WorldWideScience

Sample records for complexity string information

  1. Holographic complexity in gauge/string superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Momeni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Following a methodology similar to [1], we derive a holographic complexity for two dimensional holographic superconductors (gauge/string superconductors with backreactions. Applying a perturbation method proposed by Kanno in Ref. [2], we study behaviors of the complexity for a dual quantum system near critical points. We show that when a system moves from the normal phase (T>Tc to the superconductor phase (Tcomplexity will be divergent.

  2. The Kerr geometry, complex world lines and hyperbolic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burinskii, A.Ya.

    1994-01-01

    In the Lind-Newman representation the Kerr geometry is created by a source moving along an analytical complex world line. An equivalence of the complex world line and complex (hyperbolic) string is considered. Therefore the hyperbolic string may play the role of the complex source of the Kerr geometry. The Kerr solution with the complex string source acquires Regge behavior of the angular momentum. (orig.)

  3. Complex geometry and quantum string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belavin, A.A.; Knizhnik, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    Summation over closed oriented surfaces of genus p ≥ 2 (p - loop vacuum amplitudes in boson string theory) in a critical dimensions D=26 is reduced to integration over M p space of complex structures of Riemann surfaces of genus p. The analytic properties of the integration measure as a function of the complex coordinates on M p are studied. It is shown that the measure multiplied by (det Im τ-circumflex) 13 (τ-circumflex is the surface period matrix) is the square of the modulus of a function which is holomorphic on M p and does not vanish anywhere. The function has a second order pole at infinity of compactified space of moduli M p . These properties define the measure uniquely up to a constant multiple and this permits one to set up explicitformulae for p=2,3 in terms of the theta-constants. Power and logarithmic divergences connected with renormalization of the tachyon wave function and of the slope respectively are involved in the theory. Quantum geometry of critical strings turns out to be a complex geometry

  4. Bounds on topological Abelian string-vortex and string-cigar from information-entropic measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, R.A.C., E-mail: rafael.couceiro@ufabc.edu.br [CCNH, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), 09210-580, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Dantas, D.M., E-mail: davi@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), 60455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Almeida, C.A.S., E-mail: carlos@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, 60455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), 09210-580, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

    2016-04-10

    In this work we obtain bounds on the topological Abelian string-vortex and on the string-cigar, by using a new measure of configurational complexity, known as configurational entropy. In this way, the information-theoretical measure of six-dimensional braneworlds scenarios is capable to probe situations where the parameters responsible for the brane thickness are arbitrary. The so-called configurational entropy (CE) selects the best value of the parameter in the model. This is accomplished by minimizing the CE, namely, by selecting the most appropriate parameters in the model that correspond to the most organized system, based upon the Shannon information theory. This information-theoretical measure of complexity provides a complementary perspective to situations where strictly energy-based arguments are inconclusive. We show that the higher the energy the higher the CE, what shows an important correlation between the energy of the a localized field configuration and its associated entropic measure.

  5. Complex geometry and string theory. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.; Perelomov, A.

    1989-01-01

    Methods of calculation on the Reimann surfaces are given. The structure of determinant stratifications over spaces of the Riemann surface moduli is described. Obvious formulas for cross sections of the stratifications and for the Polyakov measure in the theory of closed boson strings are given

  6. Geometric Transitions, Topological Strings, and Generalized Complex Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Wu-yen

    2007-01-01

    Mirror symmetry is one of the most beautiful symmetries in string theory. It helps us very effectively gain insights into non-perturbative worldsheet instanton effects. It was also shown that the study of mirror symmetry for Calabi-Yau flux compactification leads us to the territory of ''Non-Kaehlerity''. In this thesis we demonstrate how to construct a new class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua via generalized geometric transitions. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. From a variety of sources, including super-gravity analysis and KK reduction on SU(3) structure manifolds, we conclude that string theory connects Calabi-Yau spaces to both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds and the resulting manifolds lie in generalized complex geometry. We go on to study the topological twisted models on a class of generalized complex geometry, bi-Hermitian geometry, which is the most general target space for (2, 2) world-sheet theory with non-trivial H flux turned on. We show that the usual Kaehler A and B models are generalized in a natural way. Since the gauged supergravity is the low energy effective theory for the compactifications on generalized geometries, we study the fate of flux-induced isometry gauging in N = 2 IIA and heterotic strings under non-perturbative instanton effects. Interestingly, we find we have protection mechanisms preventing the corrections to the hyper moduli spaces. Besides generalized geometries, we also discuss the possibility of new NS-NS fluxes in a new doubled formalism

  7. Geometric Transitions, Topological Strings, and Generalized Complex Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2007-06-29

    Mirror symmetry is one of the most beautiful symmetries in string theory. It helps us very effectively gain insights into non-perturbative worldsheet instanton effects. It was also shown that the study of mirror symmetry for Calabi-Yau flux compactification leads us to the territory of ''Non-Kaehlerity''. In this thesis we demonstrate how to construct a new class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua via generalized geometric transitions. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. From a variety of sources, including super-gravity analysis and KK reduction on SU(3) structure manifolds, we conclude that string theory connects Calabi-Yau spaces to both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds and the resulting manifolds lie in generalized complex geometry. We go on to study the topological twisted models on a class of generalized complex geometry, bi-Hermitian geometry, which is the most general target space for (2, 2) world-sheet theory with non-trivial H flux turned on. We show that the usual Kaehler A and B models are generalized in a natural way. Since the gauged supergravity is the low energy effective theory for the compactifications on generalized geometries, we study the fate of flux-induced isometry gauging in N = 2 IIA and heterotic strings under non-perturbative instanton effects. Interestingly, we find we have protection mechanisms preventing the corrections to the hyper moduli spaces. Besides generalized geometries, we also discuss the possibility of new NS-NS fluxes in a new doubled formalism.

  8. Automatically Tracing Information Flow of Vulnerability and Cyber-Attack Information through Text Strings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rowe, Neil C; Sjoberg, Eric; Adams, Paige

    2008-01-01

    ... of it. We are developing data mining techniques to track the flow of such information by comparing important information-security Web sites, alert messages, and strings in packets to find similar words and sentences...

  9. Complex world-sheets from N=2 strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbon, J.L.F.

    1996-01-01

    We study some properties of target space strings constructed from (2,1) heterotic strings. We argue that world-sheet complexification is a general property of the bosonic sector of such target world-sheets. We give a target space interpretation of this fact and relate it to the non-gaussian nature of free string field theory. We provide several one-loop calculations supporting the stringy construction of critical world-sheets in terms of (2,1) models. Using finite-temperature boundary conditions in the underlying (2,1) string we obtain non-chiral target space spin structures, and point out some of the problems arising for chiral spin structures, such as the heterotic world-sheet. To this end, we study the torus partition function of the corresponding asymmetric orbifold of the (2,1) string. (orig.)

  10. Communication complexity and information complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  11. The Consensus String Problem and the Complexity of Comparing Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Rune Bang; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2002-01-01

    The basic theory of hidden Markov models was developed and applied to problems in speech recognition in the late 1960s, and has since then been applied to numerous problems, e.g. biological sequence analysis. Most applications of hidden Markov models are based on efficient algorithms for computing...... the probability of generating a given string, or computing the most likely path generating a given string. In this paper we consider the problem of computing the most likely string, or consensus string, generated by a given model, and its implications on the complexity of comparing hidden Markov models. We show...... that computing the consensus string, and approximating its probability within any constant factor, is NP-hard, and that the same holds for the closely related labeling problem for class hidden Markov models. Furthermore, we establish the NP-hardness of comparing two hidden Markov models under the L∞- and L1...

  12. IMPROVEMENT IN HANDWRITTEN NUMERAL STRING RECOGNITION BY SLANT NORMALIZATION AND CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Britto jr., A. de S.; Sabourin, R.; Lethelier, E.; Bortolozzi, F.; Suen, C.Y.

    2004-01-01

    This work describes a way of enhancing handwritten numeral string recognition by considering slant normalization and contextual information to train an implicit segmentation­based system. A word slant normalization method is modified in order to improve the results for handwritten numeral strings.

  13. Fractal geometry and number theory complex dimensions of fractal strings and zeros of zeta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Lapidus, Michael L

    1999-01-01

    A fractal drum is a bounded open subset of R. m with a fractal boundary. A difficult problem is to describe the relationship between the shape (geo­ metry) of the drum and its sound (its spectrum). In this book, we restrict ourselves to the one-dimensional case of fractal strings, and their higher dimensional analogues, fractal sprays. We develop a theory of complex di­ mensions of a fractal string, and we study how these complex dimensions relate the geometry with the spectrum of the fractal string. We refer the reader to [Berrl-2, Lapl-4, LapPol-3, LapMal-2, HeLapl-2] and the ref­ erences therein for further physical and mathematical motivations of this work. (Also see, in particular, Sections 7. 1, 10. 3 and 10. 4, along with Ap­ pendix B. ) In Chapter 1, we introduce the basic object of our research, fractal strings (see [Lapl-3, LapPol-3, LapMal-2, HeLapl-2]). A 'standard fractal string' is a bounded open subset of the real line. Such a set is a disjoint union of open intervals, the lengths of which ...

  14. Compactifications of heterotic strings on non-Kaehler complex manifolds II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Dasgupta, Keshav; Green, Paul S.; Sharpe, Eric

    2004-01-01

    We continue our study of heterotic compactifications on non-Kaehler complex manifolds with torsion. We give further evidence of the consistency of the six-dimensional manifold presented earlier and discuss the anomaly cancellation and possible supergravity description for a generic non-Kaehler complex manifold using the newly proposed superpotential. The manifolds studied in our earlier papers had zero Euler characteristics. We construct new examples of non-Kaehler complex manifolds with torsion in lower dimensions, that have nonzero Euler characteristics. Some of these examples are constructed from consistent backgrounds in F-theory and therefore are solutions to the string equations of motion. We discuss consistency conditions for compactifications of the heterotic string on smooth non-Kaehler manifolds and illustrate how some results well known for Calabi-Yau compactifications, including counting the number of generations, apply to the non-Kaehler case. We briefly address various issues regarding possible phenomenological applications

  15. Bosonic strings

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    This book presents a mathematical treatment of Bosonic string theory from the point of view of global geometry. As motivation, Jost presents the theory of point particles and Feynman path integrals. He provides detailed background material, including the geometry of Teichmüller space, the conformal and complex geometry of Riemann surfaces, and the subtleties of boundary regularity questions. The high point is the description of the partition function for Bosonic strings as a finite-dimensional integral over a moduli space of Riemann surfaces. Jost concludes with some topics related to open and closed strings and D-branes. Bosonic Strings is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in the mathematics underlying string theory.

  16. Unifying Complexity and Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Da-Guan

    2013-04-01

    Complex systems, arising in many contexts in the computer, life, social, and physical sciences, have not shared a generally-accepted complexity measure playing a fundamental role as the Shannon entropy H in statistical mechanics. Superficially-conflicting criteria of complexity measurement, i.e. complexity-randomness (C-R) relations, have given rise to a special measure intrinsically adaptable to more than one criterion. However, deep causes of the conflict and the adaptability are not much clear. Here I trace the root of each representative or adaptable measure to its particular universal data-generating or -regenerating model (UDGM or UDRM). A representative measure for deterministic dynamical systems is found as a counterpart of the H for random process, clearly redefining the boundary of different criteria. And a specific UDRM achieving the intrinsic adaptability enables a general information measure that ultimately solves all major disputes. This work encourages a single framework coving deterministic systems, statistical mechanics and real-world living organisms.

  17. String theory flux vacua on twisted tori and generalized complex geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriot, David

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of flux vacua of string theory, with the ten-dimensional space-time split into a four-dimensional maximally symmetric space-time, and a six-dimensional internal manifold M, taken to be a solv-manifold (twisted torus). Such vacua are of particular interest when trying to relate string theory to supersymmetric (SUSY) extensions of the standard model of particles, or to cosmological models. For SUSY solutions of type II supergravities, allowing for fluxes on M helps to solve the moduli problem. Then, a broader class of manifolds than just the Calabi-Yau can be considered for M, and a general characterization is given in terms of Generalized Complex Geometry: M has to be a Generalized Calabi-Yau (GCY). A subclass of solv-manifolds have been proven to be GCY, so we look for solutions with such M. To do so, we use an algorithmic resolution method. Then we focus on specific new solutions: those admitting an intermediate SU(2) structure. A transformation named the twist is then discussed. It relates solutions on torus to solutions on solv-manifolds. Working out constraints on the twist to generate solutions, we can relate known solutions, and find a new one. We also use the twist to relate flux vacua of heterotic string. Finally we consider ten-dimensional de Sitter solutions. Looking for such solutions is difficult, because of several problems among which the breaking of SUSY. We propose an Ansatz for SUSY breaking sources which helps to overcome these difficulties. We give an explicit solution on a solv-manifold, and discuss partially its four-dimensional stability. (author)

  18. Analysis and Comparison of Information Theory-based Distances for Genomic Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzano, Walter; Cicalese, Ferdinando; Del Sorbo, Maria Rosaria; Vaccaro, Ugo

    2008-07-01

    Genomic string comparison via alignment are widely applied for mining and retrieval of information in biological databases. In some situation, the effectiveness of such alignment based comparison is still unclear, e.g., for sequences with non-uniform length and with significant shuffling of identical substrings. An alternative approach is the one based on information theory distances. Biological data information content is stored in very long strings of only four characters. In last ten years, several entropic measures have been proposed for genomic string analysis. Notwithstanding their individual merit and experimental validation, to the nest of our knowledge, there is no direct comparison of these different metrics. We shall present four of the most representative alignment-free distance measures, based on mutual information. Each one has a different origin and expression. Our comparison involves a sort of arrangement, to reduce different concepts to a unique formalism, so as it has been possible to construct a phylogenetic tree for each of them. The trees produced via these metrics are compared to the ones widely accepted as biologically validated. In general the results provided more evidence of the reliability of the alignment-free distance models. Also, we observe that one of the metrics appeared to be more robust than the other three. We believe that this result can be object of further researches and observations. Many of the results of experimentation, the graphics and the table are available at the following URL: http://people.na.infn.it/˜wbalzano/BIO

  19. Black-hole information puzzle: a generic string-inspired approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, H.

    2008-01-01

    Given the insight stemming from string theory, the origin of the black-hole (BH) information puzzle is traced back to the assumption that it is physically meaningful to trace out the density matrix over negative-frequency Hawking particles. Instead, treating them as virtual particles necessarily absorbed by the BH in a manner consistent with the laws of BH thermodynamics, and tracing out the density matrix only over physical BH states, complete evaporation becomes compatible with unitarity. (orig.)

  20. Communication Analysis of Information Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. F.

    Communication analysis is a tool for perceptual assessment of existing or projected information complexes, i.e., an established reality perceived by one or many humans. An information complex could be of a physical nature, such as a building, landscape, city street; or of a pure informational nature, such as a film, television program,…

  1. Experimental Charge Density Study of Trichromium Linear Metal String Complex – Cr3(dpa)4Cl2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Lai-Chin; Cheng, Ming-Chuan; Thomsen, Maja Krüger

    An experimental and theoretical charge density study, based on Bader’s Quantum Theory: Atoms in Molecule (QTAIM), on a trichromium metal string complex, Cr3(dpa)4Cl2(C2H5OC2H5)x(CH2Cl2)1-x (1, dpa- = bis(2-pyridyl)amido)) is performed. The structure and multipole model of 1 are performed by using...... experimental X-ray diffraction data which are collected at both 100 K using conventional X-ray source (DS1) and 15 K using synchrotron source (DS2). The three chromium metal string is bridged by four dpa- ligands. These tri-chromium metal ions are bonded to each other and terminated by two Cl- ions on the both...... ends, forming a [Cl(1)Cr(1)Cr(2)Cr(3)Cl(2)] linear string. Each Cr atoms are coordinated by four N atoms of each dpa- ligand. This metal string is slightly unsymmetrical at both data sets. The bond distance, from DS1 (DS2), of Cr(1)Cr(2), 2.3480(2) (2.3669(1)) Å, is 0.03 (0.003) Å shorter than Cr...

  2. Information geometric methods for complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Domenico; Cafaro, Carlo; Mancini, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    Research on the use of information geometry (IG) in modern physics has witnessed significant advances recently. In this review article, we report on the utilization of IG methods to define measures of complexity in both classical and, whenever available, quantum physical settings. A paradigmatic example of a dramatic change in complexity is given by phase transitions (PTs). Hence, we review both global and local aspects of PTs described in terms of the scalar curvature of the parameter manifold and the components of the metric tensor, respectively. We also report on the behavior of geodesic paths on the parameter manifold used to gain insight into the dynamics of PTs. Going further, we survey measures of complexity arising in the geometric framework. In particular, we quantify complexity of networks in terms of the Riemannian volume of the parameter space of a statistical manifold associated with a given network. We are also concerned with complexity measures that account for the interactions of a given number of parts of a system that cannot be described in terms of a smaller number of parts of the system. Finally, we investigate complexity measures of entropic motion on curved statistical manifolds that arise from a probabilistic description of physical systems in the presence of limited information. The Kullback-Leibler divergence, the distance to an exponential family and volumes of curved parameter manifolds, are examples of essential IG notions exploited in our discussion of complexity. We conclude by discussing strengths, limits, and possible future applications of IG methods to the physics of complexity.

  3. Congruences of null strings in complex space-times and some Cauchy--Kovalevski-like problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, I.; Rozga, K.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that a problem of construction of a local congruence of null strings is equivalent to a natural Cauchy--Kovalevski-like problem, related to an equation for a spinor field k/sub A/ defining the congruence. Initial data are specified on two-dimensional submanifolds. In left-conformally-flat spaces, the solution of that problem exists for arbitrary initial data

  4. Complex networks generated by the Penna bit-string model: Emergence of small-world and assortative mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunguang; Maini, Philip K.

    2005-10-01

    The Penna bit-string model successfully encompasses many phenomena of population evolution, including inheritance, mutation, evolution, and aging. If we consider social interactions among individuals in the Penna model, the population will form a complex network. In this paper, we first modify the Verhulst factor to control only the birth rate, and introduce activity-based preferential reproduction of offspring in the Penna model. The social interactions among individuals are generated by both inheritance and activity-based preferential increase. Then we study the properties of the complex network generated by the modified Penna model. We find that the resulting complex network has a small-world effect and the assortative mixing property.

  5. An Introduction to Black Holes, Information and the String Theory Revolution: The Holographic Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, W

    2006-01-01

    lead to inconsistencies. Students and non-specialists will welcome this book, which provides an entry into this fascinating realm at a level that can be enjoyed by an enterprising undergraduate. The first chapter introduces the Schwarzschild black hole and the various coordinate systems used for its description. In four brief chapters (29 pages) the authors then manage a clear presentation of the thermal properties of quantum fields in Rindler and Schwarzschild space that skirts the operator formalism of QFT. Two further chapters treat charged black holes and the stretched-horizon description of black hole electrodynamics. Chapter 8, 'The Laws of Nature', explains how information is quantified, the quantum xerox principle and the entanglement entropy of black holes, with a detailed account of how this evolves as the hole evaporates. This sets the stage for a discussion of the black hole information puzzle and the complementarity principle in chapter 9. The pace heats up in the second part of the book, which in 48 pages sketches a variety of topics: Bousso's entropy bound and holography, the AdS/CFT correspondence, a 13 page introduction to string theory and the ideas underlying the string-based derivations of the entropy-area relation for higher-dimensional black holes. This well-planned, stimulating and sometimes provocative book can be enthusiastically recommended. (book review)

  6. The STRING database in 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szklarczyk, Damian; Franceschini, Andrea; Kuhn, Michael

    2011-01-01

    present an update on the online database resource Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING); it provides uniquely comprehensive coverage and ease of access to both experimental as well as predicted interaction information. Interactions in STRING are provided with a confidence score...... models, extensive data updates and strongly improved connectivity and integration with third-party resources. Version 9.0 of STRING covers more than 1100 completely sequenced organisms; the resource can be reached at http://string-db.org....

  7. String theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Hongmo.

    1987-10-01

    The paper traces the development of the String Theory, and was presented at Professor Sir Rudolf Peierls' 80sup(th) Birthday Symposium. The String theory is discussed with respect to the interaction of strings, the inclusion of both gauge theory and gravitation, inconsistencies in the theory, and the role of space-time. The physical principles underlying string theory are also outlined. (U.K.)

  8. Information communication on complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Akito; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Maruyama, Takahiro; Morioka, Atsushi; Naganuma, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    Since communication networks such as the Internet, which is regarded as a complex network, have recently become a huge scale and a lot of data pass through them, the improvement of packet routing strategies for transport is one of the most significant themes in the study of computer networks. It is especially important to find routing strategies which can bear as many traffic as possible without congestion in complex networks. First, using neural networks, we introduce a strategy for packet routing on complex networks, where path lengths and queue lengths in nodes are taken into account within a framework of statistical physics. Secondly, instead of using shortest paths, we propose efficient paths which avoid hubs, nodes with a great many degrees, on scale-free networks with a weight of each node. We improve the heuristic algorithm proposed by Danila et. al. which optimizes step by step routing properties on congestion by using the information of betweenness, the probability of paths passing through a node in all optimal paths which are defined according to a rule, and mitigates the congestion. We confirm the new heuristic algorithm which balances traffic on networks by achieving minimization of the maximum betweenness in much smaller number of iteration steps. Finally, We model virus spreading and data transfer on peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. Using mean-field approximation, we obtain an analytical formulation and emulate virus spreading on the network and compare the results with those of simulation. Moreover, we investigate the mitigation of information traffic congestion in the P2P networks.

  9. Hyperbolic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    We introduce hyperbolic strings as closed bosonic strings with the target space R d-1,1 xT q+1,1 which has an additional time-like dimension in the internal space. The Fock spaces of the q-parametric family of standard bosonic, fermionic and heterotic strings with the target spaces of dimension n≤d+q are shown to be embedded into the Fock space of hyperbolic strings. The condition of the absence of anomaly fixes d and q for all three types of strings written in a bosonized form. (orig.)

  10. Number of Packages of Information which are processed in a Second by the Fundamental Particles (strings) of a Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Ghasem; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2016-11-01

    The fundamental particle (string) gets a package of complete information of its quantum state via inside of its sub-particle (sub-string) from dimension of information. This package is processed by sub-particle in each Planck time [Gholibeigian, APS 2015, abstract #L1.027]. On the other hand, a 70 kg human's body would have approximately 7*1027 atoms. Of that, 4.7*1027 would be hydrogen atoms. Another 1.8*1027 would be oxygen and there are 7.0*1026 carbon atoms. If we add that all up, total is 2.3*1028 protons, 1.8*1028 neutrons, and 2.3*1028 electrons. Each proton and neutron has 6 fundamental particles. So the total number of packages of information which are processed by each of us in a second becomes: I = [ 6 × (2 . 3 + 1 . 8) ×1028 + 2 . 3 ×1028 ] ×1044 = 2 . 69 ×1073 The processed information carry by fundamental particles. Based on Shanon equation, I = - S , this number can be equal to the increased entropy of each of us per second too. AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

  11. Bowed Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Hanson, Roger J.

    In the next eight chapters, we consider some aspects of the science of bowed string instruments, old and new. In this chapter, we present a brief discussion of bowed strings, a subject that will be developed much more thoroughly in Chap. 16. Chapters 13-15 discuss the violin, the cello, and the double bass. Chapter 17 discusses viols and other historic string instruments, and Chap. 18 discusses the Hutchins-Schelleng violin octet.

  12. Deformations of topological open strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, C.; Ma, Whee Ky

    Deformations of topological open string theories are described, with an emphasis on their algebraic structure. They are encoded in the mixed bulk-boundary correlators. They constitute the Hochschild complex of the open string algebra - the complex of multilinear maps on the boundary Hilbert space.

  13. Final Report: "Strings 2014"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witten, Edward

    2015-10-21

    The Strings 2014 meeting was held at Princeton University June 23-27, 2014, co-sponsored by Princeton University and the Institute for Advanced Study. The goal of the meeting was to provide a stimulating and up-to-date overview of research in string theory and its relations to other areas of physics and mathematics, ranging from geometry to quantum field theory, condensed matter physics, and more. This brief report lists committee members and speakers but contains no scientific information. Note that the talks at Strings 2014 were videotaped and are available on the conference website: http://physics.princeton.edustrings2014/Talk_titles.shtml.

  14. Null strings and complex Einstein-Maxwell fields with cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.; Plebanski, J.F.; Robinson, I.

    1977-01-01

    Previous results of Plebanski and Robinson (Phys. Rev. Lett.; 37:493 (1976)) concerning left-degenerate Einstein-flat complex space-times and preliminary results concerning the electromagnetic field, are here generalized and worked out in some detail for the system of Einstein-Maxwell equations with a cosmological constant. On the assumption that there exists a congruence of totally null surfaces, the system is reduced to a pair of equations for the two unknown functions. (author)

  15. The STRING database in 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szklarczyk, Damian; Morris, John H; Cook, Helen

    2017-01-01

    A system-wide understanding of cellular function requires knowledge of all functional interactions between the expressed proteins. The STRING database aims to collect and integrate this information, by consolidating known and predicted protein-protein association data for a large number of organi......A system-wide understanding of cellular function requires knowledge of all functional interactions between the expressed proteins. The STRING database aims to collect and integrate this information, by consolidating known and predicted protein-protein association data for a large number...... of organisms. The associations in STRING include direct (physical) interactions, as well as indirect (functional) interactions, as long as both are specific and biologically meaningful. Apart from collecting and reassessing available experimental data on protein-protein interactions, and importing known...... pathways and protein complexes from curated databases, interaction predictions are derived from the following sources: (i) systematic co-expression analysis, (ii) detection of shared selective signals across genomes, (iii) automated text-mining of the scientific literature and (iv) computational transfer...

  16. Communication of Information with Sub-particles (Sub-strings) from Fifth Dimension of the Universe (Information) as the ``Fundamental Symmetry'' in the Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Ghasem; Amirshahkarami, Abdolazim; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2016-10-01

    Fundamental particles (strings) getting processed information from their four animated sub-particles (sub-strings) for their motion [Gholibeigian, APS, 2015, abstract #L1.027]. It seems that the source of information which particles and dark mater/energy are floating in it and whispering to its communication for getting order may be ``fifth dimension'' of the nature in addition of space-time dimensions. In other words, space-time can be the universe's hardware and information's dimension can be dynamic software of the universe which has always become up to date. Communication of information which has a vital role in creation and evolution of the universe, may be as the ``fundamental symmetry'' in the nature, which sparked to B.B. (Convection Bang). Communication of information leads other symmetries and supersymmetry as well as other phenomena in Universe. Before Planck time, from 0 ->10-44 second, and its correspondence space needed communication of information for preparing the B.B. So, this fifth dimension has appeared for leading the processes before and after Planck time. AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

  17. Information processing in complex networks

    OpenAIRE

    Quax, R.

    2013-01-01

    Eerste resultaten van onderzoek van Rick Quax suggereren dat een combinatie van informatietheorie, netwerktheorie en statistische mechanica kan leiden tot een veelbelovende theorie om het gedrag van complexe netwerken te voorspellen. Er bestaat nog weinig theorie over het gedrag van dynamische eenheden die verbonden zijn in een netwerk, zoals neuronen in een breinnetwerk of genen in een gen-regulatienetwerk. Quax combineert informatietheorie, netwerktheorie, en statistische onderzoeken en mec...

  18. Fast Searching in Packed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Given strings P and Q the (exact) string matching problem is to find all positions of substrings in Q matching P. The classical Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm [SIAM J. Comput., 1977] solves the string matching problem in linear time which is optimal if we can only read one character at the time....... However, most strings are stored in a computer in a packed representation with several characters in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. In this paper we study the worst-case complexity of string matching on strings given in packed representation. Let m...... word-RAM with logarithmic word size we present an algorithm using time O(n/log(sigma) n + m + occ) Here occ is the number of occurrences of P in Q. For m = o(n) this improves the O(n) bound...

  19. Multiquark strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.; Chun, W.

    1985-01-01

    The use of basis states described as hadronic (or hadron-hadron) or hidden-colour (or colour-colour) for a system of quarks does not necessarily imply that connected exotic multiquark hadrons do exist. Antisymmetrization of quark wave functions tends to make these descriptions ill defined. It appears necessary to have stable collective structures called strings or bags to provide the physical connections required by quark confinement. The masses of multiquark hadrons can then be estimated by using semplified string, bag and NR potential models. The results turn out to be qualitatively similar in all these models. The stability problem for multiquark strings is briefly discussed

  20. Communication of Information with Sub-particles (Sub-strings) from Fifth Dimension of the Universe (Information) as the "Fundamental Symmetry" in the Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Ghsem; Amirshahkarami, Abdolazim; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2016-11-01

    All fundamental particles (strings) getting information from their four animated sub-particles (sub-strings) after processing by them for motion. It seems that the source of information which particles and dark mater/energy are floating in it and whispering to its communication may be "fifth dimension" of the nature after space-time dimensions. In other words, the space-time can be the universe's hardware and information's dimension can be dynamic software of the universe which has always become up to date. Communication of information has a vital role in creation and evolution of the universe, may be as the "fundamental symmetry" in the nature, which began before the spark to B.B. (Convection Bang), and leads other symmetries and supersymmetry as well as other phenomena. Duration of the before Planck time, from 0 ->10-44 second, and its correspondence space which its result was generation of the very hot and energetic point for the B.B. / C.B. needed to communication of information. It seems that this fifth dimension has appeared for leading the processes before and after Planck time. How this dimension of the nature appeared and has always become up to date? AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

  1. IDE Support of String-Embedded Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Grigorev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex information systems are often implemented by using more than one programming language. Sometimes this variety takes a form of one host and one or few string-embedded languages. Textual representation of clauses in a string-embedded language is built at run time by a host program and then analyzed, compiled or interpreted by a dedicated runtime component (database, web browser etc. Most general-purpose programming languages may play the role of the host; one of the most evident examples of the string-embedded language is the dynamic SQL which was specified in ISO SQL standard and is supported by the majority of DBMS. Standard IDE functionality such as code completion or syntax highlighting can really helps the developers who use this technique. There are several tools providing this functionality, but they all process only one concrete string-embedded language and cannot be easily extended for supporting another language. We present a platform which allows to easily create tools for string-embedded language processing.

  2. A new information dimension of complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Daijun; Wei, Bo; Hu, Yong; Zhang, Haixin; Deng, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •The proposed measure is more practical than the classical information dimension. •The difference of information for box in the box-covering algorithm is considered. •Results indicate the measure can capture the fractal property of complex networks. -- Abstract: The fractal and self-similarity properties are revealed in many complex networks. The classical information dimension is an important method to study fractal and self-similarity properties of planar networks. However, it is not practical for real complex networks. In this Letter, a new information dimension of complex networks is proposed. The nodes number in each box is considered by using the box-covering algorithm of complex networks. The proposed method is applied to calculate the fractal dimensions of some real networks. Our results show that the proposed method is efficient when dealing with the fractal dimension problem of complex networks.

  3. A new information dimension of complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Daijun [School of Computer and Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); School of Science, Hubei University for Nationalities, Enshi 445000 (China); Wei, Bo [School of Computer and Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Hu, Yong [Institute of Business Intelligence and Knowledge Discovery, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang, Haixin [School of Computer and Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Deng, Yong, E-mail: ydeng@swu.edu.cn [School of Computer and Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); School of Engineering, Vanderbilt University, TN 37235 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: •The proposed measure is more practical than the classical information dimension. •The difference of information for box in the box-covering algorithm is considered. •Results indicate the measure can capture the fractal property of complex networks. -- Abstract: The fractal and self-similarity properties are revealed in many complex networks. The classical information dimension is an important method to study fractal and self-similarity properties of planar networks. However, it is not practical for real complex networks. In this Letter, a new information dimension of complex networks is proposed. The nodes number in each box is considered by using the box-covering algorithm of complex networks. The proposed method is applied to calculate the fractal dimensions of some real networks. Our results show that the proposed method is efficient when dealing with the fractal dimension problem of complex networks.

  4. Cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.P.

    1988-07-01

    Cosmic strings are linear topological defects that are predicted by some grand unified theories to form during a spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition in the early universe. They are the basis for the only theories of galaxy formation aside from quantum fluctuations from inflation that are based on fundamental physics. In contrast to inflation, they can also be observed directly through gravitational lensing and their characteristic microwave background anistropy. It has recently been discovered by F. Bouchet and myself that details of cosmic string evolution are very different from the so-called ''standard model'' that has been assumed in most of the string induced galaxy formation calculations. Therefore, the details of galaxy formation in the cosmic string models are currently very uncertain. 29 refs., 9 figs

  5. Magnetic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Max

    2006-01-01

    The conception of the magnetic string is presented as an infinitely thin bundle of magnetic flux lines. The magnetic strings are surrounded by a film of current that rotates around them, and are a solution of Maxwell's equations. The magnetic potential contains a line singularity, and its stability can be established topologically. A few comments are added on the possibility that they may exist at a cosmological scale as relics of the Big Bang. (author) [es

  6. Lattice strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorn, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of studying non-perturbative effects in string theory using a world sheet lattice is discussed. The light-cone lattice string model of Giles and Thorn is studied numerically to assess the accuracy of ''coarse lattice'' approximations. For free strings a 5 by 15 lattice seems sufficient to obtain better than 10% accuracy for the bosonic string tachyon mass squared. In addition a crude lattice model simulating string like interactions is studied to find out how easily a coarse lattice calculation can pick out effects such as bound states which would qualitatively alter the spectrum of the free theory. The role of the critical dimension in obtaining a finite continuum limit is discussed. Instead of the ''gaussian'' lattice model one could use one of the vertex models, whose continuum limit is the same as a gaussian model on a torus of any radius. Indeed, any critical 2 dimensional statistical system will have a stringy continuum limit in the absence of string interactions. 8 refs., 1 fig. , 9 tabs

  7. Merging in-silico and in vitro salivary protein complex partners using the STRING database: A tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosara, Karla Tonelli Bicalho; Moffa, Eduardo Buozi; Xiao, Yizhi; Siqueira, Walter Luiz

    2018-01-16

    Protein-protein interaction is a common physiological mechanism for protection and actions of proteins in an organism. The identification and characterization of protein-protein interactions in different organisms is necessary to better understand their physiology and to determine their efficacy. In a previous in vitro study using mass spectrometry, we identified 43 proteins that interact with histatin 1. Six previously documented interactors were confirmed and 37 novel partners were identified. In this tutorial, we aimed to demonstrate the usefulness of the STRING database for studying protein-protein interactions. We used an in-silico approach along with the STRING database (http://string-db.org/) and successfully performed a fast simulation of a novel constructed histatin 1 protein-protein network, including both the previously known and the predicted interactors, along with our newly identified interactors. Our study highlights the advantages and importance of applying bioinformatics tools to merge in-silico tactics with experimental in vitro findings for rapid advancement of our knowledge about protein-protein interactions. Our findings also indicate that bioinformatics tools such as the STRING protein network database can help predict potential interactions between proteins and thus serve as a guide for future steps in our exploration of the Human Interactome. Our study highlights the usefulness of the STRING protein database for studying protein-protein interactions. The STRING database can collect and integrate data about known and predicted protein-protein associations from many organisms, including both direct (physical) and indirect (functional) interactions, in an easy-to-use interface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Towards an Information Theory of Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias; Mehler, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    For over a decade, complex networks have steadily grown as an important tool across a broad array of academic disciplines, with applications ranging from physics to social media. A tightly organized collection of carefully-selected papers on the subject, Towards an Information Theory of Complex Networks: Statistical Methods and Applications presents theoretical and practical results about information-theoretic and statistical models of complex networks in the natural sciences and humanities. The book's major goal is to advocate and promote a combination of graph-theoretic, information-theoreti

  9. Multi-Filter String Matching and Human-Centric Entity Matching for Information Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chong

    2012-01-01

    More and more information is being generated in text documents, such as Web pages, emails and blogs. To effectively manage this unstructured information, one broadly used approach includes locating relevant content in documents, extracting structured information and integrating the extracted information for querying, mining or further analysis. In…

  10. Singleton strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engquist, J.; Sundell, P.; Tamassia, L.

    2007-01-01

    The group theoretical structure underlying physics in anti de Sitter (AdS) spacetime is intrinsically different with respect to the flat case, due to the presence of special ultra-short representations, named singletons, that do not admit a flat space limit. The purpose of this collaboration is to exploit this feature in the study of string and brane dynamics in AdS spacetime, in particular while trying to establish a connection between String Theory in AdS backgrounds (in the tensionless limit) and Higher-Spin Gauge Theory. (orig.)

  11. Choice Complexity, Benchmarks and Costly Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, Job; Rosenkranz, S.; Sanders, M.W.J.L.

    In this study we investigate how two types of information interventions, providing a benchmark and providing costly information on option ranking, can improve decision-making in complex choices. In our experiment subjects made a series of incentivized choices between four hypothetical financial

  12. Mathematical Analysis of Evolution, Information, and Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Arendt, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical Analysis of Evolution, Information, and Complexity deals with the analysis of evolution, information and complexity. The time evolution of systems or processes is a central question in science, this text covers a broad range of problems including diffusion processes, neuronal networks, quantum theory and cosmology. Bringing together a wide collection of research in mathematics, information theory, physics and other scientific and technical areas, this new title offers elementary and thus easily accessible introductions to the various fields of research addressed in the book.

  13. String phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez, Luis E

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews a number of topics in the field of string phenomenology, focusing on orientifold/F-theory models yielding semirealistic low-energy physics. The emphasis is on the extraction of the low-energy effective action and possible tests of specific models at the LHC.

  14. String GUTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldazabal, G.; Ibanez, L.E.; Uranga, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Standard SUSY-GUTs such as those based on SU(5) or SO(10) lead to predictions for the values of α s and sin 2 θ W in amazing agreement with experiment. In this article we investigate how these models may be obtained from string theory, thus bringing them into the only known consistent framework for quantum gravity. String models with matter in standard GUT representations require the realization of affine Lie algebras at higher levels. We start by describing some methods to build level k=2 symmetric orbifold string models with gauge groups SU(5) or SO(10). We present several examples and identify generic features of the type of models constructed. Chiral fields appropriate to break the symmetry down to the standard model generically appear in the massless spectrum. However, unlike in standard SUSY-GUTs, they often behave as string moduli, i.e., they do not have self-couplings. We also discuss briefly the doublet-triplet Higgs splitting. We find that, in some models, built-in sliding-singlet type of couplings exist. (orig.)

  15. Recording information on protein complexes in an information management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitsky, Marc; Diprose, Jonathan M; Morris, Chris; Griffiths, Susanne L; Daniel, Edward; Lin, Bill; Daenke, Susan; Bishop, Benjamin; Siebold, Christian; Wilson, Keith S; Blake, Richard; Stuart, David I; Esnouf, Robert M

    2011-08-01

    The Protein Information Management System (PiMS) is a laboratory information management system (LIMS) designed for use with the production of proteins in a research environment. The software is distributed under the CCP4 licence, and so is available free of charge to academic laboratories. Like most LIMS, the underlying PiMS data model originally had no support for protein-protein complexes. To support the SPINE2-Complexes project the developers have extended PiMS to meet these requirements. The modifications to PiMS, described here, include data model changes, additional protocols, some user interface changes and functionality to detect when an experiment may have formed a complex. Example data are shown for the production of a crystal of a protein complex. Integration with SPINE2-Complexes Target Tracker application is also described. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Representing nested semantic information in a linear string of text using XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauthammer, Michael; Johnson, Stephen B; Hripcsak, George; Campbell, David A; Friedman, Carol

    2002-01-01

    XML has been widely adopted as an important data interchange language. The structure of XML enables sharing of data elements with variable degrees of nesting as long as the elements are grouped in a strict tree-like fashion. This requirement potentially restricts the usefulness of XML for marking up written text, which often includes features that do not properly nest within other features. We encountered this problem while marking up medical text with structured semantic information from a Natural Language Processor. Traditional approaches to this problem separate the structured information from the actual text mark up. This paper introduces an alternative solution, which tightly integrates the semantic structure with the text. The resulting XML markup preserves the linearity of the medical texts and can therefore be easily expanded with additional types of information.

  17. Representing nested semantic information in a linear string of text using XML.

    OpenAIRE

    Krauthammer, Michael; Johnson, Stephen B.; Hripcsak, George; Campbell, David A.; Friedman, Carol

    2002-01-01

    XML has been widely adopted as an important data interchange language. The structure of XML enables sharing of data elements with variable degrees of nesting as long as the elements are grouped in a strict tree-like fashion. This requirement potentially restricts the usefulness of XML for marking up written text, which often includes features that do not properly nest within other features. We encountered this problem while marking up medical text with structured semantic information from a N...

  18. Strings draw theorists together

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael

    2000-01-01

    setting in which string theory in a space-time of dimension d is identical to Yang-Mills gauge theory in d - 1 dimensions. Maldacena and several others talked about recent developments in this area. It is one example of the remarkable ''holographic principle'', originally developed by Gerard 't Hooft of Utrecht University, who shared the Nobel Prize for Physics last year. According to this idea, a general feature of quantum gravity is that physical information inside any volume is encoded on the surface of that volume. 't Hooft believes that the holographic properties of quantum gravity can only be accommodated by making a radical change to the basic structure of quantum mechanics, which would imply that quantum mechanics has a classical origin. A number of other speakers gave fascinating glimpses into the way in which the structure of string theory should combine with the principles of quantum theory to produce a consistent description of physics under extreme conditions. For example, string theory could resolve long-standing paradoxes about quantum mechanics in the presence of black holes, which originated with the work of Hawking in the 1970s. The confident mood of the meeting was based largely on the compelling theoretical ideas in string theory, but there was also an acute sense that experimental verification is crucial. The theory should obviously have many observational ramifications, most clearly in the realm of ultrahigh-energy physics or the physics of the early universe. There was also unanimous agreement that the discovery of supersymmetry at Fermilab in the US or at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN would be a dramatic first step towards such verification. (UK)

  19. Extraction of quantifiable information from complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dahmen, Wolfgang; Griebel, Michael; Hackbusch, Wolfgang; Ritter, Klaus; Schneider, Reinhold; Schwab, Christoph; Yserentant, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In April 2007, the  Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) approved the  Priority Program 1324 “Mathematical Methods for Extracting Quantifiable Information from Complex Systems.” This volume presents a comprehensive overview of the most important results obtained over the course of the program.   Mathematical models of complex systems provide the foundation for further technological developments in science, engineering and computational finance.  Motivated by the trend toward steadily increasing computer power, ever more realistic models have been developed in recent years. These models have also become increasingly complex, and their numerical treatment poses serious challenges.   Recent developments in mathematics suggest that, in the long run, much more powerful numerical solution strategies could be derived if the interconnections between the different fields of research were systematically exploited at a conceptual level. Accordingly, a deeper understanding of the mathematical foundations as w...

  20. A novel string field theory solving string theory by liberating left and right movers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Holger B.; Ninomiya, Masao

    2014-01-01

    We put forward ideas to a novel string field theory based on making some “objects” that essentially describe “liberated” left- and right- mover fields X L μ (τ+σ) and X R μ (τ−σ) on the string. Our novel string field theory is completely definitely different from any other string theory in as far as a “null set” of information in the string field theory Fock space has been removed relatively, to the usual string field theories. So our theory is definitely new. The main progress is that we manage to make our novel string field theory provide the correct mass square spectrum for the string. We finally suggest how to obtain the Veneziano amplitude in our model

  1. Information, complexity and efficiency: The automobile model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenby, B. [Lucent Technologies (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-08-08

    The new, rapidly evolving field of industrial ecology - the objective, multidisciplinary study of industrial and economic systems and their linkages with fundamental natural systems - provides strong ground for believing that a more environmentally and economically efficient economy will be more information intensive and complex. Information and intellectual capital will be substituted for the more traditional inputs of materials and energy in producing a desirable, yet sustainable, quality of life. While at this point this remains a strong hypothesis, the evolution of the automobile industry can be used to illustrate how such substitution may, in fact, already be occurring in an environmentally and economically critical sector.

  2. String Gas Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    String gas cosmology is a string theory-based approach to early universe cosmology which is based on making use of robust features of string theory such as the existence of new states and new symmetries. A first goal of string gas cosmology is to understand how string theory can effect the earliest moments of cosmology before the effective field theory approach which underlies standard and inflationary cosmology becomes valid. String gas cosmology may also provide an alternative to the curren...

  3. Maximizing information exchange between complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Bruce J.; Geneston, Elvis L.; Grigolini, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    research overarching all of the traditional scientific disciplines. The transportation networks of planes, highways and railroads; the economic networks of global finance and stock markets; the social networks of terrorism, governments, businesses and churches; the physical networks of telephones, the Internet, earthquakes and global warming and the biological networks of gene regulation, the human body, clusters of neurons and food webs, share a number of apparently universal properties as the networks become increasingly complex. Ubiquitous aspects of such complex networks are the appearance of non-stationary and non-ergodic statistical processes and inverse power-law statistical distributions. Herein we review the traditional dynamical and phase-space methods for modeling such networks as their complexity increases and focus on the limitations of these procedures in explaining complex networks. Of course we will not be able to review the entire nascent field of network science, so we limit ourselves to a review of how certain complexity barriers have been surmounted using newly applied theoretical concepts such as aging, renewal, non-ergodic statistics and the fractional calculus. One emphasis of this review is information transport between complex networks, which requires a fundamental change in perception that we express as a transition from the familiar stochastic resonance to the new concept of complexity matching

  4. Maximizing information exchange between complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bruce J.; Geneston, Elvis L.; Grigolini, Paolo

    2008-10-01

    modern research overarching all of the traditional scientific disciplines. The transportation networks of planes, highways and railroads; the economic networks of global finance and stock markets; the social networks of terrorism, governments, businesses and churches; the physical networks of telephones, the Internet, earthquakes and global warming and the biological networks of gene regulation, the human body, clusters of neurons and food webs, share a number of apparently universal properties as the networks become increasingly complex. Ubiquitous aspects of such complex networks are the appearance of non-stationary and non-ergodic statistical processes and inverse power-law statistical distributions. Herein we review the traditional dynamical and phase-space methods for modeling such networks as their complexity increases and focus on the limitations of these procedures in explaining complex networks. Of course we will not be able to review the entire nascent field of network science, so we limit ourselves to a review of how certain complexity barriers have been surmounted using newly applied theoretical concepts such as aging, renewal, non-ergodic statistics and the fractional calculus. One emphasis of this review is information transport between complex networks, which requires a fundamental change in perception that we express as a transition from the familiar stochastic resonance to the new concept of complexity matching.

  5. Maximizing information exchange between complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Bruce J. [Mathematical and Information Science, Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, NC 27708 (United States); Physics Department, Duke University, Durham, NC 27709 (United States)], E-mail: bwest@nc.rr.com; Geneston, Elvis L. [Center for Nonlinear Science, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States); Physics Department, La Sierra University, 4500 Riverwalk Parkway, Riverside, CA 92515 (United States); Grigolini, Paolo [Center for Nonlinear Science, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States); Istituto di Processi Chimico Fisici del CNR, Area della Ricerca di Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi, 56124, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' Universita' di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    modern research overarching all of the traditional scientific disciplines. The transportation networks of planes, highways and railroads; the economic networks of global finance and stock markets; the social networks of terrorism, governments, businesses and churches; the physical networks of telephones, the Internet, earthquakes and global warming and the biological networks of gene regulation, the human body, clusters of neurons and food webs, share a number of apparently universal properties as the networks become increasingly complex. Ubiquitous aspects of such complex networks are the appearance of non-stationary and non-ergodic statistical processes and inverse power-law statistical distributions. Herein we review the traditional dynamical and phase-space methods for modeling such networks as their complexity increases and focus on the limitations of these procedures in explaining complex networks. Of course we will not be able to review the entire nascent field of network science, so we limit ourselves to a review of how certain complexity barriers have been surmounted using newly applied theoretical concepts such as aging, renewal, non-ergodic statistics and the fractional calculus. One emphasis of this review is information transport between complex networks, which requires a fundamental change in perception that we express as a transition from the familiar stochastic resonance to the new concept of complexity matching.

  6. The Modeling and Complexity of Dynamical Systems by Means of Computation and Information Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Logozar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the modeling of dynamical systems and finding of their complexity indicators by the use of concepts from computation and information theories, within the framework of J. P. Crutchfield's theory of  ε-machines. A short formal outline of the  ε-machines is given. In this approach, dynamical systems are analyzed directly from the time series that is received from a properly adjusted measuring instrument. The binary strings are parsed through the parse tree, within which morphologically and probabilistically unique subtrees or morphs are recognized as system states. The outline and precise interrelation of the information-theoretic entropies and complexities emanating from the model is given. The paper serves also as a theoretical foundation for the future presentation of the DSA program that implements the  ε-machines modeling up to the stochastic finite automata level.

  7. Experimental observation of Bethe strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Wu, Jianda; Yang, Wang; Bera, Anup Kumar; Kamenskyi, Dmytro; Islam, A. T. M. Nazmul; Xu, Shenglong; Law, Joseph Matthew; Lake, Bella; Wu, Congjun; Loidl, Alois

    2018-02-01

    Almost a century ago, string states—complex bound states of magnetic excitations—were predicted to exist in one-dimensional quantum magnets. However, despite many theoretical studies, the experimental realization and identification of string states in a condensed-matter system have yet to be achieved. Here we use high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy to resolve string states in the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg-Ising chain SrCo2V2O8 in strong longitudinal magnetic fields. In the field-induced quantum-critical regime, we identify strings and fractional magnetic excitations that are accurately described by the Bethe ansatz. Close to quantum criticality, the string excitations govern the quantum spin dynamics, whereas the fractional excitations, which are dominant at low energies, reflect the antiferromagnetic quantum fluctuations. Today, Bethe’s result is important not only in the field of quantum magnetism but also more broadly, including in the study of cold atoms and in string theory; hence, we anticipate that our work will shed light on the study of complex many-body systems in general.

  8. StarDB: a large-scale DBMS for strings

    KAUST Repository

    Sahli, Majed; Mansour, Essam; Kalnis, Panos

    2015-01-01

    Strings and applications using them are proliferating in science and business. Currently, strings are stored in file systems and processed using ad-hoc procedural code. Existing techniques are not flexible and cannot efficiently handle complex

  9. Closed string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1987-01-01

    A gauge invariant cubic action describing bosonic closed string field theory is constructed. The gauge symmetries include local spacetime diffeomorphisms. The conventional closed string spectrum and trilinear couplings are reproduced after spontaneous symmetry breaking. The action S is constructed from the usual ''open string'' field of ghost number minus one half. It is given by the associator of the string field product which is non-vanishing because of associativity anomalies. S does not describe open string propagation because open string states associate and can thereby be shifted away. A field theory of closed and open strings can be obtained by adding to S the cubic open string action. (orig.)

  10. Visual Navigation of Complex Information Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah North

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors lay the foundation for the introduction of visual navigation aid to assist computer users in direct manipulation of the complex information spaces. By exploring present research on scientific data visualisation and creating a case for improved information visualisation tools, they introduce the design of an improved information visualisation interface utilizing dynamic slider, called Visual-X, incorporating icons with bindable attributes (glyphs. Exploring the improvement that these data visualisations, make to a computing environment, the authors conduct an experiment to compare the performance of subjects who use traditional interfaces and Visual-X. Methodology is presented and conclusions reveal that the use of Visual-X appears to be a promising approach in providing users with a navigation tool that does not overload their cognitive processes.

  11. Informational analysis involving application of complex information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupak, Clébia; Vanti, Adolfo Alberto; Balloni, Antonio José; Espin, Rafael

    The aim of the present research is performing an informal analysis for internal audit involving the application of complex information system based on fuzzy logic. The same has been applied in internal audit involving the integration of the accounting field into the information systems field. The technological advancements can provide improvements to the work performed by the internal audit. Thus we aim to find, in the complex information systems, priorities for the work of internal audit of a high importance Private Institution of Higher Education. The applied method is quali-quantitative, as from the definition of strategic linguistic variables it was possible to transform them into quantitative with the matrix intersection. By means of a case study, where data were collected via interview with the Administrative Pro-Rector, who takes part at the elaboration of the strategic planning of the institution, it was possible to infer analysis concerning points which must be prioritized at the internal audit work. We emphasize that the priorities were identified when processed in a system (of academic use). From the study we can conclude that, starting from these information systems, audit can identify priorities on its work program. Along with plans and strategic objectives of the enterprise, the internal auditor can define operational procedures to work in favor of the attainment of the objectives of the organization.

  12. Strings draw theorists together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-01

    ;'Maldacena correspondence'', first developed by Juan Maldacena of Harvard University. This correspondence gives an explicit setting in which string theory in a space-time of dimension d is identical to Yang-Mills gauge theory in d - 1 dimensions. Maldacena and several others talked about recent developments in this area. It is one example of the remarkable ''holographic principle'', originally developed by Gerard 't Hooft of Utrecht University, who shared the Nobel Prize for Physics last year. According to this idea, a general feature of quantum gravity is that physical information inside any volume is encoded on the surface of that volume. 't Hooft believes that the holographic properties of quantum gravity can only be accommodated by making a radical change to the basic structure of quantum mechanics, which would imply that quantum mechanics has a classical origin. (UK) (abstract truncated)

  13. Is the string theory doomed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Meur, H.; Daninos, F.; Bachas, C.

    2007-01-01

    Since its beginning, in the sixties, the string theory has succeeded in overcoming a lot of theoretical difficulties but now the complete absence of experimental validation entertains doubts about its ability to represent the real world and questions its hegemony in today's theoretical physics. Other space-time theories like the twistors, or the non-commutative geometry, or the loop quantum gravity, or the causal dynamics triangulation might begin receiving more attention. Despite all that, the string theory can be given credit for 4 achievements. First, the string theory has provided a consistent quantum description of gravity. Secondly, the string theory has built a theoretical frame that has allowed the unification of the 4 basic interactions. Thirdly, the string theory applied to astrophysics issues has demonstrated that the evaporation of a black hole does not necessarily lead to a loss of information which comforts the universality of the conservation of the quantity of information in any system and as a consequence put a fatal blow to the so-called paradox observed in black holes. Fourthly, the string theory has given a new and original meaning on the true nature of space-time. (A.C.)

  14. Dependability problems of complex information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    This monograph presents original research results on selected problems of dependability in contemporary Complex Information Systems (CIS). The ten chapters are concentrated around the following three aspects: methods for modelling of the system and its components, tasks ? or in more generic and more adequate interpretation, functionalities ? accomplished by the system and conditions for their correct realization in the dynamic operational environment. While the main focus is on theoretical advances and roadmaps for implementations of new technologies, a?much needed forum for sharing of the bes

  15. Fast searching in packed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Given strings P and Q the (exact) string matching problem is to find all positions of substrings in Q matching P. The classical Knuth–Morris–Pratt algorithm [SIAM J. Comput. 6 (2) (1977) 323–350] solves the string matching problem in linear time which is optimal if we can only read one character...... at the time. However, most strings are stored in a computer in a packed representation with several characters in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. In this paper we study the worst-case complexity of string matching on strings given in packed representation....... Let m⩽n be the lengths P and Q, respectively, and let σ denote the size of the alphabet. On a standard unit-cost word-RAM with logarithmic word size we present an algorithm using timeO(nlogσn+m+occ). Here occ is the number of occurrences of P in Q. For m=o(n) this improves the O(n) bound of the Knuth...

  16. Fingerprints in Compressed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2013-01-01

    The Karp-Rabin fingerprint of a string is a type of hash value that due to its strong properties has been used in many string algorithms. In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed by a context-free grammar of size n that answers fingerprint queries...... derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(loglogN) query time. Hence, our data structures has the same time and space complexity as for random access in SLPs. We utilize the fingerprint data structures to solve the longest common extension problem in query time O(logNlogℓ) and O....... That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(logN) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP...

  17. Cosmic global strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1991-01-01

    The topics are: global strings; the gravitational field of a straight global string; how do global strings behave?; the axion cosmological energy density; computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings; electromagnetic radiation from the conversion of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in astrophysical magnetic fields. (orig.)

  18. Evidence for string substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, O.

    1996-06-01

    The author argues that the behavior of string theory at high temperature and high longitudinal boosts, combined with the emergence of p-branes as necessary ingredients in various string dualities, point to a possible reformulation of strings, as well as p-branes, as composites of bits. He reviews the string-bit models, and suggests generalizations to incorporate p-branes

  19. Comment on 'Quantum string seal is insecure'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Guangping

    2007-01-01

    An attack strategy was recently proposed by Chau [Phys. Rev. A 75, 012327 (2007)], which was claimed to be able to break all quantum string seal protocols. Here it will be shown that the attack cannot obtain nontrivial information and escape the detection simultaneously in a class of quantum string seal, including the one proposed by He [Int. J. Quantum Inf. 4, 677 (2006)]. Thus it is insufficient to conclude that all quantum string seals are insecure

  20. From the currency rate quotations onto strings and brane world scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, D.; Pincak, R.

    2012-11-01

    In the paper, we study the projections of the real exchange rate dynamics onto the string-like topology. Our approach is inspired by the contemporary movements in the string theory. The string map of data is defined here by the boundary conditions, characteristic length, real valued and the method of redistribution of information. As a practical matter, this map represents the detrending and data standardization procedure. We introduced maps onto 1-end-point and 2-end-point open strings that satisfy the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The questions of the choice of extra-dimensions, symmetries, duality and ways to the partial compactification are discussed. Subsequently, we pass to higher dimensional and more complex objects. The 2D-Brane was suggested which incorporated bid-ask spreads. Polarization by the spread was considered which admitted analyzing arbitrage opportunities on the market where transaction costs are taken into account. The model of the rotating string which naturally yields calculation of angular momentum is suitable for tracking of several currency pairs. The systematic way which allows one suggest more structured maps suitable for a simultaneous study of several currency pairs was analyzed by means of the Gâteaux generalized differential calculus. The effect of the string and brane maps on test data was studied by comparing their mean statistical characteristics. The study revealed notable differences between topologies. We review the dependence on the characteristic string length, mean fluctuations and properties of the intra-string statistics. The study explores the coupling of the string amplitude and volatility. The possible utilizations of the string theory approach in financial markets are slight.

  1. String driven inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turok, N.

    1987-11-01

    It is argued that, in fundamental string theories, as one traces the universe back in time a point is reached when the expansion rate is so fast that the rate of string creation due to quantum effects balances the dilution of the string density due to the expansion. One is therefore led into a phase of constant string density and an exponentially expanding universe. Fundamental strings therefore seem to lead naturally to inflation. 17 refs., 1 fig

  2. Hot String Soup

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, D. A.; Thorlacius, L.

    1994-01-01

    Above the Hagedorn energy density closed fundamental strings form a long string phase. The dynamics of weakly interacting long strings is described by a simple Boltzmann equation which can be solved explicitly for equilibrium distributions. The average total number of long strings grows logarithmically with total energy in the microcanonical ensemble. This is consistent with calculations of the free single string density of states provided the thermodynamic limit is carefully defined. If the ...

  3. String-driven inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turok, N.

    1988-01-01

    It is argued that, in fundamental string theories, as one traces the universe back in time a point is reached when the expansion rate is so fast that the rate of string creation due to quantum effects balances the dilution of the string density due to the expansion. One is therefore led into a phase of constant string density and an exponentially expanding universe. Fundamental strings therefore seem to lead naturally to inflation

  4. String dualities and superpotential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Tae-Won

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of this thesis is the computation of the superpotential induced by D5- branes in the type IIB string theory and by five-branes in the heterotic string theory. Both superpotentials have the same functional form which is the chain integral of the holomorphic three-form. Using relative (co)homology we can unify the flux and brane superpotential. The chain integral can be seen as an example of the Abel-Jacobi map. We discuss many structures such as mixed Hodge structure which allows for the computation of Picard-Fuchs differential equations crucial for explicit computations. We blow up the Calabi-Yau threefold along the submanifold wrapped by the brane to obtain geometrically more appropriate configuration. The resulting geometry is non-Calabi-Yau and we have a canonically given divisor. This blown-up geometry makes it possible to restrict our attention to complex structure deformations. However, the direct computation is yet very difficult, thus the main tool for computation will be the lift of the brane configuration to a F-theory compactification. In F-theory, since complex structure, brane and, if present, bundlemoduli are all contained in the complex structure moduli space of the elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfold, the computation can be dramatically simplified. The heterotic/F-theory duality is extended to include the blow-up geometry and thereby used to give the blow-up geometry amore physical meaning. (orig.)

  5. String dualities and superpotential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae-Won

    2010-09-15

    The main objective of this thesis is the computation of the superpotential induced by D5- branes in the type IIB string theory and by five-branes in the heterotic string theory. Both superpotentials have the same functional form which is the chain integral of the holomorphic three-form. Using relative (co)homology we can unify the flux and brane superpotential. The chain integral can be seen as an example of the Abel-Jacobi map. We discuss many structures such as mixed Hodge structure which allows for the computation of Picard-Fuchs differential equations crucial for explicit computations. We blow up the Calabi-Yau threefold along the submanifold wrapped by the brane to obtain geometrically more appropriate configuration. The resulting geometry is non-Calabi-Yau and we have a canonically given divisor. This blown-up geometry makes it possible to restrict our attention to complex structure deformations. However, the direct computation is yet very difficult, thus the main tool for computation will be the lift of the brane configuration to a F-theory compactification. In F-theory, since complex structure, brane and, if present, bundlemoduli are all contained in the complex structure moduli space of the elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfold, the computation can be dramatically simplified. The heterotic/F-theory duality is extended to include the blow-up geometry and thereby used to give the blow-up geometry amore physical meaning. (orig.)

  6. The heterotic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Traditional string theories, either bosonic or supersymmetric, came in two varieties, closed string theories and open string theories. Closed string are neutral objects which describe at low energies gravity or supergravity. Open strings have geometrically invariant ends to which charge can be attached, thereby obtaining, in addition to gravity, Yang-Mills gauge interactions. Recently a new kind of string theory was discovered--the heterotic string, which is a chiral hybrid of the closed superstring and the closed bosonic string, and which produces by an internal dynamical mechanism gauge interactions of a totally specified kind. Although this theory is found in an attempt to produce a superstring theory which would yield a low energy E/sub 8/xE/sub 8/ supersymmetric, anomaly free, gauge theory, as suggested by the anomaly cancellation mechanism of Green and Schwarz, it fits naturally into the general framework of consistent string theories

  7. Information Technology in Complex Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southon, Frank Charles Gray; Sauer, Chris; Dampney, Christopher Noel Grant (Kit)

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify impediments to the successful transfer and implementation of packaged information systems through large, divisionalized health services. Design: A case analysis of the failure of an implementation of a critical application in the Public Health System of the State of New South Wales, Australia, was carried out. This application had been proven in the United States environment. Measurements: Interviews involving over 60 staff at all levels of the service were undertaken by a team of three. The interviews were recorded and analyzed for key themes, and the results were shared and compared to enable a continuing critical assessment. Results: Two components of the transfer of the system were considered: the transfer from a different environment, and the diffusion throughout a large, divisionalized organization. The analyses were based on the Scott-Morton organizational fit framework. In relation to the first, it was found that there was a lack of fit in the business environments and strategies, organizational structures and strategy-structure pairing as well as the management process-roles pairing. The diffusion process experienced problems because of the lack of fit in the strategy-structure, strategy-structure-management processes, and strategy-structure-role relationships. Conclusion: The large-scale developments of integrated health services present great challenges to the efficient and reliable implementation of information technology, especially in large, divisionalized organizations. There is a need to take a more sophisticated approach to understanding the complexities of organizational factors than has traditionally been the case. PMID:9067877

  8. Modelling of information processes management of educational complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оксана Николаевна Ромашкова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns information model of the educational complex which includes several schools. A classification of educational complexes formed in Moscow is given. There are also a consideration of the existing organizational structure of the educational complex and a suggestion of matrix management structure. Basic management information processes of the educational complex were conceptualized.

  9. Differential geometry in string models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, O.

    1986-01-01

    In this article the author reviews the differential geometric approach to the quantization of strings. A seminal paper demonstrates the connection between the trace anomaly and the critical dimension. The role played by the Faddeev-Popov ghosts has been instrumental in much of the subsequent work on the quantization of strings. This paper discusses the differential geometry of two dimensional surfaces and its importance in the quantization of strings. The path integral quantization approach to strings will be carefully analyzed to determine the correct effective measure for string theories. The choice of measure for the path integral is determined by differential geometric considerations. Once the measure is determined, the manifest diffeomorphism invariance of the theory will have to be broken by using the Faddeev-Popov ansatz. The gauge fixed theory is studied in detail with emphasis on the role of conformal and gravitational anomalies. In the analysis, the path integral formulation of the gauge fixed theory requires summing over all the distinct complex structures on the manifold

  10. Fitness, Extrinsic Complexity and Informing Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandon Gill

    2017-03-01

    We raise concerns about society’s continuing investment in academic research that discounts the extrinsic complexity of the domains under study. Future Research We highlight a need for research to operationalize the concepts of fitness and complexity in practice.

  11. Relativistic classical strings. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, C.A.P.

    1985-01-01

    The interactions of strings with electromagnetic and gravitational fields are extensively discussed. Some concepts of differential geometry are reviewed. Strings in Kaluza-Klein manifolds are studied. (L.C.) [pt

  12. Inflationary string theory?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    strongly motivate a detailed search for inflation within string theory, although it has ... between string theory and observations provides a strong incentive for ..... sonably be expected to arise for any system having very many degrees of freedom.

  13. Strings in the Sun?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, E.; Vilenkin, A.

    1988-01-01

    If light superconducting strings were formed in the early Universe, then it is very likely that now they exist in abundance in the interstellar plasma and in stars. The dynamics of such strings can be dominated by friction, so that they are ''frozen'' into the plasma. Turbulence of the plasma twists and stretches the strings, forming a stochastic string network. Such networks must generate particles and magnetic fields, and may play an important role in the physics of stars and of the Galaxy

  14. Why string theory?

    CERN Document Server

    Conlon, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Is string theory a fraud or one of the great scientific advances? Why do so many physicists work on string theory if it cannot be tested? This book provides insight into why such a theory, with little direct experimental support, plays such a prominent role in theoretical physics. The book gives a modern and accurate account of string theory and science, explaining what string theory is, why it is regarded as so promising, and why it is hard to test.

  15. Separations in Communication Complexity Using Cheat Sheets and Information Complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Anshu (Anurag); A. Belovs (Aleksandr); S. Ben-David (Shalev); M. Goos (Mika); R. Jain (Rahul); R. Kothari (Robin); T. J. Lee (Troy); M. Santha (Miklos)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWhile exponential separations are known between quantum and randomized communication complexity for partial functions (Raz, STOC 1999), the best known separation between these measures for a total function is quadratic, witnessed by the disjointness function. We give the first

  16. Vulnerability Assessment Tools for Complex Information Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cassandras, Christos G; Gong, Weibo; Pepyne, David L; Lee, Wenke; Liu, Hong; Ho, Yu-Chi; Pfeffer, Avrom

    2006-01-01

    The specific aims of this research is to develop theories, methodologies, tools, and implementable solutions for modeling, analyzing, designing, and securing information networks against information-based attack...

  17. Introduction to string theory and string compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GarcIa-Compean, Hugo

    2005-01-01

    Basics of some topics on perturbative and non-perturbative string theory are reviewed. After a mathematical survey of the Standard Model of particle physics and GUTs, the bosonic string kinematics for the free case and with interaction is described. The effective action of the bosonic string and the spectrum is also discussed. T-duality in closed and open strings and the definition of D-brane are surveyed. Five perturbative superstring theories and their spectra is briefly outlined. Calabi-Yau three-fold compactifications of heterotic strings and their relation to some four-dimensional physics are given. Finally, non-perturbative issues like S-duality, M-theory and F-theory are also reviewed

  18. Random surfaces and strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.

    1987-08-01

    The theory of strings is the theory of random surfaces. I review the present attempts to regularize the world sheet of the string by triangulation. The corresponding statistical theory of triangulated random surfaces has a surprising rich structure, but the connection to conventional string theory seems non-trivial. (orig.)

  19. Dynamics of Carroll strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona, Biel [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Gomis, Joaquim [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University,Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pons, Josep M. [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2016-07-11

    We construct the canonical action of a Carroll string doing the Carroll limit of a canonical relativistic string. We also study the Killing symmetries of the Carroll string, which close under an infinite dimensional algebra. The tensionless limit and the Carroll p-brane action are also discussed.

  20. String Math 2017

    CERN Document Server

    The series of String-Math conferences has developed into a central event on the interface between mathematics and physics related to string theory, quantum field theory and neighboring subjects. The conference will take place from July 24-28 in the main building of Hamburg university. The String-Math conference is organised by the University of Hamburg jointly with DESY Hamburg.

  1. STRING v9.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franceschini, A.; Simonovic, M.; Roth, A.

    2013-01-01

    for certain model organisms and functional systems. Currently, protein interactions and associations are annotated at various levels of detail in online resources, ranging from raw data repositories to highly formalized pathway databases. For many applications, a global view of all the available interaction...... data is desirable, including lower-quality data and/or computational predictions. The STRING database (http://string-db.org/) aims to provide such a global perspective for as many organisms as feasible. Known and predicted associations are scored and integrated, resulting in comprehensive protein...... networks covering >1100 organisms. Here, we describe the update to version 9.1 of STRING, introducing several improvements: (i) we extend the automated mining of scientific texts for interaction information, to now also include full-text articles; (ii) we entirely re-designed the algorithm for transferring...

  2. Research on image complexity evaluation method based on color information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Duan, Jin; Han, Xue-hui; Xiao, Bo

    2017-11-01

    In order to evaluate the complexity of a color image more effectively and find the connection between image complexity and image information, this paper presents a method to compute the complexity of image based on color information.Under the complexity ,the theoretical analysis first divides the complexity from the subjective level, divides into three levels: low complexity, medium complexity and high complexity, and then carries on the image feature extraction, finally establishes the function between the complexity value and the color characteristic model. The experimental results show that this kind of evaluation method can objectively reconstruct the complexity of the image from the image feature research. The experimental results obtained by the method of this paper are in good agreement with the results of human visual perception complexity,Color image complexity has a certain reference value.

  3. Drill string gas data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, E.R.

    1998-05-12

    Data and supporting documentation were compiled and analyzed for 26 cases of gas grab samples taken during waste-tank core sampling activities between September 1, 1995 and December 31, 1997. These cases were tested against specific criteria to reduce uncertainties associated with in-tank sampling location and conditions. Of the 26 possible cases, 16 qualified as drill-string grab samples most likely to represent recently released waste gases. The data from these 16 ``confirmed`` cases were adjusted to remove non-waste gas contributions from core-sampling activities (argon or nitrogen purge), the atmospheric background, and laboratory sampler preparation (helium). The procedure for subtracting atmospheric, laboratory, and argon purge gases was unambiguous. No reliable method for determining the exact amount of nitrogen purge gas was established. Thus, the final set of ``Adjusted`` drill string gas data for the 6 nitrogen-purged cases had a greater degree of uncertainty than the final results for the 10 argon-purged cases. Including the appropriate amounts of uncertainty, this final set of data was added to the set of high-quality results from the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS), and good agreement was found for the N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mole fractions sampled from common tanks. These results indicate that under favorable sampling conditions, Drill-String (DS) grab samples can provide reasonably accurate information about the dominant species of released gas. One conclusion from this set of total gas data is that the distribution of the H{sub 2} mole fractions is bimodal in shape, with an upper bound of 78%.

  4. Cosmic strings and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishniac, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    We examine the compatibility of inflation with the cosmic string theory for galaxy formation. There is a general conflict between having sufficient string tension to effect galaxy formation, and reheating after inflation to a high enough temperature that strings may form in a thermal phase transition. To escape this conflict, we propose a class of models where the inflation is coupled to the string-producing field. The strings are formed late in inflation as the inflaton rolls towards its zero-temperature value. A large subset of these models have a novel large-scale distribution of galaxies that is fractal, displays biasing without dynamics or feedback mechanisms, and contains voids. (orig.)

  5. Minimal open strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosomichi, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    We study FZZT-branes and open string amplitudes in (p, q) minimal string theory. We focus on the simplest boundary changing operators in two-matrix models, and identify the corresponding operators in worldsheet theory through the comparison of amplitudes. Along the way, we find a novel linear relation among FZZT boundary states in minimal string theory. We also show that the boundary ground ring is realized on physical open string operators in a very simple manner, and discuss its use for perturbative computation of higher open string amplitudes.

  6. Closed Strings From Nothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Albion

    2001-07-25

    We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order {alpha}' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting.

  7. Closed Strings From Nothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Albion

    2001-01-01

    We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order α' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting

  8. The arithmetic of strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, P.G.O.

    1988-01-01

    According to the author nobody has succeeded as yet in extracting any new numbers from string theory. This paper discusses how if one cannot get new numbers from string theory, maybe one can get new strings out of number theory. Number theory is generally regarded as the purest form of mathematics. So how can it conceivably make contact with physics which aims at describing nature? The author discusses how the connecting link of these two disciplines is provided by the compact Riemann surfaces. These appear as world sheets of interacting strings. For instance, string-string scattering at the three-loop level involves the four external strings attaching themselves to a genus three compact surface

  9. Can complexity science inform physician leadership development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Colleen Marie

    2016-07-04

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe research that examined physician leadership development using complexity science principles. Design/methodology/approach Intensive interviewing of 21 participants and document review provided data regarding physician leadership development in health-care organizations using five principles of complexity science (connectivity, interdependence, feedback, exploration-of-the-space-of-possibilities and co-evolution), which were grouped in three areas of inquiry (relationships between agents, patterns of behaviour and enabling functions). Findings Physician leaders are viewed as critical in the transformation of healthcare and in improving patient outcomes, and yet significant challenges exist that limit their development. Leadership in health care continues to be associated with traditional, linear models, which are incongruent with the behaviour of a complex system, such as health care. Physician leadership development remains a low priority for most health-care organizations, although physicians admit to being limited in their capacity to lead. This research was based on five principles of complexity science and used grounded theory methodology to understand how the behaviours of a complex system can provide data regarding leadership development for physicians. The study demonstrated that there is a strong association between physician leadership and patient outcomes and that organizations play a primary role in supporting the development of physician leaders. Findings indicate that a physician's relationship with their patient and their capacity for innovation can be extended as catalytic behaviours in a complex system. The findings also identified limiting factors that impact physicians who choose to lead, such as reimbursement models that do not place value on leadership and medical education that provides minimal opportunity for leadership skill development. Practical Implications This research provides practical

  10. BRST invariant mixed string vertex for the bosonic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarizia, A.; Pezzella, F.

    1987-09-01

    We construct a BRST invariant (N+M)-string vertex including both open and closed string states. When we saturate it with N open string and M closed string physical states it reproduces their corresponding scattering amplitude. As a particular case we obtain BRST invariant vertex for the open-closed string transition. (orig.)

  11. Open-closed string correspondence in open string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartl, M.; Sachs, I.

    2008-01-01

    We address the problem of describing different closed string backgrounds in background independent open string field theory: A shift in the closed string background corresponds to a collective excitation of open strings. As an illustration we apply the formalism to the case where the closed string background is a group manifold. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Strings, texture, and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, H.M.; Primack, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    We examine mechanisms, several of which are proposed here, to generate structure formation, or to just add large-scale features, through either gauged or global cosmic strings or global texture, within the framework of inflation. We first explore the possibility that strings or texture form if there is no coupling between the topological theory and the inflaton or spacetime curvature, via (1) quantum creation, and (2) a sufficiently high reheat temperature. In addition, we examine the prospects for the inflaton field itself to generate strings or texture. Then, models with the string/texture field coupled to the curvature, and an equivalent model with coupling to the inflaton field, are considered in detail. The requirement that inflationary density fluctuations are not so large as to conflict with observations leads to a number of constraints on model parameters. We find that strings of relevance for structure formation can form in the absence of coupling to the inflaton or curvature through the process of quantum creation, but only if the strings are strongly type I, or if they are global strings. If formed after reheating, naturalness suggests that gauged cosmic strings correspond to a type-I superconductor. Similarly, gauged strings formed during inflation via conformal coupling ξ=1/6 to the spacetime curvature (in a model suggested by Yokoyama in order to evade the millisecond pulsar constraint on cosmic strings) are expected to be strongly type I

  13. Understanding Interdependency Through Complex Information Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rosas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between three or more random variables are often nontrivial, poorly understood and, yet, are paramount for future advances in fields such as network information theory, neuroscience and genetics. In this work, we analyze these interactions as different modes of information sharing. Towards this end, and in contrast to most of the literature that focuses on analyzing the mutual information, we introduce an axiomatic framework for decomposing the joint entropy that characterizes the various ways in which random variables can share information. Our framework distinguishes between interdependencies where the information is shared redundantly and synergistic interdependencies where the sharing structure exists in the whole, but not between the parts. The key contribution of our approach is to focus on symmetric properties of this sharing, which do not depend on a specific point of view for differentiating roles between its components. We show that our axioms determine unique formulas for all of the terms of the proposed decomposition for systems of three variables in several cases of interest. Moreover, we show how these results can be applied to several network information theory problems, providing a more intuitive understanding of their fundamental limits.

  14. Topics in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neveu, A.

    1986-01-01

    There exist several string models. In the first lecture, the simplest one, the open bosonic string, which turns out to live most naturally in 26 dimensions will be described in some detail. In the second lecture, the closed bosonic strings, and the open and closed 10-dimensional strings (superstrings) are reviewed. In the third lecture, various compactification schemes which have been proposed to deal with the extra space dimensions, from 4 to 10 or 26 are dealt with; in particular, the Frenkel-Kac construction which builds non-Abelian internal symmetry groups out of the compactified dimensions, and the resulting heterotic string are described. Finally, in the fourth lecture, the important problem of the second quantization of string theories, and of the underlying gauge invariance which is responsible for the possibility of dealing, in a consistent fashion, with interacting high-spin states without negative metric is addressed. 41 references, 8 figures

  15. Highly excited strings I: Generating function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri P. Skliros

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of a series of detailed papers on string amplitudes with highly excited strings (HES. In the present paper we construct a generating function for string amplitudes with generic HES vertex operators using a fixed-loop momentum formalism. We generalise the proof of the chiral splitting theorem of D'Hoker and Phong to string amplitudes with arbitrary HES vertex operators (with generic KK and winding charges, polarisation tensors and oscillators in general toroidal compactifications E=RD−1,1×TDcr−D (with generic constant Kähler and complex structure target space moduli, background Kaluza–Klein (KK gauge fields and torsion. We adopt a novel approach that does not rely on a “reverse engineering” method to make explicit the loop momenta, thus avoiding a certain ambiguity pointed out in a recent paper by Sen, while also keeping the genus of the worldsheet generic. This approach will also be useful in discussions of quantum gravity and in particular in relation to black holes in string theory, non-locality and breakdown of local effective field theory, as well as in discussions of cosmic superstrings and their phenomenological relevance. We also discuss the manifestation of wave/particle (or rather wave/string duality in string theory.

  16. Strings and quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, H.J. de

    1990-01-01

    One of the main challenges in theoretical physics today is the unification of all interactions including gravity. At present, string theories appear as the most promising candidates to achieve such a unification. However, gravity has not completely been incorporated in string theory, many technical and conceptual problems remain and a full quantum theory of gravity is still non-existent. Our aim is to properly understand strings in the context of quantum gravity. Attempts towards this are reviewed. (author)

  17. Notes on strings and higher spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagnotti, A

    2013-01-01

    This review is devoted to the intriguing and still largely unexplored links between string theory and higher spins, the types of excitations that lie behind their most cherished properties. A closer look at higher spin fields provides some further clues that string theory describes a broken phase of a higher spin gauge theory. Conversely, string amplitudes contain a wealth of information on higher spin interactions that can clarify long-standing issues related to their infrared behavior. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’. (review)

  18. 6d string chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Haghighat, Babak; Kim, Joonho; Kim, Seok; Lockhart, Guglielmo; Vafa, Cumrun

    2018-02-01

    We consider bound states of strings which arise in 6d (1,0) SCFTs that are realized in F-theory in terms of linear chains of spheres with negative self-intersections 1,2, and 4. These include the strings associated to N small E 8 instantons, as well as the ones associated to M5 branes probing A and D type singularities in M-theory or D5 branes probing ADE singularities in Type IIB string theory. We find that these bound states of strings admit (0,4) supersymmetric quiver descriptions and show how one can compute their elliptic genera.

  19. QCD and string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a review of the connections between quantumchromodynamics (QCD) and string theories. One reviews the phenomenological models leading to string pictures in non perturbative QCD and the string effects, related to soft gluon coherence, which arise in perturbative QCD. One tries to build a string theory which goes to QCD at the zero slope limit. A specific model, based on superstring theories is shown to agree with QCD four point amplitudes at the Born approximation and with one loop corrections. One shows how this approach can provide a theoretical framework to account for the phenomenological property of parton-hadron duality

  20. Thermodynamics of quantum strings

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, M J

    1994-01-01

    A statistical mechanical analysis of an ideal gas of non-relativistic quantum strings is presented, in which the thermodynamic properties of the string gas are calculated from a canonical partition function. This toy model enables students to gain insight into the thermodynamics of a simple 'quantum field' theory, and provides a useful pedagogical introduction to the more complicated relativistic string theories. A review is also given of the thermodynamics of the open bosonic string gas and the type I (open) superstring gas. (author)

  1. Interpolating string field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwiebach, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a minimal area problem imposing different length conditions on open and closed curves is shown to define a one-parameter family of covariant open-closed quantum string field theories. These interpolate from a recently proposed factorizable open-closed theory up to an extended version of Witten's open string field theory capable of incorporating on shell closed strings. The string diagrams of the latter define a new decomposition of the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces with punctures and boundaries based on quadratic differentials with both first order and second order poles

  2. Heterotic cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Krause, Axel

    2006-01-01

    We show that all three conditions for the cosmological relevance of heterotic cosmic strings, the right tension, stability and a production mechanism at the end of inflation, can be met in the strongly coupled M-theory regime. Whereas cosmic strings generated from weakly coupled heterotic strings have the well-known problems posed by Witten in 1985, we show that strings arising from M5-branes wrapped around 4-cycles (divisors) of a Calabi-Yau in heterotic M-theory compactifications solve these problems in an elegant fashion

  3. Stretching cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turok, N.; Bhattacharjee, P.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of a network of strings produced at a grand-unification phase transition in an expanding universe is discussed, with particular reference to the processes of energy exchange between the strings and the rest of the universe. This is supported by numerical calculations simulating the behavior of strings in an expanding universe. It is found that in order that the energy density of the strings does not come to dominate the total energy density there must be an efficient mechanism for energy loss: the only plausible one being the production of closed loops and their subsequent decay via gravitational radiation

  4. QCD and hadronic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, G.

    1989-01-01

    This series of lectures is devoted to review ot he connections between QCD and string theories. One reviews the phenomenological models leading to string pictures in non perturbative QCD and the string effects, related to soft gluon coherence, which arise in perturbative QCD. One tries to build a string theory which goes to QCD at the zero slope limit. A specific model, based on superstring theories is shown to agree with QCD four point amplitudes at the Born approximation and with one loop corrections. One shows how this approach can provide a theoretical framework to account for the phenomenological property of parton-hadron duality.(author)

  5. A note on probabilistic models over strings: the linear algebra approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard-Côté, Alexandre

    2013-12-01

    Probabilistic models over strings have played a key role in developing methods that take into consideration indels as phylogenetically informative events. There is an extensive literature on using automata and transducers on phylogenies to do inference on these probabilistic models, in which an important theoretical question is the complexity of computing the normalization of a class of string-valued graphical models. This question has been investigated using tools from combinatorics, dynamic programming, and graph theory, and has practical applications in Bayesian phylogenetics. In this work, we revisit this theoretical question from a different point of view, based on linear algebra. The main contribution is a set of results based on this linear algebra view that facilitate the analysis and design of inference algorithms on string-valued graphical models. As an illustration, we use this method to give a new elementary proof of a known result on the complexity of inference on the "TKF91" model, a well-known probabilistic model over strings. Compared to previous work, our proving method is easier to extend to other models, since it relies on a novel weak condition, triangular transducers, which is easy to establish in practice. The linear algebra view provides a concise way of describing transducer algorithms and their compositions, opens the possibility of transferring fast linear algebra libraries (for example, based on GPUs), as well as low rank matrix approximation methods, to string-valued inference problems.

  6. Semilocal and electroweak strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achucarro, A; Vachaspati, T

    We review a class of non-topological defects in the standard electroweak model, and their implications. Starting with the semilocal string, which provides a counterexample to many well-known properties of topological vortices, we discuss electroweak strings and their stability with and without

  7. Disordered chaotic strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    to chaotic strings. Inhomogeneous coupling weights as well as small-world perturbations of the ring-network structure are discussed. It is found that certain combinations of coupling and network disorder preserve the empirical relationship between chaotic strings and the weak and strong sector...

  8. A rotating string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, B.

    1993-06-01

    The author presents a global solution of Einstein's equations which represents a rotating cosmic string with a finite coreradius. The importance of pressure for the generation of closed timelike curves outside the coreregion of such strings is clearly displayed in this model due to the simplicity of the source. 10 refs

  9. Derandomizing from random strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhrman, H.; Fortnow, L.; Koucký, M.; Loff, B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show that BPP is truth-table reducible to the set of Kolmogorov random strings R(K). It was previously known that PSPACE, and hence BPP is Turing-reducible to R(K). The earlier proof relied on the adaptivity of the Turing-reduction to find a Kolmogorov-random string of polynomial

  10. Unification of string dualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.

    1997-01-01

    We argue that all conjectured dualities involving various string, M- and F-theory compactifications can be 'derived' from the conjectured duality between type I and SO(32) heterotic string theory, T-dualities and the definition of M-and F-theories. (orig.)

  11. Optimal Packed String Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2011-01-01

    In the packed string matching problem, each machine word accommodates – characters, thus an n-character text occupies n/– memory words. We extend the Crochemore-Perrin constantspace O(n)-time string matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/–) time and even in real-time, achieving a factor – speed...

  12. Introduction to string theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    I will present a simple and non-technical overview of string theory, aimed for non-experts who like to get some idea what string theory is about. Besides introductory material, I intend to cover also some of the more recent developments.

  13. Twisting the N=2 string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketov, S.V.; Lechtenfeld, O.; Parkes, A.J.

    1993-12-01

    The most general homogeneous monodromy conditions in N= 2 string theory are classified in terms of the conjugacy classes of the global symmetry group U(1, 1) x Z 2 . For classes which generate a discrete subgroup Γ, the corresponding target space backgrounds C 1,1 /Γ include half spaces, complex orbifolds and tori. We propose a generalization of the intercept formula to matrix-valued twists, and find massless physical states in a number of twisted cases. In particular, the sixteen Z 2 -twisted sectors of the N = 2 string are investigated, and the corresponding ground states are identified via bosonization and BRST cohomology. We find enough room for an extended multiplet of 'spacetime' supersymmetry, with the number of supersymmetries being dependent on global 'spacetime' topology. Unfortunately, world-sheet locality for the chiral vertex operators does not permit interactions for the massless 'spacetime' fermions; however possibly, an asymmetric GSO projection could evade this problem. (orig.)

  14. StringForce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barendregt, Wolmet; Börjesson, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the forced collaborative interaction game StringForce. StringForce is developed for a special education context to support training of collaboration skills, using readily available technologies and avoiding the creation of a "mobile bubble". In order to play String......Force two or four physically collocated tablets are required. These tablets are connected to form one large shared game area. The game can only be played by collaborating. StringForce extends previous work, both technologically and regarding social-emotional training. We believe String......Force to be an interesting demo for the IDC community, as it intertwines several relevant research fields, such as mobile interaction and collaborative gaming in the special education context....

  15. String-Math 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Welcome to String-Math 2015 at Sanya. The conference will be opened in December 31, 2015- January 4, 2016. String theory plays a central role in theoretical physics as a candidate for the quantum theory unifying gravity with other interactions. It has profound connections with broad branches of modern mathematics ever since the birth. In the last decades, the prosperous interaction, built upon the joint efforts from both mathematicians and physicists, has given rise to marvelous deep results in supersymmetric gauge theory, topological string, M-theory and duality on the physics side as well as in algebraic geometry, differential geometry, algebraic topology, representation theory and number theory on the mathematics side. The interplay is two-fold. The mathematics has provided powerful tools to fulfill the physical interconnection of ideas and clarify physical structures to understand the nature of string theory. On the other hand, ideas from string theory and quantum field theory have been a source of sign...

  16. Open string model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Onogi, Tetsuya

    1989-01-01

    Consistency conditions of open string theories, which can be a powerful tool in open string model building, are proposed. By making use of these conditions and assuming a simple prescription for the Chan-Paton factors, open string theories in several backgrounds are studied. We show that 1. there exist a large number of consistent bosonic open string theories on Z 2 orbifolds, 2. SO(32) type I superstring is the unique consistent model among fermionic string theories on the ten-dimensional flat Minkowski space, and 3. with our prescription for the Chan-Paton factors, there exist no consistent open superstring theories on (six-dimensional Minkowski space-time) x (Z 2 orbifold). (orig.)

  17. String field theory. Algebraic structure, deformation properties and superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenster, Korbinian

    2013-01-01

    This thesis discusses several aspects of string field theory. The first issue is bosonic open-closed string field theory and its associated algebraic structure - the quantum open-closed homotopy algebra. We describe the quantum open-closed homotopy algebra in the framework of homotopy involutive Lie bialgebras, as a morphism from the loop homotopy Lie algebra of closed string to the involutive Lie bialgebra on the Hochschild complex of open strings. The formulation of the classical/quantum open-closed homotopy algebra in terms of a morphism from the closed string algebra to the open string Hochschild complex reveals deformation properties of closed strings on open string field theory. In particular, we show that inequivalent classical open string field theories are parametrized by closed string backgrounds up to gauge transformations. At the quantum level the correspondence is obstructed, but for other realizations such as the topological string, a non-trivial correspondence persists. Furthermore, we proof the decomposition theorem for the loop homotopy Lie algebra of closed string field theory, which implies uniqueness of closed string field theory on a fixed conformal background. Second, the construction of string field theory can be rephrased in terms of operads. In particular, we show that the formulation of string field theory splits into two parts: The first part is based solely on the moduli space of world sheets and ensures that the perturbative string amplitudes are recovered via Feynman rules. The second part requires a choice of background and determines the real string field theory vertices. Each of these parts can be described equivalently as a morphism between appropriate cyclic and modular operads, at the classical and quantum level respectively. The algebraic structure of string field theory is then encoded in the composition of these two morphisms. Finally, we outline the construction of type II superstring field theory. Specific features of the

  18. A reduced covariant string model for the extrinsic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, L.C.L.

    1989-01-01

    It is studied a reduced covariant string model for the extrinsic string by using Polyakov's path integral formalism. On the basis of this reduced model it is suggested that the extrinsic string has its critical dimension given by 13. Additionally, it is calculated in a simple way Poliakov's renormalization group law for the string rigidity coupling constants. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  19. Information Geometric Complexity of a Trivariate Gaussian Statistical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Felice

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the information geometric complexity of entropic motion on low-dimensional Gaussian statistical manifolds in order to quantify how difficult it is to make macroscopic predictions about systems in the presence of limited information. Specifically, we observe that the complexity of such entropic inferences not only depends on the amount of available pieces of information but also on the manner in which such pieces are correlated. Finally, we uncover that, for certain correlational structures, the impossibility of reaching the most favorable configuration from an entropic inference viewpoint seems to lead to an information geometric analog of the well-known frustration effect that occurs in statistical physics.

  20. String field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaku, M.

    1987-01-01

    In this article, the authors summarize the rapid progress in constructing string field theory actions, such as the development of the covariant BRST theory. They also present the newer geometric formulation of string field theory, from which the BRST theory and the older light cone theory can be derived from first principles. This geometric formulation allows us to derive the complete field theory of strings from two geometric principles, in the same way that general relativity and Yang-Mills theory can be derived from two principles based on global and local symmetry. The geometric formalism therefore reduces string field theory to a problem of finding an invariant under a new local gauge group they call the universal string group (USG). Thus, string field theory is the gauge theory of the universal string group in much the same way that Yang-Mills theory is the gauge theory of SU(N). The geometric formulation places superstring theory on the same rigorous group theoretical level as general relativity and gauge theory

  1. Persistent homology and string vacua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirafici, Michele [Center for Mathematical Analysis, Geometry and Dynamical Systems,Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques,Le Bois-Marie, 35 route de Chartres, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-03-08

    We use methods from topological data analysis to study the topological features of certain distributions of string vacua. Topological data analysis is a multi-scale approach used to analyze the topological features of a dataset by identifying which homological characteristics persist over a long range of scales. We apply these techniques in several contexts. We analyze N=2 vacua by focusing on certain distributions of Calabi-Yau varieties and Landau-Ginzburg models. We then turn to flux compactifications and discuss how we can use topological data analysis to extract physical information. Finally we apply these techniques to certain phenomenologically realistic heterotic models. We discuss the possibility of characterizing string vacua using the topological properties of their distributions.

  2. Duality relation between charged elastic strings and superconducting cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanical properties of macroscopic electromagnetically coupled string models in a flat or curved background are treated using a covariant formalism allowing the construction of a duality transformation that relates the category of uniform ''electric'' string models, constructed as the (nonconducting) charged generalisation of ordinary uncoupled (violin type) elastic strings, to a category of ''magnetic'' string models comprising recently discussed varieties of ''superconducting cosmic strings''. (orig.)

  3. Lattice gravity and strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevicki, A.; Ninomiya, M.

    1985-01-01

    We are concerned with applications of the simplicial discretization method (Regge calculus) to two-dimensional quantum gravity with emphasis on the physically relevant string model. Beginning with the discretization of gravity and matter we exhibit a discrete version of the conformal trace anomaly. Proceeding to the string problem we show how the direct approach of (finite difference) discretization based on Nambu action corresponds to unsatisfactory treatment of gravitational degrees. Based on the Regge approach we then propose a discretization corresponding to the Polyakov string. In this context we are led to a natural geometric version of the associated Liouville model and two-dimensional gravity. (orig.)

  4. Superconducting cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, E.M.; Field, G.B.; Spergel, D.N.; Vilenkin, A.

    1986-01-01

    Superconducting loops of string formed in the early Universe, if they are relatively light, can be an important source of relativistic particles in the Galaxy. They can be observed as sources of synchrotron radiation at centimeter wavelengths. We propose a string model for two recently discovered radio sources, the ''thread'' in the galactic center and the source G357.7-0.1, and predict that the filaments in these sources should move at relativistic speeds. We also consider superheavy superconducting strings, and the possibility that they be observed as extragalactic radio sources

  5. A disintegrating cosmic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, J B; Docherty, P

    2002-01-01

    We present a simple sandwich gravitational wave of the Robinson-Trautman family. This is interpreted as representing a shock wave with a spherical wavefront which propagates into a Minkowski background minus a wedge (i.e. the background contains a cosmic string). The deficit angle (the tension) of the string decreases through the gravitational wave, which then ceases. This leaves an expanding spherical region of Minkowski space behind it. The decay of the cosmic string over a finite interval of retarded time may be considered to generate the gravitational wave. (letter to the editor)

  6. Baryon string model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, S.V.; Kochin, V.N.; Plyushchaj, M.S.; Pron'ko, G.P.; Razumov, A.V.; Samarin, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    Partial solutions to classical equations of three-string motion are considered. Simplest solutions, when three-string center moving with high velocity, are co nsidered. Single-mode solutions are studied. Explicit form of their parametrization is obtained and three-string dynamics visualization is made. Means of graphic packet ''Atom'' were used for visualization. A set of processes for graphic representation of multiparametric functions is developed. Peculiarity of these processes is a wide class of functions, which are represented by parametric, coordinate and functional isolines

  7. Exceptional groups from open strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, M.R.; Zwiebach, B.

    1998-01-01

    We consider type IIB theory compactified on a two-sphere in the presence of mutually non-local 7-branes. The BPS states associated with the gauge vectors of exceptional groups are seen to arise from open strings connecting the 7-branes, and multi-pronged open strings capable of ending on more than two 7-branes. These multi-pronged strings are built from open string junctions that arise naturally when strings cross 7-branes. The different string configurations can be multiplied as traditional open strings, and are shown to generate the structure of exceptional groups. (orig.)

  8. Cosmic strings and cosmic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.; Brandenberger, R.; Turok, N.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the application of the theory of cosmic strings to explain the structure of the Universe. The formation of cosmic strings in the early Universe is outlined, along with the Big Bang theory, Grand Unified theories, and the first three minutes after the Big Bang. A description is given of the shaping of the Universe by cosmic strings, including the evolution of the string. The possibility for direct observation of cosmic strings is discussed. (U.K.)

  9. International conference on string theory

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The Strings 2017 conference is part of the "Strings" series of annual conferences, that bring the entire string theory community together. It will include reviews of major developments in the field, and specialized talks on specific topics. There will also be several public lectures given by conference participants, a pre-Strings school at the Technion, and a post-Strings workshop at the Weizmann Institute.

  10. Zero-point length from string fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanini, Michele; Spallucci, Euro; Padmanabhan, T.

    2006-01-01

    One of the leading candidates for quantum gravity, viz. string theory, has the following features incorporated in it. (i) The full spacetime is higher-dimensional, with (possibly) compact extra-dimensions; (ii) there is a natural minimal length below which the concept of continuum spacetime needs to be modified by some deeper concept. On the other hand, the existence of a minimal length (zero-point length) in four-dimensional spacetime, with obvious implications as UV regulator, has been often conjectured as a natural aftermath of any correct quantum theory of gravity. We show that one can incorporate the apparently unrelated pieces of information-zero-point length, extra-dimensions, string T-duality-in a consistent framework. This is done in terms of a modified Kaluza-Klein theory that interpolates between (high-energy) string theory and (low-energy) quantum field theory. In this model, the zero-point length in four dimensions is a 'virtual memory' of the length scale of compact extra-dimensions. Such a scale turns out to be determined by T-duality inherited from the underlying fundamental string theory. From a low energy perspective short distance infinities are cutoff by a minimal length which is proportional to the square root of the string slope, i.e., α ' . Thus, we bridge the gap between the string theory domain and the low energy arena of point-particle quantum field theory

  11. Antecedents and Consequences of Consumer's Response to Health Information Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; Beckmann, Suzanne C.

    2013-01-01

    This study develops and empirically tests a model for understanding food consumers' health information seeking behaviour. Data were collected from 504 food consumers using a nationally representative consumer panel. The obtained Lisrel results suggest that consumers' product-specific health...... information seeking is positively affected by general food involvement and by usability of product-specific health information. Moreover, product-specific health information seeking and product-specific health information complexity are both positively related to post-purchase health-related dissonance....... This link between information complexity and post-purchase dissonance has implications for marketers of food products since our results suggest that consumers might avoid purchasing the same food item again if post-purchase dissonance is experienced....

  12. String-math 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Sheldon; Klemm, Albrecht; Morrison, David R

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the conference String-Math 2012, which was held July 16-21, 2012, at the Hausdorff Center for Mathematics, Universitat Bonn. This was the second in a series of annual large meetings devoted to the interface of mathematics and string theory. These meetings have rapidly become the flagship conferences in the field. Topics include super Riemann surfaces and their super moduli, generalized moonshine and K3 surfaces, the latest developments in supersymmetric and topological field theory, localization techniques, applications to knot theory, and many more. The contributors include many leaders in the field, such as Sergio Cecotti, Matthias Gaberdiel, Rahul Pandharipande, Albert Schwarz, Anne Taormina, Johannes Walcher, Katrin Wendland, and Edward Witten. This book will be essential reading for researchers and students in this area and for all mathematicians and string theorists who want to update themselves on developments in the math-string interface.

  13. Hydroball string sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurwitz, M.J.; Ekeroth, D.E.; Squarer, D.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a hydroball string sensing system for a nuclear reactor having a core containing a fluid at a fluid pressure. It comprises a tube connectable to the nuclear reactor so that the fluid can flow within the tube at a fluid pressure that is substantially the same as the fluid pressure of the nuclear reactor core; a hydroball string including - a string member having objects positioned therealong with a specified spacing, the object including a plurality of hydroballs, and bullet members positioned at opposing ends of the string member; first sensor means, positioned outside a first segment of the tube, for sensing one of the objects being positioned within the first segment, and for providing a sensing signal responsive to the sensing of the first sensing means

  14. The QCD Effective String

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espriu, D.

    2003-01-01

    QCD can be described in a certain kinematical regime by an effective string theory. This string must couple to background chiral fields in a chirally invariant manner, thus taking into account the true chirally non-invariant QCD vacuum. By requiring conformal symmetry of the string and the unitarity constraint on chiral fields we reconstruct the equations of motion for the latter ones. These provide a consistent background for the propagation of the string. By further requiring locality of the effective action we recover the Lagrangian of non-linear sigma model of pion interactions. The prediction is unambiguous and parameter-free. The estimated chiral structural constants of Gasser and Leutwyler fit very well the phenomenological values. (author)

  15. Field theory of strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1987-01-01

    We review the construction of the free equations of motion for open and closed strings in 26 dimensions, using the methods of the Florida Group. Differing from previous treatments, we argue that the constraint L 0 -anti L 0 =0 should not be imposed on all the fields of the closed string in the gauge invariant formalism; we show that it can be incorporated in the gauge invariant formalism at the price of being unable to extract the equations of motion from a Langrangian. We then describe our purely algebraic method to introduce interactions, which works equally well for open and closed strings. Quartic interactions are absent except in the Physical Gauge. Finally, we speculate on the role of the measure of the open string path functional. (orig.)

  16. String Theory Rocks!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    String Theory supporters argue that the universe we live in has eleven dimensions, out of which three spacial dimensions and a temporal one, which define the void and the space-time environment we experience daily.

  17. Nonrelativistic closed string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomis, Jaume; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2001-01-01

    We construct a Galilean invariant nongravitational closed string theory whose excitations satisfy a nonrelativistic dispersion relation. This theory can be obtained by taking a consistent low energy limit of any of the conventional string theories, including the heterotic string. We give a finite first order worldsheet Hamiltonian for this theory and show that this string theory has a sensible perturbative expansion, interesting high energy behavior of scattering amplitudes and a Hagedorn transition of the thermal ensemble. The strong coupling duals of the Galilean superstring theories are considered and are shown to be described by an eleven-dimensional Galilean invariant theory of light membrane fluctuations. A new class of Galilean invariant nongravitational theories of light-brane excitations are obtained. We exhibit dual formulations of the strong coupling limits of these Galilean invariant theories and show that they exhibit many of the conventional dualities of M theory in a nonrelativistic setting

  18. String theory compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Graña, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    The lectures in this book provide graduate students and non-specialist researchers with a concise introduction to the concepts and formalism required to reduce the ten-dimensional string theories to the observable four-dimensional space-time - a procedure called string compactification. The text starts with a very brief introduction to string theory, first working out its massless spectrum and showing how the condition on the number of dimensions arises. It then dwells on the different possible internal manifolds, from the simplest to the most relevant phenomenologically, thereby showing that the most elegant description is through an extension of ordinary Riemannian geometry termed generalized geometry, which was first introduced by Hitchin. Last but not least, the authors review open problems in string phenomenology, such as the embedding of the Standard Model and obtaining de Sitter solutions.

  19. Information Center Complex publications and presentations, 1971-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, A.B.; Hawthorne, S.W.

    1981-08-01

    This indexed bibliography lists publications and presentations of the Information Center Complex, Information Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, from 1971 through 1980. The 659 entries cover such topics as toxicology, air and water pollution, management and transportation of hazardous wastes, energy resources and conservation, and information science. Publications range in length from 1 page to 3502 pages and include topical reports, books, journal articles, fact sheets, and newsletters. Author, title, and group indexes are provided. Annual updates are planned

  20. Information Center Complex publications and presentations, 1971-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, A.B.; Hawthorne, S.W.

    1981-08-01

    This indexed bibliography lists publications and presentations of the Information Center Complex, Information Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, from 1971 through 1980. The 659 entries cover such topics as toxicology, air and water pollution, management and transportation of hazardous wastes, energy resources and conservation, and information science. Publications range in length from 1 page to 3502 pages and include topical reports, books, journal articles, fact sheets, and newsletters. Author, title, and group indexes are provided. Annual updates are planned.

  1. Heterotic string construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellekens, A.N.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper an elementary introduction to the principles of four-dimensional string construction will be given. Although the emphasis is on lattice constructions, almost all results have further, and often quite straightforward generalizations to other constructions. Since heterotic strings look phenomenologically more promising than type-II theories the authors only consider the former, although everything can easily be generalized to type-II theories. Some additional aspects of lattice constructions are discussed, and an extensive review can be found

  2. Confusing the heterotic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benett, D.L.; Mizrachi, L.

    1986-01-01

    A confusion mechanism is proposed as a global modification of the heterotic string model. It envolves a confusion hypersurface across which the two E 8 's of the heterotic string are permuted. A remarkable numerical coincidence is found which prevents an inconsistency in the model. The low energy limit of this theory (after compactification) is typically invariant under one E 8 only, thereby removing the shadow world from the original model. (orig.)

  3. Confusing the heterotic string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benett, D.; Brene, N.; Mizrachi, Leah; Nielsen, H. B.

    1986-10-01

    A confusion mechanism is proposed as a global modification of the heterotic string model. It envolves a confusion hypersurface across which the two E 8's of the heterotic string are permuted. A remarkable numerical coincidence is found which prevents an inconsistency in the model. The low energy limit of this theory (after compactification) is typically invariant under one E 8 only, thereby removing the shadow world from the original model.

  4. Confusing the heterotic string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benett, D.L.; Brene, N.; Nielsen, H.B.; Mizrachi, L.

    1986-10-02

    A confusion mechanism is proposed as a global modification of the heterotic string model. It envolves a confusion hypersurface across which the two E/sub 8/'s of the heterotic string are permuted. A remarkable numerical coincidence is found which prevents an inconsistency in the model. The low energy limit of this theory (after compactification) is typically invariant under one E/sub 8/ only, thereby removing the shadow world from the original model.

  5. Lectures on string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorn, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    Several topics are discussed in string theory presented as three lectures to the Spring School on Superstrings at the ICTP at Trieste, Italy, in April, 1988. The first lecture is devoted to some general aspects of conformal invariance and duality. The second sketches methods for carrying out perturbative calculations in string field theory. The final lecture presents an alternative lattice approach to a nonperturbative formulation of the sum over world surfaces. 35 refs., 12 figs

  6. String dynamics in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervais, J.L.; Neveu, A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent works of the authors on string interpretation of the Wilson loop operators in QCD are reviewed in a self-contained fashion. Although most of the results habe already appeared in print, some new material is presented in renormalization of the Wilson loop operator and on the use of light-cone expansion to derive a linear string-like equation in light-cone formalism. (orig.)

  7. Matrix String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, Herman L

    1997-01-01

    Via compactification on a circle, the matrix model of M-theory proposed by Banks et al suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the appearance of D-particle and D-membrane states.

  8. Manipulating Strings in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This lesson is a brief introduction to string manipulation techniques in Python. Knowing how to manipulate strings plays a crucial role in most text processing tasks. If you’d like to experiment with the following lessons, you can write and execute short programs as we’ve been doing, or you can open up a Python shell / Terminal to try them out on the command line.

  9. Braiding knots with topological strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Jie

    2015-08-01

    For an arbitrary knot in a three-sphere, the Ooguri-Vafa conjecture associates to it a unique stack of branes in type A topological string on the resolved conifold, and relates the colored HOMFLY invariants of the knot to the free energies on the branes. For torus knots, we use a modified version of the topological recursion developed by Eynard and Orantin to compute the free energies on the branes from the Aganagic-Vafa spectral curves of the branes, and find they are consistent with the known colored HOMFLY knot invariants a la the Ooguri-Vafa conjecture. In addition our modified topological recursion can reproduce the correct closed string free energies, which encode the information of the background geometry. We conjecture the modified topological recursion is applicable for branes associated to hyperbolic knots as well, encouraged by the observation that the modified topological recursion yields the correct planar closed string free energy from the Aganagic-Vafa spectral curves of hyperbolic knots. This has implications for the knot theory concerning distinguishing mutant knots with colored HOMFLY invariants. Furthermore, for hyperbolic knots, we present methods to compute colored HOMFLY invariants in nonsymmetric representations of U(N). The key step in this computation is computing quantum 6j-symbols in the quantum group U q (sl N ).

  10. Methodology for Measuring the Complexity of Enterprise Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja Holub

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of enterprise information systems is currently a challenge faced not only by IT professionals and project managers, but also by the users of such systems. Current methodologies and frameworks used to design and implement information systems do not specifically deal with the issue of their complexity and, apart from few exceptions, do not at all attempt to simplify the complexity. This article presents the author's own methodology for managing complexity, which can be used to complement any other methodology and which helps limit the growth of complexity. It introduces its own definition and metric of complexity, which it defines as the sum of entities of the individual UML models of the given system, which are selected according to the MMDIS methodology so as to consistently describe all relevant content dimensions of the system. The main objective is to propose a methodology to manage information system complexity and to verify it in practice on a real-life SAP implementation project.

  11. From UV/IR mixing to closed strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Esperanza

    2003-01-01

    It was shown in [1] that the leading UV/IR mixing effects in noncommutative gauge theories on D-branes are able to capture information about the closed string spectrum of the parent string theory. The analysis was carried out for D-branes on nonsupersymmetric C 3 /Z N orbifolds of Type IIB. In this paper we consider D-branes on twisted circles compactifications of Type II string theory. We find that the signs of the leading UV/IR mixing effects know about the (mass) 2 gap between the lowest modes in NSNS and RR closed string towers. Moreover, the relevant piece of the field theory effective action can be reproduced purely in the language of closed strings. Remarkably, this approach unifies in a single structure, that of a closed string exchange between D-branes, both the leading planar and nonplanar effects associated to the absence of supersymmetry. (author)

  12. PREFACE: Complex Networks: from Biology to Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrat, A.; Boccaletti, S.; Caldarelli, G.; Chessa, A.; Latora, V.; Motter, A. E.

    2008-06-01

    The field of complex networks is one of the most active areas in contemporary statistical physics. Ten years after seminal work initiated the modern study of networks, interest in the field is in fact still growing, as indicated by the ever increasing number of publications in network science. The reason for such a resounding success is most likely the simplicity and broad significance of the approach that, through graph theory, allows researchers to address a variety of different complex systems within a common framework. This special issue comprises a selection of contributions presented at the workshop 'Complex Networks: from Biology to Information Technology' held in July 2007 in Pula (Cagliari), Italy as a satellite of the general conference STATPHYS23. The contributions cover a wide range of problems that are currently among the most important questions in the area of complex networks and that are likely to stimulate future research. The issue is organised into four sections. The first two sections describe 'methods' to study the structure and the dynamics of complex networks, respectively. After this methodological part, the issue proceeds with a section on applications to biological systems. The issue closes with a section concentrating on applications to the study of social and technological networks. The first section, entitled Methods: The Structure, consists of six contributions focused on the characterisation and analysis of structural properties of complex networks: The paper Motif-based communities in complex networks by Arenas et al is a study of the occurrence of characteristic small subgraphs in complex networks. These subgraphs, known as motifs, are used to define general classes of nodes and their communities by extending the mathematical expression of the Newman-Girvan modularity. The same line of research, aimed at characterising network structure through the analysis of particular subgraphs, is explored by Bianconi and Gulbahce in Algorithm

  13. Information structure and reference tracking in complex sentences

    CERN Document Server

    Gijn, Rik van; Matic, Dejan

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses argument marking and reference tracking in Mekens complex clauses and their correlation to information structure. The distribution of pronominal arguments in Mekens simple clauses follows an absolutive pattern with main verbs. Complex clauses maintain the morphological absolutive argument marking, but show a nominative pattern with respect to argument reference tracking, since transitive and intransitive subjects function as syntactic pivots. The language extends the use of argument-marking verb morphology to control the reference of discourse participants across clauses.

  14. Information as the Fifth Dimension of the Universe which Fundamental Particles (strings), Dark Matter/Energy and Space-time are Floating in it While they are Listening to its Whispering for Getting Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Ghasem; Amirshahkarami, Azim; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Four animated sub-particles (sub-strings) as origin of the life and generator of momentum (vibration) of elementary particles (strings) are communicated for transferring information for processing and preparing fundamental particles for the next step. It means that information may be a ``dimension'' of the nature which fundamental particles, dark matter/energy and space-time are floating in it and listening to its whispering and getting quantum information packages about their conditions and laws. So, communication of information which began before the spark to B.B. (Convection Bang), may be a ``Fundamental symmetry'' in the nature because leads other symmetries and supersymmetry as well as other phenomena. The processed information are always carried by fundamental particles as the preserved history and entropy of Universe. So, information wouldn't be destroyed, lost or released by black hole. But the involved fundamental particles of thermal radiation, electromagnetic and gravitational fields carry processed information during emitting from black hole, while they are communicated from fifth dimension for their new movement. AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

  15. Vulnerability of complex networks under intentional attack with incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J; Deng, H Z; Tan, Y J; Zhu, D Z

    2007-01-01

    We study the vulnerability of complex networks under intentional attack with incomplete information, which means that one can only preferentially attack the most important nodes among a local region of a network. The known random failure and the intentional attack are two extreme cases of our study. Using the generating function method, we derive the exact value of the critical removal fraction f c of nodes for the disintegration of networks and the size of the giant component. To validate our model and method, we perform simulations of intentional attack with incomplete information in scale-free networks. We show that the attack information has an important effect on the vulnerability of scale-free networks. We also demonstrate that hiding a fraction of the nodes information is a cost-efficient strategy for enhancing the robustness of complex networks

  16. Deterministic indexing for packed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2017-01-01

    Given a string S of length n, the classic string indexing problem is to preprocess S into a compact data structure that supports efficient subsequent pattern queries. In the deterministic variant the goal is to solve the string indexing problem without any randomization (at preprocessing time...... or query time). In the packed variant the strings are stored with several character in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. Our main result is a new string index in the deterministic and packed setting. Given a packed string S of length n over an alphabet σ...

  17. GPU Based N-Gram String Matching Algorithm with Score Table Approach for String Searching in Many Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, K. G.; Shree Devi, B. N.

    2017-10-01

    String searching in documents has become a tedious task with the evolution of Big Data. Generation of large data sets demand for a high performance search algorithm in areas such as text mining, information retrieval and many others. The popularity of GPU's for general purpose computing has been increasing for various applications. Therefore it is of great interest to exploit the thread feature of a GPU to provide a high performance search algorithm. This paper proposes an optimized new approach to N-gram model for string search in a number of lengthy documents and its GPU implementation. The algorithm exploits GPGPUs for searching strings in many documents employing character level N-gram matching with parallel Score Table approach and search using CUDA API. The new approach of Score table used for frequency storage of N-grams in a document, makes the search independent of the document's length and allows faster access to the frequency values, thus decreasing the search complexity. The extensive thread feature in a GPU has been exploited to enable parallel pre-processing of trigrams in a document for Score Table creation and parallel search in huge number of documents, thus speeding up the whole search process even for a large pattern size. Experiments were carried out for many documents of varied length and search strings from the standard Lorem Ipsum text on NVIDIA's GeForce GT 540M GPU with 96 cores. Results prove that the parallel approach for Score Table creation and searching gives a good speed up than the same approach executed serially.

  18. Windings of twisted strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Eduardo; Tourkine, Piotr

    2018-03-01

    Twistor string models have been known for more than a decade now but have come back under the spotlight recently with the advent of the scattering equation formalism which has greatly generalized the scope of these models. A striking ubiquitous feature of these models has always been that, contrary to usual string theory, they do not admit vibrational modes and thus describe only conventional field theory. In this paper we report on the surprising discovery of a whole new sector of one of these theories which we call "twisted strings," when spacetime has compact directions. We find that the spectrum is enhanced from a finite number of states to an infinite number of interacting higher spin massive states. We describe both bosonic and world sheet supersymmetric models, their spectra and scattering amplitudes. These models have distinctive features of both string and field theory, for example they are invariant under stringy T-duality but have the high energy behavior typical of field theory. Therefore they describe a new kind of field theories in target space, sitting on their own halfway between string and field theory.

  19. Strings and fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartl, Marco; Brunner, Ilka; Haack, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The basic idea, simple and revolutionary at the same time, to replace the concept of a point particle with a one-dimensional string, has opened up a whole new field of research. Even today, four decades later, its multifaceted consequences are still not fully conceivable. Up to now string theory has offered a new way to view particles as different excitations of the same fundamental object. It has celebrated success in discovering the graviton in its spectrum, and it has naturally led scientists to posit space-times with more than four dimensions - which in turn has triggered numerous interesting developments in fields as varied as condensed matter physics and pure mathematics. This book collects pedagogical lectures by leading experts in string theory, introducing the non-specialist reader to some of the newest developments in the field. The carefully selected topics are at the cutting edge of research in string theory and include new developments in topological strings, AdS/CFT dualities, as well as newly emerging subfields such as doubled field theory and holography in the hydrodynamic regime. The contributions to this book have been selected and arranged in such a way as to form a self-contained, graduate level textbook. (orig.)

  20. Strings and fundamental physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartl, Marco [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Brunner, Ilka; Haack, Michael (eds.) [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    2012-07-01

    The basic idea, simple and revolutionary at the same time, to replace the concept of a point particle with a one-dimensional string, has opened up a whole new field of research. Even today, four decades later, its multifaceted consequences are still not fully conceivable. Up to now string theory has offered a new way to view particles as different excitations of the same fundamental object. It has celebrated success in discovering the graviton in its spectrum, and it has naturally led scientists to posit space-times with more than four dimensions - which in turn has triggered numerous interesting developments in fields as varied as condensed matter physics and pure mathematics. This book collects pedagogical lectures by leading experts in string theory, introducing the non-specialist reader to some of the newest developments in the field. The carefully selected topics are at the cutting edge of research in string theory and include new developments in topological strings, AdS/CFT dualities, as well as newly emerging subfields such as doubled field theory and holography in the hydrodynamic regime. The contributions to this book have been selected and arranged in such a way as to form a self-contained, graduate level textbook. (orig.)

  1. Perspectives on string phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Gordon; Kumar, Piyush

    2015-01-01

    The remarkable recent discovery of the Higgs boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider completed the Standard Model of particle physics and has paved the way for understanding the physics which may lie beyond it. String/M theory has emerged as a broad framework for describing a plethora of diverse physical systems, which includes condensed matter systems, gravitational systems as well as elementary particle physics interactions. If string/M theory is to be considered as a candidate theory of Nature, it must contain an effectively four-dimensional universe among its solutions that is indistinguishable from our own. In these solutions, the extra dimensions of string/M Theory are “compactified” on tiny scales which are often comparable to the Planck length. String phenomenology is the branch of string/M theory that studies such solutions, relates their properties to data, and aims to answer many of the outstanding questions of particle physics beyond the Standard Model. This book contains perspectives on stri...

  2. Maximum margin classifier working in a set of strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, Hitoshi; Hayashida, Morihiro; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2016-03-01

    Numbers and numerical vectors account for a large portion of data. However, recently, the amount of string data generated has increased dramatically. Consequently, classifying string data is a common problem in many fields. The most widely used approach to this problem is to convert strings into numerical vectors using string kernels and subsequently apply a support vector machine that works in a numerical vector space. However, this non-one-to-one conversion involves a loss of information and makes it impossible to evaluate, using probability theory, the generalization error of a learning machine, considering that the given data to train and test the machine are strings generated according to probability laws. In this study, we approach this classification problem by constructing a classifier that works in a set of strings. To evaluate the generalization error of such a classifier theoretically, probability theory for strings is required. Therefore, we first extend a limit theorem for a consensus sequence of strings demonstrated by one of the authors and co-workers in a previous study. Using the obtained result, we then demonstrate that our learning machine classifies strings in an asymptotically optimal manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate the usefulness of our machine in practical data analysis by applying it to predicting protein-protein interactions using amino acid sequences and classifying RNAs by the secondary structure using nucleotide sequences.

  3. On Nonextensive Statistics, Chaos and Fractal Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by the growing evidence of universality and chaos in QFT and string theory, we study the Tsallis non-extensive statistics ( with a non-additive $ q$-entropy ) of an ensemble of fractal strings and branes of different dimensionalities. Non-equilibrium systems with complex dynamics in stationary states may exhibit large fluctuations of intensive quantities which are described in terms of generalized statistics. Tsallis statistics is a particular representative of such class. The non-extensive entropy and probability distribution of a canonical ensemble of fractal strings and branes is studied in terms of their dimensional spectrum which leads to a natural upper cutoff in energy and establishes a direct correlation among dimensions, energy and temperature. The absolute zero temperature ( Kelvin ) corresponds to zero dimensions (energy ) and an infinite temperature corresponds to infinite dimensions. In the concluding remarks some applications of fractal statistics, quasi-particles, knot theory, quantum...

  4. String theory of Calabi-Yau compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetken, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The conformal field theory description of Calabi-Yau compactifications of the heterotic superstring from 10 to 4 dimensions is outlined. The basic ideas of ordinary (bosonic) conformal field theory are explained before describing the exactly solvable N=2 superconformal minimal models which are needed in the tensor construction of certain particularly simple string vacua. Using a simple sigma-model construction of algebraic varieties and drawing on insight gained from the Landau-Ginzburg description of critical phenomena, it is explained how the critical behaviour of these 2-dimensional solvable quantum field theories with complex supersymmetry may be regarded as string compactification on a Calabi-Yau background. The virtue of this is to provide a tool for computing exact (tree level) results for strings in these highly non-trivial vacua, including all the Yukawa couplings needed in the construction of the low-energy effective field theory. (orig.)

  5. 1 SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION A novel zinc(II) complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BİLGİSAYAR

    1. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. A novel zinc(II) complex containing square pyramidal, octahedral and tetrahedral geometries on the same polymeric chain constructed from pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid and 1-vinylimidazole. HAKAN YILMAZ* and OMER ANDAC. Department of Chemistry, Ondokuz Mayis University, ...

  6. Is it health information technology? : Task complexity and work substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medina Palomino, Hector; Rutkowski, Anne; Verhulst, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    New technology is making it possible to replace professions built on complex knowledge, e.g. medicine. In our exploratory research we examined how Information Technologies might be replacing some of the tasks formerly processed by physician anesthesiologists (MDAs). Data (N=1178) were collected at a

  7. Coulomb string tension, asymptotic string tension, and the gluon chain

    OpenAIRE

    Greensite, Jeff; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    We compute, via numerical simulations, the non-perturbative Coulomb potential of pure SU(3) gauge theory in Coulomb gauge. We find that that the Coulomb potential scales nicely in accordance with asymptotic freedom, that the Coulomb potential is linear in the infrared, and that the Coulomb string tension is about four times larger than the asymptotic string tension. We explain how it is possible that the asymptotic string tension can be lower than the Coulomb string tension by a factor of four.

  8. Geometric derivation of string field theory from first principles: Closed strings and modular invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaku, M.

    1988-01-01

    We present an entirely new approach to closed-string field theory, called Igeometric string field theory R, which avoids the complications found in Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin string field theory (e.g., ghost counting, infinite overcounting of diagrams, midpoints, lack of modular invariance). Following the analogy with general relativity and Yang-Mills theory, we define a new infinite-dimensional local gauge group, called the unified string group, which uniquely specifies the connection fields, the curvature tensor, the measure and tensor calculus, and finally the action itself. Geometric field theory, when gauge fixed, yields an entirely new class of gauges called the interpolating gauge which allows us to smoothly interpolate between the midpoint gauge and the end-point gauge (''covariantized light-cone gauge''). We can show that geometric string field theory reproduces one copy of the Shapiro-Virasoro model. Surprisingly, after the gauge is broken, a new Iclosed four-string interactionR emerges as the counterpart of the instantaneous four-fermion Coulomb term in QED. This term restores modular invariance and precisely fills the missing region of the complex plane

  9. STRING 8--a global view on proteins and their functional interactions in 630 organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Juhl; Kuhn, Michael; Stark, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Functional partnerships between proteins are at the core of complex cellular phenotypes, and the networks formed by interacting proteins provide researchers with crucial scaffolds for modeling, data reduction and annotation. STRING is a database and web resource dedicated to protein-protein inter......Functional partnerships between proteins are at the core of complex cellular phenotypes, and the networks formed by interacting proteins provide researchers with crucial scaffolds for modeling, data reduction and annotation. STRING is a database and web resource dedicated to protein......-protein interactions, including both physical and functional interactions. It weights and integrates information from numerous sources, including experimental repositories, computational prediction methods and public text collections, thus acting as a meta-database that maps all interaction evidence onto a common set...... of genomes and proteins. The most important new developments in STRING 8 over previous releases include a URL-based programming interface, which can be used to query STRING from other resources, improved interaction prediction via genomic neighborhood in prokaryotes, and the inclusion of protein structures...

  10. Interacting-string picture of the fermionic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelstam, S.

    1986-01-01

    This report gives a review of the interacting-string picture of the Bose string. In the present lecture, the author outlines a similar treatment of the Fermionic string. The quantization of the free Fermionic string is carried out to the degrees of freedom x, representing the displacement of the string. Also presented are Grassman degrees of freedom S distributed along the string. The report pictures the fermionic string as a string of dipoles. The general picture of the interaction of such strings by joining and splitting is the same as for the Bose string. The author does not at present have the simplest formula for fermion string scattering amplitudes. A less detailed treatment is given than for the Bose string. The report sets up the functional-integration formalism, derives the analog mode, and indicates in general, terms how the conformal transformation to the z-plane may be performed. The paper concludes by stating without proof the formula for the N-article tree amplitude in the manifestly supersymmetric formalism

  11. String field theory solution for any open string background

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Erler, T.; Maccaferri, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, Oct (2014), 1-37 ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP201/12/G028 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : tachyon condensation * string field theory * conformal field models in string theory * bosonic strings Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 6.111, year: 2014

  12. Are Stopped Strings Preferred in Sad Music?

    OpenAIRE

    David Huron; Caitlyn Trevor

    2017-01-01

    String instruments may be played either with open strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a hard wooden nut) or with stopped strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a performer's finger pressed against the fingerboard). Compared with open strings, stopped strings permit the use of vibrato and exhibit a darker timbre. Inspired by research on the timbre of sad speech, we test whether there is a tendency to use stopped strings in nominally sad music. Specifica...

  13. Strings for quantumchromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomerus, V.

    2007-04-01

    During the last decade, intriguing dualities between gauge and string theory have been found and explored. they provide a novel window on strongly couplde gauge physics, including QCD-like models. Based on a short historical review of modern string theory, we explain how so-called AdS/CFT dualities emerged at the end of the 1990s. Some of their concrete implications and remarkable recent progress are then illustrated for the simplest example, namely the multicolor limit of N=4 SYM theory in four dimensions. We end with a few comments on existing extensions to more realistic models and applications, in particular to the sQGP. This text is meant as a non-technical introduction to gauge/string dualities for (particle) physicists. (orig.)

  14. The confining trailing string

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, E; Nitti, F

    2014-01-01

    We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

  15. Strings for quantumchromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomerus, V.

    2007-04-15

    During the last decade, intriguing dualities between gauge and string theory have been found and explored. they provide a novel window on strongly couplde gauge physics, including QCD-like models. Based on a short historical review of modern string theory, we explain how so-called AdS/CFT dualities emerged at the end of the 1990s. Some of their concrete implications and remarkable recent progress are then illustrated for the simplest example, namely the multicolor limit of N=4 SYM theory in four dimensions. We end with a few comments on existing extensions to more realistic models and applications, in particular to the sQGP. This text is meant as a non-technical introduction to gauge/string dualities for (particle) physicists. (orig.)

  16. Simple, complex and hyper-complex understanding - enhanced sensitivity in observation of information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bering Keiding, Tina

    for construction and analysis of empirical information. A quick overview on empirical research drawing on Luhmann reveals a diverse complex of analytical strategies and empirical methods. Despite differences between strategies and methods they have in common that understanding of uttered information is crucial...... in their production of empirically founded knowledge. However research generally seems to pay more attention to production of uttered information than to selection of understanding. The aim of this contribution is to sketch out a suggestion to how selection of understanding can be systematized in order to produce...... enhanced transparency in selection of understanding as well as enhanced sensitivity and definition in dept. The contribution suggest that we distinguish between three types of understanding; simple, complex and hyper-complex understanding. Simple understanding is the simultaneous selection of understanding...

  17. Quark potential of spontaneous strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, G.; Kleinert, H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present some recent developments in string models with an extrinsic curvature term in action. Particular emphasis is placed upon the static quark potential and on the thermal deconfinement properties of spontaneous strings

  18. Cosmic strings and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertschinger, E.

    1989-01-01

    Cosmic strings have become increasingly popular candidates as seeds for the formation of structure in the universe. This scenario, remains a serious cosmogonical model despite close scrutiny. In constrast, magnetic monopoles and domain walls - relic topological defects as are cosmic strings - are disastrous for cosmology if they are left over from the early universe. The production of heavy cosmic strings is speculative, as it depends on the details of ultrahigh energy physics. Fortunately, speculation about cosmic strings is not entirely idle because, if they exist and are heavy enough to seed galaxy formation, cosmic strings can be detected astronomically. Failure to detect cosmic strings would impose some constraints on grand unified theories (GUTs); their discovery would have exciting consequences for high energy physics and cosmology. This article reviews the basic physics of nonsuperconducting cosmic strings, highlighting the field theory aspects, and provides a progress report on calculations of structure formation with cosmic strings

  19. Quantifying Complexity in Quantum Phase Transitions via Mutual Information Complex Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Marc Andrew; Jaschke, Daniel; Vargas, David L; Carr, Lincoln D

    2017-12-01

    We quantify the emergent complexity of quantum states near quantum critical points on regular 1D lattices, via complex network measures based on quantum mutual information as the adjacency matrix, in direct analogy to quantifying the complexity of electroencephalogram or functional magnetic resonance imaging measurements of the brain. Using matrix product state methods, we show that network density, clustering, disparity, and Pearson's correlation obtain the critical point for both quantum Ising and Bose-Hubbard models to a high degree of accuracy in finite-size scaling for three classes of quantum phase transitions, Z_{2}, mean field superfluid to Mott insulator, and a Berzinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover.

  20. Quantifying Complexity in Quantum Phase Transitions via Mutual Information Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Marc Andrew; Jaschke, Daniel; Vargas, David L.; Carr, Lincoln D.

    2017-12-01

    We quantify the emergent complexity of quantum states near quantum critical points on regular 1D lattices, via complex network measures based on quantum mutual information as the adjacency matrix, in direct analogy to quantifying the complexity of electroencephalogram or functional magnetic resonance imaging measurements of the brain. Using matrix product state methods, we show that network density, clustering, disparity, and Pearson's correlation obtain the critical point for both quantum Ising and Bose-Hubbard models to a high degree of accuracy in finite-size scaling for three classes of quantum phase transitions, Z2, mean field superfluid to Mott insulator, and a Berzinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover.

  1. STRING v10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szklarczyk, Damian; Franceschini, Andrea; Wyder, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    , and the available data exhibit notable differences in terms of quality and completeness. The STRING database (http://string-db.org) aims to provide a critical assessment and integration of protein-protein interactions, including direct (physical) as well as indirect (functional) associations. The new version 10...... into families at various levels of phylogenetic resolution. Further improvements in version 10.0 include a completely redesigned prediction pipeline for inferring protein-protein associations from co-expression data, an API interface for the R computing environment and improved statistical analysis...

  2. Proceedings of strings, 89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnowitt, R.; Bryan, R.; Duff, M.J.; Nanopoulos, D.; Pope, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    Does string theory provide us with a consistent quantum theory of gravity? Is it that Holy Grail of elementary particle physics, a Theory of Everything with embraces all the forces and particles of Nature? Even if it is, can we extract concrete predictions about our low-energy world that can be tested experimentally at the SSC and other particle accelerators? What does it have to say about the origin of the Universe and the thorny problem of the cosmological constant? Are superstring theories unique, or might the eleven-dimensional supermembrane prove equally consistent? These are just some of the question posed and debated at Strings '89

  3. Introduction to string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Strathdee, J.

    1987-10-01

    These notes are based on a set of six introductory lectures given jointly by the authors. After developing the canonical methods we discuss the covariant quantization of the bosonic as well as the fermionic string. Conformal field theory methods are also introduced and used to calculate the anomaly coefficient, c, as well as the critical dimensions for bosonic and superstrings. We briefly sketch the BRS quantization and then offer an elementary derivation of the anomaly in the ghost number current. Finally, we address the one-loop partition function of the bosonic string and the question of SL(2,Z) invariance. (author). 15 refs

  4. Matrix string partition function

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.

  5. Deriving the four-string and open-closed string interactions from geometric string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaku, M.

    1990-01-01

    One of the questions concerning the covariant open string field theory is why there are two distinct BRST theories and why the four-string interaction appears in one version but not the other. The authors solve this mystery by showing that both theories are gauge-fixed versions of a higher gauge theory, called the geometric string field theory, with a new field, a string verbein e μσ νρ , which allows us to gauge the string length and σ parametrization. By fixing the gauge, the authors can derive the endpoint gauge (the covariantized light cone gauge), the midpoint gauge of Witten, or the interpolating gauge with arbitrary string length. The authors show explicitly that the four-string interaction is a gauge artifact of the geometric theory (the counterpart of the four-fermion instantaneous Coulomb term of QED). By choosing the interpolating gauge, they produce a new class of four-string interactions which smoothly interpolate between the endpoint gauge and the midpoint gauge (where it vanishes). Similarly, they can extract the closed string as a bound state of the open string, which appears in the endpoint gauge but vanishes in the midpoint gauge. Thus, the four-string and open-closed string interactions do not have to be added to the action as long as the string vierbein is included

  6. Enabling Controlling Complex Networks with Local Topological Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xiao, Gaoxi; Tang, Pei; Wen, Changyun; Hu, Wuhua; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping; Stanley, H Eugene

    2018-03-15

    Complex networks characterize the nature of internal/external interactions in real-world systems including social, economic, biological, ecological, and technological networks. Two issues keep as obstacles to fulfilling control of large-scale networks: structural controllability which describes the ability to guide a dynamical system from any initial state to any desired final state in finite time, with a suitable choice of inputs; and optimal control, which is a typical control approach to minimize the cost for driving the network to a predefined state with a given number of control inputs. For large complex networks without global information of network topology, both problems remain essentially open. Here we combine graph theory and control theory for tackling the two problems in one go, using only local network topology information. For the structural controllability problem, a distributed local-game matching method is proposed, where every node plays a simple Bayesian game with local information and local interactions with adjacent nodes, ensuring a suboptimal solution at a linear complexity. Starring from any structural controllability solution, a minimizing longest control path method can efficiently reach a good solution for the optimal control in large networks. Our results provide solutions for distributed complex network control and demonstrate a way to link the structural controllability and optimal control together.

  7. Racetrack inflation and cosmic strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, P. [CEA-Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France). CEA/DSM/SPhT, Unite de Recherche Associee au CNRS, Service de Physique Theorique; Bruck, C. van de [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Davis, A.C.; Davis, S.C. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences; Jeannerot, R. [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden (Netherlands); Postma, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-05-15

    We consider the coupling of racetrack inflation to matter fields as realised in the D3/D7 brane system. In particular, we investigate the possibility of cosmic string formation in this system. We find that string formation before or at the onset of racetrack inflation is possible, but they are then inflated away. Furthermore, string formation at the end of inflation is prevented by the presence of the moduli sector. As a consequence, no strings survive racetrack inflation. (orig.)

  8. String theory in four dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, M.

    1988-01-01

    A representative sample of current ideas about how one might develop a string phenomenology is presented. Some of the obstacles which lie in between string theory and contact with experiment are described. It is hoped that this volume will provide the reader with ways of thinking about string theory in four dimensions and provide tools for asking questions about string theory and ordinary physics. 102 refs

  9. Instability of colliding metastable strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramatsu, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Eto, Minoru [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research

    2013-04-15

    We investigate the collision dynamics of two metastable strings which can be viewed as tube-like domain walls with winding numbers interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. We find that depending on the relative angle and speed of two strings, instability of strings increases and the false vacuum is filled out by rapid expansion of the strings or of a remnant of the collision.

  10. Cosmic strings and galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschinger, Edmund

    1989-01-01

    The cosmogonical model proposed by Zel'dovich and Vilenkin (1981), in which superconducting cosmic strings act as seeds for the origin of structure in the universe, is discussed, summarizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. Consideration is given to the formation of cosmic strings, the microscopic structure of strings, gravitational effects, cosmic string evolution, and the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Simulation results are presented in graphs, and several outstanding issues are listed and briefly characterized.

  11. Instability of colliding metastable strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Ookouchi, Yutaka; Kyoto Univ.

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the collision dynamics of two metastable strings which can be viewed as tube-like domain walls with winding numbers interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. We find that depending on the relative angle and speed of two strings, instability of strings increases and the false vacuum is filled out by rapid expansion of the strings or of a remnant of the collision.

  12. Racetrack inflation and cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, P.; Postma, M.

    2008-05-01

    We consider the coupling of racetrack inflation to matter fields as realised in the D3/D7 brane system. In particular, we investigate the possibility of cosmic string formation in this system. We find that string formation before or at the onset of racetrack inflation is possible, but they are then inflated away. Furthermore, string formation at the end of inflation is prevented by the presence of the moduli sector. As a consequence, no strings survive racetrack inflation. (orig.)

  13. On the geometrical approach to the relativistic string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbashov, B.M.; Nesterenko, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    In a geometrical approach to the string theory in the four-dimensional Minkowski space the relativistic invariant gauge proposed earlier for the string moving in three-dimensional space-time is used. In contrast to the results of previous paper the system of equations for the coefficients of the fundamental forms of the string model world sheet can be reduced now to one nonlinear Lionville equation again but for a complex valued function u. It is shown that in the case of space-time with arbitrary dimension there are such string motions which are described by one non-linear equation with a real function u. And as a consequence the soliton solutions investigated earlier take place in a geometrical approach to the string theory in any dimensional space-time

  14. String theory and quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    This article is based on a talk given at the ''Strings '97'' conference. It discusses the search for the universality class of confining strings. The key ingredients include the loop equations, the zigzag symmetry, the non-linear renormalization group. Some new tests for the equivalence between gauge fields and strings are proposed. (orig.)

  15. String theory in four dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    ``String Theory in Four Dimensions'' contains a representative collection of papers dealing with various aspects of string phenomenology, including compactifications on smooth manifolds and more general conformal field theories. Together with the lucid introduction by M. Dine, this material gives the reader a good working knowledge of our present ideas for connecting string theory to nature.

  16. String necklaces and primordial black holes from type IIB strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, Matthew; Thomas, Steve; Ward, John

    2009-01-01

    We consider a model of static cosmic string loops in type IIB string theory, where the strings wrap cycles within the internal space. The strings are not topologically stabilised, however the presence of a lifting potential traps the windings giving rise to kinky cycloops. We find that PBH formation occurs at early times in a small window, whilst at late times we observe the formation of dark matter relics in the scaling regime. This is in stark contrast to previous predictions based on field theoretic models. We also consider the PBH contribution to the mass density of the universe, and use the experimental data to impose bounds on the string theory parameters.

  17. Towards a string formulation of vortex dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsebeth Schroeder; Ola Toernkvist

    1998-01-01

    We derive an exact equation of motion for a non-relativistic vortex in two- and three-dimensional models with a complex field. The velocity is given in terms of gradients of the complex field at the vortex position. We discuss the problem of reducing the field dynamics to a closed dynamical system with non-locally interacting strings as the fundamental degrees of freedom

  18. SUPERCOLLIDER: String test success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    On 14 August at the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) Laboratory in Ellis County, Texas, the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) successfully met its objective by operating a half-cell of five collider dipole magnets, one quadrupole magnet, and two spool pieces at the design current of 6500 amperes

  19. Help from the strings

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "How can the nature of basic particles be defined beyond the mechanisms presiding over their creation? Besides the standard model of particle physics - resulting from the postulations of quantum mechanics - contemporary science has pinned its hopes on the totally new unifying notion provided by the highly mathematical string theory."(2 pages)

  20. New Z3 strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A.C. Kneipp

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider a Yang–Mills–Higgs theory with the gauge group SU(3 broken to its center Z3 by two scalar fields in the adjoint representation and obtain new Z3 strings asymptotic configurations with the gauge field and magnetic field in the direction of the step operators.

  1. On exceptional instanton strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Zotto, M.; Lockhart, G.

    According to a recent classification of 6d (1, 0) theories within F-theory there are only six “pure” 6d gauge theories which have a UV superconformal fixed point. The corresponding gauge groups are SU(3), SO(8), F4, E6, E7, and E8. These exceptional models have BPS strings which are also instantons

  2. String perturbation theory diverges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.; Periwal, V.

    1988-01-01

    We prove that perturbation theory for the bosonic string diverges for arbitrary values of the coupling constant and is not Borel summable. This divergence is independent of the existence of the infinities that occur in the theory due to the presence of tachyons and dilaton tadpoles. We discuss the physical implications of such a divergence

  3. Transversally extended string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, Keiichi

    1988-01-01

    Starting with the space-time action of the transversally extended string, we derive its world-sheet action, which is that of a gravitational and gauge theory with matter fields on the world-sheet, with additional effects of the second fundamental quantity. (author)

  4. StarDB: a large-scale DBMS for strings

    KAUST Repository

    Sahli, Majed

    2015-08-01

    Strings and applications using them are proliferating in science and business. Currently, strings are stored in file systems and processed using ad-hoc procedural code. Existing techniques are not flexible and cannot efficiently handle complex queries or large datasets. In this paper, we demonstrate StarDB, a distributed database system for analytics on strings. StarDB hides data and system complexities and allows users to focus on analytics. It uses a comprehensive set of parallel string operations and provides a declarative query language to solve complex queries. StarDB automatically tunes itself and runs with over 90% efficiency on supercomputers, public clouds, clusters, and workstations. We test StarDB using real datasets that are 2 orders of magnitude larger than the datasets reported by previous works.

  5. A tool for filtering information in complex systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tumminello, M.; Aste, T.; Di Matteo, T.; Mantegna, R. N.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a technique to filter out complex data sets by extracting a subgraph of representative links. Such a filtering can be tuned up to any desired level by controlling the genus of the resulting graph. We show that this technique is especially suitable for correlation-based graphs, giving filtered graphs that preserve the hierarchical organization of the minimum spanning tree but containing a larger amount of information in their internal structure. In particular in the case of planar...

  6. Lectures on strings and dualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vafa, C.

    1997-01-01

    In this set of lectures I review recent developments in string theory emphasizing their non-perturbative aspects and their recently discovered duality symmetries. The goal of the lectures is to make the recent exciting developments in string theory accessible to those with no previous background in string theory who wish to join the research effort in this area. Topics covered include a brief review of string theory, its compactifications, solitons and D-branes, black hole entropy and wed of string dualities. (author)

  7. Macroscopic fundamental strings in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharonov, Y; Englert, F; Orloff, J

    1987-12-24

    We show that, when D greater than or equal to 4, theories of closed strings of closed strings in D, non-compact space-time dimensions exhibit a phase transition. The high-temperature phase is characterized by a condensate of arbitrarily long strings with Hausdorff dimension two (area filling curves). We suggest that this stringy phase is the ancestor of the adiabatic era. Fundamental strings could then both drive the inflation and seed, in a way reminiscent of the cosmic string mechanism, the large structures in the universe.

  8. The architecture of the management system of complex steganographic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evsutin, O. O.; Meshcheryakov, R. V.; Kozlova, A. S.; Solovyev, T. M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to create a wide area information system that allows one to control processes of generation, embedding, extraction, and detection of steganographic information. In this paper, the following problems are considered: the definition of the system scope and the development of its architecture. For creation of algorithmic maintenance of the system, classic methods of steganography are used to embed information. Methods of mathematical statistics and computational intelligence are used to identify the embedded information. The main result of the paper is the development of the architecture of the management system of complex steganographic information. The suggested architecture utilizes cloud technology in order to provide service using the web-service via the Internet. It is meant to provide streams of multimedia data processing that are streams with many sources of different types. The information system, built in accordance with the proposed architecture, will be used in the following areas: hidden transfer of documents protected by medical secrecy in telemedicine systems; copyright protection of online content in public networks; prevention of information leakage caused by insiders.

  9. Gravitational effects of global strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryal, M.; Everett, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    We have obtained the gravitational field, in the weak-field approximation, of cosmic strings formed in a phase transition in which a global symmetry is broken (global strings). The effect of this field on light rays passing a global string is found, and the resulting formation of double images and production of discontinuities in the microwave background temperature compared with the corresponding results for gauge strings. There are some differences in the case of global strings, reflecting the fact that the space surrounding such strings is not purely conical. However, the differences between gauge and global strings with masses suitable to explain galaxy formation are small, and the task of distinguishing them observationally appears difficult at best

  10. Device for balancing parallel strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashikian, Matthew S.

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means in association with each of the battery strings in the battery plant for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings by equalizing the voltage across each of the battery strings. Each of the magnetic circuit means generally comprises means for sensing the electrical current flow through one of the battery strings, and a saturable reactor having a main winding connected electrically in series with the battery string, a bias winding connected to a source of alternating current and a control winding connected to a variable source of direct current controlled by the sensing means. Each of the battery strings is formed by a plurality of batteries connected electrically in series, and these battery strings are connected electrically in parallel across common bus conductors.

  11. Kac-Moody Eisenstein series in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleig, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Understanding nature on its very smallest 'physical-length' scale has always been a central goal of physics. Theoretical investigations into this problem over the last fifty years or so were largely driven by the aim of reconciling the theory of general relativity, the theory which describes the fundamental force of gravity and therefore the dynamics of space-time, with the theory of quantum mechanics, which dominates the physical phenomena on very small (sub-atomic) scales, within one big framework, referred to as the theory of quantum gravity. One candidate for such a theory is string theory. The fundamental assumption of this theory is that the smallest constituents of nature are not given by point particles, but rather by one dimensional strings the size of the Planck length. Through their different vibrational modes, strings are thought to produce the different properties of the observed spectrum of particles in nature. With this basic idea, string theory is not only predicted to describe the gravitational force, but also all other known forces of nature, and therefore extends far beyond the concept of only being a theory of quantised gravity. Since its initial proposal, the theory has developed into a vast and complex mathematical web of different theories, which all seem to be part of a larger, all-encompassing theory. Key to understanding the complicated mathematical structure of this theory is the concept of symmetries. Such symmetries, which are also known as duality relations, for instance manifest themselves in special mathematical functions, contained in the amplitudes that capture information about the interaction processes of strings with one another. A particularly relevant example of such a function is given by the so-called Eisenstein series, which display invariance under certain discrete duality groups. The central goal of this thesis is to study the properties of Eisenstein series invariant under special, particularly large (in fact infinite

  12. Kac-Moody Eisenstein series in string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleig, Philipp

    2013-12-19

    Understanding nature on its very smallest 'physical-length' scale has always been a central goal of physics. Theoretical investigations into this problem over the last fifty years or so were largely driven by the aim of reconciling the theory of general relativity, the theory which describes the fundamental force of gravity and therefore the dynamics of space-time, with the theory of quantum mechanics, which dominates the physical phenomena on very small (sub-atomic) scales, within one big framework, referred to as the theory of quantum gravity. One candidate for such a theory is string theory. The fundamental assumption of this theory is that the smallest constituents of nature are not given by point particles, but rather by one dimensional strings the size of the Planck length. Through their different vibrational modes, strings are thought to produce the different properties of the observed spectrum of particles in nature. With this basic idea, string theory is not only predicted to describe the gravitational force, but also all other known forces of nature, and therefore extends far beyond the concept of only being a theory of quantised gravity. Since its initial proposal, the theory has developed into a vast and complex mathematical web of different theories, which all seem to be part of a larger, all-encompassing theory. Key to understanding the complicated mathematical structure of this theory is the concept of symmetries. Such symmetries, which are also known as duality relations, for instance manifest themselves in special mathematical functions, contained in the amplitudes that capture information about the interaction processes of strings with one another. A particularly relevant example of such a function is given by the so-called Eisenstein series, which display invariance under certain discrete duality groups. The central goal of this thesis is to study the properties of Eisenstein series invariant under special, particularly large (in fact

  13. Real time information management for improving productivity in metallurgical complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bascur, O.A.; Kennedy, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Applying the latest information technologies in industrial plants has become a serious challenge to management and technical teams. The availability of real time and historical operations information to identify the most critical part of the processing system from mechanical integrity is a must for global plant optimization. Expanded use of plant information on the desktop is a standard tool for revenue improvement, cost reduction, and adherence to production constraints. The industrial component desktop supports access to information for process troubleshooting, continuous improvement and innovation by plant and staff personnel. Collaboration between groups enables the implementation of an overall process effectiveness index based on losses due to equipment availability, production and product quality. The key to designing technology is to use the Internet based technologies created by Microsoft for its marketplace-office automation and the Web. Time derived variables are used for process analysis, troubleshooting and performance assessment. Connectivity between metallurgical complexes, research centers and their business system has become a reality. Two case studies of large integrated mining/metallurgical complexes are highlighted. (author)

  14. Information driven self-organization of complex robotic behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Martius

    Full Text Available Information theory is a powerful tool to express principles to drive autonomous systems because it is domain invariant and allows for an intuitive interpretation. This paper studies the use of the predictive information (PI, also called excess entropy or effective measure complexity, of the sensorimotor process as a driving force to generate behavior. We study nonlinear and nonstationary systems and introduce the time-local predicting information (TiPI which allows us to derive exact results together with explicit update rules for the parameters of the controller in the dynamical systems framework. In this way the information principle, formulated at the level of behavior, is translated to the dynamics of the synapses. We underpin our results with a number of case studies with high-dimensional robotic systems. We show the spontaneous cooperativity in a complex physical system with decentralized control. Moreover, a jointly controlled humanoid robot develops a high behavioral variety depending on its physics and the environment it is dynamically embedded into. The behavior can be decomposed into a succession of low-dimensional modes that increasingly explore the behavior space. This is a promising way to avoid the curse of dimensionality which hinders learning systems to scale well.

  15. Identification of Functional Information Subgraphs in Complex Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt, Luis M. A.; Gintautas, Vadas; Ham, Michael I.

    2008-01-01

    We present a general information theoretic approach for identifying functional subgraphs in complex networks. We show that the uncertainty in a variable can be written as a sum of information quantities, where each term is generated by successively conditioning mutual informations on new measured variables in a way analogous to a discrete differential calculus. The analogy to a Taylor series suggests efficient optimization algorithms for determining the state of a target variable in terms of functional groups of other nodes. We apply this methodology to electrophysiological recordings of cortical neuronal networks grown in vitro. Each cell's firing is generally explained by the activity of a few neurons. We identify these neuronal subgraphs in terms of their redundant or synergetic character and reconstruct neuronal circuits that account for the state of target cells

  16. Reply to 'Comment on 'Quantum string seal is insecure''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, H. F.

    2007-01-01

    In Phys. Rev. A 76, 056301 (2007), He claimed that the proof in my earlier paper [Phys. Rev. A 75, 012327 (2007)] is insufficient to conclude the insecurity of all quantum string seals because my measurement strategy cannot obtain nontrivial information on the sealed string and escape detection at the same time. Here, I clarify that our disagreement comes from our adoption of two different criteria on the minimum amount of information a quantum string seal can reveal to members of the public. I also point out that He did not follow my measurement strategy correctly

  17. Stringing physics along

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riordan, M. [Stanford University and the University of California, Santa Cruz (United States)]. E-mail: mriordan@ucsc.edu

    2007-02-15

    In the last few decades, however, physical theory has drifted away from the professional norms advocated by Newton and other enlightenment philosophers. A vast outpouring of hypotheses has occurred under the umbrella of what is widely called string theory. But string theory is not really a 'theory' at all - at least not in the strict sense that scientists generally use the term. It is instead a dense, weedy thicket of hypotheses and conjectures badly in need of pruning. That pruning, however, can come only from observation and experiment, to which string theory (a phrase I will grudgingly continue using) is largely inaccessible. String theory was invented in the 1970s in the wake of the Standard Model of particle physics. Encouraged by the success of gauge theories of the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces, theorists tried to extend similar ideas to energy and distance scales that are orders of magnitude beyond what can be readily observed or measured. The normal, healthy intercourse between theory and experiment - which had led to the Standard Model - has broken down, and fundamental physics now finds itself in a state of crisis. So it is refreshing to hear from a theorist - one who was deeply involved with string theory and championed it in his previous book, Three Roads to Quantum Gravity - that all is not well in this closeted realm. Smolin argues from the outset that viable hypotheses must lead to observable consequences by which they can be tested and judged. String theory by its very nature does not allow for such probing, according to Smolin, and therefore it must be considered as an unprovable conjecture. Towards the end of his book, Smolin suggests other directions fundamental physics can take, particularly in the realm of quantum gravity, to resolve its crisis and reconnect with the observable world. From my perspective, he leans a bit too heavily towards highly speculative ideas such as doubly special relativity, modified Newtonian

  18. Reinforcing Visual Grouping Cues to Communicate Complex Informational Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Juhee; Watson, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    In his book Multimedia Learning [7], Richard Mayer asserts that viewers learn best from imagery that provides them with cues to help them organize new information into the correct knowledge structures. Designers have long been exploiting the Gestalt laws of visual grouping to deliver viewers those cues using visual hierarchy, often communicating structures much more complex than the simple organizations studied in psychological research. Unfortunately, designers are largely practical in their work, and have not paused to build a complex theory of structural communication. If we are to build a tool to help novices create effective and well structured visuals, we need a better understanding of how to create them. Our work takes a first step toward addressing this lack, studying how five of the many grouping cues (proximity, color similarity, common region, connectivity, and alignment) can be effectively combined to communicate structured text and imagery from real world examples. To measure the effectiveness of this structural communication, we applied a digital version of card sorting, a method widely used in anthropology and cognitive science to extract cognitive structures. We then used tree edit distance to measure the difference between perceived and communicated structures. Our most significant findings are: 1) with careful design, complex structure can be communicated clearly; 2) communicating complex structure is best done with multiple reinforcing grouping cues; 3) common region (use of containers such as boxes) is particularly effective at communicating structure; and 4) alignment is a weak structural communicator.

  19. Statistical sum of bosonic string, compactified on an orbifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.; Ol'shanetskij, M.

    1986-01-01

    Expression for statistical sum of bosonic string, compactified on a singular orbifold, is presented. All the information about the orbifold is encoded the specific combination of theta-functions, which the statistical sum is expressed through

  20. Analyzing complex networks evolution through Information Theory quantifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpi, Laura C.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.; Saco, Patricia M.; Ravetti, Martin Gomez

    2011-01-01

    A methodology to analyze dynamical changes in complex networks based on Information Theory quantifiers is proposed. The square root of the Jensen-Shannon divergence, a measure of dissimilarity between two probability distributions, and the MPR Statistical Complexity are used to quantify states in the network evolution process. Three cases are analyzed, the Watts-Strogatz model, a gene network during the progression of Alzheimer's disease and a climate network for the Tropical Pacific region to study the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dynamic. We find that the proposed quantifiers are able not only to capture changes in the dynamics of the processes but also to quantify and compare states in their evolution.

  1. Analyzing complex networks evolution through Information Theory quantifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpi, Laura C., E-mail: Laura.Carpi@studentmail.newcastle.edu.a [Civil, Surveying and Environmental Engineering, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan NSW 2308 (Australia); Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte (31270-901), MG (Brazil); Rosso, Osvaldo A., E-mail: rosso@fisica.ufmg.b [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte (31270-901), MG (Brazil); Chaos and Biology Group, Instituto de Calculo, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon II, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Saco, Patricia M., E-mail: Patricia.Saco@newcastle.edu.a [Civil, Surveying and Environmental Engineering, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan NSW 2308 (Australia); Departamento de Hidraulica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avenida Pellegrini 250, Rosario (Argentina); Ravetti, Martin Gomez, E-mail: martin.ravetti@dep.ufmg.b [Departamento de Engenharia de Producao, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte (31270-901), MG (Brazil)

    2011-01-24

    A methodology to analyze dynamical changes in complex networks based on Information Theory quantifiers is proposed. The square root of the Jensen-Shannon divergence, a measure of dissimilarity between two probability distributions, and the MPR Statistical Complexity are used to quantify states in the network evolution process. Three cases are analyzed, the Watts-Strogatz model, a gene network during the progression of Alzheimer's disease and a climate network for the Tropical Pacific region to study the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dynamic. We find that the proposed quantifiers are able not only to capture changes in the dynamics of the processes but also to quantify and compare states in their evolution.

  2. Quantum-information processing in disordered and complex quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Ahufinger, Veronica; Briegel, Hans J.; Sanpera, Anna; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2006-01-01

    We study quantum information processing in complex disordered many body systems that can be implemented by using lattices of ultracold atomic gases and trapped ions. We demonstrate, first in the short range case, the generation of entanglement and the local realization of quantum gates in a disordered magnetic model describing a quantum spin glass. We show that in this case it is possible to achieve fidelities of quantum gates higher than in the classical case. Complex systems with long range interactions, such as ions chains or dipolar atomic gases, can be used to model neural network Hamiltonians. For such systems, where both long range interactions and disorder appear, it is possible to generate long range bipartite entanglement. We provide an efficient analytical method to calculate the time evolution of a given initial state, which in turn allows us to calculate its quantum correlations

  3. CISAPS: Complex Informational Spectrum for the Analysis of Protein Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Chrysostomou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex informational spectrum analysis for protein sequences (CISAPS and its web-based server are developed and presented. As recent studies show, only the use of the absolute spectrum in the analysis of protein sequences using the informational spectrum analysis is proven to be insufficient. Therefore, CISAPS is developed to consider and provide results in three forms including absolute, real, and imaginary spectrum. Biologically related features to the analysis of influenza A subtypes as presented as a case study in this study can also appear individually either in the real or imaginary spectrum. As the results presented, protein classes can present similarities or differences according to the features extracted from CISAPS web server. These associations are probable to be related with the protein feature that the specific amino acid index represents. In addition, various technical issues such as zero-padding and windowing that may affect the analysis are also addressed. CISAPS uses an expanded list of 611 unique amino acid indices where each one represents a different property to perform the analysis. This web-based server enables researchers with little knowledge of signal processing methods to apply and include complex informational spectrum analysis to their work.

  4. Real topological string amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narain, K.S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34151 (Italy); Piazzalunga, N. [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, State University of New York,Stony Brook, NY, 11794-3636 (United States); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sez. di Trieste,via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy); Tanzini, A. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sez. di Trieste,via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    We discuss the physical superstring correlation functions in type I theory (or equivalently type II with orientifold) that compute real topological string amplitudes. We consider the correlator corresponding to holomorphic derivative of the real topological amplitude G{sub χ}, at fixed worldsheet Euler characteristic χ. This corresponds in the low-energy effective action to N=2 Weyl multiplet, appropriately reduced to the orientifold invariant part, and raised to the power g{sup ′}=−χ+1. We show that the physical string correlator gives precisely the holomorphic derivative of topological amplitude. Finally, we apply this method to the standard closed oriented case as well, and prove a similar statement for the topological amplitude F{sub g}.

  5. Open spinning strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanski, B. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    We find classical open string solutions in the AdS 5 x S 5 /Z 2 orientifold with angular momenta along the five-sphere. The energy of these solutions has an expansion in integral powers of λ with sigma-model corrections suppressed by inverse powers of J - the total angular momentum. This gives a prediction for the exact anomalous dimensions of operators in the large N limit of an N = 2 Sp, Super-Yang-Mills theory with matter. We also find a simple map between open and closed string solutions. This gives a prediction for an all-loop planar relationship between the anomalous dimensions of single-trace and two-quark operators in the dual gauge theory. (author)

  6. New Supersymmetric String Compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachru, Shamit

    2002-11-25

    We describe a new class of supersymmetric string compactifications to 4d Minkowski space. These solutions involve type II strings propagating on (orientifolds of) non Calabi-Yau spaces in the presence of background NS and RR fluxes. The simplest examples have descriptions as cosets, generalizing the three-dimensional nilmanifold. They can also be thought of as twisted tori. We derive a formula for the (super)potential governing the light fields, which is generated by the fluxes and certain ''twists'' in the geometry. Detailed consideration of an example also gives strong evidence that in some cases, these exotic geometries are related by smooth transitions to standard Calabi-Yau or G2 compactifications of M-theory.

  7. Unified string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    String theories offer a way of realizing the potential of supersymmetry, Kaluza-Klein and much more. They represent a radical departure from ordinary quantum field theory, but in the direction of increased symmetry and structure. They are based on an enormous increase in the number of degrees of freedom, since in addition to fermionic coordinates and extra dimensions, the basic entities are extended one dimensional objects instead of points. Correspondingly the symmetry group is greatly enlarged, in a way that we are only beginning to comprehend. At the very least this extended symmetry contains the largest group of symmetries that can be contemplated within the framework of point field theories-those of ten-dimensional supergravity and super Yang-Mills theory. Types of string theories and the phenomenology to be expected from them are reviewed

  8. Fractional bosonic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Victor Alfonzo; Giusti, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a simple generalization of bosonic string theory in the framework of the theory of fractional variational problems. Specifically, we present a fractional extension of the Polyakov action, for which we compute the general form of the equations of motion and discuss the connection between the new fractional action and a generalization the Nambu-Goto action. Consequently, we analyze the symmetries of the modified Polyakov action and try to fix the gauge, following the classical procedures. Then we solve the equations of motion in a simplified setting. Finally, we present a Hamiltonian description of the classical fractional bosonic string and introduce the fractional light-cone gauge. It is important to remark that, throughout the whole paper, we thoroughly discuss how to recover the known results as an "integer" limit of the presented model.

  9. Non-critical strings at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Kenichiro; Aoki, Kenichiro; Hoker, Eric D'

    1996-01-01

    We consider scattering amplitudes in non-critical string theory of $N$ external states in the limit where the energy of all external states is large compared to the string tension. We argue that the amplitudes are naturally complex analytic in the matter central charge $c$ and we propose to define the amplitudes for arbitrary value of $c$ by analytic continuation. We show that the high energy limit is dominated by a saddle point that can be mapped onto an equilibrium electro-static energy configuration of an assembly of $N$ pointlike (Minkowskian) charges, together with a density of charges arising from the Liouville field. We argue that the Liouville charges accumulate on segments of curves, and produce quadratic branch cuts on the worldsheet. The electro-statics problem is solved for string tree level in terms of hyper-elliptic integrals and is given explicitly for 3- and 4-point functions. We show that the high energy limit should behave in a string-like fashion with exponential dependence on the energy sc...

  10. p-adic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volovich, I.V.

    1987-01-01

    The hypothesis of the possible p-adic structure of spacetime is considered. The p-adic Veneziano amplitude is proposed and the main properties of the p-adic string theory are discussed. The analogous questions on the Galois field are also discussed. In this case the Jacobi sum plays the role of the Veneziano amplitude which can be expressed by means of the I-adic cohomology of the Fermat curves. The corresponding vertex operator is given. (author)

  11. Exactly soluble dynamics of (p,q) string near macroscopic fundamental strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, Dongsu; Rey, Soojong; Yee, Houng

    2004-01-01

    We study dynamics of type-IIB bound-state of a Dirichlet string and n fundamental strings in the background of N fundamental strings. Because of supergravity potential, the bound-state string is pulled to the background fundamental strings, whose motion is described by open string rolling radion field. The string coupling can be made controllably weak and, in the limit 1 2 st n 2 st N, the bound-state energy involved is small compared to the string scale. We thus propose rolling dynamics of open string radion in this system as an exactly solvable analog for rolling dynamics of open string tachyon in decaying D-brane. The dynamics bears a novel feature that the worldsheet electric field increases monotonically to the critical value as the bound-state string falls into the background string. Close to the background string, D string constituent inside the bound-state string decouples from fundamental string constituents. (author)

  12. The theta-structure in string theories - 1: bosonic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Miao.

    1985-09-01

    We explored the theta-structures in bosonic string theories which are similar to those in gauge field theories. The theta-structure of string is due to the multiply connected spatial compact subspace of space-time. The work of this paper shows that there is an energy band E(theta) in the string theory and one may move the tachyon out in theory by choosing some proper theta parameters. (author)

  13. An invariant string propagator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.; Moore, G.; Nelson, P.; Polchinski, J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors show that the Polyakov path integral is used to define off-shell quantities in string theory. The path integral of Polyakov gives an elegant description of strings and their interactions. However, its use has been limited to obtaining the Koba-Nielsen expressions for S-matrix elements. It is not yet clear what quantities make sense in string theory. This study shows that the path integral can be used to define off-shell quantities as well. In particular it defines a natural n-point function in loop space as the sum of all world surfaces bounded by n specific spacetime curves. The reader is referred for more detail. The report first outlines general evaluation then discusses the additional features added by boundaries. Locally, the three gauge freedoms ξ/sup a/ and δphi can be used to take g/sub ab/ (σ) to the unit matrix. Globally, this is not quite possible. In general the researchers choose a family of fiducial metrics g/sub ab/ (σ,tau), depending on a finite number of Teichmuller parameters tau, and every metric is gauge equivalent to one of these

  14. Thermodynamical string fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Nadine [Theoretical Particle Physics, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14A, Lund, SE-223 62 (Sweden); School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University,Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Sjöstrand, Torbjörn [Theoretical Particle Physics, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14A, Lund, SE-223 62 (Sweden)

    2017-01-31

    The observation of heavy-ion-like behaviour in pp collisions at the LHC suggests that more physics mechanisms are at play than traditionally assumed. The introduction e.g. of quark-gluon plasma or colour rope formation can describe several of the observations, but as of yet there is no established paradigm. In this article we study a few possible modifications to the Pythia event generator, which describes a wealth of data but fails for a number of recent observations. Firstly, we present a new model for generating the transverse momentum of hadrons during the string fragmentation process, inspired by thermodynamics, where heavier hadrons naturally are suppressed in rate but obtain a higher average transverse momentum. Secondly, close-packing of strings is taken into account by making the temperature or string tension environment-dependent. Thirdly, a simple model for hadron rescattering is added. The effect of these modifications is studied, individually and taken together, and compared with data mainly from the LHC. While some improvements can be noted, it turns out to be nontrivial to obtain effects as big as required, and further work is called for.

  15. Building GUTs from strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldazabal, G.; Ibanez, L.E.; Uranga, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    We study in detail the structure of Grand Unified Theories derived as the low-energy limit of orbifold four-dimensional strings. To this aim, new techniques for building level-two symmetric orbifold theories are presented. New classes of GUTs in the context of symmetric orbifolds are then constructed. The method of permutation modding is further explored and SO(10) GUTs with both 45- or 54-plets are obtained. SU(5) models are also found through this method. It is shown that, in the context of symmetric orbifold SO(10) GUTs, only a single GUT Higgs, either a 54 or a 45, can be present and it always resides in an order-two untwisted sector. Very restrictive results also hold in the case of SU(5). General properties and selection rules for string GUTs are described. Some of these selection rules forbid the presence of some particular GUT-Higgs couplings which are sometimes used in SUSY-GUT model building. Some semi-realistic string GUT examples are presented and their properties briefly discussed. (orig.)

  16. Kinetics of the Dynamical Information Shannon Entropy for Complex Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulmetyev, R.M.; Yulmetyeva, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    Kinetic behaviour of dynamical information Shannon entropy is discussed for complex systems: physical systems with non-Markovian property and memory in correlation approximation, and biological and physiological systems with sequences of the Markovian and non-Markovian random noises. For the stochastic processes, a description of the information entropy in terms of normalized time correlation functions is given. The influence and important role of two mutually dependent channels of the entropy change, correlation (creation or generation of correlations) and anti-correlation (decay or annihilation of correlation) is discussed. The method developed here is also used in analysis of the density fluctuations in liquid cesium obtained from slow neutron scattering data, fractal kinetics of the long-range fluctuation in the short-time human memory and chaotic dynamics of R-R intervals of human ECG. (author)

  17. Characterization of binary string statistics for syntactic landmine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasif, Ahmed O.; Mark, Brian L.; Hintz, Kenneth J.

    2011-06-01

    Syntactic landmine detection has been proposed to detect and classify non-metallic landmines using ground penetrating radar (GPR). In this approach, the GPR return is processed to extract characteristic binary strings for landmine and clutter discrimination. In our previous work, we discussed the preprocessing methodology by which the amplitude information of the GPR A-scan signal can be effectively converted into binary strings, which identify the impedance discontinuities in the signal. In this work, we study the statistical properties of the binary string space. In particular, we develop a Markov chain model to characterize the observed bit sequence of the binary strings. The state is defined as the number of consecutive zeros between two ones in the binarized A-scans. Since the strings are highly sparse (the number of zeros is much greater than the number of ones), defining the state this way leads to fewer number of states compared to the case where each bit is defined as a state. The number of total states is further reduced by quantizing the number of consecutive zeros. In order to identify the correct order of the Markov model, the mean square difference (MSD) between the transition matrices of mine strings and non-mine strings is calculated up to order four using training data. The results show that order one or two maximizes this MSD. The specification of the transition probabilities of the chain can be used to compute the likelihood of any given string. Such a model can be used to identify characteristic landmine strings during the training phase. These developments on modeling and characterizing the string statistics can potentially be part of a real-time landmine detection algorithm that identifies landmine and clutter in an adaptive fashion.

  18. How to simulate global cosmic strings with large string tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaer, Vincent B.; Moore, Guy D., E-mail: vklaer@theorie.ikp.physik.tu-darmstadt.de, E-mail: guy.moore@physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 2, Darmstadt, D-64289 Germany (Germany)

    2017-10-01

    Global string networks may be relevant in axion production in the early Universe, as well as other cosmological scenarios. Such networks contain a large hierarchy of scales between the string core scale and the Hubble scale, ln( f {sub a} / H ) ∼ 70, which influences the network dynamics by giving the strings large tensions T ≅ π f {sub a} {sup 2} ln( f {sub a} / H ). We present a new numerical approach to simulate such global string networks, capturing the tension without an exponentially large lattice.

  19. Maximal unbordered factors of random strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cording, Patrick Hagge; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs

    2016-01-01

    A border of a string is a non-empty prefix of the string that is also a suffix of the string, and a string is unbordered if it has no border. Loptev, Kucherov, and Starikovskaya [CPM 2015] conjectured the following: If we pick a string of length n from a fixed alphabet uniformly at random...

  20. Exploiting global information in complex network repair processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianyu WANG; Jun ZHANG; Sebastian WANDELT

    2017-01-01

    Robustness of complex networks has been studied for decades,with a particular focus on network attack.Research on network repair,on the other hand,has been conducted only very lately,given the even higher complexity and absence of an effective evaluation metric.A recently proposed network repair strategy is self-healing,which aims to repair networks for larger compo nents at a low cost only with local information.In this paper,we discuss the effectiveness and effi ciency of self-healing,which limits network repair to be a multi-objective optimization problem and makes it difficult to measure its optimality.This leads us to a new network repair evaluation metric.Since the time complexity of the computation is very high,we devise a greedy ranking strategy.Evaluations on both real-world and random networks show the effectiveness of our new metric and repair strategy.Our study contributes to optimal network repair algorithms and provides a gold standard for future studies on network repair.

  1. Relay-based information broadcast in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhongyan; Han, Zeyu; Tang, Wallace K. S.; Lin, Dong

    2018-04-01

    Information broadcast (IB) is a critical process in complex network, usually accomplished by flooding mechanism. Although flooding is simple and no prior topological information is required, it consumes a lot of transmission overhead. Another extreme is the tree-based broadcast (TB), for which information is disseminated via a spanning tree. It achieves the minimal transmission overhead but the maintenance of spanning tree for every node is an obvious obstacle for implementation. Motivated by the success of scale-free network models for real-world networks, in this paper, we investigate the issues in IB by considering an alternative solution in-between these two extremes. A novel relay-based broadcast (RB) mechanism is proposed by employing a subset of nodes as relays. Information is firstly forwarded to one of these relays and then re-disseminated to others through the spanning tree whose root is the relay. This mechanism provides a trade-off solution between flooding and TB. On one hand, it saves up a lot of transmission overhead as compared to flooding; on the other hand, it costs much less resource for maintenance than TB as only a few spanning trees are needed. Based on two major criteria, namely the transmission overhead and the convergence time, the effectiveness of RB is confirmed. The impacts of relay assignment and network structures on performance are also studied in this work.

  2. Defining information need in health - assimilating complex theories derived from information science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormandy, Paula

    2011-03-01

    Key policy drivers worldwide include optimizing patients' roles in managing their care; focusing services around patients' needs and preferences; and providing information to support patients' contributions and choices. The term information need penetrates many policy documents. Information need is espoused as the foundation from which to develop patient-centred or patient-led services. Yet there is no clear definition as to what the term means or how patients' information needs inform and shape information provision and patient care. The assimilation of complex theories originating from information science has much to offer considerations of patient information need within the context of health care. Health-related research often focuses on the content of information patients prefer, not why they need information. This paper extends and applies knowledge of information behaviour to considerations of information need in health, exposing a working definition for patient information need that reiterates the importance of considering the patient's goals and understanding the patient's context/situation. A patient information need is defined as 'recognition that their knowledge is inadequate to satisfy a goal, within the context/situation that they find themselves at a specific point in the time'. This typifies the key concepts of national/international health policy, the centrality and importance of the patient. The proposed definition of patient information need provides a conceptual framework to guide health-care practitioners on what to consider and why when meeting the information needs of patients in practice. This creates a solid foundation from which to inform future research. © 2010 The Author. Health Expectations © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Dynamics of chaotic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    The main topic of this thesis is the investigation of dynamical properties of coupled Tchebycheff map networks. The results give insights into the chaotic string model and its network generalization from a dynamical point of view. As a first approach, discrete symmetry transformations of the model are studied. These transformations are formulated in a general way in order to be also applicable to similar dynamics on bipartite network structures. The dynamics is studied numerically via Lyapunov measures, spatial correlations, and ergodic properties. It is shown that the zeros of the interaction energy are distinguished only with respect to this specific observable, but not by a more general dynamical principle. The original chaotic string model is defined on a one-dimensional lattice (ring-network) as the underlying network topology. This thesis studies a modification of the model based on the introduction of tunable disorder. The effects of inhomogeneous coupling weights as well as small-world perturbations of the ring-network structure on the interaction energy are discussed. Synchronization properties of the chaotic string model and its network generalization are studied in later chapters of this thesis. The analysis is based on the master stability formalism, which relates the stability of the synchronized state to the spectral properties of the network. Apart from complete synchronization, where the dynamics at all nodes of the network coincide, also two-cluster synchronization on bipartite networks is studied. For both types of synchronization it is shown that depending on the type of coupling the synchronized dynamics can display chaotic as well as periodic or quasi-periodic behaviour. The semi-analytical calculations reveal that the respective synchronized states are often stable for a wide range of coupling values even for the ring-network, although the respective basins of attraction may inhabit only a small fraction of the phase space. To provide

  4. Quantum backreaction in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evnin, O.

    2012-01-01

    There are situations in string theory when a finite number of string quanta induce a significant backreaction upon the background and render the perturbation theory infrared-divergent. The simplest example is D0-brane recoil under an impact by closed strings. A more physically interesting case is backreaction on the evolution of a totally compact universe due to closed string gas. Such situations necessitate qualitative amendments to the traditional formulation of string theory in a fixed classical background. In this contribution to the proceedings of the XVII European Workshop on String Theory in Padua, I review solved problems and current investigations in relation to this kind of quantum backreaction effects. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Comparing double string theory actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, L.; Gionti, S.J.G.; Marotta, R.; Pezzella, F.

    2014-01-01

    Aimed to a deeper comprehension of a manifestly T-dual invariant formulation of string theory, in this paper a detailed comparison between the non-covariant action proposed by Tseytlin and the covariant one proposed by Hull is done. These are obtained by making both the string coordinates and their duals explicitly appear, on the same footing, in the world-sheet action, so “doubling” the string coordinates along the compact dimensions. After a discussion on the nature of the constraints in both the models and the relative quantization, it results that the string coordinates and their duals behave like “non-commuting” phase space coordinates but their expressions in terms of Fourier modes generate the oscillator algebra of the standard bosonic string. A proof of the equivalence of the two formulations is given. Furthermore, open-string solutions are also discussed

  6. Comparing double string theory actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi “Federico II” di Napoli,Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo ed. 6, via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Gionti, S.J.G. [Specola Vaticana, Vatican City, V-00120, Vatican City State and Vatican Observatory Research Group, Steward Observatory, The University Of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Marotta, R.; Pezzella, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli,Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo ed. 6, via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-04-28

    Aimed to a deeper comprehension of a manifestly T-dual invariant formulation of string theory, in this paper a detailed comparison between the non-covariant action proposed by Tseytlin and the covariant one proposed by Hull is done. These are obtained by making both the string coordinates and their duals explicitly appear, on the same footing, in the world-sheet action, so “doubling” the string coordinates along the compact dimensions. After a discussion on the nature of the constraints in both the models and the relative quantization, it results that the string coordinates and their duals behave like “non-commuting” phase space coordinates but their expressions in terms of Fourier modes generate the oscillator algebra of the standard bosonic string. A proof of the equivalence of the two formulations is given. Furthermore, open-string solutions are also discussed.

  7. Intersubject information mapping: revealing canonical representations of complex natural stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Kriegeskorte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Real-world time-continuous stimuli such as video promise greater naturalism for studies of brain function. However, modeling the stimulus variation is challenging and introduces a bias in favor of particular descriptive dimensions. Alternatively, we can look for brain regions whose signal is correlated between subjects, essentially using one subject to model another. Intersubject correlation mapping (ICM allows us to find brain regions driven in a canonical manner across subjects by a complex natural stimulus. However, it requires a direct voxel-to-voxel match between the spatiotemporal activity patterns and is thus only sensitive to common activations sufficiently extended to match up in Talairach space (or in an alternative, e.g. cortical-surface-based, common brain space. Here we introduce the more general approach of intersubject information mapping (IIM. For each brain region, IIM determines how much information is shared between the subjects' local spatiotemporal activity patterns. We estimate the intersubject mutual information using canonical correlation analysis applied to voxels within a spherical searchlight centered on each voxel in turn. The intersubject information estimate is invariant to linear transforms including spatial rearrangement of the voxels within the searchlight. This invariance to local encoding will be crucial in exploring fine-grained brain representations, which cannot be matched up in a common space and, more fundamentally, might be unique to each individual – like fingerprints. IIM yields a continuous brain map, which reflects intersubject information in fine-grained patterns. Performed on data from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of subjects viewing the same television show, IIM and ICM both highlighted sensory representations, including primary visual and auditory cortices. However, IIM revealed additional regions in higher association cortices, namely temporal pole and orbitofrontal cortex. These

  8. The LHC string2 supervision system

    CERN Document Server

    Mayya, Y S; Sicard, Claude Henri

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the supervision system for the LHC Prototype Full-Cell also known as String 2. The supervision application is based on a commercial package targeted to industrial controls, but because of the complexity and the specifics of such a system, integration with custom components is necessary in order to merge the industrial requirements with the specificity of the accelerator controls.

  9. Regularized strings with extrinsic curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Durhuus, B.

    1987-07-01

    We analyze models of discretized string theories, where the path integral over world sheet variables is regularized by summing over triangulated surfaces. The inclusion of curvature in the action is a necessity for the scaling of the string tension. We discuss the physical properties of models with extrinsic curvature terms in the action and show that the string tension vanishes at the critical point where the bare extrinsic curvature coupling tends to infinity. Similar results are derived for models with intrinsic curvature. (orig.)

  10. Classical theory of radiating strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.

    1990-01-01

    The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.

  11. Cosmic string induced CMB maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landriau, M.; Shellard, E. P. S.

    2011-01-01

    We compute maps of CMB temperature fluctuations seeded by cosmic strings using high resolution simulations of cosmic strings in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We create full-sky, 18 deg. and 3 deg. CMB maps, including the relevant string contribution at each resolution from before recombination to today. We extract the angular power spectrum from these maps, demonstrating the importance of recombination effects. We briefly discuss the probability density function of the pixel temperatures, their skewness, and kurtosis.

  12. Introduction to strings and superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traubenberg, M.R. de.

    1988-01-01

    We discuss the main features on the formulation of string theory that, in a primitive level, describe the hadronic phenomenon of duality. We also study an extension of the models of closed and strings with spin. Then, by using supersymmetry, it is formulated the theory of superstrings and heterotic strings with the aim of unify the fundamental interactions and matter. (M.W.O.) [pt

  13. Experimenting with string musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-03-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a Science of Sound & Light course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when used in physics, represent reality that can actually be observed, in this case, the operation of string musical instruments.

  14. Horizon strings and interior states of a black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Yogendran

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We provide an explicit construction of classical strings that have endpoints on the horizons of the 2D Lorentzian black hole. We argue that this is a dual description of geodesics that are localized around the horizon which are the Lorentzian counterparts of the winding strings of the Euclidean black hole (the cigar geometry. Identifying these with the states of the black hole, we can expect that issues of black hole information loss can be posed sharply in terms of a fully quantizable string theory.

  15. Random surfaces: A non-perturbative regularization of strings?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.

    1989-12-01

    I review the basic properties of the theory of randum surfaces. While it is by now well known that the theory of (discretized) random surfaces correctly describes the (perturbative) aspects of non-critical strings in d 1. In these lectures I intend to show that the theory of dynamical triangulated random surfaces provides us with a lot of information about the dynamics of both the bosonic string and the superstring even for d>1. I also briefly review recent attempts to define a string field theory (sum over all genus) in this approach. (orig.)

  16. String breaking with Wilson loops?

    CERN Document Server

    Kratochvila, S; Kratochvila, Slavo; Forcrand, Philippe de

    2003-01-01

    A convincing, uncontroversial observation of string breaking, when the static potential is extracted from Wilson loops only, is still missing. This failure can be understood if the overlap of the Wilson loop with the broken string is exponentially small. In that case, the broken string ground state will only be seen if the Wilson loop is long enough. Our preliminary results show string breaking in the context of the 3d SU(2) adjoint static potential, using the L\\"uscher-Weisz exponential variance reduction approach. As a by-product, we measure the fundamental SU(2) static potential with improved accuracy and see clear deviations from Casimir scaling.

  17. A primer on string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schomerus, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Since its conception in the 1960s, string theory has been hailed as one of the most promising routes we have to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity. This book provides a concise introduction to string theory explaining central concepts, mathematical tools and covering recent developments in physics including compactifications and gauge/string dualities. With string theory being a multidisciplinary field interfacing with high energy physics, mathematics and quantum field theory, this book is ideal for both students with no previous knowledge of the field and scholars from other disciplines who are looking for an introduction to basic concepts.

  18. Open problems in string cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toumbas, N.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the open problems in string cosmology are highlighted within the context of the recently constructed thermal and quantum superstring cosmological solutions. Emphasis is given on the high temperature cosmological regime, where it is argued that thermal string vacua in the presence of gravito-magnetic fluxes can be used to bypass the Hagedorn instabilities of string gas cosmology. This article is based on a talk given at the workshop on ''Cosmology and Strings'', Corfu, September 6-13, 2009. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Multiflavor string-net models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Hung

    2017-05-01

    We generalize the string-net construction to multiple flavors of strings, each of which is labeled by the elements of an Abelian group Gi. The same flavor of strings can branch, while different flavors of strings can cross one another and thus they form intersecting string nets. We systematically construct the exactly soluble lattice Hamiltonians and the ground-state wave functions for the intersecting string-net condensed phases. We analyze the braiding statistics of the low-energy quasiparticle excitations and find that our model can realize all the topological phases as the string-net model with group G =∏iGi . In this respect, our construction provides various ways of building lattice models which realize topological order G , corresponding to different partitions of G and thus different flavors of string nets. In fact, our construction concretely demonstrates the Künneth formula by constructing various lattice models with the same topological order. As an example, we construct the G =Z2×Z2×Z2 string-net model which realizes a non-Abelian topological phase by properly intersecting three copies of toric codes.

  20. The ABCDEFG of Little Strings

    OpenAIRE

    Haouzi, Nathan; Kozçaz, Can

    2017-01-01

    Starting from type IIB string theory on an $ADE$ singularity, the (2,0) little string arises when one takes the string coupling $g_s$ to 0. In this setup, we give a unified description of the codimension-two defects of the little string, for any simple Lie algebra ${\\mathfrak{g}}$. Geometrically, these are D5 branes wrapping 2-cycles of the singularity. Equivalently, the defects are specified by a certain set of weights of $^L {\\mathfrak{g}}$, the Langlands dual of ${\\mathfrak{g}}$. As a firs...

  1. String Theory in a Nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, Elias

    2007-01-01

    This book is the essential new introduction to modern string theory, by one of the world's authorities on the subject. Concise, clearly presented, and up-to-date, String Theory in a Nutshell brings together the best understood and most important aspects of a theory that has been evolving since the early 1980s. A core model of physics that substitutes one-dimensional extended ""strings"" for zero-dimensional point-like particles (as in quantum field theory), string theory has been the leading candidate for a theory that would successfully unify all fundamental forces of nature, includin

  2. Splitting strings on integrable backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicedo, Benoit

    2011-05-15

    We use integrability to construct the general classical splitting string solution on R x S{sup 3}. Namely, given any incoming string solution satisfying a necessary self-intersection property at some given instant in time, we use the integrability of the worldsheet {sigma}-model to construct the pair of outgoing strings resulting from a split. The solution for each outgoing string is expressed recursively through a sequence of dressing transformations, the parameters of which are determined by the solutions to Birkhoff factorization problems in an appropriate real form of the loop group of SL{sub 2}(C). (orig.)

  3. The birth of string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Castellani, Elena; Colomo, Filippo; Di Vecchia, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    String theory is currently the best candidate for a unified theory of all forces and all forms of matter in nature. As such, it has become a focal point for physical and philosophical discussions. This unique book explores the history of the theory's early stages of development, as told by its main protagonists. The book journeys from the first version of the theory (the so-called dual resonance model) in the late sixties, as an attempt to describe the physics of strong interactions outside the framework of quantum field theory, to its reinterpretation around the mid-seventies as a quantum theory of gravity unified with the other forces, and its successive developments up to the superstring revolution in 1984. Providing important background information to current debates on the theory, this book is essential reading for students and researchers in physics, as well as historians and philosophers of science.

  4. Determination of sub-parts per billion levels of copper in complex matrices by adsorptive string voltammetry on a mercury electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbaazi, H.R.; Shahbaazi, H.R.; Safavi, A.; Maleki, N.

    2008-01-01

    The voltammetric characteristics of Cu(II)-SSA complex at the mercury electrode were investigated. An analytical method that based on the adsorptive accumulation of Cu(II)-SSA complex followed by the reduction of the complexed copper was developed for the copper determination in complex matrices in presence of the large amount of foreign ions. Adsorptive voltammetry determination showed that the Cu(II)-SSA complex behaves irreversibly exchanging two electrons on the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). Factor affecting on the complextion, accumulation and stripping steps were studied and a procedure was developed. The instrumental parameters in the measurement step were also tested. The optimum conditions of pH, SSA concentration, accumulation potential and accumulation time were studied. Under optimal conditions (pH=12.9 glycin Buffer, 7 x 10 - '3 M SSA and accumulation potential -100 mV vs. Ag/ AgCl), a linear calibration graph in the range 1.25 μg L -1 to 42.5 μg L'- 1 and a detection limit of 0.8 μ L -1 were obtained. The average relative standard deviation (RSD) for seven determinations was calculated as 7 %, 5.5 % and 3 % for the concentrations between 3, 15 and 23 μg L'- 1 . The effect of foreign ions and surfactants on the peak height of Cu(II)-SSA complex was evaluated. The method was applied for the determination of the copper in different real samples such as crude oil, crude oil tank button sludge, waste water and tap water samples. The accuracy of the results was checked by ICP. (author)

  5. Strings and superstrings. Electron linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrini, V.; Bambade, P.; Binetruy, P.; Kounnas, C.; Le Duff, J.; Schwimmer, A.

    1989-01-01

    Basic string theory; strings in interaction; construction of strings and superstrings in arbitrary space-time dimensions; compactification and phenomenology; linear e+e- colliders; and the Stanford linear collider were discussed [fr

  6. A tool for filtering information in complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumminello, M.; Aste, T.; Di Matteo, T.; Mantegna, R. N.

    2005-07-01

    We introduce a technique to filter out complex data sets by extracting a subgraph of representative links. Such a filtering can be tuned up to any desired level by controlling the genus of the resulting graph. We show that this technique is especially suitable for correlation-based graphs, giving filtered graphs that preserve the hierarchical organization of the minimum spanning tree but containing a larger amount of information in their internal structure. In particular in the case of planar filtered graphs (genus equal to 0), triangular loops and four-element cliques are formed. The application of this filtering procedure to 100 stocks in the U.S. equity markets shows that such loops and cliques have important and significant relationships with the market structure and properties. This paper was submitted directly (Track II) to the PNAS office.Abbreviations: MST, minimum spanning tree; PMFG, Planar Maximally Filtered Graph; r-clique, clique of r elements.

  7. Strings, Branes and Symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerberg, A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent dramatic progress in the understanding of the non-perturbative structure of superstring theory shows that extended objects of various kinds, collectively referred to as p-branes, are an integral part of the theory. In this thesis, comprising an introductory text and seven appended research papers, we study various aspects of p-branes with relevance for superstring theory. The first part of the introductory text is a brief review of string theory focussing on the role of p-branes. In particular, we consider the so-called D-branes which currently are attracting a considerable amount of attention. The purpose of this part is mainly to put into context the results of paper 4, 5 and 6 concerning action functionals describing the low-energy dynamics of D-branes. The discussion of perturbative string theory given in this part of the introduction is also intended to provide some background to paper 2 which contains an application of the Reggeon-sewing approach to the construction of string vertices. The second part covers a rather different subject, namely higher-dimensional loop algebras and their cohomology, with the aim of facilitating the reading of papers 1, 3 and 7. The relation to p-branes is to be found in paper 1 where we introduce a certain higher-dimensional generalization of the loop algebra and discuss its potential applicability as a symmetry algebra for p-branes. Papers 3 and 7 are mathematically oriented out-growths of this paper addressing the issue of realizing algebras of this kind, known in physics as current algebras, in terms of pseudo differential operators (PSDOs). The main result of paper 3 is a proof of the equivalence between certain Lie-algebra cocycles on the space of second-quantizable PSDOs

  8. Topics in string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbatov, Elie

    In the first part of the dissertation we study noncommutative field theories at finite temperature. We find evidence for winding states and observe the existence of a transition to a new phase where there is a reduction of the degrees of freedom in the non-planar sector of the theory. We emphasize that such a transition is generic and insensitive to the particulars of the UV definition of the theory. In the second part we investigate some aspects of M-theory compactifications on orbifolds. The heterotic E8 x E 8 string compactified on T4/ ZN has gauge group G x G˜ with massless states in the twisted sector charged under both factors. In the dual M-theory description on T4/ ZN x S1/Z 2 the two groups do not communicate with each other since they reside on the boundary of the eleven dimensional spacetime. This leads to a conundrum for the twisted states of the perturbative heterotic string for there does not seem to be local degrees of freedom which carry charges under both G and G˜. We propose a resolution of this apparent paradox by nonperturbative states in M-theory. In support of our argument we review the consideration of six-dimensional gauge couplings and verify the local anomaly cancellation. In order to understand the dynamical properties of these states we deform the orbifold geometry, find an equivalent string theory background, and brane engineer the low energy six-dimensional field theories. In the process we encounter many exotic and surprising phenomena which are intrinsically M-theoretic and completely invisible to the perturbative observer.

  9. Impact of delayed information in sub-second complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Pedro D.; Zheng, Minzhang; Johnson Restrepo, D. Dylan; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    What happens when you slow down the delivery of information in large-scale complex systems that operate faster than the blink of an eye? This question just adopted immediate commercial, legal and political importance following U.S. regulators' decision to allow an intentional 350 microsecond delay to be added in the ultrafast network of financial exchanges. However there is still no scientific understanding available to policymakers of the potential system-wide impact of such delays. Here we take a first step in addressing this question using a minimal model of a population of competing, heterogeneous, adaptive agents which has previously been shown to produce similar statistical features to real markets. We find that while certain extreme system-level behaviors can be prevented by such delays, the duration of others is increased. This leads to a highly non-trivial relationship between delays and system-wide instabilities which warrants deeper empirical investigation. The generic nature of our model suggests there should be a fairly wide class of complex systems where such delay-driven extreme behaviors can arise, e.g. sub-second delays in brain function possibly impacting individuals' behavior, and sub-second delays in navigational systems potentially impacting the safety of driverless vehicles.

  10. Impact of delayed information in sub-second complex systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro D. Manrique

    Full Text Available What happens when you slow down the delivery of information in large-scale complex systems that operate faster than the blink of an eye? This question just adopted immediate commercial, legal and political importance following U.S. regulators’ decision to allow an intentional 350 microsecond delay to be added in the ultrafast network of financial exchanges. However there is still no scientific understanding available to policymakers of the potential system-wide impact of such delays. Here we take a first step in addressing this question using a minimal model of a population of competing, heterogeneous, adaptive agents which has previously been shown to produce similar statistical features to real markets. We find that while certain extreme system-level behaviors can be prevented by such delays, the duration of others is increased. This leads to a highly non-trivial relationship between delays and system-wide instabilities which warrants deeper empirical investigation. The generic nature of our model suggests there should be a fairly wide class of complex systems where such delay-driven extreme behaviors can arise, e.g. sub-second delays in brain function possibly impacting individuals’ behavior, and sub-second delays in navigational systems potentially impacting the safety of driverless vehicles. Keywords: Ultra-fast networks, Temporal perturbation, Competition, Modeling

  11. Transmutations for Strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Boumenir

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and representation of transmutations, also known as transformation operators, for strings. Using measure theory and functional analytic methods we prove their existence and study their representation. We show that in general they are not close to unity since their representation does not involve a Volterra operator but rather the eigenvalue parameter. We also obtain conditions under which the transmutation is either a bounded or a compact operator. Explicit examples show that they cannot be reduced to Volterra type operators.  

  12. Sequestering in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachru, Shamit; McAllister, Liam; Sundrum, Raman

    2007-01-01

    We study sequestering, a prerequisite for flavor-blind supersymmetry breaking in several high-scale mediation mechanisms, in compactifications of type IIB string theory. We find that although sequestering is typically absent in unwarped backgrounds, strongly warped compactifications do readily sequester. The AdS/CFT dual description in terms of conformal sequestering plays an important role in our analysis, and we establish how sequestering works both on the gravity side and on the gauge theory side. We pay special attention to subtle compactification effects that can disrupt sequestering. Our result is a step toward realizing an appealing pattern of soft terms in a KKLT compactification

  13. Drilling string lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhobalov, A B; Galiopa, A A; Ponomarev, G V; Ushakov, A M

    1981-04-28

    A drilling string lifter is suggested which includes a rotating tower installed on a fixed base, hydraulic cylinder and pipe-clamping assembly connected through a chain gear to the drive motor. In order to simplify the design of the hydraulic lifter, the drive motor is installed on a fixed base so that the axis of the outlet shaft of the drive motor coincides with the axis of rotation of the tower. In addition, the axis of rotation of the tower is made in the form of a tubular element, and the outlet shaft of the drive motor is ranged between the tubular element.

  14. Nuclear fuel string assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, A.K.; Koyanagi, K.; Tarasuk, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of fabricating rodded fuels suitable for use in pressure tube type reactors and in pressure vessel type reactors is described. Fuel rods are secured as an inner and an outer sub-assembly, each rod attached between mounting rings secured to the rod ends. The two sub-assemblies are telescoped together and positioned by spaced thimbles located between them to provide precise positioning while permittng differential axial movement between the sub-assemblies. Such sub-assemblies are particularly suited for mounting as bundle strings. The method provides particular advantages in the assembly of annular-section fuel pins, which includes booster fuel containing enriched fuel material. (LL)

  15. Hyperbolic mapping of complex networks based on community information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuxi; Li, Qingguang; Jin, Fengdong; Xiong, Wei; Wu, Yao

    2016-08-01

    To improve the hyperbolic mapping methods both in terms of accuracy and running time, a novel mapping method called Community and Hyperbolic Mapping (CHM) is proposed based on community information in this paper. Firstly, an index called Community Intimacy (CI) is presented to measure the adjacency relationship between the communities, based on which a community ordering algorithm is introduced. According to the proposed Community-Sector hypothesis, which supposes that most nodes of one community gather in a same sector in hyperbolic space, CHM maps the ordered communities into hyperbolic space, and then the angular coordinates of nodes are randomly initialized within the sector that they belong to. Therefore, all the network nodes are so far mapped to hyperbolic space, and then the initialized angular coordinates can be optimized by employing the information of all nodes, which can greatly improve the algorithm precision. By applying the proposed dual-layer angle sampling method in the optimization procedure, CHM reduces the time complexity to O(n2) . The experiments show that our algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  16. Unusual motions of a vibrating string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Roger J.

    2003-10-01

    The actual motions of a sinusoidally driven vibrating string can be very complex due to nonlinear effects resulting from varying tension and longitudinal motion not included in simple linear theory. Commonly observed effects are: generation of motion perpendicular to the driving force, sudden jumps in amplitude, hysteresis, and generation of higher harmonics. In addition, these effects are profoundly influenced by wire asymmetries which in a brass harpsichord wire can cause a small splitting of each natural frequency of free vibration into two closely spaced frequencies (relative separation ~0.2% to 2%), each associated with transverse motion along two orthogonal characteristic wire axes. Some unusual resulting patterns of complex motions of a point on the wire are exhibited on videotape. Examples include: sudden changes of harmonic content, generation of subharmonics, and motion which appears nearly chaotic but which has a pattern period of over 10 s. Another unusual phenomenon due to entirely different causes can occur when a violin string is bowed with a higher than normal force resulting in sounds ranging from about a musical third to a twelfth lower than the sound produced when the string is plucked.

  17. Vacuum strings in FRW models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, C C; Oattes, L M; Starkman, G D

    1988-01-01

    The authors find that vacuum string solutions cannot be embedded in an FRW model in the spirit of the swiss cheese model for inhomogeneities. Since all standard lensing calculations rely implicitly on the Swiss Cheese model, this result indicates that the previous lensing results for the vacuum string may be in error.

  18. Tadpole resummations in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Noriaki

    2008-01-01

    While R-R tadpoles should be canceled for consistency, string models with broken supersymmetry generally have uncanceled NS-NS tadpoles. Their presence signals that the background does not solve the field equations, so that these models are in 'wrong' vacua. In this Letter we investigate, with reference to some prototype examples, whether the true values of physical quantities can be recovered resumming the NS-NS tadpoles, hence by an approach that is related to the analysis based on String Field Theory by open-closed duality. We show that, indeed, the positive classical vacuum energy of a Dp-brane of the bosonic string is exactly canceled by the negative contribution arising from tree-level tadpole resummation, in complete agreement with Sen's conjecture on open-string tachyon condensation and with the consequent analysis based on String Field Theory. We also show that the vanishing classical vacuum energy of the SO(8192) unoriented bosonic open-string theory does not receive any tree-level corrections from the tadpole resummation. This result is consistent with the fact that this (unstable) configuration is free from tadpoles of massless closed-string modes, although there is a tadpole of the closed string tachyon. The application of this method to superstring models with broken supersymmetry is also discussed

  19. String theory and water waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Johnson, Clifford V; Pennington, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    We uncover a remarkable role that an infinite hierarchy of nonlinear differential equations plays in organizing and connecting certain c-hat <1 string theories non-perturbatively. We are able to embed the type 0A and 0B (A, A) minimal string theories into this single framework. The string theories arise as special limits of a rich system of equations underpinned by an integrable system known as the dispersive water wave hierarchy. We observe that there are several other string-like limits of the system, and conjecture that some of them are type IIA and IIB (A, D) minimal string backgrounds. We explain how these and several string-like special points arise and are connected. In some cases, the framework endows the theories with a non-perturbative definition for the first time. Notably, we discover that the Painleve IV equation plays a key role in organizing the string theory physics, joining its siblings, Painleve I and II, whose roles have previously been identified in this minimal string context.

  20. Cool Runnings For String 2

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    String 2 is a series of superconducting magnets that are prototypes of those which will be installed in the LHC. It was cooled down to 1.9 Kelvin on September 14th. On Thursday last week, the dipoles of String 2 were successfully taken to nominal current, 11850 A.

  1. N-loop string amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelstam, S.

    1986-06-01

    Work on the derivation of an explicit perturbation series for string and superstring amplitudes is reviewed. The light-cone approach is emphasized, but some work on the Polyakov approach is also mentioned, and the two methods are compared. The calculation of the measure factor is outlined in the interacting-string picture

  2. String-localized quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mund, Jens; Santos, Jose Amancio dos; Silva, Cristhiano Duarte; Oliveira, Erichardson de

    2009-01-01

    Full text. The principles of physics admit (unobservable) quantum fields which are localized not on points, but on strings in the sense of Mandelstam: a string emanates from a point in Minkowski space and extends to infinity in some space-like direction. This type of localization might permit the construction of new models, for various reasons: (a) in general, weaker localization implies better UV behaviour. Therefore, the class of renormalizable interactions in the string-localized has a chance to be larger than in the point-localized case; (b) for certain particle types, there are no point-localized (free) quantum fields - for example Anyons in d = 2 + 1, and Wigner's massless 'infinite spin' particles. For the latter, free string-localized quantum fields have been constructed; (c) in contrast to the point-localized case, string-localization admits covariant vector/tensor potentials for fotons and gravitons in a Hilbert space representation with positive energy. We shall present free string-localized quantum fields for various particle types, and some ideas about the perturbative construction of interacting string-localized fields. A central point will be an analogue of gauge theories, completely within a Hilbert space and without ghosts, trading gauge dependence with dependence on the direction of the localization string. In order to discuss renormalizability (item (a)), methods from microlocal analysis (wave front set and scaling degree) are needed. (author)

  3. A Platonic Sextet for Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The use of traditional string figures by the Dr. Schaffer and Mr. Stern Dance Ensemble led to experimentation with polyhedral string constructions. This article presents a series of polyhedra made with six loops of three colors which sequence through all the Platonic Solids.

  4. Symmetry breaking in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potting, R.

    1998-01-01

    A mechanism for a spontaneous breakdown of CPT symmetry appears in string theory, with possible implications for particle models. A realistic string theory might exhibit CPT violation at levels detectable in current or future experiments. A possible new mechanism for baryogenesis in the early Universe is also discussed

  5. Energy in a String Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chiu-king

    2010-01-01

    When one end of a taut horizontal elastic string is shaken repeatedly up and down, a transverse wave (assume sine waveform) will be produced and travel along it. College students know this type of wave motion well. They know when the wave passes by, each element of the string will perform an oscillating up-down motion, which in mechanics is termed…

  6. String theory : physics or metaphysics?

    CERN Document Server

    Veneziano, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    I will give arguments for why the enormous progress made during the last century on understanding elementary particles and their fundamental interactions suggests strings as the truly elementary constituents of Nature. I will then address the issue of whether the string paradigm can in principle be falsified or whether it should be considered as mere metaphysics.

  7. Differential formulation in string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzo, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The equations of gauge invariance motion for theories of boson open strings and Neveu-Schwarz and Ramond superstring are derived. A construction for string theories using differential formalism, is introduced. The importance of BRST charge for constructing such theories and the necessity of introduction of auxiliary fields are verified. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. Towards optimal packed string matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2014-01-01

    -size string-matching instruction wssm is available in contemporary commodity processors. The other word-size maximum-suffix instruction wslm is only required during the pattern pre-processing. Benchmarks show that our solution can be efficiently implemented, unlike some prior theoretical packed string...

  9. Experimenting with String Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a "Science of Sound & Light" course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when…

  10. Progress in string theory research

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    At the first look, the String Theory seems just an interesting and non-trivial application of the quantum mechanics and the special relativity to vibrating strings. By itself, the quantization of relativistic strings does not call the attention of the particle physicist as a significant paradigm shift. However, when the string quantization is performed by applying the standard rules of the perturbative Quantum Field Theory, one discovers that the strings in certain states have the same physical properties as the gravity in the flat space-time. Chapter one of this book reviews the construction of the thermal bosonic string and D-brane in the framework of the Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD). It briefly recalls the wellknown light-cone quantization of the bosonic string in the conformal gauge in flat space-time, and gives a bird’s eye view of the fundamental concepts of the TFD. Chapter two examines a visual model inspired by string theory, on the system of interacting anyons. Chapter three investigate the late-ti...

  11. Gauge invariance of string fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, T.; Peskin, M.E.

    1985-10-01

    Some work done to understand the appearance of gauge bosons and gravitons in string theories is reported. An action has been constructed for free (bosonic) string field theory which is invariant under an infinite set of gauge transformations which include Yang-Mills transformations and general coordinate transformations as special cases. 15 refs., 1 tab

  12. String matching with variable length gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2012-01-01

    primitive in computational biology applications. Let m and n be the lengths of P and T, respectively, and let k be the number of strings in P. We present a new algorithm achieving time O(nlogk+m+α) and space O(m+A), where A is the sum of the lower bounds of the lengths of the gaps in P and α is the total...... number of occurrences of the strings in P within T. Compared to the previous results this bound essentially achieves the best known time and space complexities simultaneously. Consequently, our algorithm obtains the best known bounds for almost all combinations of m, n, k, A, and α. Our algorithm...

  13. Cosmology from string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anchordoqui, Luis; Nawata, Satoshi; Goldberg, Haim; Nunez, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    We explore the cosmological content of Salam-Sezgin six-dimensional supergravity, and find a solution to the field equations in qualitative agreement with observation of distant supernovae, primordial nucleosynthesis abundances, and recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background. The carrier of the acceleration in the present de Sitter epoch is a quintessence field slowly rolling down its exponential potential. Intrinsic to this model is a second modulus which is automatically stabilized and acts as a source of cold dark matter, with a mass proportional to an exponential function of the quintessence field (hence realizing varying mass particle models within a string context). However, any attempt to saturate the present cold dark matter component in this manner leads to unacceptable deviations from cosmological data--a numerical study reveals that this source can account for up to about 7% of the total cold dark matter budget. We also show that (1) the model will support a de Sitter energy in agreement with observation at the expense of a miniscule breaking of supersymmetry in the compact space; (2) variations in the fine structure constant are controlled by the stabilized modulus and are negligible; (3) ''fifth'' forces are carried by the stabilized modulus and are short range; (4) the long time behavior of the model in four dimensions is that of a Robertson-Walker universe with a constant expansion rate (w=-1/3). Finally, we present a string theory background by lifting our six-dimensional cosmological solution to ten dimensions

  14. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidou, Theodora; Niemi, Antti J.

    2016-01-01

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  15. Basic Concepts of String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Theisen, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for research in string theory. It is intended as a textbook in the sense that, starting from the basics, the material is presented in a pedagogical and self-contained fashion. The emphasis is on the world-sheet perspective of closed strings and of open strings ending on D-branes, where two-dimensional conformal field theory is the main tool. Compactifications of string theory, with and without fluxes, and string dualities are also discussed from the space-time point of view, i.e. in geometric language. End-of-chapter references have been added to guide the reader intending to pursue further studies or to start research in the topics covered by this book.

  16. Strings, conformal fields and topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaku, Michio

    1991-01-01

    String Theory has advanced at an astonishing pace in the last few years, and this book aims to acquaint the reader with the most active topics of research in the field. Building on the foundations laid in his Introduction to Superstrings, Professor Kaku discusses such topics as the classification of conformal string theories, knot theory, the Yang-Baxter relation, quantum groups, the non-polynominal closed string field theory, matrix models, and topological field theory. Several chapters review the fundamentals of string theory, making the presentation of the material self-contained while keeping overlap with the earlier book to a minimum. The book conveys the vitality of current research in string theory and places readers at its forefront. (orig.) With 40 figs. in 50 parts

  17. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannidou, Theodora, E-mail: ti3@auth.gr [Faculty of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54249, Thessaloniki (Greece); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200, Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-01-28

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  18. Basic concepts of string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for research in string theory. It is intended as a textbook in the sense that, starting from the basics, the material is presented in a pedagogical and self-contained fashion. The emphasis is on the world-sheet perspective of closed strings and of open strings ending on D-branes, where two-dimensional conformal field theory is the main tool. Compactifications of string theory, with and without fluxes, and string dualities are also discussed from the space-time point of view, i.e. in geometric language. End-of-chapter references have been added to guide the reader intending to pursue further studies or to start research in the topics covered by this book.

  19. Testing string theory at LHC?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    A theory with such mathematical beauty cannot be wrong: this is one of the main arguments in favour of string theory, which unifies all known physical theories of fundamental interactions in a single coherent description of the universe. But no one has ever observed strings, not even indirectly, nor the space of extra dimensions where they live. However there are good reasons to believe that the 'hidden' dimensions of string theory may be much larger than what we thought in the past and that they may be within experimental reach in the near future - together with the strings themselves. In my talk, I will give an elementary introduction of string theory and describe the main experimental predictions.Organiser(s): Jasper Kirkby / EP DivisionNote: Tea & coffee will be served at 16.00 hrs.

  20. Informational Entropy and Bridge Scour Estimation under Complex Hydraulic Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Alonso; Link, Oscar; Fiorentino, Mauro; Samela, Caterina; Manfreda, Salvatore

    2017-04-01

    Bridges are important for society because they allow social, cultural and economic connectivity. Flood events can compromise the safety of bridge piers up to the complete collapse. The Bridge Scour phenomena has been described by empirical formulae deduced from hydraulic laboratory experiments. The range of applicability of such models is restricted by the specific hydraulic conditions or flume geometry used for their derivation (e.g., water depth, mean flow velocity, pier diameter and sediment properties). We seek to identify a general formulation able to capture the main dynamic of the process in order to cover a wide range of hydraulic and geometric configuration, allowing to extend our analysis in different contexts. Therefore, exploiting the Principle of Maximum Entropy (POME) and applying it on the recently proposed dimensionless Effective flow work, W*, we derived a simple model characterized by only one parameter. The proposed Bridge Scour Entropic (BRISENT) model shows good performances under complex hydraulic conditions as well as under steady-state flow. Moreover, the model was able to capture the evolution of scour in several hydraulic configurations even if the model contains only one parameter. Furthermore, results show that the model parameter is controlled by the geometric configurations of the experiment. This offers a possible strategy to obtain a priori model parameter calibration. The BRISENT model represents a good candidate for estimating the time-dependent scour depth under complex hydraulic scenarios. The authors are keen to apply this idea for describing the scour behavior during a real flood event. Keywords: Informational entropy, Sediment transport, Bridge pier scour, Effective flow work.

  1. Oriented open-closed string theory revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwiebach, B.

    1998-01-01

    String theory on D-brane backgrounds is open-closed string theory. Given the relevance of this fact, we give details and elaborate upon our earlier construction of oriented open-closed string field theory. In order to incorporate explicitly closed strings, the classical sector of this theory is open strings with a homotopy associative A ∞ algebraic structure. We build a suitable Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra on moduli spaces of bordered Ricmann surfaces, the construction of which involves a few subtleties arising from the open string punctures and cyclicity conditions. All vertices coupling open and closed strings through disks are described explicitly. Subalgebras of the algebra of surfaces with boundaries are used to discuss symmetries of classical open string theory induced by the closed string sector, and to write classical open string field theory on general closed string backgrounds. We give a preliminary analysis of the ghost-dilaton theorem. copyright 1998 Academic Press, Inc

  2. MAIA - Method for Architecture of Information Applied: methodological construct of information processing in complex contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael de Moura Costa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Paper to presentation the MAIA Method for Architecture of Information Applied evolution, its structure, results obtained and three practical applications.Objective: Proposal of a methodological constructo for treatment of complex information, distinguishing information spaces and revealing inherent configurations of those spaces. Metodology: The argument is elaborated from theoretical research of analitical hallmark, using distinction as a way to express concepts. Phenomenology is used as a philosophical position, which considers the correlation between Subject↔Object. The research also considers the notion of interpretation as an integrating element for concepts definition. With these postulates, the steps to transform the information spaces are formulated. Results: This article explores not only how the method is structured to process information in its contexts, starting from a succession of evolutive cicles, divided in moments, which, on their turn, evolve to transformation acts. Conclusions: This article explores not only how the method is structured to process information in its contexts, starting from a succession of evolutive cicles, divided in moments, which, on their turn, evolve to transformation acts. Besides that, the article presents not only possible applications as a cientific method, but also as configuration tool in information spaces, as well as generator of ontologies. At last, but not least, presents a brief summary of the analysis made by researchers who have already evaluated the method considering the three aspects mentioned.

  3. A string theory which isn't about strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kanghoon; Rey, Soo-Jong; Rosabal, J. A.

    2017-11-01

    Quantization of closed string proceeds with a suitable choice of worldsheet vacuum. A priori, the vacuum may be chosen independently for left-moving and right-moving sectors. We construct ab initio quantized bosonic string theory with left-right asymmetric worldsheet vacuum and explore its consequences and implications. We critically examine the validity of new vacuum and carry out first-quantization using standard operator formalism. Remarkably, the string spectrum consists only of a finite number of degrees of freedom: string gravity (massless spin-two, Kalb-Ramond and dilaton fields) and two massive spin-two Fierz-Pauli fields. The massive spin-two fields have negative norm, opposite mass-squared, and provides a Lee-Wick type extension of string gravity. We compute two physical observables: tree-level scattering amplitudes and one-loop cosmological constant. Scattering amplitude of four dilatons is shown to be a rational function of kinematic invariants, and in D = 26 factorizes into contributions of massless spin-two and a pair of massive spin-two fields. The string one loop partition function is shown to perfectly agree with one loop Feynman diagram of string gravity and two massive spin-two fields. In particular, it does not exhibit modular invariance. We critically compare our construction with recent studies and contrast differences.

  4. Conformal techniques in string theory and string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    The application of some conformal and Riemann surface techniques to string theory and string field theory is described. First a brief review of Riemann surface techniques and of the Polyakov approach to string theory is presented. This is followed by a discussion of some features of string field theory and of its Feynman rules. Specifically, it is shown that the Feynman diagrams for Witten's string field theory respect modular invariance, and in particular give a triangulation of moduli space. The Polyakov formalism is then used to derive the Feynman rules that should follow from this theory upon gauge-fixing. It should also be possible to apply this derivation to deduce the Feynman rules for other gauge-fixed string field theories. Following this, Riemann surface techniques are turned to the problem of proving the equivalence of the Polyakov and light-cone formalisms. It is first shown that the light-cone diagrams triangulate moduli space. Then the Polyakov measure is worked out for these diagrams, and shown to equal that deduced from the light-cone gauge fixed formalism. Also presented is a short description of the comparison of physical states in the two formalisms. The equivalence of the two formalisms in particular constitutes a proof of the unitarity of the Polyakov framework for the closed bosonic string

  5. Cosmic String Detection with Tree-Based Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei Sadr, A.; Farhang, M.; Movahed, S. M. S.; Bassett, B.; Kunz, M.

    2018-05-01

    We explore the use of random forest and gradient boosting, two powerful tree-based machine learning algorithms, for the detection of cosmic strings in maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), through their unique Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect on the temperature anisotropies. The information in the maps is compressed into feature vectors before being passed to the learning units. The feature vectors contain various statistical measures of the processed CMB maps that boost cosmic string detectability. Our proposed classifiers, after training, give results similar to or better than claimed detectability levels from other methods for string tension, Gμ. They can make 3σ detection of strings with Gμ ≳ 2.1 × 10-10 for noise-free, 0.9΄-resolution CMB observations. The minimum detectable tension increases to Gμ ≳ 3.0 × 10-8 for a more realistic, CMB S4-like (II) strategy, improving over previous results.

  6. Electrical performance characteristics of the SSC Accelerator System String Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, W.; Burgett, W.; Gannon, J.; Kraushaar, P.; Mcinturff, A.; Nehring, R.; Saladin, V.; Savord, T.; Sorrensen, G.; Smellie, R.; Tool, G.; Voy, D.

    1993-05-01

    The intent of the Accelerator System String Test (ASST) is to obtain data for model verification and information on the magnitudes of pressures and voltages encountered in an accelerator environment. The ASST milestone run was achieved during July and August, 1992 and consisted of demonstrating the accelerator components could be configured together as a system operating at full current. Following the milestone run, the string was warmed to counteract some design flaws that impeded the operational range. The string was again cooled to cryogenic temperatures in October, and a comprehensive power testing program was conducted through the end of January, 1993. This paper describes how the collider arc components operate in an accelerator environment during quenches induced by firing both strip heaters and spot heaters. Evaluation of the data illustrates how variations in the design parameters on magnets used in a string environment can impact system performance

  7. Quantum hair and the string-black hole correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Veneziano, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    We consider a thought experiment in which an energetic massless string probes a "stringhole" (a heavy string lying on the correspondence curve between strings and black holes) at large enough impact parameter for the regime to be under theoretical control. The corresponding, explicitly unitary, $S$-matrix turns out to be perturbatively sensitive to the microstate of the stringhole: in particular, at leading order in $l_s/b$, it depends on a projection of the stringhole's Lorentz-contracted quadrupole moment. The string-black hole correspondence is therefore violated if one assumes quantum hair to be exponentially suppressed as a function of black-hole entropy. Implications for the information paradox are briefly discussed.

  8. Efficient Aho-Corasick String Matching on Emerging Multicore Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste; Secchi, Simone; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel

    2013-12-12

    String matching algorithms are critical to several scientific fields. Beside text processing and databases, emerging applications such as DNA protein sequence analysis, data mining, information security software, antivirus, ma- chine learning, all exploit string matching algorithms [3]. All these applica- tions usually process large quantity of textual data, require high performance and/or predictable execution times. Among all the string matching algorithms, one of the most studied, especially for text processing and security applica- tions, is the Aho-Corasick algorithm. 1 2 Book title goes here Aho-Corasick is an exact, multi-pattern string matching algorithm which performs the search in a time linearly proportional to the length of the input text independently from pattern set size. However, depending on the imple- mentation, when the number of patterns increase, the memory occupation may raise drastically. In turn, this can lead to significant variability in the performance, due to the memory access times and the caching effects. This is a significant concern for many mission critical applications and modern high performance architectures. For example, security applications such as Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS), must be able to scan network traffic against very large dictionaries in real time. Modern Ethernet links reach up to 10 Gbps, and malicious threats are already well over 1 million, and expo- nentially growing [28]. When performing the search, a NIDS should not slow down the network, or let network packets pass unchecked. Nevertheless, on the current state-of-the-art cache based processors, there may be a large per- formance variability when dealing with big dictionaries and inputs that have different frequencies of matching patterns. In particular, when few patterns are matched and they are all in the cache, the procedure is fast. Instead, when they are not in the cache, often because many patterns are matched and the caches are

  9. Electrical characteristics of long strings of SSC superconducting dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.E.; Smedley, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    Because long strings of series-connected superconducting magnets have no dc resistance and low ac losses, the string behaves like a shorted transmission line. The string is thus resonant at multiple half-wavelengths unless damped by the inclusion of resistors that couple to the LdI/dt voltage across the magnet inductance. Based on the measured ac characteristics of individual magnets, it is possible to predict the electrical properties of long strings of magnets for a variety of damping resistors. These strings can be simulated using an analytic representation in FORTRAN (using complex-number notation) or a discrete-component equivalent-circuit modelling program (e.g., SPICE). Various electrical parameters, including characteristic impedance, signal velocity, induced power-supply ripple current, attenuation lengths, and driving-point impedances, can be predicted, and the damping resistor value can be optimized. Comparisons will be made to measurements on a long string of superconducting Tevatron magnets, and some predictions will be made for the SSC collider magnet system

  10. String model of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikkawa, Keiji

    1975-01-01

    Recent development of the models of elementary particles is described. The principal features of elementary particle physics can be expressed by quark model, mass spectrum, the Regge behavior of scattering amplitude, and duality. Venezians showed in 1968 that the B function can express these features. From the analysis of mass spectrum, the string model was introduced. The quantization of the string is performed with the same procedure as the ordinary quantum mechanics. The motion of the string is determined by the Nambu-Goto action integral, and the Schroedinger equation is obtained. Mass spectrum from the string model was same as that from the duality model such as Veneziano model. The interaction between strings can be introduced, and the Lagrangian can be formulated. The relation between the string model and the duality model has been studied. The string model is the first theory of non-local field, and the further development is attractive. The relation between this model and the quark model is still not clear. (Kato, T.)

  11. String bit models for superstring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    The authors extend the model of string as a polymer of string bits to the case of superstring. They mainly concentrate on type II-B superstring, with some discussion of the obstacles presented by not II-B superstring, together with possible strategies for surmounting them. As with previous work on bosonic string work within the light-cone gauge. The bit model possesses a good deal less symmetry than the continuous string theory. For one thing, the bit model is formulated as a Galilei invariant theory in (D - 2) + 1 dimensional space-time. This means that Poincare invariance is reduced to the Galilei subgroup in D - 2 space dimensions. Naturally the supersymmetry present in the bit model is likewise dramatically reduced. Continuous string can arise in the bit models with the formation of infinitely long polymers of string bits. Under the right circumstances (at the critical dimension) these polymers can behave as string moving in D dimensional space-time enjoying the full N = 2 Poincare supersymmetric dynamics of type II-B superstring

  12. String bit models for superstring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.

    1995-12-31

    The authors extend the model of string as a polymer of string bits to the case of superstring. They mainly concentrate on type II-B superstring, with some discussion of the obstacles presented by not II-B superstring, together with possible strategies for surmounting them. As with previous work on bosonic string work within the light-cone gauge. The bit model possesses a good deal less symmetry than the continuous string theory. For one thing, the bit model is formulated as a Galilei invariant theory in (D {minus} 2) + 1 dimensional space-time. This means that Poincare invariance is reduced to the Galilei subgroup in D {minus} 2 space dimensions. Naturally the supersymmetry present in the bit model is likewise dramatically reduced. Continuous string can arise in the bit models with the formation of infinitely long polymers of string bits. Under the right circumstances (at the critical dimension) these polymers can behave as string moving in D dimensional space-time enjoying the full N = 2 Poincare supersymmetric dynamics of type II-B superstring.

  13. Fermions on the electroweak string

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, J M; Quirós, Mariano; Moreno, J M; Oaknin, D H; Quiros, M

    1995-01-01

    We construct a simple class of exact solutions of the electroweak theory including the naked Z--string and fermion fields. It consists in the Z--string configuration (\\phi,Z_\\theta), the {\\it time} and z components of the neutral gauge bosons (Z_{0,3},A_{0,3}) and a fermion condensate (lepton or quark) zero mode. The Z--string is not altered (no feed back from the rest of fields on the Z--string) while fermion condensates are zero modes of the Dirac equation in the presence of the Z--string background (no feed back from the {\\it time} and z components of the neutral gauge bosons on the fermion fields). For the case of the n--vortex Z--string the number of zero modes found for charged leptons and quarks is (according to previous results by Jackiw and Rossi) equal to |n|, while for (massless) neutrinos is |n|-1. The presence of fermion fields in its core make the obtained configuration a superconducting string, but their presence (as well as that of Z_{0,3},A_{0,3}) does not enhance the stability of the Z--stri...

  14. The Preparation of the Cryomagnets and the Assembly of the LHC Test String 2

    CERN Document Server

    Andujar, O; Calzas-Rodriguez, C; Cruikshank, P; Desebe, O; Dobers, T; Jacquemod, A; Kos, N; Lepeule, P; Maan, W; Missiaen, D; Parma, Vittorio; Riddone, G; Rodríguez-Mateos, F; Rohmig, P; Saban, R I; Schneider, G; Serio, L; Skoczen, Blazej; Tock, J P; Veness, R J M; Vuitton, C

    2001-01-01

    The numerous complex activities required to prepare the cryomagnets for the installation in String 2 are described. These include the configuration of the mechanical interfaces, thee conditioning of the beam tubes, the installation of beam screens and the instrumentation as well as the final checks. The preparation of the cryomagnets for String 2 has been a dress rehearsal for the preparation that the cryomagnets will undergo before their installation in the tunnel. After a description of the interconnection procedures of the components for String 2, the tests carried-out to release the String for operation are described. A brief account of the lessons learnt is also given.

  15. Gravity and strings

    CERN Document Server

    Ortín, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Self-contained and comprehensive, this definitive new edition of Gravity and Strings is a unique resource for graduate students and researchers in theoretical physics. From basic differential geometry through to the construction and study of black-hole and black-brane solutions in quantum gravity - via all the intermediate stages - this book provides a complete overview of the intersection of gravity, supergravity, and superstrings. Now fully revised, this second edition covers an extensive array of topics, including new material on non-linear electric-magnetic duality, the electric-tensor formalism, matter-coupled supergravity, supersymmetric solutions, the geometries of scalar manifolds appearing in 4- and 5-dimensional supergravities, and much more. Covering reviews of important solutions and numerous solution-generating techniques, and accompanied by an exhaustive index and bibliography, this is an exceptional reference work.

  16. Fingerprints in compressed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Cording, Patrick Hagge

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed into a context-free grammar of size n that supports efficient Karp–Rabin fingerprint queries to any substring of S. That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S......[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(log⁡N) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(log⁡log⁡N) query time...

  17. Field theory and strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonara, L.; Cotta-Ramusino, P.; Rinaldi, M.

    1987-01-01

    It is well-known that type I and heterotic superstring theories have a zero mass spectrum which correspond to the field content of N=1 supergravity theory coupled to supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in 10-D. The authors study the field theory ''per se'', in the hope that simple consistency requirements will determine the theory completely once one knows the field content inherited from string theory. The simplest consistency requirements are: N=1 supersymmetry; and absence of chiral anomalies. This is what the authors discuss in this paper here leaving undetermined the question of the range of validity of the resulting field theory. As is known, a model of N=1 supergravity (SUGRA) coupled to supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory was known in the form given by Chapline and Manton. The coupling of SUGRA to SYM was determined by the definition of the ''field strength'' 3-form H in this paper

  18. Dynamical evolution of cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    The author have studied by means of numerical simulations the dynamical evolution of a network of cosmic strings, both in the radiation and matter era. Our basic conclusion is that a scaling solution exists, i.e., the string energy density evolves as t -2 . This means that the process by which long strings dump their energy into closed loops (which can gravitationally radiate away) is efficient enough to prevent the string domination over other forms of energy. This conclusion does not depend on the initial string energy density, nor on the various numerical parameters. On the other hand, the generated spectrum of loop sizes does depend on the value of our numerical lower cutoff (i.e., the minimum length of loop we allow to be chopped off the network). Furthermore, the network evolution is very different from what was assumed before), namely the creation of a few horizon sized loops per horizon volume and per hubble time, which subsequently fragment into about 10 smaller daughter loops. Rather, many tiny loops are directly cut from the network of infinite strings, and it appears that the only fundamental scale (the horizon) has been lost. This is probably because a fundamental ingredient had been overlooked, namely the kinks. These kinks are created in pairs at each intercommutation, and very rapidly, the long strings appear to be very kinky. Thus the number of long strings per horizon is still of the order of a few, but their total length is fairly large. Furthermore, a large number of kinks favors the formation of small loops, and their sizes might well be governed by the kink density along the long strings. Finally, we computed the two-point correlation function of the loops and found significant differences from the work of Turok

  19. Intonation and compensation of fretted string instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varieschi, Gabriele; Gower, Christina

    2011-04-01

    We discuss theoretical and physical models that are useful for analyzing the intonation of musical instruments such as guitars and mandolins and can be used to improve the tuning on these instruments. The placement of frets on the fingerboard is designed according to mathematical rules and the assumption of an ideal string. The analysis becomes more complicated when we include the effects of deformation of the string and inharmonicity due to other string characteristics. As a consequence, perfect intonation of all the notes on the instrument cannot be achieved, but complex compensation procedures can be introduced to minimize the problem. To test the validity of these procedures, we performed extensive measurements using standard monochord sonometers and other acoustical devices, confirming the correctness of our theoretical models. These experimental activities can be integrated into acoustics courses and laboratories and can become a more advanced version of basic experiments with monochords and sonometers. This work was supported by a grant from the Frank R. Seaver College of Science and Engineering, Loyola Marymount University.

  20. Casimir energy of a nonuniform string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, L.; Lambiase, G.; Nesterenko, V. V.

    2000-07-01

    The Casimir energy of a nonuniform string built up from two pieces with different speeds of sound is calculated. A standard procedure of subtracting the energy of an infinite uniform string is applied, the subtraction being interpreted as the renormalization of the string tension. It is shown that in the case of a homogeneous string this method is completely equivalent to zeta renormalization.

  1. Test particle trajectories near cosmic strings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a detailed analysis of the motion of test particle in the gravitational field of cosmic strings in different situations using the Hamilton–Jacobi (H–J) formalism. We have discussed the trajectories near static cosmic string, cosmic string in Brans–Dicke theory and cosmic string in dilaton gravity.

  2. String Formatting Considered Harmful for Novice Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2010-01-01

    In Java, "System.out.printf" and "String.format" consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found…

  3. M-strings, Elliptic Genera and N=4 String Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Hohenegger, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We study mass-deformed N=2 gauge theories from various points of view. Their partition functions can be computed via three dual approaches: firstly, (p,q)-brane webs in type II string theory using Nekrasov's instanton calculus, secondly, the (refined) topological string using the topological vertex formalism and thirdly, M theory via the elliptic genus of certain M-strings configurations. We argue for a large class of theories that these approaches yield the same gauge theory partition function which we study in detail. To make their modular properties more tangible, we consider a fourth approach by connecting the partition function to the equivariant elliptic genus of R^4 through a (singular) theta-transform. This form appears naturally as a specific class of one-loop scattering amplitudes in type II string theory on T^2, which we calculate explicitly.

  4. Covariant N-string amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Vecchia, P.; Sciuto, S.; Nakayama, R.; Petersen, J.L.; Sidenius, J.R.

    1986-11-01

    The BRST-invariant N-Reggeon vertex (for the bosonic string) previously given by us in the operator formulation is considered in more detail. In particular we present a direct derivation from the string path integral. Several crucial symmetry properties found a posteriori before, become a priori clearer in this formulation. A number of delicate points related to zero modes, cut off procedures and normal ordering prescriptions are treated in some detail. The old technique of letting the string field acquire a small dimension ε/2 → 0 + is found especially elegant. (orig.)

  5. Plucked Strings and the Harpsichord

    Science.gov (United States)

    GIORDANO, N.; WINANS, J. P.

    1999-07-01

    The excitation of a harpsichord string when it is set into motion, i.e., plucked, by a plectrum is studied. We find that the amplitude of the resulting string vibration is approximately independent of the velocity with which the key is depressed. This result is in accord with conventional wisdom, but at odds with a recent theoretical model. A more realistic theoretical treatment of the plucking process is then described, and shown to be consistent with our measurements. The experiments reveal several other interesting aspects of the plectrum-string interaction.

  6. Worldsheet geometries of ambitwistor string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmori, Kantaro [Department of Physics, the University of Tokyo,Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0022 (Japan)

    2015-06-12

    Mason and Skinner proposed the ambitwistor string theory which directly reproduces the formulas for the amplitudes of massless particles proposed by Cachazo, He and Yuan. In this paper we discuss geometries of the moduli space of worldsheets associated to the bosonic or the RNS ambitwistor string. Further, we investigate the factorization properties of the amplitudes when an internal momentum is near on-shell in the abstract CFT language. Along the way, we propose the existence of the ambitwistor strings with three or four fermionic worldsheet currents.

  7. Spin chain for quantum strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beisert, N.

    2005-01-01

    We review and compare the integrable structures in N=4 gauge theory and string theory on AdS 5 x S 5 . Recently, Bethe ansaetze for gauge theory/weak coupling and string theory/strong coupling were proposed to describe scaling dimensions in the su(2) subsector. Here we investigate the Bethe equations for quantum string theory, naively extrapolated to weak coupling. Excitingly, we find a spin chain Hamiltonian similar, but not equal, to the gauge theory dilatation operator. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Geometry, topology, and string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varadarajan, Uday [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    A variety of scenarios are considered which shed light upon the uses and limitations of classical geometric and topological notions in string theory. The primary focus is on situations in which D-brane or string probes of a given classical space-time see the geometry quite differently than one might naively expect. In particular, situations in which extra dimensions, non-commutative geometries as well as other non-local structures emerge are explored in detail. Further, a preliminary exploration of such issues in Lorentzian space-times with non-trivial causal structures within string theory is initiated.

  9. Geometry, topology, and string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varadarajan, Uday

    2003-01-01

    A variety of scenarios are considered which shed light upon the uses and limitations of classical geometric and topological notions in string theory. The primary focus is on situations in which D-brane or string probes of a given classical space-time see the geometry quite differently than one might naively expect. In particular, situations in which extra dimensions, non-commutative geometries as well as other non-local structures emerge are explored in detail. Further, a preliminary exploration of such issues in Lorentzian space-times with non-trivial causal structures within string theory is initiated

  10. RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories (3/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    9.30-10.30 B. Pioline Black Hole Degeneracies, Topological Strings and Quantum Attractor Flow (2/4) 10.30-11.30 S. Minwalla Large N Thermal Phase Transitions (2/4) 12.15-13.15 B. Craps Big Bang Models in String Theory (3/4) 14.00 CERN presentation and visit Organiser(s): CERN and Neuchâtel UniversityMore information: http://www.unine.ch/phys/string/rtn-school/index.php

  11. String cosmology modern string theory concepts from the cosmic structure

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The field of string cosmology has matured considerably over the past few years, attracting many new adherents to this multidisciplinary Field. This book fills a critical gap by bringing together strains of current research into one single volume. The resulting collection of selected articles presents the latest, ongoing results from renowned experts currently working in the field. This offers the possibility for practitioners to become conversant with many different aspects of string cosmology

  12. String cosmology. Large-field inflation in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    This is a short review of string cosmology. We wish to connect string-scale physics as closely as possible to observables accessible to current or near-future experiments. Our possible best hope to do so is a description of inflation in string theory. The energy scale of inflation can be as high as that of Grand Unification (GUT). If this is the case, this is the closest we can possibly get in energy scales to string-scale physics. Hence, GUT-scale inflation may be our best candidate phenomenon to preserve traces of string-scale dynamics. Our chance to look for such traces is the primordial gravitational wave, or tensor mode signal produced during inflation. For GUT-scale inflation this is strong enough to be potentially visible as a B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Moreover, a GUT-scale inflation model has a trans-Planckian excursion of the inflaton scalar field during the observable amount of inflation. Such large-field models of inflation have a clear need for symmetry protection against quantum corrections. This makes them ideal candidates for a description in a candidate fundamental theory like string theory. At the same time the need of large-field inflation models for UV completion makes them particularly susceptible to preserve imprints of their string-scale dynamics in the inflationary observables, the spectral index n s and the fractional tensor mode power r. Hence, we focus this review on axion monodromy inflation as a mechanism of large-field inflation in string theory.

  13. Information visualization for the Structural Complexity Management Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, Maik;Braun, Thomas;Lindemann, Udo

    2017-01-01

    The handling of complexity poses an important challenge and a success factor for product design. A considerable percentage of complexity results from dependencies between system elements – as adaptations to single system elements can cause far-reaching consequences. The Structural Complexity Management (SCM) approach provides a five-step procedure that supports users in the identification, acquisition, analysis and optimization of system dependencies. The approach covers the handling of multi...

  14. Charting the Landscape of Supercritical String Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellerman, Simeon; Swanson, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Special solutions of string theory in supercritical dimensions can interpolate in time between theories with different numbers of spacetime dimensions and different amounts of world sheet supersymmetry. These solutions connect supercritical string theories to the more familiar string duality web in ten dimensions and provide a precise link between supersymmetric and purely bosonic string theories. Dimension quenching and c duality appear to be natural concepts in string theory, giving rise to large networks of interconnected theories

  15. String and Sticky Tape Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, R. D., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Explains how to demonstrate the fundamentals of one dimensional kinematics such as Newton's third law of motion, and collision between bodies, using simple materials of marbles, strings, sticky tape, drinking straws, and rubber bands. (GA)

  16. String theory or field theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshakov, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    The status of string theory is reviewed, and major recent developments - especially those in going beyond perturbation theory in the string theory and quantum field theory frameworks - are analyzed. This analysis helps better understand the role and place of experimental phenomena, it is emphasized that there are some insurmountable problems inherent in it - notably the impossibility to formulate the quantum theory of gravity on its basis - which prevent it from being a fundamental physical theory of the world of microscopic distances. It is this task, the creation of such a theory, which string theory, currently far from completion, is expected to solve. In spite of its somewhat vague current form, string theory has already led to a number of serious results and greatly contributed to progress in the understanding of quantum field theory. It is these developments, which are our concern in this review [ru

  17. String moduli inflation. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Quevedo, Fernando [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). DAMTP/CMS; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    We present an overview of inflationary models derived from string theory focusing mostly on closed string moduli as inflatons. After a detailed discussion of the {eta}-problem and different approaches to address it, we describe possible ways to obtain a de Sitter vacuum with all closed string moduli stabilised. We then look for inflationary directions and present some of the most promising scenarios where the inflatons are either the real or the imaginary part of Kaehler moduli. We pay particular attention on extracting potential observable implications, showing how most of the scenarios predict negligible gravitational waves and could therefore be ruled out by the Planck satellite. We conclude by briefly mentioning some open challenges in string cosmology beyond deriving just inflation. (orig.)

  18. Spin chains and string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczenski, Martin

    2004-10-15

    Recently, an important test of the anti de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence has been done using rotating strings with two angular momenta. We show that such a test can be described more generally as the agreement between two actions: one a low energy description of a spin chain appearing in the field theory side, and the other a limit of the string action in AdS5xS5. This gives a map between the mean value of the spin in the boundary theory and the position of the string in the bulk, and shows how a string action can emerge from a gauge theory in the large-N limit.

  19. Pattern recognition and string matching

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Xiuzhen

    2002-01-01

    The research and development of pattern recognition have proven to be of importance in science, technology, and human activity. Many useful concepts and tools from different disciplines have been employed in pattern recognition. Among them is string matching, which receives much theoretical and practical attention. String matching is also an important topic in combinatorial optimization. This book is devoted to recent advances in pattern recognition and string matching. It consists of twenty eight chapters written by different authors, addressing a broad range of topics such as those from classifica­ tion, matching, mining, feature selection, and applications. Each chapter is self-contained, and presents either novel methodological approaches or applications of existing theories and techniques. The aim, intent, and motivation for publishing this book is to pro­ vide a reference tool for the increasing number of readers who depend upon pattern recognition or string matching in some way. This includes student...

  20. String moduli inflation. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoli, Michele; Quevedo, Fernando

    2011-06-01

    We present an overview of inflationary models derived from string theory focusing mostly on closed string moduli as inflatons. After a detailed discussion of the η-problem and different approaches to address it, we describe possible ways to obtain a de Sitter vacuum with all closed string moduli stabilised. We then look for inflationary directions and present some of the most promising scenarios where the inflatons are either the real or the imaginary part of Kaehler moduli. We pay particular attention on extracting potential observable implications, showing how most of the scenarios predict negligible gravitational waves and could therefore be ruled out by the Planck satellite. We conclude by briefly mentioning some open challenges in string cosmology beyond deriving just inflation. (orig.)

  1. String Formation Beyond Leading Colour

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, Jesper R.

    2015-08-03

    We present a new model for the hadronisation of multi-parton systems, in which colour correlations beyond leading $N_C$ are allowed to influence the formation of confining potentials (strings). The multiplet structure of $SU(3)$ is combined with a minimisation of the string potential energy, to decide between which partons strings should form, allowing also for "baryonic" configurations (e.g., two colours can combine coherently to form an anticolour). In $e^+e^-$collisions, modifications to the leading-colour picture are small, suppressed by both colour and kinematics factors. But in $pp$ collisions, multi-parton interactions increase the number of possible subleading connections, counteracting their naive $1/N_C^2$ suppression. Moreover, those that reduce the overall string lengths are kinematically favoured. The model, which we have implemented in the PYTHIA 8 generator, is capable of reaching agreement not only with the important $\\left(n_\\mathrm{charged})$ distribution but also with measured rates (and ra...

  2. Strings in the abelized picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1990-01-01

    The transformation properties of the bosonic string variables under the recently discovered abelizing operator are exhibited. The intimate relation of this operator to the light-cone gauge condition is illustrated for the classical string. As an application of the formalism, the derivation of the BRST cohomology by the method of Freemann and Olive is carried over to the abelized picture, where it takes a particularly simple from. (orig.)

  3. The W3 string spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, C.N.; Stelle, K.S.

    1991-08-01

    We study the spectrum of W 3 strings. In particular, we show that for appropriately chosen space-time signature, one of the scalar fields is singled out be the spin-3 constraint and is ''frozen'': no creation operators from it can appear in physical states and the corresponding momentum must assume a specific fixed value. The remaining theory is unitary and resembles an ordinary string theory in d contains 26 with anomalies cancelled by appropriate background charges. (author). 8 refs

  4. Cooldown of superconducting magnet strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuecel, A.; Carcagno, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical model for the cooldown of the superconducting magnet strings in the Accelerator System String Test (ASST) Facility at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory is presented. Numerical results are compared with experimental data from the ASST test runs. Agreement between the numerical predictions and experiments is very good over the entire range from room temperature to liquid helium temperatures. The model can be readily adapted to predict the cooldown and warmup behavior of other superconducting magnets or cold masses

  5. Strings in the abelized picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1990-01-01

    The transformation properties of the bosonic string variables under the recently discovered abelizing operator are exhibited. The intimate relation of this operator to the light-cone gauge condition is illustrated for the classical string. As an application of the formalism, the derivation of the BRST cohomology by the method of Freeman and Olive is carried over to the abelized picture, where it takes a particulary simple form. 14 refs. (Author)

  6. An introduction to string theory

    OpenAIRE

    West, Peter C

    1989-01-01

    These notes are based on lectures given by Michael Green during Part III of the Mathematics Tripos (the Certificate for Advanced Study in Mathematics) in the Spring of 2003. The course provided an introduction to string theory, focussing on the Bosonic string, but treating the superstring as well. A background in quantum field theory and general relativity is assumed. Some background in particle physics, group theory and conformal field theory is useful, though not essential. A number of appe...

  7. Black strings and classical hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Yang, H.

    1997-01-01

    We examine the geometry near the event horizon of a family of black string solutions with traveling waves. It has previously been shown that the metric is continuous there. Contrary to expectations, we find that the geometry is not smooth, and the horizon becomes singular whenever a wave is present. Both five-dimensional and six-dimensional black strings are considered with similar results. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Tailored information for cancer patients on the Internet: effects of visual cues and language complexity on information recall and satisfaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weert, J.C.M. van; Noort, G. van; Bol, N.; Dijk, L. van; Tates, K.; Jansen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of visual cues and language complexity on satisfaction and information recall using a personalised website for lung cancer patients. In addition, age effects were investigated. Methods: An experiment using a 2 (complex vs. non-complex

  9. Tailored information for cancer patients on the Internet: effects of visual cues and language complexity on information recall and satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, J.C.M.; van Noort, G.; Bol, N.; van Dijk, L.; Tates, K.; Jansen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to investigate the effects of visual cues and language complexity on satisfaction and information recall using a personalised website for lung cancer patients. In addition, age effects were investigated. Methods An experiment using a 2 (complex vs. non-complex

  10. On Field Theory of Open Strings, Tachyon Condensation and Closed Strings

    OpenAIRE

    Shatashvili, Samson L.

    2001-01-01

    I review the physical properties of different vacua in the background independent open string field theory. Talk presented at Strings 2001, Mumbai, India, http://theory.theory.tifr.res.in/strings/Proceedings/#sha-s.

  11. Dynamics of strings between walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Minoru; Fujimori, Toshiaki; Nagashima, Takayuki; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Sakai, Norisuke

    2009-01-01

    Configurations of vortex strings stretched between or ending on domain walls were previously found to be 1/4 Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) states in N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories in 3+1 dimensions. Among zero modes of string positions, the center of mass of strings in each region between two adjacent domain walls is shown to be non-normalizable whereas the rests are normalizable. We study dynamics of vortex strings stretched between separated domain walls by using two methods, the moduli space (geodesic) approximation of full 1/4 BPS states and the charged particle approximation for string end points in the wall effective action. In the first method we explicitly obtain the effective Lagrangian in the strong coupling limit, which is written in terms of hypergeometric functions, and find the 90 deg. scattering for head-on collision. In the second method the domain wall effective action is assumed to be U(1) N gauge theory, and we find a good agreement between two methods for well-separated strings.

  12. String theory on the edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorlacius, L.

    1989-01-01

    Open string vacuum configurations are described in terms of a one-dimensional field theory on the worldsheet boundary. The one-dimensional path integral has direct physical interpretation as a source term for closed string fields. This means that the vacuum divergences (Mobius infinities) of the path integral must be renormalized correctly. The author shows that reparametrization invariance Ward identities, apart from specifying the equations of motion of spacetime background gauge fields, also serve to fix the renormalization scheme of the vacuum divergences. He argues that vacuum configurations of open strings correspond to Caldeira-Leggett models of dissipative quantum mechanics (DQM) evaluated at a delocalization critical point. This connection reveals that critical DQM will manifest reparametrization invariance (inherited from the conformal invariance of string theory) rather than just scale invariance. This connection should open up new ways of constructing analytic and approximate solutions of open string theory (in particular, topological solitons such as monopoles and instantons). Type I superstring theory gives rise to a supersymmetric boundary field theory. Bose-Fermi cancellation eliminates vacuum divergences but the one-loop beta function remains the same as in the bosonic theory. Reparametrization invariance Ward identities dictate a boundary state normalization which yields consistent string-loop corrections to spacetime equations of motion, in both the periodic and anti-periodic fermion sectors

  13. On obtaining Knuth, Morris, and Pratt's string matcher by partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Mads Sig; Danvy, Olivier; Rohde, Henning Korsholm

    2002-01-01

    We present the first formal proof that partial evaluation of a quadratic string matcher can yield the precise behaviour of the KMP string matcher. Obtaining the KMP is a canonical example of partial evaluation: one starts from the naive, quadratic program checking whether a pattern occurs in a text......; one observes that backtracking can be performed at partial-evaluation time (a binding-time shift); and one obtains a specialized program that does not back up on the text, a la KMP. We are not aware, however, of any formal proof that partial evaluation of a staged string matcher precisely yields...... the KMP string matcher. To compare the performance of the KMP and the result of specializing a staged string matcher, we have compared the traces of the successive indices at which the text is addressed. We have found that staged string matchers keeping no negative information do not perform as well...

  14. On Obtaining Knuth, Morris, and Pratt's String Matcher by Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Mads Sig; Danvy, Olivier; Rohde, Henning Korsholm

    2002-01-01

    We present the first formal proof that partial evaluation of a quadratic string matcher can yield the precise behaviour of the KMP string matcher. Obtaining the KMP is a canonical example of partial evaluation: one starts from the naive, quadratic program checking whether a pattern occurs in a text......; one observes that backtracking can be performed at partial-evaluation time (a binding-time shift); and one obtains a specialized program that does not back up on the text, a la KMP. We are not aware, however, of any formal proof that partial evaluation of a staged string matcher precisely yields...... the KMP string matcher. To compare the performance of the KMP and the result of specializing a staged string matcher, we have compared the traces of the successive indices at which the text is addressed. We have found that staged string matchers keeping no negative information do not perform as well...

  15. Propagators in magnetic string background and the problem of self-adjoint extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Ghost and gluon propagators of a non-Abelian gauge theory in the background of a magnetic string are calculated. A simple technique to derive the ghost propagator is presented which makes use of the fact that the presence of a magnetic string of strength β shifts the differential operators ∂/∂φ to ∂/∂φ - iβ. In the case of a gluon propagator in the magnetic string background a difficulty arises from the presence of the magnetic field strength term involving a δ function. Here the ambiguities of a self-adjoint extension of the differential operator must be met. A proper treatment demands the specification of a limiting process starting from a string of finite thickness and well-defined structure and leading to the δ function string. Without this additional structure information about the background string the gauge field propagator is undetermined. (orig.)

  16. Application of Fisher Information to Complex Dynamic Systems (Tucson)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher information was developed by the statistician Ronald Fisher as a measure of the information obtainable from data being used to fit a related parameter. Starting from the work of Ronald Fisher1 and B. Roy Frieden2, we have developed Fisher information as a measure of order ...

  17. Application of Fisher Information to Complex Dynamic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher information was developed by the statistician Ronald Fisher as a measure of the information obtainable from data being used to fit a related parameter. Starting from the work of Ronald Fisher1 and B. Roy Frieden2, we have developed Fisher information as a measure of order ...

  18. Chern-Simons couplings for dielectric F-strings in matrix string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, Dominic; Janssen, Bert; Lozano, Yolanda

    2002-01-01

    We compute the non-abelian couplings in the Chern-Simons action for a set of coinciding fundamental strings in both the type IIA and type IIB Matrix string theories. Starting from Matrix theory in a weakly curved background, we construct the linear couplings of closed string fields to type IIA Matrix strings. Further dualities give a type IIB Matrix string theory and a type IIA theory of Matrix strings with winding. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. New expressions for string loop amplitudes leading to an ultra-simple conception of string dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Hongmo; Tsou Sheungtsun; Bordes, J.; Nellen, L.

    1990-11-01

    New expressions are derived for string loop amplitudes as overlap integrals of string wave functionals. They are shown to take the form of exchange terms coming from the Bose-Einstein symmetrisation between string segments. One is thus led to the ultra-simple conception that string theory is basically free, and that 'string interactions' are due merely to the fact that strings are composite objects with Bose-Einstein segments as constituents. (author)

  20. Stochastic quantization of gravity and string fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumpf, H.

    1986-01-01

    The stochastic quantization method of Parisi and Wu is generalized so as to make it applicable to Einstein's theory of gravitation. The generalization is based on the existence of a preferred metric in field configuration space, involves Ito's calculus, and introduces a complex stochastic process adapted to Lorentzian spacetime. It implies formally the path integral measure of DeWitt, a causual Feynman propagator, and a consistent stochastic perturbation theory. The lineraized version of the theory is also obtained from the stochastic quantization of the free string field theory of Siegel and Zwiebach. (Author)

  1. Summer School Mathematical Foundations of Complex Networked Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fosson, Sophie; Ravazzi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Introducing the reader to the mathematics beyond complex networked systems, these lecture notes investigate graph theory, graphical models, and methods from statistical physics. Complex networked systems play a fundamental role in our society, both in everyday life and in scientific research, with applications ranging from physics and biology to economics and finance. The book is self-contained, and requires only an undergraduate mathematical background.

  2. Effects of individual popularity on information spreading in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Li, Ruiqi; Shu, Panpan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Hui; Cai, Shimin

    2018-01-01

    In real world, human activities often exhibit preferential selection mechanism based on the popularity of individuals. However, this mechanism is seldom taken into account by previous studies about spreading dynamics on networks. Thus in this work, an information spreading model is proposed by considering the preferential selection based on individuals' current popularity, which is defined as the number of individuals' cumulative contacts with informed neighbors. A mean-field theory is developed to analyze the spreading model. Through systematically studying the information spreading dynamics on uncorrelated configuration networks as well as real-world networks, we find that the popularity preference has great impacts on the information spreading. On the one hand, the information spreading is facilitated, i.e., a larger final prevalence of information and a smaller outbreak threshold, if nodes with low popularity are preferentially selected. In this situation, the effective contacts between informed nodes and susceptible nodes are increased, and nodes almost have uniform probabilities of obtaining the information. On the other hand, if nodes with high popularity are preferentially selected, the final prevalence of information is reduced, the outbreak threshold is increased, and even the information cannot outbreak. In addition, the heterogeneity of the degree distribution and the structure of real-world networks do not qualitatively affect the results. Our research can provide some theoretical supports for the promotion of spreading such as information, health related behaviors, and new products, etc.

  3. Gravity from strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deser, S.

    1987-01-01

    We obtain the Einstein action plus quadratic curvature corrections generated by closed bosonic, heterotic and supersymmetric strings by matching the four-graviton amplitude (to first order in the slope parameter and fourth power of momenta) with an effective local gravitational action. The resulting corrections are first shown to be of the Gauss-Bonnet form. It is then noted that, by the very nature of the slope expansion, the field-redefinition theorem applies. Consequently, only the curvature-squared term is determined, while squares of its contractions are explicitly seen not to contribute. This latter property has a generalization to all orders which implies that the effective gravitational action is unavoidably ghost-free. The properties of solutions to these corrected theories are then examined. First neglecting dilatons, we find the explicit 'Schwarzschild' metrics. Both asymptotically flat and de Sitter solutions are present. The latter are however shown to be unstable. The former have horizons and singularities which are respectively smaller and less violent than in Einstein gravity; the correct sign of the slope parameter also ensures absence of naked singularities. When dilatons are included, the cosmological vacua are gratifyingly excluded. (orig.)

  4. String cohomology groups of complex projective spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Iver; Bökstedt, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Let X be a space and write LX for its free loop space equipped with the action of the circle group T given by dilation. The equivariant cohomology H*(LXhT;Z/p) is a module over H*(BT;Z/p). We give a computation of this module when X=CPr for any positive integer r and any prime number p. The compu......Let X be a space and write LX for its free loop space equipped with the action of the circle group T given by dilation. The equivariant cohomology H*(LXhT;Z/p) is a module over H*(BT;Z/p). We give a computation of this module when X=CPr for any positive integer r and any prime number p...

  5. Effective Complexity of Stationary Process Realizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleta Szkoła

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of effective complexity of an object as the minimal description length of its regularities has been initiated by Gell-Mann and Lloyd. The regularities are modeled by means of ensembles, which is the probability distributions on finite binary strings. In our previous paper [1] we propose a definition of effective complexity in precise terms of algorithmic information theory. Here we investigate the effective complexity of binary strings generated by stationary, in general not computable, processes. We show that under not too strong conditions long typical process realizations are effectively simple. Our results become most transparent in the context of coarse effective complexity which is a modification of the original notion of effective complexity that needs less parameters in its definition. A similar modification of the related concept of sophistication has been suggested by Antunes and Fortnow.

  6. Violin Pedagogy and the Physics of the Bowed String

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Alexander Rhodes

    The paper describes the mechanics of violin tone production using non-specialist language, in order to present a scientific understanding of tone production accessible to a broad readership. As well as offering an objective understanding of tone production, this model provides a powerful tool for analyzing the technique of string playing. The interaction between the bow and the string is quite complex. Literature reviewed for this study reveals that scientific investigations have provided important insights into the mechanics of string playing, offering explanations for factors which both contribute to and limit the range of tone colours and dynamics that stringed instruments can produce. Also examined in the literature review are significant works of twentieth century violin pedagogy exploring tone production on the violin, based on the practical experience of generations of teachers and performers. Hermann von Helmholtz described the stick-slip cycle which drives the string in 1863, which replaced earlier ideas about the vibration of violin strings. Later, scientists such as John Schelleng and Lothar Cremer were able to demonstrate how the mechanics of the bow-string interaction can create different tone colours. Recent research by Anders Askenfelt, Knut Guettler, and Erwin Schoonderwaldt have continued to refine earlier research in this area. The writings of Lucien Capet, Leopold Auer, Carl Flesch, Paul Rolland, Kato Havas, Ivan Galamian, and Simon Fischer are examined and analyzed. Each author describes a different approach to tone production on the violin, representing a different understanding of the underlying mechanism. Analyzing these writings within the context of a scientific understanding of tone production makes it possible to compare these approaches more consistently, and to synthesize different concepts drawn from the diverse sources evaluated.

  7. Associative Mechanisms Allow for Social Learning and Cultural Transmission of String Pulling in an Insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xingfu; Ingraham, Thomas; Søvik, Eirik

    2016-01-01

    Social insects make elaborate use of simple mechanisms to achieve seemingly complex behavior and may thus provide a unique resource to discover the basic cognitive elements required for culture, i.e., group-specific behaviors that spread from “innovators” to others in the group via social learning. We first explored whether bumblebees can learn a nonnatural object manipulation task by using string pulling to access a reward that was presented out of reach. Only a small minority “innovated” and solved the task spontaneously, but most bees were able to learn to pull a string when trained in a stepwise manner. In addition, naïve bees learnt the task by observing a trained demonstrator from a distance. Learning the behavior relied on a combination of simple associative mechanisms and trial-and-error learning and did not require “insight”: naïve bees failed a “coiled-string experiment,” in which they did not receive instant visual feedback of the target moving closer when tugging on the string. In cultural diffusion experiments, the skill spread rapidly from a single knowledgeable individual to the majority of a colony’s foragers. We observed that there were several sequential sets (“generations”) of learners, so that previously naïve observers could first acquire the technique by interacting with skilled individuals and, subsequently, themselves become demonstrators for the next “generation” of learners, so that the longevity of the skill in the population could outlast the lives of informed foragers. This suggests that, so long as animals have a basic toolkit of associative and motor learning processes, the key ingredients for the cultural spread of unusual skills are already in place and do not require sophisticated cognition. PMID:27701411

  8. Phenylketonuria and Complex Spatial Visualization: An Analysis of Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study of the ability of 16 early treated phenylketonuric (PKU) patients (ages 6-23 years) to solve complex spatial problems suggested that choice of problem-solving strategy, attention span, and accuracy of mental representation may be affected in PKU patients, despite efforts to maintain well-controlled phenylalanine concentrations in the…

  9. Supporting Information Palladium Complexes of a New Type of N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prasenjit Ghosh

    Palladium Complexes of a New Type of N-heterocyclic Carbene. Ligand Derived From a Tricyclic Triazolooxazine Framework. Manoj Kumar Gangwar, Alok Ch. Kalita and Prasenjit Ghosh*. Department of Chemistry,. Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, ... 2. Figure S1. 1. H NMR spectrum of the compound 1a in CDCl3.

  10. Functional integral approach to string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakita, B.

    1987-01-01

    Fermionic string theory can be made supersymmetric: the superstring. It contains among others mass zero gauge fields of spin 1 and 2. The recent revival of interests in string field theories is due to the recognition of the compactified superstring theory as a viable theory of grandunification of all interactions, especially after Green and Schwarz's discovery of the gauge and gravitational anomaly cancellation in 0(32) superstring theory. New developments include string phenomenology, general discussions of compactification, new models, especially the heterotic string. These are either applications or extensions of string field theories. Although these are very exciting developments, the author limits his attention to the basics of the bosonic string theory

  11. String Theory for Pedestrians (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    This is a non-technical rapid course on string theory. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the basics of the subject: classical and quantum strings, D(irichlet) branes and string-string dualities. In lecture 2 I will discuss string unification of the fundamental forces, covering both its successes and failures. Finally in lecture 3 I will review string models of black hole microstates, the holographic gauge/gravity duality and, if time permits, potential applications to the physics of the strong interactions.

  12. String Theory for Pedestrians (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    This is a non-technical rapid course on string theory. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the basics of the subject: classical and quantum strings, D(irichlet) branes and string-string dualities. In lecture 2 I will discuss string unification of the fundamental forces, covering both its successes and failures. Finally in lecture 3 I will review string models of black hole microstates, the holographic gauge/gravity duality and, if time permits, potential applications to the physics of the strong interactions.

  13. String Theory for Pedestrians (3/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    This is a non-technical rapid course on string theory. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the basics of the subject: classical and quantum strings, D(irichlet) branes and string-string dualities. In lecture 2 I will discuss string unification of the fundamental forces, covering both its successes and failures. Finally in lecture 3 I will review string models of black hole microstates, the holographic gauge/gravity duality and, if time permits, potential applications to the physics of the strong interactions.

  14. An introduction to conformal field theory in two dimensions and string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadia, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides information on The S-Matrix; Elements of conformally invariant field theory in 2-dim.; The Virasoro gauge conditions; Some representations of the Virasoro algebra; The S-matrix of the Bosonic string theory; Super conformal field theory; Superstring; superstring spectrum and GSO projection; The (β,γ) ghost system; BRST formulation; and String propagation in background fields

  15. String moduli stabilization at the conifold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Herschmann, Daniela; Wolf, Florian [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2016-08-18

    We study moduli stabilization for type IIB orientifolds compactified on Calabi-Yau threefolds in the region close to conifold singularities in the complex structure moduli space. The form of the periods implies new phenomena like exponential mass hierarchies even in the regime of negligible warping. Integrating out the heavy conic complex structure modulus leads to an effective flux induced potential for the axio-dilaton and the remaining complex structure moduli containing exponentially suppressed terms that imitate non-perturbative effects. It is shown that this scenario can be naturally combined with the large volume scenario so that all moduli are dynamically stabilized in the dilute flux regime. As an application of this moduli stabilization scheme, a string inspired model of aligned inflation is designed that features a parametrically controlled hierarchy of mass scales.

  16. Creativity, Complexity, and Precision: Information Visualization for (Landscape) Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buscher, Monika; Christensen, Michael; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    2000-01-01

    Drawing on ethnographic studies of (landscape) architects at work, this paper presents a human-centered approach to information visualization. A 3D collaborative electronic workspace allows people to configure, save and browse arrangements of heterogeneous work materials. Spatial arrangements...... and links are created and maintained as an integral part of ongoing work with `live' documents and objects. The result is an extension of the physical information space of the architects' studio that utilizes the potential of electronic data storage, visualization and network technologies to support work...... with information in context...

  17. String Theory in a Nutshell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skenderis, Kostas

    2007-01-01

    The book 'String Theory in a Nutshell' by Elias Kiritsis provides a comprehensive introduction to modern string theory. String theory is the leading candidate for a theory that successfully unifies all fundamental forces of nature, including gravity. The subject has been continuously developing since the early 1970s, with classic textbooks on the subject being those of Green, Schwarz and Witten (1987) and Polchinski (1998). Since the latter was published there have been substantial developments, in particular in understanding black holes and gravity/gauge theory dualities. A textbook treatment of this important material is clearly needed, both by students and researchers in string theory and by mathematicians and physicists working in related fields. This book has a good selection of material, starting from basics and moving into classic and modern topics. In particular, Kiritsis' presentation of the basic material is complementary to that of the earlier textbooks and he includes a number of topics which are not easily found or covered adequately elsewhere, for example, loop corrections to string effective couplings. Overall the book nicely covers the major advances of the last ten years, including (non-perturbative) string dualities, black hole physics, AdS/CFT and matrix models. It provides a concise but fairly complete introduction to these subjects which can be used both by students and by researchers. Moreover the emphasis is on results that are reasonably established, as is appropriate for a textbook; concise summaries are given for subjects which are still in flux, with references to relevant reviews and papers. A positive feature of the book is that the bibliography sections at the end of each chapter provide a comprehensive guide to the literature. The bibliographies point to reviews and pedagogical papers on subjects covered in this book as well as those that were omitted. It is rare for a textbook to contain such a self-contained and detailed guide to

  18. Information Distribution in Complex Systems to Improve Team Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sperling, Brian K; Pritchett, Amy; Estrada, Arthur; Adam, Gina E

    2006-01-01

    .... Specifically, this study hypothesizes that providing task specific information to individual team members will improve coordination and decision-making, and therefore team performance, at time-critical tasks...

  19. Dynamics of information diffusion and its applications on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-Ke; Liu, Chuang; Zhan, Xiu-Xiu; Lu, Xin; Zhang, Chu-Xu; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    The ongoing rapid expansion of the Word Wide Web (WWW) greatly increases the information of effective transmission from heterogeneous individuals to various systems. Extensive research for information diffusion is introduced by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers. Despite substantial theoretical and empirical studies, unification and comparison of different theories and approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article, we review recent developments in information diffusion and discuss the major challenges. We compare and evaluate available models and algorithms to respectively investigate their physical roles and optimization designs. Potential impacts and future directions are discussed. We emphasize that information diffusion has great scientific depth and combines diverse research fields which makes it interesting for physicists as well as interdisciplinary researchers.

  20. String Resonances at Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis A; Dai, De-Chang; Feng, Wan-Zhe; Goldberg, Haim; Huang, Xing; Lust, Dieter; Stojkovic, Dejan; Taylor, Tomasz R

    2014-01-01

    [Abridged] We consider extensions of the standard model based on open strings ending on D-branes. Assuming that the fundamental string mass scale M_s is in the TeV range and that the theory is weakly coupled, we discuss possible signals of string physics at the upcoming HL-LHC run (3000 fb^{-1}) with \\sqrt{s} = 14 TeV, and at potential future pp colliders, HE-LHC and VLHC, operating at \\sqrt{s} = 33 and 100 TeV, respectively. In such D-brane constructions, the dominant contributions to full-fledged string amplitudes for all the common QCD parton subprocesses leading to dijets and \\gamma + jet are completely independent of the details of compactification, and can be evaluated in a parameter-free manner. We make use of these amplitudes evaluated near the first (n=1) and second (n=2) resonant poles to determine the discovery potential for Regge excitations of the quark, the gluon, and the color singlet living on the QCD stack. We show that for string scales as large as 7.1 TeV (6.1 TeV), lowest massive Regge exc...

  1. String theory or field theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshakov, Andrei V

    2002-01-01

    The status of string theory is reviewed, and major recent developments - especially those in going beyond perturbation theory in the string theory and quantum field theory frameworks - are analyzed. This analysis helps better understand the role and place of string theory in the modern picture of the physical world. Even though quantum field theory describes a wide range of experimental phenomena, it is emphasized that there are some insurmountable problems inherent in it - notably the impossibility to formulate the quantum theory of gravity on its basis - which prevent it from being a fundamental physical theory of the world of microscopic distances. It is this task, the creation of such a theory, which string theory, currently far from completion, is expected to solve. In spite of its somewhat vague current form, string theory has already led to a number of serious results and greatly contributed to progress in the understanding of quantum field theory. It is these developments which are our concern in this review. (reviews of topical problems)

  2. Topological strings from quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, Alba; Marino, Marcos; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki

    2014-12-01

    We propose a general correspondence which associates a non-perturbative quantum-mechanical operator to a toric Calabi-Yau manifold, and we conjecture an explicit formula for its spectral determinant in terms of an M-theoretic version of the topological string free energy. As a consequence, we derive an exact quantization condition for the operator spectrum, in terms of the vanishing of a generalized θ function. The perturbative part of this quantization condition is given by the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the refined topological string, but there are non-perturbative corrections determined by the conventional topological string. We analyze in detail the cases of local P 2 , local P 1 x P 1 and local F 1 . In all these cases, the predictions for the spectrum agree with the existing numerical results. We also show explicitly that our conjectured spectral determinant leads to the correct spectral traces of the corresponding operators, which are closely related to topological string theory at orbifold points. Physically, our results provide a Fermi gas picture of topological strings on toric Calabi-Yau manifolds, which is fully non-perturbative and background independent. They also suggest the existence of an underlying theory of M2 branes behind this formulation. Mathematically, our results lead to precise, surprising conjectures relating the spectral theory of functional difference operators to enumerative geometry.

  3. Ambitwistor strings and the scattering equations at one loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, Tim; Casali, Eduardo; Skinner, David [Department of Applied Mathematics & Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    Ambitwistor strings are chiral, infinite tension analogues of conventional string theory whose target space is the space of complex null geodesics and whose spectrum consists exclusively of massless states. At genus zero, these strings underpin the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulæ for tree level scattering of gravitons, gluons and scalars. In this paper we extend these formulæ in a number of directions. Firstly, we consider Ramond sector vertex operators and construct simple amplitudes involving space-time fermions. These agree with tree amplitudes in ten dimensional supergravity and super Yang-Mills. We then show that, after the usual GSO projections, the ambitwistor string partition function is modular invariant. We consider the scattering equations at genus one, and calculate one loop scattering amplitudes for NS-NS external states in the Type II ambitwistor string. We conjecture that these give new representations of (the integrand of) one loop supergravity amplitudes and we show that they have the expected behaviour under factorization of the worldsheet in both non-separating and separating degenerations.

  4. Matrix realization of string algebra axioms and conditions of invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichev, L.F.; Kuvshinov, V.I.; Fedorov, F.I.

    1990-01-01

    The matrix representations of Witten's and B-algebras of the field string theory in finite dimensional space of the ghost states are suggested for the case of Virasoro algebra truncated to its SU(1,1) subalgebra. In this case all algebraic operations of Witten's and B-algebras are realized in explicit form as some matrix operations in the graded complex vector space. The structure of string action coincides with the universal non-linear cubic matrix form of action for the gauge field theories. These representations lead to matrix conditions of theory invariance which can be used for finding of the explicit form of corresponding operators of the string algebras. (author)

  5. The effective action of a BPS Alice string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Chandrasekhar; Nitta, Muneto [Keio University, Department of Physics, and Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2017-11-15

    Recently a BPS Alice string has been found in a U(1) x SO(3) gauge theory coupled with three charged complex scalar fields in the triplet representation (in JHEP 1709:046 arXiv:1703.08971 [hep-th], 2017). It is a half BPS state preserving a half of the supercharges when embedded into a supersymmetric gauge theory. In this paper, we study zero modes of a BPS Alice string. After presenting U(1) and translational zero modes, we construct the effective action of these modes. In contrast to a previous analysis of the conventional Alice string for which only large distance behaviors are known, we can exactly perform a calculation in the full space thanks to the BPS properties. (orig.)

  6. An exact bosonization rule for c = 1 noncritical string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    We construct a string field theory for c = 1 noncritical strings using the loop variables as the string field. We show how one can express the nonrelativistic free fermions which describes the theory, in terms of these string fields

  7. Bit-string scattering theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1990-01-29

    We construct discrete space-time coordinates separated by the Lorentz-invariant intervals h/mc in space and h/mc{sup 2} in time using discrimination (XOR) between pairs of independently generated bit-strings; we prove that if this space is homogeneous and isotropic, it can have only 1, 2 or 3 spacial dimensions once we have related time to a global ordering operator. On this space we construct exact combinatorial expressions for free particle wave functions taking proper account of the interference between indistinguishable alternative paths created by the construction. Because the end-points of the paths are fixed, they specify completed processes; our wave functions are born collapsed''. A convenient way to represent this model is in terms of complex amplitudes whose squares give the probability for a particular set of observable processes to be completed. For distances much greater than h/mc and times much greater than h/mc{sup 2} our wave functions can be approximated by solutions of the free particle Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations. Using a eight-counter paradigm we relate this construction to scattering experiments involving four distinguishable particles, and indicate how this can be used to calculate electromagnetic and weak scattering processes. We derive a non-perturbative formula relating relativistic bound and resonant state energies to mass ratios and coupling constants, equivalent to our earlier derivation of the Bohr relativistic formula for hydrogen. Using the Fermi-Yang model of the pion as a relativistic bound state containing a nucleon-antinucleon pair, we find that (G{sub {pi}N}{sup 2}){sup 2} = (2m{sub N}/m{sub {pi}}){sup 2} {minus} 1. 21 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Bit-string scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    We construct discrete space-time coordinates separated by the Lorentz-invariant intervals h/mc in space and h/mc 2 in time using discrimination (XOR) between pairs of independently generated bit-strings; we prove that if this space is homogeneous and isotropic, it can have only 1, 2 or 3 spacial dimensions once we have related time to a global ordering operator. On this space we construct exact combinatorial expressions for free particle wave functions taking proper account of the interference between indistinguishable alternative paths created by the construction. Because the end-points of the paths are fixed, they specify completed processes; our wave functions are ''born collapsed''. A convenient way to represent this model is in terms of complex amplitudes whose squares give the probability for a particular set of observable processes to be completed. For distances much greater than h/mc and times much greater than h/mc 2 our wave functions can be approximated by solutions of the free particle Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations. Using a eight-counter paradigm we relate this construction to scattering experiments involving four distinguishable particles, and indicate how this can be used to calculate electromagnetic and weak scattering processes. We derive a non-perturbative formula relating relativistic bound and resonant state energies to mass ratios and coupling constants, equivalent to our earlier derivation of the Bohr relativistic formula for hydrogen. Using the Fermi-Yang model of the pion as a relativistic bound state containing a nucleon-antinucleon pair, we find that (G πN 2 ) 2 = (2m N /m π ) 2 - 1. 21 refs., 1 fig

  9. Forbidden territories in the string landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alok; Mukhopadhyay, Subir; Ray, Koushik

    2007-12-01

    Problems of stabilizing moduli of the type-IIB string theory on toroidal orientifolds T6/Z2, in presence of worldvolume fluxes on various D-branes, are considered. For Z2 actions, introducing either O9 or O3 planes, we rule out the possibility of moduli stabilization in a wide class of models with Script N = 1 supersymmetry, characterized by the type of fluxes turned on along D-brane worldvolume. Our results, in particular, imply that Abelian worldvolume fluxes can not by themselves stabilize closed string moduli, in a consistent supersymmtric model, for above orientifold compactifications. We also discuss other Z2 orientifolds of T6 and show that certain other brane wrappings are also ruled out by similar consistency requirements. In specific setups we consider examples with D9-branes wrapping on a complex three-torus with its world-volume fluxes taken to be semi-homogeneous bundles and D7-branes wrapping holomorphic four-cycles of the complex three-torus carrying world-volume fluxes.

  10. Quantum supergravity, supergravity anomalies and string phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, Mary K., E-mail: mkgaillard@lbl.gov

    2016-11-15

    I discuss the role of quantum effects in the phenomenology of effective supergravity theories from compactification of the weakly coupled heterotic string. An accurate incorporation of these effects requires a regularization procedure that respects local supersymmetry and BRST invariance and that retains information associated with the cut-off scale, which has physical meaning in an effective theory. I briefly outline the Pauli–Villars regularization procedure, describe some applications, and comment on what remains to be done to fully define the effective quantum field theory.

  11. The String Landscape: A Personal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Keith R.

    2015-02-01

    In keeping with the "Perspectives" theme of this volume, this Chapter provides a personal perspective on the string landscape. Along the way, the perspectives of many other physicists are discussed as well. No attempt is made to provide a thorough and balanced review of the field, and indeed there is a slight emphasis on my own contributions to this field, as these contributions have been critical to forming my perspective. This Chapter is adapted from a Colloquium which I have delivered at a number of institutions worldwide, and I have attempted to retain the informal and non-technical spirit and style of this Colloquium presentation as much as possible.

  12. Increase in Complexity and Information through Molecular Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schuster

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological evolution progresses by essentially three different mechanisms: (I optimization of properties through natural selection in a population of competitors; (II development of new capabilities through cooperation of competitors caused by catalyzed reproduction; and (III variation of genetic information through mutation or recombination. Simplified evolutionary processes combine two out of the three mechanisms: Darwinian evolution combines competition (I and variation (III and is represented by the quasispecies model, major transitions involve cooperation (II of competitors (I, and the third combination, cooperation (II and variation (III provides new insights in the role of mutations in evolution. A minimal kinetic model based on simple molecular mechanisms for reproduction, catalyzed reproduction and mutation is introduced, cast into ordinary differential equations (ODEs, and analyzed mathematically in form of its implementation in a flow reactor. Stochastic aspects are investigated through computer simulation of trajectories of the corresponding chemical master equations. The competition-cooperation model, mechanisms (I and (II, gives rise to selection at low levels of resources and leads to symbiontic cooperation in case the material required is abundant. Accordingly, it provides a kind of minimal system that can undergo a (major transition. Stochastic effects leading to extinction of the population through self-enhancing oscillations destabilize symbioses of four or more partners. Mutations (III are not only the basis of change in phenotypic properties but can also prevent extinction provided the mutation rates are sufficiently large. Threshold phenomena are observed for all three combinations: The quasispecies model leads to an error threshold, the competition-cooperation model allows for an identification of a resource-triggered bifurcation with the transition, and for the cooperation-mutation model a kind of stochastic threshold for

  13. Cosmic strings and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryal, M.; Ford, L.H.; Vilenkin, A.

    1986-01-01

    The metric for a Schwarzschild black hole with a cosmic string passing through it is discussed. The thermodynamics of such an object is considered, and it is shown that S = (1/4)A, where S is the entropy and A is the horizon area. It is noted that the Schwarzschild mass parameter M, which is the gravitational mass of the system, is no longer identical to its energy. A solution representing a pair of black holes held apart by strings is discussed. It is nearly identical to a static, axially symmetric solution given long ago by Bach and Weyl. It is shown how these solutions, which were formerly a mathematical curiosity, may be given a more physical interpretation in terms of cosmic strings

  14. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-07

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  15. Vector superconductivity in cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, G.R.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1992-03-01

    We argue that in most realistic cases, the usual Witten-type bosonic superconductivity of the cosmic string is automatically (independent of the existence of superconducting currents) accompanied by the condensation of charged gauge vector bosons in the core giving rise to a new vector type superconductivity. The value of the charged vector condensate is related with the charged scalar expectation value, and vanishes only if the latter goes to zero. The mechanism for the proposed vector superconductivity, differing fundamentally from those in the literature, is delineated using the simplest realistic example of the two Higgs doublet standard model interacting with the extra cosmic string. It is shown that for a wide range of parameters, for which the string becomes scalarly superconducting, W boson condensates (the sources of vector superconductivity) are necessarily excited. (author). 14 refs

  16. QCD string in the baryon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Nefediev, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    The QCD-motivated constituent string model is extended to consider the baryon. The system of three quarks propagating in the confining background field is studied in the Wilson loop approach, and the effective action is obtained. The resulting Lagrangian at large interquark distances corresponds to the Mercedes Benz string configuration. Assuming the quarks to be heavy enough to allow the adiabatic separation of quark and string junction motion and using the hyperspherical expansion for the quark subsystem we write out and solve the classical equation of motion for the junction. We quantize the motion of the junction and demonstrate that the account of these modes leads to the effective swelling of baryon in comparison with standard potential picture. The effects of finite gluonic correlation length which do not affect the excited states but appear to be substantial for the baryonic ground state, reducing the swelling considerably is discussed

  17. Noncompact symmetries in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharana, J.; Schwarz, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    Noncompact groups, similar to those that appeared in various supergravity theories in the 1970's have been turning up in recent studies of string theory. First it was discovered that moduli spaces of toroidal compactification are given by noncompact groups modded out by their maximal compact subgroups and discrete duality groups. Then it was found that many other moduli spaces have analogous descriptions. More recently, noncompact group symmetries have turned up in effective actions used to study string cosmology and other classical configurations. This paper explores these noncompact groups in the case of toroidal compactification both from the viewpoint of low-energy effective field theory, using the method of dimensional reduction, and from the viewpoint of the string theory world-sheet. The conclusion is that all these symmetries are intimately related. In particular, we find that Chern-Simons terms in the three-form field strength H μνρ play a crucial role. (orig.)

  18. Introduction to strings and superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch de Traubenberg, M.

    1988-01-01

    The string theory is applied in the construction of a theory which allows the coupling of the four fundamental interactions and matter. The original model of the string theory describes the hadronic phenomenon of duality. The model extension, which describes the closed strings and those with a spin, is studied. The supersymmetry and the supersymmetric partner concepts are considered, in order to obtain a superstrings theory. The supersymmetry allows the formulation of a ''supertheory'', including matter, fields and gravitation. In order to explain the mass of the observable particles, the mechanism of symmetry breaking must be taken into account. The scalar state concept, originated from the supersymmetry breaking, is analyzed. This ''supertheory'' is not entirely accepted by the scientific world [fr

  19. The NMSSM and string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Oleg; Ramos-Sanchez, Saul

    2009-12-01

    We study the possibility of constructing the NMSSM from the heterotic string. String derived NMSSMs are much more rare than MSSMs due to the extra requirement that there exist a light singlet which couples to the Higgs pairs. They share the common feature that the singlet self-interactions are typically suppressed, leading to either the ''decoupling'' or to the Peccei-Quinn limit of the NMSSM. In the latter case, the spectrum contains a light pseudoscalar which may be relevant to the MSSM fine-tuning problem.We provide a Z 6 heterotic orbifold example of the NMSSM with approximate Peccei-Quinn symmetry, whose origin lies in the string selection rules combined with our choice of the vacuum configuration. (orig.)

  20. Research and Measurement of Software Complexity Based on Wuli, Shili, Renli (WSR and Information Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Complexity is an important factor throughout the software life cycle. It is increasingly difficult to guarantee software quality, cost and development progress with the increase in complexity. Excessive complexity is one of the main reasons for the failure of software projects, so effective recognition, measurement and control of complexity becomes the key of project management. At first, this paper analyzes the current research situation of software complexity systematically and points out existing problems in current research. Then, it proposes a WSR framework of software complexity, which divides the complexity of software into three levels of Wuli (WL, Shili (SL and Renli (RL, so that the staff in different roles may have a better understanding of complexity. Man is the main source of complexity, but the current research focuses on WL complexity, and the research of RL complexity is extremely scarce, so this paper emphasizes the research of RL complexity of software projects. This paper not only analyzes the composing factors of RL complexity, but also provides the definition of RL complexity. Moreover, it puts forward a quantitative measurement method of the complexity of personnel organization hierarchy and the complexity of personnel communication information based on information entropy first and analyzes and validates the scientificity and rationality of this measurement method through a large number of cases.

  1. Statistical physics of networks, information and complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this project we explore the mathematical methods and concepts of statistical physics that are fmding abundant applications across the scientific and technological spectrum from soft condensed matter systems and bio-infonnatics to economic and social systems. Our approach exploits the considerable similarity of concepts between statistical physics and computer science, allowing for a powerful multi-disciplinary approach that draws its strength from cross-fertilization and mUltiple interactions of researchers with different backgrounds. The work on this project takes advantage of the newly appreciated connection between computer science and statistics and addresses important problems in data storage, decoding, optimization, the infonnation processing properties of the brain, the interface between quantum and classical infonnation science, the verification of large software programs, modeling of complex systems including disease epidemiology, resource distribution issues, and the nature of highly fluctuating complex systems. Common themes that the project has been emphasizing are (i) neural computation, (ii) network theory and its applications, and (iii) a statistical physics approach to infonnation theory. The project's efforts focus on the general problem of optimization and variational techniques, algorithm development and infonnation theoretic approaches to quantum systems. These efforts are responsible for fruitful collaborations and the nucleation of science efforts that span multiple divisions such as EES, CCS, 0 , T, ISR and P. This project supports the DOE mission in Energy Security and Nuclear Non-Proliferation by developing novel infonnation science tools for communication, sensing, and interacting complex networks such as the internet or energy distribution system. The work also supports programs in Threat Reduction and Homeland Security.

  2. Composing complex EXAFS problems with severe information constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravel, B

    2009-01-01

    In recent work, a model for the structural environment of Hg bound to a catalytic DNA sensor was proposed on the basis of EXAFS data analysis. Although severely constrained by limited data quality and scant supporting structural data, a compelling structural model was found which agreed with a similar but less detailed model proposed on the basis on NMR data. I discuss in detail the successes and limitations of the analytical strategy that were implemented in the earlier work. I then speculate on future software requirements needed to make this and similarly complex analytical strategies more available to the wider audience of EXAFS practitioners.

  3. Principles of big data preparing, sharing, and analyzing complex information

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Jules J

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Big Data helps readers avoid the common mistakes that endanger all Big Data projects. By stressing simple, fundamental concepts, this book teaches readers how to organize large volumes of complex data, and how to achieve data permanence when the content of the data is constantly changing. General methods for data verification and validation, as specifically applied to Big Data resources, are stressed throughout the book. The book demonstrates how adept analysts can find relationships among data objects held in disparate Big Data resources, when the data objects are endo

  4. On the string equation at c=1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsu, Toshio.

    1994-07-01

    The analogue of the string equation which specifies the partition function of c=1 string with a compactification radius β is an element of Z ≥1 is described in the framework of Toda lattice hierarchy. (author)

  5. Metastable cosmic strings in realistic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.

    1992-01-01

    The stability of the electroweak Z-string is investigated at high temperatures. The results show that, while finite temperature corrections can improve the stability of the Z-string, their effect is not strong enough to stabilize the Z-string in the standard electroweak model. Consequently, the Z-string will be unstable even under the conditions present during the electroweak phase transition. Phenomenologically viable models based on the gauge group SU(2) L x SU(2) R x U(1) B-L are then considered, and it is shown that metastable strings exist and are stable to small perturbations for a large region of the parameter space for these models. It is also shown that these strings are superconducting with bosonic charge carriers. The string superconductivity may be able to stabilize segments and loops against dynamical contraction. Possible implications of these strings for cosmology are discussed

  6. Covariant amplitudes in Polyakov string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, H.; Dhar, A.; Namazie, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    A manifestly Lorentz-covariant and reparametrization-invariant procedure for computing string amplitudes using Polyakov's formulation is described. Both bosonic and superstring theories are dealt with. The computation of string amplitudes is greatly facilitated by this formalism. (orig.)

  7. Cosmic string induced peculiar velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Dalen, A.; Schramm, D.N.

    1987-02-01

    We calculate analytically the probability distribution for peculiar velocities on scales from 10h -1 to 60h -1 Mpc with cosmic string loops as the dominant source of primordial gravitational perturbations. We consider a range of parameters βGμ appropriate for both hot (HDM) and cold (CDM) dark matter scenarios. An Ω = 1 CDM Universe is assumed with the loops randomly placed on a smooth background. It is shown how the effects can be estimated of loops breaking up and being born with a spectrum of sizes. It is found that to obtain large scale streaming velocities of at least 400 km/s it is necessary that either a large value for βGμ or the effect of loop fissioning and production details be considerable. Specifically, for optimal CDM string parameters Gμ = 10 -6 , β = 9, h = .5, and scales of 60h -1 Mpc, the parent size spectrum must be 36 times larger than the evolved daughter spectrum to achieve peculiar velocities of at least 400 km/s with a probability of 63%. With this scenario the microwave background dipole will be less than 800 km/s with only a 10% probability. The string induced velocity spectrum is relatively flat out to scales of about 2t/sub eq//a/sub eq/ and then drops off rather quickly. The flatness is a signature of string models of galaxy formation. With HDM a larger value of βGμ is necessary for galaxy formation since accretion on small scales starts later. Hence, with HDM, the peculiar velocity spectrum will be larger on large scales and the flat region will extend to larger scales. If large scale peculiar velocities greater than 400 km/s are real then it is concluded that strings plus CDM have difficulties. The advantages of strings plus HDM in this regard will be explored in greater detail in a later paper. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Information Propagation in Complex Networks : Structures and Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Märtens, M.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis is a contribution to a deeper understanding of how information propagates and what this process entails. At its very core is the concept of the network: a collection of nodes and links, which describes the structure of the systems under investigation. The network is a mathematical model

  9. CIRQuL: Complex Information Retrieval Query Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, V.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Apers, Peter M.G.

    In this paper we will present a new framework for the retrieval of XML documents. We will describe the extension for existing query languages (XPath and XQuery) geared toward ranked information retrieval and full-text search in XML documents. Furthermore we will present language models for ranked

  10. Structure, context, complexity, organization: physical aspects of information and value

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eriksson, Karl-Erik; Lindgren, Kristian; Månsson, Bengt Å

    1987-01-01

    ... and of information theory are general enough to play such a role. The authors have been involved in studies of the handling of natural resources in human societies. There we met problems and ideas which led us to the theme of this book: a perspective and a set of concepts, useful for describing and understanding processes in which structure emerges. T...

  11. Design and analysis of information model hotel complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garyaev Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the innovation in 3D modeling and development of process design approaches based on visualization of information technology and computer-aided design systems. The problems arising in the modern design and the approach to address them.

  12. Topics in string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jejjala, Vishnumohan

    2002-01-01

    This Thesis explores aspects of superstring theory on orbifold spaces and applies some of the intuition gleaned from the study of the non-commutative geometry of space-time to understanding the fractional quantum Hall effect. The moduli space of vacua of marginal and relevant deformations of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills gauge theory in four dimensions is interpreted in terms of non-commutative geometry. A formalism for thinking about the algebraic geometry of the moduli space is developed. Within this framework, the representation theory of the algebras studied provides a natural exposition of D-brane fractionation. The non-commutative moduli space of deformations preserving N = 1 supersymmetry is examined in detail through various examples. In string theory, by the AdS/CFT correspondence, deformations of the N = 4 field theory are dual to the near-horizon geometries of D-branes on orbifolds of AdS5 x S 5. The physics of D-branes on the dual AdS backgrounds is explored. Quivers encapsulate the matter content of supersymmetric field theories on the worldvolumes of D-branes at orbifold singularities. New techniques for constructing quivers are presented here. When N is a normal subgroup of a finite group G, the quiver corresponding to fixed points of the orbifold M/G is computed from a G/N action on the quiver corresponding to M/G . These techniques prove useful for constructing non-Abelian quivers and for examining discrete torsion orbifolds. Quivers obtained through our constructions contain interesting low-energy phenomenology. The matter content on a brane at an isolated singularity of the Delta27 orbifold embeds the Standard Model. The symmetries of the quiver require exactly three generations of fields in the particle spectrum. Lepton masses are suppressed relative to quark masses because lepton Yukawa couplings do not appear in the superpotential. Lepton masses are generated through the Kahler potential and are related to the supersymmetry breaking scale. The model

  13. The visual illustration of complex process information during abnormal incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimbuerger, H.; Kautto, A.; Norros, L.; Ranta, J.

    1985-01-01

    One of the proposed solutions to the man-process interface problem in nuclear power plants is the integration of a system in the control room that can provide the operator with a display of a minimum set of critical plant parameters defining the safety status of the plant. Such a system has been experimentally validated using the Loviisa training simulator during the fall of 1982. The project was a joint effort between Combustion Engineering Inc., the Halden Reactor Project, Imatran Voima Oy and VTT. Alarm systems are used in nuclear power plants to tell the control room operators that an unexpected change in the plant operation state has occurred. One difficulty in using the alarms for checking the actions of the operator is that the conventional way of realizing the alarm systems implies that several alarms are active also during normal operation. The coding and representation of alarm information will be discussed in the paper. An important trend in control room design is the move away from direct, concrete indication of process parameters towards use of more abstract/logical representation of information as a basis for plant supervision. Recent advances in computer graphics provide the possibility that, in the future, visual information will be utilized to make the essential dynamics of the process more intelligible. A set of criteria for use of visual information will be necessary. The paper discusses practical aspects for the realisation of such criteria in the context of nuclear power plant. The criteria of the decomposition of the process information concerning the sub-goals safety and availability and also the tentative results of the conceptualization of a PWR-process are discussed in the paper

  14. Warped models in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, B.S.; Benini, F.; Valandro, R.

    2006-12-01

    Warped models, originating with the ideas of Randall and Sundrum, provide a fascinating extension of the standard model with interesting consequences for the LHC. We investigate in detail how string theory realises such models, with emphasis on fermion localisation and the computation of Yukawa couplings. We find, in contrast to the 5d models, that fermions can be localised anywhere in the extra dimension, and that there are new mechanisms to generate exponential hierarchies amongst the Yukawa couplings. We also suggest a way to distinguish these string theory models with data from the LHC. (author)

  15. Heterotic strings on homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, D.; Kounnas, C.; Orlando, D.; Petropoulos, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    We construct heterotic string backgrounds corresponding to families of homogeneous spaces as exact conformal field theories. They contain left cosets of compact groups by their maximal tori supported by NS-NS 2-forms and gauge field fluxes. We give the general formalism and modular-invariant partition functions, then we consider some examples such as SU(2)/U(1)∝S 2 (already described in a previous paper) and the SU(3)/U(1) 2 flag space. As an application we construct new supersymmetric string vacua with magnetic fluxes and a linear dilaton. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Precise Analysis of String Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2003-01-01

    We perform static analysis of Java programs to answer a simple question: which values may occur as results of string expressions? The answers are summarized for each expression by a regular language that is guaranteed to contain all possible values. We present several applications of this analysis...... are automatically produced. We present extensive benchmarks demonstrating that the analysis is efficient and produces results of useful precision......., including statically checking the syntax of dynamically generated expressions, such as SQL queries. Our analysis constructs flow graphs from class files and generates a context-free grammar with a nonterminal for each string expression. The language of this grammar is then widened into a regular language...

  17. New twistor string theories revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broedel, Johannes; Wurm, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    A gauged version of Berkovits twistor string theory featuring the particle content of N=8 supergravity was suggested by Abou-Zeid, Hull and Mason. The equations of motion for a particular multiplet in the modified theory are examined on the level of basic twistor fields and thereby shown to imply the vanishing of the negative helicity graviton on-shell. Additionally, the restrictions emerging from the equation of motion for the new gauge field B-bar reveal the chiral nature of interactions in theories constructed in this manner. Moreover, a particular amplitude in Berkovits open string theory is shown to be in agreement with the corresponding result in Einstein gravity.

  18. Introduction to field theory of strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikkawa, K.

    1987-01-01

    The field theory of bosonic string is reviewed. First, theory is treated in a light-cone gauge. After a brief survey of the first quantized theory of free string, the second quantization is discussed. All possible interactions of strings are introduced based on a smoothness condition of work sheets swept out by strings. Perturbation theory is developed. Finally a possible way to the manifest covariant formalism is discussed

  19. Twenty-five questions for string theorists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binetruy, Pierre; /Orsay, LPT; Kane, G.L.; /Michigan U., MCTP; Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab; Nelson, Brent D.; /Pennsylvania U.

    2005-09-01

    In an effort to promote communication between the formal and phenomenological branches of the high-energy theory community, we provide a description of some important issues in supersymmetric and string phenomenology. We describe each within the context of string constructions, illustrating them with specific examples where applicable. Each topic culminates in a set of questions that we believe are amenable to direct consideration by string theorists, and whose answers we think could help connect string theory and phenomenology.

  20. Hosotani model in closed string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kiyoshi.

    1988-11-01

    Hosotani mechanism in the closed string theory with current algebra symmetry is described by the (old covariant) operator method. We compare the gauge symmetry breaking mechanism in a string theory which has SU(2) symmetry with the one in an equivalent compactified closed string theory. We also investigate the difference between Hosotani mechanism and Higgs mechanism in closed string theories by calculation of a fourpoint amplitude of 'Higgs' bosons at tree level. (author)

  1. Retrieval practice enhances the ability to evaluate complex physiology information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, John; Linderholm, Tracy; Perez, Jose

    2018-05-01

    Many investigations have shown that retrieval practice enhances the recall of different types of information, including both medical and physiological, but the effects of the strategy on higher-order thinking, such as evaluation, are less clear. The primary aim of this study was to compare how effectively retrieval practice and repeated studying (i.e. reading) strategies facilitated the evaluation of two research articles that advocated dissimilar conclusions. A secondary aim was to determine if that comparison was affected by using those same strategies to first learn important contextual information about the articles. Participants were randomly assigned to learn three texts that provided background information about the research articles either by studying them four consecutive times (Text-S) or by studying and then retrieving them two consecutive times (Text-R). Half of both the Text-S and Text-R groups were then randomly assigned to learn two physiology research articles by studying them four consecutive times (Article-S) and the other half learned them by studying and then retrieving them two consecutive times (Article-R). Participants then completed two assessments: the first tested their ability to critique the research articles and the second tested their recall of the background texts. On the article critique assessment, the Article-R groups' mean scores of 33.7 ± 4.7% and 35.4 ± 4.5% (Text-R then Article-R group and Text-S then Article-R group, respectively) were both significantly (p Retrieval practice promoted superior critical evaluation of the research articles, and the results also indicated the strategy enhanced the recall of background information. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  2. Thermodynamic aspects of information transfer in complex dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Carlo; Ali, Sean Alan; Giffin, Adom

    2016-02-01

    From the Horowitz-Esposito stochastic thermodynamical description of information flows in dynamical systems [J. M. Horowitz and M. Esposito, Phys. Rev. X 4, 031015 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevX.4.031015], it is known that while the second law of thermodynamics is satisfied by a joint system, the entropic balance for the subsystems is adjusted by a term related to the mutual information exchange rate between the two subsystems. In this article, we present a quantitative discussion of the conceptual link between the Horowitz-Esposito analysis and the Liang-Kleeman work on information transfer between dynamical system components [X. S. Liang and R. Kleeman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 244101 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.244101]. In particular, the entropic balance arguments employed in the two approaches are compared. Notwithstanding all differences between the two formalisms, our work strengthens the Liang-Kleeman heuristic balance reasoning by showing its formal analogy with the recent Horowitz-Esposito thermodynamic balance arguments.

  3. Information mining in weighted complex networks with nonlinear rating projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hao; Zeng, An; Zhou, Mingyang; Mao, Rui; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2017-10-01

    Weighted rating networks are commonly used by e-commerce providers nowadays. In order to generate an objective ranking of online items' quality according to users' ratings, many sophisticated algorithms have been proposed in the complex networks domain. In this paper, instead of proposing new algorithms we focus on a more fundamental problem: the nonlinear rating projection. The basic idea is that even though the rating values given by users are linearly separated, the real preference of users to items between the different given values is nonlinear. We thus design an approach to project the original ratings of users to more representative values. This approach can be regarded as a data pretreatment method. Simulation in both artificial and real networks shows that the performance of the ranking algorithms can be improved when the projected ratings are used.

  4. Hollow micro string based calorimeter device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    positions so as to form a free released double clamped string in-between said two longitudinally distanced positions said micro-channel string comprising a microfluidic channel having a closed cross section and extending in the longitudinal direction of the hollow string, acoustical means adapted...

  5. String field representation of the Virasoro algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertes, Nicholas [Institute of Physics AS CR,Na Slovance 2, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, University of Miami,Coral Gables, FL (United States); Schnabl, Martin [Institute of Physics AS CR,Na Slovance 2, Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-29

    We construct a representation of the zero central charge Virasoro algebra using string fields in Witten’s open bosonic string field theory. This construction is used to explore extensions of the KBc algebra and find novel algebraic solutions of open string field theory.

  6. Transverse structure of the QCD string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Harvey B.

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of the transverse structure of the QCD string is discussed. We formulate a conjecture as to how the stress-energy tensor of the underlying gauge theory couples to the string degrees of freedom. A consequence of the conjecture is that the energy density and the longitudinal-stress operators measure the distribution of the transverse position of the string, to leading order in the string fluctuations, whereas the transverse-stress operator does not. We interpret recent numerical measurements of the transverse size of the confining string and show that the difference of the energy and longitudinal-stress operators is a particularly natural probe at next-to-leading order. Second, we derive the constraints imposed by open-closed string duality on the transverse structure of the string. We show that a total of three independent ''gravitational'' form factors characterize the transverse profile of the closed string, and obtain the interpretation of recent effective string theory calculations: the square radius of a closed string of length β defined from the slope of its gravitational form factor, is given by (d-1/2πσ)log(β/4r 0 ) in d space dimensions. This is to be compared with the well-known result that the width of the open string at midpoint grows as (d-1/2πσ)log(r/r 0 ). We also obtain predictions for transition form factors among closed-string states.

  7. Regularization of finite temperature string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblanc, Y.; Knecht, M.; Wallet, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The tachyonic divergences occurring in the free energy of various string theories at finite temperature are eliminated through the use of regularization schemes and analytic continuations. For closed strings, we obtain finite expressions which, however, develop an imaginary part above the Hagedorn temperature, whereas open string theories are still plagued with dilatonic divergences. (orig.)

  8. String loop divergences and effective lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, W.; Klebanov, I.; Susskind, L.

    1988-01-01

    We isolate logarithmic divergences from bosonic string amplitudes on a disc. These divergences are compared with 'tadpole' divergences in the effective field theory, with a covariant cosmological term implied by the counting of string coupling constants. We find an inconsistency between the two. This might be a problem in eliminating divergences from the bosonic string. (orig.)

  9. The issue of supersymmetry breaking in strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binetruy, P.

    1989-12-01

    We discuss the central role that supersymmetry plays in string models, both in spacetime and at the level of the string world-sheet. The problems associated with supersymmetry-breaking are reviewed together with some of the attempts to solve them, in the string as well as the field theory approach

  10. String duality and novel theories without gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachru, Shamit

    1998-01-01

    We describe some of the novel 6d quantum field theories which have been discovered in studies of string duality. The role these theories (and their 4d descendants) may play in alleviating the vacuum degeneracy problem in string theory is reviewed. The DLCQ of these field theories is presented as one concrete way of formulating them, independent of string theory

  11. Architectures and representations for string transduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrupala, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    String transduction problems are ubiquitous in natural language processing: they include transliteration, grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, text normalization and translation. String transduction can be reduced to the simpler problems of sequence labeling by expressing the target string as a sequence

  12. Symmetries and Interactions in Matrix String Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebord, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    This PhD-thesis reviews matrix string theory and recent developments therein. The emphasis is put on symmetries, interactions and scattering processes in the matrix model. We start with an introduction to matrix string theory and a review of the orbifold model that flows out of matrix string theory

  13. Exotic configurations for gauge theory strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajnik, U.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses a class of string configurations occuring in nonabelian gauge theories, which are such that a component of the charged scalar field responsible for the string has a nonvanishing expectation value in the core of the string. A systematic procedure is given for setting up the ansatz for such configurations. (orig.)

  14. General relativity invariance and string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref'eva, I.Ya.; Volovich, I.V.

    1987-04-01

    The general covariance principle in the string field theory is considered. The algebraic properties of the string Lie derivative are discussed. The string vielbein and spin connection are introduced and an action invariant under general co-ordinate transformation is proposed. (author). 18 refs

  15. Test particle trajectories near cosmic strings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gauge strings have their energy concentrated in a very thin tube, the radius of which is of the order of the symmetry- breaking scale whereas the global strings are such that their energy extends to regions far beyond the central core. Strings have an important astrophysical consequence, namely, the double quasar problem ...

  16. Are Stopped Strings Preferred in Sad Music?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Huron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available String instruments may be played either with open strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a hard wooden nut or with stopped strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a performer's finger pressed against the fingerboard. Compared with open strings, stopped strings permit the use of vibrato and exhibit a darker timbre. Inspired by research on the timbre of sad speech, we test whether there is a tendency to use stopped strings in nominally sad music. Specifically, we compare the proportion of potentially open-to-stopped strings in a sample of slow, minor-mode movements with matched major-mode movements. By way of illustration, a preliminary analysis of Samuel Barber's famous Adagio from his Opus 11 string quartet shows that the selected key (B-flat minor provides the optimum key for minimizing open string tones. However, examination of a broader controlled sample of quartet movements by Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven failed to exhibit the conjectured relationship. Instead, major-mode movements were found to avoid possible open strings more than slow minor-mode movements.

  17. Introduction to the theory of strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1985-10-01

    These lectures present, from an introductory perspective, some basic aspects of the quantum theory of strings. They treat (1) the kinematics, spectrum, and scattering amplitude of the bosonic string, (2) the spectrum and supersymmetry of Green-Schwarz superstring, and (3) the identification of the underlying gauge invariances of the string theory. 43 refs

  18. Open bosonic string in background electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    The classical and quantum dynamics of an open string propagating in the D-dimensional space-time in the presence of a background electromagnetic field is investigated. An important point in this consideration is the use of the generalized light-like gauge. There are considered the strings of two types; the neutral strings with charges at their ends obeying the condition q 1 +q 2 =0 and the charged strings having a net charge q 1 +q 2 ≠ 0. The consistency of theory demands that the background electric field does not exceed its critical value. The distance between the mass levels of the neutral open string decreases (1-e 2 ) times in comparison with the free string, where e is the dimensionless strength of the electric field. The magnetic field does not affect this distance. It is shown that at a classical level the squared mass of the neutral open string has a tachyonic contribution due to the motion of the string as a whole in transverse directions. The tachyonic term disappears if one considers, instead of M 2 , the string energy in a special reference frame where the projection of the total canonical momentum of the string onto the electric field vanishes. The contributions due to zero point fluctuations to the energy spectrum of the neutral string and to the Virasoro operators in the theory of charged string are found

  19. 2-Dim. gravity and string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narain, K.S.

    1991-01-01

    The role of 2-dim. gravity in string theory is discussed. In particular d=25 string theory coupled to 2-d. gravity is described and shown to give rise to the physics of the usual 26-dim. string theory (where one does not quantise 2-d. gravity. (orig.)

  20. sigma model approach to the heterotic string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.

    1985-09-01

    Relation between the equations of motion for the massless fields in the heterotic string theory, and the conformal invariance of the sigma model describing the propagation of the heterotic string in arbitrary background massless fields is discussed. It is emphasized that this sigma model contains complete information about the string theory. Finally, we discuss the extension of the Hull-Witten proof of local gauge and Lorentz invariance of the sigma-model to higher order in α', and the modification of the transformation laws of the antisymmetric tensor field under these symmetries. Presence of anomaly in the naive N = 1/2 supersymmetry transformation is also pointed out in this context. 12 refs

  1. Cosmic R-string, R-tube and vacuum instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Minoru; Ohashi, Keisuke; Ookouchi, Yutaka; Kyoto Univ.

    2012-11-01

    We show that a cosmic string associated with spontaneous U(1) R symmetry breaking gives a constraint for supersymmetric model building. In some models, the string can be viewed as a tube-like domain wall with a winding number interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. Such string causes inhomogeneous decay of the false vacuum to the true vacuum via rapid expansion of the radius of the tube and hence its formation would be inconsistent with the present Universe. However, we demonstrate that there exist metastable solutions which do not expand rapidly. Furthermore, when the true vacua are degenerate, the structure inside the tube becomes involved. As an example, we show a ''bamboo''-like solution, which suggests a possibility observing an information of true vacua from outside of the tube through the shape and the tension of the tube.

  2. High-energy collisions of particles, strings, and branes

    CERN Document Server

    Veneziano, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes some 25 years of work on the transplanckian-energy collisions of particles, strings, and branes, seen as a theoretical laboratory for understanding how gravity and quantum mechanics can be consistently combined in string theory. The ultimate aim of the exercise is to understand whether and how a consistent quantization of gravity can solve some longstanding paradoxes, such as the apparent loss of information in the production and decay of black holes at a semiclassical level. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the emergence of General Relativity expectations and in evaluating several kinds of quantum string corrections to them in the weak-gravity regime while keeping unitarity manifest. While some progress has also been made in the strong-gravity/gravitational collapse domain, full control of how unitarity works in that regime is still lacking.

  3. Cosmic R-string, R-tube and vacuum instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Minoru [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ohashi, Keisuke [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mathematics and Physics; Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research

    2012-11-15

    We show that a cosmic string associated with spontaneous U(1) R symmetry breaking gives a constraint for supersymmetric model building. In some models, the string can be viewed as a tube-like domain wall with a winding number interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. Such string causes inhomogeneous decay of the false vacuum to the true vacuum via rapid expansion of the radius of the tube and hence its formation would be inconsistent with the present Universe. However, we demonstrate that there exist metastable solutions which do not expand rapidly. Furthermore, when the true vacua are degenerate, the structure inside the tube becomes involved. As an example, we show a ''bamboo''-like solution, which suggests a possibility observing an information of true vacua from outside of the tube through the shape and the tension of the tube.

  4. State densities and spectrum fluctuations: Information propagation in complex nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Kota, V.K.B.

    1988-01-01

    At excitation energies in nuclei where the state density is unambiguously defined there is a sharp separation between the smoothed spectrum (which defines the density) and fluctuations about it which have recently been studied with a view to understanding some aspects of quantum chaos. We briefly review these two complementary subjects, paying special attention to: the role of the effective interaction in determining the density; the calculation of interacting-particle state and level densities, and of expectation values of interesting operators; the information about the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction which is carried both by the density and the fluctuations. 28 refs., 1 fig

  5. Critical non-Abelian vortex in four dimensions and little string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifman, M.; Yung, A.

    2017-08-01

    As was shown recently, non-Abelian vortex strings supported in four-dimensional N =2 supersymmetric QCD with the U(2) gauge group and Nf=4 quark multiplets (flavors) become critical superstrings. In addition to the translational moduli, non-Abelian strings under consideration carry six orientational and size moduli. Together, they form a ten-dimensional target space required for a superstring to be critical. The target space of the string sigma model is a product of the flat four-dimensional space and a Calabi-Yau noncompact threefold, namely, the conifold. We study closed string states which emerge in four dimensions and identify them with hadrons of four-dimensional N =2 QCD. One massless state was found previously; it emerges as a massless hypermultiplet associated with the deformation of the complex structure of the conifold. In this paper, we find a number of massive states. To this end, we exploit the approach used in LST little string theory, namely, the equivalence between the critical string on the conifold and noncritical c =1 string with the Liouville field and a compact scalar at the self-dual radius. The states we find carry "baryonic" charge (its definition differs from standard). We interpret them as "monopole necklaces" formed (at strong coupling) by the closed string with confined monopoles attached.

  6. Framework for benchmarking FA-based string recognizers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngassam, EK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available of suggested algorithms by domain-specific FA-implementers requires prior knowledge of the behaviour (performance-wise) of each algorithm in order to make an informed choice. The authors propose a based string recognizers such that FA-implementers could capture...

  7. On the cosmological constant in the heterotic string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gava, E.; Iengo, R.

    1987-01-01

    We examine the possible physical assumptions which can be made in the heterotic string theory in order to derive the vanishing of the cosmological constant within the theory of modular forms on the moduli space. It seems that more mathematical information is needed to reach a definite result. (author)

  8. String formation beyond leading colour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Jesper R. [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14, Lund (Sweden); Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Skands, Peter Z. [Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University,VIC-3800 (Australia)

    2015-08-03

    We present a new model for the hadronisation of multi-parton systems, in which colour correlations beyond leading N{sub C} are allowed to influence the formation of confining potentials (strings). The multiplet structure of SU(3) is combined with a minimisation of the string potential energy, to decide between which partons strings should form, allowing also for “baryonic” configurations (e.g., two colours can combine coherently to form an anticolour). In e{sup +}e{sup −}collisions, modifications to the leading-colour picture are small, suppressed by both colour and kinematics factors. But in pp collisions, multi-parton interactions increase the number of possible subleading connections, counteracting their naive 1/N{sub C}{sup 2} suppression. Moreover, those that reduce the overall string lengths are kinematically favoured. The model, which we have implemented in the PYTHIA 8 generator, is capable of reaching agreement not only with the important 〈p{sub ⊥}〉(n{sub charged}) distribution but also with measured rates (and ratios) of kaons and hyperons, in both ee and pp collisions. Nonetheless, the shape of their p{sub ⊥} spectra remains challenging to explain.

  9. Confinement and strings in MQCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanany, A.; Strassler, M.J.; Zaffaroni, A.

    1998-01-01

    We study aspects of confinement in the M-theory fivebrane version of QCD (MQCD). We show heavy quarks are confined in hadrons (which take the form of membrane-fivebrane bound states) for N=1 and softly broken N=2 SU(N) MQCD. We explore and clarify the transition from the exotic physics of the latter to the standard physics of the former. In particular, the many strings and quark-antiquark mesons found in N=2 field theory by Douglas and Shenker are reproduced. It is seen that in the N=1 limit all but one such meson disappears while all of the strings survive. The strings of softly broken N=2, N=1, and even non-supersymmetric SU(N) MQCD have a common ratio for their tensions as a function of the amount of flux they carry. We also comment on the almost BPS properties of the Douglas-Shenker strings and discuss the brane picture for monopole confinement on N=2 QCD Higgs branches. (orig.)

  10. Monads, strings, and M theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, C.; Park, J.-S.

    1997-01-01

    The recent developmen ts in string theory suggest that the space-time coordinates should be generalized to non-comm uting matrices. P ostulating this suggestion as the fun- damen tal geometrical principle, w e form ulate a candidate for covariant second quantized RNS superstrings as a topological

  11. Topological strings and quantum curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollands, L.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents several new insights on the interface between mathematics and theoretical physics, with a central role for Riemann surfaces. First of all, the duality between Vafa-Witten theory and WZW models is embedded in string theory. Secondly, this model is generalized to a web of

  12. Probing the string winding sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldazabal, Gerardo; Mayo, Martín [G. Física CAB-CNEA and CONICET, Centro Atómico Bariloche,Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atómico Bariloche,Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche (Argentina); Nuñez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA),C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires,C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-03-17

    We probe a slice of the massive winding sector of bosonic string theory from toroidal compactifications of Double Field Theory (DFT). This string subsector corresponds to states containing one left and one right moving oscillators. We perform a generalized Kaluza Klein compactification of DFT on generic 2n-dimensional toroidal constant backgrounds and show that, up to third order in fluctuations, the theory coincides with the corresponding effective theory of the bosonic string compactified on n-dimensional toroidal constant backgrounds, obtained from three-point amplitudes. The comparison between both theories is facilitated by noticing that generalized diffeomorphisms in DFT allow to fix generalized harmonic gauge conditions that help in identifying the physical degrees of freedom. These conditions manifest as conformal anomaly cancellation requirements on the string theory side. The explicit expression for the gauge invariant effective action containing the physical massless sector (gravity+antisymmetric+gauge+ scalar fields) coupled to towers of generalized Kaluza Klein massive states (corresponding to compact momentum and winding modes) is found. The action acquires a very compact form when written in terms of fields carrying O(n,n) indices, and is explicitly T-duality invariant. The global algebra associated to the generalized Kaluza Klein compactification is discussed.

  13. String theory and cosmological singularities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    recent times, string theory is providing new perspectives of such singularities which .... holes appear as stacks of a large number of D-branes wrapped in internal .... results into a well-known measure factor which makes the wave function into a.

  14. Hawking radiation in string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, N.

    1986-01-01

    String theories in a uniform gravitational field are studied to examine the Hawking radiation. An upper limit is found for the strength of the possible gravitational field: the corresponding Hawking temperature cannot be larger than the Hagedorn limiting temperature divided by π

  15. The Science of String Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Rossing, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    Many performing musicians, as well as instrument builders, are coming to realize the importance of understanding the science of musical instruments. This book explains how string instruments produce sound. It presents basic ideas in simple language, and it also translates some more sophisticated ideas in non-technical language. It should be of interest to performers, researchers, and instrument makers alike.

  16. String theory and cosmological singularities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Well-known examples are singularities inside black holes and initial or final singularities in expanding or contracting universes. In recent times, string theory is providing new perspectives of such singularities which may lead to an understanding of these in the standard framework of time evolution in quantum mechanics.

  17. Defect branes as Alice strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Takashi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2015-01-01

    There exist various defect-brane backgrounds in supergravity theories which arise as the low energy limit of string theories. These backgrounds typically have non-trivial monodromies, and if we move a charged probe around the center of a defect, its charge will be changed by the action of the monodromy. During the process, the charge conservation law seems to be violated. In this paper, to resolve this puzzle, we examine a dynamics of the charge changing process and show that the missing charge of the probe is transferred to the background. We then explicitly construct the resultant background after the charge transfer process by utilizing dualities. This background has the same monodromy as the original defect brane, but has an additional charge which does not have any localized source. In the literature, such a charge without localized source is known to appear in the presence of Alice strings. We argue that defect branes can in fact be regarded as a realization of Alice strings in string theory and examine the charge transfer process from that perspective.

  18. Parton fragmentation and string dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.; Gustafson, G.; Ingelman, G.; Sjoestrand, T.

    1983-01-01

    While much has been learned recently about quark and gluon interactions in the framework of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics, the relation between calculated parton properties and observed hadron densities involves models where dynamics and jet empirical rules have to be combined. The purpose of this article is to describe a presently successful approach which is based on a cascade jet model using String dynamics. It can readily lead to Monte Carlo jet programmes of great use when analyzing data. Production processes in an iterative cascade approach, with tunneling in a constant force field, are reviewed. Expected differences between quark and gluon jets are discussed. Low transverse momentum phenomena are also reviewed with emphasis on hyperon polarization. In so far as this approach uses a fragmentation scheme based on String dynamics, it was deemed appropriate to also include under the same cover a special report on the Classical theory of relativistic Strings, seen as the classical limit of the Dual Resonance model. The Equations of motion and interaction among strings are presented. (orig.)

  19. Particles, fields, and now strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1986-01-01

    The author traces the history of the struggle between two views of the world: a world of particles or a world of fields. These positions were crystallised as quantum field theory and S-matrix theory and now by the reintroduction of string theories. (Auth.)

  20. Modified Steiner functional string action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillie, C.F.; Johnston, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    It has recently been suggested by Ambartzumian et al. that the modified Steiner functional has desirable properties as an action for random surfaces and hence string world sheets. We perform a simulation of this action on a dynamically triangulated random surface to investigate this claim and find that the surfaces are in a flat phase

  1. String theory in the bathtub

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The presence of the surrounding medium makes their dynamics dramatically different from those of ordinary string-like objects propagating in empty space, leading to quite peculiar phenomena, observed in experiments and simulations. I will argue that the effective theory provides an optimal theoretical framework to understand such phenomena, and to make precise quantitative predictions about them.

  2. Topological Strings and Integrable Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Aganagic, M; Klemm, A D; Marino, M; Vafa, C; Aganagic, Mina; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Klemm, Albrecht; Marino, Marcos; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-01-01

    We consider the topological B-model on local Calabi-Yau geometries. We show how one can solve for the amplitudes by using W-algebra symmetries which encodes the symmetries of holomorphic diffeomorphisms of the Calabi-Yau. In the highly effective fermionic/brane formulation this leads to a free fermion description of the amplitudes. Furthermore we argue that topological strings on Calabi-Yau geometries provide a unifying picture connecting non-critical (super)strings, integrable hierarchies, and various matrix models. In particular we show how the ordinary matrix model, the double scaling limit of matrix models, and Kontsevich-like matrix model are all related and arise from studying branes in specific local Calabi-Yau three-folds. We also show how A-model topological string on P^1 and local toric threefolds (and in particular the topological vertex) can be realized and solved as B-model topological string amplitudes on a Calabi-Yau manifold.

  3. LZ-Compressed String Dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Arz, Julian; Fischer, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    We show how to compress string dictionaries using the Lempel-Ziv (LZ78) data compression algorithm. Our approach is validated experimentally on dictionaries of up to 1.5 GB of uncompressed text. We achieve compression ratios often outperforming the existing alternatives, especially on dictionaries containing many repeated substrings. Our query times remain competitive.

  4. Defect branes as Alice strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Takashi [Theoretical Biology Laboratory, RIKEN,Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Sakatani, Yuho [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-25

    There exist various defect-brane backgrounds in supergravity theories which arise as the low energy limit of string theories. These backgrounds typically have non-trivial monodromies, and if we move a charged probe around the center of a defect, its charge will be changed by the action of the monodromy. During the process, the charge conservation law seems to be violated. In this paper, to resolve this puzzle, we examine a dynamics of the charge changing process and show that the missing charge of the probe is transferred to the background. We then explicitly construct the resultant background after the charge transfer process by utilizing dualities. This background has the same monodromy as the original defect brane, but has an additional charge which does not have any localized source. In the literature, such a charge without localized source is known to appear in the presence of Alice strings. We argue that defect branes can in fact be regarded as a realization of Alice strings in string theory and examine the charge transfer process from that perspective.

  5. The super G-string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, V.; Kangaroo, E.; Roachcock, M.; Gall, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe a string theory which gives all the phenomenology of symmetry breaking. It makes use of higher dimensions, higher derivatives, higher spin, higher twist, and hierarchy. It discusses the problems of renormalizability of gravity, the cosmological constant, grand unification, supersymmetry breaking, and the command cold

  6. Strings, fields and critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.

    1987-07-01

    The connection between field theory and critical phenomena is reviewed. Emphasis is put on the use of Monte Carlo methods in the study of non-perturbative aspects of field theory. String theory is then described as a statistical theory of random surfaces and the critical behaviour is analyzed both by analytical and numerical methods. (orig.)

  7. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the Daeduk nuclear complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Han; Lee, Yung Bok; Han, Moon Heui; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang Won Tae

    1995-01-01

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done. Wireless data transmission to MIPS(Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity, at 67 m, 27 m, and 10 m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. At the site, the prevailing wind directions were SW in spring and summer, N and NW in autumn and winter season. The calm distributed 13.6% at 67 m, 24.5% at 27 m, 40.8% at 10 m height. 4 figs, 9 tabs, 6 refs. (Author)

  8. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the Daeduk nuclear complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Eun Han; Seo, Kyung Seok; Hwang, Wan Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done. Wireless data transmission to MIPS(Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity at 67m, 27m, and 10m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. At the site, the prevailing wind directions were SW in spring and summer, NNW in winter season. The calm distributed 28.6% at 67m, 20.5% at 27m, 39.2% at 10m height. 9 tabs., 4 figs., 6 refs. (Author).

  9. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the Daeduk nuclear complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Han; Lee, Yung Bok; Han, Moon Heui; Suh, Kyung Suk; Tae, Hwang Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-01

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done. Wireless data transmission to MIPS(Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity, at 67 m, 27 m, and 10 m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. At the site, the prevailing wind directions were SW in spring and summer, N and NW in autumn and winter season. The calm distributed 13.6% at 67 m, 24.5% at 27 m, 40.8% at 10 m height. 4 figs, 9 tabs, 6 refs. (Author).

  10. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the daeduk nuclear complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Woo; Lee, Young Bok; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae; Hong, Suk Boong [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-12-01

    Problem shooting in tower structure, sensor installation, earth, and cabling have been done with integrated field-test, establishment of data acquisition system, and instrument calibration since the completion of the main tower construction in this year. Procedure guide was also made for the effective management covering instrument operation, calibration and repair. Real measurement has been done during two months from this October after whole integration of equipments. Occurrence of nocturnal inversion layer, fogging, and frequent stable condition of atmospheric stability were shown as the analysis results of measured data which well represented seasonal and regional characteristics in the site. Wireless data transmission to MIPS(Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS(data acquision system) where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. (Author).

  11. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the Daeduk nuclear complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Woo; Lee, Young Bok; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-01

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done with DAS (data aquisition system) updating. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity at 67m, 27m, and 10m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. Wireless data transmission to MIPS (Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where enviromental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. The meteorological data as the result of this project had been used to report `Environmental Impact Assessment of the Korean Multi-purpose Research Reactor` and {sup S}ite Selection of Meteorological Tower and Environment Impact Assessment of the Cooling Tower of the Korean Multi-purpose Research Reactor{sup .} (Author).

  12. Interacting bosonic strings in subcritical dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.; Marnelius, R.

    1988-01-01

    Interaction theory for relativistic bosonic string in spacetime dimensions below the critical value 26 is formulated using BRST techniques with an extra scalar field. One-loop zero-point amplitudes for closed strings are modular invariant. For a free scalar field, vertex operators are constructed leading to, e.g., the old dual N-tachyon tree amplitudes in D < 26. The N-tachyon one-loop expressions contain closed string poles for open strings, and are modular invariant for closed strings. However, the threshold cuts are wrong in D < 25. Only for D=25 to the considered vertex operators lead to consistency. (orig.)

  13. Micro string resonators as temperature sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.; Schmid, S.; Boisen, A.

    2013-01-01

    The resonance frequency of strings is highly sensitive to temperature. In this work we have investigated the applicability of micro string resonators as temperature sensors. The resonance frequency of strings is a function of the tensile stress which is coupled to temperature by the thermal...... to the low thermal mass of the strings. A temperature resolution of 2.5×10-4 °C has been achieved with silicon nitride strings. The theoretical limit for the temperature resolution of 8×10-8 °C has not been reached yet and requires further improvement of the sensor....

  14. String Theory and M-Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Schwarz, John H.

    String theory is one of the most exciting and challenging areas of modern theoretical physics. This book guides the reader from the basics of string theory to recent developments. It introduces the basics of perturbative string theory, world-sheet supersymmetry, space-time supersymmetry, conformal field theory and the heterotic string, before describing modern developments, including D-branes, string dualities and M-theory. It then covers string geometry and flux compactifications, applications to cosmology and particle physics, black holes in string theory and M-theory, and the microscopic origin of black-hole entropy. It concludes with Matrix theory, the AdS/CFT duality and its generalizations. This book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in modern string theory, and will make an excellent textbook for a one-year course on string theory. It contains over 120 exercises with solutions, and over 200 homework problems with solutions available on a password protected website for lecturers at www.cambridge.org/9780521860697. Comprehensive coverage of topics from basics of string theory to recent developments Ideal textbook for a one-year course in string theory Includes over 100 exercises with solutions Contains over 200 homework problems with solutions available to lecturers on-line

  15. Power from Random Strings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Allender, E.; Buhrman, H.; Koucký, Michal; van Melkebeek, D.; Ronneburger, D.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 6 (2006), s. 1467-1493 ISSN 0097-5397 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Kolmogorov complexity * completeness * reductions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.361, year: 2006

  16. String theory as a Lilliputian world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjørn, J.; Makeenko, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Lattice regularizations of the bosonic string do not allow us to probe the tachyon. This has often been viewed as the reason why these theories have never managed to make any contact to standard continuum string theories when the dimension of spacetime is larger than two. We study the continuum string theory in large spacetime dimensions where simple mean field theory is reliable. By keeping carefully the cutoff we show that precisely the existence of a tachyon makes it possible to take a scaling limit which reproduces the lattice-string results. We compare this scaling limit with another scaling limit which reproduces standard continuum-string results. If the people working with lattice regularizations of string theories are akin to Gulliver they will view the standard string-world as a Lilliputian world no larger than a few lattice spacings.

  17. String theory as a Lilliputian world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambjørn, J., E-mail: ambjorn@nbi.dk [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); IMAPP, Radboud University, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Makeenko, Y., E-mail: makeenko@nbi.dk [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-10

    Lattice regularizations of the bosonic string do not allow us to probe the tachyon. This has often been viewed as the reason why these theories have never managed to make any contact to standard continuum string theories when the dimension of spacetime is larger than two. We study the continuum string theory in large spacetime dimensions where simple mean field theory is reliable. By keeping carefully the cutoff we show that precisely the existence of a tachyon makes it possible to take a scaling limit which reproduces the lattice-string results. We compare this scaling limit with another scaling limit which reproduces standard continuum-string results. If the people working with lattice regularizations of string theories are akin to Gulliver they will view the standard string-world as a Lilliputian world no larger than a few lattice spacings.

  18. String Theory Volume 1: An Introduction to the Bosonic String and Volume 2: Superstring Theory and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlip, S [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2006-10-21

    The early 1980s, when I first learned theory, were desperate times for graduate students. We searched frantically for coherent introductions, passing tattered copies of review articles around like samizdat, struggling over obscure references to ancient models of strong interactions, and flocking to lectures-not least those by Joe Polchinski-that promised to really explain what was going on. If only this book had been around, it would have saved much grief. Volume I, The Bosonic String, offers a clear and well organized introduction to bosonic string theory. Topics range from the 'classical' (spectra, vertex operators, consistency conditions, etc.) to the 'modern' (D-branes first appear in an exercise at the end of chapter 1, noncommutative geometry shows up in chapter 8). Polchinski does not hesitate to discuss sophisticated matters-path integral measures, BRST symmetries, etc.-but his approach is pedagogical, and his writing is lucid, if sometimes a bit terse. Chapters end with problems that are sometimes difficult but never impossible. A very useful annotated bibliography directs readers to resources for further study, and a nearly 30-page glossary provides short but clear definitions of key terms. There is much here that will appeal to relativists. Polchinski uses the covariant Polyakov path integral approach to quantization from early on; he clearly distinguishes Weyl invariance from conformal invariance; he is appropriately careful about using complex coordinates on topologically nontrivial manifolds; he keeps the string world sheet metric explicit at the start instead of immediately hiding it by a gauge choice. Volume II includes an elegant introduction to anticommuting coordinates and superconformal transformations. A few conventions may cause confusion-%, Polchinski's stress-energy tensor, for instance, differs from the standard general relativistic definition by a factor of -2{pi}, and while this is briefly mentioned in the text

  19. Aspects of some dualities in string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bom Soo

    AdS/CFT correspondence in string theory has changed landscape of the theoretical physics. Through this celebrated duality between gravity theory and field theory, one can investigate analytically strongly coupled gauge theories such as Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in terms of weakly coupled string theory such as supergravity theory and vice versa. In the first part of this thesis we used this duality to construct a new type of nonlocal field theory, called Puff Field Theory, in terms of D3 branes in type IIB string theory with a geometric twist. In addition to the strong-weak duality of AdS/CFT, there also exists a weak-weak duality, called Twistor String Theory. Twistor technique is successfully used to calculate the SYM scattering amplitude in an elegant fashion. Yet, the progress in the string theory side was hindered by a non-unitary conformal gravity. We extend the Twistor string theory by introducing mass terms, in the second part of the thesis. A chiral mass term is identified as a vacuum expectation value of a conformal supergravity field and is tied with the breaking of the conformal symmetry of gravity. As a prime candidate for a quantum theory of gravity, string theory revealed many promising successes such as counting the number of microstates in supersymmetric Black Holes thermodynamics and resolution of timelike and null singularities, to name a few. Yet, the fundamental string and M-theroy formulations are not yet available. Various string theories without gravity, such as Non-Commutative Open String (NCOS) and Open Membrane (OM) theories, are very nice playground to investigate the fundamental structure of string and M-theory without the complication of gravity. In the last part of the thesis, simpler Non-Relativistic String Theories are constructed and investigated. One important motivation for those theories is related to the connection between Non-Relativistic String Theories and Non-critical String Theories through the bosonization of betagamma

  20. Six Degree-of-Freedom Haptic Simulation of a Stringed Musical Instrument for Triggering Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangxiao Wang; Xiaohan Zhao; Youjiao Shi; Yuru Zhang; Jing Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Six degree-of-freedom (DoF) haptic rendering of multi-region contacts between a moving hand avatar and varied-shaped components of a music instrument is fundamental to realizing interactive simulation of music playing. There are two aspects of computational challenges: first, some components have significantly small sizes in some dimensions, such as the strings on a seven-string plucked instrument (e.g., Guqin), which makes it challenging to avoid pop-through during multi-region contact scenarios. Second, deformable strings may produce high-frequency vibration, which requires simulating diversified and subtle force sensations when a hand interacts with strings in different ways. In this paper, we propose a constraint-based approach to haptic interaction and simulation between a moving hand avatar and various parts of a string instrument, using a cylinder model for the string that has a large length-radius ratio and a sphere-tree model for the other parts that have complex shapes. Collision response algorithms based on configuration-based optimization is adapted to solve for the contact configuration of the hand avatar interacting with thin strings without penetration. To simulate the deformation and vibration of a string, a cylindrical volume with variable diameters is defined with response to the interaction force applied by the operator. Experimental results have validated the stability and efficiency of the proposed approach. Subtle force feelings can be simulated to reflect varied interaction patterns, to differentiate collisions between the hand avatar with a static or vibrating string and the effects of various colliding forces and touch locations on the strings.