting magnets operating at 4.5 K and for the thermal shield operating at 80 K. It also mechanically supports the magnet system along with the vacuum vessel (VV). The cryostat is designed and constructed according to ASME Section-VIII Division-2 with additional ITER Vacuum Handbook requirements and it is classified as protection important component (PIC-2). Manufacturing of cryostat segments is ongoing in India; sub-assembly of four major sections of the cryostat from the segments will be done at the ITER site in a temporary workshop building and the final assembly will be done in the pit of the tokamak building, the final location. The cryostat manufacturing contract has been awarded to Larsen and Toubro Limited in August 2012 after completion of design [4] and signing of Procurement Arrangement [1] with ITER Organization. Manufacturing of the cryostat was started in January 2014 after approval of the manufacturing drawings and procedures. The temporary workshop of 44 m × 110 m × 26 m in height has been completed in November 2014 at the ITER site with a 200 t crane installed. This paper gives an overview and the status of the cryostat manufacturing.

  19. Continuation calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geron, B.; Geuvers, J.H.; de'Liguoro, U.; Saurin, A.

    2013-01-01

    Programs with control are usually modeled using lambda calculus extended with control operators. Instead of modifying lambda calculus, we consider a different model of computation. We introduce continuation calculus, or CC, a deterministic model of computation that is evaluated using only head

  20. Implementation of hierarchical design for manufacture rules in manufacturing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Parvez, Masud

    2008-01-01

    In order to shorten the product development cycle time, minimise overall cost and smooth transition into production, early consideration of manufacturing processes is important. Design for Manufacture (DFM) is the practice of designing products with manufacturing issues using an intelligent system, which translates 3D solid models into manufacturable features. Many existing and potential applications, particularly in the field of manufacturing, require various aspects of features technology. ...